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Sample records for desempenho sob irradiacao

  1. BAS1 and SOB7 act redundantly to modulate Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis via unique brassinosteroid inactivation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turk, Edward M; Fujioka, Shozo; Seto, Hideharu; Shimada, Yukihisa; Takatsuto, Suguru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Wang, Huachun; Torres, Quetzal I; Ward, Jason M; Murthy, Girish; Zhang, Jingyu; Walker, John C; Neff, Michael M

    2005-04-01

    Active brassinosteroids (BRs), such as brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS), are growth-promoting plant hormones. An Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP734A1, formerly CYP72B1), encoded by the BAS1 gene, inactivates BRs and modulates photomorphogenesis. BAS1 was identified as the overexpressed gene responsible for a dominant, BR-deficient mutant, bas1-D. This mutant was isolated in an activation-tagged screen designed to identify redundant genes that might not be identified in classic loss-of-function screens. Here we report the isolation of a second activation-tagged mutant with a BR-deficient phenotype. The mutant phenotype is caused by the overexpression of SOB7 (CYP72C1), a homolog of BAS1. We generated single and double null-mutants of BAS1 and SOB7 to test the hypothesis that these two genes act redundantly to modulate photomorphogenesis. BAS1 and SOB7 act redundantly with respect to light promotion of cotyledon expansion, repression of hypocotyl elongation and flowering time in addition to other phenotypes not regulated by light. We also provide biochemical evidence to suggest that BAS1 and SOB7 act redundantly to reduce the level of active BRs, but have unique mechanisms. Overexpression of SOB7 results in a dramatic reduction in endogenous CS levels, and although single null-mutants of BAS1 and SOB7 have the same level of CS as the wild type, the double null-mutant has twice the amount. Application of BL to overexpression lines of BAS1 or SOB7 results in enhanced metabolism of BL, though only BAS1 overexpression lines confer enhanced conversion to 26-OHBL, suggesting that SOB7 and BAS1 convert BL and CS into unique products.

  2. Effect of organics and alkalinity on the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The environmental risk assessment of toxic chemicals in stream water requires the use of a low cost standardized toxicity bioassay. Here, a biosensor for detection of toxic chemicals in stream water was studied using sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in continuous mode. The biosensor depends on the ability of SOB to oxidize sulfur particles under aerobic conditions to produce sulfuric acid. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. The biosensor is based on the inhibition of SOB in the presence of toxic chemicals by measuring changes in EC and pH. We found that the SOB biosensor can detect Cr(6+)at a low concentration (50 ppb) which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors. The effect of organic material in real stream water on SOB activity was studied. Due to the presence of mixotrophic SOB, we found that the presence of organic matter increases SOB activity which decreases the biosensor start up period. Low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) increased effluent EC and decreased effluent pH which is optimal for biosensor operation. While at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3), the activity of SOB little decreased. We found that system can detect 50 ppb of Cr(6+) at low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) in few hours while, complete inhibition was observed after 35 h of operation at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and initial validation of The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS).

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Julie R; Grzanka, Patrick R; Miles, Joseph R; Fassinger, Ruth E

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop and validate a measure of beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) that incorporates essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist themes. The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS) is offered as a multidimensional instrument with which to assess a broad range of beliefs about SO, which evidence suggests are highly correlated with positive and negative attitudes about sexual minorities. An initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted in the general population with a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-identified (LGBT) sample (n = 323) and suggested a 4-factor structure of naturalness (α = .86), discreetness (α = .82), entitativity (α = .75), and personal and social importance (α = .68); this 4-factor structure was supported by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with an independent LGBT sample (n = 330; "Form 1"). Additional EFA (n = 183) and CFA (n = 201) in a college student, mostly heterosexual-identified population suggest a slightly different factor structure, whereby group homogeneity (α = .84) and informativeness (α = .77) are salient themes ("Form 2"), and this structure was replicated across SO groups. Finally, a study of test-retest reliability in an undergraduate, mostly heterosexual-identified sample (n = 45) demonstrated strong temporal stability for the SOBS.

  4. Harness That S.O.B.: Distributing Remote Sensing Analysis in a Small Office/Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, J.; Combe, J.; McCord, T. B.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers in a small office/business (SOB) operate with limited funding, equipment, and software availability. To mitigate these issues, we developed a distributed computing framework that: 1) leverages open source software to implement functionality otherwise reliant on proprietary software and 2) harnesses the unused power of (semi-)idle office computers with mixed operating systems (OSes). This abstract outlines some reasons for the effort, its conceptual basis and implementation, and provides brief speedup results. The Multiple-Endmember Linear Spectral Unmixing Model (MELSUM)1 processes remote-sensing (hyper-)spectral images. The algorithm is computationally expensive, sometimes taking a full week or more for a 1 million pixel/100 wavelength image. Analysis of pixels is independent, so a large benefit can be gained from parallel processing techniques. Job concurrency is limited by the number of active processing units. MELSUM was originally written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL). Despite its multi-threading capabilities, an IDL instance executes on a single machine, and so concurrency is limited by the machine's number of central processing units (CPUs). Network distribution can access more CPUs to provide a greater speedup, while also taking advantage of (often) underutilized extant equipment. appropriately integrating open source software magnifies the impact by avoiding the purchase of additional licenses. Our method of distribution breaks into four conceptual parts: 1) the top- or task-level user interface; 2) a mid-level program that manages hosts and jobs, called the distribution server; 3) a low-level executable for individual pixel calculations; and 4) a control program to synchronize sequential sub-tasks. Each part is a separate OS process, passing information via shell commands and/or temporary files. While the control and low-level executables are short-lived, the top-level program and distribution server run (at least) for the entirety of

  5. Value of past clinical history in differentiating bronchial asthma from COPD in male smokers presenting with SOB and fixed airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad Rai; Anupam; Mehrotra, Ashok Kumar; Khublani, Trilok Kumar; Soni, Shradha; Feroz, Asif

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is difficult. Steroid trial may be of help but has several pitfalls. The present study aims to assess the value of past clinical profile of asthma and its differential diagnosis from COPD in male smokers and thereby to formulate clinical parameters to diagnose bronchial asthma in such patients. Male smokers who reported at the Respiratory Medicine Department of the National Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS) Hospital, Jaipur, (India), with shortness of breath (SOB) and showing less than 12% postbronchodilator bronchial reversibility (BR) on spirometry were recruited. These patients were given oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg for two weeks. Post steroid (PS) spirometry was performed to ascertain BR. The past clinical history was recorded and analyzed to determine if it is of any use in differentiating asthma from COPD. Out of 104 patients, four were lost to follow up, 52 were diagnosed as bronchial asthma, and the remaining 48 as COPD. It was revealed that past history of (H/O) seasonal variation, wheezing, eye allergy, nasal allergy, dust allergy, skin allergy, and family H/O asthma/allergy were positive in 50, 40, 34, 30, 18, 14, and 12 asthma patients as compared to 10, 8, 2, 4, 6, 0, and 0 in 48 COPD patients (P < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for diagnosing asthma was highest for the presence of any other two symptoms/variables, besides SOB, in the past (OR = 275, P < 0.0001). Past clinical history is of immense value in differentiating asthma from COPD in male smokers presenting with SOB and fixed airway obstruction.

  6. Eventos de Desconexão no Cometa P/Halley sob a Ótica do Modelo de Reconexão Magnética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1998-08-01

    531 imagens contidas no The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (Brandt et al., 1992) cobrindo o período de setembro de 1985 a julho de 1986 foram analisadas visando identificar, caracterizar as propriedades e correlacionar estruturas morfológicas da cauda de plasma do cometa P/Halley. A análise revelou 47 eventos de desconexão (DEs) (Niedner & Brandt, 1979; Jockers, 1985; Celnik et al., 1988; Delva et al., 1991). A análise completa de todas as imagens encontra-se publicada em Voelzke & Matsuura, 1998. A distribuição dos DEs na distância heliocêntrica apresenta um caráter bimodal possivelmente associado com a distribuição espacial das fronteiras de setor magnético do meio interplanetário. Os 47 DEs fotografados em 47 imagens distintas permitiram determinar 19 origens de DEs, ou seja, o instante em que supostamente o cometa cruzou a fronteira entre setores magnéticos do vento solar. Tais dados cometários foram comparados com dados do vento solar provenientes de medidas realizadas in situ pelas sondas IMP-8, ICE e PVO, que mediram a variação da velocidade do vento solar, da densidade e da pressão dinâmica durante o intervalo analisado. Os dados destas sondas espaciais em conjunto com os da sonda Vega 1 foram usados para determinar o tempo das passagens do lençol de corrente. Com base nos dados das sondas foram calculadas as coordenadas heliográficas retroativas do lençol de corrente na "superfície fonte" dos mapas sinóticos do campo magnético de Hoeksema, 1989. O cálculo retroativo é feito através de um modelo simples de expressão do vento solar com velocidade uniforme, sendo considerada a co-rotação da magnetosfera com o Sol. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados desta comparação e a análise cinemática da origem dos DEs, determinada sob a hipótese que o plasma desconectado de um dado DE afasta-se com velocidade constante do núcleo cometário (Voelzke & Matsuura, 1998) e compara esta análise com outras que

  7. On Ensino da Astronomia no Ensino Médio sob Diferentes Abordagens Metodológicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Albrecht, Evonir

    2011-12-01

    O presente trabalho, sobre a intervenção de metodologias de ensino, foi desenvolvido na Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, na cidade de Caraguatatuba - SP, em três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, perfazendo um total de 119 educandos, entre 16 e 19 anos. Antes de iniciar-se a intervenção, um questionário de vinte perguntas objetivas e dissertativas foi desenvolvido, aplicado pelo professor da classe, que ministrou as aulas correspondentes. Este questionário foi o mesmo em todas as três classes com o objetivo de diagnosticar o conhecimento prévio dos alunos sobre Astronomia. Começando a intervenção nas turmas, o professor envolvido usou três diferentes metodologias de ensino: (A) em forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos alunos, nos quais o professor fazia apenas as intervenções necessárias, (B) na forma tradicional, com a ajuda de multimídia para o desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) a tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. No final do trabalho os alunos responderam o mesmo questionário novamente, de modo que os três métodos utilizados puderam ser comparados. Os resultados apresentados após a intervenção foram melhores que os resultados iniciais indicando a ocorrência de uma aprendizagem significativa. Quando os estudantes foram inicialmente questionados sobre quantos planetas existem no nosso sistema solar, a classe A obteve 39% de respostas certas, a classe B 48% e a classe C 46%, mas após o desenvolvimento das atividades, as classes obtiveram respectivamente 94%, 97 % e 90% de aproveitamento. No término do bimestre, foi sugerido aos educandos que elaborassem uma história em quadrinhos, a qual serviu para averiguar se os conceitos inicialmente observados foram alterados e se novos foram agregados. A análise das histórias foi dividida em três partes: Criatividade; Temas abordados; Emprego correto dos conceitos estudados. Ao final quatorze histórias foram confeccionadas. O aprendizado foi tão significativo que os alunos produzira m histórias em quadrinhos, com informações muito ricas. Outro dado muito importante é que, apesar da Astronomia ser um tema amplamente recomendado, não é ensinado nem em escolas de ensino fundamental nem no ensino médio.

  8. Society Girl, Sob Sister, Journalism Educator: Mary Paxton Keeley, the First Woman Graduate of the School of Journalism at the University of Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zang, Barbara

    Based on an examination of well-kept primary source material, this paper presents a personal and professional history of Mary Paxton Keeley, the first woman graduate of one of the first journalism schools in the United States, the School of Journalism at the University of Missouri. Starting with her early years, the paper explains that Keeley was…

  9. Aggregate Resources Study, Cave and Steptoe Valleys, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-25

    lava flows of dacitic to rhyolitic composition. These rocks are exposed in the Egan and Schell Creek ranges. Intrusive igneous rocks of dioritic...IRiyolitic Ash- Range flow Tuff 46 SO-B17 Steptoe Aafs Sandy Gravel GP-GM Valley 47 SO-B18 Egan Su Limestone Range 48 SO-B19 Egan Vu Rhyolitic Ash- Range

  10. Potencial de Seqüestro de Carbono Atmosférico entre Diferentes Cultivares de Milho (Zea mays L.) sob Condiç o de Déficit Hídrico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a question concerning the role of agricultural practices on carbon sequestration enhancement. By producing biomass with agricultural crops and adding this residue to soil, it should act on the mitigation process of the greenhouse effect, especially CO2. The objectives of this study were to ...

  11. Accuracy of a pediatric early warning score in the recognition of clinical deterioration.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Juliana de Oliveira Freitas; Camargo, Climene Laura de; Nascimento, Carlito Lopes; Portela, Daniel Sales; Monaghan, Alan

    2017-07-10

    intervalo de 5 a 10 minutos entre as avaliações, para aplicação do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score, para o contexto brasileiro e do padrão de referência. Os dados foram processados e analisados nos programas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences e VassarStats.net. O desempenho do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para o contexto brasileiro foi avaliado por meio dos indicadores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos, área sob a curva ROC, razões de probabilidades e probabilidade pós-teste. o Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para o contexto brasileiro apresentou sensibilidade de 73,9%, especificidade de 95,5%, valor preditivo positivo de 73,3%, valor preditivo negativo de 94,7%, área sob a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve de 91,9% e a probabilidade pós-teste positivo foi de 80%. o Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score, para o contexto brasileiro, apresentou bom desempenho, considerado válido para o reconhecimento de sinais de alerta de deterioração clínica das crianças estudadas. evaluar la precisión de la versión traducida y adaptada del Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para el contexto brasileño, en el reconocimiento de la deterioración clínica. estudio de test diagnóstico para medir la precisión del Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para el contexto brasileño, en relación a un estándar de referencia. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 271 niños de 0 a 10 años, evaluadas de forma ciega por especialistas en pediatría, una enfermera y un médico, con intervalo de 5 a 10 minutos entre las evaluaciones, para aplicación del Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para el contexto brasileño. Los datos fueron procesados y analizados en los programas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences y VassarStats.net. El desempeño del Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para el contexto brasileño fue evaluado por medio de los indicadores de sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos,

  12. Functional genes based analysis of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria community in sulfide removing bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong

    2011-04-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are the main microorganisms that participate in the bioremediation of sulfide-rich wastewater. To reveal the SOB community structure and determine which members of SOB contribute to the sulfide oxidation in a sulfide-rich cloth printing and dyeing wastewater treatment plant, specific primer pairs dsrA 625F/877R, soxB 704F/1199R, and sqr 473F/982R based on the SOB functional genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase, sulfate thioesterase/thiohydrolase, and sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase were designed. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the diversity indices and the abundance of each OTU have no significant changes after time, which suggested the SOB community in the sulfide removing bioreactor have high steady phylogenetic analysis of functional gene-based clone libraries detected the SOB from Chlorobia, α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria, and γ-proteobacteria. The combined clone library showed the presence of dominant members of the SOB species closely related to families Halothiobacillaceae (17%), Hydrogenophilaceae (14%), and Rhodocyclaceae (13%), which may contribute to the sulfide oxidation in wastewater treatment process. This work provides a precise understanding of SOB microbial community within sulfide removing bioreactor, and the result gives assistance for the optimization of the treatment systems for sulfide biological degradation. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  13. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  14. Modeling month-season of birth as a risk factor in mouse models of chronic disease: from multiple sclerosis to autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jacob D; Case, Laure K; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Raza, Abbas; Bartiss, Rose; Teuscher, Cory

    2017-03-14

    Month-season of birth (M-SOB) is a risk factor in multiple chronic diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), where the lowest and greatest risk of developing MS coincide with the lowest and highest birth rates, respectively. To determine whether M-SOB effects in such chronic diseases as MS can be experimentally modeled, we examined the effect of M-SOB on susceptibility of C57BL/6J mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As in MS, mice that were born during the M-SOB with the lowest birth rate were less susceptible to EAE than mice born during the M-SOB with the highest birth rate. We also show that the M-SOB effect on EAE susceptibility is associated with differential production of multiple cytokines/chemokines by neuroantigen-specific T cells that are known to play a role in EAE pathogenesis. Taken together, these results support the existence of an M-SOB effect that may reflect seasonally dependent developmental differences in adaptive immune responses to self-antigens independent of external stimuli, including exposure to sunlight and vitamin D. Moreover, our documentation of an M-SOB effect on EAE susceptibility in mice allows for modeling and detailed analysis of mechanisms that underlie the M-SOB effect in not only MS but in numerous other diseases in which M-SOB impacts susceptibility.-Reynolds, J. D., Case, L. K., Krementsov, D. N., Raza, A., Bartiss, R., Teuscher, C. Modeling month-season of birth as a risk factor in mouse models of chronic disease: from multiple sclerosis to autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

  15. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 Represses Genes Associated with Auxin Signaling to Modulate Hypocotyl Growth.

    PubMed

    Favero, David S; Jacques, Caitlin N; Iwase, Akira; Le, Kimberly Ngan; Zhao, Jianfei; Sugimoto, Keiko; Neff, Michael M

    2016-08-01

    Developing seedlings are well equipped to alter their growth in response to external factors in order to maximize their chances of survival. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 (SOB3) and other members of the AT-HOOK MOTIF CONTAINING NUCLEAR LOCALIZED (AHL) family of transcription factors modulate the development of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by repressing hypocotyl elongation in young seedlings growing in light. However, the molecular mechanism behind how AHLs influence seedling development is largely unknown. We have identified genes associated with auxin-mediated hypocotyl elongation as downstream targets of SOB3. We found that YUCCA8 (YUC8) as well as members of the SMALL AUXIN UP-REGULATED RNA19 (SAUR19) subfamily were down-regulated in the short-hypocotyl, gain-of-function SOB3-D mutant and up-regulated in the dominant-negative, tall-hypocotyl sob3-6 mutant. SOB3-D and sob3-6 hypocotyls also exhibited altered sensitivity to the polar auxin transport inhibitor N-1-napthylphthalamic acid, suggesting a critical connection between auxin and the modulation of seedling elongation by SOB3 Finally, we found that overexpression of GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN-SAUR19 in the SOB3-D line partially rescued defects in hypocotyl elongation, and SOB3 bound directly to the promoters of YUC8 and SAUR19 subfamily members. Taken together, these data indicate that SOB3 modulates hypocotyl elongation in young seedlings by directly repressing the transcription of genes associated with auxin signaling. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 Represses Genes Associated with Auxin Signaling to Modulate Hypocotyl Growth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Developing seedlings are well equipped to alter their growth in response to external factors in order to maximize their chances of survival. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 (SOB3) and other members of the AT-HOOK MOTIF CONTAINING NUCLEAR LOCALIZED (AHL) family of transcription factors modulate the development of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by repressing hypocotyl elongation in young seedlings growing in light. However, the molecular mechanism behind how AHLs influence seedling development is largely unknown. We have identified genes associated with auxin-mediated hypocotyl elongation as downstream targets of SOB3. We found that YUCCA8 (YUC8) as well as members of the SMALL AUXIN UP-REGULATED RNA19 (SAUR19) subfamily were down-regulated in the short-hypocotyl, gain-of-function SOB3-D mutant and up-regulated in the dominant-negative, tall-hypocotyl sob3-6 mutant. SOB3-D and sob3-6 hypocotyls also exhibited altered sensitivity to the polar auxin transport inhibitor N-1-napthylphthalamic acid, suggesting a critical connection between auxin and the modulation of seedling elongation by SOB3. Finally, we found that overexpression of GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN-SAUR19 in the SOB3-D line partially rescued defects in hypocotyl elongation, and SOB3 bound directly to the promoters of YUC8 and SAUR19 subfamily members. Taken together, these data indicate that SOB3 modulates hypocotyl elongation in young seedlings by directly repressing the transcription of genes associated with auxin signaling. PMID:27342309

  17. Shortness of breath as a predictor of depressive symptoms in a community sample of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Blazer, Dan G.; Hybels, Celia F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Physical symptoms are known to be associated with late life depression both cross-sectionally and over time. We attempted to determine if self-reported shortness of breath (SoB) is associated with depressive symptoms at long-term (3-year) follow-up in a community sample of older (65+) adults. Methods A sample of 2926 elderly subjects from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) were evaluated at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a modified version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale (CES-D) and SoB was assessed by a three-item scale administered at baseline. The analyses were controlled for factors known to be associated with depressive symptoms and SoB. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Eighty-three percent of subjects who experienced SoB survived for three years. Within the analysis sample of those participating at follow-up, 36 percent experienced SoB at baseline. In biavriate analyses, SoB, older age, female sex, history of a heart attack, higher body mass index (BMI), depressive symptoms at baseline, cognitive impairment, and functional impairment were associated with follow-up depressive symptoms. When controlled variables were included in a linear regression model, SoB was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at follow-up (p <0.0001) as well as baseline depressive symptoms, sex, BMI, and functional status. No two-way interaction terms with SoB were significant. Conclusions SoB is a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at 3-year follow-up. Given that SoB is a symptom that is responsive to therapeutic intervention, active intervention to relieve the symptom when identified could reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms. PMID:20872930

  18. Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion.

  19. Compositions and Abundances of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoirs with Different Temperatures in China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huimei; Gao, Peike; Chen, Zhaohui; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been studied extensively in the petroleum industry due to their role in corrosion, but very little is known about sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which drive the oxidization of sulfur-compounds produced by the activity of SRB in petroleum reservoirs. Here, we surveyed the community structure, diversity and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously based on 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene sequencing, and quantitative PCR analyses, respectively in petroleum reservoirs with different physicochemical properties. Similar to SRB, SOB were found widely inhabiting the analyzed reservoirs with high diversity and different structures. The dominant SRB belonged to the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, and included the Desulfotignum, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfomicrobium genera. The most frequently detected potential SOB were Sulfurimonas, Thiobacillus, Thioclava, Thiohalomonas and Dechloromonas, and belonged to Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Among them, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Thioclava, and Sulfurimonas were highly abundant in the low-temperature reservoirs, while Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotignum, Thiobacillus, and Dechloromonas were more often present in high-temperature reservoirs. The relative abundances of SRB and SOB varied and were present at higher proportions in the relatively high-temperature reservoirs. Canonical correspondence analysis also revealed that the SRB and SOB communities in reservoirs displayed high niche specificity and were closely related to reservoir temperature, pH of the formation brine, and sulfate concentration. In conclusion, this study extends our knowledge about the distribution of SRB and SOB communities in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:28210252

  20. Sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations within cyanobacterial dominated coral disease lesions.

    PubMed

    Bourne, David G; van der Zee, Marc J J; Botté, Emmanuelle S; Sato, Yui

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the diversity and quantitative shifts of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) during the onset of black band disease (BBD) in corals using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and cloning approaches targeting the soxB gene, involved in sulfur oxidation. Four Montipora sp. coral colonies identified with lesions previously termed cyanobacterial patches (CP) (comprising microbial communities different from those of BBD lesions), was monitored in situ as CP developed into BBD. The overall abundance of SOB in both CP and BBD lesions were very low and near the detection limit of the qPCR assay, although consistently indicated that SOB populations decreased as the lesions transitioned from CP to BBD. Phylogenetic assessment of retrieved soxB genes showed that SOB in both CP and BBD lesions were dominated by one sequence type, representing > 70% of all soxB gene sequences and affiliated with members of the Rhodobacteraceae within the α-Proteobacteria. This study represents the first assessment targeting SOB within BBD lesions and clearly shows that SOB are not highly diverse or abundant in this complex microbial mat. The lack of oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds by SOB likely aids the accumulation of high levels of sulfide at the base of the BBD mat, a compound contributing to the pathogenicity of BBD lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Compositions and Abundances of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoirs with Different Temperatures in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huimei; Gao, Peike; Chen, Zhaohui; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been studied extensively in the petroleum industry due to their role in corrosion, but very little is known about sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which drive the oxidization of sulfur-compounds produced by the activity of SRB in petroleum reservoirs. Here, we surveyed the community structure, diversity and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously based on 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene sequencing, and quantitative PCR analyses, respectively in petroleum reservoirs with different physicochemical properties. Similar to SRB, SOB were found widely inhabiting the analyzed reservoirs with high diversity and different structures. The dominant SRB belonged to the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, and included the Desulfotignum, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfomicrobium genera. The most frequently detected potential SOB were Sulfurimonas, Thiobacillus, Thioclava, Thiohalomonas and Dechloromonas, and belonged to Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Among them, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Thioclava, and Sulfurimonas were highly abundant in the low-temperature reservoirs, while Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotignum, Thiobacillus, and Dechloromonas were more often present in high-temperature reservoirs. The relative abundances of SRB and SOB varied and were present at higher proportions in the relatively high-temperature reservoirs. Canonical correspondence analysis also revealed that the SRB and SOB communities in reservoirs displayed high niche specificity and were closely related to reservoir temperature, pH of the formation brine, and sulfate concentration. In conclusion, this study extends our knowledge about the distribution of SRB and SOB communities in petroleum reservoirs.

  2. Genetic interactions between brassinosteroid-inactivating P450s and photomorphogenic photoreceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Kulbir Singh; Hagely, Katherine; Neff, Michael M

    2012-12-01

    Plants use light as a source of information via a suite of photomorphogenic photoreceptors to optimize growth in response to their light environment. Growth-promoting hormones such as brassinosteroids also can modulate many of these responses. BAS1 and SOB7 are brassinosteroid-catabolizing P450s in Arabidopsis thaliana that synergistically/redundantly modulate photomorphogenic traits such as flowering time. The role of BAS1 and SOB7 in photomorphogenesis has been investigated by studying null-mutant genetic interactions with the photoreceptors phyA, phyB, and cry1 with regard to seed germination and flowering time. The removal of BAS1 and/or SOB7 rescued the low germination rate of the phyA-211 phyB-9 double-null mutant. With regard to floral induction, bas1-2 and sob7-1 showed a complex set of genetic interactions with photoreceptor-null mutants. Histochemical analysis of transgenic plants harboring BAS1:BAS1-GUS and SOB7:SOB7-GUS translational fusions under the control of their endogenous promoters revealed overlapping and distinct expression patterns. BAS1's expression in the shoot apex increases during the phase transition from short-to-long-day growth conditions and requires phyB in red light. In summary, BAS1 and SOB7 displayed both simple and complex genetic interactions with the phytochromes in a plant-stage specific manner.

  3. Genetic Interactions Between Brassinosteroid-Inactivating P450s and Photomorphogenic Photoreceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Kulbir Singh; Hagely, Katherine; Neff, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Plants use light as a source of information via a suite of photomorphogenic photoreceptors to optimize growth in response to their light environment. Growth-promoting hormones such as brassinosteroids also can modulate many of these responses. BAS1 and SOB7 are brassinosteroid-catabolizing P450s in Arabidopsis thaliana that synergistically/redundantly modulate photomorphogenic traits such as flowering time. The role of BAS1 and SOB7 in photomorphogenesis has been investigated by studying null-mutant genetic interactions with the photoreceptors phyA, phyB, and cry1 with regard to seed germination and flowering time. The removal of BAS1 and/or SOB7 rescued the low germination rate of the phyA-211 phyB-9 double-null mutant. With regard to floral induction, bas1-2 and sob7-1 showed a complex set of genetic interactions with photoreceptor-null mutants. Histochemical analysis of transgenic plants harboring BAS1:BAS1-GUS and SOB7:SOB7-GUS translational fusions under the control of their endogenous promoters revealed overlapping and distinct expression patterns. BAS1’s expression in the shoot apex increases during the phase transition from short-to-long-day growth conditions and requires phyB in red light. In summary, BAS1 and SOB7 displayed both simple and complex genetic interactions with the phytochromes in a plant-stage specific manner. PMID:23275881

  4. Classroom Use. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information focusing on the life and career of Pablo Picasso. Includes learning activities related to Picasso and his artwork "Weeping Woman." Offers information on the subject matter of the chosen painting, a distraught, sobbing woman. (CMK)

  5. Detecting endocrine disrupting compounds in water using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hassan, Sedky H A; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2010-09-01

    For the rapid and reliable detection of endocrine disrupting compounds in water, a novel toxicity detection methodology based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been developed. The methodology exploits the ability of SOB to oxidize elemental sulfur to sulfuric acid in the presence of oxygen. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. When endocrine disrupting compounds were added to the system, the effluent EC decreased and the pH increased due to the inhibition of the SOB. We found that the system can detect these chemicals in the 50-200 ppb range, which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors to date. The SOB biosensor can detect toxicity on the order of min to h which can serve as an early warning so as to not pollute the environment and affect public health. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimated costs of advanced lung cancer care in a public reference hospital.

    PubMed

    Knust, Renata Erthal; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Fortes, Guilherme Bastos

    2017-08-17

    coorte de 277 pacientes matriculados no Instituto Nacional do Câncer em 2011. Os custos foram estimados sob a perspectiva do hospital como prestador de serviços de referência para o SUS. Insumos e procedimentos utilizados foram identificados e quantificados, por paciente, sendo a eles atribuídos valores monetários, consolidados por fases da assistência definidas. As análises tiveram caráter descritivo com custos em reais (R$). Em termos globais, a coorte representou um custo de R$2.473.559,91, sendo 71,5% relacionados à atenção ambulatorial e 28,5% as internações. Na atenção ambulatorial, predominaram os custos com radioterapia (34%) e quimioterapia (22%). Os resultados apontaram para custos menores na fase inicial de tratamento (7,2%) e custos muito elevados na fase de manutenção (61,6%). Por fim, identificaram-se diferenças estatisticamente significativas das médias dos custos por faixas etárias, níveis de escolaridade, desempenho físico e tipo histológico. Este estudo fornece um retrato atual, útil e relevante sobre os custos de pacientes com câncer de pulmão não pequenas células assistidos em um hospital público de referência e provê elementos sobre a magnitude do problema do câncer no âmbito da saúde pública. Os resultados ratificam a importância do tratamento radioterápico e das internações como principais componentes de custo do tratamento. Apesar de algumas perdas de seguimento avalia-se que, para cerca de 80% dos pacientes incluídos no estudo, as estimativas aqui apresentadas sejam satisfatoriamente fidedignas ao cuidado da doença, sob a perspectiva de um prestador de referência do SUS, fornecendo elementos para a gestão do serviço, bem como para estudos que redundem em formas mais racionais de alocação de recursos.

  7. Factor analysis of laboratory and clinical measurements of dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Q; Altinger, Julie; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia; Gormley, Jenny M; Stulbarg, Michael S

    2003-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there are three distinct factors representing ratings of dyspnea during laboratory exercise, clinical ratings of dyspnea, and pulmonary function in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 92) using factor analysis. Subjects (mean age 66 +/- 7 yrs; FEV1% predicted 44.7 +/- 14.0) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups to test the effects of three education and exercise training programs. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and at 2 months after the intervention. Dyspnea ratings with laboratory exercise (SOB) were measured during incremental (ITT) and endurance (ETT) treadmill tests, and a six-minute walk (6MW) using the modified Borg scale. Clinical measures of dyspnea were measured with the Baseline and Transitional Dyspnea Index (BDI/TDI), UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MRC), Dyspnea subscale of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ-D), and a global dyspnea question. Pulmonary function parameters included FEV1% predicted, FEV1/FVC, and RV/TLC. The factor analysis yielded three factors that accounted for 58.7% of the total variance in the data: Factor 1, "Dyspnea with Laboratory Exercise" comprised ETT SOB end, ETT SOB isotime, ITTSOB end, ITT SOB isotime, ITT SOB/Time and ETT SOB/Time. Factor 2, "Clinical Dyspnea," comprised 6MW SOB, 6MW SOB/Feet, BDI, SOBQ, MRC, Global SOB, CRQ-D. Measures of airway resistance (FEV1% predicted, FEV1/FVC) and hyperinflation (RV/TLC) loaded on a third factor, "Pulmonary Function." An additional post hoc factor analysis with post-intervention data provided similar results. The Global SOB question and ITT SOB isostage variables were relatively more sensitive to change compared to the other outcome variables. We conclude that pulmonary function, clinical ratings of dyspnea, and laboratory ratings of dyspnea are three separate and independent factors and should be

  8. Prediction of individual season of birth using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Pantazatos, Spiro P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests statistical associations between season of birth (SOB) with prevalence of neurobehavioral disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, personality traits, and suicidal behavior. These effects are thought to be mediated by seasonal differences in perinatal photoperiod, which was recently shown to imprint circadian clock neurons and behavior in rodents. However, it is unknown whether SOB is associated with any measurable differences in the normal human adult brain, and whether individual SOB can be deduced based on phenotype. Here I show that SOB predicts neuroanatomical differences in regional grey matter volume, and that MRI scans carry spatially distributed information allowing significantly above chance prediction of an individual’s SOB. Using an open source database of over 550 structural brain scans, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis showed a significant SOB effect in left superior temporal gyrus (STG) in males (p=0.009, FWE whole-brain corrected), with greater grey matter volumes in fall and winter births. A cosinor analysis revealed a significant annual periodicity in left STG grey matter volume (Zero Amplitude Test: p<5×10-7), with a peak towards the end of December and a nadir towards the end of June, suggesting that perinatal photoperiod accounts for this SOB effect. Whole-brain VBM maps were used as input features to multivariate machine-learning based analyses to classify SOB. Significantly greater than chance prediction was achieved in females (overall accuracy 35%, p<0.001), but not in males (overall accuracy 26%, p=0.45). Pair-wise binary classification in females revealed the highest discrimination was obtained for winter vs. summer classification (peak area under the ROC curve=0.71, p<0.0005). Discriminating regions included fusiform and middle temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobe, cerebellum, and dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Results indicate SOB is detectable with MRI

  9. Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Campbell, Benjamin; MacKillop, James; Lum, J. Koji; Wilson, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SOB) has been associated with many physiological and psychological traits including novelty seeking and sensation seeking. Similar traits have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system. SOB and dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms may independently and interactively influence similar behaviors through their common effects on the dopaminergic system. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a sample of 195 subjects, we examined whether SOB was associated with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors. Additionally we examined potential interactions of dopamine receptor genes with SOB for the same set of traits. Phenotypes were evaluated using the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Delay Discounting Task. Subjects were also asked about their age at first sex as well as their desired age at the birth of their first child. The dopamine gene polymorphisms examined were Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) TaqI A and D4 (DRD4) 48 bp VNTR. Primary analyses included factorial gender×SOB ANOVAs or binary logistic regression models for each dependent trait. Secondary analysis extended the factorial models by also including DRD2 and DRD4 genotypes as independent variables. Winter-born males were more sensation seeking than non-winter born males. In factorial models including both genotype and season of birth as variables, two previously unobserved effects were discovered: (1) a SOB×DRD4 interaction effect on venturesomeness and (2) a DRD2×DRD4 interaction effect on sensation seeking. Conclusion These results are consistent with past findings that SOB is related to sensation seeking. Additionally, these results provide tentative support for the hypothesis that SOB modifies the behavioral expression of dopaminergic genetic polymorphism. These findings suggest that SOB should be included in future studies of

  10. Isolation and characterization of Acidithiobacillus caldus from a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial biosensor and its role in detection of toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Kim, Sung-Min; Yoon, Sung-Hwan; Joo, Jin-Ho; Shin, Beom-Soo; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Bae, Wookeun; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2010-08-01

    A novel toxicity detection methodology based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been developed for the rapid and reliable detection of toxic chemicals in water. The methodology exploits the ability of SOB to oxidize sulfur particles in the presence of oxygen to produce sulfuric acid. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. The assay is based on the inhibition of SOB in the presence of toxic chemicals by measuring changes in EC and pH. We found that SOB biosensor can detect toxic chemicals, such as heavy metals and CN-, in the 5-2000ppb range. One bacterium was isolated from an SOB biosensor and the 16S rRNA gene of the bacterial strain has 99% and 96% sequence similarity to Acidithiobacillus sp. ORCS6 and Acidithiobacillus caldus DSM 8584, respectively. The isolate was identified as A. caldus SMK. The SOB biosensor is ideally suited for monitoring toxic chemicals in water having the advantages of high sensitivity and quick detection.

  11. Assessment of the stoichiometry and efficiency of CO2 fixation coupled to reduced sulfur oxidation.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) couple the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds to the production of biomass. Their role in the cycling of carbon, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen is, however, difficult to quantify due to the complexity of sulfur oxidation pathways. We describe a generic theoretical framework for linking the stoichiometry and energy conservation efficiency of autotrophic sulfur oxidation while accounting for the partitioning of the reduced sulfur pool between the energy generating and energy conserving steps as well as between the main possible products (sulfate vs. zero-valent sulfur). Using this framework, we show that the energy conservation efficiency varies widely among SOB with no apparent relationship to their phylogeny. Aerobic SOB equipped with reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase tend to have higher efficiency than those relying on the complete Sox pathway, whereas for anaerobic SOB the presence of membrane-bound, as opposed to periplasmic, nitrate reductase systems appears to be linked to higher efficiency. We employ the framework to also show how limited rate measurements can be used to estimate the primary productivity of SOB without the knowledge of the sulfate-to-zero-valent-sulfur production ratio. Finally, we discuss how the framework can help researchers gain new insights into the activity of SOB and their niches.

  12. Assessment of the stoichiometry and efficiency of CO2 fixation coupled to reduced sulfur oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Judith M.; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) couple the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds to the production of biomass. Their role in the cycling of carbon, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen is, however, difficult to quantify due to the complexity of sulfur oxidation pathways. We describe a generic theoretical framework for linking the stoichiometry and energy conservation efficiency of autotrophic sulfur oxidation while accounting for the partitioning of the reduced sulfur pool between the energy generating and energy conserving steps as well as between the main possible products (sulfate vs. zero-valent sulfur). Using this framework, we show that the energy conservation efficiency varies widely among SOB with no apparent relationship to their phylogeny. Aerobic SOB equipped with reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase tend to have higher efficiency than those relying on the complete Sox pathway, whereas for anaerobic SOB the presence of membrane-bound, as opposed to periplasmic, nitrate reductase systems appears to be linked to higher efficiency. We employ the framework to also show how limited rate measurements can be used to estimate the primary productivity of SOB without the knowledge of the sulfate-to-zero-valent-sulfur production ratio. Finally, we discuss how the framework can help researchers gain new insights into the activity of SOB and their niches. PMID:26052315

  13. Season of birth and subclinical psychosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of new and existing data.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Calati, Raffaella; Arias, Bárbara; Ibáñez, Manuel-Ignacio; Moya, Jorge; Ortet, Generós; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-02-28

    Season of birth (SOB) has been shown to modify the risk of several health outcomes, including a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Empirical evidence indicates that subclinical forms of psychosis in the general population share some risk factors with categorical diagnoses of psychosis. Hence, by systematically reviewing and meta-analyzing new and existing data, the current work aimed to determine whether there is evidence of an association between winter SOB and subclinical psychosis in the general population. Our meta-analytic results do not indicate an association between winter SOB and schizotypy in adult populations, although they indicate winter SOB may be a risk factor for psychotic experiences or symptoms in children around 12-15 years (OR=1.12, 95%CI:1.03-1.21). In the whole new dataset for adults (n=481, mean age=22.8 years) no association was detected in either an unadjusted model or adjusting for gender and age. Overall, our results indicate that the association between winter SOB and increased subclinical psychosis may hold in children, but does not in the broad general adult population. Nevertheless, the epidemiological and clinicopathological significance of winter SOB as a risk factor for subclinical psychosis would probably be slight due to the small effect sizes indicated by the reports available to date.

  14. Brassinosteroid signaling converges with SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 to influence the expression of SMALL AUXIN UP RNA genes and hypocotyl growth.

    PubMed

    Favero, David S; Le, Kimberly Ngan; Neff, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Interactions between signaling pathways help guide plant development. In this study, we found that brassinosteroid (BR) signaling converges with SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 (SOB3) to influence both the transcription of genes involved in cell elongation and hypocotyl growth. Specifically, SOB3 mutant hypocotyl phenotypes, which are readily apparent when the seedlings are grown in dim white light, were attenuated by treatment with either brassinolide (BL) or the BR biosynthesis inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ). Hypocotyls of SOB3 mutant seedlings grown in white light with a higher fluence rate also exhibited altered sensitivities to BL, further suggesting a connection to BR signaling. However, the impact of BL treatment on SOB3 mutants grown in moderate-intensity white light was reduced when polar auxin transport was inhibited. BL treatment enhanced transcript accumulation for all six members of the SMALL AUXIN UP RNA19 (SAUR19) subfamily, which promote cell expansion, are repressed by SOB3 and light, and are induced by auxin. Conversely, BRZ inhibited the expression of SAUR19 and its homologs. Expression of these SAURs was also enhanced in lines expressing a constitutively active form of the BR signaling component BZR1, further indicating that the transcription of SAUR19 subfamily members are influenced by this hormone signaling pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that SOB3 and BR signaling converge to influence the transcription of hypocotyl growth-promoting SAUR19 subfamily members. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Wang, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Cai, Lin; Bajic, Vladimir; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Links between sulphur oxidation and sulphur-oxidising bacteria abundance and diversity in soil microcosms based on soxB functional gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Tourna, Maria; Maclean, Paul; Condron, Leo; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    Sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB) play a key role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulphur in soil ecosystems. However, the ecology of SOB is poorly understood, and there is little knowledge about the taxa capable of sulphur oxidation, their distribution, habitat preferences and ecophysiology. Furthermore, as yet there are no conclusive links between SOB community size or structure and rates of sulphur oxidation. We have developed a molecular approach based on primer design targeting the soxB functional gene of nonfilamentous chemolithotrophic SOB that allows assessment of both abundance and diversity. Cloning and sequencing revealed considerable diversity of known soxB genotypes from agricultural soils and also evidence for previously undescribed taxa. In a microcosm experiment, abundance of soxB genes increased with sulphur oxidation rate in soils amended with elemental sulphur. Addition of elemental sulphur to soil had a significant effect in the soxB gene diversity, with the chemolithotrophic Thiobacillus-like Betaproteobacteria sequences dominating clone libraries 6 days after sulphur application. Using culture-independent methodology, the study provides evidence for links between abundance and diversity of SOB and sulphur oxidation. The methodology provides a new tool for investigation of the ecology and role of SOB in soil sulphur biogeochemistry.

  17. Molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of the soxB gene among sulfur-oxidizing bacteria - evolution of the Sox sulfur oxidation enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kuever, Jan

    2007-12-01

    The soxB gene encodes the SoxB component of the periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing Sox enzyme complex, which has been proposed to be widespread among the various phylogenetic groups of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) that convert thiosulfate to sulfate with and without the formation of sulfur globules as intermediate. Indeed, the comprehensive genetic and genomic analyses presented in the present study identified the soxB gene in 121 phylogenetically and physiologically divergent SOB, including several species for which thiosulfate utilization has not been reported yet. In first support of the previously postulated general involvement of components of the Sox enzyme complex in the thiosulfate oxidation process of sulfur-storing SOB, the soxB gene was detected in all investigated photo- and chemotrophic species that form sulfur globules during thiosulfate oxidation (Chromatiaceae, Chlorobiaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, Thiobacillus, invertebrate symbionts and free-living relatives). The SoxB phylogeny reflected the major 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic lineages of the investigated SOB, although topological discrepancies indicated several events of lateral soxB gene transfer among the SOB, e.g. its independent acquisition by the anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic lineages from different chemotrophic donor lineages. A putative scenario for the proteobacterial origin and evolution of the Sox enzyme system in SOB is presented considering the phylogenetic, genomic (sox gene cluster composition) and geochemical data.

  18. Diversity and activity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria and sulphate-reducing bacteria in landfill cover soils.

    PubMed

    Xia, F F; Su, Y; Wei, X M; He, Y H; Wu, Z C; Ghulam, A; He, R

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur bioconversion in landfill cover soils, including the metabolism of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), is one of the important processes affecting H2 S emission from landfills. In this study, two landfills with or without landfill gas collection and utilization system were investigated to characterize the role of biotic and abiotic factors affecting diversity and activity of SOB and SRB in the landfill cover soils. The results revealed that the potential sulphur oxidation rates (SORs) and sulphate reduction rates (SRRs) varied with landfill sites and depths. SOR was significantly correlated with pH and SO4 (2-) , while SRR was significantly related with pH. The populations of both SOB and SRB were low in the acidic landfill cover soils (pH = 4.7-5.37). Cloning and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of soxB and dsrB showed that SOB including Halothiobacillus, Thiobacillus, Thiovirga and Bradyrhizobium, and SRB including Desulfobacca, Desulforhabdus and Syntrophobacter dominated in the landfill cover soils, and their distributions were affected mainly by pH value and organic matter contents of soils. High diversity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) presented in the landfill cover soils. Among the physicochemical properties of soils (moisture content, pH, organic materials, SO4 (2-) , acid volatile sulphide and total sulphur), pH was the most important factor affecting the diversity and activity of SOB and SRB in the landfill cover soils. Higher pH of landfill cover soils (i.e. neutral or slight alkaline) was favourable for the growth of SOB and SRB, leading to a rapid bioconversion of sulphur. These findings are helpful to optimize sulphur biotransformation in landfill cover soils and to control odour pollution at landfills. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-02

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of high salinity and constituent organic compounds on treatment of photo-processing waste by a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria/granular activated carbon sludge system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin-Le; Hosomi, Masaaki; Murakami, Akihiko

    2002-02-01

    To achieve practical treatment of photo-processing waste (PW) using our previously proposed sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB)/granular activated carbon (GAC) sludge system, this paper elucidates why 3- to 5-X dilution of PW was required. That is, a series of experiments were carried out to show the effects of high salinity and constituent organic compounds in PW, respectively. Both an inorganic salts system and calcination PW system showed that SOB completely oxidizes S2O(3)2- -S to SO(4)2- -S even at 12.3 or 13.6% salinity, respectively; hence the dilution requirement is not attributable to high salinity. In experiments employing SOB and SOB/GAC systems to investigate the effects of 23 constituent compounds in PW, compounds were classified into Groups I, II, IIIa, and IIIb. Even with 10 g/l GAC, the nine compounds in Group IIIb still exhibited a toxic effect on SOB activity at 1- and 3-X dilutions; thus it is these compounds that are responsible for requiring dilution of PW. Accordingly, a reduction in their use within the photodeveloping and fix-stabilizing industry, and/or use of > 10g/l GAC, are new considerations for establishing a more practical PW treatment process.

  1. Development of an online sulfur-oxidizing bacteria biosensor for the monitoring of water toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Anup; Kang, Woo-Chang; Shin, Beom-Soo; Cho, Ju Sik; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2014-12-01

    A toxicity monitoring system based on the metabolic properties of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in continuous and fed-batch modes has been applied for the detection of nitrite (NO2 (-)-N). In this study, the effects of different concentrations of NO2 (-)-N (0.1 to 5 mg/L) on the SOB bioreactors were tested. We found that 5 mg/L NO2 (-)-N was very toxic to the SOB bioreactors in both continuous (R1) and fed-batch (R2) modes, showing complete inhibition of SOB activity within 2 h of operation. R1 and R2 were operated in different ways; however, the EC inhibition and recovery patterns were very similar. The EC rate increased with an increasing NO2 (-)-N concentration in both continuous and fed-batch modes. The addition of 5 mg/L NO2 (-)-N in continuous mode decreased the average EC rate by 14.38 ± 2.1 μS/cm/min; while in fed-batch mode, the EC rate decreased by 23 μS/cm/min. Although the toxicity monitoring system could detect 0.5-5 mg/L NO2 (-)-N, it could not detect 0.1 mg/L NO2 (-)-N in either continuous or fed-batch operation. Thus, the SOB biosensor method presented is useful to detect toxic agents such as NO2 (-)-N within a few minutes or hours.

  2. Semi-continuous detection of toxic hexavalent chromium using a sulfur-oxidizing bacteria biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Anup; Oh, Sang-Eun; Kim, Ki Duck; Shin, Beom-Soo

    2012-09-15

    Toxicity testing is becoming a useful tool for environmental risk assessment. A biosensor based on the metabolic properties of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been applied for the detection of toxic chemicals in water. The methodology exploits the ability of SOB to oxidize elemental sulfur to sulfuric acid under aerobic conditions. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. Five hours after Cr(6+) was added to the SOB biosensor operated in semi-continuous mode (1 min rapid feeding and 29 min batch reaction), a decrease in effluent EC and an increase in pH (from 2-3 to 6) were detected due to Cr(6+) toxicity to SOB. The SOB biosensor is simple; it can detect toxic levels of Cr(6+) on the order of minutes to hours, a useful time scale for early warning detection systems designed to protect the environment from further degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detecting oxidized contaminants in water using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hassan, Sedky H A; Ok, Yong Sik; Yang, Jae E; Kim, Yong-Seong; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2011-04-15

    For the rapid and reliable detection of oxidized contaminants (i.e., nitrite, nitrate, perchlorate, dichromate) in water, a novel toxicity detection methodology based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been developed. The methodology exploits the ability of SOB to oxidize elemental sulfur to sulfuric acid in the presence of oxygen. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. When oxidized contaminants were added to the system, the effluent EC decreased and the pH increased due to the inhibition of the SOB. We found that the system can detect these contaminants in the 5-50 ppb range (in the case of NO(3)(-), 10 ppm was detected), which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors to date. At low pH, the oxidized contaminants are mostly in their acid or nonpolar, protonated form which act as uncouplers and make the SOB biosensor more sensitive than other whole-cell biosensors which operate at higher pH values where the contaminants exist as dissociated anions. The SOB biosensor can detect toxicity on the order of minutes to hours which can serve as an early warning so as to not pollute the environment and affect public health.

  4. Therapeutic Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Butyrate, on Allergic Rhinitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wen, Liting; Wang, Ye; Chen, Fuquan

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-documented therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) on various diseases, including arthritis and asthma, the therapeutic effect of HDACi on allergic rhinitis remains unmentioned in the literature. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of sodium butyrate (SoB), a form of HDACi, on mice with allergic rhinitis. The results showed that the expression levels of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were significantly upregulated in mice with allergic rhinitis, whereas H3 acetylation at lysine 9 (H3AcK9) was decreased. The intranasal application of SoB inhibited the expression levels of TSLP levels and upregulated the expression of H3AcK9 in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, SoB treatment significantly decreased the increased levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and improved clinical symptoms and nasal mucosa epithelial morphology in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. In addition, we further demonstrated that SoB treatment significantly increased the serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ and decreased the serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10, correcting the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Taken together, our study suggests that SoB has the potential to treat allergic rhinitis.

  5. Toward a Set of Measures of Student Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: Evidence from Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Wainer, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to work toward the development of a number of measures of student learning outcomes (SLOs) in higher education. Specifically, we used data from "Exame Nacional de Desempenho dos Estudantes" (ENADE), a college-exit examination developed and used in Brazil. The fact that Brazil administered the ENADE to…

  6. Toward a Set of Measures of Student Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: Evidence from Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Wainer, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to work toward the development of a number of measures of student learning outcomes (SLOs) in higher education. Specifically, we used data from "Exame Nacional de Desempenho dos Estudantes" (ENADE), a college-exit examination developed and used in Brazil. The fact that Brazil administered the ENADE to…

  7. Störungen des Betriebs geothermischer Anlagen durch mikrobielle Stoffwechselprozesse und Erfolg von Gegenmaßnahmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würdemann, Hilke; Westphal, Anke; Kleyböcker, Anne; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Teitz, Sebastian; Kasina, Monika; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Eichinger, Florian; Lerm, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    In the context of geothermal systems, biofilms can influence mineral formation and material resistance against corrosion. In three geothermal plants with different salinity and temperature, organisms of the sulfur cycle have contributed to process failures. On the cold side of a heat store, the increased diversity and abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) revealed their participation in corrosion processes and their contribution to a decline in injection efficiency. In all plants, a temporary ingress of oxygen or nitrate led to an increased abundance of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) that might have accelerated corrosion. In addition, the increase in SOB abundance led to filter clogging in a cold store. Based on their role in microbial-induced corrosion (MIC), changes in the abundance of SOB and SRB may indicate the cause of failure. Measures to control microbial growth, mineral deposits and corrosion, such as temporary increases in temperature, acidification, and addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrate, were evaluated.

  8. Memoized Online Variational Inference for Dirichlet Process Mixture Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-27

    SOa K=25 SOb K=25 SOc K=25 Data: 5x5 patches worst MO-BM worst MO worst Full best...Initialization Random Initialization SOa SOb SOc Full MO MO−BM Kuri −3.1 −3.05 −3 −2.95 −2.9 −2.85 lo g ev id en ce x1 06 20 batches 100 batches... SOa SOb SOc Full MO MO−BM Kuri −4.5 −4 −3.5 −3 lo g ev id en ce x1 06 20 batches 100 batches 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 0.7 0.72 0.74

  9. Diversity of culturable halophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline habitats.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Tourova, Tatjana P; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Muyzer, Gerard

    2006-10-01

    Unexpectedly high culturable diversity of moderately and extremely halophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was discovered in the sediments of various hypersaline habitats, including chloride-sulfate lakes in Mongolia, Russia and Ukraine, a sea saltern in Slovenia and a deep-sea salt brine from the Mediterranean. Six different groups of halophilic SOB, including four new genera, all belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, were found. Two groups of moderately halophilic strictly aerobic SOB dominated at 2 M NaCl, including representatives of the genus Halothiobacillus (in fully aerobic conditions) and Thiomicrospira (in micro-oxic conditions). Under denitrifying conditions at 2 M NaCl, a group of moderately halophilic and facultatively anaerobic SOB was selected, capable of complete denitrification of nitrate. The group represents a new genus with closest relatives among as yet undescribed marine thiodenitrifying isolates. With thiocyanate as a substrate, an enrichment culture at 2 M NaCl yielded a pure culture of moderately halophilic SOB capable of aerobic growth with thiocyanate and thiosulfate at up to 4 M NaCl. Furthermore, this bacterium also grew anaerobically using nitrite as electron acceptor. It formed a new lineage distantly related to the genus Thiomicrospira. Enrichments at 4 M NaCl resulted in the domination of two different, previously unknown, groups of extremely halophilic SOB. Under oxic conditions, they were represented by strictly aerobic spiral-shaped bacteria, related to the Ectothiorhodospiraceae, while under denitrifying conditions a group of facultatively anaerobic nitrate-reducing bacteria with long rod-shaped cells was selected, distantly related to the genus Acidithiobacillus.

  10. Biogeochemical oxidation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate to gypsum in flue gas desulfurization byproduct using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Graves, Duane; Smith, Jacques J; Chen, Linxi; Kreinberg, Allison; Wallace, Brianna; White, Robby

    2017-10-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a well-established air treatment technology for coal and oil combustion gases that commonly uses lime or pulverized limestone aqueous slurries to precipitate sulfur dioxide (SO2) as crystalline calcium salts. Under forced oxidation (excess oxygen) conditions, FGD byproduct contains almost entirely (>92%) gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), a useful and marketable commodity. In contrast, FGD byproduct formed in oxygen deficient oxidation systems contains a high percentage of hannebachite (CaSO3·0.5H2O) to yield a material with no commercial value, poor dewatering characteristics, and that is typically disposed in landfills. Hannebachite in FGD byproduct can be chemically converted to gypsum; however, the conditions that support rapid formation of gypsum require large quantities of acids or oxidizers. This work describes a novel, patent pending application of microbial physiology where a natural consortium of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was used to convert hannebachite-enriched FGD byproduct into a commercially valuable, gypsum-enriched product (US Patent Assignment 503373611). To optimize the conversion of hannebachite into gypsum, physiological studies on the SOB were performed to define their growth characteristics. The SOB were found to be aerobic, mesophilic, neutrophilic, and dependent on a ready supply of ammonia. They were capable of converting hannebachite to gypsum at a rate of approximately five percent per day when the culture was applied to a 20 percent FGD byproduct slurry and SOB growth medium. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the SOB consortium contained a variety of different bacterial genera including both SOB and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Halothiobacillus, Thiovirga and Thiomonas were the dominant sulfur-oxidizing genera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Stickley, Andrew; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20–57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization’s QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born. PMID:26447471

  12. Thal Amyloid Stages Do Not Significantly Impact the Correlation Between Neuropathological Change and Cognition in the Alzheimer Disease Continuum.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Qian, Jing; Muzikansky, Alona; Monsell, Sarah E; Montine, Thomas J; Frosch, Matthew P; Betensky, Rebecca A; Hyman, Bradley T

    2016-06-01

    The 2012 neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) summarize the extent of AD neuropathological change with an ABC score, which is a composite of the Thal stage of amyloid deposition (A), the Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) (B), and the CERAD neuritic plaque score (C). NFTs and neuritic plaques are well-established contributors to cognitive impairment, but whether the Thal amyloid stage independently predicts antemortem cognition remains unknown. We used the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center autopsy data set to build adjacent-categories logit regression models with CDR-SOB and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores as cognitive outcome variables. Increasing CERAD scores were independently associated with higher CDR-SOB scores, whereas increasing Braak NFT stages predicted both higher CDR-SOB and lower MMSE scores. Increasing Thal amyloid stages were not significantly independently associated with either outcome measure. Increasing ABC scores predicted higher CDR-SOB and lower MMSE scores. These results raise the possibility that Thal amyloid stages do not substantially contribute to predicting antemortem cognition compared to CERAD neuritic plaque scores and Braak NFT stages, and suggest that the diffuse amyloid deposits participating in the assignment of Thal amyloid stages are neutral with respect to clinically detectable cognitive and functional changes. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of plant downtime on the microbial community composition in the highly saline brine of a geothermal plant in the North German Basin.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Anke; Lerm, Stephanie; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-04-01

    The microbial biocenosis in highly saline fluids produced from the cold well of a deep geothermal heat store located in the North German Basin was characterized during regular plant operation and immediately after plant downtime phases. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the dominance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and fermentative Halanaerobiaceae during regular plant operation, whereas after shutdown phases, sequences of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were also detected. The detection of SOB indicated oxygen ingress into the well during the downtime phase. High 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and dsrA gene copy numbers at the beginning of the restart process showed an enrichment of bacteria, SRB, and SOB during stagnant conditions consistent with higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulfate, and hydrogen sulfide in the produced fluids. The interaction of SRB and SOB during plant downtimes might have enhanced the corrosion processes occurring in the well. It was shown that scale content of fluids was significantly increased after stagnant phases. Moreover, the sulfur isotopic signature of the mineral scales indicated microbial influence on scale formation.

  14. Interference between Maintenance and Processing in Working Memory: The Effect of Item-Distractor Similarity in Complex Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Pasiecznik, Kazimir; Greaves, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of phonological similarity between items and distractors on complex span performance. Item-distractor similarity benefited serial recall when distractors followed the items they were similar to, but not when distractors preceded the items they were similar to. These findings are predicted by C-SOB (contextual…

  15. Analysis of community composition of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline and soda lakes using soxB as a functional molecular marker.

    PubMed

    Tourova, Tatjana P; Slobodova, Natalija V; Bumazhkin, Boris K; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Muyzer, Gerard; Sorokin, Dimitry Y

    2013-05-01

    The diversity of soxB gene encoding a key enzyme of the Sox pathway sulfate thiohydrolase has been investigated in pure cultures of various halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and in salt and soda lakes in southwestern Siberia and Egypt. The gene was detected in the majority of strains belonging to eleven SOB genera excluding members of genera Thiohalospira and Thioalkalimicrobium. The uncultured diversity of soxB in salt and soda lakes was low with a majority of detected sequences belonging to autotrophic SOB from the Gammaproteobacteria. In addition, the soxB analysis allowed detection of putative heterotrophic Gamma- and Alphaproteobacterial SOB yet unknown in culture. All clone libraries obtained from soda lakes contained soxB belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio in agreement with the cultivation results. Besides, representatives of the genera Halothiobacillus, Marinobacter, and Halochromatium and of the family Rhodobacteraceae have been detected in both type of saline lakes. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification of abiotic reaction rates in mine tailings: evaluation of treatment methods for eliminating iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Roger B; Malmström, Maria; Ebenå, Gustav; Salmon, Ursula; Ferrow, Embaie; Fuchs, Matthias

    2005-02-01

    Effective treatment techniques for eliminating iron-oxidizing (IOB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are required for the comparison of abiotic and microbial sulfide oxidation rates and mechanisms in mine tailings. This study evaluates the effect of autoclaving, repeated heating, ethanol treatment, antibiotic treatment, gamma-radiation, and washing with deionized water on tailings characteristics and concentrations of IOB and SOB. Most probable number enumeration indicates that IOB and SOB were present at very low concentrations or below detection limits following treatment with all methods except rinsing and antibiotics treatment, where higher concentrations of IOB and SOB were present. The physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of the tailings indicated no changes in bulk mineralogy or bulk chemical composition as a result of treatment. However, an increase in oxidized sulfur species at the tailings surface, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, was observed for the heating, autoclaving, and antibiotics treatments. Batch weathering experiments, used to evaluate the effect of treatment on element release rates, indicated that the final element release rates (after >30 d) were similar between treated and untreated control samples. On the basis of the results of this study, experiments over relatively long periods (>30 d) are to be recommended forthe establishment of microbial and abiotic weathering rates in mill tailings samples. For the determination of abiotic reaction rates, treatment by gamma-radiation is suggested to be the most appropriate method for sulfide-rich tailings.

  17. Detection of Cr6+ by the sulfur oxidizing bacteria biosensor: effect of different physical factors.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2012-07-17

    A biosensor based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) for detection of toxic chemicals in water was developed. SOB are acidophilic microorganisms that get their energy through the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds in the presence of oxygen to produce sulfuric acid. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. The bioassay is based on the inhibition of SOB in the presence of toxic chemicals by measuring changes in EC and pH. The effect of different physical factors such as HRT, inorganic sulfur (S°) particle size, and temperature on detection of Cr(6+) was studied. The detection of Cr(6+) (50 ppb) was improved by decreasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 30 to 10 min and increasing S° particle size from 1 to 4.75 mm. Detection time was shorter at 30 °C compared to 45 °C and the SOB were active over a wide range of temperatures with a maximum temperature for growth at 45 °C. This novel biosensor is simple, highly sensitive to low Cr(6+) concentrations (50 ppb), and also minimizes detection time. The present findings can be applied to the proper continuous screening of water ecosystem toxicity.

  18. Bacterial communities involved in sulfur transformations in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel Derrossi; de Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia; Durrer, Ademir; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Corção, Gertrudes; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-12-01

    The main sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located at southern Brazil were described based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA. Specific taxa of SRB and SOB were correlated with some abiotic factors, such as the source of the wastewater, oxygen content, sample type, and physical chemical attributes of these WWTPs. When the 22 families of SRB and SOB were clustered together, the samples presented a striking distribution, demonstrating grouping patterns according to the sample type. For SOB, the most abundant families were Spirochaetaceae, Chromatiaceae, Helicobacteriaceae, Rhodospirillaceae, and Neisseriaceae, whereas, for SRB, were Syntrophaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Nitrospiraceae, and Desulfovibriaceae. The structure and composition of the major families related to the sulfur cycle were also influenced by six chemical attributes (sulfur, potassium, zinc, manganese, phosphorus, and nitrogen). Sulfur was the chemical attribute that most influenced the variation of bacterial communities in the WWTPs (λ = 0.14, p = 0.008). The OTUs affiliated to Syntrophus showed the highest response to the increase of total sulfur. All these findings can contribute to improve the understanding in relation to the sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing communities in WWTPs aiming to reduce H2S emissions.

  19. Microbially influenced degradation of concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.

    1998-03-01

    Steel reinforced concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. The economic costs of repair or replacement of environmentally damaged concrete structures is astronomical. For example, half of the concrete bridges in the Federal Department of Transportation highway system are in need of major repairs. Microbially influenced degradation of concrete (MID) is one of the recognized degradative processes known to adversely affect concrete integrity. It is not possible to assign a specific percent of effect to any of these processes. However, MID has been shown to be as aggressive as any of the physical/chemical phenomena. In addition, the possibility exists that there is a synergism which results in cumulative effects from all the processes. Three groups of bacteria are known to promote MID. Of these, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are the most aggressive. Much is known about the nutritional needs of these bacteria. However, there has not been a biological linkage established between the presence of environmental, polluting sulfur sources and the degradation of concrete structures. It has been shown that the environmental pollutants sulfur dioxide and sulfite can be utilized by active SOB for the biological production of sulfuric acid. Therefore, it is not a reach of reality to assume that SOB exposed to these pollutants could have a major impact on the degradation of concrete structures. But, until the environment sulfur loop is closed it will not be possible to calculate how important SOB activity is in initiating and promoting damage.

  20. Diversity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in greenwater system of coastal aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, Kishore Kumar; Kathiravan, V; Natarajan, M; Kailasam, M; Pillai, S M

    2010-11-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds produced by the metabolism are the one of the major problems in aquaculture. In the present study, herbivorous fishes have been cultured as biomanipulators for secretions of slime, which enhanced the production of greenwater containing beneficial bacteria. The genes encoding soxB which is largely unique to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) due to its hydrolytic function has been targeted for examining the diversity of SOB in the green water system of coastal aquaculture. Novel sequences obtained based on the sequencing of metagenomic clone libraries for soxB genes revealed the abundance of SOB in green water system. Phylogenetic tree constructed from aligned amino acid sequences demonstrated that different clusters have only 82-93% match with Roseobacter sp., Phaeobacter sp., Roseovarius sp., Sulfitobacter sp., Ruegeria sp., and Oceanibulbus sp. The level of conservation of the soxB amino acid sequences ranged from 42% to 71%. 16S rRNA gene analyses of enrichment culture from green water system revealed the presence of Pseudoxanthomonas sp., which has 97% similarity with nutritionally fastidious Indian strain of Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana-a sulfur chemolithotrophic gamma-proteobacterium. Our results illustrate the relevance of SOB in the functioning of the green water system of coastal shrimp aquaculture for oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, which in turn maintain the sulfide concentration well within the prescribed safe levels.

  1. An Experimental Device for Real Time Determination of Slant Path Atmospheric Contrast Transmittance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    17136 VENTURA BOULEVARD ENCINO . CALIFORNIA * ST. 8.2210 OR TR. 3.3373 -l :-- o.. The compact Traid 735 Periphoto Lens, shown above in actual size...0 e. quest. Rate or* Iloe F.O.B. indicat"’ and advertised soiling Encino and sobs to% it applicanble price for each product as follows: under to

  2. Forgetting from Working Memory: Does Novelty Encoding Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancher, Gaen; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The sources of forgetting in working memory remain the matter of intense debate. According to the SOB model (serial order in a box; Farrell & Lewandowsky, 2002), forgetting in complex span tasks does not result from temporal decay but from interference produced by the encoding of distractors that are superimposed over memory items onto a…

  3. Identification and characterization of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in an artificial wetland that treats wastewater from a tannery.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Aguilar, Juan Ramiro; Peña Cabriales, Juan José; Maldonado Vega, María

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater from tanneries contains high concentrations of organic matter, chromium, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds. In this study, an artificial wetland is is used as the tertiary treatment in a tannery in León Gto., México. It consists of three subplots with an area of about 450 m2. Two subplots were planted with Typha sp. and the third with Scirpus americanus. Geochemical analyses along the flowpath of the wetland show that contaminants were effectively attenuated. The most probable number technique was used to determine rhizospheric microbial populations involved in the sulfur cycle and suggested that there were 104-10(6) cells g(-1) sediment of sulfate-reducing bacteria and 10(2)-10(5) of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Representatives of SOB were isolated on media containing thiosulfate. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA of SOB isolates shows that they belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Ochrobactrum, and Pseudomonas. Most of the isolates are organotrophic and can oxidize reduced sulfur compounds such as elemental sulfur or thiosulfate, accumulating thiosulfate, or tetrathionate during growth. All isolates can use reduced-sulfur compounds as their sole sulfur source and some can use nitrate as an electron acceptor to grow anaerobically. Our results illustrate the relevance of SOB in the functioning of the wetland constructed for tannery wastewater remediation.

  4. Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

  5. The Effects of Superoutbursts onTOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Desai, Vandana; Burdullis, Todd; Hoard, D. W.; Fried, Robert; Garnavich, Peter; Gänsicke, Boris

    2000-09-01

    To explore the amount of secondary irradiation and the long-term effects of a superoutburst (SOB) on tremendous outburst amplitude dwarf novae (TOADs), we obtained spectra of EG Cnc for 3-17 months past its SOB, of SW UMa, WX Cet, and USNO 1425.09823278 at 2 months past their SOBs and HV Vir and LL And during their quiescent states at 3 and 5 yr past SOB. The quiescent spectra of EG Cnc, HV Vir, LL And, and USNO 1425 show emission cores surrounded by broad absorption lines from the white dwarf, consistent with very low mass accretion onto low-temperature white dwarfs. SW UMa and WX Cet likely have higher accretion rates and more extensive disks. SW UMa exhibits unusual disk structure, with three zones of emission that persist for 3 days, while EG Cnc and USNO 1425 have a strong orbital modulation of the Balmer lines that may be related to long-lasting irradiation after superoutburst. Based on observations with the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC).

  6. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Aki; Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  7. Forgetting from Working Memory: Does Novelty Encoding Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancher, Gaen; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The sources of forgetting in working memory remain the matter of intense debate. According to the SOB model (serial order in a box; Farrell & Lewandowsky, 2002), forgetting in complex span tasks does not result from temporal decay but from interference produced by the encoding of distractors that are superimposed over memory items onto a…

  8. Influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and facial vertical dimensions in subjects with or without skeletal open bite.

    PubMed

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis Ernesto; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Pérez-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    To determine the influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and dentofacial vertical dimensions in individuals with or without skeletal open bite (SOB). Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 139 young adults were examined. The sample was divided into eight groups categorized according to their sagittal and vertical skeletal facial growth pattern and maxillary posterior discrepancy (present or absent). Upper molar vertical position, overbite, lower anterior facial height and facial height ratio were measured. Independent t-test was performed to determine differences between the groups considering maxillary posterior discrepancy. Principal component analysis and MANCOVA test were also used. No statistically significant differences were found comparing the molar vertical position according to maxillary posterior discrepancy for the SOB Class I group or the group with adequate overbite. Significant differences were found in SOB Class II and Class III groups. In addition, an increased molar vertical position was found in the group without posterior discrepancy. Some variables closely related with the individual's intrinsic craniofacial development that could influence the evaluated vertical measurements were not considered. Overall maxillary posterior discrepancy does not appear to have a clear impact on upper molar vertical position or facial vertical dimensions. Only the SOB Class III group without posterior discrepancy had a significant increased upper molar vertical position. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Memória fonológica em crianças bilíngues bimodais e crianças com implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Cruz, Carina Rebello; Pizzio, Aline Lemos

    2014-01-01

    RESUMO Este estudo comparou o desempenho de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes (filhas de pais surdos) e crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear (filhas de pais surdos e de pais ouvintes), com diferentes contextos de acesso à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), em tarefas que envolvem memória fonologica. Os testes utilizados foram: Teste de Pseudopalavras (Santos e Bueno, 2003) e Teste de Pseudosinais (desenvolvido pelos pesquisadores responsáveis pelo Projeto ‘Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimoda’). Além disso, foram incluídos dois grupos de controle, formados por crianças surdas (usuarias de Libras), e adultos bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. Na análise dos resultados, em relação ao desempenho entre os dois grupos testados foi constatado que o grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes apresentou desempenho superior, nos dois testes. No entanto, ao ser analisado o desempenho da criança surda usuaria de implante coclear, filha de pais surdos, que possui acesso irrestrito à Libras e comparado com o das crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear, que possuem acesso restrito à Libras, foi constatado que o seu desempenho foi semelhante ao do grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. As crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear com acesso restrito à Libras e, portanto, com acesso maior ao Português apresentaram escores mais baixos nas tarefas, principalmente do teste em Português. Os resultados sugerem que as crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear em processo de aquisição da línguagem podem se beneficiar com o acesso irrestrito à Libras, atingindo inclusive desempenho semelhante a de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. PMID:25110473

  10. Succession of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Microbial Community on Corroding Concrete in Sewer Systems† ▿

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Satoshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of the succession of microbial community members responsible for the production of sulfuric acid is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the bacterial community on corroding concrete in a sewer system in situ was investigated over 1 year by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques. Results revealed that at least six phylotypes of SOB species were involved in the MICC process, and the predominant SOB species shifted in the following order: Thiothrix sp., Thiobacillus plumbophilus, Thiomonas intermedia, Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Acidiphilium acidophilum, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. A. thiooxidans, a hyperacidophilic SOB, was the most dominant (accounting for 70% of EUB338-mixed probe-hybridized cells) in the heavily corroded concrete after 1 year. This succession of SOB species could be dependent on the pH of the concrete surface as well as on trophic properties (e.g., autotrophic or mixotrophic) and on the ability of the SOB to utilize different sulfur compounds (e.g., H2S, S0, and S2O32−). In addition, diverse heterotrophic bacterial species (e.g., halo-tolerant, neutrophilic, and acidophilic bacteria) were associated with these SOB. The microbial succession of these microorganisms was involved in the colonization of the concrete and the production of sulfuric acid. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of microbial community members revealed that A. thiooxidans was the most dominant throughout the heavily corroded concrete (gypsum) layer and that A. thiooxidans was most abundant at the highest surface (1.5-mm) layer and decreased logarithmically with depth because of oxygen and H2S transport limitations. This suggested that the production of sulfuric acid by A. thiooxidans occurred mainly on the concrete surface and the

  11. Homology modeling of dissimilatory APS reductases (AprBA) of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2008-01-30

    The dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, and two [4Fe-4S] centers) catalyzes the transformation of APS to sulfite and AMP in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP); in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) it has been suggested to operate in the reverse direction. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme has been determined in different catalytically relevant states providing insights into its reaction cycle. Full-length AprBA sequences from 20 phylogenetically distinct SRP and SOB species were used for homology modeling. In general, the average accuracy of the calculated models was sufficiently good to allow a structural and functional comparison between the beta- and alpha-subunit structures (78.8-99.3% and 89.5-96.8% of the AprB and AprA main chain atoms, respectively, had root mean square deviations below 1 A with respect to the template structures). Besides their overall conformity, the SRP- and SOB-derived models revealed the existence of individual adaptations at the electron-transferring AprB protein surface presumably resulting from docking to different electron donor/acceptor proteins. These structural alterations correlated with the protein phylogeny (three major phylogenetic lineages: (1) SRP including LGT-affected Archaeoglobi and SOB of Apr lineage II, (2) crenarchaeal SRP Caldivirga and Pyrobaculum, and (3) SOB of the distinct Apr lineage I) and the presence of potential APS reductase-interacting redox complexes. The almost identical protein matrices surrounding both [4Fe-4S] clusters, the FAD cofactor, the active site channel and center within the AprB/A models of SRP and SOB point to a highly similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation independent of the metabolism type the APS reductase is involved in and the species it has been originated from. Based on the comparative models, there are no significant structural differences between

  12. Succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the microbial community on corroding concrete in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Satoshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi

    2007-02-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of the succession of microbial community members responsible for the production of sulfuric acid is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the bacterial community on corroding concrete in a sewer system in situ was investigated over 1 year by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques. Results revealed that at least six phylotypes of SOB species were involved in the MICC process, and the predominant SOB species shifted in the following order: Thiothrix sp., Thiobacillus plumbophilus, Thiomonas intermedia, Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Acidiphilium acidophilum, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. A. thiooxidans, a hyperacidophilic SOB, was the most dominant (accounting for 70% of EUB338-mixed probe-hybridized cells) in the heavily corroded concrete after 1 year. This succession of SOB species could be dependent on the pH of the concrete surface as well as on trophic properties (e.g., autotrophic or mixotrophic) and on the ability of the SOB to utilize different sulfur compounds (e.g., H2S, S0, and S2O3(2-)). In addition, diverse heterotrophic bacterial species (e.g., halo-tolerant, neutrophilic, and acidophilic bacteria) were associated with these SOB. The microbial succession of these microorganisms was involved in the colonization of the concrete and the production of sulfuric acid. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of microbial community members revealed that A. thiooxidans was the most dominant throughout the heavily corroded concrete (gypsum) layer and that A. thiooxidans was most abundant at the highest surface (1.5-mm) layer and decreased logarithmically with depth because of oxygen and H2S transport limitations. This suggested that the production of sulfuric acid by A. thiooxidans occurred mainly on the concrete surface and the

  13. Homology Modeling of Dissimilatory APS Reductases (AprBA) of Sulfur-Oxidizing and Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background The dissimilatory adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, and two [4Fe-4S] centers) catalyzes the transformation of APS to sulfite and AMP in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP); in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) it has been suggested to operate in the reverse direction. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme has been determined in different catalytically relevant states providing insights into its reaction cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings Full-length AprBA sequences from 20 phylogenetically distinct SRP and SOB species were used for homology modeling. In general, the average accuracy of the calculated models was sufficiently good to allow a structural and functional comparison between the beta- and alpha-subunit structures (78.8–99.3% and 89.5–96.8% of the AprB and AprA main chain atoms, respectively, had root mean square deviations below 1 Å with respect to the template structures). Besides their overall conformity, the SRP- and SOB-derived models revealed the existence of individual adaptations at the electron-transferring AprB protein surface presumably resulting from docking to different electron donor/acceptor proteins. These structural alterations correlated with the protein phylogeny (three major phylogenetic lineages: (1) SRP including LGT-affected Archaeoglobi and SOB of Apr lineage II, (2) crenarchaeal SRP Caldivirga and Pyrobaculum, and (3) SOB of the distinct Apr lineage I) and the presence of potential APS reductase-interacting redox complexes. The almost identical protein matrices surrounding both [4Fe-4S] clusters, the FAD cofactor, the active site channel and center within the AprB/A models of SRP and SOB point to a highly similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation independent of the metabolism type the APS reductase is involved in and the species it has been originated from. Conclusions Based on the comparative models

  14. Influence of shutdown phases on the microbial community composition and their effects on the operational reliability in a geothermal plant in the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Anke; Lerm, Stephanie; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Microbial activity can influence the dissolution and/or precipitation of minerals, as well as corrosion phenomena that may lead to a lower efficiency of engineered systems. To enhance the understanding of these processes, the microbial biocenosis in fluids produced from the cold well of a deep geothermal heat store located in the North German Basin (NGB) was characterized during normal plant operation and immediately after plant downtime phases. The microbial community composition was dominated by three different genera of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and fermentative Halanaerobiaceae in the 46 ° C tempered fluids during regular operation, whereas after shut down phases sequences of sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were additionally detected. The detection of SOB is regarded as an indication of oxygen introduction into the well during the downtime phase. This corresponded to the higher redox potential of fluids taken directly after the restart of fluid production in the cold well. In addition to an extremely high particle loading rate after plant restart, a higher DNA content as well as an increase of specific gene copy numbers of SRB and SOB by a factor of 104 and 105 respectively were observed. Obviously stagnant conditions favored the enrichment of biomass and particles in the well. This is supported by the determination of a higher sulphate and hydrogen sulphide content in the fluids taken initially after plant restart. With increasing fluid production during the restart, SRB specific gene copy numbers decreased much slower than SOB specific gene copy numbers, which led to the assumption that SOB abundance is limited to the near wellbore area. Besides the absence of particle removal by fluid flow and the deposition of particles by sedimentation during the shut down phase, oxygen introduction and subsequent activity of SOB may also have favored microbial induced formation of precipitates in the well. It is quite likely that the interaction of SRB and SOB

  15. Characterization of sulfur oxidizing bacteria related to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bettina; Herzog, Bastian; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad; Müller, Elisabeth

    2016-07-18

    Biogenic sulfuric acid (BSA) corrosion damages sewerage and wastewater treatment facilities but is not well investigated in sludge digesters. Sulfur/sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB) oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid, inducing BSA corrosion. To obtain more information on BSA corrosion in sludge digesters, microbial communities from six different, BSA-damaged, digesters were analyzed using culture dependent methods and subsequent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). BSA production was determined in laboratory scale systems with mixed and pure cultures, and in-situ with concrete specimens from the digester headspace and sludge zones. The SOB Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia, and Thiomonas perometabolis were cultivated and compared to PCR-DGGE results, revealing the presence of additional acidophilic and neutrophilic SOB. Sulfate concentrations of 10-87 mmol/L after 6-21 days of incubation (final pH 1.0-2.0) in mixed cultures, and up to 433 mmol/L after 42 days (final pH <1.0) in pure A. thiooxidans cultures showed huge sulfuric acid production potentials. Additionally, elevated sulfate concentrations in the corroded concrete of the digester headspace in contrast to the concrete of the sludge zone indicated biological sulfur/sulfide oxidation. The presence of SOB and confirmation of their sulfuric acid production under laboratory conditions reveal that these organisms might contribute to BSA corrosion within sludge digesters. Elevated sulfate concentrations on the corroded concrete wall in the digester headspace (compared to the sludge zone) further indicate biological sulfur/sulfide oxidation in-situ. For the first time, SOB presence and activity is directly relatable to BSA corrosion in sludge digesters.

  16. Effects of a training program for special operations battalion on soldiers' fitness characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sporiš, Goran; Harasin, Drazen; Bok, Daniel; Matika, Dario; Vuleta, Dinko

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of special operations battalion (SOB) training program on soldiers' fitness parameters. The research was conducted on a sample of 25 members (mean ± SD: age 27.93 ± 5.12 years, height 178.64 ± 6.91 cm, body mass 81.42 ± 9.18 kg) of the Croatian Armed Forces for SOB, divided into control and experimental groups. Total duration of the SOB basic training was 62 days. The sample of variables consists of 12 tests for the assessment of fitness characteristics, 2 tests for functional capacity, and 18 morphological measures. Morphological parameters were measured according to the instructions of the International Biological Program. Fitness characteristics were measured with the following tests: 1-kg medicine ball throw from a seated position, standing broad jump (SBJ), relative sergeant test, 20-m sprint, the maximum thrust from the bench, push-ups in 2 minutes (PU(2minutes)), sit-ups in 2 minutes (SU(2minutes)), pull-ups (PU), thrust from the bench with 70% of body weight (BP(70%)), crawling and jumping, agility test 93639 with turn (A9-3-6-3-9), and sit and reach. Functional abilities were evaluated with 2 tests: 3,200 m running (SK3200) and 300 yards running (MBI3Y). There was a statistically significant difference in a set of fitness characteristics variables analyzed between the 2 groups in initial and final measurements in the multivariate level. Analyzing the results of t-test, differences of variables, it was evident that the difference after the SOB program occurred in 7 variables in the experimental group: SBJ, PU2minutes, SU2minutes, PU, BP70%, MBI3Y, and SK3200. Basic training for SOB during 8 weeks has produced significant burnout of the body for the participants who have completed their training. This led to a reduction in fitness performance manifested through the tested variables.

  17. Comparison of combination therapy of high-dose oral N-acetylcysteine and intravenous sodium bicarbonate hydration with individual therapies in the reduction of Contrast-induced Nephropathy during Cardiac Catheterisation and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CONTRAST): A multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chong, Eric; Poh, Kian-Keong; Lu, Qingshu; Zhang, James Jun-Jie; Tan, Ning; Hou, Xu Min; Ong, Hean-Yee; Azan, Aizai; Chen, Shao-Liang; Chen, Ji-Yan; Ali, Rosli Mohd; Fang, Wei-Yi; Lau, Titus Wai Leong; Tan, Huay-Cheem

    2015-12-15

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sodium bicarbonate (SOB) therapies may prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). However, the efficacy of using combination over individual therapies was not established, and there was no large randomised study comparing abbreviated SOB therapy with conventional sustained saline pre-hydration with oral NAC. In a multi-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial (NCT00497328), we prospectively enrolled 548 patients with at least moderate renal impairment undergoing cardiac catheterisation with or without percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1) NAC: 154 mEq/L sustained sodium chloride regime (1 mL/kg/h 12 h before, during and 6h after the procedure) with oral NAC at 1.2g bid for 3 days (n=185); 2) SOB: 154 mEq/L abbreviated SOB regime at 3 mL/kg/h 1h before the procedure, and 1 mL/kg/h during and 6h after the procedure (n=182); and 3) COM: combination of abbreviated SOB regime and oral NAC (n=181). The primary end point was incidence of CIN. The secondary end points were rise in serum creatinine, hospitalisation duration, haemodialysis, morbidity and mortality within 30 days. The 3 groups had similar baseline characteristics: age 68 ± 10 years, 76% male, 48% diabetic and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 47.7 ± 13.0 mL/min. There were 41 (8.8%) patients with GFR<30. The CIN incidences were NAC 6.5%, SOB 12.8% and COM 10.6%. The COM regimen was not superior to either the NAC (relative risk (RR)=1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76 to 3.45, p=0.225) or SOB (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.44 to 1.56, p=0.593) regimens. The CIN incidence was lower in the NAC group than the SOB group (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.92; p=0.032). Multivariate analysis showed contrast volume (OR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.33 to 2.96, p<0.001 per 100mL), female (OR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.22 to 5.00, p=0.012) and diabetes (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.99, p=0.041) were independent risk predictors. There were no

  18. Granulation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria for autotrophic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiming; Lu, Hui; Khanal, Samir K; Zhao, Qing; Meng, Liao; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-11-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was successfully employed for effective autotrophic denitrification and sludge minimization in a full-scale application of saline sewage treatment in Hong Kong. In this study, a Granular Sludge Autotrophic Denitrification (GSAD) reactor was continuously operated over 600 days for SOB granulation, and to evaluate the long-term stability of SOB granules, microbial communities and denitrification efficacy. Sludge granulation initiated within the first 40 days of start-up with an average particle size of 186.4 μm and sludge volume index (SVI5) of 40 mL/g in 5 min. The sludge granules continued to grow reaching a nearly uniform size of mean diameter 1380 ± 20 μm with SVI5 of 30 mL/g during 600 days of GSAD reactor operation at hydraulic retention time of 5 h and nitrate loading rate of 0.33 kg-N/m(3)/d. The GSAD reactor with SOB granular sludge achieved 93.7 ± 2.1% nitrogen and complete sulfide removal with low sludge yield of 0.15 g-volatile suspended solids (VSS)/g-N, and much lower nitrous oxide (N2O) emission than the heterotrophic denitrifying process. Microbial community analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique revealed that granules were enriched with SOB contributing to autotrophic denitrification. Furthermore, 16S rRNA analysis showed diverse autotrophic denitrification related genera, namely Thiobacillus (32.6%), Sulfurimonas (31.3%), and Arcobacter (0.01%), accounting for 63.9% of total operational taxonomic units at the generic level. No heterotrophic denitrification related genera were detected. The results from this study could provide useful design and operating conditions with respect to SOB sludge granulation and its subsequent application in a full-scale autotrophic denitrification in the Sulfate reduction-Autotrophic denitrification-Nitrification Integrated (SANI) process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  20. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  1. Evaluation of E. coli biofilm as a protective barrier against microbiologically influenced deterioration of concrete (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, S; Ormeci, B; Isgor, O B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was evaluated for its potential to control and minimize microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures (37 °C). Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was first grown on Portland cement mortar disks for 8 days. Mortar disks were then exposed to two different types of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) (Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus thiooxidans), which use sulfur compounds as substrate and oxidize them to sulfate and sulfuric acid. The effectiveness of the biofilm against MICD was evaluated by measuring pH, sulfate, calcium concentrations in the reactors and surface analysis of the mortar samples using X-ray diffraction and visual inspection. Overall, the results indicate that the E. coli DH5α biofilm showed good protection against MICD induced by SOB at 37 °C.

  2. Characterization of an inducible oxidative stress system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Bol, D K; Yasbin, R E

    1990-06-01

    Exponentially growing cells of Bacillus subtilis demonstrated inducible protection against killing by hydrogen peroxide when prechallenged with a nonlethal dose of this oxidative agent. Cells deficient in a functional recE+ gene product were as much as 100 times more sensitive to the H2O2 but still exhibited an inducible protective response. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide also induced the recE(+)-dependent DNA damage-inducible (din) genes, the resident prophage, and the product of the recE+ gene itself. Thus hydrogen peroxide is capable of inducing the SOS-like or SOB system of B. subtilis. However, the induction of this DNA repair system by other DNA-damaging agents is not sufficient to activate the protective response to hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, at least one more regulatory network (besides the SOB system) that responds to oxidative stress must exist. Furthermore, the data presented indicate that a functional catalase gene is necessary for this protective response.

  3. Investigations of Atmospheric Forcing During the High Resolution Main Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    represents the differentiation operator such that < Pobs = s^obs. r is a time constant, ^slow represents the compass output, and we have again assumed...can be rewritten in the orm <£~ 1 TS + 1 T< Pobs + (18) that we can compute the angles by performing an While both techniques give...many questions re- main unanswered. The large discrepancy between lab - oratory and field conditions does not seem to be attrib- FIG. 17. Two

  4. Relationships of Un and Gi seasons of birth to clinical symptoms and signs.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jae; Kim, Tae-Hee; Jin, Seng-Hee; Park, Young-Bae

    2013-03-01

    Season of birth (SOB) is a medical term used to describe the relationship between the season in which one is born and his or her physiologic and pathological characteristics. In East Asian medicine, the Un-Gi SOB is based on the Yin-yang-Five Phases theory. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Un-Gi SOB and a multitude of clinical symptoms and signs, and to examine which of the Un and Gi seasons has the greatest impact on these symptoms and signs. Using the Delphi method, three Un-Gi experts formulated a 26-item questionnaire consisting of clinical symptoms and signs, with each item rated on a Likert 7-point scale. A total of 1057 Korean adolescents (583 males, 474 females) completed the 26-item questionnaire. After identifying the Un and Gi seasons of all subjects, item scores were evaluated to determine whether there was a difference between Un and Gi seasons. For Un seasons, males born in the Wood season had greater indigestion and were less physically active, whereas females born in the Earth season were better able to concentrate but had slower rates of growth. For Gi seasons, males born in the Fire season had greater indigestion and morning fatigue, and males born in the Earth season had higher tension. There was no relationship between symptoms, signs, and the Gi SOB in females. This indicates that males born in Wood Un and Gi seasons are susceptible to Earth-related clinical problems, whereas females born in the Earth Un season are susceptible to Earth-related clinical problems. The study results suggest that Un-Gi seasons based on the Yin-yang-Five Phases are related to clinical symptoms and signs, with significant differences between genders.

  5. Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria Mediate Microbial Community Succession and Element Cycling in Launched Marine Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, Hideyuki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Aoyagi, Tomo; Takasaki, Mitsuru; Katayama, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    A large amount of marine sediment was launched on land by the Great East Japan earthquake. Here, we employed both on-site and laboratory studies on the launched marine sediment to investigate the succession of microbial communities and its effects on geochemical properties of the sediment. Twenty-two-month on-site survey showed that microbial communities at the uppermost layer (0–2 mm depth) of the sediment changed significantly with time, whereas those at the deeper layer (20–40 mm depth) remained nearly unchanged and kept anaerobic microbial communities. Nine months after the incidence, various sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) prevailed in the uppermost layer, in which afterwards diverse chemoorganotrophic bacteria predominated. Geochemical analyses indicated that the concentration of metals other than Fe was lower in the uppermost layer than that in the deeper layer. Laboratory study was carried out by incubating the sediment for 57 days, and clearly indicated the dynamic transition of microbial communities in the uppermost layer exposed to atmosphere. SOB affiliated in the class Epsilonproteobacteria rapidly proliferated and dominated at the uppermost layer during the first 3 days, after that Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria and chemoorganotrophic bacteria were sequentially dominant. Furthermore, the concentration of sulfate ion increased and the pH decreased. Consequently, SOB may have influenced the mobilization of heavy metals in the sediment by metal-bound sulfide oxidation and/or sediment acidification. These results demonstrate that SOB initiated the dynamic shift from the anaerobic to aerobic microbial communities, thereby playing a critical role in element cycling in the marine sediment. PMID:28217124

  6. Complete genome sequence of "Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus" HL-EbGr7.

    PubMed

    Muyzer, Gerard; Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Lapidus, Alla; Clum, Alicia; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; d'Haeseleer, Patrick; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2011-02-14

    "Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus" HL-EbGr7 is an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was found to predominate a full-scale bioreactor, removing sulfide from biogas. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain HL-EbGr7 and its annotation. The genome was sequenced within the Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program, because of its relevance to the sustainable removal of sulfide from bio- and industrial waste gases.

  7. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase genes as a functional marker for chemolithoautotrophic halophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline habitats.

    PubMed

    Tourova, Tatjana P; Kovaleva, Olga L; Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Muyzer, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    The presence and diversity of the cbb genes encoding the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) (a key enzyme of the Calvin-Benson cycle of autotrophic CO(2) assimilation) were investigated in pure cultures of seven genera of halophilic chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and in sediments from a hypersaline lake in which such bacteria have been recently discovered. All of the halophilic SOB strains (with the exception of Thiohalomonas nitratireducens) possessed the cbbL gene encoding RuBisCO form I, while the cbbM gene encoding RuBisCO form II was detected only in some of the pure cultures. The general topologies of the CbbL/CbbM trees and the 16S rRNA gene tree were different, but both markers showed that the halophilic SOB genera formed independent lineages in the Gammaproteobacteria. In some cases, such as with several strains of the genus Thiohalospira and with Thioalkalibacter halophilus, the cbbL clustering was incongruent with the positions of these strains on the ribosomal tree. In the cbbM tree, the clustering of Thiohalospira and Thiohalorhabdus strains was incongruent with their branching in both cbbL and 16S rRNA gene trees. cbbL and cbbM genes related to those found in the analysed halophilic SOB were also detected in a sediment from a hypersaline lake in Kulunda Steppe (Russia). Most of the cbbL and cbbM genes belonged to members of the genus Thiohalorhabdus. In the cbbL clone library, sequences related to those of Halothiobacillus and Thiohalospira were detected as minor components. Some of the environmental cbbM sequences belonged to as yet unknown phylotypes, representing deep lineages of halophilic autotrophs.

  8. Bioleaching of metal from municipal waste incineration fly ash using a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and iron-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the behavior and characteristics of metal leaching from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash among pure cultures of a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) and an iron-oxidizing bacterium (IOB) and a mixed culture. The IOB has a high metal-leaching ability, though its tolerability against the ash addition is low. The SOB might better tolerate an increase in ash addition than the IOB, though metal leaching ability of the SOB is limited. Mixed culture could compensate for these deficiencies, and high metal leachability was exhibited in the 1% ash culture, i.e., 67% and 78% of leachabilities for Cu and Zn, respectively, and 100% for Cr and Cd. Furthermore, comparably high leachabilities such as 42% and 78% for Cu and Zn were observed even in the 3% ash cultures. Characterization of metal leaching by the mixed culture revealed that the acidic and oxidizing condition had remained stable thorough the experimental period. Ferric iron remained in the mixed culture, and the metal leaching was enhanced by redox mechanisms coupling with the leaching by sulfate. An increase of ferrous iron enhanced the Cr, Cu, and As leaching. The optimum concentration of sulfur existed for As and Cr (5 gl(-1)) and Cu (2 gl(-1)). The presence of the degradable and non-degradable organic compound that must be existed in the natural environment or waste landfills made no significant change in the leachability of metals other than Zn. These results suggested that bioleaching using a mixed culture of SOB and IOB is a promising technology for recovering the valuable metals from MSWI fly ash.

  9. Succession of Internal Sulfur Cycles and Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in Microaerophilic Wastewater Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Satoshi; Ito, Tsukasa; Sugita, Kenichi; Satoh, Hisashi

    2005-01-01

    The succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) community structure and the complex internal sulfur cycle occurring in wastewater biofilms growing under microaerophilic conditions was analyzed by using a polyphasic approach that employed 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization, microelectrode measurements, and standard batch and reactor experiments. A complete sulfur cycle was established via S0 accumulation within 80 days in the biofilms in replicate. This development was generally split into two phases, (i) a sulfur-accumulating phase and (ii) a sulfate-producing phase. In the first phase (until about 40 days), since the sulfide production rate (sulfate-reducing activity) exceeded the maximum sulfide-oxidizing capacity of SOB in the biofilms, H2S was only partially oxidized to S0 by mainly Thiomicrospira denitirificans with NO3− as an electron acceptor, leading to significant accumulation of S0 in the biofilms. In the second phase, the SOB populations developed further and diversified with time. In particular, S0 accumulation promoted the growth of a novel strain, strain SO07, which predominantly carried out the oxidation of S0 to SO42− under oxic conditions, and Thiothrix sp. strain CT3. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the dense populations of Thiothrix (ca. 109 cells cm−3) and strain SO07 (ca. 108 cells cm−3) were found at the sulfur-rich surface (100 μm), while the population of Thiomicrospira denitirificans was distributed throughout the biofilms with a density of ca. 107 to 108 cells cm−3. Microelectrode measurements revealed that active sulfide-oxidizing zones overlapped the spatial distributions of different phylogenetic SOB groups in the biofilms. As a consequence, the sulfide-oxidizing capacities of the biofilms became high enough to completely oxidize all H2S produced by SRB to SO42− in the second phase, indicating establishment of the complete sulfur cycle in the biofilms. PMID

  10. Self-Rated and Caregiver-Rated Quality of Life in Alzheimer Disease with a Focus on Evolving Patient Ability to Respond to Questionnaires: 5-Year Prospective ALSOVA Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hongisto, Kristiina; Väätäinen, Saku; Martikainen, Janne; Hallikainen, Ilona; Välimäki, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Suhonen, Jaana; Koivisto, Anne M

    2015-12-01

    To examine and compare self-rated and caregiver-rated measures of quality of life (QoL) in relation to disease progression in patients with very mild or mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and at what disease stage patient's ability to respond to QoL questionnaires with or without assistance begins to diminish. 236 patients with very mild or mild AD and their family caregivers from three Finnish hospital districts participated in this prospective, longitudinal study with 5 years of follow-up. Three patient-reported instruments were used to assess QoL (the generic 15D, the Quality of Life in Alzheimer Disease [QoL-AD] questionnaire, and a visual analogue scale) as well as one caregiver-rated assessment of patient QoL (QoL-AD). AD severity was evaluated with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale - Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB). All self- and caregiver-rated QoL estimates correlated with AD severity. The self- and caregiver-rated QoL scores began to diverge even with very mild cognitive impairment after CDR-SOB reached 4, the value that corresponds with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 25-30. Patients also began to need assistance in responding to questionnaires at very early stages of AD (CDR-SOB score: 4-6). Furthermore, their ability to respond to QoL questionnaires with or without assistance declined after CDR-SOB reached 11 points, a value that correlates with an early moderate stage of AD and MMSE score of 11-20. AD patients' self-rated QoL ratings are much more insensitive to disease progression than caregiver ratings. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Containment of biogenic sulfide production in continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors with nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Nemati, Mehdi; Jenneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    Produced water from the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada was used to inoculate continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors. When 7.8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate were present in the in-flowing medium, H(2)S production (souring) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was prevented by addition of 17.5 mM nitrate or 20 mM nitrite. Changing the sulfate or lactate concentration of the in-flowing medium indicated that the concentrations of nitrate or nitrite required for containment of souring decreased proportionally with a lowered concentration of the electron donor lactate, while the sulfate concentration of the medium had no effect. Microbial communities were dominated by SRB. Nitrate addition did not give rise to changes in community composition, indicating that lactate oxidation and H(2)S removal were caused by the combined action of SRB and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Apparently the nitrite concentrations formed by these NR-SOB did not inhibit the SRB sufficiently to cause community shifts. In contrast, significant community shifts were observed upon direct addition of high concentrations (20 mM) of nitrite. Strains NO3A and NO2B, two newly isolated, nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) emerged as major community members. These were found to belong to the epsilon-division of the Proteobacteria, to be most closely related to Campylobacter lari, and to oxidize lactate with nitrate or nitrite as the electron acceptor. Thus the mechanism of microbial H(2)S removal in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors depended on whether nitrate (SRB/NR-SOB) or nitrite (SRB/NR-SOB as well as NRB) was used. However, the amount of nitrate or nitrite needed to completely remove H(2)S was dictated by the electron donor (lactate) concentration, irrespective of mechanism.

  12. Dynamics of corrosion rates associated with nitrite or nitrate mediated control of souring under biological conditions simulating an oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rempel, C L; Evitts, R W; Nemati, M

    2006-10-01

    Representative microbial cultures from an oil reservoir and electrochemical techniques including potentiodynamic scan and linear polarization were used to investigate the time dependent corrosion rate associated with control of biogenic sulphide production through addition of nitrite, nitrate and a combination of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and nitrate. The addition of nitrate alone did not prevent the biogenic production of sulphide but the produced sulphide was eventually oxidized and removed from the system. The addition of nitrate and NR-SOB had a similar effect on oxidation and removal of sulphide present in the system. However, as the addition of nitrate and NR-SOB was performed towards the end of sulphide production phase, the assessment of immediate impact was not possible. The addition of nitrite inhibited the biogenic production of sulphide immediately and led to removal of sulphide through nitrite mediated chemical oxidation of sulphide. The real time corrosion rate measurement revealed that in all three cases an acceleration in the corrosion rate occurred during the oxidation and removal of sulphide. Amendments of nitrate and NR-SOB or nitrate alone both gave rise to localized corrosion in the form of pits, with the maximum observed corrosion rates of 0.72 and 1.4 mm year(-1), respectively. The addition of nitrite also accelerated the corrosion rate but the maximum corrosion rate observed following nitrite addition was 0.3 mm year(-1). Furthermore, in the presence of nitrite the extent of pitting was not as high as those observed with other control methods.

  13. The association of clinical indication for exercise stress testing with all-cause mortality: the FIT Project.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonseok; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Juraschek, Stephen P; Brawner, Clinton; Keteyian, Steve J; Nasir, Khurram; Dardari, Zeina A; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that the indication for stress testing provided by the referring physician would be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. We studied 48,914 patients from The Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project (The FIT Project) without known congestive heart failure who were referred for a clinical treadmill stress test and followed for 11 ±4.7 years. The reason for stress test referral was abstracted from the clinical test order, and should be considered the primary concerning symptom or indication as stated by the ordering clinician. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, after controlling for potential confounders including demographics, risk factors, and medication use as well as additional adjustment for exercise capacity in the final model. A total of 67% of the patients were referred for chest pain, 12% for shortness of breath (SOB), 4% for palpitations, 3% for pre-operative evaluation, 6% for abnormal prior testing, and 7% for risk factors only. There were 6,211 total deaths during follow-up. Compared to chest pain, those referred for palpitations (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.86) and risk factors only (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas those referred for SOB (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07-1.23) and pre-operative evaluation (HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.94-2.30) had an increased risk. In subgroup analysis, referral for palpitations was protective only in those without coronary artery disease (CAD) (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62-0.90), while SOB increased mortality risk only in those with established CAD (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.44). The indication for stress testing is an independent predictor of mortality, showing an interaction with CAD status. Importantly, SOB may be associated with higher mortality risk than chest pain, particularly in patients with CAD.

  14. Herbal medicine Davaie Loban in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: A 12-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tajadini, Haleh; Saifadini, Rostam; Choopani, Rasool; Mehrabani, Mitra; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2015-12-01

    In traditional texts on herbal medicines, various medicinal plants have been noted to have beneficial effects on dementia and Alzheimer's disease. According to the traditional books Herbal medicine Davaie Loban (DL) has beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. The study aim was to determine the clinical efficacy of DL in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Double blind randomized clinical trial. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. This included patients older than 50 years with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease according to ADAS-cog (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; ADAS≥12) and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB; CDR≤2). Twenty-four patients completed the study in DL group and 20 in placebo group. ADAS-cog and CDR-SOB were filled out for patients to define the improvement in memory over the study period. At 4 weeks and 12 weeks there was significant difference in mean (SEM) ADAS-cog scores between DL and placebo groups and it was lower in DL group (p<0.001). At baseline, no significant difference was seen regarding mean (SEM) scores of CDR-SOB between DL and placebo groups (p=0.096). However, at 4 and 12 weeks there was significant difference in mean (SE) CDR-SOB scores between DL and placebo groups and it was lower in DL group (p<0.001). Our findings suggest that DL may be effective in improvement of memory in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria Mediate Microbial Community Succession and Element Cycling in Launched Marine Sediment.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hideyuki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Aoyagi, Tomo; Takasaki, Mitsuru; Katayama, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    A large amount of marine sediment was launched on land by the Great East Japan earthquake. Here, we employed both on-site and laboratory studies on the launched marine sediment to investigate the succession of microbial communities and its effects on geochemical properties of the sediment. Twenty-two-month on-site survey showed that microbial communities at the uppermost layer (0-2 mm depth) of the sediment changed significantly with time, whereas those at the deeper layer (20-40 mm depth) remained nearly unchanged and kept anaerobic microbial communities. Nine months after the incidence, various sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) prevailed in the uppermost layer, in which afterwards diverse chemoorganotrophic bacteria predominated. Geochemical analyses indicated that the concentration of metals other than Fe was lower in the uppermost layer than that in the deeper layer. Laboratory study was carried out by incubating the sediment for 57 days, and clearly indicated the dynamic transition of microbial communities in the uppermost layer exposed to atmosphere. SOB affiliated in the class Epsilonproteobacteria rapidly proliferated and dominated at the uppermost layer during the first 3 days, after that Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria and chemoorganotrophic bacteria were sequentially dominant. Furthermore, the concentration of sulfate ion increased and the pH decreased. Consequently, SOB may have influenced the mobilization of heavy metals in the sediment by metal-bound sulfide oxidation and/or sediment acidification. These results demonstrate that SOB initiated the dynamic shift from the anaerobic to aerobic microbial communities, thereby playing a critical role in element cycling in the marine sediment.

  16. Beyond "born this way?" reconsidering sexual orientation beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Grzanka, Patrick R; Zeiders, Katharine H; Miles, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) has been limited in that it has generally examined heterosexuals' beliefs from an essentialist perspective. The recently developed Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS; Arseneau, Grzanka, Miles, & Fassinger, 2013) assesses multifarious "lay beliefs" about SO from essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist perspectives. This study used the SOBS to explore latent group-based patterns in endorsement of these beliefs in 2 samples of undergraduate students: a mixed-gender sample (n = 379) and an all-women sample (n = 266). While previous research has posited that essentialist beliefs about the innateness of SO predict positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, our research contributes to a growing body of scholarship that suggests that biological essentialism should be considered in the context of other beliefs. Using a person-centered analytic strategy, we found that that college students fell into distinct patterns of SO beliefs that are more different on beliefs about the homogeneity, discreteness, and informativeness of SO categories than on beliefs about the naturalness of SO. Individuals with higher levels of endorsement on all 4 SOBS subscales (a group we named multidimensional essentialism) and those who were highest in discreteness, homogeneity, and informativeness beliefs (i.e., high-DHI) reported higher levels of homonegativity when compared with those who were high only in naturalness beliefs. We discuss the implications of these findings for counseling and psychotherapy about SO, as well educational and social interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Comparison of chromium III and VI toxicities in water using sulfur-oxidizing bacterial bioassays.

    PubMed

    Qambrani, Naveed Ahmed; Hwang, Ji-Hoon; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2016-10-01

    The toxicities of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) in water were evaluated using sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) bioassays both in batch and fed-batch conditions. Two days were enough for a quick buildup of SOB consortium in the master culture reactor (MCR). At concentrations up to 100 mg L(-1), Cr (III) was found to be nontoxic in both conditions, while Cr (VI) at very low concentrations (0.1-2 mg L(-1)) was very toxic to the SOB. Literature review suggested that the nontoxic nature of Cr (III) might be due to the absence of the iron uptake pathway in Acidithiobacillus caldus (the predominant bacteria in our reactors), which is required for Cr (III) uptake. The 2-h median effective concentration (EC50) values obtained for Cr (VI) in the batch and fed-batch tests were 2.7 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Niche partitioning of diverse sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Meier, Dimitri V; Pjevac, Petra; Bach, Wolfgang; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Vidoudez, Charles; Amann, Rudolf; Meyerdierks, Anke

    2017-07-01

    At deep-sea hydrothermal vents, primary production is carried out by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, with the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds being a major driver for microbial carbon fixation. Dense and highly diverse assemblies of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are observed, yet the principles of niche differentiation between the different SOB across geochemical gradients remain poorly understood. In this study niche differentiation of the key SOB was addressed by extensive sampling of active sulfidic vents at six different hydrothermal venting sites in the Manus Basin, off Papua New Guinea. We subjected 33 diffuse fluid and water column samples and 23 samples from surfaces of chimneys, rocks and fauna to a combined analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, metagenomes and real-time in situ measured geochemical parameters. We found Sulfurovum Epsilonproteobacteria mainly attached to surfaces exposed to diffuse venting, while the SUP05-clade dominated the bacterioplankton in highly diluted mixtures of vent fluids and seawater. We propose that the high diversity within Sulfurimonas- and Sulfurovum-related Epsilonproteobacteria observed in this study derives from the high variation of environmental parameters such as oxygen and sulfide concentrations across small spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Enrichment, isolation and identification of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from sulfide removing bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianfei; Tian, Guoliang; Lin, Weitie

    2013-07-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are the main microorganisms that participate in the natural sulfur cycle. To obtain SOB with high sulfur-oxidizing ability under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, aerobic and anaerobic enrichments were carried out. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed that the microbial community changed according to the thiosulfate utilization during enrichments, and Rhodopseudomonas and Halothiobacillus were the predominant bacteria in anaerobic enrichment and aerobic enrichment, respectively, which mainly contributed to the thiosulfate oxidization in the enrichments. Based on the enriched cultures, six isolates were isolated from the aerobic enrichment and four isolates were obtained from the anaerobic enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the 16S rRNA gene of isolates belonged to the genus Acinetobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Pseudomonas, Halothiobacillus, Ochrobactrum, Paracoccus, Thiobacillus, and Alcaligenes, respectively. The tests suggested isolates related to Halothiobacillus and Rhodopseudomonas had the highest thiosulfate oxidizing ability under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, respectively; Paracoccus and Alcaligenes could aerobically and anaerobically oxidize thiosulfate. Based on the DGGE and thiosulfate oxidizing ability analysis, Rhodopseudomonas and Halothiobacillus were found to be the main SOB in the sulfide-removing reactor, and were responsible for the sulfur-oxidizing in the treatment system.

  20. Model-Based Feasibility Assessment of Membrane Biofilm Reactor to Achieve Simultaneous Ammonium, Dissolved Methane, and Sulfide Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Liquor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueming; Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously.

  1. Seawater inundation from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami continues to strongly affect soil bacterial communities 1 year later.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryoki; Nakai, Yutaka; Kawada, Wataru; Shimura, Yoichiro; Inamoto, Tamio; Fukushima, Jun

    2013-10-01

    The effects of inundation caused by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami on soil bacterial communities in agricultural fields were evaluated. Bacterial communities were compared across three different types of soil, unflooded field (UF) soil, soil flooded for 2 weeks (short term (ST)), and soil flooded for 2 months (long term (LT)), using polymerase chain reaction-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Acidobacteria were dominant in UF, with a relative abundance of approximately 35 %, and Proteobacteria dominated flooded soils (30-67 %). Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the community structure of soil bacteria in flooded soils (ST and LT) clearly differed from that in UF. Differences between LT and ST fields were rarely observed in terms of chemical properties and microbial community structure at the phylum level. However, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in LT tended to occur at high and low abundances, respectively. Halothiobacillus, a halotolerant SOB, was detected in all LT fields. Unexpectedly, a zeta-Proteobacteria, which had previously only been detected in marine environments, was detected in LT fields only. Our results demonstrate that the effects of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami on soil bacterial communities in agricultural fields may have lasted at least 1 year. Furthermore, SOB, NOB, and zeta-Proteobacteria may serve as indicators of the effects of seawater inundation on microorganisms.

  2. Bone cell activity responsive drug release from biodegradable apatite/collagen nano-composite cements--in vitro dissolution medium responsive vitamin K2 release.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Hirano, Ryuhei

    2011-07-01

    A biodegradable drug delivery system with perforated macro pores was established using an apatite/collagen composite cement containing menatetrenone (VK2). The drug-release capabilities of the device were investigated in vitro under osteoblast and osteoclast-like conditions (SOB and SOC). A bulk powder of apatite cement containing 2.5% VK2 and 20% bovine collagen was obtained by grinding, kneaded with phosphoric acid, and poured into molds, producing fixed blocks with 0-60 perforated macro pores. The characteristics of these samples were measured by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Fourier-transformed and infrared spectroscopy, and found to be very similar to those of natural bone. Drug release tests were performed under SOB in simulated body fluid (pH 7.8), and then under SOC in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) at 37.0±0.1 °C, and the process repeated twice. The device released almost no drug in SOB, but a significant amount in SOC. The drug release in SOC was not proportional to the number of macro pores in the first test, but was in the second. The device showed dissolution medium-responsive drug release.

  3. Model-Based Feasibility Assessment of Membrane Biofilm Reactor to Achieve Simultaneous Ammonium, Dissolved Methane, and Sulfide Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueming; Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously.

  4. Model-Based Feasibility Assessment of Membrane Biofilm Reactor to Achieve Simultaneous Ammonium, Dissolved Methane, and Sulfide Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueming; Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously. PMID:27112502

  5. Bioreactor performance and functional gene analysis of microbial community in a limited-oxygen fed bioreactor for co-reduction of sulfate and nitrate with high organic input.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-jun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Ai-jie; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Xu; Guo, Hong-liang; Yuan, Ye; Lee, Duu-jong; Zhou, Jizhong; Ren, Nan-qi

    2014-08-15

    Limited-oxygen mediated synergistic relationships between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB, including nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria NR-SOB) were predicted to simultaneously remove contaminants of nitrate, sulfate and high COD, and eliminate sulfide generation. A lab-scale experiment was conducted to examine the impact of limited oxygen on these oxy-anions degradation, sulfide oxidation and associated microbial functional responses. In all scenarios tested, the reduction of both nitrate and sulfate was almost complete. When limited-oxygen was fed into bioreactors, S(0) formation was significantly improved up to ∼ 70%. GeoChip 4.0, a functional gene microarray, was used to determine the microbial gene diversity and functional potential for nitrate and sulfate reduction, and sulfide oxidation. The diversity of the microbial community in bioreactors was increased with the feeding of limited oxygen. Whereas the intensities of the functional genes involved in sulfate reduction did not show a significant difference, the abundance of the detected denitrification genes decreased in limited oxygen samples. More importantly, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria may alter their populations/genes in response to limited oxygen potentially to function more effectively in sulfide oxidation, especially to elemental sulfur. The genes fccA/fccB from nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), such as Paracoccus denitrificans, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Beggiatoa sp., Thiomicrospira sp., and Thioalkalivibrio sp., were more abundant under limited-oxygen condition.

  6. Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria establishment in an innovative microaerobic reactor with an internal silicone membrane for sulfur recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Valdés, F; Camiloti, P R; Rodriguez, R P; Delforno, T P; Carrillo-Reyes, J; Zaiat, M; Jeison, D

    2016-06-01

    A novel bioreactor, employing a silicone membrane for microaeration, was studied for partial sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using an internal silicone membrane reactor (ISMR) to treat dissolved sulfide and to characterize its microbial community. The ISMR is an effective system to eliminate sulfide produced in anaerobic reactors. Sulfide removal efficiencies reached 96 % in a combined anaerobic/microaerobic reactor and significant sulfate production did not occur. The oxygen transfer was strongly influenced by air pressure and flow. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated various sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) affiliated to the species Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Sulfuricurvum kujiense and Pseudomonas stutzeri attached to the membrane and also indicated similarity between the biomass deposited on the membrane wall and the biomass drawn from the material support, supported the establishment of SOB in an anaerobic sludge under microaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these results showed that the reactor configuration can develop SOB under microaerobic conditions and can improve and reestablish the sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur.

  7. DNA-damage-inducible (din) loci are transcriptionally activated in competent Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Love, P.E.; Lyle, M.J.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    DNA damage-inducible (din) operon fusions were generated in Bacillus subtilis by transpositional mutagenesis. These YB886(din::Tn917-lacZ) fusion isolates produced increased ..beta..-galactosidase when exposed to mitomycin C, UV radiation, or ethyl methanesulfonate, indicating that the lacZ structural gene had inserted into host transcriptional units that are induced by a variety of DNA-damaging agents. One of the fusion strains was DNA-repair deficient and phenotypically resembled a UV-sensitive mutant of B. subtilis. Induction of ..beta..-galactosidase also occurred in the competent subpopulation of each of the din fusion strains, independent of exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Both the DNA-damage-inducible and competence-inducible components of ..beta..-galactosidase expression were abolished by the recE4 mutation, which inhibits SOS-like (SOB) induction but does not interfere with the development of the component state. The results indicate that gene expression is stimulated at specific loci within the B. subtilis chromosome both by DNA-damaging agents and by the development of competence and that this response is under the control of the SOB regulatory system. Furthermore, they demonstrate that at the molecular level SOB induction and the development of competence are interrelated cellular events.

  8. Nitrate stimulation of indigenous nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidising bacterial community in wastewater anaerobic biofilms.

    PubMed

    Garcia-de-Lomas, Juan; Corzo, Alfonso; Carmen Portillo, M; Gonzalez, Juan M; Andrades, Jose A; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesáreo; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio

    2007-07-01

    The role of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB) in the nitrate-mediated inhibition of sulfide net production by anaerobic wastewater biofilms was analyzed in two experimental bioreactors, continuously fed with the primary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, one used as control (BRC) and the other one supplemented with nitrate (BRN). This study integrated information from H(2)S and pH microelectrodes, RNA-based molecular techniques, and the time course of biofilm growth and bioreactors water phase. Biofilms were a net source of sulfide for the water phase (2.01 micromol S(2-)(tot)m(-2)s(-1)) in the absence of nitrate dosing. Nitrate addition effectively led to the cessation of sulfide release from biofilms despite which a low rate of net sulfate reduction activity (0.26 micromol S(2-)(tot)m(-2)s(-1)) persisted at a deep layer within the biofilm. Indigenous NR-SOB including Thiomicrospira denitrificans, Arcobacter sp., and Thiobacillus denitrificans were stimulated by nitrate addition resulting in the elimination of most sulfide from the biofilms. Active sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) represented comparable fractions of total metabolically active bacteria in the libraries obtained from BRN and BRC. However, we detected changes in the taxonomic composition of the SRB community suggesting its adaptation to a higher level of NR-SOB activity in the presence of nitrate.

  9. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  10. Genome Reduction and Microbe-Host Interactions Drive Adaptation of a Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacterium Associated with a Cold Seep Sponge

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Zhang, Weipeng; Cai, Lin; Wong, Yue-Him; Ding, Wei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the most ancient metazoan, sponges have established close relationships with particular microbial symbionts. However, the characteristics and physiology of thioautotrophic symbionts in deep-sea sponges are largely unknown. Using a tailored “differential coverage binning” method on 22-Gb metagenomic sequences, we recovered the nearly complete genome of a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) that dominates the microbiota of the cold seep sponge Suberites sp. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this bacterium (an unclassified gammaproteobacterium termed “Gsub”) may represent a new deep-sea SOB group. Microscopic observations suggest that Gsub is probably an extracellular symbiont. Gsub has complete sulfide oxidation and carbon fixation pathways, suggesting a chemoautotrophic lifestyle. Comparative genomics with other sponge-associated SOB and free-living SOB revealed significant genome reduction in Gsub, characterized by the loss of genes for carbohydrate metabolism, motility, DNA repair, and osmotic stress response. Intriguingly, this scenario of genome reduction is highly similar to those of the endosymbionts in deep-sea clams. However, Gsub has retained genes for phage defense and protein secretion, with the latter potentially playing a role in interactions with the sponge host. In addition, we recovered the genome of an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (AOA), which may carry out ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation within the sponge body. IMPORTANCE Sponges and their symbionts are important players in the biogeochemical cycles of marine environments. As a unique habitat within marine ecosystems, cold seeps have received considerable interest in recent years. This study explores the lifestyle of a new symbiotic SOB in a cold seep sponge. The results demonstrate that both this sponge symbiont and endosymbionts in deep-sea clams employ similar strategies of genome reduction. However, this bacterium has retained unique functions for immunity and defense

  11. Genome Reduction and Microbe-Host Interactions Drive Adaptation of a Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacterium Associated with a Cold Seep Sponge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Zhang, Weipeng; Cai, Lin; Wong, Yue-Him; Ding, Wei; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    As the most ancient metazoan, sponges have established close relationships with particular microbial symbionts. However, the characteristics and physiology of thioautotrophic symbionts in deep-sea sponges are largely unknown. Using a tailored "differential coverage binning" method on 22-Gb metagenomic sequences, we recovered the nearly complete genome of a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) that dominates the microbiota of the cold seep sponge Suberites sp. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this bacterium (an unclassified gammaproteobacterium termed "Gsub") may represent a new deep-sea SOB group. Microscopic observations suggest that Gsub is probably an extracellular symbiont. Gsub has complete sulfide oxidation and carbon fixation pathways, suggesting a chemoautotrophic lifestyle. Comparative genomics with other sponge-associated SOB and free-living SOB revealed significant genome reduction in Gsub, characterized by the loss of genes for carbohydrate metabolism, motility, DNA repair, and osmotic stress response. Intriguingly, this scenario of genome reduction is highly similar to those of the endosymbionts in deep-sea clams. However, Gsub has retained genes for phage defense and protein secretion, with the latter potentially playing a role in interactions with the sponge host. In addition, we recovered the genome of an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (AOA), which may carry out ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation within the sponge body. IMPORTANCE Sponges and their symbionts are important players in the biogeochemical cycles of marine environments. As a unique habitat within marine ecosystems, cold seeps have received considerable interest in recent years. This study explores the lifestyle of a new symbiotic SOB in a cold seep sponge. The results demonstrate that both this sponge symbiont and endosymbionts in deep-sea clams employ similar strategies of genome reduction. However, this bacterium has retained unique functions for immunity and defense. Thus, the

  12. Mechanistic study of microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G

    2001-09-05

    Microbial control of biogenic production of hydrogen sulfide in oil fields was studied in a model system consisting of pure cultures of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacterium (NR-SOB) Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO and the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac6, as well as in microbial cultures enriched from produced water of a Canadian oil reservoir. The presence of nitrate at concentrations up to 20 mM had little effect on the rate of sulfate reduction by a pure culture of Lac6. Addition of CVO imposed a strong inhibition effect on production of sulfide. In the absence of added nitrate SRB we were able to overcome this effect after an extended lag phase. Simultaneous addition of CVO and nitrate stopped the production of H2S immediately. The concentration of sulfide decreased to a negligible level due to nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation activity of CVO. This was not prevented by raising the concentration of Na-lactate, the electron donor for sulfate reduction. Similar results were obtained with enrichment cultures. Enrichments of produced water with sulfide and nitrate were dominated by CVO, whereas enrichments with sulfate and Na-lactate were dominated by SRB. Addition of an NR-SOB enrichment to an SRB enrichment inhibited the production of sulfide. Subsequent addition of sufficient nitrate caused the sulfide concentration to drop to zero. A similar response was seen in the presence of nitrate alone, although after a pronounced lag time, it was needed for emergence of a sizable CVO population. The results of the present study show that two mechanisms are involved in microbial control of biogenic sulfide production. First, addition of NR-SOB imposes an inhibition effect, possibly by increasing the environmental redox potential to levels which are inhibitory for SRB. Second, in the presence of sufficient nitrate, NR-SOB oxidize sulfide, leading to its complete removal from the environment. Successful microbial control of H2S in

  13. Estudo de cavidade reentrante supercondutora a ser utilizada nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, K. L.; Furtado, S. R.; Aguiar, O. D.; Frajuca, C.

    2003-08-01

    Cavidades reentrantes de nióbio vêm sendo utilizadas pelo grupo Australiano nos transdutores eletromecânicos paramétricos do detector de ondas gravitacionais Niobè. Esses transdutores paramétricos são ativados por um sinal AC na faixa de microondas (banda X), que é modulado pelo sinal mecânico da vibração da antena esférica, com a variação de um parâmetro, que, no caso, é a capacitância da cavidade. Nós estudamos esse tipo de cavidade, com o objetivo de transformá-la de reentrante aberta para reentrante fechada, de forma a utilizá-la nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro Mario Schenberg. O desempenho do transdutor depende de alguns parâmetros da cavidade, como a sua Figura de Mérito (Q elétrico) e o seu acoplamento elétrico com o circuito externo. Neste trabalho mostramos a medida do Q elétrico como função do acoplamento, do acabamento superficial interno e do vazamento de microondas da cavidade, e mostramos o desempenho esperado para o detector Mario Schenberg usando uma cavidade supercondutora reentrante fechada de nióbio.

  14. Plunging when drilling: effect of using blunt drill bits.

    PubMed

    Alajmo, Giuseppe; Schlegel, Urs; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Matthys, Romano; Gautier, Emanuel

    2012-08-01

    Plunging when drilling can be a detrimental factor in patient care. There is, although, a general lack of information regarding the surgeon's performance in this skill. The aim of this study was to determine the effect that using sharp or blunt instruments had on the drill bit's soft tissue penetration, using a simulator. Surgeons taking part in an International Trauma Course were invited to participate. Two groups were defined: experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Twelve holes were drilled in the following order: 3 holes with a sharp drill bit in normal bone (SNB), 3 holes with a sharp drill bit in osteoporotic bone (SOB), 3 holes with a blunt drill bit in normal bone, and 3 holes with a blunt drill bit in osteoporotic bone. Mean values and Student t tests were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven surgeons participated, 20 experienced and 17 inexperienced surgeons. Mean plunging depths for SNB, SOB, blunt drill bit in normal bone, and blunt drill bit in osteoporotic bone were, respectively, 5.1, 5.4, 21.1, and 13.9 mm for experienced surgeons and 7.6, 7.7, 22, and 15.9 mm for inexperienced surgeons. Drilling with SNB and with SOB was statistically different, with inexperienced surgeons plunging 2.5 mm (P = 0.31) and 2.6 mm (P = 0.042) deeper, respectively. There was a difference (P < 0.001) between sharp and blunt drill bits in all drilling conditions for both the groups. Our study showed a significant difference in plunging depth when sharp or bunt drill bit was being used. Surgeons, regardless of their experience level, penetrate over 20 mm in normal bone and over 10 mm in osteoporotic bone.

  15. Moho fabrics of North Qinling Belt, Weihe Graben and Ordos Block in China constrained from large dynamite shots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Gao, Rui; Xiong, Xiaosong; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui

    2017-05-01

    The Qinling Orogen Belt (QOB), Weihe Graben (WG) and the southern margin of the Ordos Block (SOB), lying on the central portion of China, had been involved into the amalgamation of China (Asian continent) through subduction, collision to exhumation processes. The Moho fabrics beneath this region, recorded part of the evolution. Therefore, its thickness and internal structure may provide significant knowledge and contribute to the understanding the intracontinental deformation of central China. In this paper, in order to place constrain on the nature beneath the study area, nine large dynamite shots (the charge ≥500 kg) used to infer the internal structure and characteristics of the crustal boundary. We analyse the specific characteristics of the Moho reflection, the amplitude decay curves in near vertical zone and generate a single-fold profile; in addition, it also address the internal structure and discuss its implication. The Moho is approximately at the depth of 39 km beneath the North Qinling Orogen (NQB) and the WG, and at the depth of 42 km beneath the SOB. The Moho shows a subtle uplift and the crust is thin under the NQB. The north-dipping reflectors between the lower crust and the uppermost mantle extend to the middle of the WG, and the south-dipping reflectors in the lower crust of the NQB are truncated by the Moho, therefore both of features and structures exhibit a `Crocodile' like structure and are most probably the remnants of the amalgamation of the NQB and the NCB. The transparent reflection Moho beneath the southern part of the WG may indicate the existence of a magma channel. The Weihe Fault is interpreted as a shallow, near-surface feature resulted from the upwelling magma; SOB represents a relatively weak region and could accommodate the crustal shortening during the formation of the China continent in Triassic.

  16. Phylogeny of the alpha and beta subunits of the dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase from sulfate-reducing prokaryotes--origin and evolution of the dissimilatory sulfate-reduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2007-07-01

    Newly developed PCR assays were used to PCR-amplify and sequence fragments of the dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase genes (aprBA) comprising nearly the entire gene locus (2.2-2.4 kb, equal to 92-94 % of the protein coding sequence) from 75 sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) of a taxonomically wide range. Comparative phylogenetic analysis included all determined and publicly available AprBA sequences from SRP and selected homologous sequences of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The almost identical AprB and AprA tree topologies indicated a shared evolutionary path for the aprBA among the investigated SRP by vertical inheritance and concomitant lateral gene transfer (LGT). The topological comparison of AprB/A- and 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic trees revealed novel LGT events across the SRP divisions. Compositional gene analysis confirmed Thermacetogenium phaeum to be the first validated strain affected by a recent lateral transfer of aprBA as a putative effect of long-term co-cultivation with a Thermodesulfovibrio species. Interestingly, the Apr proteins of SRP and SOB diverged into two phylogenetic lineages, with the SRP affiliated with the green sulfur bacteria, e.g. Chlorobaculum tepidum, while the Allochromatium vinosum-related sequences formed a distinct group. Analysis of genome data indicated that this phylogenetic separation is also reflected in the differing presence of the putative proteins functionally associated with Apr, QmoABC complex (quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase) and AprM (transmembrane protein). Scenarios for the origin and evolution of the dissimilatory APS reductase are discussed within the context of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB) phylogeny, the appearance of QmoABC and AprM in the SRP and SOB genomes, and the geochemical setting of Archean Earth.

  17. Sarcopenic obesity or obese sarcopenia: A cross talk between age-associated adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation as a main mechanism of the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kalinkovich, Alexander; Livshits, Gregory

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia, an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass coupled with functional deterioration, may be exacerbated by obesity leading to higher disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality rates. In the combination of sarcopenia and obesity, the state called sarcopenic obesity (SOB), some key age- and obesity-mediated factors and pathways may aggravate sarcopenia. This review will analyze the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SOB. In obese adipose tissue (AT), adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, hyperplasia and activation resulted in accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages and other immune cells as well as dysregulated production of various adipokines that together with senescent cells and the immune cell-released cytokines and chemokines create a local pro-inflammatory status. In addition, obese AT is characterized by excessive production and disturbed capacity to store lipids, which accumulate ectopically in skeletal muscle. These intramuscular lipids and their derivatives induce mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by impaired β-oxidation capacity and increased reactive oxygen species formation providing lipotoxic environment and insulin resistance as well as enhanced secretion of some pro-inflammatory myokines capable of inducing muscle dysfunction by auto/paracrine manner. In turn, by endocrine manner, these myokines may exacerbate AT inflammation and also support chronic low grade systemic inflammation (inflammaging), overall establishing a detrimental vicious circle maintaining AT and skeletal muscle inflammation, thus triggering and supporting SOB development. Under these circumstances, we believe that AT inflammation dominates over skeletal muscle inflammation. Thus, in essence, it redirects the vector of processes from "sarcopenia→obesity" to "obesity→sarcopenia". We therefore propose that this condition be defined as "obese sarcopenia", to reflect the direction of the pathological pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. The relationship between the season of birth and early-onset food allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kajiyo; Matsui, Teruaki; Sato, Arisa; Sasaki, Kemal; Nakata, Joon; Nakagawa, Tomoko; Sugiura, Shiro; Kando, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kojima, Seiji; Ito, Komei

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between the season of birth (SoB) and other factors with the development of FA. A multicenter, cross-sectional pilot study recruited 1197 patients with FA. The main study recruited 440 incident cases (FA group) definitively diagnosed as FA at 0-1 year of age. In both studies, the frequency of autumn-winter births (AWBs) in FA patients was compared to the regional control population. In the main study, we analyzed the differences in the SoB and other factors between patients in the FA group and those in the non-FA group (n = 332) in allergy clinics. The pilot study showed that the frequency of AWB (57.6%) in the FA patients was significantly higher than that of the regional control population (50.4%, OR, 1.34; p < 0.001). The main study also showed the dominance of AWB (62.7%) in the FA group in comparison with that in the regional control population (50.2%, OR, 1.70; p < 0.001). Preterm birth (OR, 0.43; p = 0.027) and the presence of two or more elder siblings (OR, 0.27; p = 0.012) were significantly associated with a lower frequency of FA than those of non-FA. AWB (RR, 1.21; p = 0.020) and preterm birth (RR, 0.55; p = 0.017) were significantly associated with a number of trigger foods. The SoB effect was observed in FA patients irrespective of the presence of infantile eczema. AWB was predominant in the patients with newly diagnosed food allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Syntrophic association and performance of Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Aeromonas and Tetrathiobacter as anodic biocatalysts for bioelectricity generation in dual chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smita S; Malyan, Sandeep K; Basu, Suddhasatwa; Bishnoi, Narsi R

    2017-07-01

    Anode chamber of a dual chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) having raw landfill leachate was inoculated with consortium of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) to study the phylogenetic architecture, function and mutualism of anolyte community developed in the reactor. Enriched microbial community was analysed with the help of Illumina MiSeq and indicated the dominance of Firmicutes (41.4%), Clostridia (36.4%) and Clostridium (12.9%) at phylum, class and genus level, respectively. Clostridium was associated with fermentation as well as transfer of electrons to the electrode mediated by ferredoxin. Desulfovibrio (6.7%), Aeromonas (6.6%) and Tetrathiobacter (9.8%) were SRB-SOB associated with direct electron transfer to the electrode. Community analysis disclosed a syntrophic association among novel Firmicutes and Proteobacteria species for bioelectricity generation and degradation of organic matter. Complete removal of chemical oxygen demand was observed from landfill leachate within 3 days of inoculation. Lower oxidative slope and polarization resistance revealed from Tafel analysis backed the feasibility of electron transfer from microbes to anodic electrode and thus development of efficient anode-respiring community. Following enrichment and stabilization of the anodic community, maximum power density achieved was 9.15 W/m(3) and volumetric current density was 16.17 A/m(3). Simultaneous feeding with SRB-SOB and landfill leachate led to the enrichment of a novel, mutually interdependent microbial community capable of synchronized bioremediation of effluents rich in carbon, sulphate, nitrate and aromatic compounds.

  20. Identification and distribution of sulfate reducing bacteria and sulphur-oxidising bacteria in northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, S.; Zhu, X.; Guan, H.; Wu, D.; Wu, N.

    2015-12-01

    Fatty acids are one of the major components in modern marine sediments. It is well known that the saturated short-chain FAs were typically to be from vascular plants, algae, bacteria, and other sources, while the saturated long-chain FAs are the major components found in leaf waxes, suberin, and cutin in terrestrial higher plants. So the lipid biomarkers of fatty acids in Site 4B from Shenhu Area, northern South China Sea were investigated in Recent research supported from the 973 Program (2009CB219506), and the resources of branched fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly discussed. The results reveal that i/a15:0, i/a17:0, 16:1ω5, 18:1ω9 and 10me16:0 are derived from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), while 16:1ω7t/c and 18:1ω7 are originated from sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB). The biomakers of methanotrophs such as 16:1ω6/8 and 18:1ω6/8 were not detected in the sediments which coincide with more positive carbon isotope values of the fatty acids in the sediments. The stable relationship between SRB and SOB below 97cm in the sediments reflects the relative stable oxidative and reductive depositional environment which may be connected with the sulphur cycle in the sediments, that is carried out as sulfate is reduced to sulfide, and then sulfide is oxidized to sulfate and elemental sulfur, at last elemental sulfur is disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. The frequently changed relationship of SRB and SOB above 97cm in the sediments indicates intensely changing oxidative and reductive sedimental environment, that may related with diapir structure around Site 4B, which also brings about hydrocarbon seepage leading to increasing biomass at 97cm.

  1. Moho Fabrics of North Qinling Belt, Weihe Graben and Ordos Block in China Constrained from Large Dynamite Shots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Gao, Rui; Xiong, Xiaosong; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui

    2017-02-01

    The Qinling Orogen Belt (QOB), Weihe Graben (WG) and the southern margin of the Ordos Block (SOB), lying on the central portion of China, had been involved into the amalgamation of China (Asian continent) through subduction, collision to exhumation processes. The Moho fabrics beneath this region, recorded part of the evolution. Therefore, its thickness and internal structure may provide significant knowledge and contribute to the understanding the intra-continental deformation of central China. In this paper, in order to place constrain on the nature beneath the study area, nine large dynamite shots (the charge ≥ 500 kg) used to infer the internal structure and characteristics of the crustal boundary. We analyze the specific characteristics of the Moho reflection, the amplitude decay curves in near vertical zone and generate a single-fold profile; in addition, it also address the internal structure and discuss its implication. The Moho is approximately at the depth of 39 km beneath the North Qinling Orogen (NQB) and the Weihe Graben (WG), and at the depth of 42 km beneath the SOB. The Moho shows a subtle uplift and the crust is thin under the NQB. The north-dipping reflectors between the lower crust and the uppermost mantle extend to the middle of the WG, and the south-dipping reflectors in the lower crust of the NQB are truncated by the Moho, therefore both of features and structures exhibit a “Crocodile” like structure and are most probably the remnants of the amalgamation of the NQB and the NCB. The transparent reflection Moho beneath the southern part of the WG may indicate the existence of a magma channel. The Weihe fault (WF) is interpreted as a shallow, near surface feature resulted from the upwelling magma; SOB represents a relatively weak region and could accommodate the crustal shortening during the formation of the China continent in Triassic.

  2. Older Rural- and Urban-Dwelling Appalachian Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Meghan K; Snitz, Beth E; Lingler, Jennifer H; Burke, Lora E; Novosel, Lorraine M; Sereika, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-recognized risk state for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. MCI is rapidly increasing among older adults in general and has not yet been examined in older adults within the Appalachian region. Our objective was to compare MCI symptom severity among older rural and urban Appalachian adults with MCI at an initial neuropsychological testing visit. A cross-sectional, descriptive study of older Appalachian adults with MCI was conducted using data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set. Symptom severity was conceptualized as neuropsychological composite scores across 4 cognitive domains and Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) score. For group comparisons, MANCOVA was used for cognitive domains and ANCOVA for CDR-SOB. The sample (N = 289) was about half male (54.3%), predominantly white (91.7%), and living with others (83.5%), with a mean (±SD) 74.6 ± 6.2 years of age and 15.4 ± 3.0 years of education. Rural and urban groups differed significantly in years since onset of cognitive symptoms (2.98 ± 1.91 in rural and 3.89 ± 2.70 in urban adults, t[260] = -2.23, P = .03), but they did not differ across sociodemographic features or comorbid conditions. Rural and urban participants were similar across the 4 cognitive domains and CDR-SOB (P ≥ .05). No differences were found between rural and urban Appalachian residents on MCI symptom severity. However, urban residents reported a longer time lapse from symptom identification to diagnosis than their rural counterparts. Future studies using more representative population samples of Appalachian and non-Appalachian adults will provide an important next step to identifying disparate cognitive health outcomes in this traditionally underserved region. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  3. Structure and function of natural sulphide-oxidizing microbial mats under dynamic input of light and chemical energy

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Judith M; Meyer, Steffi; Häusler, Stefan; Macalady, Jennifer L; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We studied the interaction between phototrophic and chemolithoautotrophic sulphide-oxidizing microorganisms in natural microbial mats forming in sulphidic streams. The structure of these mats varied between two end-members: one characterized by a layer dominated by large sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB; mostly Beggiatoa-like) on top of a cyanobacterial layer (B/C mats) and the other with an inverted structure (C/B mats). C/B mats formed where the availability of oxygen from the water column was limited (<5 μm). Aerobic chemolithotrophic activity of the SOB depended entirely on oxygen produced locally by cyanobacteria during high light conditions. In contrast, B/C mats formed at locations where oxygen in the water column was comparatively abundant (>45 μM) and continuously present. Here SOB were independent of the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria and outcompeted the cyanobacteria in the uppermost layer of the mat where energy sources for both functional groups were concentrated. Outcompetition of photosynthetic microbes in the presence of light was facilitated by the decoupling of aerobic chemolithotrophy and oxygenic phototrophy. Remarkably, the B/C mats conserved much less energy than the C/B mats, although similar amounts of light and chemical energy were available. Thus ecosystems do not necessarily develop towards optimal energy usage. Our data suggest that, when two independent sources of energy are available, the structure and activity of microbial communities is primarily determined by the continuous rather than the intermittent energy source, even if the time-integrated energy flux of the intermittent energy source is greater. PMID:26405833

  4. Structure and function of natural sulphide-oxidizing microbial mats under dynamic input of light and chemical energy.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Meyer, Steffi; Häusler, Stefan; Macalady, Jennifer L; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2016-04-01

    We studied the interaction between phototrophic and chemolithoautotrophic sulphide-oxidizing microorganisms in natural microbial mats forming in sulphidic streams. The structure of these mats varied between two end-members: one characterized by a layer dominated by large sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB; mostly Beggiatoa-like) on top of a cyanobacterial layer (B/C mats) and the other with an inverted structure (C/B mats). C/B mats formed where the availability of oxygen from the water column was limited (<5 μm). Aerobic chemolithotrophic activity of the SOB depended entirely on oxygen produced locally by cyanobacteria during high light conditions. In contrast, B/C mats formed at locations where oxygen in the water column was comparatively abundant (>45 μM) and continuously present. Here SOB were independent of the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria and outcompeted the cyanobacteria in the uppermost layer of the mat where energy sources for both functional groups were concentrated. Outcompetition of photosynthetic microbes in the presence of light was facilitated by the decoupling of aerobic chemolithotrophy and oxygenic phototrophy. Remarkably, the B/C mats conserved much less energy than the C/B mats, although similar amounts of light and chemical energy were available. Thus ecosystems do not necessarily develop towards optimal energy usage. Our data suggest that, when two independent sources of energy are available, the structure and activity of microbial communities is primarily determined by the continuous rather than the intermittent energy source, even if the time-integrated energy flux of the intermittent energy source is greater.

  5. Succession of internal sulfur cycles and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial communities in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Satoshi; Ito, Tsukasa; Sugita, Kenichi; Satoh, Hisashi

    2005-05-01

    The succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) community structure and the complex internal sulfur cycle occurring in wastewater biofilms growing under microaerophilic conditions was analyzed by using a polyphasic approach that employed 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization, microelectrode measurements, and standard batch and reactor experiments. A complete sulfur cycle was established via S(0) accumulation within 80 days in the biofilms in replicate. This development was generally split into two phases, (i) a sulfur-accumulating phase and (ii) a sulfate-producing phase. In the first phase (until about 40 days), since the sulfide production rate (sulfate-reducing activity) exceeded the maximum sulfide-oxidizing capacity of SOB in the biofilms, H(2)S was only partially oxidized to S(0) by mainly Thiomicrospira denitirificans with NO(3)(-) as an electron acceptor, leading to significant accumulation of S(0) in the biofilms. In the second phase, the SOB populations developed further and diversified with time. In particular, S(0) accumulation promoted the growth of a novel strain, strain SO07, which predominantly carried out the oxidation of S(0) to SO(4)(2-) under oxic conditions, and Thiothrix sp. strain CT3. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the dense populations of Thiothrix (ca. 10(9) cells cm(-3)) and strain SO07 (ca. 10(8) cells cm(-3)) were found at the sulfur-rich surface (100 microm), while the population of Thiomicrospira denitirificans was distributed throughout the biofilms with a density of ca. 10(7) to 10(8) cells cm(-3). Microelectrode measurements revealed that active sulfide-oxidizing zones overlapped the spatial distributions of different phylogenetic SOB groups in the biofilms. As a consequence, the sulfide-oxidizing capacities of the biofilms became high enough to completely oxidize all H(2)S produced by SRB to SO(4)(2-) in the second phase, indicating establishment of the complete sulfur

  6. Developing a biofilm of sulfur oxidizing bacteria, starting-up and operating a bioscrubber treating H2S.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Naddafi, Kazem; Mesdaghinia, Alireza

    2007-03-01

    Development of an acclimatized SOB biofilm, startup and performance of a fixed bed bioscrubber packed with corrugated tube parts as a media having high specific surface area was investigated. Bioscrubber was a cylindrical Plexiglas air-and water-tight column with 10 L in working bed volume. Sludge from a tannery wastewater treatment plant was used as a seed for SOB separation, acclimation and enrichment. Enriched acclimatized SOB were applied as inoculum for biofilm development, which was carried out by recirculating the prepared microbial suspension through the bed. Thickness of the developed biofilm was 56 microm in which active acidophilic autotrophic H2S oxidizing bacteria were completely predominated. Activity measurements showed highest biodegradation rate of biofilm at liquid pH around 3. Due to employing an efficient specialized biofilm, startup period of the reactor was quite short and H2S removal efficiency just 12 h after starting up reached above of 92% and increased to 96% at day 3 of starting up while inlet H2S concentration gradually was increased to around 30 ppm. At the end of start up pH of the recycle liquid was modified to the optimal value of 3 +/- 0.5 in which biofilm demonstrated the highest activity in terms of OUR after which removal efficiency increased around 3% while other operating conditions were consistent. Furthermore, performance of the bioscrubber was evaluated at various inlet H2S concentrations ranging from 30 to 150 ppm(v). It was indicated that the inlet H2S concentrations in studied range did not affect the performance of the bioscrubber so that the removal efficiency of H2S was greater than 99.4% at all concentrations. These observations suggested that the development of an efficient specialized SOB biofilm on a media with high specific surface area will decrease the startup course and achieve high removal efficiency in the bioscrubber treating H2S. In addition, operation in acidic recycle liquid will overcome use of alkaline

  7. Socioeconomic Representativeness and the Draft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    in 1966, through a period of seven draft years (1966 to 1973). Accession For NTIS GRA&I I) TIC TAB 51 Unaznnounced S J,,it ficzlnt ior 11V LiZtribut...ion1/- Avniiabilitf Coces Avaii un i/ox" it ... tic _ , DD °ri3 1473 S/P O~dfl44012 Wevee?. Sob*196fteU9 OP To PAWN-~ &.ame ua Approved for public...groups. An examination of the differences in the characteris- tics of inductees and enlistees follows in order to gain additional insight into how such

  8. The association of clinical indication for exercise stress testing with all-cause mortality: the FIT Project

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonseok; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Juraschek, Stephen P.; Brawner, Clinton; Keteyian, Steve J.; Nasir, Khurram; Dardari, Zeina A.; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that the indication for stress testing provided by the referring physician would be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Material and methods We studied 48,914 patients from The Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project (The FIT Project) without known congestive heart failure who were referred for a clinical treadmill stress test and followed for 11 ±4.7 years. The reason for stress test referral was abstracted from the clinical test order, and should be considered the primary concerning symptom or indication as stated by the ordering clinician. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, after controlling for potential confounders including demographics, risk factors, and medication use as well as additional adjustment for exercise capacity in the final model. Results A total of 67% of the patients were referred for chest pain, 12% for shortness of breath (SOB), 4% for palpitations, 3% for pre-operative evaluation, 6% for abnormal prior testing, and 7% for risk factors only. There were 6,211 total deaths during follow-up. Compared to chest pain, those referred for palpitations (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.86) and risk factors only (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.82) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas those referred for SOB (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.23) and pre-operative evaluation (HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.94–2.30) had an increased risk. In subgroup analysis, referral for palpitations was protective only in those without coronary artery disease (CAD) (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62–0.90), while SOB increased mortality risk only in those with established CAD (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10–1.44). Conclusions The indication for stress testing is an independent predictor of mortality, showing an interaction with CAD status. Importantly, SOB may be associated with higher mortality risk than chest pain, particularly in patients with CAD. PMID:27186173

  9. Accelerated Closure of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    WILDE, R.T.

    2000-09-20

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is currently planned to take until 2046 and another approximately $SOB. In the summer of 1999, Fluor Hanford initiated an ''Accelerated Closure Team'' to evaluate opportunities to reduce this long schedule and high cost for the parts of the Hanford Site which they manage. To-date, this breakthrough team has developed two approaches which will move > 50 million curies away from the Columbia River sooner than planned and at a significantly reduced cost. The approaches successfully applied so far are presently being applied to other opportunities at Hanford.

  10. Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had δ18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in δ18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that

  11. A time for dying. Working through end-of-life decisions.

    PubMed

    Burns, M K

    1999-01-01

    "I think it's time," said Bruce, between sobs. I knew my husband meant it was time to help our son Roger die. Roger entered our family 18 years ago. He was a tiny (1 lb., 12 oz.) premature baby I met in the NICU. Because normal gestational age at birth is 38 to 41 weeks, Roger's gestational age of 28 weeks made him extremely vulnerable to many medical complications, such as chronic respiratory problems, intracranial hemorrhage, mental retardation, and seizures. He experienced all of these complications during his life.

  12. Chemometric approach to develop frying stable sunflower oil blends stabilized with oleoresin rosemary and ascorbyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Sehwag, Sneha; Niwas Mishra, Hari

    2017-03-01

    The frying performance of sunflower oil blends (SOBs) stabilized with oleoresin rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) (ROSM) (200-1500mg/kg) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) (100-300mg/kg) were tested for 18hopen pan-frying. Sunflower oil with TBHQ (SOTBHQ) (200mg/kg) and without additives (SOcontrol) served as positive and negative controls, respectively. The frying stability was monitored over time by estimating the levels of conjugated dienes, total polar compounds, polymeric compounds viz., triglyceride polymers, dimers, oxidized triglyceride monomers, diglycerides and free fatty acids, and induction period based on Rancimat. Chemometric tools were used to classify the oil samples based on frying stability. Thermo-oxidative changes were reduced significantly for blends stabilized with ROSM and AP (p<0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) distinguished SOBs from positive controls. A formulation consisting of 1309.62 and 129.29mg/kg of ROSM and AP, respectively, was optimized using a hybrid PCA-RSM approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of sponge bleaching on ammonia-oxidizing Archaea: distribution and relative expression of ammonia monooxygenase genes associated with the barrel sponge Xestospongia muta.

    PubMed

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Erwin, Patrick M; Pawlik, Joseph R; Song, Bongkeun

    2010-10-01

    Sponge-mediated nitrification is an important process in the nitrogen cycle, however, nothing is known about how nitrification and symbiotic Archaea may be affected by sponge disease and bleaching events. The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is a prominent species on Caribbean reefs that contains cyanobacterial symbionts, the loss of which results in two types of bleaching: cyclic, a recoverable condition; and fatal, a condition associated with the disease-like sponge orange band (SOB) syndrome and sponge death. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses, clone libraries, and relative mRNA quantification of ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) were performed using a RNA transcript-based approach to characterize the active ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) community present in bleached, non-bleached, and SOB tissues of cyclically and fatally bleached sponges. We found that non-bleached and cyclically bleached tissues of X. muta harbored a unique Crenarchaeota community closely related to those reported for other sponges. In contrast, bleached tissue from the most degraded sponge contained a Crenarchaeota community that was more similar to those found in sediment and sand. Although there were no significant differences in amoA expression among the different tissues, amoA expression was higher in the most deteriorated tissues. Results suggest that a shift in the Crenarchaeota community precedes an increase in amoA gene expression in fatally bleached sponges, while cyclic bleaching did not alter the AOA community structure and its amoA gene expression.

  14. Sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing communities in Brazilian mangrove sediments.

    PubMed

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipolla; Durrer, Ademir; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2014-03-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of sulphur-oxidizing (SOB) and sulphate-reducing (SRB) bacteria in sediments from three Brazilian mangrove communities: two contaminated, one with oil (OilMgv) and one with urban waste and sludge (AntMgv), and one pristine (PrsMgv). The community structures were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and clone libraries, using genes for the enzymes adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate reductase (aprA) and sulphite reductase (Dsr) (dsrB). The abundance for qPCR showed the ratio dsrB/aprA to be variable among mangroves and higher according to the gradient observed for oil contamination in the OilMgv. The PCR-DGGE patterns analysed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling revealed differences among the structures of the three mangrove communities. The clone libraries showed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups associated with sulphur cycling in mangrove sediments. We conclude that the microbial SOB and SRB communities in mangrove soils are different in each mangrove forest and that such microbial communities could possibly be used as a proxy for contamination in mangrove forests.

  15. The deep-sea glass sponge Lophophysema eversa harbours potential symbionts responsible for the nutrient conversions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Sun, Jin; Cai, Lin; Zhang, Wei-Peng; Zhou, Guo-Wei; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Glass sponge (Hexactinellida, Porifera) is a special lineage because of its unique tissue organization and skeleton material. Structure and physiology of glass sponge have been extensively studied. However, our knowledge of the glass sponge-associated microbial community and of the interaction with the host is rather limited. Here, we performed genomic studies on the microbial community in the glass sponge Lophophysema eversa in seamount. The microbial community was dominated by an ammonia-oxidizing archaeum (AOA), a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB) and a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB), all of which were autotrophs. Genomic analysis on the AOA, NOB and SOB in the sponge revealed specific functional features of sponge-associated microorganisms in comparison with the closely related free-living relatives, including chemotaxis, phage defence, vitamin biosynthesis and nutrient uptake among others, which are related to ecological functions. The three autotrophs play essential roles in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in the microenvironment inside the sponge body, and they are considered to play symbiotic roles in the host as scavengers of toxic ammonia, nitrite and sulfide. Our study extends knowledge regarding the metabolism and the evolution of chemolithotrophs inside the invertebrate body. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Denitrification in a binary culture and thiocyanate metabolism in Thiohalophilus thiocyanoxidans gen. nov. sp. nov. - a moderately halophilic chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium from hypersaline lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Tourova, Tatjana P; Bezsoudnova, Ekatherina Y; Pol, Arjan; Muyzer, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    Anaerobic enrichment culture with thiocyanate as electron donor and nitrate as electron acceptor at 2 M NaCl inoculated with a mixture of sediments from hypersaline lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in a selection of a binary consortium of moderately halophilic, obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) capable of complete denitrification of nitrate with thiosulfate as the electron donor. One consortium member, strain HRhD 3sp, was isolated into pure culture with nitrate and thiosulfate using a density gradient. This strain was responsible for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the consortium, while a second strain, HRhD 2, isolated under microoxic conditions with thiosulfate as substrate, was capable of anaerobic growth with nitrite and thiosulfate. Nitrite, either as substrate or as product, was already toxic at very low concentrations for both strains. As a result, optimal growth under anaerobic conditions could only be achieved within the consortium. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, both organisms were identified as new lineages within the Gammaproteobacteria. As well as thiosulfate, strain HRhD 2 can also use thiocyanate as electron donor, representing a first halophilic SOB capable of growth with thiocyanate at 2-4 M NaCl. Product and enzymatic analysis identified the "carbonyl sulfide (COS) pathway" of primary thiocyanate degradation in this new species. On the basis of phenotypic and genetic analysis, strain HRhD 2 is proposed to be assigned to a new genus and species Thiohalophilus thiocyanoxidans.

  17. Microbial Character Related Sulfur Cycle under Dynamic Environmental Factors Based on the Microbial Population Analysis in Sewerage System

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Shi, Hanchang; Liu, Yanchen

    2017-01-01

    The undesired sulfur cycle derived by microbial population can ultimately causes the serious problems of sewerage systems. However, the microbial community characters under dynamic environment factors in actual sewerage system is still not enough. This current study aimed to character the distributions and compositions of microbial communities that participate in the sulfur cycle under the dynamic environmental conditions in a local sewerage system. To accomplish this, microbial community compositions were assessed using 454 high-throughput sequencing (16S rDNA) combined with dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that a higher diversity of microbial species was present at locations in sewers with high concentrations of H2S. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were dominant in the sewerage system, while Actinobacteria alone were dominant in regions with high concentrations of H2S. Specifically, the unique operational taxonomic units could aid to characterize the distinct microbial communities within a sewerage manhole. The proportion of sulfate-reducing bacteria, each sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were strongly correlated with the liquid parameters (DO, ORP, COD, Sulfide, NH3-N), while the Mycobacterium and Acidophilic SOB (M&A) was strongly correlated with gaseous factors within the sewer, such as H2S, CH4, and CO. Identifying the distributions and proportions of critical microbial communities within sewerage systems could provide insights into how the microbial sulfur cycle is affected by the dynamic environmental conditions that exist in sewers and might be useful for explaining the potential sewerage problems. PMID:28261160

  18. [Effect of dissolved oxygen on microbial community in simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur process].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Chen, Chuan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) on microbial community in simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur process and reveal the mechanism of high elemental sulfur conversion rate under aerobic condition, GeoChip was employed to characterize the structure of microbial community. The results indicated that the microbial community structure significantly changed with different aerobic conditions (P < 0.001). Diversity indices of microbial community increased at relatively high DO level. However, denitrifiers were greatly inhibited at this level due to the high sensitivity to DO. There was no significant change detected in the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) with the changing DO. The relative abundance of sox gene showed significant difference between aeration rate of 20 mL x min(-1) and aeration rate of 0 mL x min(-1), which might suggest that the activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was obviously improved by DO. Moreover, cluster analysis of sox gene confirmed this suggestion, with higher signal intensity found in numbers of probes derived from SOB under such aerobic conditions. Overall, the results revealed a positive effect of micro-aerobic conditions on the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur process.

  19. Microbial Character Related Sulfur Cycle under Dynamic Environmental Factors Based on the Microbial Population Analysis in Sewerage System.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Shi, Hanchang; Liu, Yanchen

    2017-01-01

    The undesired sulfur cycle derived by microbial population can ultimately causes the serious problems of sewerage systems. However, the microbial community characters under dynamic environment factors in actual sewerage system is still not enough. This current study aimed to character the distributions and compositions of microbial communities that participate in the sulfur cycle under the dynamic environmental conditions in a local sewerage system. To accomplish this, microbial community compositions were assessed using 454 high-throughput sequencing (16S rDNA) combined with dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that a higher diversity of microbial species was present at locations in sewers with high concentrations of H2S. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were dominant in the sewerage system, while Actinobacteria alone were dominant in regions with high concentrations of H2S. Specifically, the unique operational taxonomic units could aid to characterize the distinct microbial communities within a sewerage manhole. The proportion of sulfate-reducing bacteria, each sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were strongly correlated with the liquid parameters (DO, ORP, COD, Sulfide, NH3-N), while the Mycobacterium and Acidophilic SOB (M&A) was strongly correlated with gaseous factors within the sewer, such as H2S, CH4, and CO. Identifying the distributions and proportions of critical microbial communities within sewerage systems could provide insights into how the microbial sulfur cycle is affected by the dynamic environmental conditions that exist in sewers and might be useful for explaining the potential sewerage problems.

  20. Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Kuenen, Johannes Gijs

    2005-09-01

    The existence of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) capable of growth in an extremely alkaline and saline environment has not been recognized until recently. Extensive studies of saline, alkaline (soda) lakes located in Central Asia, Africa and North America have now revealed the presence, at relatively high numbers, of a new branch of obligately autotrophic SOB in these doubly extreme environments. Overall more than 100 strains were isolated in pure culture. All of them have the potential to grow optimally at around pH 10 in media strongly buffered with sodium carbonate/bicarbonate and cannot grow at pH<7.5 and Na(+) concentration <0.2 M. The majority of the isolates fell into two distinct groups with differing phylogeny and physiology, that have been described as two new genera in the Gammaproteobacteria; Thioalkalimicrobium and Thioalkalivibrio. The third genus, Thioalkalispira, contains a single obligate microaerophilic species T. microaerophila. The Thioalkalimicrobium group represents a typical opportunistic strategy, including highly specialized, relatively fast-growing and low salt-tolerant bacteria, dominating in hyposaline steppe soda lakes of Central Asia. The genus Thioalkalivibrio includes mostly slowly growing species better adapted to life in hypersaline conditions and with a more versatile metabolism. It includes denitrifying, thiocyanate-utilizing and facultatively alkaliphilic species.

  1. Influence of salts and pH on growth and activity of a novel facultatively alkaliphilic, extremely salt-tolerant, obligately chemolithoautotrophic sufur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Thioalkalibacter halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. from South-Western Siberian soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Banciu, Horia L; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Tourova, Tatyana P; Galinski, Erwin A; Muntyan, Maria S; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2008-05-01

    A chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) strain ALCO 1 capable of growing at both near-neutral and extremely alkaline pH was isolated from hypersaline soda lakes in S-W Siberia (Altai, Russia). Strain ALCO 1 represents a novel separate branch within the halothiobacilli in the Gammaproteobacteria, which, so far, contained only neutro-halophilic SOB. On the basis of its unique phenotypic properties and distant phylogeny, strain ALCO 1 is proposed as a new genus and species Thioalkalibacter halophilus gen. nov. sp. nov. ALCO 1 was able to grow within a broad range of salinity (0.5-3.5 M of total sodium) with an optimum at around 1 M Na+, and pH (7.2-10.2, pHopt at around 8.5). Na+ was required for sulfur-dependent respiration in ALCO 1. The neutral (NaCl)-grown chemostat culture had a much lower maximum growth rate (micromax), respiratory activity and total cytochrome c content than its alkaline-grown counterpart. The specific concentration of osmolytes (ectoine and glycine-betaine) produced at neutral pH and 3 M NaCl was roughly two times higher than at pH 10 in soda. Altogether, strain ALCO 1 represents an interesting chemolithoautotrophic model organism for comparative investigations of bacterial adaptations to high salinity and pH.

  2. Vertical distribution and diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in the Pearl River estuarine sediments, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lijing; Zheng, Yanping; Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Zhang, Chuanlun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2009-11-01

    The vertical distribution and diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRPs) in a sediment core from the Pearl River Estuary was reported for the first time. The profiles of methane and sulfate concentrations along the sediment core indicated processes of methane production/oxidation and sulfate reduction. Phospholipid fatty acids analysis suggested that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) might be abundant in the upper layers, while SRPs might be distributed throughout the sediment core. Quantitative competitive-PCR analysis indicated that the ratios of SRPs to total bacteria in the sediment core varied from around 2-20%. Four dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) gene libraries were constructed and analyzed for the top layer (0-6 cm), middle layer (18-24 cm), bottom layer (44-50 cm) and the sulfate-methane transition zone (32-42 cm) sediments. Most of the retrieved dsrAB sequences (80.9%) had low sequence similarity with known SRP sequences and formed deeply branching dsrAB lineages. Meanwhile, bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that members of the Proteobacteria were predominant in these sediments. Putative SRPs within Desulfobacteriaceae, Syntrophaceae and Desulfobulbaceae of Deltaproteobacteria, and putative SOB within Epsilonproteobacteria were detected by the 16S rRNA gene analysis. Results of this study suggested a variety of novel SRPs in the Pearl River Estuary sediments.

  3. Isolation and characterization of an obligately chemolithoautotrophic Halothiobacillus strain capable of growth on thiocyanate as an energy source.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; van Zessen, Erik; Muyzer, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Molecular and microbiological analysis of a laboratory bioreactor biomass oxidizing thiocyanate at autotrophic conditions and at 1 M NaCl showed a domination of a single chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) capable of using thiocyanate as an energy source. The bacterium was isolated in pure cultures and identified as a member of the Halothiobacillus halophilus/hydrothermalis clade. This clade includes moderately halophilic chemolithoautotrophic SOB from marine and hypersaline habitats for which the ability to utilize thiocyanate as an electron donor has not been previously demonstrated. Halothiobacillus sp. strain SCN-R1 grew with thiocyanate as the sole energy and nitrogen source oxidizing it to sulfate and ammonium via the cyanate pathway. The pH range for thiocyanate oxidation was within a neutral region between 7 and 8 and the range of salinity was from 0.2 to 1.5 M NaCl, with an optimum at 0.5 M. Despite the close phylogenetic relatedness, none of the tested type strains and other isolates from the H. halophilus/hydrothermalis group exhibited thiocyanate-oxidizing capacity. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mathematical modeling of simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur removal from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-Jun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Ai-Jie; Ni, Bing-Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yuan, Ye; Huang, Cong; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Dong-Hai; Lee, Duu-Jong; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-01-05

    A mathematical model of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur removal (C-N-S) from industrial wastewater was constructed considering the interactions of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), facultative bacteria (FB), and methane producing archaea (MPA). For the kinetic network, the bioconversion of C-N by heterotrophic denitrifiers (NO3(-)→NO2(-)→N2), and that of C-S by SRB (SO4(2-)→S(2-)) and SOB (S(2-)→S(0)) was proposed and calibrated based on batch experimental data. The model closely predicted the profiles of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, sulfide, lactate, acetate, methane and oxygen under both anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions. The best-fit kinetic parameters had small 95% confidence regions with mean values approximately at the center. The model was further validated using independent data sets generated under different operating conditions. This work was the first successful mathematical modeling of simultaneous C-N-S removal from industrial wastewater and more importantly, the proposed model was proven feasible to simulate other relevant processes, such as sulfate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing process (SR-SO) and denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process. The model developed is expected to enhance our ability to predict the treatment of carbon-nitrogen-sulfur contaminated industrial wastewater.

  5. Amplification of local changes along the timescale processing hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Yaara; Nguyen, Mai; Hasson, Uri

    2017-08-29

    Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study, we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g., "he" to "she" or "sobbing" to "laughing") while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales. For areas with short integration windows, such as early auditory cortex, the differences in neural responses between the two stories were relatively small. In contrast, in areas with the longest integration windows at the top of the hierarchy, such as the precuneus, temporal parietal junction, and medial frontal cortices, there were large differences in neural responses between stories. Furthermore, this gradual increase in neural differences between the stories was highly correlated with an area's ability to integrate information over time. Amplification of neural differences did not occur when changes in words did not alter the interpretation of the story (e.g., sobbing to "crying"). Our results demonstrate how subtle differences in words are gradually accumulated and amplified along the cortical hierarchy as the brain constructs a narrative over time.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers.

  7. Nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria as microbial oxidants for rapid biological sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    De Gusseme, Bart; De Schryver, Peter; De Cooman, Michaël; Verbeken, Kim; Boeckx, Pascal; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2009-01-01

    The emission of hydrogen sulfide into the atmosphere of sewer systems induces the biological production of sulfuric acid, causing severe concrete corrosion. As a possible preventive solution, a microbial consortium of nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) was enriched in a continuously stirred tank reactor in order to develop a biological technique for the removal of dissolved sulfide. The consortium, dominated by Arcobacter sp., was capable of removing 99% of sulfide. Stable isotope fractioning of the sulfide indicated that the oxidation was a biological process. The capacity of the NR-SOB consortium for rapid removal of sulfide was demonstrated by using it as an inoculum in synthetic and real sewage. Removal rates up to 52 mg sulfide-S g VSS(-1) h(-1) were achieved, to our knowledge the highest removal rate reported so far for freshwater species in the absence of molecular oxygen. Further long-term incubation experiments revealed the capacity of the bacteria to oxidize sulfide without the presence of nitrate, suggesting that an oxidized redox reserve is present in the culture.

  8. Working memory still needs verbal rehearsal.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Annalisa; Langerock, Naomi; Hoareau, Violette; Lemaire, Benoît; Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The causal role of verbal rehearsal in working memory has recently been called into question. For example, the SOB-CS (Serial Order in a Box-Complex Span) model assumes that there is no maintenance process for the strengthening of items in working memory, but instead a process of removal of distractors that are involuntarily encoded and create interference with memory items. In the present study, we tested the idea that verbal working memory performance can be accounted for without assuming a causal role of the verbal rehearsal process. We demonstrate in two experiments using a complex span task and a Brown-Peterson paradigm that increasing the number of repetitions of the same distractor (the syllable ba that was read aloud at each of its occurrences on screen) has a detrimental effect on the concurrent maintenance of consonants whereas the maintenance of spatial locations remains unaffected. A detailed analysis of the tasks demonstrates that accounting for this effect within the SOB-CS model requires a series of unwarranted assumptions leading to undesirable further predictions contradicted by available experimental evidence. We argue that the hypothesis of a maintenance mechanism based on verbal rehearsal that is impeded by concurrent articulation still provides the simplest and most compelling account of our results.

  9. Elimination of sulphur odours at landfills by bioconversion and the corona discharge plasma technique.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fangfang; Liu, Xin; Kang, Ying; He, Ruo; Wu, Zucheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) contributes a lot to odours at landfills, which is a threat to the environment and the health of the staff therein. To mitigate its emission, the bioconversion within landfill cover soils (LCSs) was introduced. H2S emission and concentration both in the field air above the landfill and in microcosm testing were surveyed. Results indicated that H2S emission and concentration in the landfill varied with landfill seasons and sites. There existed relationship between H2S concentration and fluxes spatially and temporally. To characterize and assess the spatial and temporal diversity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the LCSs, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was employed. Using the functional genes of dsrB and soxB, SOB, including Halothiobacillus, Rhodothalassium, Paracocccus, Allochromatium, and Thiobacillus, and SRB, including Desulfovibrio, Syntrophobacter, Desulfomonile and Desulfobacca, were identical and exhibited the dominant role in the LCSs. By employing an alternative available corona reactor, more than 90% removal efficiencies of sulphides were demonstrated, suggesting that the LCSs for eliminating odours in a lower concentration would be feasible.

  10. Teichmüller space for hyperkähler and symplectic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerik, Ekaterina; Verbitsky, Misha

    2015-11-01

    Let S be an infinite-dimensional manifold of all symplectic, or hyperkähler, structures on a compact manifold M, and Diff0 the connected component of its diffeomorphism group. The quotient S /Diff0 is called the Teichmüller space of symplectic (or hyperkähler) structures on M. MBM classes on a hyperkähler manifold M are cohomology classes which can be represented by a minimal rational curve on a deformation of M. We determine the Teichmüller space of hyperkähler structures on a hyperkähler manifold, identifying any of its connected components with an open subset of the Grassmannian variety SO(b2 - 3, 3) / SO(3) × SO(b2 - 3) consisting of all Beauville-Bogomolov positive 3-planes in H2(M, R) which are not orthogonal to any of the MBM classes. This is used to determine the Teichmüller space of symplectic structures of Kähler type on a hyperkähler manifold of maximal holonomy. We show that any connected component of this space is naturally identified with the space of cohomology classes v ∈H2(M, R) with q(v, v) > 0, where q is the Bogomolov-Beauville-Fujiki form on H2(M, R).

  11. Cognitive performance of neuromyelitis optica patients: comparison with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vanotti, Sandra; Cores, Evangelina Valeria; Eizaguirre, Barbara; Melamud, Luciana; Rey, Raúl; Villa, Andrés

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate cognitive pattern of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to compare it with multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' performance. Fourteen NMO, 14 relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 14 healthy control patients participated in the investigation. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated with the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery for MS; Symbol Digit Modalities Test; Digit Span; and Semantic Fluency. Fifty-seven percent of NMO patients and 42.85% of the MS ones had abnormal performance in at least two cognitive tests. The NMO Group showed abnormal performance in verbal fluency, verbal and visual memories, with greater attention deficits. NMO patients outperformed healthy control in the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). However, no difference was found between NMO and RRMS patients. The NMO Group showed more dysfunction in attention and verbal fluencies than in verbal and visual memories. When compared with the MS patients, a similar dysfunction pattern was found. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o padrão cognitivo de pacientes com neuromielite óptica (NMO) e compará-lo com o desempenho de pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM). Métodos: Quatorze pacientes com NMO, 14 com esclerose múltipla recorrente remitente (EMRR) e 14 participantes do Controle saudáveis participaram da presente investigação. As funções neuropsicológicas foram avaliadas com a Bateria Breve de Testes Neuropsicológicos de Rao, Teste Símbolo Digit e a Fluência Semântica. Resultados: Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes com NMO e 42,85% daqueles com EM apresentaram desempenho anormal em pelo menos dois testes cognitivos. O Grupo NMO apresentarou desempenho anormal na fluência verbal e nas memórias visual e verbal, com maiores déficits de atenção. Pacientes com NMO superaram os controles saudáveis em PASAT. No entanto, não foi encontrada diferença entre os pacientes com

  12. [Relation between metformin treatment and the development of hyperlactacidemia at the emergency room].

    PubMed

    Guelho, Daniela; Paiva, Isabel; Carrilho, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Em diabéticos tipo 2 sob metformina o desenvolvimento de hiperlactacidemia ou mesmo acidose láctica parece decorrer de um evento precipitante agudo. Este estudo objetiva avaliar a prevalência e risco relativo de hiperlactacidemia em diabéticos observados no Serviço de Urgência, os fatores preditores da concentração de lactatos e a influência da lactacidémia no prognóstico.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal incluindo 138 diabéticos tipo 2, dos quais 66 sob metformina, e 83 doentes não diabéticos atendidos entre junho e outubro de 2012. Variáveis estudadas: idade, sexo, motivo de urgência, pressão arterial, hábitos farmacológicos, antecedentes, estudo analítico (bioquímica e gasometria arterial com doseamento de lactatos) e destino após observação. Análise estatística realizada com SPSS 21.0®.Resultados: A concentração de lactatos e proporção de hiperlactacidemia foram significativamente superiores nos diabéticos (2,1 ± 0,1 mmol/L vs. 1,1 ± 0,1mmol/L, p < 0,001 e 39,1% vs. 3,6%, p < 0,001, respetivamente); particularmente naqueles sob metformina comparativamente aos restantes diabéticos (2,7 ± 0,2 mmol/L vs. 1,6 ± 0,1 mmol/L, p < 0,001 e 56,9 % vs. 23,3 %, p < 0,001, respetivamente). Os diabéticos sob metformina contabilizaram uma probabilidade de hiperlactacidemia 25x superior (OR = 25,10, p < 0,05). A creatinina representou o único fator preditor independente da lactacidemia (B = 1,33; p < 0,05). Os doentes com hiperlactacidemia apresentaram probabilidade 4,4x superior de serem internados ou falecerem (OR = 4,37, p < 0,05). E, quando internados, contabilizaram tempo de internamento (21,66 ± 5,86 dias vs 13,68 ± 5,33dias, p < 0,001) e número de óbitos superiores (12,5% (n = 4) vs 4,3% (n = 2), p < 0,05).Conclusões: Demonstrou-se um risco acrescido de hiperlactacidemia em diabéticos tipo 2, particularmente naqueles sob metformina. A creatinina sérica representou o único fator preditor

  13. Cultural adaptation and the Clavien-Dindo surgical complications classification translated to Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Luis Fernando; Pessôa, Marcelo Castro Marçal; Mattana, Diego Sachet; Schmitz, Fernando Fernandes; Volkweis, Bernardo Silveira; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Ribeiro, Liacyr

    2016-01-01

    to generate a translated and validated version of the Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications (CDC) to Brazilian Portuguese (CDC-BR). the process of translation and adaptation followed the guideline of Beaton et al., 2000. We divided 76 participating surgeons, in different levels of experience, from the Department Surgery of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, into two groups: Group I applied the original version (CDC, n=36);r Group II used the modified version (CDC-BR, n=40). Each group classified 15 clinical cases of surgical complications. We compared performance between the groups (Mann-Whitney test) relating to the level of experience of the surgeon (Kruskal-Wallis test), considering p value <0.05 as significant. the performance of the Group II (CDC-BR) was higher, with 85% accuracy, compared with 79% of Group I (CDC), p-value =0.012. The performance of the groups as for surgeons experience displayed p=0.171 for Group I, p=0.528 for Group II, and p=0.135 for overall performance. we produced a translated and validated version of the CDC for Brazilian Portuguese. The instrument will be a useful tool in the production of evidence on surgical outcomes. gerar uma versão traduzida e validada da Classificação de Complicações Cirúrgicas de Clavien-Dindo (CCD) para o Português-Brasileiro (CCD-BR). o processo de tradução e adaptação seguiu a diretriz de Beaton et al., de 2000. Formaram-se dois grupos, Grupo I, que utilizou a versão original (CCD, n=36) testado em relação ao Grupo II, com a versão modificada (CCD-BR, n=40), com um total de 76 cirurgiões participantes em níveis de experiência distintos do Departamento de Cirurgia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Quinze casos clínicos de complicações cirúrgicas foram classificados em cada grupo. Comparou-se o desempenho entre grupos (teste de Mann-Whitney) relacionando ao nível de experiência dos cirurgiões (teste de Kruskal-Wallis). Valor de p<0,05 como significativo

  14. Tuberculosis control program in the municipal context: performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tiemi; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugenia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Scatena, Lucia Marina; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2017-03-30

    structural and managerial capacity of municipalities in the implementation of the Tuberculosis Control Program. Avaliar o desempenho do Programa de Controle da Tuberculose em municípios paulistas. Pesquisa de avaliação de serviços, com delineamento ecológico, utilizando três agrupamentos não hierárquicos de municípios paulistas de acordo com seu desempenho em relação a indicadores operacionais. Foram selecionadas 195 cidades com no mínimo cinco casos novos de tuberculose notificados no Sistema de Notificação do Estado de São Paulo e 20.000 habitantes ou mais em 2010. A análise de correspondência múltipla foi utilizada para a identificação da associação entre os grupos de distintos desempenhos e as características epidemiológicas, demográficas e de sistemas de saúde dos municípios. O grupo de pior desempenho apresentou as taxas mais elevadas de abandono (média [md] = 10,4; desvio padrão [dp] = 9,4) e as menores proporções de efetivação de Tratamento Diretamente Observado (md = 6,1; dp = 12,9) e esteve associado à baixa incidência de tuberculose, alta confecção tuberculose e HIV, pequeno porte populacional, alta cobertura de Estratégia Saúde da Família/Programa de Agentes Comunitários em Saúde e localização no interior. O grupo de melhor desempenho apresentou a maior taxa de cura (md = 83,7; dp = 10,5) e a maior proporção de casos em Tratamento Diretamente Observado (md = 83,0; dp = 12,7); enquanto o grupo de desempenho regular mostrou resultados regulares de desfecho (cura: md = 79,8; dp = 13,2; abandono: md = 9,5; dp = 8,3) e de efetivação do Tratamento Diretamente Observado (md = 42,8; dp = 18,8). Grande porte populacional, baixa cobertura de Estratégia Saúde da Família/Programa de Agentes Comunitários em Saúde, alta incidência de tuberculose e aids, e localização no litoral e em áreas metropolitanas estiveram associados com esses grupos. Os achados destacam a importância do Tratamento Diretamente Observado em rela

  15. Minerals as Ecosystems in the Nutrient-Limited Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2014-12-01

    A majority of microorganisms in dark, nutrient-poor, subsurface habitats live in biofilms attached to mineral surfaces. As a result, microorganisms have likely adapted and evolved to take advantage of specific minerals that support a variety of biogeochemical processes. Using biofilm reactors inoculated with a diverse microbial biomat from a sulfidic cave, we found that specific microorganisms colonize specific minerals according to their metabolic/nutritional requirements as well as their environmental tolerances in order to increase survival in unfavorable environments. In a neutral pH, carbon (C) and phosphate (P)-limited (unfavorable) reactor, highly-buffering carbonates were colonized by nearly identical communities of neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing (acid-generating) bacteria (SOB), which intensely corroded the carbonates. Non-buffering quartz was colonized by acid-generating acidophiles, while feldspars (containing potentially toxic aluminum) were colonized largely by aluminotolerant microbes. The SOB Thiothrix unzii demonstrated a clear affinity for basalt, and it is commonly found on basaltic rocks in mid-ocean ridge environments. In an identical reactor amended with acetate, heterotrophic sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) dominated on most surfaces. The metabolism of the SRB causes an increase in both alkalinity and pH, nearly eliminating the need for buffering minerals and resulting in carbonate precipitation. However, SRB were not dominant on quartz, which was again colonized by acidophiles and acid-tolerant microorganisms or basalt which hosted a complex consortium similar to those found on natural basalt outcrops. These organisms have been shown to weather basalts to access mineral nutrients, especially when provided a carbon source. In both the C&P-limited and acetate-amended reactors significantly greater biomass accumulated on minerals with high P content. When abundant P was added and the pH was buffered to 8.3, mineral selectivity was eliminated and

  16. Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate- and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Cornish, Sabrina L.; Buziak, Brenton; Lin, Shiping; Cavallaro, Adriana; Arensdorf, Joseph J.; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3 mM each) and excess sulfate, SRB first used propionate and butyrate for the production of acetate, which reached concentrations of up to 12 mM prior to being used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction. In contrast, hNRB used all three organic acids with similar kinetics, while reducing nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen. Transient inhibition of VFA-utilizing SRB was observed with 0.5 mM nitrite and permanent inhibition with concentrations of 1 mM or more. The addition of nitrate to medium flowing into an upflow, packed-bed bioreactor with an established VFA-oxidizing SRB consortium led to a spike of nitrite up to 3 mM. The nitrite-mediated inhibition of SRB led, in turn, to the transient accumulation of up to 13 mM of acetate. The complete utilization of nitrate and the incomplete utilization of VFA, especially propionate, and sulfate indicated that SRB remained partially inhibited. Hence, in addition to lower sulfide concentrations, an increase in the concentration of acetate in the presence of sulfate in waters produced from an oil field subjected to nitrate injection may indicate whether the treatment is successful. The microbial community composition in the bioreactor, as determined by culturing and culture-independent techniques, indicated shifts with an increasing fraction of nitrate. With VFA and sulfate, the SRB genera Desulfobotulus, Desulfotignum, and Desulfobacter as well as the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas and the NR-SOB Arcobacter were detected. With VFA and nitrate, Pseudomonas spp. were

  17. Microbial community structures and in situ sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing activities in biofilms developed on mortar specimens in a corroded sewer system.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hisashi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

    2009-10-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) caused by sulfuric acid attack in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of microbial community structures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and their in situ activities is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the microbial community structures and the in situ hydrogen sulfide production and consumption rates within biofilms and corroded materials developed on mortar specimens placed in a corroded manhole was investigated by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques and microsensors for hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, pH and the oxidation-reduction potential. The dark-gray gel-like biofilm was developed in the bottom (from the bottom to 4 cm) and the middle (4-20 cm from the bottom of the manhole) parts of the mortar specimens. White filamentous biofilms covered the gel-like biofilm in the middle part. The mortar specimens placed in the upper part (30 cm above the bottom of the manhole) were corroded. The 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis revealed that one clone retrieved from the bottom biofilm sample was related to an SRB, 12 clones and 6 clones retrieved from the middle biofilm and the corroded material samples, respectively, were related to SOB. In situ hybridization results showed that the SRB were detected throughout the bottom biofilm and filamentous SOB cells were mainly detected in the upper oxic layer of the middle biofilm. Microsensor measurements demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide was produced in and diffused out of the bottom biofilms. In contrast, in the middle biofilm the hydrogen sulfide produced in the deeper parts of the biofilm was oxidized in the upper filamentous biofilm. pH was around 3 in the corroded materials developed in the upper part of the mortar specimens. Therefore, it can be concluded that hydrogen sulfide provided from the bottom biofilms and the sludge settling tank was

  18. Microbial community structure and dynamics in a mixotrophic nitrogen removal process using recycled spent caustic under different loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Sora; Yu, Jaecheul; Byun, Imgyu; Cho, Sunja; Park, Taejoo; Lee, Taeho

    2011-08-01

    A laboratory-scale Bardenpho process was established to investigate the proper nitrogen loading rate (NLR) when modified spent caustic (MSC) is applied as electron donor and alkalinity source for denitrification. MSC injection induced autotrophic nitrogen removal with sulfur as electron donor and heterotrophic denitrification. The nitrogen removal rate (NRR) did not increase proportionally to NLR. Based on the total nitrogen concentration in the effluent observed in the trials with MSC, the NLR in the influent should not exceed 0.15 kg N/m(3)d in order to satisfy water quality regulations. Microbial communities in the anoxic reactors were characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified by the polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from sludge samples. Microbial diversity was lower as MSC dosage was increased, and the injection of MSC caused an increase in SOB belonging to the genus Thiobacillus which is responsible for denitrification using sulfur.

  19. Gold nanocatalysts supported on heterostructured PbSO4-MCF mesoporous materials for CO oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lin; Tian, Chengcheng; Chai, Songhai; Binder, Andrew J; Brown, Suree; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Metal oxides are commonly used as the supports of gold nanoparticles for catalytic CO oxidation, whereas metal salts are rarely considered suitable supports. In the present work, we developed a new kind of gold nanocatalyst supported on heterostructured PbSO4-MCF mesoporous materials that was prepared by an in situ growth method using dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SOBS) as a sulfonate precursor. It was found that an Au/PbSO4-MCF (SDBS) catalyst preheated at 300 degrees C showed high CO conversion below 100 degrees C. In addition, the stability of selected catalysts was studied as a function of time on stream. Because of the alteration of surface properties, these Au nanocatalysts were highly sinter-resistant. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Origin of the magmatic varieties of the Serdán-Oriental Basin, eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, L.; Gomez-Tuena, A.; Becerra Torres, E.; Landa-Piedra, L.

    2013-12-01

    Quaternary magmatic activity in the Serdán-Oriental Basin (SOB) of the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt produced mafic-intermediate monogenetic cones of variable geochemical affinities, that are built on >45 km thick crust at ~360-420 km distance from the trench, in a region under which the Cocos plate lays at >120 km depth. For these features, the volcanic sequences of the SOB offer the opportunity to understand the mechanisms of element recycling and the origin of magmatic diversity in the Mexican arc. Our data permit to observe a relationship between the geochemical diversity of magmatism and its geographic distribution. Most cones emplaced at the volcanic front, south of Malinche and Pico de Orizaba stratovolcanoes, vary in composition from calc-alkaline basalt to andesite, and display typical arc-like geochemical features such as high LILE-LREE/HFSE and moderate REE ratios. The southern part of the basin also hosts a few high-K mafic cones with stronger LILE-LREE enrichments at similar HFSE contents, and more fractionated REE patterns; interestingly, high Gd/Yb ratios in these rocks are coupled with high Nb/Ta and Sm/Zr. The basalts and basaltic andesites emplaced at larger distance from the trench display progressively higher Ti and HFSE contents than those of the volcanic front at similar LILE. On the other hand, the mafic cones emplaced north of Malinche display the lowest LILE-LREE/HFSE ratios, with high-Nb compositions similar to those of intraplate magmas. The distribution pattern of volcanism recognized in the SOB is consistent with different degrees of mantle melting produced by variable contributions from the oceanic plate. In particular, decreasing Ba-La/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios in the volcanic products emplaced from the front to the rear-arc reflect a gradual decrease in slab fluxes added to the wedge, and hence lower degrees of mantle melting, as the Cocos plate sinks to higher depths. The geochemical features of the high-K suite indicate that the

  1. Why eating star fruit is prohibited for patients with chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Eduarda Savino Moreira; de Aguiar, Aline Silva

    2015-01-01

    New studies have shown the mechanism by which the star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) becomes toxic to individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to review the current literature on the topic. This is a review article, with publications from 2000 to 2014 available in scientific database. There are reports that neurotoxicity is due to the presence of oxalate in star fruit, but recent findings show that the neurotoxic effect of the toxin is by caramboxin, which appears to inhibit the GABAergic system which is the major inhibitory system in the central nervous system (CNS), involving changes as sobs and confusion, to more serious conditions such as seizures and death. It is important to multidisciplinary action to alert patients with CKD as the prohibition of the star fruit consumption.

  2. Use of psychotropic medications in relation to neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognition and functional performance in Alzheimer's disease over a three-year period: Kuopio ALSOVA study.

    PubMed

    Törmälehto, Soili; Martikainen, Janne; Bell, J Simon; Hallikainen, Ilona; Koivisto, Anne M

    2017-10-01

    Psychotropic medications are widely prescribed to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal associations between psychotropic medication use and NPS, cognition, and functional performance in persons with very mild or mild AD at baseline. Data were collected as part of the prospective three-year study of home-dwelling persons with AD and their caregivers (n = 236 dyads). The associations between psychotropic medication use and clinical measures were analyzed using repeated measures Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models. NPS, cognition, daily functioning, and disease severity were assessed with NPI, CERAD-NB, or MMSE, ADCS-ADL, and CDR-SOB, respectively. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, education, and co-morbidities. The prevalence of benzodiazepines and related medications increased from 16% to 24% (p = 0.031), antidepressants from 11% to 18% (p = 0.057), and antipsychotics from 4% to 16% (p = 0.011) in the three years following AD diagnosis. In adjusted multivariable analyses, a one-point increase in NPI increased the odds of using any psychotropic medication class by 4% (odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.07). ADCS-ADL (1/OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) and CDR-SOB (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.42) were associated with use of antipsychotics. CERAD-NB and MMSE were not associated with any psychotropic medication class use in the models. Psychotropic medication use increased significantly in relation to increasing dependency in AD, especially with NPS. Furthermore, the use of antipsychotics increased with disease severity, and with decline in daily functioning. Cognitive performance was not associated with psychotropic medication use.

  3. Targeting Persons With or At High Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by State-based Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pleasants, Roy A.; Heidari, Khosrow; Wheaton, Anne G.; Ohar, Jill A.; Strange, Charlie; Croft, Janet B.; Liao, Winston; Mannino, David M.; Kraft, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey is used to estimate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence and could be expanded to describe respiratory symptoms in the general population and to characterize persons with or at high risk for the disease. Tobacco duration and respiratory symptom questions were added to the 2012 South Carolina BRFSS. Data concerning sociodemographics, chronic illnesses, health behaviors, and respiratory symptoms were collected in 9438 adults ≥ 35 years-old. Respondents were categorized as having COPD, high risk, or low risk for the disease. High risk was defined as no self-reported COPD, ≥ 10 years’ tobacco use, and ≥ 1 respiratory symptom (frequent productive cough or shortness of breath (SOB), or breathing problems affecting activities). Prevalence of self-reported and high-risk COPD were 9.1% and 8.0%, respectively. Overall, 17.3%, 10.6%, and 5.2% of all respondents reported activities limited by breathing problems, frequent productive cough, and frequent SOB, respectively. The high-risk group was more likely than the COPD group to report a productive cough and breathing problems limiting activities as well as being current smokers, male, and African-American. Health impairment was more severe in the COPD than the high-risk group, and both were worse than the low-risk group. Conclusions Persons at high risk for COPD share many, but not all, of the characteristics of persons diagnosed with the disease. Additional questions addressing smoking duration and respiratory symptoms in the BRFSS identifies groups at high risk for having or developing COPD who may benefit from smoking cessation and case-finding interventions. PMID:26367193

  4. Targeting Persons With or At High Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by State-based Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Pleasants, Roy A; Heidari, Khosrow; Wheaton, Anne G; Ohar, Jill A; Strange, Charlie; Croft, Janet B; Liao, Winston; Mannino, David M; Kraft, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey is used to estimate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence and could be expanded to describe respiratory symptoms in the general population and to characterize persons with or at high risk for the disease. Tobacco duration and respiratory symptom questions were added to the 2012 South Carolina BRFSS. Data concerning sociodemographics, chronic illnesses, health behaviors, and respiratory symptoms were collected in 9438 adults ≥ 35 years-old. Respondents were categorized as having COPD, high risk, or low risk for the disease. High risk was defined as no self-reported COPD, ≥ 10 years' tobacco use, and ≥ 1 respiratory symptom (frequent productive cough or shortness of breath (SOB), or breathing problems affecting activities). Prevalence of self-reported and high-risk COPD were 9.1% and 8.0%, respectively. Overall, 17.3%, 10.6%, and 5.2% of all respondents reported activities limited by breathing problems, frequent productive cough, and frequent SOB, respectively. The high-risk group was more likely than the COPD group to report a productive cough and breathing problems limiting activities as well as being current smokers, male, and African-American. Health impairment was more severe in the COPD than the high-risk group, and both were worse than the low-risk group. Persons at high risk for COPD share many, but not all, of the characteristics of persons diagnosed with the disease. Additional questions addressing smoking duration and respiratory symptoms in the BRFSS identifies groups at high risk for having or developing COPD who may benefit from smoking cessation and case-finding interventions.

  5. The effect of oxygen supply on the dual growth kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under acidic conditions for biogas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Namgung, Hyeong-Kyu; Song, JiHyeon

    2015-01-27

    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%-6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration.

  6. Sulfide oxidation at halo-alkaline conditions in a fed-batch bioreactor.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Pim L F; van Beusekom, Otto C; Buisman, Cees J N; Janssen, Albert J H

    2007-08-01

    A biotechnological process is described to remove hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) from high-pressure natural gas and sour gases produced in the petrochemical industry. The process operates at halo-alkaline conditions and combines an aerobic sulfide-oxidizing reactor with an anaerobic sulfate (SO(4) (2-)) and thiosulfate (S(2)O(3) (2-)) reducing reactor. The feasibility of biological H(2)S oxidation at pH around 10 and total sodium concentration of 2 mol L(-1) was studied in gas-lift bioreactors, using halo-alkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (HA-SOB). Reactor operation at different oxygen to sulfide (O(2):H(2)S) supply ratios resulted in a stable low redox potential that was directly related with the polysulfide (S(x) (2-)) and total sulfide concentration in the bioreactor. Selectivity for SO(4) (2-) formation decreased with increasing S(x) (2-) and total sulfide concentrations. At total sulfide concentrations above 0.25 mmol L(-1), selectivity for SO(4) (2-) formation approached zero and the end products of H(2)S oxidation were elemental sulfur (S(0)) and S(2)O(3) (2-). Maximum selectivity for S(0) formation (83.3+/-0.7%) during stable reactor operation was obtained at a molar O(2):H(2)S supply ratio of 0.65. Under these conditions, intermediary S(x) (2-) plays a major role in the process. Instead of dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), S(x) (2-) seemed to be the most important electron donor for HA-SOB under S(0) producing conditions. In addition, abiotic oxidation of S(x) (2-) was the main cause of undesirable formation of S(2)O(3) (2-). The observed biomass growth yield under SO(4) (2-) producing conditions was 0.86 g N mol(-1) H(2)S. When selectivity for SO(4) (2-) formation was below 5%, almost no biomass growth was observed. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cultivation of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea from marine sediments in coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Joon; Park, Soo-Je; Yoon, Dae-No; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2010-11-01

    The role of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nitrogen cycling in marine sediments remains poorly characterized. In this study, we enriched and characterized AOA from marine sediments. Group I.1a crenarchaea closely related to those identified in marine sediments and "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus" (99.1 and 94.9% 16S rRNA and amoA gene sequence identities to the latter, respectively) were substantially enriched by coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The selective enrichment of AOA over ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is likely due to the reduced oxygen levels caused by the rapid initial growth of SOB. After biweekly transfers for ca. 20 months, archaeal cells became the dominant prokaryotes (>80%), based on quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The increase of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was coincident with the amount of ammonia oxidized, and expression of the archaeal amoA gene was observed during ammonia oxidation. Bacterial amoA genes were not detected in the enrichment culture. The affinities of these AOA to oxygen and ammonia were substantially higher than those of AOB. [(13)C]bicarbonate incorporation and the presence and activation of genes of the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle indicated autotrophy during ammonia oxidation. In the enrichment culture, ammonium was oxidized to nitrite by the AOA and subsequently to nitrate by Nitrospina-like bacteria. Our experiments suggest that AOA may be important nitrifiers in low-oxygen environments, such as oxygen-minimum zones and marine sediments.

  8. Thiohalorhabdus denitrificans gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely halophilic, sulfur-oxidizing, deep-lineage gammaproteobacterium from hypersaline habitats.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Tourova, Tatjana P; Galinski, Erwin A; Muyzer, Gerard; Kuenen, J Gijs

    2008-12-01

    Seven strains of extremely halophilic and obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were enriched and isolated at 4 M NaCl from sediments of hypersaline inland lakes in south-eastern Siberia and a Mediterranean sea solar saltern. Cells of the novel isolates were spindle-like, long and non-motile rods with a Gram-negative type of cell wall. They were obligately chemolithoautotrophic SOB using thiosulfate and tetrathionate as electron donors and represent the first example of extremely halophilic chemolithoautotrophs that are able to grow anaerobically with nitrate as electron acceptor. The characteristic feature of the group was the production of large amounts of tetrathionate as an intermediate during the oxidation of thiosulfate to sulfate. With thiosulfate, the novel strains grew within the pH range from 6.5 to 8.2 (optimum at pH 7.5-7.8) and at NaCl concentrations from 1.5 to 4.0 M (optimum at 3.0 M). Cells grown at 4 M NaCl accumulated extremely high concentrations of glycine betaine as a compatible solute. The dominant cellular fatty acids were 10MeC(16 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Based on the DNA-DNA relatedness values, the isolates consisted of a single genomic species and had a similar phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis placed the novel bacteria in the class Gammaproteobacteria as an independent lineage with no significant relationship to any other genera in this class. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic analysis, the group is proposed to represent a new genus, Thiohalorhabdus gen. nov., with Thiohalorhabdus denitrificans gen. nov., sp. nov. as the type species (type strain HL 19(T)=DSM 15699(T)=UNIQEM U223(T)).

  9. Bacterial community analysis of a gas-phase biotrickling filter for biogas mimics desulfurization through the rRNA approach.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Juan P; Rovira, R; Alvarez-Hornos, F J; Fortuny, M; Lafuente, J; Gamisans, X; Gabriel, D

    2010-08-01

    The bacterial composition of a lab-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) treating high loads of H(2)S was investigated by the rRNA approach. Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were established 42 and 189 d after reactor startup, while fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes was performed throughout 260d of reactor operation. Diversity, community structure and metamorphosis were studied from reactor startup to fully-established pseudo-steady state operation at near neutral pH and at an inlet H(2)S concentration of 2000 ppmv (load of 55.6g H(2)S m(-3)h(-1)). In addition, FISH was used for assessing the spatial distribution of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) along the length of the reactor under pseudo-steady state operation. A major shift in the diversity of the community was observed with the operating time, from a well-diverse community at startup to pseudo-steady state operation with a majority of retrieved sequences affiliated to SOB of the sulfur cycle including Thiothrix spp., Thiobacillus spp., and Sulfurimonas denitrificans. Although aerobic species were predominant along the BTF, a vertical stratification was encountered, in which facultative anaerobes had a major relative abundance in the inlet part of the BTF, where the sulfide to oxygen ratio was higher. The observed changes were related to the trophic properties of the community, the DO concentration, the accumulation of elemental sulfur and the operation at neutral pH. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of dissolved oxygen on elemental sulfur generation in sulfide and nitrate removal process: characterization, pathway, and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-03-01

    Microaerobic bioreactor treatment for enriched sulfide and nitrate has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to improve the efficiencies of elemental sulfur (S(0)) generation, sulfide oxidation, and nitrate reduction. However, there is little detailed information for the effect and mechanism of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the variations of microbial community in sulfur generation, sulfide oxidation, and nitrate reduction systems. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was employed to evaluate the variations of microbial community structures in a sulfide oxidation and nitrate reduction reactor under different DO conditions (DO 0-0.7 mg · L(-1)). Experimental results revealed that the activity of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) could be greatly stimulated in 0.1-0.3 mg-DO · L(-1). However, when the DO concentration was further elevated to more than 0.5 mg · L(-1), the abundance of NRB was markedly decreased, while the heterotrophic microorganisms, especially carbon degradation species, were enriched. The reaction pathways for sulfide and nitrate removal under microaerobic conditions were also deduced by combining batch experiments with functional species analysis. It was likely that the oxidation of sulfide to sulfur could be performed by both aerobic heterotrophic SOB and sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification bacteria with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptor, respectively. The nitrate could be reduced to nitrite by both autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification, and then the generated nitrite could be completely converted to nitrogen gas via heterotrophic denitrification. This study provides new insights into the impacts of microaerobic conditions on the microbial community functional structures of sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing, and sulfur-producing bioreactors, which revealing the potential linkage between functional microbial communities and

  11. Oil field souring control by nitrate-reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. that outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for organic electron donors.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-04-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB.

  12. Effects of education on the progression of early- versus late-stage mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Seo, Sang Won; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sangyun; Han, Seol-Heui; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Na, Duk L

    2013-04-01

    Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education. A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (-1.5 to -1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below -1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated. Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores. Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.

  13. Pneumonia in hemodialysis patients: a challenging diagnosis in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Judd, Eric; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Harms, James C; Terry, Nina L; Sonavane, Sushilkumar K; Allon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing pneumonia in hemodialysis patients is challenging. We hypothesized that pulmonary edema, which occurs commonly in hemodialysis patients, may frequently be misdiagnosed as pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 105 hemodialysis patients admitted with the diagnosis of pneumonia. Two experienced radiologists masked to the clinical course and subsequent imaging, independently interpreted the admission chest radiographs. In 68 of the patients, 2 internists independently reviewed the hospitalization records to diagnose pneumonia and pulmonary edema. The level of agreement among the radiologists was assessed using the kappa test. Using the clinical diagnoses, chest radiograph attributes were calculated. Logistic regression was performed to identify clinical and laboratory markers associated with pneumonia and pulmonary edema. The radiologist showed slight agreement on pneumonia (κ = 0.32) and pulmonary edema (κ = 0.28). Using clinical consensus, pneumonia was diagnosed in only 21% (14/68) of patients. Chest radiograph attributes for diagnosing pneumonia included: sensitivity 50%, specificity 58%, positive predictive value 25% and negative predictive value 81%. Pneumonia was associated with presenting temperature (odds ratio [OR] = 
2.01; 95% CI, 1.03-3.93). Pulmonary edema was associated with shortness of breath (SOB) at admission 
(OR = 4.83; 95% CI, 1.25-18.6), presenting temperature (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.92) and volume removed during hemodialysis (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.16-3.31). The admission chest radiograph has significant limitations when used to diagnose pneumonia in hemodialysis patients. A high presenting temperature supports the diagnosis of pneumonia, while a low presenting temperature, SOB and large volume ultrafiltration favor the diagnosis of pulmonary edema.

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of lignan components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Zheng, Tian-Hui; Tao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-05-26

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is formulated on the basis of Chinese medicine theory in treating liver fibrosis. To illuminate the influence of the pathological state of liver fibrosis on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of lignan components from FZHY. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group and Hepatic fibrosis group (induced by dimethylnitrosamine). Six lignan components were detected and quantified by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS/MS)in the plasma and tissue of normal and hepatic fibrosis rats. A rapid, sensitive and convenient UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six lignan components in different rat biological samples successfully. After oral administration of FZHY at a dose of 15g/kg, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of schizandrin A (SIA), schizandrin B (SIB), schizandrin C (SIC), schisandrol A (SOA), Schisandrol B (SOB) and schisantherin A (STA) have been significantly changed in hepatic fibrosis rats compared with the normal rats, and their AUC(0-t) values were increased by 235.09%, 388.44%, 223.30%, 669.30%, 295.08% and 267.63% orderly (P<0.05). Tissue distribution results showed the amount of SIA, SIB, SOA and SOB were significant increased in heart, lung, spleen and kidney of hepatic fibrosis rats compared with normal rats at most of the time point (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the result also reveals that the hepatic fibrosis could delay the peak time of lignans in liver. The results proved that the established UHPLC-MS/MS method could be applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of lignan components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats. The hepatic fibrosis could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of lignan components in rats after administration of FZHY. The results might be helpful for guide the clinical application of this medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  15. Comparative Analysis of Psychological, Hormonal, and Genetic Factors Between Burning Mouth Syndrome and Secondary Oral Burning.

    PubMed

    das Neves de Araújo Lima, Emeline; Barbosa, Natália Guimarães; Dos Santos, Ana Celly Souza; AraújoMouraLemos, Telma Maria; de Souza, Cleber Machado; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between psychological, hormonal, and genetic factors with the development of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and secondary oral burning (SOB) in order to provide a better characterization and classification of these conditions. Cross sectional study. Patients with complaints of mouth burning registered at the Oral Diagnostic Service of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte between 2000 and 2013. The sample consisted of 163 subjects divided into a group of patients with BMS (n = 64) and a group of subjects with SOB (n = 99). The following variables were analyzed: passive and stimulated saliva flow, stress levels and phase, depression, anxiety, serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, and the presence of polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene. The results showed significant differences in the presence of xerostomia (p = 0.01), hyposalivation at rest (p < 0.001) and symptoms of depression (p = 0.033) between the two groups, which were more prevalent in the BMS group. DHEA levels were lower in the BMS group (p = 0.003) and were sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this condition. Genetic analysis revealed no significant association between the polymorphisms analyzed and the development of BMS. These results suggest a possible role of depression, as well as of reduced DHEA levels, as associated factors for development of BMS. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cultivation of Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea from Marine Sediments in Coculture with Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Joon; Park, Soo-Je; Yoon, Dae-No; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2010-01-01

    The role of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nitrogen cycling in marine sediments remains poorly characterized. In this study, we enriched and characterized AOA from marine sediments. Group I.1a crenarchaea closely related to those identified in marine sediments and “Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus” (99.1 and 94.9% 16S rRNA and amoA gene sequence identities to the latter, respectively) were substantially enriched by coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The selective enrichment of AOA over ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is likely due to the reduced oxygen levels caused by the rapid initial growth of SOB. After biweekly transfers for ca. 20 months, archaeal cells became the dominant prokaryotes (>80%), based on quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The increase of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was coincident with the amount of ammonia oxidized, and expression of the archaeal amoA gene was observed during ammonia oxidation. Bacterial amoA genes were not detected in the enrichment culture. The affinities of these AOA to oxygen and ammonia were substantially higher than those of AOB. [13C]bicarbonate incorporation and the presence and activation of genes of the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle indicated autotrophy during ammonia oxidation. In the enrichment culture, ammonium was oxidized to nitrite by the AOA and subsequently to nitrate by Nitrospina-like bacteria. Our experiments suggest that AOA may be important nitrifiers in low-oxygen environments, such as oxygen-minimum zones and marine sediments. PMID:20870784

  17. Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB. PMID:17308184

  18. Modulation of Renin-Angiotensin System May Slow Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Whitney; Goldstein, Felicia C; Zhao, Liping; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I; Hajjar, Ihab

    2015-09-01

    To assess the effect of modulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive decline in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the effect of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and race on the potential relationship between the RAS and AD. Analysis of data from AD centers funded by the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, National Institute on Aging. Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Individuals receiving antihypertensive medications who had MCI at baseline and had cognitive assessments on at least two follow-up visits (N = 784; mean age 75 l 48/% male). Conversion to AD and cognitive and functional decline. Four hundred eighty-eight participants were receiving RAS-acting antihypertensive medications. RAS-acting medication users were less likely to convert to AD (33% vs 40%; P = .04) and had slower decline on the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB, P = .005) and Digit Span Forward (P = .02) than nonusers. BBB-crossing RAS-acting medications were associated with slower cognitive decline on the CDR-SOB, (P = .009), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), (P = .001), and the Boston Naming test (P = .002). RAS-acting medications were associated with cognitive benefits more in African Americans than in Caucasians (MMSE, P = .05; category fluency, P = .04; Digit Span Backward, P = .03). RAS-acting medication users were less likely to convert to AD. BBB permeability may produce additional cognitive benefit, and African Americans may benefit more from RAS modulation than Caucasians. Results highlight the need for trials investigating RAS modulation during prodromal disease stages. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Effect of sulphur concentration on bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Fang, D; Zhao, L; Yang, Z Q; Shan, H X; Gao, Y; Yang, Q

    2009-11-01

    The sulphur-based bioleaching process using sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been demonstrated to be a feasible technology for removing heavy metals from contaminated sediments, but the excess sulphur application will lead to the re-acidification of bioleached sediments. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of sulphur concentration on the bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated sediments, with the ultimate purpose of minimizing the sulphur addition. The results showed that the inoculation of 7% of indigenous SOB, containing 3.6 x 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) mL(-1), and addition of elemental sulphur as a substrate (0.5 to 7.0 g L(-1)) resulted in a sharp decrease in sediment pH from an initial pH 8.0 to pH 1.4-2.4 and an increase in ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) from -10 mV to 500 mV within 10 days of bioleaching. Although the increase in sulphur concentration enhanced the rates of pH reduction and ORP elevation, the bioleaching process with the addition of 3.0 g L(-1) of sulphur was already sufficient to reach conditions of acidity (pH < 2.0) and ORP (500 mV) necessary for a satisfactory removal of metals, and, at day 10, 71.8% of Cu, 58.2% of Zn, and 25.3% of Cr were removed from the sediments. During the bioleaching process, Zn removal increased with a reduction in pH, whereas the removal of Cu and Cr increased not only with a reduction in pH but also with an increase in ORP. Results of sequential selective extraction indicated that the final levels of metal removals were dependent on their speciation distribution in the original sediments, and after bioleaching those unremoved metals in the bioleached sediments mainly existed in the residual fraction.

  20. The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Dual Growth Kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under Acidic Conditions for Biogas Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Namgung, Hyeong-Kyu; Song, JiHyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%–6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration. PMID:25633028

  1. Screening for BK virus nephropathy in kidney transplant recipients: comparison of diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Gabriel Godinho; Poloni, Jose Antonio T; Rotta, Liane N; Razonable, Raymund R; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C

    2016-01-01

    Urine cytology and qPCR in blood and urine are commonly used to screen renal transplant recipients for polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN). Few studies, however, have directly compared these two diagnostic tests, in terms of their performance to predict PVAN. This was a systematic review in which adult (≥ 18 years old) renal transplant recipients were studied. A structured Pubmed search was used to identify studies comparing urine cytology and/or qPCR in urine and plasma samples for detecting PVAN with renal biopsy as the gold standard for diagnosis. From 707 potential papers, there were only twelve articles that matched the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in detail. Among 1694 renal transplant recipients that were included in the review, there were 115 (6.8%) patients with presumptive PVAN and 57 (3.4%) PVAN confirmed. In this systematic review, the qPCR in plasma had better performance for PVAN compared to urine cytopathology. Resumo A citologia urinária e a reação da cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (qPCR) em amostras de sangue e/ou urina são comumente utilizados para rastrear nefropatia associada ao polyomavirus (PVAN), em pacientes transplantados renais. Entretanto, poucos estudos comparam diretamente esses testes diagnósticos quanto ao desempenho para predizer esta complicação. Aqui realizamos uma revisão sistemática na qual foram estudados pacientes transplantados renais adultos (≥ 18 anos). Uma pesquisa estruturada Pubmed foi utilizada para identificar estudos comparando citologia urinária e/ou qPCR em amostras de urina e plasma para detectar PVAN, utilizando a biópsia renal como padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico. Dentre os 707 artigos em potencial, apenas 12 atendiam aos critérios de inclusão e foram analisados em maior detalhe. Foram incluídos 1694 pacientes transplantados renais, entre os quais 115 (6,8%) classificados com PVAN presuntivo e 57 (3,4%) PVAN confirmado. Nessa revisão sistemática, o qPCR no plasma tive melhor

  2. [Mini-Mental State Examination: Screening and Diagnosis of Cognitive Decline, Using New Normative Data].

    PubMed

    Santana, Isabel; Duro, Diana; Lemos, Raquel; Costa, Vanessa; Pereira, Miguel; Simões, Mário R; Freitas, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: O Mini-Mental State Examination é o teste de rastreio de défice cognitivo/demência mais difundido. No nosso país têm-se utilizado pontuações de corte definidas por grupos de literacia, mas existem novas propostas sustentadas por estudos mais representativos. Propomo-nos confirmar a influência da idade e da escolaridade no desempenho, avaliar a capacidade discriminativa dos novos dados normativos e testar a acuidade diagnóstica das pontuações de corte validadas para o défice cognitivo ligeiro e para as formas mais prevalentes de demência. Material e Métodos: O estudo incluiu 1 441 participantes escolarizados, divididos em sete subgrupos: Défice cognitivo ligeiro, doença de Alzheimer, demência fronto-temporal, demência vascular, demência com corpos de Lewy, controlo-comunidade e controlo-clínica- memória. Resultados: Em conjunto, idade e escolaridade explicam 10,4% da variância dos resultados no Mini-Mental State Examination, com ambas contribuindo significativamente para a predição dos resultados. A acuidade diagnóstica com base nos dados normativos mais recentes foi sempre superior à conseguida com as pontuações de corte de validação, revelando uma especificidade excelente (superior a 90%) e uma sensibilidade também excelente para a doença de Alzheimer ligeira (91%), boa para demência com corpos de Lewy (78%), baixa para o défice cognitivo ligeiro (65%) e demência fronto-temporal e demência vascular (55%). Discussão e Conclusões: O desempenho no Mini-Mental State Examination é influenciado pela idade e pela escolaridade, apoiando a utilização de dados normativos que considerem estas variáveis. Com esta abordagem, o Mini-Mental State Examination poderá ser um instrumento sensível e específico para o rastreio da doença de Alzheimer em todos os níveis de cuidados de saúde, mas a acuidade de diagnóstico é limitada noutras situações frequentes em consultas especializadas, como o défice cognitivo ligeiro

  3. Health Conditions and Memory Performance: a study with older adult women.

    PubMed

    Nespollo, Alice Milani; Marcon, Samira Reschetti; Lima, Nathalie Vilma Pollo de; Dias, Tatiane Lebre; Espinosa, Mariano Martínez

    2017-01-01

    to verify the correlation between health condition and memory performance of older adult women in the community. Analytical cross-sectional study developed with 28 older adult women living in Cuiabá-MT. They answered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a shortened Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) to screen for dementia and depression symptoms. Memory skills were assessed through Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The mean age was 66.36 years and 75% of the participants had educational level higher than 7 years. The MMSE mean score was 28.45. The correlations found were: educational level and immediate memory (r = 0.49; p = 0.008); delayed recall and immediate memory (r = 0.71; p < 0.001); memory recognition and immediate memory (r = 0.43; p = 0.021) and recognition memory with delayed recall (r = 0.47; p = 0.012). High scores in the MMSE and a satisfactory health perception among the participants were evident. There was no correlation between memory performance and health perception. Verificar a correlação entre condições de saúde e desempenho da memória de idosas da comunidade. Estudo transversal analítico, realizado com 28 idosas residentes em Cuiabá-MT. Essas foram submetidas a rastreio para demências e sintomas depressivos por meio do Miniexame do Estado Mental (MEEM) e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica Abreviada (GDS-15). A avaliação das habilidades de memória ocorreu por meio do Teste de Aprendizagem Auditivo-Verbal de Rey (RAVLT). A idade média foi de 66,36 anos e 75% possuíam escolaridade maior que sete anos. A média do MEEM foi 28,45. As correlações encontradas foram: escolaridade e memória imediata (r = 0,49; p = 0,008); evocação tardia e memória de reconhecimento com memória imediata (r = 0,71; p < 0,001 e r = 0,43; p = 0,021) e memória de reconhecimento com evocação tardia (r = 0,47; p = 0,012). Evidenciou-se escore elevado no MEEM e percepção de saúde satisfatória entre os participantes. Não houve

  4. [Teaching human anatomy to the graduation course in Health Sciences of the Lisbon University: five years of a new educational experience].

    PubMed

    Furtado, Ivo A; Gonçalves Ferreira, Ana D; Gonçalves Ferreira, António J

    2013-01-01

    Introdução/Objectivos: Os autores fazem o balanço dos primeiros cinco anos de ensino de Anatomia da Licenciatura em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade de Lisboa.Material e Métodos: Estudaram o desempenho de 408 alunos inscritos na Unidade Curricular de Anatomia (disciplina obrigatória do primeiro semestre) e 29 na Unidade Curricular de Neuroanatomia (disciplina opcional do sexto semestre). Realizaram a análise estatística pelos testes Anova e t de Student.Resultados e Discussão: Houve um afluxo crescente anual de alunos inscritos na Unidade Curricular de Anatomia, um número estável em Neuroanatomia, predomínio claro de alunos do sexo feminino, ratio docente/aluno variável entre 1/9 e 1/17 na Unidade Curricular de Anatomia e 1/8 na Unidade Curricular de Neuroanatomia; elevado número de desistências iniciais (15,69%) em Anatomia; níveis de aprovação de 95,93% na Unidade Curricular de Anatomia e de 100% em Neuroanatomia; tendência de melhoria verificada nos últimos dois anos, com significado estatístico na Unidade Curricular de Anatomia (p = 0,0001) e igual desempenho escolar de alunos de ambos os sexos; índices de satisfação dos alunos de Anatomia, Bom = 71% e Muito Bom = 8%; Neuroanatomia, classificaçãounânime pelos alunos = Muito Bom.Conclusões: Foi uma experiência pedagógica muito positiva. Os autores propõem: o estudo e a prevenção das causas da desistência inicial dos alunos que acedem ao curso, melhoria do ratio docente/discente, possível extensão a um segundo semestre da Unidade Curricular de Anatomia e melhoria das instalações que já estão em curso e que inclui a remodelação e a modernização do teatro anatómico do Instituto de Anatomia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa.

  5. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRE AND POSTOPERATIVE LEVELS OF GLP-1/GLP-2 AND WEIGHT LOSS AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Cazzo, Everton; Gestic, Martinho Antonio; Utrini, Murillo Pimentel; Pareja, José Carlos; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Geloneze, Bruno; Barreto, Maria Rita Lazzarini; Magro, Daniéla Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    significativo da área sob a curva do GLP-2 após a operação (945,3±449,1 vs. 1787,9±602,7; p=0,0037); a área sob a curva do GLP-1 apresentou tendência não-significativa à elevação após o procedimento (709,6±320,4 vs. 1026,5±714,3; p=0,3808). O percentual médio de perda de peso foi 66,7±12,2%. Não houve nenhuma correlação significativa entre os níveis pré e pós-operatórios das áreas sob as curvas de GLP-1 e GLP-2 com o percentual de perda de peso atingido após um ano.

  7. Denitrifying sulfur conversion-associated EBPR: The effect of pH on anaerobic metabolism and performance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Wu, Di; Hao, Tianwei; Mackey, Hamish Robert; Wei, Li; Chen, Guanghao

    2017-10-15

    The performance of the denitrifying sulfur conversion-associated enhanced biological phosphorus removal (DS-EBPR) process tends to be unstable and requires further study and development. This in turn requires extensive study of the anaerobic metabolism in terms of its stoichiometry and kinetics. This study evaluates the corresponding responses of DS-EBPR to pH, as it significantly influences both stoichiometry and biochemical kinetics. The impacts of five representative pH values ranging between 6.5 and 8.5 on the anaerobic metabolism were investigated, followed by identification of the optimal pH for performance optimization. A mature DS-EBPR sludge was used in the study, enriched with approximately 30% sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and 33% sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Through a series of batch tests, the optimal pH range was determined as 7.0-7.5. In this pH range, the anaerobic stoichiometry of phosphorus released/volatile fatty acid (VFA) uptake ratio, sulfate reduction, and internal polymer production (including poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates and polysulfide and/or elemental sulfur) all increased along with the anaerobic kinetics of the VFA uptake ratio. Consequently, phosphorus removal was maximized at this pH range (≥95% vs. 84-93% at other pH values), as was sulfur conversion (16 mg S/L vs. 10-13 mg S/L). This pH range therefore favors the activity and synergy of the key functional bacteria (i.e. SRB and SOB). Anaerobic maintenance tests showed these bacteria required 38-61% less energy for maintenance than that reported for GAOs regardless of pH changes, improving their ability to cope with anaerobic starvation. Adversely, both bacteria showed much lower VFA uptake rates than that of GAOs at all tested pH values (0.03-0.06 vs. 0.2-0.24 mol-C/C-mol biomass/h), possibly revealing the primary cause of frequent instability in the DS-EBPR process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [FATA Study: prevalence of atrial fibrillation and antithrombotic therapy in primary health care in a northern city of Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eva; Campos, Rui; Morais, Renata; Fernandes, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A fibrilhação auricular é a arritmia sustentada mais prevalente. Está provada a eficácia da anticoagulação oral na prevenção do acidente vascular cerebral nestes doentes. Contudo, este parece ser um tratamento subutilizado. Objectivos: determinar a prevalência de fibrilhação auricular conhecida numa população dos Cuidados de Saúde Primários; identificar as principais comorbilidades, a terapêutica antitrombótica em curso e avaliar a sua adequação segundo as recomendações da European Society of Cardiology. Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal analítico. População: todos os utentes com idade igual ou superior a 30 anos, inscritos em oito Unidades de Saúde Familiar de Vila Nova de Gaia, com diagnóstico de fibrilhação auricular. Resultados: A prevalência de fibrilhação auricular foi de 1,29% (n = 940), sendo superior no género masculino (p = 0,01) e aumentando com a idade (p < 0,001). As comorbilidades mais frequentes foram a hipertensão arterial (76,4%), a insuficiência cardíaca (32,0%) e a diabetes mellitus (28,2%). Um total de 52% realizava terapêutica anticoagulante, 29% antiagregantes plaquetários e 4% ambas as terapêuticas. Dos utentes com baixo risco trombótico, 63,6% estava a fazer erradamente algum tipo de terapêutica antitrombótica; dos utentes com elevado risco ou doença valvular 56,8% estava adequadamente sob terapêutica anticoagulante. Conclusão: A prevalência de fibrilhação auricular bem como a frequência das principais comorbilidades estão de acordo com a maioria dos estudos. Apesar de a maioria dos doentes se encontrar sob anticoagulação oral, apenas 56,8% dos utentes com fibrilhação auricular fazia terapêutica antitrombótica adequada segundo as recomendações da European Society of Cardiology, verificando-se uma subutilização acentuada deste tratamento.

  9. Assessing the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines: A Case for Ontology-based Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, R.; Gaylor, D.; Reddy, V.; Furfaro, R.; Jah, M.

    2016-09-01

    As the population of man-made debris orbiting the Earth increases, so does the risk of damaging collisions. The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) has issued space debris mitigation guidelines including a key recommendation that before mission's end, spacecraft should move far enough from GEO so as not to be an operational hazard to other objects in active missions. It can be extremely difficult to determine if a spacecraft or operator is in compliance with this guideline, as it requires prediction of future actions based upon many data types. Furthermore, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the adequacy or validity of the IADC recommendations. The EU strives for a Code of Conduct in space, the United Nations-Committee On Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS) strives for guidelines to ensure the Long Term Sustainability of Space Activities (LTSSA), the FAA is concerned with Space Traffic Management (STM), etc. If rules, policies, guidelines, and laws are put in place, how can any entity know who and what is adhering to them, when we don't even know how to quantify and assess behavior of space objects? The University of Arizona aims to address this salient issue. As part of its new Space Object Behavioral Sciences (SOBS) initiative, the University of Arizona is developing an ontology-based system to support integration, use, and sharing of space domain data. As a first use-case, we will test the system's ability to assess compliance with the IADC recommendation to move beyond GEO at the end of a mission as well as the adequacy and validity of recommendations. We describe the relevant data types gathered for this use-case, present a prototype ontology, and outline methods for combining semantic analysis with astrodynamics modeling. Without loss of generality, we present this method as an approach that will form the foundation of SOBS and be used to address pressing challenges in Space Situational Awareness (SSA), Orbital Safety

  10. Impact of fluctuations in gaseous H2S concentrations on sulfide uptake by sewer concrete: The effect of high H2S loads.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Keller, Jurg

    2015-09-15

    The acid production from the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in sewer air results in serious corrosion of exposed concrete surfaces in sewers. Large fluctuations of gaseous H2S concentrations occur in sewers due to the diurnal profiles of sewage flow and retention times and the necessity of intermittent pumping of sewage from pressure pipes into gravity pipes. How the high concentrations of H2S due to these events may affect H2S uptake and subsequent corrosion by concrete sewers is largely unknown. This study determined the effect of short- and long-term increases in H2S levels on the sulfide uptake rate (SUR) of concrete surfaces with an active corrosion layer. The results showed that during the high load situation the SUR increased significantly but then decreased (compared to the baseline SUR) by about 7-14% and 41-50% immediately after short- and long-term H2S high-load periods, respectively. For both exposure conditions, the SUR gradually (over several hours) recovered to approximately 90% of the baseline SUR. Further tests suggest multiple factors may contribute to the observed decrease of SUR directly after the high H2S load. This includes the temporary storage of elemental sulfur in the corrosion layer and inhibition of sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB) due to high H2S level and temporary acid surge. Additionally, the delay of the corrosion layer to fully recover the SUR after the high H2S load suggests that there is a longer-term inhibitive effect of the high H2S levels on the activity of the SOB in the corrosion layer. Due to the observed activity reductions, concrete exposed to occasional short-term high H2S load periods had an overall lower H2S uptake compared to concrete exposed to constant H2S levels at the same average concentration. To accurately predict H2S uptake by sewer concrete and hence the likely maximum corrosion rates, a correction factor should be adopted for the H2S fluctuations when average H2S levels are used in the prediction.

  11. Outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Aleanizy, Fadilah Sfouq; Mohmed, Nahla; Alqahtani, Fulwah Y; El Hadi Mohamed, Rania Ali

    2017-01-05

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is proposed to be a zoonotic disease. Dromedary camels have been implicated due to reports that some confirmed cases were exposed to camels. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in humans are incompletely understood. This study aimed to describe the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, clinical manifestations and comorbidities with confirmed cases of MERS-CoV. Retrospective chart review were performed to identify all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia who reported to the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Saudi Arabia and WHO between April 23, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Patients' charts were also reviewed for demographic information, mortality, comorbidities, clinical presentations, health care facility and presented with descriptive and comparative statistics using non parametric binomial test and Chi-square test. Confirmed cases of male patients (61.1%) exceeded those of female patients (38.9%). Infections among Saudi patients (62.6%) exceeded those among non-Saudi patients (37.4%; P = 0.001). The majority of the patients were aged 21-40 years (37.4%) or 41-60 years (35.8%); 43 (22.6%) were aged >61 years, and (8) 4.2% were aged 0-20 years. There was a difference in mortality between confirmed MERS-CoV cases (63.7% alive versus 36.3% dead cases, respectively). Furthermore, fever with cough and shortness of breath (SOB) (n = 39; 20.5%), fever with cough (n = 29; 15.3%), fever (n = 18; 9.5%), and fever with SOB (n = 13; 6.8%), were the most common clinical manifestations associated with confirmed MERS-CoV cases. MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The results of the present study showed that the frequency of cases is higher among men than women, in Saudi patients than non-Saudi, and those between 21 to 60 years are most affected. Further studies are required to improve the surveillance associated with MERS-CoV to get definite and clear answers

  12. The essence of care in health vulnerability: a Heideggerian construction.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Virna Ribeiro Feitosa; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Pessoa, Vera Lúcia Mendes de Paula; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Silva, Maria Rocineide Ferreira da; Torres, Raimundo Augusto Martins

    2017-01-01

    Reflect on the essence of care in health vulnerability from the phenomenological perspective of Martin Heidegger. Theoretical-reflexive study, anchored in three essential parts: 1) Care in Heidegger; 2) The essence of care in health vulnerability; And 3) Nursing care actions on health vulnerability. Vulnerability must be recognized as an indelible trait of the human condition and has its constituents in the human being, co-presence and care. Caring is an interactive process that reveals itself in the relationship with the other. Respecting the integrity of the Being in vulnerability must be a priority in nursing care, through behaviors that privilege the Being. Understanding ontological care and its relation to vulnerability under Heidegger's phenomenological view allowed us to uncover the facets of care in health vulnerability by adding to the nursing knowledge body a comprehensive and reflective perspective. Refletir sobre a essência do cuidado na vulnerabilidade em saúde sob a perspectiva fenomenológica de Martin Heidegger. Estudo teórico-reflexivo, ancorado em três partes essenciais: 1) O cuidado em Heidegger; 2) A essência do cuidado na vulnerabilidade em saúde; e 3) As ações do cuidar em enfermagem na vulnerabilidade em saúde. A vulnerabilidade deve ser reconhecida como traço indelével da condição humana e tem seus constituintes na pessoa humana, co-presenças e cuidado. O cuidar é um processo interativo que se desvela na relação com o outro. Respeitar a integridade do Ser em vulnerabilidade deve ser prioridade no cuidar em enfermagem, por meio de comportamentos que privilegiem o Ser. Compreender ontologicamente o cuidado e a sua relação com a vulnerabilidade sob o olhar fenomenológico de Heidegger permitiu desvelar as facetas do cuidado na vulnerabilidade em saúde, agregando ao corpo de conhecimento da Enfermagem uma perspectiva compreensiva e reflexiva.

  13. Potential impact of co-payment at point of care to influence emergency department utilization.

    PubMed

    Baum, Zachary; Simmons, Michael R; Guardiola, Jose H; Smith, Cynthia; Carrasco, Lynn; Ha, Joann; Richman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many proponents for healthcare reform suggest increased cost-sharing by patients as a method to reduce overall expenditures. Prior studies on the effects of co-payments for ED visits have generally not been directed toward understanding patient attitudes/behavior at point of care. Objectives. We conducted a survey at point of care to test our hypothesis that a significant number of patients with urgent chief complaints might have avoided the ED if asked to provide a co-payment. Methods. Cross-sectional study design. Stable, oriented, consenting patients at an inner-city, academic ED were consecutively enrolled at hours in which trained research associates were available to assist with data collection. Enrolled patients completed a written survey providing demographic/chief complaint information, and then were asked whether 13 interval amounts of co-payment ranging from 0 to >500 would have impacted their decision to visit the ED. Categorical data are presented as frequency of occurrence and analyzed by chi-square; continuous data presented as means ± standard deviation, analyzed by t-tests. ORs and 95% confidence intervals provided. Primary outcome parameter was the % of patients who would have avoided the ED if asked to pay any co-payment for several urgent chief complaints: chest pain, SOB, and abdominal pain. Results. A total of 581 patients were enrolled; 63.1% female, mean age 42.4 ± 15.1 years, 65% Hispanic, 71.2% income less than 20,000, 28.6% less than high school graduate, 81.3% had primary care physician, 57.6% had 2 or more ED visits/past year. Overall, 30.2% of patients chose 0 as the maximum they would have been willing to pay if it was required to be seen in the ED. 16/58 (28%; 95% CI [18-40%]) of chest pain patients, 9/43 (20.9%; 95% CI [11-35%]) of SOB patients, and 24/127 (26.8%; 95% CI [13-27%]) of abdominal pain patients would have been unwilling to pay a co-pay. Patients with income >20,000 were more willing to pay a co-payment (OR

  14. Dimensionless Equation of State to Predict Microemulsion Phase Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumyadeep; Johns, Russell T

    2016-09-06

    Prediction of microemulsion phase behavior for changing state variables is critical to formulation design of surfactant-oil-brine (SOB) systems. SOB systems find applications in various chemical and petroleum processes, including enhanced oil recovery. A dimensional equation-of-state (EoS) was recently presented by Ghosh and Johns1 that relied on estimation of the surfactant tail length and surface area. We give an algorithm for flash calculations for estimation of three-phase Winsor regions that is more robust, simpler, and noniterative by making the equations dimensionless so that estimates of tail length and surface area are no longer needed. We predict phase behavior as a function temperature, pressure, volume, salinity, oil type, oil-water ratio, and surfactant/alcohol concentration. The dimensionless EoS is based on coupling the HLD-NAC (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Difference-Net Average Curvature) equations with new relationships between optimum salinity and solubility. An updated HLD expression that includes pressure is also used to complete the state description. A significant advantage of the dimensionless form of the EoS over the dimensional version is that salinity scans are tuned based only on one parameter, the interfacial volume ratio. Further, stability conditions are developed in a simplified way to predict whether an overall compositions lies within the single, two-, or three-phase regions. Important new microemulsion relationships are also found, the most important of which is that optimum solubilization ratio is equal to the harmonic mean of the oil and water solubilization ratios in the type III region. Thus, only one experimental measurement is needed in the three-phase zone to estimate the optimum solubilization ratio, a result which can aid experimental design and improve estimates of optimum from noisy data. Predictions with changing state variables are illustrated by comparison to experimental data using standard diagrams including a new type

  15. Functional bacteria and process metabolism of the Denitrifying Sulfur conversion-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR) system: An investigation by operating the system from deterioration to restoration.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Wu, Di; Hao, Tianwei; Mackey, Hamish Robert; Wei, Li; Wang, Haiguang; Chen, Guanghao

    2016-05-15

    A sulfur conversion-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus (P) Removal (EBPR) system is being developed to cater for the increasing needs to treat saline/brackish wastewater resulting from seawater intrusion into groundwater and sewers and frequent use of sulfate coagulants during drinking water treatment, as well as to meet the demand for eutrophication control in warm climate regions. However, the major functional bacteria and metabolism in this emerging biological nutrient removal system are still poorly understood. This study was thus designed to explore the functional microbes and metabolism in this new EBPR system by manipulating the deterioration, failure and restoration of a lab-scale system. This was achieved by changing the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration to monitor and evaluate the relationships among sulfur conversion (including sulfate reduction and sulfate production), P removal, variation in microbial community structures, and stoichiometric parameters. The results show that the stable Denitrifying Sulfur conversion-associated EBPR (DS-EBPR) system was enriched by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). These bacteria synergistically participated in this new EBPR process, thereby inducing an appropriate level of sulfur conversion crucial for achieving a stable DS-EBPR performance, i.e. maintaining sulfur conversion intensity at 15-40 mg S/L, corresponding to an optimal sludge concentration of 6.5 g/L. This range of sulfur conversion favors microbial community competition and various energy flows from internal polymers (i.e. polysulfide or elemental sulfur (poly-S(2-)/S(0)) and poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) for P removal. If this range was exceeded, the system might deteriorate or even fail due to enrichment of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs). Four methods of restoring the failed system were investigated: increasing the sludge concentration, lowering the salinity or doubling the COD

  16. Potential impact of co-payment at point of care to influence emergency department utilization

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Zachary; Simmons, Michael R.; Guardiola, Jose H.; Smith, Cynthia; Carrasco, Lynn; Ha, Joann

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many proponents for healthcare reform suggest increased cost-sharing by patients as a method to reduce overall expenditures. Prior studies on the effects of co-payments for ED visits have generally not been directed toward understanding patient attitudes/behavior at point of care. Objectives. We conducted a survey at point of care to test our hypothesis that a significant number of patients with urgent chief complaints might have avoided the ED if asked to provide a co-payment. Methods. Cross-sectional study design. Stable, oriented, consenting patients at an inner-city, academic ED were consecutively enrolled at hours in which trained research associates were available to assist with data collection. Enrolled patients completed a written survey providing demographic/chief complaint information, and then were asked whether 13 interval amounts of co-payment ranging from 0 to >500 would have impacted their decision to visit the ED. Categorical data are presented as frequency of occurrence and analyzed by chi-square; continuous data presented as means ± standard deviation, analyzed by t-tests. ORs and 95% confidence intervals provided. Primary outcome parameter was the % of patients who would have avoided the ED if asked to pay any co-payment for several urgent chief complaints: chest pain, SOB, and abdominal pain. Results. A total of 581 patients were enrolled; 63.1% female, mean age 42.4 ± 15.1 years, 65% Hispanic, 71.2% income less than 20,000, 28.6% less than high school graduate, 81.3% had primary care physician, 57.6% had 2 or more ED visits/past year. Overall, 30.2% of patients chose 0 as the maximum they would have been willing to pay if it was required to be seen in the ED. 16/58 (28%; 95% CI [18–40%]) of chest pain patients, 9/43 (20.9%; 95% CI [11–35%]) of SOB patients, and 24/127 (26.8%; 95% CI [13–27%]) of abdominal pain patients would have been unwilling to pay a co-pay. Patients with income >20,000 were more willing to pay a co

  17. Kinetics of Indigenous Nitrate Reducing Sulfide Oxidizing Activity in Microaerophilic Wastewater Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Villahermosa, Desirée; Corzo, Alfonso; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; González, Juan M; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate decreases sulfide release in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), but little is known on how it affects the microzonation and kinetics of related microbial processes within the biofilm. The effect of nitrate addition on these properties for sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and oxygen respiration were studied with the use of microelectrodes in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms. Mass balance calaculations and community composition analysis were also performed. At basal WWTP conditions, the biofilm presented a double-layer system. The upper microaerophilic layer (~300 μm) showed low sulfide production (0.31 μmol cm-3 h-1) and oxygen consumption rates (0.01 μmol cm-3 h-1). The anoxic lower layer showed high sulfide production (2.7 μmol cm-3 h-1). Nitrate addition decreased net sulfide production rates, caused by an increase in sulfide oxidation rates (SOR) in the upper layer, rather than an inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). This suggests that the indigenous nitrate reducing-sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) were immediately activated by nitrate. The functional vertical structure of the biofilm changed to a triple-layer system, where the previously upper sulfide-producing layer in the absence of nitrate split into two new layers: 1) an upper sulfide-consuming layer, whose thickness is probably determined by the nitrate penetration depth within the biofilm, and 2) a middle layer producing sulfide at an even higher rate than in the absence of nitrate in some cases. Below these layers, the lower net sulfide-producing layer remained unaffected. Net SOR varied from 0.05 to 0.72 μmol cm-3 h-1 depending on nitrate and sulfate availability. Addition of low nitrate concentrations likely increased sulfate availability within the biofilm and resulted in an increase of both net sulfate reduction and net sulfide oxidation by overcoming sulfate diffusional limitation from the water phase and the strong coupling between SRB and NR-SOB syntrophic

  18. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Michael

    2011-06-23

    Plants utilize light as a source of information via families of photoreceptors such as the red/far-red absorbing phytochromes (PHY) and the blue/UVA absorbing cryptochromes (CRY). The main goal of the Neff lab is to use molecular-genetic mutant screens to elucidate signaling components downstream of these photoreceptors. Activation-tagging mutagenesis led to the identification of two putative transcription factors that may be involved in both photomorphogenesis and hormone signaling pathways. sob1-D (suppressor of phyB-dominant) mutant phenotypes are caused by the over-expression of a Dof transcription factor previously named OBP3. Our previous studies indicate that OBP3 is a negative regulator of light-mediated cotyledon expansion and may be involved in modulating responsiveness to the growth-regulating hormone auxin. The sob2-D mutant uncovers a role for LEP, a putative AP2/EREBP-like transcription factor, in seed germination, hypocotyl elongation and responsiveness to the hormone abscisic acid. Based on photobiological and genetic analysis of OBP3-knockdown and LEP-null mutations, we hypothesize that these transcription factors are involved in both light-mediated seedling development and hormone signaling. To examine the role that these genes play in photomorphogenesis we will: 1) Further explore the genetic role of OBP3 in cotyledon/leaf expansion and other photomorphogenic processes as well as examine potential physical interactions between OBP3 and CRY1 or other signaling components that genetically interact with this transcription factor 2) Test the hypothesis that OBP3 is genetically involved in auxin signaling and root development as well as examine the affects of this hormone and light on OBP3 protein accumulation. 3) Test the hypothesis that LEP is involved in seed germination, seedling photomorphogenesis and hormone signaling. Together these experiments will lead to a greater understanding of the complexity of interactions between photoreceptors and DNA

  19. Kinetics of Indigenous Nitrate Reducing Sulfide Oxidizing Activity in Microaerophilic Wastewater Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Villahermosa, Desirée; Corzo, Alfonso; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; González, Juan M.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate decreases sulfide release in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), but little is known on how it affects the microzonation and kinetics of related microbial processes within the biofilm. The effect of nitrate addition on these properties for sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and oxygen respiration were studied with the use of microelectrodes in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms. Mass balance calaculations and community composition analysis were also performed. At basal WWTP conditions, the biofilm presented a double-layer system. The upper microaerophilic layer (~300 μm) showed low sulfide production (0.31 μmol cm-3 h-1) and oxygen consumption rates (0.01 μmol cm-3 h-1). The anoxic lower layer showed high sulfide production (2.7 μmol cm-3 h-1). Nitrate addition decreased net sulfide production rates, caused by an increase in sulfide oxidation rates (SOR) in the upper layer, rather than an inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). This suggests that the indigenous nitrate reducing-sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) were immediately activated by nitrate. The functional vertical structure of the biofilm changed to a triple-layer system, where the previously upper sulfide-producing layer in the absence of nitrate split into two new layers: 1) an upper sulfide-consuming layer, whose thickness is probably determined by the nitrate penetration depth within the biofilm, and 2) a middle layer producing sulfide at an even higher rate than in the absence of nitrate in some cases. Below these layers, the lower net sulfide-producing layer remained unaffected. Net SOR varied from 0.05 to 0.72 μmol cm-3 h-1 depending on nitrate and sulfate availability. Addition of low nitrate concentrations likely increased sulfate availability within the biofilm and resulted in an increase of both net sulfate reduction and net sulfide oxidation by overcoming sulfate diffusional limitation from the water phase and the strong coupling between SRB and NR-SOB syntrophic

  20. Allium stipitatum Extract Exhibits In Vivo Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Accelerates Burn Wound Healing in a Full-Thickness Murine Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Jeevajothi Nathan, Jayakayatri; van Belkum, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The in vivo antibacterial and burn wound healing potency of Persian shallot bulbs (Allium stipitatum) were explored in a mice burn model infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts were tested. Female BALB/c mice were inflicted with third-degree thermal injury followed by infection with MRSA. ASHE and ASDE formulated with simple ointment base (SOB) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w) were topically applied to burn wounds twice a day for 20 days. Silver sulfadiazine (1%) served as drug positive control. Microbiological analysis was carried out on 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postwounding (dpw) and histopathological analysis at the end of the experiment (20 dpw). Both ointments demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with complete elimination of MRSA at 48–72 h after infection. The rate of wound contraction was higher (95–100%) in mice groups treated with ASHE and ASDE ointments after 15 dpw. Histological analysis revealed significant increase (p < 0.05) in epithelialization and collagenation in treated groups. The ASHE and ASDE were found to be relatively noncytotoxic and safe to Vero cell line (383.4 μg mL−1; 390.6 μg mL−1), suggesting the extracts as safe topical antibacterial as well as promising alternatives in managing thermal injuries. PMID:28321262

  1. A ‘Disease Severity Index’ to identify individuals with Subjective Memory Decline who will progress to mild cognitive impairment or dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daniel; Falahati, Farshad; Linden, Cecilia; Buckley, Rachel F.; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Savage, Greg; Villemagne, Victor L.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Ames, David; Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Subjective memory decline (SMD) is a heterogeneous condition. While SMD might be the earliest sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it also occurs in aging and various neurological, medical, and psychiatric conditions. Identifying those with higher risk to develop dementia is thus a major challenge. We tested a novel disease severity index generated by multivariate data analysis with numerous structural MRI measures as input. The index was used to identify SMD individuals with high risk of progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. A total of 69 healthy controls, 86 SMD, 45 MCI, and 38 AD patients were included. Subjects were followed up for 7.5 years. Clinical, cognitive, PET amyloid imaging and APOE ε4 data were used as outcome variables. The results showed that SMD evidenced cognitive performance intermediate between healthy controls and MCI. The disease severity index identified eleven (13%) SMD individuals with an AD-like pattern of brain atrophy. These individuals showed lower cognitive performance, increased CDR-SOB, higher amyloid burden and worse clinical progression (6.2 times higher likelihood to develop MCI, dementia or die than healthy controls). The current disease severity index may have relevance for clinical practice, as well as for selecting appropriate individuals for clinical trials. PMID:28287184

  2. A novel preterm respiratory mechanics active simulator to test the performances of neonatal pulmonary ventilators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Paolo; Sciuto, Salvatore Andrea; Silvestri, Sergio

    2002-06-01

    A patient active simulator is proposed which is capable of reproducing values of the parameters of pulmonary mechanics of healthy newborns and preterm pathological infants. The implemented prototype is able to: (a) let the operator choose the respiratory pattern, times of apnea, episodes of cough, sobs, etc., (b) continuously regulate and control the parameters characterizing the pulmonary system; and, finally, (c) reproduce the attempt of breathing of a preterm infant. Taking into account both the limitation due to the chosen application field and the preliminary autocalibration phase automatically carried out by the proposed device, accuracy and reliability on the order of 1% is estimated. The previously indicated value has to be considered satisfactory in light of the field of application and the small values of the simulated parameters. Finally, the achieved metrological characteristics allow the described neonatal simulator to be adopted as a reference device to test performances of neonatal ventilators and, more specifically, to measure the time elapsed between the occurrence of a potentially dangerous condition to the patient and the activation of the corresponding alarm of the tested ventilator.

  3. odd-skipped genes and lines organize the notum anterior-posterior axis using autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Del Signore, Steven J; Hayashi, Teru; Hatini, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The growth and patterning of Drosophila wing and notum primordia depend on their subdivision into progressively smaller domains by secreted signals that emanate from localized sources termed organizers. While the mechanisms that organize the wing primordium have been studied extensively, those that organize the notum are incompletely understood. The genes odd-skipped (odd), drumstick (drm), sob, and bowl comprise the odd-skipped family of C(2)H(2) zinc finger genes, which has been implicated in notum growth and patterning. Here we show that drm, Bowl, and eyegone (eyg), a gene required for notum patterning, accumulate in nested domains in the anterior notum. Ectopic drm organized the nested expression of these anterior notum genes and downregulated the expression of posterior notum genes. The cell-autonomous induction of Bowl and Eyg required bowl, while the non-autonomous effects were independent of bowl. The homeodomain protein Bar is expressed along the anterior border of the notum adjacent to cells expressing the Notch (N) ligand Delta (Dl). bowl was required to promote Bar and repress Dl expression to pattern the anterior notum in a cell-autonomous manner, while lines acted antagonistically to bowl posterior to the Bowl domain. Our data suggest that the odd-skipped genes act at the anterior notum border to organize the notum anterior-posterior (AP) axis using both autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

  4. Low Leptin Availability as a Risk Factor for Dementia in Chilean Older People

    PubMed Central

    Albala, Cecilia; Angel, Barbara; Lera, Lydia; Sanchez, Hugo; Marquez, Carlos; Fuentes, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to study the role of leptin in the development of dementia. Methods Follow-up of the ALEXANDROS cohorts, with baseline measurements in 2000. From 1,136 available subjects free of dementia at baseline, 667 subjects had frozen baseline blood samples for measuring leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R). The free leptin index (FLI) was calculated as the ratio of leptin to sOB-R. Dementia was defined as an MMSE score <22 and a score >5 in the Pfeffer Activities Questionnaire. Results After 15 years of follow-up, 42 incident cases of dementia were identified. No difference in serum leptin was observed between people with and without dementia, but sOB-R was higher in demented than in nondemented subjects (sOB-R: 44.94 ± 23.97 vs. 33.73 ± 21.13 ng/ml). The adjusted risk for dementia increased, the higher the log sOB (hazard ratio = 3.58; 95% CI 1.72-7.45, p = 0.001). Conclusion Lower availability of free leptin was found in demented than in nondemented people, suggesting a role of leptin in cognition. PMID:27504118

  5. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Cai, Lin; Bougouffa, Salim; Chiu, Jill Man Ying; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges play important roles in benthic environments and are sensitive to environmental stresses. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s and are cytotoxic and genotoxic to organisms. In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our results showed that the bacterial community shifted from an autotrophic bacteria-dominated community to a heterotrophic bacteria-dominated community in response to PBDE-47 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) was dominant (>80% in abundance) in the untreated sponge. However, exposure to a high concentration (1 μg/L) of PBDE-47 caused a substantial decrease in the potential symbiont and an enrichment of heterotrophic bacteria like Clostridium. A metagenomic analysis showed a selective effect of the high concentration treatment on the functional gene composition of the enriched heterotrophic bacteria, revealing an enrichment for the functions responsible for DNA repair, multidrug efflux pumping, and bacterial chemotaxis and motility. This study demonstrated that PBDE-47 induced a shift in the composition of the community and functional genes in the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of PBDE-47 treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge.

  6. Low strength wastewater treatment under low temperature conditions by a novel sulfur redox action process.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Bungo, Y; Takahashi, M; Sumino, H; Nagano, A; Araki, N; Imai, T; Yamazaki, S; Harada, H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to make a novel wastewater treatment process activated by a sulfur-redox cycle action of microbes in low temperature conditions. This action is carried out by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The process was comprised of a UASB reactor as pre-treatment and an aerobic downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor as post-treatment. As the results of reactor operation, the whole process achieved that over 90% of CODcr removal efficiency, less than 30 mgCODcr/L (less than 15 mgBOD/L) of final effluent, at 12 h of HRT and at 8 degrees C of UASB reactor temperature. Acetobacterium sp. was detected as the predominant species by PCR-DGGE method targeting 16SrDNA with band excision and sequence analysis. In the UASB reactor, various species of sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfobulbus sp., Desulfovibrio sp., and Desulfomicrobium sp., were found by cloning analysis. In the DHS reactor, Tetracoccus sp. presented as dominant. The proposed sulfur-redox action process was considered as an applicable process for low strength wastewater treatment in low temperature conditions.

  7. Middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiomonas sp. RAN5 strain for hydrogen sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryoki; Hirooka, Kayako; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the most toxic and offensively odorous gases and is generated in anaerobic bioreactors. A middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB), Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5, was isolated and applied for H2S removal from both artificial and anaerobically digested gas. When a bioreactor containing medium inoculated with RAN5 was aerated continuously with artificial gas (containing 100 ppm H2S) at 45 degrees C for 156 hr, the H2S concentration in the vented gas was reduced by 99%. This was not affected by the presence of other microbes in the bioreactor The H2S removal efficiency of the RAN5 bioreactor for anaerobically digested gas was greater than 99% at influent H2S concentrations ranging from 2 to 1800 ppm; the efficiency decreased to 90% at influent H2S concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 cannot survive at room temperature, and thus its leakage from a wastewater treatment plant would not damage sewage systems. These data suggest that Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 may be a useful microorganism for H2S removal.

  8. Mechanism of H2S removal during landfill stabilization in waste biocover soil, an alterative landfill cover.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Xia, Fang-Fang; Bai, Yun; Wang, Jing; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2012-05-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is one of the primary contributors to odors at landfills. The mechanism of waste biocover soil (WBS) for H(2)S removal was investigated in simulated landfill systems with the contrast experiment of a landfill cover soil (LCS). The H(2)S removal efficiency was higher than 90% regardless of the WBS or LCS covers. The input of landfill gas (LFG) could stimulate the growth of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycete, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the WBS cover, while that caused a decrease of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the populations of actinomycete and fungi in the bottom layer of the LCS cover. As H(2)S inputted, the sulfide content in the WBS cover increased and reached the maximum on day 30. In the LCS cover, the highest soil sulfide content was exhibited in the bottom layer during the whole experiment. After exposure to LFG, the lower pH value and higher sulfate content were observed in the top layer of the WBS cover, while there was not a significant difference in different layers of the LCS cover. The results indicated a more rapid biotransformation between sulfide and sulfate occurred in the WBS cover compared to the LCS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of sulfur forms on heavy metals bioleaching from contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Fang, D; Zhao, L; Zhou, L X; Shan, H X

    2009-06-01

    The use of recyclable forms of sulfur will exclude the risk of sediment reacidification and reduce the cost of bioleaching process. Three different forms of sulfur (namely sulfur powder, prills and pieces) were used to examine the utilization and recycle of sulfur, used as energy substrate for sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the bioleaching of heavy metal-contaminated sediments. The results showed that despite their relatively smaller surface areas, the efficiency of metal bioleaching with sulfur prills and pieces were comparable to that with sulfur powder. After 13 days of bioleaching, 71-74% of Zn, 58-62% of Cu, and 22-31% of Cr could be leached from the sediments, respectively. During bioleaching, most of the oxidizable and reducible forms of metals were transformed to acid soluble, posing a favorable condition for final metals removal. Sulfur recycling experiments showed that the recovered sulfur prills and pieces were as the same effective in pH reduction as fresh sulfur, revealing the feasibility of eventual reuse of the recycled sulfur in the bioleaching process. Further studies are required to testify the performance of these recyclable forms of sulfur in future large-scale bioleaching reactor.

  10. Characterization of the bacterial community in the sediment of a brackish lake with oyster aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Santander-De Leon, Sheila Mae S; Okunishi, Suguru; Kihira, Masaki; Nakano, Miyo; Nuñal, Sharon N; Hidaka, Masayasu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Maeda, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and bacterial community in sediments of Lake Shiraishi, a lake with brackish water, were characterized to elucidate the influence of oyster farming and seawater and freshwater inflow. Physicochemical analyses suggested the marine origin of the sediment at the mouth of the lake, while higher organic matter load and the resultant anaerobic, reductive condition of the sediments of the inner part were observed. The bacterial community in the sediments reflects these sediment environments: the bacterial community in the vicinities of oyster farms included sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) , although sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were found at all the sampling sites. In addition, similarity of the band profiles obtained with 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) -denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) decreased in proportion to the distance from the mouth of the lake to the oyster farms in the inner part. This study was able to characterize the microbial community shift in brackish lake sediments with an oyster aquaculture system through the molecular fingerprinting technique, DGGE, in relation to their physicochemical characteristics.

  11. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Monitoring and Preventing Reservoir Souring Using Molecular Microbiological Methods (MMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittel, Antje

    The injection of seawater during the process of secondary oil recovery in offshore oilfields supplies huge amounts of sulphate to the prokaryotic reservoir communities. Together with the presence of oil organics and their degradation products as electron donors, this facilitates the enrichment and growth of sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in the reservoir, as well as in pipings and top-side installations (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Vance and Thrasher, 2005). The activity of SRP causes severe economic problems due to the reactivity and toxicity of the produced hydrogen sulphide (H2S), one of the major problems being reservoir souring. Besides the use of broad-spectrum biocides or inhibitors for sulphate reduction, the addition of nitrate effectively decreased the net production of H2S in model column studies (Myhr et al., 2002; Hubert et al., 2005; Dunsmore et al., 2006) and field trials (Telang et al., 1997; Bødtker et al., 2008). The mechanisms by which nitrate addition might affect souring control are (i) the stimulation of heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that outcompete SRP for electron donors, (ii) the activity of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB), and (iii) the inhibition of SRP by the production of nitrite and nitrous oxides (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Hubert and Voordouw, 2007).

  12. [Chronic hypocalcemia due to anti-calcium sensing receptor antibodies].

    PubMed

    Marques, Pedro; Santos, Rita; Cavaco, Branca; Leite, Valeriano

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O hipoparatiroidismo cursa com hipocalcemia e é mais frequentemente registado após cirurgia cervical. A etiologia autoimune é mais rara e difícil de diagnosticar. Caso clínico: Mulher, 52 anos, sem antecedentes pessoais, medicamentosos ou familiares relevantes, referenciada por hipocalcemia e calcificação dos núcleos da base, detetados no decurso de investigação de quadro de mialgias. Além de hipocalcemia (4,6 mg/dL), foi verificada hiperfosfatemia (8,7 mg/dL), hormona paratiroideia indetetável, calciúria, fosfatúria e magnesúria baixas. A análise molecular do gene CaSR excluiu mutações germinais. A pesquisa de anticorpos anti-receptor sensível do cálcio (anti-CaSR) foi positiva. Atualmente está assintomática e normocalcémica sob terapêutica com cálcio e vitamina D. Discussão: Embora rara, a hipocalcemia por hipoparatiroidismo autoimune deve ponderar-se em adultos sem antecedentes de cirurgia cervical, medicação hipocalcemiante, história familiar ou fenótipo sugestivo de doença genética. Hormona paratiroideia diminuída ou indetetável exclui pseudohipoparatiroidismo e a positividade para anti-CaSR confirma o diagnóstico.

  13. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Cai, Lin; Bougouffa, Salim; Chiu, Jill Man Ying; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges play important roles in benthic environments and are sensitive to environmental stresses. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s and are cytotoxic and genotoxic to organisms. In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our results showed that the bacterial community shifted from an autotrophic bacteria-dominated community to a heterotrophic bacteria-dominated community in response to PBDE-47 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) was dominant (>80% in abundance) in the untreated sponge. However, exposure to a high concentration (1 μg/L) of PBDE-47 caused a substantial decrease in the potential symbiont and an enrichment of heterotrophic bacteria like Clostridium. A metagenomic analysis showed a selective effect of the high concentration treatment on the functional gene composition of the enriched heterotrophic bacteria, revealing an enrichment for the functions responsible for DNA repair, multidrug efflux pumping, and bacterial chemotaxis and motility. This study demonstrated that PBDE-47 induced a shift in the composition of the community and functional genes in the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of PBDE-47 treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge. PMID:25642227

  14. Enhancement of the 1-Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient of the Anti-Inflammatory Indomethacin in the Presence of Lidocaine and Other Local Anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Tateuchi, Ryo; Sagawa, Naoki; Shimada, Yohsuke; Goto, Satoru

    2015-07-30

    Side effects and excessive potentiation of drug efficacy caused by polypharmacy are becoming important social issues. The apparent partition coefficient of indomethacin (log P'IND) increases in the presence of lidocaine, and this is used as a physicochemical model for investigating polypharmacy. We examined the changes in log P'IND caused by clinically used local anesthetics-lidocaine, tetracaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, and dibucaine-and by structurally similar basic drugs-procainamide, imipramine, and diltiazem. The quantitative structure-activity relationship study of log P'IND showed that the partition coefficient values (log PLA) and the structural entropic terms (ΔSobs, log f) of the additives affect log P'IND. These results indicate that the local anesthetics and structurally similar drugs function as phase-transfer catalysts, increasing the membrane permeability of indomethacin via heterogeneous intermolecular association. Therefore, we expect that the potency of indomethacin, an acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, will be increased by concurrent administration of the other drugs.

  15. The effects of risk perception and flight experience on airline pilots' locus of control with regard to safety operation behaviors.

    PubMed

    You, Xuqun; Ji, Ming; Han, Haiyan

    2013-08-01

    The primary objective of this paper was to integrate two research traditions, social cognition approach and individual state approach, and to understand the relationships between locus of control (LOC), risk perception, flight time, and safety operation behavior (SOB) among Chinese airline pilots. The study sample consisted of 193 commercial airline pilots from China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results showed that internal locus of control directly affected pilot safety operation behavior. Risk perception seemed to mediate the relationship between locus of control and safety operation behaviors, and total flight time moderated internal locus of control. Thus, locus of control primarily influences safety operation behavior indirectly by affecting risk perception. The total effect of internal locus of control on safety behaviors is larger than that of external locus of control. Furthermore, the safety benefit of flight experience is more pronounced among pilots with high internal loci of control in the early and middle flight building stages. Practical implications for aviation safety and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison and optimization of methods and factors affecting the transformation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chan, Weng-Tat; Verma, Chandra S; Lane, David P; Gan, Samuel Ken-En

    2013-12-12

    DNA manipulation routinely requires competent bacteria that can be made using one of numerous methods. To determine the best methods, we compared four commonly used chemical methods (DMSO, MgCl2-CaCl2, CaCl2 and Hanahan's methods) on frequently used Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains: DH5α, XL-1 Blue, SCS110, JM109, TOP10 and BL21-(DE3)-PLysS. Hanahan's method was found to be most effective for DH5α, XL-1 Blue and JM109 strains (P<0.05), whilst the CaCl2 method was best for SCS110, TOP10 and BL21 strains (P<0.05). The use of SOB (super optimal broth) over LB [Luria-Bertani (broth)] growth media was found to enhance the competency of XL-1 Blue (P<0.05), dampened JM109's competency (P<0.05), and had no effect on the other strains (P>0.05). We found no significant differences between using 45 or 90 s heat shock across all the six strains (P>0.05). Through further optimization by means of concentrating the aliquots, we were able to get further increases in transformation efficiencies. Based on the optimized parameters and methods, these common laboratory E. coli strains attained high levels of TrE (transformation efficiency), thus facilitating the production of highly efficient and cost-effective competent bacteria.

  17. Allium stipitatum Extract Exhibits In Vivo Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Accelerates Burn Wound Healing in a Full-Thickness Murine Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Jeevajothi Nathan, Jayakayatri; Abba, Yusuf; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2017-01-01

    The in vivo antibacterial and burn wound healing potency of Persian shallot bulbs (Allium stipitatum) were explored in a mice burn model infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts were tested. Female BALB/c mice were inflicted with third-degree thermal injury followed by infection with MRSA. ASHE and ASDE formulated with simple ointment base (SOB) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w) were topically applied to burn wounds twice a day for 20 days. Silver sulfadiazine (1%) served as drug positive control. Microbiological analysis was carried out on 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postwounding (dpw) and histopathological analysis at the end of the experiment (20 dpw). Both ointments demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with complete elimination of MRSA at 48-72 h after infection. The rate of wound contraction was higher (95-100%) in mice groups treated with ASHE and ASDE ointments after 15 dpw. Histological analysis revealed significant increase (p < 0.05) in epithelialization and collagenation in treated groups. The ASHE and ASDE were found to be relatively noncytotoxic and safe to Vero cell line (383.4 μg mL(-1); 390.6 μg mL(-1)), suggesting the extracts as safe topical antibacterial as well as promising alternatives in managing thermal injuries.

  18. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  19. Symptom Interference Severity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Matura, Lea Ann; McDonough, Annette; Carroll, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Context While assessing symptom severity is an important component of evaluating symptoms, understanding those symptoms that interfere with patients’ lives is also key. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic disease resulting in right heart failure and increased mortality. Patients with PAH experience multiple symptoms but we do not know which symptoms and to what extent their symptoms interfere with daily life. Objectives To: 1) describe the prevalence of those symptoms that interfere with life; 2) describe the severity of symptom interference; and 3) determine those sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and interfering symptoms associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with PAH. Methods A convenience sample of 191 patients with PAH completed a sociodemographic form; the Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Symptom Interference Scale (PAHSIS) and the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36) to measure HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to analyze demographic and medical characteristics along with symptom interference from the PAHSIS as predictors of HRQOL from the composite mental and physical health summary scores of the SF-36. Results The most interfering symptoms reported were fatigue, shortness of breath with exertion and difficulty sleeping. Age, gender, functional class, oxygen use, fatigue, dizziness and Raynaud’s phenomenon were associated with the HRQOL physical health summary scores. The symptoms fatigue and SOB while lying down were associated with the HRQOL mental health summary scores. Conclusion Patients with PAH are experiencing multiple symptoms that are interfering with their HRQOL and ability to function. PMID:26300023

  20. A 'Disease Severity Index' to identify individuals with Subjective Memory Decline who will progress to mild cognitive impairment or dementia.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daniel; Falahati, Farshad; Linden, Cecilia; Buckley, Rachel F; Ellis, Kathryn A; Savage, Greg; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Ames, David; Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric

    2017-03-13

    Subjective memory decline (SMD) is a heterogeneous condition. While SMD might be the earliest sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it also occurs in aging and various neurological, medical, and psychiatric conditions. Identifying those with higher risk to develop dementia is thus a major challenge. We tested a novel disease severity index generated by multivariate data analysis with numerous structural MRI measures as input. The index was used to identify SMD individuals with high risk of progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. A total of 69 healthy controls, 86 SMD, 45 MCI, and 38 AD patients were included. Subjects were followed up for 7.5 years. Clinical, cognitive, PET amyloid imaging and APOE ε4 data were used as outcome variables. The results showed that SMD evidenced cognitive performance intermediate between healthy controls and MCI. The disease severity index identified eleven (13%) SMD individuals with an AD-like pattern of brain atrophy. These individuals showed lower cognitive performance, increased CDR-SOB, higher amyloid burden and worse clinical progression (6.2 times higher likelihood to develop MCI, dementia or die than healthy controls). The current disease severity index may have relevance for clinical practice, as well as for selecting appropriate individuals for clinical trials.

  1. Effect of culture intensity and probiotics application on microbiological and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Muralidhar, M; Solanki, Haresh G; Patel, Pretesh P; Patel, Krishna; Gopla, Chavali

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the complex interaction among stocking density and extent of probiotic use with production and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds to suggest suitable management strategies. The study was conducted inL. vannamei culture ponds with stocking density of 35 nos sq m(-1) (Group I) and 56 nos sq m(-1) (Group II) and probiotic application @16.5 kg ha(-1) and 157 kg ha(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference noted between the two groups of ponds in respect to ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in water samples, whereas significantly higher levels of AOB in water samples of high intensity culture ponds (Group II) and NOB in sediment samples of Group I were observed. The levels of sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphur reducing bacteria (SRB) in Group I pond water and in Group II sediment were significantly higher than their corresponding levels in the other group. In both the groups, ammonia, nitrite and sulphide concentrations were below toxic limits prescribed for shrimp farming. Comparing the production parameters at harvest revealed that low intensity culture ponds (Group I) had higher growth rate, average body weight and significantly lower FCR and higher survival rate than high intensity culture ponds (Group II). The results indicated that application of microbial products in higher quantities did not benefit significantly, and there is a need to regulate quantum and schedule of biological product usage for economically sustainable shrimp culture.

  2. Aeromonas sobria infection in farmed mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) in Korea, a bacteriological survey

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J; Koo, B. H; Kim, D. H; Kim, D. W; Park, S. W

    2015-01-01

    A disease outbreak occurred in June 2012 among mud loach cultured on pond farms in Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. Mortality rates reached up to 1.2% in the farm per day. Typical clinical signs were bleeding ulcer at the middle portion of head and haemorrhagic erosion of the operculum. Based on biochemical characteristics, the causative bacterium isolated from diseased fish was identified as Aeromonas sobria. The isolate expressed two haemolytic genes, aerolysin (sob) and haemolysin (asa1) genes. Histopathologically, liver showed hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and congestion in sinusoids. The spleen exhibited necrotized splenocytes and haemorrhagic pulps. In the kidney, glomerular destruction, renal tubular necrosis and haemorrhage were observed. Experimental infection (infectious dose of 106, 107, and 108 cfu fish-1) of healthy mud loach with the isolate resulted in the development of clinical signs similar to those seen in the farm. By injection with an infectious dose of 106 cfu fish-1, the mortality rate was 10.3% within 7 days post infection. A mortality rate of 60.9% was reached within 2 days when an infectious dose of 107 cfu fish-1 was used. Otherwise, all fish died within 1 day when injected with 108 cfu fish-1. The results demonstrated that A. sobria is involved in the morbidity and mortality of the farmed mud loach. PMID:27175175

  3. Bioleaching mechanism of Zn, Pb, In, Ag, Cd and As from Pb/Zn smelting slag by autotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Huang, Qifei; Li, Ting; Xin, Baoping; Chen, Shi; Guo, Xingming; Liu, Changhao; Li, Yuping

    2015-08-15

    A few studies have focused on release of valuable/toxic metals from Pb/Zn smelting slag by heterotrophic bioleaching using expensive yeast extract as an energy source. The high leaching cost greatly limits the practical potential of the method. In this work, autotrophic bioleaching using cheap sulfur or/and pyrite as energy matter was firstly applied to tackle the smelting slag and the bioleaching mechanisms were explained. The results indicated autotrophic bioleaching can solubilize valuable/toxic metals from slag, yielding maximum extraction efficiencies of 90% for Zn, 86% for Cd and 71% for In, although the extraction efficiencies of Pb, As and Ag were poor. The bioleaching performance of Zn, Cd and Pb was independent of leaching system, and leaching mechanism was acid dissolution. A maximum efficiency of 25% for As was achieved by acid dissolution in sulfursulfur oxidizing bacteria (S-SOB), but the formation of FeAsO4 reduced extraction efficiency in mixed energy source - mixed culture (MS-MC). Combined works of acid dissolution and Fe(3+) oxidation in MS-MC was responsible for the highest extraction efficiency of 71% for In. Ag was present in the slag as refractory AgPb4(AsO4)3 and AgFe2S3, so extraction did not occur.

  4. Temperature dependence of the heterogeneous uptake of acrylic acid on Arizona test dust.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qifan; Wang, Yidan; Wu, Lingyan; Jing, Bo; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the temperature dependence of the heterogeneous uptake of acrylic acid on Arizona test dust (ATD) has been investigated within a temperature range of 255-315K using a Knudsen cell reactor. Combined with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) experiment, it was found that acrylic acid could adsorb on ATD via surface OH groups and convert to carboxylate on the particle surface. The kinetics study suggests that the initial true uptake coefficient (γt) of acrylic acid on ATD decreases from (4.02±0.12)×10(-5) to (1.73±0.05)×10(-5) with a temperature increase from 255 to 315K. According to the temperature dependence of uptake coefficients, the enthalpy (ΔHobs) and entropy (ΔSobs) of uptake processes were determined to be -(9.60±0.38) KJ/mol and -(121.55±1.33) J·K/mol, respectively. The activation energy for desorption (Edes) was calculated to be (14.57±0.60) KJ/mol. These results indicated that the heterogeneous uptake of acrylic acid on ATD surface was sensitive to temperature. The heterogeneous uptake on ATD could affect the concentration of acrylic acid in the atmosphere, especially at low temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Sulphur-cycling bacteria and ciliated protozoans in a Beggiatoaceae mat covering organically enriched sediments beneath a salmon farm in a southern Chilean fjord.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Carlos P; Valenzuela, Cristian; Matamala, Yessica; Godoy, Félix A; Aranda, Nicol

    2015-11-15

    The colourless mat covering organically enriched sediments underlying an intensive salmon farm in Estero Pichicolo, southern Chile, was surveyed by combined 454 PyroTag and conventional Sanger sequencing of 16S/18S ribosomal RNA genes for Bacteria and Eukarya. The mat was dominated by the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Candidatus Isobeggiatoa, Candidatus Parabeggiatoa and Arcobacter. By order of their abundances, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were represented by diverse deltaproteobacterial Desulfobacteraceae, but also within Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfuromonadaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. The eukaryotic PyroTags were dominated by polychaetes, copepods and nematodes, however, ciliated protozoans were highly abundant in microscopy observations, and were represented by the genera Condylostoma, Loxophyllum and Peritromus. Finally, the abundant Sulfurimonas/Sulfurovum also suggest the occurrence of zero-valence sulphur oxidation, probably derived from Beggiatoaceae as a result of bacteriovorus infaunal activity or generated as free S(0) by the Arcobacter bacteria. The survey suggests an intense and complex sulphur cycle within the surface of salmon-farm impacted sediments.

  6. Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2012-03-15

    The effects of disinfection and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipe in a model reclaimed water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). The corrosion scales formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the bacterial characteristics of biofilm on the surface were determined using several molecular methods. The corrosion scales from the ARs with chlorine included predominantly α-FeOOH and Fe2O3, while CaPO3(OH)·2H2O and α-FeOOH were the predominant phases after chloramines replaced chlorine. Studies of the consumption of chlorine and iron release indicated that the formation of dense oxide layers and biofilm inhibited iron corrosion, causing stable lower chlorine decay. It was verified that iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) such as Sediminibacterium sp., and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) such as Shewanella sp., synergistically interacted with the corrosion product to prevent further corrosion. For the ARs without disinfection, α-FeOOH was the predominant phase at the primary stage, while CaCO3 and α-FeOOH were predominant with increasing time. The mixed corrosion-inducing bacteria, including the IRB Shewanella sp., the IOB Sediminibacterium sp., and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Limnobacter thioxidans strain, promoted iron corrosion by synergistic interactions in the primary period, while anaerobic IRB became the predominant corrosion bacteria, preventing further corrosion via the formation of protective layers.

  7. Primary health care assessment from the users' perspectives: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paula, Weslla Karla Albuquerque Silva de; Samico, Isabella Chagas; Caminha, Maria de Fátima Costa; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Silva, Suzana Lins da

    2016-04-01

    Analyze the evaluation of the attributes of primary care made by users of basic units of Brazilian health by using PCATool instrument adapted to Brazil. A systematic literature review conducted in the PubMed database, IBECS, LILACS, SciELO and BDTD. 4,405 documents were found, selected 23 full texts. After Full reading and application of eligibility criteria, 14 articles were evaluated. The studies showed that primary care performs well in longitudinality attributes, completeness and coordination and worse performance on attributes access first contact, family counseling and community orientation, even in the basic units with the Family Health. The users of basic health units assessed as unsatisfactory attributes considered essential for a health care more equitable and competing for user autonomy and social control. It is inferred that there are still obstacles hindering user access to basic health services and care actions are still being developed without favoring user participation and the community context in which they live. Analisar a avaliação dos atributos da Atenção Básica feita por usuários de unidades básicas de saúde brasileiras, mediante utilização de adaptações do instrumento PCATool para o Brasil. Revisão sistemática da literatura realizada nas bases de dados Medline/PubMed, LILACS, IBECS, SciELO e BDTD. Foram encontrados 4.405 documentos, sendo selecionados 23 textos completos. Após leitura integral e aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade, 14 artigos foram avaliados. Os estudos apontaram que a Atenção Básica tem bom desempenho nos atributos longitudinalidade, integralidade e coordenação e pior desempenho nos atributos acesso de primeiro contato, orientação familiar e a orientação comunitária, mesmo nas unidades básicas com Saúde da Família. Os usuários das unidades básicas de saúde avaliaram como insatisfatórios atributos considerados fundamentais para uma atenção à saúde mais equânime e concorrente para

  8. Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation Resulting from Night Shift Work on Young Doctors.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Inês; Teixeira, Fátima; dos Santos, José Moutinho; Ferreira, António Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Avaliar a privação do sono e seus efeitos sobre os jovens médicos relativamente à capacidade de concentração e desempenho psicomotor. Material e Métodos: Dezoito médicos, com idades entre 26 - 33 anos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo sem privação de sono (sem trabalho nocturno) e grupo com privação de sono (no mínimo 12 horas de trabalho nocturno / semana). Aplicámos o Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh para rastrear a presença de patologia do sono e a Escala de Sonolência Epworth para avaliar subjectivamente a sonolência diurna; usamos actigrafia e o diário de sono para avaliar a higiene do sono e os ciclos de sono-vigília. Para demonstrar os efeitos da privação do sono, foi aplicado o teste de Toulouse-Piéron (teste de concentração) e uma bateria de trêstestes de tempo de reação após o período de trabalho nocturno. Resultados: O grupo com privação de sono apresentou maior sonolência diurna na Escala de Sonolência Epworth (p < 0,05) e durante a semana a privação de sono foi maior (p < 0,010). A duração média do sono durante o período de trabalho nocturno foi de 184,2 minutos para o grupo com privação de sono e 397,7 minutos para grupo sem privação de sono (p < 0,001). No teste Toulouse-Piéron o grupo com privação de sono apresentou maior número de omissões (p < 0,05) com um pior resultado no índice de concentração (p < 0,05). Os testes psicomotores que avaliaram a resposta a estímulos simples revelaram maior latência na resposta (p < 0,05) e mais erros (p < 0,05) no grupo com privação de sono; no teste de reacção a instrução o e grupo com privação de sono apresentou pior índice de perfeição (p < 0,05); no teste de movimentos finos não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. Discussão: A privação de sono aguda resultante do trabalho nocturno em profissões médicas está associada a uma diminuição da atenção e concentração e no atraso de resposta

  9. [Diabetes Knowledge Test Feasibility in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Constança; Santiago, Luiz

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: Dada a crescente incidência da diabetes tipo 2 e considerando que parte do seu controlo se deve à atitude do pacienteface à doença, torna-se importante munir os profissionais de saúde com ferramentas capazes de determinar as carências educacionais dos utentes, permitindo uma intervenção mais personalizada na correção de hábitos nocivos. Objetivos: Verificação da fiabilidade da Escala de Conhecimentos da Diabetes em Portugal. Análise e correlação das diferentes variáveis sociodemográficas e patológicas com o número de respostas corretas. Material e Métodos: Aplicação da escala a uma amostra de conveniência de diabéticos tipo 2 do Centro de Saúde da Covilhã.Resultados: Na generalidade, as questões obtiveram um valor de alfa de Cronbach > 0,800. Diabéticos com melhores resultados demonstraram maior controlo, estabelecendo uma relação positiva entre o conhecimento e o controlo da diabetes. Apenas 9,2% dos diabéticos apresentou bom conhecimento sobre a doença, sendo que a maioria (65,8%) demonstrou um conhecimento mediano. Os insulinotratados exibiram os piores resultados (77,6% com baixo conhecimento). As variáveis ‘via de tratamento’ e ‘complicações’ demonstraram ter impacto no desempenho obtido no questionário (valores p iguais a 0,00 e 0,048, respetivamente). Os diabéticos rurais, os sem complicações e os não insulinotratados revelaram-se os mais cumpridores e conhecedores. Discussão: Contrariando estudos anteriores, variáveis como a idade e o grau de escolaridade não demonstraram influenciar o conhecimentodo diabético. Habitantes do meio rural e diabéticos tratados oralmente obtiveram melhores resultados do que o que havia sido defendido previamente. Conclusão: Demonstrou-se a fidelidade psicométrica moderada a elevada do teste, assim como uma correlação positiva entre o controloda diabetes e o desempenho no inquérito. Espera-se que a sua futura aplicação possibilite identificar as

  10. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weight< 1500 g. Their motor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  11. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  12. Educational interventions to improve inhaler techniques and their impact on asthma and COPD control: a pilot effectiveness-implementation trial.

    PubMed

    Maricoto, Tiago; Madanelo, Sofia; Rodrigues, Luís; Teixeira, Gilberto; Valente, Carla; Andrade, Lília; Saraiva, Alcina

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact that educational interventions to improve inhaler techniques have on the clinical and functional control of asthma and COPD, we evaluated 44 participants before and after such an intervention. There was a significant decrease in the number of errors, and 20 patients (46%) significantly improved their technique regarding prior exhalation and breath hold. In the asthma group, there were significant improvements in the mean FEV1, FVC, and PEF (of 6.4%, 8.6%, and 8.3% respectively). Those improvements were accompanied by improvements in Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test scores but not in Asthma Control Test scores. In the COPD group, there were no significant variations. In asthma patients, educational interventions appear to improve inhaler technique, clinical control, and functional control. RESUMO Para avaliar o impacto do ensino da técnica inalatória no controle clínico e funcional de pacientes com asma ou DPOC, incluíram-se 44 participantes antes e após essa intervenção. Houve uma diminuição significativa no número de erros cometidos, sendo que 20 pacientes (46%) melhoraram significativamente sua técnica na expiração prévia e apneia final. No grupo asma, houve significativa melhora nas médias de FEV1 (6,4%), CVF (8,6%) e PFE (8,3%), e essa melhora correlacionou-se com os resultados no Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test, mas não com os do Asthma Control Test. No grupo DPOC, não houve variações significativas. O ensino da técnica inalatória parece melhorar seu desempenho e os controles clínico e funcional em pacientes com asma.

  13. Assessment in the primary care of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: incipient actions in sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Mariana Arantes; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistella; Andrade, Marta Campagnoni; Prado, Rogério Ruscitto do; Castanheira, Elen Rose Lodeiro

    2017-08-17

    the highest correlation with the other ones. The implementation of sexual and reproductive health in primary health care in the services studied is incipient. The revision of the purpose of the work, the dissemination of technologies, and the investing in permanent education are needed. The evaluative framework built can be used by the sexual and reproductive health program services and management in primary health care, thereby contributing to their actions. Avaliar o desempenho em saúde sexual e reprodutiva de serviços de atenção primária à saúde do Sistema Único de Saúde, no estado de São Paulo. Construiu-se quadro avaliativo para a saúde sexual e reprodutiva com a categorização de 99 indicadores em três domínios: promoção à saúde sexual e reprodutiva (25), prevenção e assistência às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis/aids (43), e atenção à saúde reprodutiva (31). Esse quadro foi aplicado para avaliar as respostas dos serviços ao questionário Avaliação da Qualidade da Atenção Básica em Municípios de São Paulo (QualiAB), em 2010. Calcularam-se as porcentagens de respostas positivas aos indicadores e o desempenho na dimensão saúde sexual e reprodutiva, segundo os domínios; e verificou-se sua contribuição para o escore geral em saúde sexual e reprodutiva (Friedman), participação relativa (Dunn) e correlação (Spearman). Participaram 2.735 serviços, localizados em 586 municípios (distribuídos nos 17 departamentos regionais de saúde paulistas), dos quais 70,6% municípios com menos de 100.000 habitantes. A média geral do desempenho desses serviços para saúde sexual e reprodutiva é 56,8%. As ações são caracterizadas por: pré-natal com início e exames adequados, melhor organização para puerpério imediato do que tardio, e planejamento reprodutivo seletivo para alguns contraceptivos; prevenção baseada em proteção específica, limites na prevenção da sífilis congênita, no tratamento de doen

  14. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana Maria Maniero; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2016-08-18

    to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%), infectious-sharps (31-42%) and recyclable (5-17%). The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services. propor instrumento para facilitar diagnóstico, elaboração e avaliação de Plano de Gerenciamento de Resíduos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde e apresentar os resultados da aplicação em quatro unidades selecionadas. pesquisa descritiva que contemplou as etapas de construção/aplicação do instrumento proposto e a avaliação de desempenho do gerenciamento de resíduos nas unidades estudadas. geração de instrumento composto por cinco formulários; proposta de indicadores específicos de geração de resíduos para unidades assistenciais de saúde sem

  15. Improvement of nursing students' learning outcomes through scenario-based skills training.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Nurcan

    2016-08-08

    presenta los errores comunes de los alumnos en la ejecución de inyecciones intramuscular y subcutánea y su desarrollo de capacidades de acceso intravenoso, tratadas en el examen de laboratorio de habilidades de enfermería. un análisis de los errores más comunes de los alumnos reveló que el más común fue el no seguimiento de los principios de asepsia para las tres habilidades ((intramuscular, inyección subcutánea, acceso intravenoso) en el primer año de la capacitación basada en escenarios. Las notas de desempeño de los alumnos en la prueba aumentaron gradualmente, excepto en el semestre de otoño del año académico 2009-2010. Fue observado que la capacitación basada en escenarios redujo los errores comunes de los alumnos en los exámenes y aumentó su desempeño en las pruebas. tanto los alumnos como los profesores respondieron positivamente a ese método. La capacitación basada en escenarios está disponible para uso en combinación con otros métodos de capacitación. neste estudo se analisou a influência da formação de capacidades baseada em cenários nas capacidades de aprendizagem de alunos. o autor avaliou os textos de exames de laboratório de habilidades de enfermagem produzidos por 605 alunos de segundo ano em cursos de enfermagem durante sete anos. O estudo determinou os erros comuns dos alunos e o trabalho em laboratório adotou o formato baseado em cenários. A eficácia desse método foi avaliada mediante o número de erros que os alunos cometeram e suas notas de desempenho em exames de laboratório. Este estudo apresenta os erros comuns dos alunos na execução de injeções intramuscular e subcutânea e seu desenvolvimento de habilidades de acesso intravenoso, tratadas no exame de laboratório de habilidades de enfermagem. uma análise dos erros mais comuns dos alunos revelou que o mais comum foi o não seguimento dos princípios de assepsia para as três habilidades (intramuscular, injeção subcutânea, acesso intravenoso) no primeiro

  16. Multiprofissional electronic protocol in ophtalmology with enfasis in strabismus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Christie Graf; Moreira, Ana Tereza Ramos; Pinto, José Simão DE Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    to create and validate an electronic database in ophthalmology focused on strabismus, to computerize this database in the form of a systematic data collection software named Electronic Protocol, and to incorporate this protocol into the Integrated System of Electronic Protocols (SINPE(c)). this is a descriptive study, with the methodology divided into three phases: (1) development of a theoretical ophthalmologic database with emphasis on strabismus; (2) computerization of this theoretical ophthalmologic database using SINPE(c) and (3) interpretation of the information with demonstration of results to validate the protocol. We inputed data from the charts of fifty patients with known strabismus through the Electronic Protocol for testing and validation. the new electronic protocol was able to store information regarding patient history, physical examination, laboratory exams, imaging results, diagnosis and treatment of patients with ophthalmologic diseases, with emphasis on strabismus. We included 2,141 items in this master protocol and created 20 new specific electronic protocols for strabismus, each with its own specifics. Validation was achieved through correlation and corroboration of the symptoms and confirmed diagnoses of the fifty included patients with the diagnostic criteria for the twenty new strabismus protocols. a new, validated electronic database focusing on ophthalmology, with emphasis on strabismus, was successfully created through the standardized collection of information, and computerization of the database using proprietary software. This protocol is ready for deployment to facilitate data collection, sorting and application for practitioners and researchers in numerous specialties. criar uma base eletrônica de dados em oftalmologia com ênfase em estrabismo através da coleta padronizada de informações. Informatizar esta base sob a forma de software para a coleta sistemática de dados chamado "Protocolo Eletrônico" e incorporar este

  17. Decoupling the Impacts of Heterotrophy and Autotrophy on Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2013-12-01

    Within caves such as Movile Caves (Romania), the Frasassi Caves (Italy), and Lower Kane Cave (LKC, Wyoming, USA) the combination of abiotic autoxidation and microbiological oxidation of H2S produces SO42- and H+ that promotes limestone dissolution through sulfuric-acid speleogenesis (SAS). Microbial sulfide oxidation by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been shown recently to be the dominant process leading to speleogenesis in these caves. However, due to the inherently large diversity of microbial communities within these environments, there are a variety of metabolic pathways that can impact limestone dissolution and carbon cycling to varying degrees. In order to investigate these variations we outfitted a continuous flow bioreactor with a Picarro Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) that continuously monitored and logged 12CO2 and 13CO2 at ppmv sensitivity and isotope ratios at <0.3‰ precision in simulated cave atmospheres. Bioreactors containing Madison Limestone were inoculated with either a monoculture of the mixotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Thiothrix unzii or a mixed environmental (LKC) sulfur-metabolizing community. Ca2+ and pH were also continuously logged in order to quantify the impact of microbial metabolism on limestone dissolution rate. We found an order of magnitude of variability in limestone dissolution rates that were closely tied to microbial metabolism. In monocultures, limestone dissolution was inhibited by excessive reduced sulfur as T. unzii prefers to store sulfur internally as So under these conditions, generating no acidity. The headspace was depleted in 13C when sulfur was being stored as So and enriched in 13C when sulfur was being converted to SO42-. This suggests a preference for a heterotrophy during periods of high sulfur input and autotrophy when sulfur input is low. This was corroborated by an increase in SO42- during low sulfide input and microscope images showed loss of internal sulfur within the filaments

  18. The Microbial Sulfur Cycle at Extremely Haloalkaline Conditions of Soda Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 106 viable cells/cm3. The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na+ – a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as

  19. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 10(6) viable cells/cm(3). The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na(+) - a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as

  20. The Role of Haemoglobin A1c in Screening Obese Children and Adolescents for Glucose Intolerance and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Galhardo, Júlia; Shield, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Em 2012, um comité internacional de peritos em diabetes aconselhou a hemoglobina glicada como teste de rastreio de intolerância à glicose e diabetes mellitus tipo 2 no adulto e em idade pediátrica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilidade deste exame numa população de crianças e adolescentes obesos, maioritariamente de etnia caucasiana.Material e Métodos: Foram recrutados 226 doentes [índice de massa corporal z-score 3,35 ± 0,59, 90% caucasianos, 55% do sexo feminino, idade mediana de 12,3 (âmbito: 8,9 â 17,6) anos] referenciados à consulta de obesidade pediátrica de um hospital terciário, com critérios para rastreio de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Situações de hemoglobinopatia ou de alteração da sobrevida eritrocitária foram excluídas. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a uma prova de tolerância à glicose oral e à medição da hemoglobina glicada.Resultados: Segundo a prova de tolerância à glicose oral, 13 (4,9%) eram pré-diabéticos e nenhum diabético. De acordo com a hemoglobina glicada, 32 seriam pré-diabéticos (29 falsos-positivos) e um diabético (falso positivo, sendo este, na realidade, apenas intolerante à glicose). Por outro lado, 10 pré-diabéticos não seriam identificados (falsos-negativos). A área sob a curva receiver operator characteristic analysis da hemoglobina glicada foi 0,59 (IC 95% 0,40 - 0,78), confirmando a sua reduzida capacidade de discriminação parapré-diabetes. Mais promissoras foram as áreas sob as curvas receiver operator characteristic analysis da glicemia em jejum (0,76; IC 95% 0,66 - 0,87), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (0,77; IC 95% 0,64 - 0,90) e razão triglicerídeos:colesterol HDL (0,81; IC 95% 0,66 - 0,96).Discussão: Em Pediatria, particularmente em populações maioritariamente caucasianas, a hemoglobina glicada parece ser uma má ferramenta para diagnóstico de pré-diabetes.Conclusão: Pelo exposto, parece-nos prematura a utilização da

  1. [Restraints to anticoagulation prescription in atrial fibrillation and attitude towards the new oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Pereira-Da-Silva, Tiago; Souto Moura, Teresa; Azevedo, Luísa; Sá Pereira, Margarida; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Borges, Luís

    2013-01-01

    Introdução e Objetivos: Avaliar a taxa de prescrição de anticoagulantes orais na fibrilhação auricular, os fatores associados à não prescrição, os motivos referidos pelos clínicos para não prescrição de anticoagulantes incluindo os de nova geração e realizar estudo evolutivo a médio prazo. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospetivo sobre casos consecutivos de doentes com fibrilhação auricular com alta hospitalar. Registaram- se os scores CHA2DS2VASc e HASBLED, comorbilidades associadas e a medicação prévia e à data de alta. Na alta hospitalar, o médico assistente indicou em questionário o motivo de não prescrição de anticoagulantes orais e dos novos anticoagulantes orais. Exclusão: contra-indicação absoluta para anticoagulação, CHA2DS2VASc ≤ 1 e doença valvular. Os doentes foram reavaliados um ano após o recrutamento do primeiro doente. Resultados: Identificaram-se 103 candidatos a anticoagulação oral (79,6 ± 8,0 anos; CHA2DS2VASc 5,8 ± 1,4; HASBLED 2,6 ± 1,0; HASBLED ≥ 3 em 55,3%); os anticoagulantes foram prescritos em 34,0%. Fatores associados à não prescrição por ordem decrescente de relevância: uso prévio de antiagregantes, doente acamado e/ou demente, ausência de insuficiência cardíaca e número de fatores de risco hemorrágico. Razões invocadas para não prescrição por ordem decrescente de frequência: risco hemorrágico elevado, pequeno benefício, incapacidade de seguir o esquema terapêutico e dificuldade na monitorização da razão normalizada internacional (INR). Os novos anticoagulantes não foram prescritos e as razões invocadas foram, por ordem decrescente de frequência: informação insuficiente sobre estes fármacos, risco hemorrágico elevado, custo elevado e pequeno benefício. Aos 8,2 ± 2,5 meses de estudo evolutivo 33,3% dos doentes encontravam-se sob anticoagulação sem que os novos anticoagulantes tivessem sido prescritos. Conclusões: Nesta amostra, a taxa de prescrição de

  2. Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.

    2003-08-01

    ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

  3. Advances in designs for Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Gould, Heath; Zhong, Kate

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development.

  4. APOEε2 is associated with milder clinical and pathological Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Qian, Jing; Monsell, Sarah E.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Alzheimer disease (AD) APOEε4 risk allele associates with an earlier age of onset and increased amyloid-β deposition, whereas the protective APOEε2 allele delays the onset and appears to prevent amyloid-β deposition. Yet the clinical and pathological effects of APOEε2 remain uncertain because of its relative rarity. We investigated the effects of APOE ε2 and ε4 alleles on AD pathology and cognition in a large US dataset of well characterized AD patients. Methods We studied individuals from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) autopsy cohort across the entire clinico-pathological continuum of AD. Multivariable models were built to examine the associations between APOE alleles and AD neuropathological changes, using the APOEε3/ε3 group as comparator. Mediation analysis was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of APOE alleles on AD pathology and cognition (CDR-SOB and MMSE). Results Compared to APOEε3/ε3, APOEε2 is independently associated with lower Braak NFT stages and, possibly, fewer neuritic plaques, but has no direct effect on CAA severity, whereas APOEε4 is associated with more neuritic plaques and CAA, but has no independent effect on Braak NFT stage. Unadjusted analyses showed marked differences among APOE genotypes with respect to cognitive performance (ε2>ε3>ε4). Mediation analysis suggests that this is largely explained through effects on pathology. Interpretation Even when adjusted for age of onset, symptom duration and other demographic variables, APOEε2 is associated with milder AD pathology and less severe antemortem cognitive impairment compared to APOE ε3 and ε4 alleles, suggesting a relative neuroprotective effect of APOEε2 in AD. PMID:25623662

  5. Simulações Numéricas de Rotação Nuclear Cometária

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Winter, O. C.

    1999-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta os resultados iniciais de simulações numéricas da evolução rotacional, de um núcleo cometário não esférico, ao longo de uma passagem periélica, levando-se em conta os torques devido a existência dos jatos de poeira e de gás. Inicialmente os autores apresentam um modelo simples (primeira aproximação), com somente um único jato na extremidade do semi-eixo maior, para compreender a variação positiva ou negativa que estas forças não gravitacionais exercem sobre o período de rotação cometário. Posteriormente incrementa-se o número de jatos, os quais são distribuídos ao longo da superfície cometária, para observar-se a contribuição dos efeitos provenientes dos torques originários da liberação da poeira e gás cometários, que provavelmente violará a suposição da livre precessão. Os estados rotacionais, sob torques induzidos devido à sublimação, dependem fortemente da localização das áreas ativas do núcleo. Os cometas P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, P/Tempel 2, P/Forbes e C/Meunier-Dupouy serão observados fotometricamente, pelos autores, no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA) ao longo de algumas noites consecutivas em abril, junho e julho de 1999. Estas observações serão comparadas com as simulações numéricas de rotação cometária.

  6. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Louise Hedley, Paula; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius; Stjernholm, Theresa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-11-01

    Adipokines are biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides, which play a major role in metabolic homeostasis in humans. Leptin has gained increasing attention in pediatrics as a biomarker for various metabolic pathologies. Yet, its usefulness is hampered by the relative lack of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups. A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18 years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by immunoassay. Percentile curves of leptin, sOB-R, and free leptin index were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Significant age and sex-dependent differences in circulating leptin levels were found. In boys, the median leptin concentration for all ages combined was 3.35 μg/L (95%-interval: 0.71-22.47) and in girls, it was 9.89 ng/L (95%-interval: 2.06-41.49). For SOB-R, no sex-specific difference was found, and the median sOB-R concentration was 8.24 μg/L (IQR: 3.58-23.74; range: < 1.56-744.15). We demonstrated an age-dependent correlation with both serum leptin concentration and free leptin index with a gradual and significant increase in girls throughout childhood and adolescence and a significantly higher leptin concentration and free leptin index bell-shaped peak in early adolescence in boys.

  7. AtSOFL1 and AtSOFL2 Act Redundantly as Positive Modulators of the Endogenous Content of Specific Cytokinins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Vankova, Radomira; Malbeck, Jiri; Dobrev, Petre I.; Xu, Yunyuan; Chong, Kang; Neff, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cytokinins have been known for decades to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of endogenous content of specific cytokinins remains limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we characterized two SOB five-like (SOFL) genes, AtSOFL1 and AtSOFL2, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and showed that they acted redundantly in regulating specific cytokinin levels. Analysis of the translational fusion AtSOFL1:AtSOFL1-GUS and AtSOFL2:AtSOFL2-GUS indicated that AtSOFL1 and AtSOFL2 exhibited similar expression patterns. Both proteins were predominantly expressed in the vascular tissues of developing leaves, flowers and siliques, but barely detectable in roots and stems. Overexpression of either AtSOFL1 or AtSOFL2 led to increased cytokinin content and obvious corresponding mutant phenotypes for both transgenic seedlings and adult plants. In addition, overexpression and site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the SOFL domains are necessary for AtSOFL2's overexpression phenotypes. Silencing or disrupting either AtSOFL1 or AtSOFL2 caused no obvious developmental defects. Endogenous cytokinin analysis, however, revealed that compared to the wild type control, the SOFL1-RNAi62 sofl2-1 double mutant accumulated lower levels of trans-zeatin riboside monophosphate (tZRMP) and N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine monophosphate (iPRMP), which are biosynthetic intermediates of bioactive cytokinins. The double mutant also displayed decreased response to exogenous cytokinin in both callus-formation and inhibition-of-hypocotyl-elongation assays. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our data suggest that in plants AtSOFL1 and AtSOFL2 work redundantly as positive modulators in the fine-tuning of specific cytokinin levels as well as responsiveness. PMID:20011053

  8. Effectiveness of regional DTI measures in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease, MCI, and normal aging☆

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Talia M.; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) recently added diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), among several other new imaging modalities, in an effort to identify sensitive biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While anatomical MRI is the main structural neuroimaging method used in most AD studies and clinical trials, DTI is sensitive to microscopic white matter (WM) changes not detectable with standard MRI, offering additional markers of neurodegeneration. Prior DTI studies of AD report lower fractional anisotropy (FA), and increased mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AxD, RD) throughout WM. Here we assessed which DTI measures may best identify differences among AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitively healthy elderly control (NC) groups, in region of interest (ROI) and voxel-based analyses of 155 ADNI participants (mean age: 73.5 ± 7.4; 90 M/65 F; 44 NC, 88 MCI, 23 AD). Both VBA and ROI analyses revealed widespread group differences in FA and all diffusivity measures. DTI maps were strongly correlated with widely-used clinical ratings (MMSE, CDR-sob, and ADAS-cog). When effect sizes were ranked, FA analyses were least sensitive for picking up group differences. Diffusivity measures could detect more subtle MCI differences, where FA could not. ROIs showing strongest group differentiation (lowest p-values) included tracts that pass through the temporal lobe, and posterior brain regions. The left hippocampal component of the cingulum showed consistently high effect sizes for distinguishing groups, across all diffusivity and anisotropy measures, and in correlations with cognitive scores. PMID:24179862

  9. Diverse bacterial groups are associated with corrosive lesions at a Granite Mountain Record Vault (GMRV).

    PubMed

    Kan, J; Chellamuthu, P; Obraztsova, A; Moore, J E; Nealson, K H

    2011-08-01

    This study applied culture-dependent and molecular approaches to examine the bacterial communities at corrosion sites at Granite Mountain Record Vault (GMRV) in Utah, USA, with the goal of understanding the role of microbes in these unexpected corrosion events. Samples from corroded steel chunks, rock particles and waters around the corrosion pits were collected for bacterial isolation and molecular analyses. Bacteria cultivated from these sites were identified as members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In addition, molecular genetic characterization of the communities via nested-polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated the presence of a broad spectrum of bacterial groups, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, neither cultivation nor molecular approaches identified sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), the bacteria commonly implicated as causative organisms were found associated with corrosive lesions in a process referred to as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). The high diversity of bacterial groups at the corrosion sites in comparison with that seen in the source waters suggested to us a role for the microbes in corrosion, perhaps being an expression of a redox-active group of microbes transferring electrons, harvesting energy and producing biomass. The corrosion sites contained highly diverse microbial communities, consistent with the involvement of microbial activities along the redox gradient at corrosion interface. We hypothesize an electron transport model for MIC, involving diverse bacterial groups such as acid-producing bacteria (APB), SRB, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), metal-reducing bacteria (MRB) and metal-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The characterization of micro-organisms that influence metal-concrete corrosion at GMRV has significant implications for corrosion control in high

  10. Formation and release behavior of iron corrosion products under the influence of bacterial communities in a simulated water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Lytle, Darren A; Bai, Yaohui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-03-01

    To understand the formation and release behavior of iron corrosion products in a drinking water distribution system, annular reactors (ARs) were used to investigate the development processes of corrosion products and biofilm community as well as the concomitant iron release behavior. Results showed that the formation and transformation of corrosion products and bacterial community are closely related to each other. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, e.g. Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum), sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB, e.g. Sulfuricella), and iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB, e.g. Acidovorax, Gallionella, Leptothrix, and Sphaerotilus) in biofilms could speed up iron corrosion; however, iron-reducing bacteria (IRB, e.g. Bacillus, Clostridium, and Pseudomonas) could inhibit iron corrosion and iron release. Corrosion scales on iron coupons could develop into a two-layered structure (top layer and inner layer) with time. The relatively stable constituents such as goethite (α-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe3O4) mainly existed in the top layers, while green rust (Fe6(OH)12CO3) mainly existed in the inner layers. The IOB (especially Acidovorax) contributed to the formation of α-FeOOH, while IRB and the anaerobic conditions could facilitate the formation of Fe3O4. Compared with the AR test without biofilms, the iron corrosion rate with biofilms was relatively higher (p < 0.05) during the whole experimental period, but the iron release with biofilms was obviously lower both at the initial stage and after 3 months. Biofilm and corrosion scale samples formed under different water supply conditions in an actual drinking water distribution system verified the relationships between the bacterial community and corrosion products.

  11. Biogas-based denitrification in a biotrickling filter: Influence of nitrate concentration and hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    López, Juan C; Porca, Estefanía; Collins, Gavin; Pérez, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Alija, Alberto; Muñoz, Raúl; Quijano, Guillermo

    2017-03-01

    The feasibility of NO3(-) removal by the synergistic action of a prevailing denitrifying anoxic methane oxidising (DAMO), and nitrate-reducing and sulfide-oxidising bacterial (NR-SOB) consortium, using CH4 and H2 S from biogas as electron donors in a biotrickling filter was investigated. The influence of NO3(-) concentration on N2 O production during this process was also evaluated. The results showed that NO3(-) was removed at rates up to 2.8 g mreactor(-3)  h(-1) using CH4 as electron donor. N2 O production rates correlated with NO3(-) concentration in the liquid phase, with a 10-fold increase in N2 O production as NO3(-) concentration increased from 50 to 200 g m(-3) . The use of H2 S as co-electron donor resulted in a 13-fold increase in NO3(-) removal rates (∼18 gNO3(-)  m(-3)  h(-1) ) and complete denitrification under steady-state conditions, which was supported by higher abundances of narG, nirK, and nosZ denitrifying genes. Although the relative abundance of the DAMO population in the consortium was reduced from 60% to 13% after H2 S addition, CH4 removals were not compromised and H2 S removal efficiencies of 100% were achieved. This study confirmed (i) the feasibility of co-oxidising CH4 and H2 S with denitrification, as well as (ii) the critical need to control NO3(-) concentration to minimize N2 O production by anoxic denitrifiers. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 665-673. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Associations of Month of Birth With Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Leg Length: Findings From the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Methods We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2. A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). Results MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March–July for BMI and March–June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m2 for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February–August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). Conclusions These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena. PMID:25716579

  13. Measurement of the Specific Heat Using a Gravity Cancellation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Fang

    2003-01-01

    The specific heat at constant volume C(sob V) of a simple fluid diverges near its liquid-vapor critical point. However, gravity-induced density stratification due to the divergence of isothermal susceptibility hinders the direct comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of renormalization group theory. In the past, a microgravity environment has been considered essential to eliminate the density stratification. We propose to perform specific heat measurements of He-3 on the ground using a method to cancel the density stratification. A He-3 fluid layer will be heated from below, using the thermal expansion of the fluid to cancel the hydrostatic compression. A 6% density stratification at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) can be cancelled to better than 0.1% with a steady 1.7 micro K temperature difference across a 0.05 cm thick fluid layer. A conventional AC calorimetry technique will be used to determine the heat capacity. The minimized bulk density stratification with a relaxation time 6500 sec at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) will stay unchanged during 1 Hz AC heating. The smear of the specific heat divergence due to the temperature difference across the cell is about 0.1% at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6). The combination of using High Resolution Thermometry with a 0.5 n K temperature resolution in the AC technique and the cancellation of the density stratification will enable C(sub V) to be measured down to a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6) with less than a 1% systematic error.

  14. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology.

    PubMed

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A tosse é o sintoma respiratório mais comum em crianças e adultos.Objetivo: Apresentar uma revisão sobre a neurofisiologia e os métodos para estudo do reflexo da tosse, bem como a farmacoterapia e terapia fonoaudiológica da tosse, baseada nos trabalhos publicados entre 2005 e 2010 e indexados nas bases Medline, Lilacs e Biblioteca Cochrane sob os unitermos “tosse” ou “antitussígenos”.Síntese dos dados: O reflexo da tosse envolve ativação de múltiplos receptores vagais nas vias aéreas e de projeções neurais do núcleo do trato solitário para outras estruturas do sistema nervoso central. Técnicas experimentais permitem estudar o reflexo da tosse ao nível celular e molecular para desenvolver novos agentes antitussígenos. Não há evidências de que antitussígenos isentos de prescrição médica tenham eficácia superior à do placebo para o alívio da tosse. A terapia fonoaudiológica pode beneficiar pacientes com tosse crônica refratária ao tratamento farmacológico, sobretudo quando coexiste movimento paradoxal das pregas vocais.Comentários Finais: A abordagem multidisciplinar tem papel fundamental no diagnóstico etiológico e tratamento da tosse. O otorrinolaringologista deve informar os pacientes sobre os riscos dos antitussígenos de venda livre a fim de prevenir intoxicações e efeitos adversos, especialmente em crianças.

  15. Coxsackie Myocarditis and Hepatitis with Reactivated Epstein-Bar Virus (EBV): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Atti, Varunsiri; Anderson, Nathan M.; Day, Mathew B.

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 57 Final Diagnosis: Coxsackie myocarditis and hepatitis Symptoms: Fever • headache • general malaise • sob. Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Echocardiography • cardiac MRI Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Myocarditis, defined as inflammation of myocardial tissue of the heart, is an uncommon cardiac presentation and is due to a variety of causes. It affects 1% of the US population, 50% of which is caused by coxsackie B virus. Cardiac tissue is the prime target, and destruction of myocardium results in cardiac failure with fluid overload. Case Report: Our patient was a 57-year-old woman with fever, headache, neck pain, and generalized malaise. Her white blood cell count was 13×103 cells/mm3. Interestingly, lumbar puncture ruled out meningitis. An echocardiogram to evaluate elevated troponin revealed an ejection fraction of 30% with severe left ventricular global hypokinesis without valvular vegetations consistent with new-onset systolic heart failure. Cardiac MRI showed a small pericardial effusion with bilateral pleural effusion. As she continued to be febrile, a viral panel was ordered, revealing coxsackie B4 antibody titer of 1: 640 (reference: >1: 32 indicates recent infection) with positive Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid by PCR, consistent with viral myocarditis. Conclusions: Coxsackie B virus myocarditis is rarely recognized and reported by the general internist in clinical practice, so we would like present our experience with an interesting clinical presentation of the viral prodrome. An estimated 95% people in the US are infected with Epstein-Barr virus by adulthood, but it remains dormant in memory B lymphocytes. Recirculation of these B cells in lymphoid tissue stimulated by antigens, which in our case is coxsackie B virus; they differentiate into plasma cells, and the production of Z Epstein-Barr replication activator protein (ZEBRA) increases viral replication, thus explaining the

  16. Use of Anti-Dementia Drugs in Relation to Change in Cognition, Behavior, and Functioning in Alzheimer's Disease over a Three-Year Period: Kuopio ALSOVA Study.

    PubMed

    Törmälehto, Soili M; Martikainen, Janne A; Väätäinen, Saku T; Hallikainen, Ilona T; Hallikainen, Merja; Bell, J Simon; Koivisto, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deterioration in cognition, decline in physical function, and increase in behavioral disturbances. These symptoms are associated with dependence. We investigated the use of anti-dementia drugs in relation to change in cognition, function, and behavior over a 3-year period. Data were collected as part of the prospective follow-up ALSOVA study. All study participants (n = 236) had very mild or mild AD at baseline. All participants and their informal caregivers underwent annual clinical and medication assessments. Repeated measures logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with anti-dementia drug use and disease progression measures over time. The overall prevalence of anti-dementia drug use remained stable (from 89% to 92%) during the follow-up period. The use of memantine and cholinesterase inhibitor-memantine combination treatment increased with disease severity. After adjustment for confounding, a one-point increase in the disease severity scale (CDR-SOB) was associated with 15.6% increased odds of memantine use. A one-point decrease in CERAD Neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NB) total score was associated with 2.4% increased odds of memantine use. The overall unadjusted rate of switching between anti-dementia drugs was 9.17 (95% CI 7.10 to 11.88) changes per 100 person-years. Nearly 90% of newly diagnosed persons with AD were prescribed anti-dementia drugs. Use of memantine was found to be associated with disease progression. Switching and use of anti-dementia drugs was consistent with Finnish and European clinical practice guidelines for AD.

  17. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in patients with interstitial lung diseases: a pilot, single-centre observational study on safety and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Sgalla, Giacomo; Cerri, Stefania; Ferrari, Roberto; Ricchieri, Maria Pia; Poletti, Stefano; Ori, Margherita; Garuti, Martina; Montanari, Gloria; Luppi, Fabrizio; Petropulacos, Kyriakoula; Richeldi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic, progressive respiratory symptoms are associated with great psychological and emotional impact in patients suffering from interstitial lung disease (ILD). This single-centre pilot study evaluated for the first time the safety, feasibility and efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program (MBSR) in a group of patients with ILD. Methods Prospective observational study set in a university hospital ILD outpatient clinic. Nineteen patients with different ILDs were recruited 2 months prior to the start of the 8-week MBSR program and followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes were program safety and feasibility, while secondary outcomes were changes in moods and stress (assessed by Profile Of Mood State (POMS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires), symptoms (Shortness Of Breath (SOB) and Cough And Sputum Assessment (CASA-Q) questionnaires), lung function and exercise tolerance at 12 months. Results Two patients (10.5%) dropped out in the observational period before the start of the MBSR intervention because of non-respiratory causes. All 17 patients who entered the 8-week MBSR program managed to complete it with an adherence average of eight sessions of nine. No adverse events related to the mindfulness training were reported. Statistically significant improvements in the POMS total score and in several individual items of POMS and PSS were observed throughout the study. However, respiratory questionnaire scores, lung function and exercise tolerance did not show a significant difference over time. Conclusions An MBSR program appears to be safe and feasible in patients with ILD, and might affect perceived moods and stress producing a positive and lasting improvement in several stress-related negative domains. These findings pave the way to larger (possibly multicentre), randomised, controlled confirmatory trials. PMID:25806113

  18. Nursing workload for cancer patients under palliative care.

    PubMed

    Fuly, Patrícia Dos Santos Claro; Pires, Livia Márcia Vidal; Souza, Claudia Quinto Santos de; Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista de; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    To verify the nursing workload required by cancer patients undergoing palliative care and possible associations between the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and the nursing workload. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study developed in the Connective Bone Tissue (TOC) clinics of Unit II of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva with patients undergoing palliative care. Analysis of 197 measures of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revealed a mean score of 43.09% and an association between the performance status of patients undergoing palliative care and the mean NAS scores. The results of the study point to the need to resize the team of the unit. The NAS has proven to be a useful tool in oncologic clinical units for patients undergoing palliative care. Verificar a carga de trabalho de enfermagem requerida por pacientes com câncer sob cuidados paliativos e possíveis associações entre as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem quantitativa, transversal, prospectivo, desenvolvido na clínica de Tecido Ósseo Conectivo (TOC) da Unidade II do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos. A análise de 197 medidas do Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revelou um escore médio de 43,09% e uma associação entre a performance status de pacientes em cuidados paliativos com os valores médios do NAS. Os resultados do estudo apontam para a necessidade de redimensionamento da equipe da Unidade. O NAS mostrou-se um instrumento passível de utilização em unidades clínicas oncológicas, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos.

  19. Advances in designs for Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Gould, Heath; Zhong, Kate

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development. PMID:23383393

  20. Measurement of the Specific Heat Using a Gravity Cancellation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Fang

    2003-01-01

    The specific heat at constant volume C(sob V) of a simple fluid diverges near its liquid-vapor critical point. However, gravity-induced density stratification due to the divergence of isothermal susceptibility hinders the direct comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of renormalization group theory. In the past, a microgravity environment has been considered essential to eliminate the density stratification. We propose to perform specific heat measurements of He-3 on the ground using a method to cancel the density stratification. A He-3 fluid layer will be heated from below, using the thermal expansion of the fluid to cancel the hydrostatic compression. A 6% density stratification at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) can be cancelled to better than 0.1% with a steady 1.7 micro K temperature difference across a 0.05 cm thick fluid layer. A conventional AC calorimetry technique will be used to determine the heat capacity. The minimized bulk density stratification with a relaxation time 6500 sec at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) will stay unchanged during 1 Hz AC heating. The smear of the specific heat divergence due to the temperature difference across the cell is about 0.1% at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6). The combination of using High Resolution Thermometry with a 0.5 n K temperature resolution in the AC technique and the cancellation of the density stratification will enable C(sub V) to be measured down to a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6) with less than a 1% systematic error.

  1. Chiral mobile phase in ligand-exchange chromatography of amino acids: exploring the copper(II) salt anion effect with a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Roccaldo; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Carotti, Andrea; Ianni, Federica; Rubiño, Maria Eugenia García; Natalini, Benedetto

    2012-12-21

    With the use of a chiral ligand-exchange chromatography (CLEC) system operating with the O-benzyl-(S)-serine [(S)-OBS] [1,2] as the chiral mobile phase (CMP) additive to the eluent, the effect of the copper(II) anion type on retention (k) and separation (α) factors was evaluated, by rationally changing the following experimental conditions: salt concentration and temperature. The CLEC-CMP analysis was carried out on ten amino acidic racemates and with nine different cupric salts. While the group of analytes comprised both aliphatic (leucine, isoleucine, nor-leucine, proline, valine, nor-valine, and α-methyl-valine) and aromatic (1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, phenylglycine, and tyrosine) species, representative organic (formate, methanesulfonate, and trifluoroacetate) and inorganic (bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) Cu(II) salts were selected as the metal source into the eluent. This route of investigation was pursued with the aim of identifying analogies among the employed Cu(II) salts, by observing the variation profile of the selected chromatographic parameters, upon a change of the above experimental conditions. All the data were collected and analyzed through a statistical approach (PCA and k-means clustering) that revealed the presence of two behavioral classes of cupric salts, sharing the same variation profile for k and α values. Interestingly, this clustering can be explained in terms of ESP (electrostatic surface potential) balance (ESP(bal)) values, obtained by an ab initio calculation operated on the cupric salts. The results of this appraisal could aid the rational choice of the most suitable eluent system, to succeed in the enantioseparation of difficult-to-resolve compounds, along with the eventual scale-up to a semi-preparative level.

  2. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment.

  3. Impact of nitrate-mediated microbial control of souring in oil reservoirs on the extent of corrosion.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of microbial control of souring on the extent of corrosion was studied in a model system consisting of pure cultures of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacterium (NR-SOB) Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO and the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac6, as well as in an SRB consortium enriched from produced water from a Canadian oil reservoir. The average corrosion rate induced by the SRB consortium (1.4 g x m(-2) x day(-1)) was faster than that observed in the presence of strain Lac6 (0.2 g x m(-2) x day(-1)). Examination of the metallic coupons at the end of the tests indicated a uniform corrosion in both cases. Addition of CVO and 10 mM nitrate to a fully grown culture of Lac6 or the SRB consortium led to complete removal of sulfide from the system and a significant increase in the population of CVO, as determined by reverse sample genome probing. In the case of the SRB consortium addition of just nitrate (10 mM) had a similar effect. When grown in the absence of nitrate, the consortium was dominated by Desulfovibrio sp. strains Lac15 and Lac29, while growth in the presence of nitrate led to dominance of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3. The addition of CVO and nitrate to the Lac6 culture or nitrate to the SRB consortium accelerated the average corrosion rate to 1.5 and 2.9 g x m(-2) x day(-1), respectively. Localized corrosion and the occurrence of pitting were apparent in both cases. Although the sulfide concentration (0.5-7 mM) had little effect on corrosion rates, a clear increase of the corrosion rate with increasing nitrate concentration was observed in experiments conducted with consortia enriched from produced water.

  4. Brachial plexus morphology and vascular supply in the wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Angélica-Almeida, Maria; Casal, Diogo; Mafra, Manuela; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Martins-Ferreira, José; Ferraz-Oliveira, Mário; Amarante, José; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O rato é provavelmente a espécie animal mais utilizada em estudos experimentais de reparação nervosa. Com este trabalho pretendeu-se aprofundar o conhecimento da morfologia e da vascularização do plexo braquial do rato.Material e Métodos: Trinta ratos adultos foram estudados relativamente à morfologia e vascularização do plexo braquial. As técnicas usadas foram a injecção intravascular e dissecção sob microscópio operatório, bem como técnicas de microscopia óptica e microscopia electrónica de varrimento.Resultados: Morfologicamente, o plexo braquial do rato é um pouco diferente do plexo braquial humano. O suprimento arterial e venoso do plexo braquial do rato deriva direta ou indiretamente dos vasos vizinhos. Estes vasos formam plexos vasculares densos e interconectados no epinervo, perinervo e endonervo. Vários componentes do plexo braquial do rato são acompanhados durante um trajecto relativamente longo por vasos sanguíneos relativamente calibrosos e constantes que fornecem o seu plexo epineural, tornando o seu levantamento como retalhos nervosos possível.Discussão: A vascularização do plexo braquial do rato não é muito diferente da reportada na espécie humana, tornando o rato um modelo animal útil para o estudo experimental da fisiopatologia e tratamento da patologia do nervo periférico.Conclusão: Os nossos resultados apoiam a homologia entre o rato e o Homem em termos de morfologia e vascularização do plexo braquial. Este trabalho sugere que vários componentes do plexo braquial do rato podem ser utilizados como retalhos nervosos, incluindo fibras predominantemente motoras, sensitivas ou fibras mistas.

  5. The associations of month of birth with body mass index, waist circumference, and leg length: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million adults.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2). A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March-July for BMI and March-June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m(2) for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February-August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena.

  6. Enrichment through biomarkers in clinical trials of Alzheimer's drugs in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, M; Donohue, M; Paternicò, D; Scarpazza, C; Ostrowitzki, S; Blin, O; Irving, E; Frisoni, G B

    2010-08-01

    Clinical trials of disease modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) might benefit from enrichment with true AD cases. Four hundred five MCI patients (143 converters and 262 nonconverters to AD within 2 years) of the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) were used. Markers for enrichment were hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance (MRI), temporoparietal hypometabolism on FDG PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (Abeta42, tau, and phospho-tau), and cortical amyloid deposition (11C-PIB positron emission tomography (PET)). Two separate enrichment strategies were tested to A) maximize the proportion of MCI converters screened in, and B) minimize the proportion of MCI converters screened out. Based on strategy A, when compared with no enrichment and ADAS-Cog as an outcome measure (sample size of 834), enrichment with 18F-FDG PET and hippocampal volume lowered samples size to 260 and 277 cases per arm, but at the cost of screening out 1,597 and 434 cases per arm. When compared with no enrichment and clinical dementia rating (CDR-SOB) as an outcome measure (sample size of 674), enrichment with hippocampal volume and Abeta42 lowered sample sizes to 191 and 291 cases per arm, with 639 and 157 screened out cases. Strategy B reduced the number of screened out cases (740 for [11C]-PIB PET, 101 hippocampal volume, 82 ADAS-COG and 330 for [18F]-FDG PET) but at the expense of decreased power and a relative increase size (740 for [11C]-PIB PET, 676 for hippocampal volume, 744 for ADAS-Cog, and 517 for [18F]-FDG PET). Enrichment comes at the price of an often relevant proportion of screened out cases, and in clinical trial settings, the balance between enrichment of screened in and loss of screened out patients should be critically discussed. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloning of the Bacillus subtilis recE/sup +/ gene and functional expression of recE/sup +/ in B. subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, R.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    By use of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage cloning vehicle Phi 105J23, B. subtilis chromosomal MboI fragments have been cloned that alleviate the pleiotropic effects of the recE4 mutation. The recombinant bacteriophages Phi 105Rec Phi1 (3.85-kilobase insert) and Phi 105Rec Phi4 (3.3-kilobase insert) both conferred on the recE4 strain YB1015 resistance to ethylmethane sulfonate, methylmethane sulfonate, mitomycin C, and UV irradiation comparable with the resistance observed in recE/sup +/ strains. While strain YB1015 (recE4) and its derivatives lysogenized with bacteriophage Phi105J23 were not transformed to prototrophy by B. subtilis chromosomal DNA, strain YB1015 lysogenized with either Phi 105Rec Phi 1 or Phi 105RecPhi 4 was susceptible to transformation with homologous B. subtilis chromosomal DNA. The heteroimmune prophages Phi 105 and SPO2 were essentially uninducible in strain YB1015. Significantly, both recombinant prophages Phi 105RecPhi 1 and Phi 105Rec Phi 4 were fully inducible and allowed the spontaneous and mitomycin C-dependent induction of a coresident SPO2 prophage in a recE4 host. The presence of the recombinant prophages also restored the ability of din genes to be induced in strains carrying the recE4 mutation. Finally, both recombinant bacteriophages elaborated a mitomycin C-inducible, 45-kilodalton protein that was immunoreactive with Escherichia coli recA/sup +/ gene product antibodies. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the recE/sup +/ gene has been cloned and that this gene elaborates the 45-kilodalton protein that is involved in SOB induction and homologous recombination.

  8. In the ear of the beholder: how age shapes emotion processing in nonverbal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults.

  9. Intramolecular localization of the functional units of Sepia officinalis hemocyanin by immunoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lamy, J; You, V; Taveau, J C; Boisset, N; Lamy, J N

    1998-12-11

    The quaternary structure of Sepia officinalis hemocyanin (Hc) as studied in immunoelectron microscopy with rabbit IgGs and Fab fragments raised against functional units (FU) Soc, Sod, Soe, Sof, Sog, and Soh and fragment Soab. The architecture of immunocomplexes shows that (i) epitopes characteristic of FUs Soc and Sog and of fragment Soab are located in the two external tiers of FUs, (ii) FUs Soh and Soe or Sod are located in arches. These results were confirmed using immunocomplexes made up of Sepia Hc and IgGs or Fab fragments purified from antisera raised against FUs of Octopus vulgaris and Octopus dofleini. Frozen-hydrated immunocomplexes containing one Hc molecule and at least one FU-specific Fab fragment were observed in the electron microscope and submitted to image processing. When the Hc molecule is viewed along its 5-fold axis (i) anti-Soc Fab fragments project on a radius passing through the arch's pillar, (ii) anti-Sof Fabs project slightly out of the arches, and (iii) anti-Soh Fabs project between neighboring arches. When applied to a recent three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction volume, these results allow us to deduce the intramolecular location of five of the eight FUs. For the last three FUs limited uncertainties remain: (i) Soc can be located in two positions in the external tier of FUs; (ii) Soa and Sob can both occupy three positions in the external tiers; and (iii) because of an immunological cross-reactivity Sod may be located in the wall and Soe in the arch, or vice versa. An analysis of the quaternary structure considering the possible locations of the 80 FUs and postulating a single type of subunit shows that 80 possibilities of paths still exist for the polypeptide chain. To solve definitely these 80 possibilities only five questions remain to be answered. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Inguinodynia in patients submitted to conventional inguinal hernioplasty.

    PubMed

    Dias, Bruno Garcia; Santos, Marcelo Protásio Dos; Chaves, Ana Barbara DE Jesus; Willis, Mariana; Gomes, Marcio Couto; Andrade, Fernandes Tavares; Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão DE; Santos, Paulo Vicente Dos

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the incidence of chronic pain and its impact on the quality of life of patients submitted to inguinal hernioplasty using the Lichtenstein technique. this was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of patients operated under spinal anesthesia from February 2013 to February 2015 and who had already completed six postoperative months. We questioned patients about the presence of chronic inguinal pain and, if confirmed, invited them to a consultation in which we assessed the pain and its impact on quality of life. out of 158 patients submitted to the procedure, we identified 7.6% as having inguinodynia. Of these, there was an impact on the quality of life in 25%. the incidence of inguinodynia after hernioplasty with repercussion in quality of life was similar to the one of found in the world literature. avaliar a incidência de dor crônica e o seu impacto na qualidade de vida de pacientes submetidos à hernioplastia inguinal pela técnica de Lichtenstein. trata-se de estudo transversal descritivo, de pacientes operados de hérnia inguinal pela técnica de Lichtenstein sob anestesia raquidiana, no período de fevereiro de 2013 a fevereiro de 2015, e que já haviam completado seis meses de pós-operatório. Os pacientes foram questionados sobre a presença de dor inguinal crônica e, caso confirmada, convidados a uma consulta na qual foi feita análise da qualidade da dor e seu impacto na qualidade de vida. do total de 158 pacientes submetidos ao procedimento, 7,6% foram identificados como portadores de inguinodinia. Destes, houve impacto na qualidade de vida em 25%. observou-se incidência de inguinodinia pós-hernioplastia com repercussão na qualidade de vida semelhante à literatura mundial.

  11. GeoChip-based analysis of the microbial community functional structures in simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Chen, Chuan; Ma, Jincai; Liu, Wenzong; Zhou, Jizhong; Lee, Duu-Jong; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie

    2014-07-01

    The elemental sulfur (S°) recovery was evaluated in the presence of nitrate in two development models of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification (SDD) process. At the loading rates of 0.9 kg S/(m³·day) for sulfide and 0.4 kg N/(m³·day) for nitrate, S° conversion rate was 91.1% in denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) model which was higher than in integrated simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification (ISDD) model (25.6%). A comprehensive analysis of functional diversity, structure and metabolic potential of microbial communities was examined in two models by using functional gene array (GeoChip 2.0). GeoChip data indicated that diversity indices, community structure, and abundance of functional genes were distinct between two models. Diversity indices (Simpson's diversity index (1/D) and Shannon-Weaver index (H')) of all detected genes showed that with elevated influent loading rate, the functional diversity decreased in ISDD model but increased in DSR model. In contrast to ISDD model, the overall abundance of dsr genes was lower in DSR model, while some functional genes targeting from nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), such as Thiobacillus denitrificans, Sulfurimonas denitrificans, and Paracoccus pantotrophus were more abundant in DSR model which were highly associated with the change of S(0) conversion rate obtained in two models. The results obtained in this study provide additional insights into the microbial metabolic mechanisms involved in ISDD and DSR models, which in turn will improve the overall performance of SDD process.

  12. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Karyeong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. Results The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions) in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory) in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall) in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD. Conclusion The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected. PMID:27668883

  13. Potential Relationship between Season of Birth and Clinical Characteristics in Major Depressive Disorder in Koreans: Results from the CRESCEND Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeong-Kyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the potential relationship between season of birth (SOB) and clinical characteristics in Korean patients with unipolar non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD). Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, 891 MDD patients were divided into two groups, those born in spring/summer (n=457) and those born in autumn/winter (n=434). Measurement tools comprising the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Clinical Global Impression of severity, Social and Occupation Functional Assessment Scale, WHO Quality of Life assessment instrument-abbreviated version, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and Temperament and Character Inventory were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, overall symptoms, suicidal ideation, global severity, social function, quality of life, drinking, and temperament and character, respectively. Using independent t-tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for discrete variables, the clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. MDD patients born in spring/summer were on average younger at onset of first depressive episode (t=2.084, p=0.038), had greater loss of concentration (χ2=4.589, p=0.032), and were more self-directed (t=2.256, p=0.025) than those born in autumn/winter. Clinically, there was a trend for the MDD patients born in spring/summer to display the contradictory characteristics of more severe clinical course and less illness burden; this may have been partly due to a paradoxical effect of the 5-HT system. PMID:26996582

  14. Use of technologies in intravenous therapy: contributions to a safer practice.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana Paula Amorim; Escudeiro, Cristina Lavoyer; Christovam, Bárbara Pompeu; Silvino, Zenith Rosa; Carvalho, Márglory Fraga de; Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra da

    2017-01-01

    To identify what are the difficulties of the nursing staff in the management of technologies during intravenous therapy (IVT) and discuss the difficulties identified under the perspective of patient's safety. Descriptive study of qualitative approach with data collected by semi-structured interview and analyzed by the Alceste software. The greatest difficulty of cognitive and technical emphasis was the lack of training; and regarding administrative emphasis, the greatest difficulty was the lack of material and human resources. Infusion pumps and their proper use were highlighted as the technological resource that most contributed to patient safety. The lack of training is presented as the greatest difficulty of nursing professionals and permeates safety issues of both patient and professional when using the hard technologies in IVT. Training is essential to the development of techniques, considered nursing tools. Identificar quais são as dificuldades da equipe de Enfermagem no manejo das tecnologias durante a terapia intravenosa (TIV) e discutir as dificuldades identificadas sob a perspectiva da segurança do paciente. abordagem qualitativa, do tipo descritivo com dados coletados por entrevista semiestruturada e analisados pelo programa Alceste. A maior dificuldade de ênfase cognitiva e técnica foi a falta de treinamento; e de ênfase administrativa, foi a falta de recursos materiais e humanos. As bombas de infusão e sua utilização adequada foram destacadas como o recurso tecnológico que mais contribuiu para a segurança do paciente. A falta de treinamento é apresentada como a maior dificuldade dos profissionais de Enfermagem e permeia as questões de segurança do paciente e do profissional ao utilizar as tecnologias duras na TIV. O treinamento é imprescindível para o desenvolvimento das técnicas, consideradas como ferramentas do fazer da Enfermagem.

  15. Potential Relationship between Season of Birth and Clinical Characteristics in Major Depressive Disorder in Koreans: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeong-Kyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to examine the potential relationship between season of birth (SOB) and clinical characteristics in Korean patients with unipolar non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD). Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, 891 MDD patients were divided into two groups, those born in spring/summer (n=457) and those born in autumn/winter (n=434). Measurement tools comprising the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Clinical Global Impression of severity, Social and Occupation Functional Assessment Scale, WHO Quality of Life assessment instrument-abbreviated version, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and Temperament and Character Inventory were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, overall symptoms, suicidal ideation, global severity, social function, quality of life, drinking, and temperament and character, respectively. Using independent t-tests for continuous variables and χ² tests for discrete variables, the clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. MDD patients born in spring/summer were on average younger at onset of first depressive episode (t=2.084, p=0.038), had greater loss of concentration (χ²=4.589, p=0.032), and were more self-directed (t=2.256, p=0.025) than those born in autumn/winter. Clinically, there was a trend for the MDD patients born in spring/summer to display the contradictory characteristics of more severe clinical course and less illness burden; this may have been partly due to a paradoxical effect of the 5-HT system.

  16. Comparative analysis on microbial community associated with different gastrointestinal regions of wild northern snakehead Channa argus Cantor, 1842

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Shuyan; Zhao, Chenze; Zhu, Jinyu; Pan, Mingzhu

    2017-06-01

    Microbial communities in different gastrointestinal regions (stomach, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) of the northern snakehead Channa argus (Cantor, 1842) were compared by polymerase chain reaction and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 194, 140, 212, and 122 OTUs were detected in the stomach, foregut, midgut, and hindgut, respectively. Significant differences were found in the Sobs, ACE, Shannon, and Simpson indices among samples (P <0.05). The gastrointestinal microbial community of C. argus consisted predominantly of Proteobacteria with either Halomonas, Shewanella, Plesiomonas, or Sphingomonas. Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes also existed in the gastrointestinal tracts. However, significant differences were found in the compositions of microbial community among the four regions (P <0.05). Cyanobacteria and Spirochetes were significantly higher in the midgut and hindgut (P <0.05). Fusobacteria and Firmicutes were dominant in the hindgut and foregut, respectively (P <0.05). Proteobacteria was the lowest in the hindgut (P <0.05). At genus level, Cetobacterium and Plesiomonas were significantly higher in the hindgut than in the other three samples (P <0.05). Clostridium and Prevotella were the highest in the midgut (P <0.05). Halomonas, Shewanella, and Sphingomonas were the highest in the foregut (P <0.05). Paracoccus and Vibrio were the highest in the stomach. Several genera were only detected in certain regions, as follows: stomach, Paracoccus and Vibrio; foregut, Halomonas, Shewanella, and Sphingomonas; midgut, Clostridium and Prevotella; and hindgut, Cetobacterium and Plesiomonas (P <0.05). At the species level, Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae was only detected in the stomach. Prevotella copri and Clostridium perfring were not detected in the foregut and midgut, respectively, whereas Prevotella copri and Faecalibacterium pra were not detected in the hindgut. These findings provide valuable information on the microbial community in each

  17. Molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase-encoding genes (aprBA) among sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2007-10-01

    Dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (AprBA) is a key enzyme of the dissimilatory sulfate-reduction pathway. Homologues have been found in photo- and chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes (SOP), in which they are postulated to operate in the reverse direction, oxidizing sulfite to APS. Newly developed PCR assays allowed the amplification of 92-93 % (2.1-2.3 kb) of the APS reductase locus aprBA. PCR-based screening of 116 taxonomically divergent SOP reference strains revealed a distribution of aprBA restricted to photo- and chemotrophs with strict anaerobic or at least facultative anaerobic lifestyles, including Chlorobiaceae, Chromatiaceae, Thiobacillus, Thiothrix and invertebrate symbionts. In the AprBA-based tree, the SOP diverge into two distantly related phylogenetic lineages, Apr lineages I and II, with the proteins of lineage II (Chlorobiaceae and others) in closer affiliation to the enzymes of the sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). This clustering is discordant with the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB) phylogeny and indicates putative lateral aprBA gene transfer from SRP to the respective SOB lineages. In support of lateral gene transfer (LGT), several beta- and gammaproteobacterial species harbour both aprBA homologues, the DsrAB-congruent 'authentic' and the SRP-related, LGT-derived gene loci, while some relatives possess exclusively the SRP-related apr genes as a possible result of resident gene displacement by the xenologue. The two-gene state might be an intermediate in the replacement of the resident essential gene. Collected genome data demonstrate the correlation between the AprBA tree topology and the composition/arrangement of the apr gene loci (occurrence of qmoABC or aprM genes) from SRP and SOP of lineages I and II. The putative functional role of the SRP-related APS reductases in photo- and chemotrophic SOP is discussed.

  18. Estimativa de imagens solares soho através de redes neurais artificiais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Rios Neto, A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    2003-08-01

    A Rede Neural Artificial (RNA), no âmbito da teoria computacional, constitui uma teoria emergente que, por possuir habilidade em aprender a partir de dados de entrada, encontra diferentes aplicações em diferentes áreas. Um exemplo é a utilização de RNA na caracterização de padrões associados à dinâmica de processos espaço-temporais relacionados a fenômenos físicos não-lineares. Para obter informações sobre o comportamento destes fenômenos físicos utiliza-se, em diversos casos, seqüências de imagens digitalizadas, onde a caracterização de alguns fenômenos espaço-temporais é o procedimento mais viável para descrever a dinâmica das regiões ativas do Sol. Com base em imagens observadas por telescópios a bordo de satélites, estudos de previsão de eventos solares podem ser programados, permitindo prever possíveis efeitos posteriores nas regiões mais próximas da Terra (tempestades geomagnéticas e irregularidades ionosféricas). Neste trabalho avaliamos o desempenho da RNA para estimar padrões espaço-temporais, ou seja, imagens solares em ultravioleta, obtidas através do telescópio a bordo do satélite SOHO. Os resultados mostraram que as RNA conseguem generalizar os padrões de maneira satisfatória sem perder de forma significativa os principais aspectos da configuração global da atmosfera solar, comprovando a eficácia da RNA como ferramenta para esse tipo de aplicação. Portanto, este trabalho comprova a viabilidade de uso desta ferramenta em projetos voltados ao estudo do comportamento solar, em trabalhos do grupo de Física do Meio Interplanetário (FMI) na DAS e em programas desenvolvidos pelo Núcleo de Simulação e Análise de Sistemas Complexos (NUSASC) do Laboratório Associado de Computação e Matemática Aplicada (LAC) do INPE.

  19. [Anxiety in clinical settings: constructing a scale for medical students].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joana Ramos; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique; Afonso, Rosa Marina

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: A Escala de Ansiedade em Meio Clínico foi construída para avaliar o nível de ansiedade dos estudantes de Medicina quando expostos ao meio clínico e identificar quais as situações mais propensas a desencadear maior nível de ansiedade nesse contexto.Material e Métodos: Este instrumento é constituído por doze itens e foi construído tendo por base a revisÉo da literatura sobre a temática da ansiedade em meio clínico e os dados provenientes de um focus group realizado com estudantes entre o 1'º e o 5'º ano do curso de Medicina da Universidade da Beira Interior (n = 10). As suas propriedades psicométricas foram testadas mediante um estudo com 557 alunos do curso de Medicina de quatro universidades portuguesas, entre o 1'º e o 6'º ano.Resultados: A validaçÉo da Escala de Ansiedade em Meio Clínico contemplou a análise de três par'metros principais: sensibilidade, fiabilidade e análise da estrutura fatorial, sendo que a última resultou na obtençÉo de quatro factores: 'Incómodo perante procedimentos invasivos', 'Ansiedade face ao doente', 'Ansiedade face ao desempenho' e 'Ansiedade face à dimensÉo humana' com 70,6% da vari'ncia explicada.DiscussÉo: A Escala de Ansiedade em Meio Clínico total demonstra uma boa coerência interna (Alpha de Cronbach = 0,84) e boa capacidade de discriminaçÉo de sujeitos, apresentando-se, assim, como instrumento consistente e fiável para a avaliaçÉo de ansiedade nos estudantes de Medicina quando expostos ao meio clínico.ConclusÉo: A Escala de Ansiedade em Meio Clínico permite avaliar a ansiedade nos estudantes de Medicina quando expostos ao meio clínico e poderá vir a ser útil na delineaçÉo de estratégias de ensino para a preparaçÉo dos futuros médicos.

  20. Teaching-learning evaluation on the ICNP® using virtual learning environment.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Carolina Costa Valcanti; Costa, Lívia Cristina Scalon da; Buchhorn, Soraia Matilde Marques; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Goyatá, Sueli Leiko Takamatsu

    2017-01-01

    tecnológicos utilizados foram apontados como inovadores e auxiliaram no melhor desempenho dos alunos.

  1. Evaluation of the performance of actions and outcomes in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Miclos, Paula Vitali; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino; Colussi, Claudia Flemming

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the performance of the primary care of Brazilian municipalities in relation to health actions and outcomes. This is an evaluative, cross-sectional research, with a quantitative approach, aimed at the identification of the efficiency frontier of the primary care in health actions and outcomes in Brazilian municipalities. Secondary data have been collected from the Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica (National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care) and the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System, in 2012. The data envelopment analysis tool has been used for variable returns to scale with product orientation. Municipalities have been analyzed by population size, and small municipalities have presented a high percentage of inefficiency for both models. The analysis of efficiency has indicated the existence of a higher percentage of effective municipalities in the model of health actions than in the model of health outcomes. Avaliar o desempenho da atenção básica dos municípios brasileiros quanto a ações e resultados em saúde. Pesquisa avaliativa, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, para identificar a fronteira de eficiência da atenção básica em ações e resultados em saúde nos municípios brasileiros. Foi realizada coleta de dados secundários a partir do Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da qualidade da Atenção Básica e do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, no ano de 2012. Utilizou-se a ferramenta análise envoltória de dados para retornos variáveis de escala com orientação para produto. Os municípios foram analisados por porte populacional e verificou-se que para ambos os modelos, os municípios de pequeno porte apresentaram alto percentual de ineficiência. A análise da eficiência indicou a existência de um percentual maior de municípios eficientes no modelo de ações em sa

  2. Adults with Down syndrome: characterization of a Portuguese sample.

    PubMed

    Breia, Paula; Mendes, Rosário; Silvestre, Ana; Gonçalves, Maria Joao; Figueira, Maria Joao; Bispo, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A síndrome de Down ou Trissomia 21 afeta o desenvolvimento físico, comportamental e cognitivo. No decurso do envelhecimento, a ocorrência de comorbilidades aumenta nesta população, sendo a sua deteção e tratamento precoces determinantes na sua qualidade de vida. Objetivo: Analisar numa amostra de adultos com síndrome de Down a existência de doenças médicas comuns, uso regular de medicação, eventual disfunção cognitiva e capacidades de comunicação oral. Material e Métodos: Foram coletados os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos de 209 adultos portugueses (20 - 58 anos), com síndrome de Down. Vinte e seis indivíduos foram avaliados com a WAIS-III. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente - SPSS (v.19). Resultados: Quase metade da amostra (47,36%) sofre de comorbilidades, sendo as doenças cardíacas, psiquiátricas, epilepsia e hipotiroidismo as mais prevalentes. Setenta e dois indivíduos (34,45%) tomam medicação com ação no sistema nervoso central. Na WAIS-III, os valores de QI situam-se entre 45-61 (m = 49,65, dp = 4,93) existindo 141 indivíduos (67,5%) capazes de se expressar através de linguagem oral básica. Discussão: Os indivíduos desta amostra são vulneráveis a várias comorbilidades. A maioria tem linguagem oral básica, mas os valores de QI situam-se na faixa ‘extremamente baixo’, sendo melhor o desempenho em tarefas verbais. Conclusão: As limitações cognitivas e dificuldades comunicacionais na população com síndrome de Down podem condicionar o reconhecimento clínico precoce de comorbilidades que lhe estão associadas no decurso do envelhecimento. A valorização semiológica, com apoio do cuidador, é essencial para garantir que os cuidados de saúde adequados são prestados a esta população.

  3. HOW TO REACH AND KEEP A NOTE 6?

    PubMed

    Antunes, Alberto Azoubel

    2015-01-01

    To describe the main measures adopted in order to raise the concept of USP Urology program, and thus be able to help other programs with similar shortcomings to remedy these problems. We highlighted the measures taken between the years 2005 and 2013 which contributed to the CAPES elevation of the Postgraduate Program of the USP Urology concept. It was created new disciplines focused on researchers and teachers training rather than clinical aspects. Specific research areas have been created for each permanent teacher, and the theses and dissertations became linked research lines. The entire student body and faculty not interested or who had performance below the average was off the program. Was encouraged fundraising culture into program. It was also highlighted the creation of online medical record, where the clinical data of all patients treated at the Urology Division were stored. Rigorous selection of motivated faculty and students, able to create adequate infrastructure and achieving financial resources, is of fundamental importance for the consolidation of a postgraduate program. Descrever as principais medidas adotadas com o intuito de elevar o conceito do programa da Urologia da FMUSP, e desta forma poder ajudar outros programas com deficiências semelhantes a sanar estes problemas. Foram destacadas as medidas adotadas entre os anos de 2005 e 2013 que contribuíram para a elevação do conceito do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Urologia da FMUSP. Criou-se um novo programa de disciplinas voltado para a formação de pesquisadores e professores ao invés de especialistas clínicos. Foram criadas linhas de pesquisa específicas para cada orientador permanente, e as dissertações e teses passaram a ser vinculadas a estas linhas. Todo o corpo discente e docente que não se mostrava interessado ou que possuía desempenho abaixo da média foi desligado do programa. Estimulou-se a instituição de cultura de captação de recursos. Destaca-se ainda a criação do

  4. Understanding the curriculum the light of training guiding health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Bibiana Arantes; Costa, Nilce Maria da Silva

    2016-06-01

    To analyze Pedagogical Projects Courses (PPCs) from the healthcare field in light of the National Curriculum Standards (NCS) policies on healthcare training. Exploratory descriptive study of qualitative approach, in which were carried out analyzes of PPPs of Nursing, Pharmacy, Medicine, Nutrition and Dentistry of a federal university in the Midwest region of Brazil. As technical analysis of documentary sources, adopted the content analysis in the thematic mode. The analysis of PPC showed the general aspects of PPC as the course features the historical percursso and construction, professional skills and competences required for professional performance and the guiding principles of formation characterized by technical, professional practice, articulation theory/ practice, interdisciplinarity and ethical / social training. PPC presented is consistent with the proposals set out in DCN and carry training policies in health in Brazil, providing adequate training for health professionals, the demands of the population and the National Health System. Analisar os Projetos Pedagógicos de Cursos (PPC) da área da saúde à luz das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN) e das políticas indutoras de formação em saúde do Brasil. Pesquisa descritiva exploratória de abordagem qualitativa, na qual foram realizadas análises dos PPC dos cursos de Enfermagem, Farmácia, Medicina, Nutrição e Odontologia de uma instituição federal de ensino superior da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Como técnica de análises das fontes documentais, adotou-se a análise de conteúdo, na modalidade temática. As análises dos PPC evidenciaram os aspectos gerais dos PPC como as características do curso, o percursso histórico e sua construção, habilidades e competências profissionais requeridas para o desempenho profissional e os princípios norteadores da formação caracterizados pela técnica, prática profissional, articulação teoria/prática, interdisciplinaridade e formação

  5. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    normalizadas, en el desempeño de los estudiantes en estos dos asuntos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. El razonamiento espacial de los estudiantes fue medido utilizando un instrumento específico desarrollado para este trabaljo. Las correlaciones entre los resultados de los tests astronómicos y este instrumento específico, antes y después del curso mostraron una relación entre moderada y fuerte, sugiriendo que la relación entre el razonamiento espacial y el conocimiento astronómico puede explicar hasta un 25% de la variación em el desempeño de los estudiantes. A comunidade da educação em astronomia tem suposto de forma implícita que o aprendizado da astronomia consiste em um domínio conceitual fundamentado no raciocínio espacial. Como um primeiro passo para identificar formalmente uma relação empírica entre estas duas coisas, utilizamos como amostra os estudantes de graduação de carreiras não científicas de um curso exploratório em uma universidade norte-americana do meio-oeste de médio porte com programa de Doutorado em andamento, onde estes estudantes foram submetidos a um diagnóstico de raciocino espacial e conceitos astronômicos antes e depois do mesmo. As ferramentas utilizadas foram o Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) e o questionário What do you know? Utilizando somente dados completamente consistentes para esta análise, nossa amostra consistiu de 86 estudantes de graduação. As melhoras, depois de normalizadas, do desempenho dos estudantes nos dois quesitos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. O raciocínio espacial dos estudantes foi medido utilizando um instrumento específico desenhado para este trabalho. As correlações entre os resultados dos testes astronômicos e este instrumento específico antes e depois do curso mostraram uma relação entre moderada e forte, sugerindo que a relação entre o raciocínio espacial e o conhecimento astronômico pode explicar até um 25% na variação no desempenho dos

  6. Assessment of risk of falls in elderly living at home.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adriana de Azevedo; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel

    2017-04-06

    to assess the risk of falls in elderly, by comparing the sociodemographic and cognitive factors, history of falls and self-reported comorbidities. cross-sectional and quantitative study with 240 elderly. Data were collected based on the social profile, through the instrument of risk of falls and assessment of falls, by univariate analysis, bivariate and multiple logistic regression. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 was used for statistical analysis. there was a significant association of the risk of falls, as measured by the Fall Risk Score, with sex (<0.001), age (0.054), cognitive status (<0.001) and history of falls (<0.001). All variables were statistically significant and contributed to the occurrence of falls. In logistic regression, the variables that showed association with risk of falls were: fall, with whom they live, hypertension and visual impairment. female gender, older elderly (over 80 years old), with low cognitive status and occurrence of previous falls in the last six months are factors that increase the prevalence of falls. In logistic regression, the variables that were associated with risk of falls were: fall, with whom they live, visual impairment and rheumatologic diseases. avaliar o risco de quedas em idosos, comparando com os fatores sóciodemográficos, cognitivos, presença de quedas e co-morbidades autorreferidas. Estudo transversal e quantitativo com 240 idosos. Os dados foram coletados a partir do perfil social, instrumento do risco de quedas e avaliação de quedas, utilizando análise univariada, bivariada e regressão logística múltipla. Para a análise estatística, utilizou-se o Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versão 19. há associação entre o risco de quedas, mensurado pelo Fall Risk Score, com o sexo (<0,001), a faixa etária (0,054), o desempenho cognitivo (<0,001) e a presença de quedas (<0,001). Todas as variáveis apresentaram significância estatística e contribu

  7. Predictors of the development of myocarditis or acute renal failure in patients with leptospirosis: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis has a varied clinical presentation with complications like myocarditis and acute renal failure. There are many predictors of severity and mortality including clinical and laboratory parameters. Early detection and treatment can reduce complications. Therefore recognizing the early predictors of the complications of leptospirosis is important in patient management. This study was aimed at determining the clinical and laboratory predictors of myocarditis or acute renal failure. Methods This was a prospective descriptive study carried out in the Teaching Hospital, Kandy, from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. Patients with clinical features compatible with leptospirosis case definition were confirmed using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Clinical features and laboratory measures done on admission were recorded. Patients were observed for the development of acute renal failure or myocarditis. Chi-square statistics, Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare patients with and without complications. A logistic regression model was used to select final predictor variables. Results Sixty two confirmed leptospirosis patients were included in the study. Seven patients (11.3%) developed acute renal failure and five (8.1%) developed myocarditis while three (4.8%) had both acute renal failure and myocarditis. Conjunctival suffusion - 40 (64.5%), muscle tenderness - 28 (45.1%), oliguria - 20 (32.2%), jaundice - 12 (19.3%), hepatomegaly - 10 (16.1%), arrhythmias (irregular radial pulse) - 8 (12.9%), chest pain - 6 (9.7%), bleeding - 5 (8.1%), and shortness of breath (SOB) 4 (6.4%) were the common clinical features present among the patients. Out of these, only oliguria {odds ratio (OR) = 4.14 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003-17.261}, jaundice (OR = 5.13 and 95% CI 1.149-28.003), and arrhythmias (OR = 5.774 and 95% CI 1.001-34.692), were predictors of myocarditis or acute renal failure and none of the laboratory

  8. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  9. Molybdenite Re-Os, zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of the Xiaerchulu Au deposit, Inner Mongolia Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-xin; Nie, Feng-Jun; Zhang, Xue-ni; Jiang, Si-hong

    2016-09-01

    The Xiaerchulu Au deposit, located in the Southern Orogenic Belt (SOB) of Western Inner Mongolia (WIM), is hosted in an Early Permian (271-261 Ma) volcanic-plutonic sequence. Mineralization took place in silicified biotite granites or along the contact zone between the Neoproterozoic Baiyinbaolage Group and the biotite granite. In order to constrain the timing of the Xiaerchulu mineralization and discuss the petrogenesis of the hosting granites, molybdenite Re-Os, and zircon U-Pb and, Lu-Hf, and REE, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic studies were completed in this study. We measured Re-Os isotopes of six molybdenite samples from the main ore body, which yielded a weighted average model age of 261.7 ± 1.5 Ma with a MSWD of 0.55, indicating that the time of mineralization was at ca. 262 Ma. High precision U-Pb dating for the studied granites yields Permian 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 271 to 269 Ma. These age data confirm that both the intrusion and related mineralization were initiated in Early Permian period. These granites are strongly peraluminous with A/CNK = 1.11-1.12, high SiO2-K2O contents, as well as containing biotite and muscovite, indicating a petrogenesis of typical S-type granites, the above consideration is also consistent with the result of discrimination diagrams. The Re contents of molybdenite, εNd(t), and zircon εHf(t), as well as the 176Hf/177Hf values of the granites, fall into the ranges from 1.153 to 2.740 μg/g, - 11.1 to - 9.3, - 8.8 to - 0.9, and 0.282358 to 0.282688, respectively. All of this evidence suggests that the metals were derived from a predominantly crustal source, the granites originated from crust in an extensional setting, and the rejuvenation of the continent may have play an important role during the ore-forming processes of the Early Permian epoch.

  10. Experiences in the Family Health Strategy: demands and vulnerabilities in the territory.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio Germane Alves; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Marinho, Mirna Neyara Alexandre de Sá Barreto; Vidal, Emery Ciana Figueirêdo; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Vidal, Eglídia Carla Figueirêdo

    2017-01-01

    To understand the daily demands of Family Health Strategy in clinical practice of the team and social vulnerabilities of community territory. Research with qualitative approach, in a critical-reflexive perspective, held with two teams of the Family Health Strategy, in the city of Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil. The participants were 22 users and 19 health professionals from the basic health network. Data from the interviews and observation were analyzed under the assumptions of critical hermeneutics. We highlight the unveiling of sufferings and daily clashes, the influence of social determinants on health and psychosocial demands, limits and possibilities of everyday clinical practice. The clinic attention must recognize the perceptions and living conditions by listening and promoting health in the community. Compreender as demandas cotidianas da Estratégia Saúde da Família na prática clínica da equipe e as vulnerabilidades sociais do território comunitário. Pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa, numa perspectiva crítico-reflexiva, realizada com duas equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família, no município de Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Os participantes foram 22 usuários e 19 profissionais de saúde da rede básica de saúde. Os dados das entrevistas e observação foram analisados sob os pressupostos da hermenêutica crítica. Evidenciam-se o desvelamento de sofrimentos e enfrentamentos cotidianos, a influência dos determinantes sociais na saúde e as demandas psicossociais, limites e possibilidades da prática clínica cotidiana. Considera-se que a atenção clínica deve reconhecer as percepções e condições de vida pela escuta e ações de promoção de saúde na comunidade.

  11. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  12. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  13. [PET/CT with 18F-Fluorocholine in Patients with Prostatic Cancer in Biochemical Recurrence].

    PubMed

    Lapa, Paula; Silva, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Tiago; Figueiredo, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Rui; Costa, Gracinda; Lima, João Pedroso

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: No carcinoma da próstata, é frequente, após terapêutica com intuito curativo, ocorrer recidiva bioquímica. O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 no restadiamento e orientação destes doentes e analisar a influência, da estratificação de risco, dos valores do PSA e da terapêutica de supressão hormonal, na sensibilidade da técnica. Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de 107 doentes com carcinoma da próstata em recidiva bioquímica que realizaram PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 no nosso hospital, entre dezembro de 2009 e maio de 2014. Resultados: A sensibilidade global foi de 63,2% sendo 80,0% quando PSA > 2 ng/mL. Foi possível identificar doença à distância em 28% dos doentes. A sensibilidade aumentou de 40,0% em doentes de risco baixo e intermédio para 55,2% em doentes de alto risco. Sem terapêutica de supressão hormonal, a sensibilidade foi de 61,8% enquanto no grupo sob essa terapêutica, foi de 67,7%. Discussão: A PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 forneceu informações relevantes, mesmo em doentes com baixos valores do PSA, contudo, com incremento significativo da sensibilidade nos doentes com PSA >2 ng/mL. A sensibilidade foi superior nos doentes de alto risco comparativamente com os de risco baixo e intermédio, contudo, sem uma diferença estatisticamente significativa. A terapêutica de supressão hormonal parece não influenciar a captação de Fluorocolina-F18 nos doentes resistentes à castração. Conclusões: Neste estudo, a PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 apresentou bons resultados no restadiamento de doentes com carcinoma da próstata em recidiva bioquímica, distinguindo entre doença loco-regional e sistémica, informação com importantes consequências na definição da estratégia terapêutica.

  14. Ensino e divulgação de astronomia no Planetário de Campinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Projeto desenvolvido em 1981 por professores da Unicamp, sob a coordenação do Prof. Dr. Carlos Alfredo Argüello propunha a instalação de um Planetário em Campinas. Convênio firmado em 1982 entre a Unicamp, a Prefeitura de Campinas, a Funcamp e a Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo, possibilitou a aquisição de um planetário Zeiss ZKP2, através do MEC, e em 28 de outubro de 1987 foi inaugurado o Planetário de Campinas. Desde então várias atividades de ensino e divulgação da Astronomia foram desenvolvidas regularmente. A verificação dos registros das atividades realizadas mostra um alto índice de atendimento, considerada a capacidade das instalações (sala de projeção para 60 pessoas, auditório com 45 poltronas e hall de exposições). As atividades dirigidas ao público, estudantes e professores, atenderam cerca de 400.000 participantes nos quase 16 anos de sua existência. Além de sessões públicas e escolares, com duração de 1 hora, são oferecidas às escolas vários outros tipos de atividades, com duração de 2,5 horas. Abordam diversos temas e são dirigidas a diferentes níveis de escolaridade. Cursos para o público e para professores, palestras, exposições e eventos especiais completam o quadro de atividades regulares. Mesmo enfrentando quase sempre dificuldades financeiras e administrativas verifica-se que o Planetário de Campinas realizou um trabalho quantitativamente e qualitativamente satisfatório, prestando bom serviços à comunidade de Campinas e de outras cidades de São Paulo e outros Estados. Isso é também atestado pela grande procura de reservas para suas atividades.

  15. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  16. Geriatric care: ways and means of providing comfort.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patricia Cruz Pontifice Sousa Valente; Marques, Rita Margarida Dourado; Ribeiro, Marta Pontifice

    2017-01-01

    /cuidado confortador. O cuidado geriátrico edifica-se na relação que se desenvolve, atribuída de sentido, e assenta-se num encontro/interação entre os atores sob influência do contexto em que está inserido. Os diferentes modos e formas de confortar objetivam facilitar/aumentar o conforto, aliviar o desconforto e/ou investir no conforto potencial.

  17. Antimicrobial Dose in Obese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Sawsan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Abdul Aziz, Noorizan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a chronic disease that has become one of major public health issue in Malaysia because of its association with other disease states including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Despite continuous efforts to educate the public about the health risks associated with obesity, prevalence of the disease continues to increase. Dosing of many medications are based on weight, limited data are available on how antimicrobial agents should be dosed in obesity. The aim of this case presentation is to discuss dose of antibiotic in obese patient. Case report: Patient: GMN, Malay, Female, 45 year old, 150kg, transferred from medical ward to ICU with problems of fever, orthopnea, sepsis secondary to nosocomial pneumonia. She was admitted to hospital a week ago for SOB on exertion, cyanosis, mildly dyspneic, somasthenia, bilateral ankle swelling. There was no fever, cough, chest pain, clubbing, flapping tremor. Her grand father has pre-morbid history of obesity, HPT, DM and asthma. She was non alcoholic, smoker, and not on diet control. The diagnosis Pickwickian syndrome was made. Patient was treated with IV Dopamine 11mcg/kg/min, IV Morphine 4mg/h. IV GTN 15mcg/min, IV Ca gluconate 10g/24h for 3/7, IV Zantac 50mg tds, IV Augmentin 1.2g tds, IV Lasix 40mg od, IV Plasil 10mg tds, S.c heparin 5000IU bd. patient become stable and moved to medical ward to continue her treatment. Discussion: The altered physiologic function seen in obese patients is a concern in patients receiving antimicrobial agents because therapeutic outcomes depend on achieving a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The therapeutic effect of any drug can be altered when any of the 4 pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination) are altered. Decreased blood flow rates and increased renal clearance in obese patients can affect drug distribution and elimination. Changes in serum protein levels can change the metabolism and distribution of drugs that are

  18. Analyses of changes in vegetation cover in the South and Sub-Taiga of Western Siberia using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, Egor; Pologova, Nina; Golovatskaya, Eugenia

    2010-05-01

    Understanding human impact on vegetation composition and structure, at scales from the patch to the globe, and capacity to monitor change over time is fundamental research problem to address Global Change and ensure sustainable development. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early successional states, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances (e.g., fire, dieback due to insect attacks) appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data. The studied area of the first test site ("Bakchar") is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site "Tomsk" covered by cultivated lands in the south, dark coniferous forest complexes an early and old-growth state in the north part. Mire types at the test sites are presented by open fens, ridge-hollow / ridge-lake complexes and pine-shrub-sphagnum communities with different tree height and layer density. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed revealing dynamics in vegetation cover. Forest change was calculated using the Disturbance Index (Healey, 2006). Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Strong winds were registered in 2003

  19. [Skin cancer in kidney transplant recipients: incidence and association with clinical and demographic factors].

    PubMed

    Borges-Costa, João; Vasconcelos, João Pedro; Travassos, Ana Rita; Guerra, José; Santana, Alice; Weigert, André; Sacramento Marques, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Introdução/Objetivos: Os doentes transplantados têm maior risco de cancro cutâneo não melanoma, sobretudo basaliomas e carcinomas espinocelulares. Os objetivos do estudo foram determinar a incidência destas neoplasias numa série de doentes com transplante renal e pesquisar associações destas com variáveis clínicas e demográficas. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospetivo com observação dermatológica e entrevista a 127 doentes com transplante renal observados pela primeira vez no entre Julho de 2010 e Dezembro de 2011. Todos os tumores cutâneos diagnosticados tiveram confirmação histológica. Os testes utilizados foram os testes não paramétricos de Mann-Whitney, teste do Qui-quadrado e teste exato de Fisher, com um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: A média de idades foi 53 anos (s = 12,98) e 67% (85 / 127) dos doentes eram do sexo masculino. A média de anos decorridos desde o transplante foi oito anos (s = 4,61) e no exame objetivo diagnosticou-se cancro cutâneo não melanoma em 16% (20 / 127) dos doentes, com igual número de basaliomas e carcinomas espinocelulares. Nas áreas fotoexpostas observaram-se queratoses actínicas e verrugas virais em, respetivamente, 24% (30 / 127) e 8% (10 / 127) dos doentes. O cancro cutâneo não melanoma diagnosticado no nosso estudo esteve significativamente associado a maior idade (p = 0,016), maior duração do período sob imunossupressão (p = 0,003), atividade laboral no passado ao ar livre (p = 0,049) e com queratoses actínicas nas áreas fotoexpostas (p < 0,001). O único fármaco associado a estes tumores nesta série foi a medicação atual com azatioprina (p = 0,035 no teste exato de Fischer). Conclusões: A incidência de cancro cutâneo é elevada na nossa série e estes doentes beneficiariam de educação sobre medidas de fotoproteção e seguimento dermatológico regular. Este seguimento aumenta a adesão dos doentes a essas medidas e permite reduzir a incidência destes tumores cut

  20. A Neurologist's Hard Day's Work: Impact of Inpatient Neurology Consultation in a Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Helena; Monteiro, Ana; Gomes, Tiago; Grilo, Miguel; Carvalho, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A consulta de neurologia realizada a doentes hospitalizados sob a responsabilidade de outras especialidades é um trabalho exigente mas muitas vezes sub-valorizado e pouco documentado. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar o impacto das consultas internas de neurologia num hospital português e, consequentemente, a performance do nosso Serviço no que diz respeito a esta matéria. Material e Métodos: Foi conduzido um estudo retrospetivo durante o ano de 2013 através da revisão de dados clínicos e demográficos. Resultados: Ao longo de um ano, os neurologistas no nosso Serviço avaliaram 632 doentes internados. As principais razões para o pedido de consulta foram a alteração do estado mental/comportamental, défice neurológico focal e crises epiléticas. Os pedidos de avaliação provieram principalmente de serviços médicos mas também de Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos e Intermédios. Os neurologistas sugeriram investigação adicional em cerca de 50% dos doentes; alterações terapêuticas foram efetuadas numa proporção semelhante de doentes. No final da consulta foi possível estabelecer um novo diagnóstico em 63% dos casos, sendo os mais frequentes manifestação neurológica de doenças sistémicas, epilepsia e doença vascular cerebral. Tal intervenção teve impacto no cuidado de 68% dos doentes. Discussão e Conclusão: Diferentes estudos na literatura suportam os nossos achados, enfatizando que esta atividade tem benefícios diretos no tratamento dos doentes e que é custo-efetiva. Os nossos resultados sugerem que a atividade de consultadoria interna da Neurologia resulta em intervenções úteis para a gestão clínica dos doentes internados.

  1. Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em

  2. Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto à Escola Estadual Colònia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com très turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questíes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas très turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de intervenção nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervençíes necessárias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxílio de multimídias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as très metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaçíes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avanço significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu índice e a turma C evoluiu, porém não tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas vocè acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra conclusão muito importante é que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente

  3. Ensino de Astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto a Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos, 40 na turma A, 40 na turma B e 39 na turma C. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar uma interferência nas classes envolvidas utilizando metodologias diferentes sendo elas: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho as mesmas turmas da fase inicial orientadas pelo mesmo professor responderam novamente ao questionário proposto para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores resultados, sendo os iniciais comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%,turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando claramente uma absorção de conhecimentos. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas você acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente.Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, foi a mais significativa.

  4. (Un)receptiveness in interactions with professionals: experiences of parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Facio, Beatriz Castanheira; Marski, Bruna de Souza Lima; Higarashi, Ieda Harumi; Misko, Maira Deguer; Silveira, Aline Oliveira; Wernet, Monika

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the influence of health professionals' receptiveness on parental care of children with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A qualitative study developed under the theoretical framework of Symbolic Interactionism and using a narrative research methodology. Six women and three men, being parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity were individually interviewed in depth. From the scope of information, emotions and their rights, the parents experienced receptiveness from some professionals and unreceptiveness from others. The predominance of unreceptive attitudes in the parental narratives originated the following analysis themes: Informational (un)receptiveness, Emotional (un)receptiveness, and (Un)receptiveness of rights. The study supports human and comprehensive healthcare in the context of retinopathy of prematurity by pointing out the interactive process with health professionals as a potential stressor of parental care. The results signal a nuclear of attitudinal changes and reinforce challenges to the child and family-centered approach. Analisar a influência do acolhimento do profissional de saúde no cuidado parental junto ao filho com retinopatia da prematuridade. Estudo qualitativo desenvolvido sob o referencial teórico do Interacionismo Simbólico e metodológico da pesquisa de narrativas. Foram entrevistados em profundidade e individualmente seis mulheres e três homens, pais de crianças com retinopatia da prematuridade. Os pais vivenciam, nos âmbitos informacional, emocional e de direitos, acolhimento com alguns profissionais e destrato com outros. A predominância da postura de desacolhimento nas narrativas parentais deu origem aos temas de análise: (Des)acolhimento informacional, (Des)acolhimento emocional, e (Des)acolhimento de direitos. O estudo oferece subsídios ao cuidado humano e integral em saúde no contexto da retinopatia da prematuridade ao apontar o processo interativo com os profissionais de saúde enquanto potencial

  5. The Study of Efficacy, Tolerability and Safety of Theophylline Given Along with Formoterol Plus Budesonide in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ragulan; Jindal, Apar; Viswambhar, V.; V, Arun Babu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease causing significant socioeconomic burden. COPD patients, commonly smokers develop resistance to inhaled steroids attributed to deficiency of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2). The study of relationship between systemic inflammation and functional performance demonstrated that increased CRP level is inversely related to six minute walk distance (SMWD) and Forced Expired Volume in one second (FEV1). Theophylline restores HDAC2 activity thereby unlocking steroid resistance and potentiating inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) action culminating in reduced airway inflammation and mortality. Aim: To study the effects of addition of Theophylline to the combination of Formoterol plus Budesonide on various objective and subjective parameters in moderate to severe COPD patients and to assess the safety profile of the combination. Setting and Study design: A single blinded, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Fifty eight patients diagnosed with moderate to severe COPD were randomized into two groups. Group A patients received Formoterol 24μg plus budesonide 800μg daily in divided doses along with Theophylline while group B patients received Formoterol 24μg plus budesonide 800μg daily in divided doses along with placebo tablets. Both groups were followed up on 15th, 30th &60th day. During every visit all patients were assessed subjectively (symptom scoring) and objectively (spirometry, CRP, SMWT) and adverse effects if any were recorded. The obtained data subject to statistical analysis using“Graph pad Instat3” software. Results: Statistically significant improvement with a decline in total symptom score (p < 0.0001) was found with respect to “Night symptoms”&“SOB on rising” in group A. Theophylline group showed significant improvement in SMWD and FEV1.Mean fall in CRP was greater in Group A (not statistically

  6. Gastric wall changes after intragastric balloon placement: a preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Périssé, Luís Gustavo Santos; Ecbc-Rj, Paulo Cézar Marques Périssé; Ribeiro, Kelson Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    : to evaluate the thickness of the gastric wall at the time of intra gastric balloon (IGB) placement, at the time of its withdrawal and one month after withdrawal. : fifteen morbidly obese patients underwent the introduction of IGB under general anesthesia. In all patients, there was infusion of 500ml of distilled water in the balloon for the test. Measurements of the thickness of the gastric wall were made in the antrum, body and proximal body, using a radial echoendoscope with a frequency of 12MHz and maximum zoom, and its own balloon inflated with 5ml of distilled water. : the presence of IGB led to increased wall thickness of the gastric body by expanding the muscle layer. These changes were apparently transient, since 30 days after the balloon withdrawal there was a tendency to return of the wall thickness values ​​observed before the balloon insertion. : the use of intragastric balloon for the treatment of obesity determines transient increase in the wall thickness of the gastric body caused by expanded muscle layer. avaliar a espessura da parede gástrica no momento do posicionamento do balão intragástrico (BIG), no momento de sua retirada e um mês após a retirada. quinze pacientes obesos mórbidos foram submetidos à introdução de BIG sob anestesia geral. Em todos os pacientes foi feita infusão de 500 ml de água destilada e o balão foi insuflado com 5ml de água destilada. As medidas da espessura da parede gástrica foram feitas no antro, corpo e corpo alto utilizando-se um ecoendoscópio radial com frequência de 12MHz e zoom máximo. a presença do BIG levou ao aumento da espessura da parede do corpo gástrico pelo aumento de espessura da sua camada muscular. Estas alterações são aparentemente transitórias já que após 30 dias da retirada do balão existiu uma tendência de retorno da espessura da parede aos valores observados antes do seu posicionamento. a utilização do balão intragástrico para tratamento da obesidade determina

  7. [HIV infection and non-AIDS-defining malignancies: an outpatient clinic experience].

    PubMed

    Fevereiro, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Os doentes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana têm um risco elevado de desenvolver diferentes tipos de Neoplasias. Com a introdução da terapêutica anti-retroviral de alta potência, e consequente aumento da sobrevida, assistimos a uma mudança do espectro das patologias relacionadas com a infecção, nomeadamente das doenças Oncológicas, com aumento das Neoplasias Não Definidoras em deterimento das Definidoras de SIDA.Material e Métodos: Caracterização dos doentes com infecção Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana e diagnóstico de Neoplasias Não Definidoras acompanhados ao longo de 16 anos na Consulta de Medicina/Imunodeficiência do Hospital de São José, através da consulta dos processos clínicos e avaliação retrospectiva dos aspectos demográficos, epidemiológicos, clínico-laboratoriais, tratamento e sobrevida.Resultados: Nos 1 042 doentes avaliados, foram identificados 34 casos de Neoplasias Não Definidoras, principalmente em homens (78%) e com idade mediana de 55 anos. As neoplasias mais frequentes foram: pulmão (20,6%), bexiga (17,6%), próstata (8,8%) e canal anal (5,9%), sendo o tempo médio entre o diagnóstico da infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana e da Neoplasias Não Definidoras de 6,8 ± 4 anos. Na altura do diagnóstico da Neoplasias Não Definidoras a maioria dos doentes (78,8%) estava sob terapêutica anti-retroviral de alta potência, em média desde há 5,7 ± 3 anos, encontrando-se imunovirologicamente controlada. No total verificaram-se 45,5% óbitos, sobretudo em doentes com Neoplasia do pulmão (20%).Conclusão: Perante o risco de desenvolvimento de Neoplasias Não Definidoras nos doentes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana, torna-se fundamental o investimento em estratégias de prevenção, promoção de cessação tabágica e vacinação, bem como aplicação de protocolos de rastreio ajustados a esta população.

  8. Prevalence of tinnitus in elderly individuals with and without history of occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Melo, Juliana Jandre; Meneses, Caroline Luiz; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A variedade de alterações metabólicas e circulatórias relacionadas com o ruído pode causar o aparecimento de inúmeros sintomas auditivos, incluindo, zumbido.Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de queixa de zumbido, em idosos com e sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional.Método: Forma de estudo prospectivo foi realizado em uma amostra populacional com 502 indivíduos com idade superior a 60 anos, através de questionário padronizado e avaliação audiológica. As variáveis estudadas foram frequência de queixa de zumbido e de e história de ruído ocupacional. Foi usada regressão logística para controlar confusão ou modificação de efeito para as outras variáveis sobre as associações de interesse.Resultado e Discussão: A queixa de zumbido foi verificada em 50% dos idosos com história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional e em 40,43% dos idosos sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional. Uma alta frequência de queixa de zumbido foi detectada na população sob investigação, porém não houve significativa diferença estatística entre a queixa de zumbido e história de ruído ocupacional.Conclusão: O resultado desta pesquisa pode ter ocorrido devido à existência de outros fatores que podem ter contribuído para a presença de zumbido, como a própria idade, nos indivíduos sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional.

  9. Professionals and interfamily violence against children and adolescents: in between legal and conceptual precepts.

    PubMed

    Schek, Gabriele; Silva, Mara Regina Santos da; Lacharité, Carl; Bueno, Maria Emilia Nunes

    2016-01-01

    To identify the conceptions of professionals regarding interfamily violence against children and adolescents. A qualitative study conducted with 15 professionals who had taken children and adolescents under their care as a result of interfamily violence. Data were collected between November, 2013, and March, 2015, through semi-structured interviews. Data were organized and analyzed using the Textual Discourse Analysis technique. The professional discourse highlighted that some legal aspects regarding the handling of interfamily violence against children and adolescents are neglected; an omission supported by the justification of professionals to preserve the family. We highlight the confrontation between the concept of family as a caregiver and the family that commits violence against children, in addition to the positioning of professionals, which does not include the family or the aggressor in the intervention process in facing situations of interfamily violence attended to by the services. Acting against interfamily violence requires professionals to do away with some pre-established concepts in ordee to put the actual needs of victims and families into evidence. Identificar, com base no discurso dos profissionais, suas concepções a respeito da violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes. Estudo qualitativo, realizado com 15 profissionais, que tiveram sob seus cuidados crianças e adolescentes atendidas em decorrência da violência intrafamiliar. Os dados foram coletados entre novembro de 2013 e março de 2015, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os dados foram organizados e analisados utilizando a técnica de Análise Textual Discursiva. O discurso dos profissionais colocou em evidência que alguns aspectos legais em relação ao manejo da violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes são negligenciados, omissão respaldada pela justificativa dos profissionais de preservar a família. Destaca-se o confronto entre a concep

  10. Experience of the MALA bag in the open abdomen management in an obstetrical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Malagón Reyes, Ricardo Mauricio; Reyes Mendoza, Luis Emilio; Angeles Vásquez, María de Jesús; Mendieta Zerón, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: As indicações atuais para a gestão de abdómen aberto são a cirurgia de controlo de danos, a abordagem de sepsis intraabdominal grave, a síndrome de compartimento abdominal, o encerramento da parede abdominal sob tensão e a perda de massa da parede abdominal.Objetivo: Descrever a experiência em gestão e cirurgias de abdómen aberto usando a bolsa MALA (Maior Absorção de Líquido Abdominal).Material e Métodos: Estudo descritivo, incluindo todos os doentes com o diagnóstico de abdómen aberto gerido com a bolsa MALA internados na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Obstétricos de Fevereiro de 2009 a Junho de 2012.Resultados: Dos 25 casos identificados no período do estudo, sete foram eliminados por arquivos incompletos, permanecendo 18 casos para a análise. A média de idade foi de 31,5 anos. Setenta e oito por cento dos doentes eram multíparas, 50% com uma história de dois ou mais partos, 83% com uma cesariana anterior e 78% histerectomizadas, por atonia uterina, na maioria dos casos. A principal indicação para tratamento cirúrgico foi o controlo de danos. Uma doente morreu e uma segunda foi transferida para outra instituição, tendo as demais tido melhoria clínica. Doze doentes (67%) permaneceram menos de 14 dias na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Obstétricos e apenas uma precisou de mais de 30 dias na unidade.Conclusão: A bolsa MALA pode oferecer uma opção económica e eficaz para a gestão cirúrgica abdominal aberta, bem como umatécnica de drenagem.

  11. Dacrystic seizures: demographic, semiologic, and etiologic insights from a multicenter study in long-term video-EEG monitoring units.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Julie; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Vendrame, Martina; Oehl, Bernhard; Tatum, William O; Schuele, Stephan; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Poduri, Annapurna; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-10-01

    To provide an estimate of the frequency of dacrystic seizures in video-electroencephalography (EEG) long-term monitoring units of tertiary referral epilepsy centers and to describe the clinical presentation of dacrystic seizures in relationship to the underlying etiology. We screened clinical records and video-EEG reports for the diagnosis of dacrystic seizures of all patients admitted for video-EEG long-term monitoring at five epilepsy referral centers in the United States and Germany. Patients with a potential diagnosis of dacrystic seizures were identified, and their clinical charts and video-EEG recordings were reviewed. We included only patients with: (1) stereotyped lacrimation, sobbing, grimacing, yelling, or sad facial expression; (2) long-term video-EEG recordings (at least 12 h); and (3) at least one brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Nine patients (four female) with dacrystic seizures were identified. Dacrystic seizures were identified in 0.06-0.53% of the patients admitted for long-term video-EEG monitoring depending on the specific center. Considering our study population as a whole, the frequency was 0.13%. The presence of dacrystic seizures without other accompanying clinical features was found in only one patient. Gelastic seizures accompanied dacrystic seizures in five cases, and a hypothalamic hamartoma was found in all of these five patients. The underlying etiology in the four patients with dacrystic seizures without gelastic seizures was left mesial temporal sclerosis (three patients) and a frontal glioblastoma (one patient). All patients had a difficult-to-control epilepsy as demonstrated by the following: (1) at least three different antiepileptic drugs were tried in each patient, (2) epilepsy was well controlled with antiepileptic drugs in only two patients, (3) six patients were considered for epilepsy surgery and three of them underwent a surgical/radiosurgical or radioablative procedure. Regarding outcome, antiepileptic drugs

  12. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. β-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB

  13. The Problem of Form in Objects under Redevelopment (On the Basis of Bytom Market Square Redevelopment Design) / Problem Formy W Obiektach Przebudowywanych (Na Przykładzie Projektu Realizacyjnego Przebudowy Bytomskiego Rynku)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryńczuk, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    The author believes that if a designer has performed many design or research works entailing solutions to various problems, it is recommendable to consider and become aware of previously used methods whose application might have been unwitting or instinctive. The outcome of such reflection can be worth describing and recording in order to formulate a set of guidelines useful in the future. Such methods, being intuitive in nature, are often tied to the designer's subconsciousness, thus are rarely expressed in a clear manner. By using own methods a designer can prove that space should be composed in a given way in order to address specific needs and defined objectives. All this is aimed at preventing accidental formation of space. An example of reasoning serving the aforementioned purpose can be found in a method referred to as CQC or Composition Quality Control, the application of which facilitates intentional shaping of an architectural piece of work. Autor uważa uważa, że jeśli projektant ma za sobą wiele prac projektowych lub też prac badawczych, które połączone były z rozwiązywaniem różnych problemów, to warto zastanowić się i uświadomić sobie sposoby, które dotychczas - może nieświadomie lub odruchowo - były stosowane. Wynik refleksji warto opisać i zapisać po to, żeby ująć go w układ wskazań na przyszłość. Metody te, mając charakter intuicyjny, często związane są z podświadomością projektanta, w związku z tym rzadko można spotkać je jako wyrażone w sposób wyraźny. Stosując metody własne można dowieść, że przestrzeń winna być komponowana tak, a nie inaczej dla określonych potrzeb i wytyczonych celów tak, aby jej forma nie była przypadkowa. Przykładem takiego rozumowania jest przyjeta metoda KJK, której zastosowanie pomaga w swiadomym kształtowaniu dzieła architektonicznego.

  14. Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20): rapid recognition of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Edgar Nunes de; Carmo, Juliana Alves do; Moraes, Flávia Lanna de; Azevedo, Raquel Souza; Machado, Carla Jorge; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-12-22

    , in addition to the results indicating a high degree of validity and reliability. Thus, the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 proves to be viable as a triage instrument in the primary health care that identifies frail older adults (older adults at risk of weakening and frail older adults). Avaliar a adequação do Índice de Vulnerabilidade Clínico-Funcional-20 , instrumento de triagem rápida de vulnerabilidade em idosos brasileiros, para utilização pela atenção básica. O estudo incluiu amostra de conveniência de 397 pacientes com idade maior ou igual a 60 anos atendidos em um Centro de Referência para o Idoso e de 52 idosos da mesma idade atendidos na comunidade. Os resultados do questionário, constituído por 20 perguntas, foram comparados com aqueles da Avaliação Geriátrica Ampla, considerada referência para identificação do idoso frágil. Foi avaliada a correlação de Spearman do Índice de Vulnerabilidade Clínico-Funcional-20 com a Avaliação Geriátrica Ampla; a validade foi verificada pela área sob a curva ROC; a confiabilidade foi estimada pelo percentual de concordância entre avaliadores e coeficiente kappa, ambos com ponderação quadrática. Obteve-se ponto de corte com base no critério de maior acurácia. O alfa de Cronbach, medida de consistência interna, foi calculado. O coeficiente de correlação de Spearman foi elevado e positivo em ambos os grupos (0,792 para idosos atendidos no Centro de Referência para o Idoso e 0,305 para idosos da comunidade [p < 0,001]). A área sob a curva ROC para idosos atendidos no Centro de Referência para o Idoso foi substancial (0,903). O ponto de corte obtido foi seis e idosos com pontuação no Índice de Vulnerabilidade Clínico-Funcional-20 acima desse valor tinham forte possibilidade de serem frágeis. Para idosos da comunidade, a concordância ponderada quadrática entre avaliadores foi 99,5% e o coeficiente kappa ponderado quadrático global, 0,94. O alfa de Cronbach foi elevado

  15. Effects of a Single Bout of Resistance Exercise in Different Volumes on Endothelium Adaptations in Healthy Animals.

    PubMed

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Macedo, Fabricio Nunes; Mesquita, Thássio Ricardo Ribeiro; Quintans, Lucindo José; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano de; Lauton-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2017-05-01

    ças cardiovasculares. Recentemente, alguns estudos demonstraram que a intensidade de uma sessão de ER exerce um efeito sobre a disfunção endotelial. No entanto, não há dados sobre os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER sobre a função endotelial. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER, realizados em uma única sessão, sobre a vasodilatação dependente do endotélio e síntese de óxido nítrico (NO) em artéria mesentérica de animais saudáveis. Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (Ct); baixo volume (BV, 5 séries x 10 repetições) e alto volume de ER (AV, 15 séries x 10 repetições). Foi estabelecida a intensidade de 70% do teste de repetição máxima. Após o protocolo de exercício, anéis de artéria mesentérica foram utilizados na avaliação da reatividade vascular, e outras artérias mesentéricas foram preparadas para a detecção da produção de NO por fluorescência com para do DAF-FM. A resposta à insulina pela síntese de NO foi avaliada estimulando-se os anéis vasculares com insulina (10nM). A resposta máxima do relaxamento induzido por insulina foi aumentada somente no grupo AV em comparação ao grupo Ct. Além disso, a inibição da síntese do NO (L-NAME), aboliu completamente o relaxamento vascular induzido por insulina em ratos exercitados. A produção de NO mostrou um aumento dependente do volume no endotélio e no músculo liso. No endotélio, apenas os grupos Ct e BV mostraram aumento significativo na síntese de NO quando comparado aos seus respectivos grupos sob condição basal. No entanto, no músculo liso, a fluorescência foi aumentada em todos os grupos quando comparados aos seus respectivos grupos sob a condição basal. Nossos resultados sugerem que uma única sessão de ER foi capaz de promover adaptações no endotélio vascular. Além disso, nós observamos que este efeito é volume-dependente e o volume de 15 séries x10 repetições induziu o maior aumento na s

  16. Impact of long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators on lung function in a patient with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Cecilia; Corcione, Nadia; Rea, Gaetano; Stefanelli, Francesco; Meoli, Ilernando; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    ós terapia de curto e de longo prazo com uma combinação de corticosteroide/2-agonista de longa duração inalatórios, associada a um agente antimuscarínico de longa duração inalatório, o paciente apresentou uma melhora relevante da obstrução das vias aéreas, a qual fora irreversível durante o teste de broncodilatação. A função pulmonar do paciente piorou quando ele interrompeu a terapia inalatória tripla. Além disso, um programa de reabilitação pulmonar de três semanas significativamente melhorou seu desempenho físico.

  17. JOURNAL ANALYSIS ON OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OTHERS.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Denise de

    2015-01-01

    outras áreas, e isto não constitui inconsistência, mas expressa o valor atribuído, em cada área, àquela determinada revista científica. O Fator de Impacto é mensurado navegando-se no site do Journal of Citation Report da Web of Knowledge. A utilização dos critérios estabelecidos pelo WebQualis para estratificação dos periódicos é norteadora da qualidade do que se produz nos programas e, com base nela, pode-se fazer comparações de desempenho científico. Já a consulta ao JCR é complementarmente adequada de ser feita porque define com exatidão qual é o fator de impacto da revista, em função de que o Qualis estratifica faixas numéricas e não especificidade individual do periódico.

  18. Effects of Continuous and Accumulated Exercise on Endothelial Function in Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Juliana Edwiges; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The practice of exercise in short bouts repeated throughout the day may be an alternative strategy to lift people out of physical inactivity. to evaluate if accumulated exercise, as occurs in continuous exercise training, improve endothelial function in rat aorta. Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: continuous exercise (CEx, 1 hour on the treadmill) or accumulated exercise (AEx, 4 bouts of 15 minutes / day) for 5 days/week for 8 weeks, or sedentary (SED). During the training period, body weight gain and increase in exercise performance were recorded. On sacrifice day, aorta was dissected into rings (3-5 mm) and mounted on the organ bath. Fitness was significantly greater in CEx and AEx rats as compared with SED animals. In addition, compared with the SED group, CEx animals had a lower body mass gain, and the aorta obtained from these animals had reduced contractile response to norepinephrine and greater acetylcholine-induced relaxation. These results were not observed in ACEx animals. Both CEx and AEx improved fitness, but only CEx led to reduced body weight gain and improved endothelial function. A prática de exercícios em sessões curtas que se repetem ao longo do dia pode ser uma alternativa para tirar as pessoas da inatividade física. Verificar se o exercício acumulado, tal como ocorre com o treinamento com exercício contínuo, melhora a função endotelial na aorta de ratos. Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 3 grupos: treinamento com exercício contínuo (ExC; 1 hora em esteira) ou com exercício acumulado (ExA; 4 sessões de 15 minutos ao longo do dia) por 5 dias/semana, durante 8 semanas, ou grupo sedentário (SED). Durante o treinamento, foram registrados o ganho de peso corporal e desempenho na esteira. No dia do sacrifício, anéis (3-5 mm) da aorta foram obtidos e montados em banho de órgãos. Animais ExC e ExA mostraram aptidão física significativamente maior em comparação com os SED. Paralelamente, em comparação com SED

  19. Non-Invasive Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Hugo Souza; Reis, Helena França Correia Dos; Lima, Melissa Santos; Gomes, Mansueto

    2017-02-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) may perfect respiratory and cardiac performance in patients with heart failure (HF). The objective of the study to establish, through systematic review and meta-analysis, NIV influence on functional capacity of HF patients. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized studies was carried out through research of databases of Cochrane Library, SciELO, Pubmed and PEDro, using the key-words: heart failure, non-invasive ventilation, exercise tolerance; and the free terms: bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and functional capacity (terms were searched for in English and Portuguese) using the Boolean operators AND and OR. Methodological quality was ensured through PEDro scale. Weighted averages and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The meta-analysis was done thorugh the software Review Manager, version 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration). Four randomized clinical trials were included. Individual studies suggest NIV improved functional capacity. NIV resulted in improvement in the distance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) (68.7m 95%CI: 52.6 to 84.9) in comparison to the control group. We conclude that the NIV is an intervention that promotes important effects in the improvement of functional capacity of HF patients. However, there is a gap in literature on which are the most adequate parameters for the application of this technique. Resumo A ventilação não invasiva (VNI) pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho cardíaco e respiratório dos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). O objetivo do estudo é estabelecer, por meio de revisão sistemática e meta-análise, a influência da VNI na capacidade funcional (CF) de indivíduos com IC. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática com meta-análise de estudos randomizados através da pesquisa nas bases de dados Biblioteca Cochrane, SciELO, Pubmed e PEDro, utilizando-se as palavras-chave: insuficiência cardíaca, ventilação n

  20. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    PubMed

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A utilização de instrumentos de avaliação em saúde adequados é fundamental na gestão da prestação de cuidados. A escassez, em Portugal, de instrumentos específicos para a avaliação do desempenho de crianças utilizadoras de implantes cocleares motivou o trabalho de tradução e de adaptação da bateria de testes EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) para o português europeu. Esta bateria de testes é hoje um dos instrumentos mais comummente utilizados por equipas de (re)habilitação de crianças surdas com implantes cocleares em todo o mundo. O objetivo a atingir com a validação do EARS foi fornecer às equipas de (re)habilitação um instrumento que permita: (i) monitorizar a evolução individual da reabilitação; (ii) gerir um programa de (re)habilitação de acordo com resultados objetivos, comparáveis entre diferentes equipas de (re)habilitação; (iii) obter dados comparáveis comequipas internacionais; e (iv) melhorar a adesão e a motivação da família e restantes profissionais no ambulatório.Material e Métodos: No processo de tradução e de adaptação da bateria de testes, os procedimentos adotados foram os seguintes: (i) tradução da versão inglesa para português europeu por um tradutor profissional; (ii) revisão dessa tradução realizada por um painel de especialistas constituído por otorrinolaringologistas, terapeutas da fala e técnicos de audiologia; (iii) adaptação dos estímulos de teste pela equipa de terapeutas da fala; e (iv) nova revisão por parte do painel de especialistas.Resultados: São apresentados, para cada um dos instrumentos que compõem a bateria EARS, as adaptações introduzidas, conciliando as características e os objetivos originais dos instrumentos com as particularidades linguísticas e culturais da população portuguesa.Discussão: São discutidas as dificuldades encontradas durante o processo de tradução e de adaptação e as soluções adotadas. São feitas

  1. Systematic training model for teaching, development and training of instructors in inguinal hernia treatment using the Lichtenstein technique. Hernia campaign 2014 & 2015.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini-Mendes, Carlos José; Pacheco, Adhemar Monteiro; Destro, Bárbara Bozzoli; Tamaro, Caroline; Nogueira, Fábio Antonio Del Picchia DE Araújo; Chen, David; Reinpold, Wolfgang; Bruscagin, Vitor; Roll, Sergio; Silva, Rodrigo Altenfelder

    2016-01-01

    ". treinamento tutorado e sistematizado, através de metodologia ativa de ensino e aprendizagem, visando a oferecer competência, habilidade e atitudes, auferidas por um Formulário de Qualificação previamente validado, qualificando líderes no aperfeiçoamento de treinandos. em 2014, os desfechos foram: dificuldade do caso, direção, incisão, dissecção, preparo da tela, corte da tela, fixação da tela, fechamento, instrumentos, respeito aos tecidos, fluxo, tempo e movimento e desempenho, apresentaram mudança na Classificação Geral (p=0,000002); houve maior confiança na execução do procedimento em 80% dos treinandos, sendo considerado "Muito Valioso" em 93,3% das participações. Em 2015, os 28 cirurgiões foram treinados por dez cirurgiões previamente qualificados em 2014. A taxa de identificação dos nervos, tempo relevante da técnica de Lichtenstein, foi 95,5 % para o ílio-hipogástrico, 98,5% para o ilioinguinal e 89,4% para o ramo genital do nervo genitofemoral. o método de ensino aplicado é possível, reprodutível, confiável e válido. Os mutirões oferecem a enorme oportunidade do ensino, dirigido, atingindo populações carentes, revelando a grande responsabilidade social docente-discente.

  2. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE QUALIS OF SOFTWARE TECHNICAL PRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Scarpi, Marinho Jorge

    2015-01-01

    da Área Medicina III da CAPES, embasando a criação de proposta para métrica do tema, com vistas à avaliação quadrienal dos cursos de pós-graduação. A percepção de qualidade em uso do software pelo usuário resulta da efetividade, produtividade, segurança e satisfação proporcionada, que têm origem nas suas características de funcionalidade, confiabilidade, usabilidade, eficiência, manutenibilidade e portabilidade (métricas de qualidade em uso). Tal percepção depende do cenário de uso específico. A métrica de software deve ser incluída na produção intelectual do Documento de Área do programa, ponderando os resultados nas medidas de comportamento do sistema em avaliação de desempenho por usuários, considerando a somatória da pontuação favorável para as seis métricas de qualidade em uso (27 sub-itens, de 0 a 2 pontos cada) e a comprovação da percepção de qualidade (quatro itens, de 0 a 10 pontos cada). Será considerado muito bom (MB) de 85 a 94 pontos; bom (B) de 75 a 84 pontos; Regular (R) de 65 a 74 pontos; fraco (F) de 55 a 64 pontos; deficiente (D) < 55.

  3. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    ções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

  4. Syntax Score and Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Results from a Cohort Study in a University-Affiliated Hospital in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Felipe C; Ribeiro, Jorge P; Fuchs, Flávio D; Wainstein, Marco V; Bergoli, Luis C; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Zen, Vanessa; Kerkhoff, Alessandra C; Moreira, Leila B; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-09-01

    sistema de escore que estima a extensão anatômica da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Sua capacidade para predizer desfechos com base na cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica de base ainda não foi testada. Avaliar o desempenho do SXescore para predizer eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (MACE) em pacientes encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica. Coorte prospectiva de 895 pacientes com suspeita de DAC encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica eletiva de 2008 a 2011, em hospital universitário no Brasil. Os pacientes tiveram seus SXescores calculados e foram estratificados em três categorias: 'sem DAC significativa' (n = 495); SXescoreBAIXO-INTERMEDIÁRIO: < 23 (n = 346); e SXescoreALTO: ≥ 23 (n = 54). O desfecho primário foi composto de morte cardíaca, infarto do miocárdio e revascularização tardia. Os desfechos secundários foram MACE e morte por todas as causas. Em média, os pacientes foram acompanhados por 1,8 ± 1,4 anos. Desfecho primário ocorreu em 2,2%, 15,3% e 20,4% nos grupos 'sem DAC significativa', SXescoreBAIXO-INTERMEDIÁRIO e SXescoreALTO, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Morte por todas as causas foi significativamente mais frequente no grupo de SXescoreALTO comparado ao grupo 'sem DAC significativa', 16,7% e 3,8% (p < 0,001), respectivamente. Após ajuste para fatores de confusão, todos os desfechos permaneceram associados com o SXescore. O SXescore prediz independentemente MACE em pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica. Seu uso rotineiro nesse contexto poderia identificar pacientes de pior prognóstico.

  5. Interruptions of activities experienced by nursing professionals in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Prates, Daniele de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo

    2016-09-09

    principal fonte das interrupções foi externa, proveniente dos profissionais de saúde (51%), e as principais causas foram as relacionadas aos pacientes (34,70%) e às comunicações interpessoais (26,47%). A enfermagem sofre um grande número de interrupções, causadas principalmente pelos próprios profissionais de saúde, indicando que o ambiente de trabalho deve sofrer intervenções que objetivem reduzir o risco de comprometimento do desempenho do profissional e aumentar a segurança dos pacientes. analizar las interrupciones experimentadas por profesionales de enfermería durante la realización de actividades asistenciales. estudio observacional realizado en dos unidades de tratamiento intensivo. Dos enfermeros observaron 33 profesionales de enfermería, durante tres horas. Los datos fueron registrados en tiempo real, usando un instrumento semiestructurado. después de 99 horas de observación de 739 actividades, fue identificado que 46,82% sufrieron interrupciones, haciendo 7,85 interrupciones por hora. En promedio, las interrupciones comprometieron 9,42% del tiempo de trabajo de los profesionales de enfermería. Las actividades orientadas al cuidado indirecto del paciente fueron las que sufrieron el mayor número de interrupciones (56,65%), siendo el registro de enfermería la actividad más interrumpida. La principal fuente de interrupciones fue externa, proveniente de los profesionales de la salud (51%), y las principales causas fueron las relacionadas a pacientes (34,70%) y a comunicaciones interpersonales (26,47%). La enfermería sufre un gran número de interrupciones, causadas principalmente por los propios profesionales de la salud, indicando que el ambiente de trabajo debe sufrir intervenciones que objetiven reducir el riesgo de comprometer el desempeño del profesional y aumentar la seguridad de los pacientes.

  6. Diagnosis of aggressive subtypes of eyelid basal cell carcinoma by 2-mm punch biopsy: prospective and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Luiz Angelo; Carneiro, Rachel Camargo; Macedo, Erick Marcet Santiago de; Lima, Patrícia Picciarelli de; Miyazaki, Ahlys Ayumi; Matayoshi, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    áveis quantitativas e qualitativas (sexo, idade, duração da doença, maior diâmetro do tumor, área e comprometimento de margens). A biópsia em dois sítios mostrou duas vezes mais chance de concordar com o padrão-ouro do que a biópsia de um sítio. a acurácia e os indicadores de desempenho foram melhores para a biópsia por trépano de 2 mm em dois sítios do que em um sítio para o diagnóstico dos subtipos agressivos de CBC palpebral.

  7. [Periarticular Corticosteroid Injection in the Therapeutic Approach of Musculoskeletal Disease in General Practice: A systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Trindade, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Internacionalmente constata-se o tratamento de patologia músculo-esquelética em cuidados de saúde primários através de técnicas de infiltração peri-articular de corticosteróides. Este artigo procede à análise da evidência existente, com o objectivo de contribuir para a discussão do desenvolvimento dessa prática, ainda diminuta, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Análise qualitativa de estudos controlados aleatorizados, custo-efectividade, transversais e coorte restrospectivo, recorrendo ao modelo PRISMA. Fontes de dados: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Essential Evidence Plus. Critérios de elegibilidade: infiltrações de corticosteróides no tratamento de patologia músculo-esquelética e indicação de contexto em cuidados de saúde primários. Resultados: Foram incluídos nove estudos controlados aleatorizados, três estudos de custo-efectividade, três estudos transversais, três estudos descritivos e um estudo coorte retrospectivo. A maioria dos indicadores de sucesso da utilização de infiltrações de corticosteróides por médicos de medicina geral e familiar mostrou eficácia a curto prazo; a longo prazo não mostrou superioridade comparativamenteàs intervenções alternativas. O balanço entre os encargos económicos e o aumento da qualidade de vida é favorável à utilização desta técnica em cuidados de saúde primários. Todos os onze estudos que avaliaram a segurança registaram efeitos adversos ligeiros e nenhum grave. Discussão: O desempenho das técnicas de infiltração peri-articular de corticosteróides permite figurá-las como opção terapêutica no tratamento de patologia músculo-esquelética nos cuidados de saúde primários Portugueses. Importa incentivar estudos, nomeadamente a nível nacional, que suportem tanto os indicadores de eficácia, como de segurança desta técnica. Conclusão: A infiltração peri-articular de corticosteróides constitui uma opção relativamente eficaz, segura e com potencial de

  8. Public-private settlement and hospital mortality per sources of payment.

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliana Pires; Martins, Mônica; Leite, Iuri da Costa

    2016-07-21

    selecionados considerando o volume de internações e a lista de indicadores de qualidade propostos pela agência norte-americana de pesquisa em saúde e qualidade (AHRQ). Foram analisadas 852.864 internações em adultos, ocorridas em 789 hospitais entre 2008 e 2010, em São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul, aplicando regressão logística multinível. No nível da internação, apresentaram maiores chances de óbito pacientes do sexo masculino, em faixas etárias mais avançadas, com comorbidade, que utilizaram unidade de terapia intensiva, e tinham o Sistema Único de Saúde como fonte de pagamento. No nível dos hospitais, naqueles situados na média da distribuição, a probabilidade de morte ajustada nas internações financiadas por plano ou particular foi de 5,0%, contra 9,0% quando reembolsadas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Essa probabilidade aumentou nas internações financiadas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde em hospitais a dois desvios padrão acima da média, passando para 29,0%. Além das características estruturais dos hospitais e do perfil dos pacientes, intervenções voltadas para a melhoria do cuidado deveriam considerar também a cobertura da população por planos de saúde, a rede compartilhada entre beneficiários de planos e usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde, o padrão de atendimento às diversas fontes de pagamento pelos hospitais e, fundamentalmente, como esses fatores influenciam o desempenho clínico.

  9. Safety and health of professional drivers who drive on Brazilian highways.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Mello, Marco Túlio de

    2017-03-30

    Traffic accidents and resulting injuries and deaths have become a global epidemic. In Brazil, most professional drivers, especially truck drivers, face irregular working hours and can be awake for more than 18 hours/day, which reduces their performance and alertness. In this article, we discuss the laws related to Brazilian professional drivers and their current amendments (No. 12,619/2012 and No. 13,103/2015) in relation to working hours at the wheel and rest breaks, which are vital for the quality of life of drivers and society in general. We note that the new law appears to be less efficient than the previous one as it causes insecurity and concern to the users of the transportation system, drivers, and employers. To restrict and reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries in traffic, appropriate legislation is essential, aiming at the safety of workers and users of highways. The law must also benefit the commercial aspect, strengthening the reduction in production and logistics losses. Additionally, traffic education programs are needed, as well as better supervision in relation to total working hours. RESUMO Acidentes de trânsito com consequentes lesões e mortes têm se tornado uma epidemia em nível mundial. No Brasil, a maioria dos motoristas profissionais, sobretudo motoristas de transporte de cargas, enfrenta jornada de trabalho irregular e permanece acordado por mais de 18 horas/dia, o que reduz seu desempenho e estado de alerta. Neste artigo, discutimos as leis dos motoristas profissionais brasileiros e suas alterações vigentes (nº 12.619/2012 e nº 13.103/2015) em relação às horas de trabalho ao volante e a pausas para descanso, imprescindíveis para a qualidade de vida dos motoristas e para a sociedade em geral. Observamos que a nova legislação se mostra menos eficiente que a anterior por causar insegurança e preocupação aos usuários do sistema de transporte, aos próprios motoristas e aos empregadores. Para restringir e reduzir acidentes

  10. Comparing the performance of the SF-6D and the EQ-5D in different patient groups.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara N; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O objectivo geral deste artigo consiste em comparar o desempenho do EQ-5D e do SF-6D em quatro grupos de doentes que sofrem de asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica, cataratas e artrite reumatóide. Em particular, este artigo tem dois objectivos específicos: 1) estudar o nível de concordância entre os índices e os sistemas descritivos das dimensões do SF-6D e EQ-5D, e 2) analisar a capacidade de discriminação dos instrumentos.Material e Métodos: Uma amostra de 643 doentes respondeu ao SF-36v2 e ao EQ-5D. Foram analisados a capacidade de discriminação dos instrumentos, bem como o nível de concordância entre os índices e os sistemas descritivos das dimensões do SF-6D e EQ-5D. O nível de concordância entre os instrumentos foi estudado com base em coeficientes de correlação e nos gráficos de Bland-Altman, enquanto a influência da condição médica e de outras variáveis de natureza sociodemográfica nos índices foi analisada com o recurso a testes não paramétricos. Utilizaram-se também testes para amostras emparelhadas para identificar diferenças entre osscores finais dos instrumentos.Resultados e Discussão: Verificou-se a existência de uma correlação forte e de uma concordância elevada entre os dois índices. Em termos globais, os índices diferem por condição médica e por grupo sociodemográfico e ambos os instrumentos demonstraram uma capacidade discriminativa semelhante entre grupos sociodemográficosConclusão: Confirmou-se a hipótese de que o SF-6D gera valores de utilidade superiores em populações com doenças. O SF-6D e o EQ-5D parecem comportar-se de forma diferente em cada uma das doenças analisadas, uma vez que as medidas descritivas diferem entre instrumentos e os coeficientes de correlação não são uniformes. Os resultados demonstraram que o EQ-5D e o SF-6D geram valores de utilidade diferentes, mas que existe uma concordância elevada entre os dois instrumentos. Pode-se concluir que os resultados

  11. Education Through Aerospace Components. (Spanish Title: Educación Através de Elementos Aeroespaciales.) Educação Através de Elementos Aeroespaciais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa Loureda, Oswaldo; Sobral de Araújo, Jéssyca B.

    2008-12-01

    tal, dispõe-se de diversos métodos e meios que vêm implantar idéias em prol do avanço do povo brasileiro nos aspectos pedagógicos, psicológicos e culturais. Alfabetizar é um ato que exige muito cuidado e responsabilidade; o comportamento e desempenho de um indivíduo na sociedade é resultado da maneira com que ele foi instruído. Contudo, a área de exatas exige especial atenção, pois os conhecimentos adquiridos são imprescindíveis para o desenvolvimento pessoal do individuo, assim como para o futuro tecnológico do País. Como meio alternativo ou complementar de ensino é sugerido o uso de elementos aeroespaciais, devido ao fato de comportar uma vasta quantidade e qualidade de disciplinas envolvidas respectivamente com competências de grande importância para sua vida profissional futura. Uma nova Corrida acontece, porém dessa vez a meta não é a Lua e sim o conhecimento.

  12. Measuring the quality of life in hypertension according to Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Borges, José Wicto Pereira; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Schmitt, Jeovani; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de; Barbetta, Pedro Alberto; Souza, Ana Célia Caetano de; Lima, Daniele Braz da Silva; Carvalho, Irialda Saboia

    2017-05-04

    álise pela Teoria da Resposta ao Item foram: avaliação da dimensionalidade, estimação dos parâmetros dos itens e construção da escala. O estudo da dimensionalidade foi realizado sobre a matriz de correlação policórica e análise fatorial confirmatória. Para a estimação dos parâmetros dos itens, foi utilizado o Modelo de Resposta Gradual de Samejima. As análises foram conduzidas no software livre R com o auxílio dos pacotes psych e mirt. A análise permitiu a visualização dos parâmetros dos itens e suas contribuições individuais na mensuração do traço latente, gerando mais informação, permitindo a construção de uma escala com um modelo interpretativo que demonstra a evolução da piora da qualidade de vida em cinco níveis. Quanto aos parâmetros dos itens, houve bom desempenho daqueles referentes ao estado somático, pois apresentaram melhor poder de discriminar os indivíduos com pior qualidade de vida. Os itens relacionados ao estado mental foram os que contribuíram com menor quantidade de informação psicométrica no MINICHAL. Conclui-se que o instrumento é indicado para a identificação da deterioração da qualidade de vida em hipertensão arterial. A análise do MINICHAL pela Teoria da Resposta ao Item permitiu identificar novas facetas desse instrumento ainda não abordadas em estudos anteriores.

  13. Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.

    2003-08-01

    As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a

  14. Prediction of Success in External Cephalic Version under Tocolysis: Still a Challenge.

    PubMed

    Vaz de Macedo, Carolina; Clode, Nuno; Mendes da Graça, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A versão cefálica externa é o procedimento de rotação fetal para uma apresentação cefálica através de manobras sobre o abdómen materno. Encontram-se descritos na literatura vários factores prognósticos para o sucesso da versão cefálica externa e foram propostos scores preditores, mas a sua verdadeira implicação para a prática clínica é controversa. Pretendemos identificar possíveis factores contributivos para o sucesso de uma tentativa de versão cefálica externa na nossa população. Material e Métodos: Examinámos retrospectivamente 207 tentativas consecutivas de versão cefálica externa sob tocólise conduzidas entre Janeiro de 1997 e Julho de 2012. Consultámos a base de dados do departamento para as seguintes variáveis: raça, idade, paridade, índice de massa corporal, idade gestacional, peso fetal estimado, categoria de apresentação, localização placentária e índice de líquido amniótico. Efectuámos avaliação estatística descritiva e analítica monovariada e regressão binária logística. Resultados: A versão cefálica externa foi bem-sucedida em 46,9% dos casos (97/207). Nenhuma das variáveis incluídas se associou com o desfecho da tentativa após ajuste para factores de confundimento.Discussão: Apresentamos uma taxa de sucesso semelhante ao descrito na literatura. No entanto, ao contrário de estudos anteriores, não associámos nenhuma das variáveis analisadas com o sucesso das tentativas de versão cefálica externa. Acreditamos que esta discrepância poderá ser parcialmente explicada pelo tipo de análise estatística efectuada. Conclusões: Apesar de terem sido identificados numerosos factores de prognóstico para o seu sucesso, o aconselhamento e selecção de grávidas para versão cefálica externa deverão ser cautelosos. Os dados obtidos sugerem que a versão cefálica externa deverá continuar a ser oferecida a todas as grávidas elegíveis independentemente de factores prognósticos de

  15. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  16. Multi level optimization of burnable poison utilization for advanced PWR fuel management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Serkan

    well as minimizing the total Gd amount in the core. The GA code developed many good solutions that satisfy all of the design constraints. For these solutions, the EOC soluble boron concentration changes from 68.9 to 97.2 ppm. It is important to note that the difference of 28.3 ppm between the best and the worst solution in the good solutions region represent the potential of 12.5 Effective-Full-Power-Day (EPFD) savings in cycle length. As a comparison, the best BP loading design has 97.2 ppm soluble boron concentration at EOC while the BP loading with available vendors' U/Gd FA designs has 94.4 ppm SOB at EOC. It was estimated that the difference of 2.8 ppm reflected the potential savings of 1.25 EFPD in cycle length. Moreover, the total Gd amount was reduced by 6.89% in mass that provided extra savings in fuel cost compared to the BP loading pattern with available vendor's U/Gd FA designs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Experimental Study on Steel Tank Model Using Shaking Table/ Badania Eksperymentalne Modelu Zbiornika Stalowego Na Stole Sejsmicznym

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkacki, Daniel; Jankowski, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Cylindrical steel tanks are very popular structures used for storage of products of chemical and petroleum industries. Earthquakes are the most dangerous and also the most unpredictable dynamic loads acting on such structures. On the other hand, mining tremors are usually considered to be less severe due to lower acceleration levels observed. The aim of the present paper is to show the results of the experimental study which has been conducted on a scaled model of a real tank located in Poland. The investigation has been carried out under different dynamic excitations (earthquakes and mining tremors) using the shaking table. The results of the study indicate that stored product may significantly influence the values of dynamic parameters and confirm that the level of liquid filling is really essential in the structural analysis. The comparison of the response under moderate earthquakes and mining tremors indicate that the second excitation may be more severe in some cases. Stalowe zbiorniki walcowe są bardzo popularnymi konstrukcjami używanymi do magazynowania produktów przemysłu chemicznego i naftowego. Ich bezpieczeństwo i niezawodność są kluczowe, ponieważ każde uszkodzenie może nieść za sobą bardzo poważne konsekwencje. Trzęsienia ziemi są najbardziej niebezpiecznymi, a zarazem najbardziej nieprzewidywalnymi obciążeniami dynamicznymi, które mogą oddziaływać na tego typu konstrukcje. Z drugiej strony ruchy podłoża związane ze wstrząsami górniczymi są uważane za mniej groźne z powodu osiągania niższych poziomów wartości przyspieszeń. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań eksperymentalnych, które przeprowadzono na wykonanym w skali modelu rzeczywistego zbiornika zlokalizowanego na terenie Polski. Badania wykonano przy użyciu stołu sejsmicznego. Zakres badań obejmował testy harmoniczne właściwości dynamicznych oraz zachowanie się stalowego zbiornika walcowego podczas trzęsień ziemi oraz wstrz

  18. Predictors of Mediastinitis Risk after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Applicability of Score in 1.322 Cases.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fabiana Dos Santos; Freitas, Letícia Delfino Oliveira de; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Costa, Laura Maggi da; Kalil, Renato Abdala Karam; Moraes, Maria Antonieta Pereira de

    2017-08-17

    órica conduzido com pacientes adultos submetidos à CRM. As variáveis analisadas foram as contempladas no MagedanzSCORE: reintervenção cirúrgica, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC), obesidade, angina estável classe IV/angina instável, politransfusão sanguínea, mediastinite e óbito como variáveis de desfecho. Dentre os 1.322 pacientes analisados, 56 (4,2%) desenvolveram mediastinite. Destes, 26 (46,4%) foram classificados com risco elevado e 15 (26,8%) com risco muito elevado. Três das cinco variáveis do escore apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas: reintervenção cirúrgica, DPOC e obesidade. Angina classe IV/instável e politransfusão (pós-operatória) não apresentaram associação com mediastinite após a CRM. A área sob a curva ROC foi de 0,80 (IC 95% 0,73 - 0,86), demonstrando capacidade satisfatória do modelo em prever a ocorrência de mediastinite. O instrumento mostrou-se útil para auxiliar na avaliação pré-operatória por apontar o risco de mediastinite nesta população de pacientes de cuidados intensivos. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

  19. Prognostic Value of Coronary Flow Reserve Obtained on Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography and its Correlation with Target Heart Rate.

    PubMed

    Abreu, José Sebastião de; Rocha, Eduardo Arrais; Machado, Isadora Sucupira; Parahyba, Isabelle O; Rocha, Thais Brito; Paes, Fernando José Villar Nogueira; Diogenes, Tereza Cristina Pinheiro; Abreu, Marília Esther Benevides de; Farias, Ana Gardenia Liberato Ponte; Carneiro, Marcia Maria; Paes, José Nogueira

    2017-05-01

    Normal coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) (≥ 2) obtained in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) from transthoracic echocardiography is associated with a good prognosis, but there is no study correlating CFVR with submaximal target heart rate (HR). To evaluate the prognostic value of CFVR obtained in the LAD of patients with preserved (>50%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) who completed a dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), considering target HR. Prospective study of patients with preserved LVEF and CFVR obtained in the LAD who completed DSE. In Group I (GI = 31), normal CFVR was obtained before achieving target HR, and, in Group II (GII = 28), after that. Group III (G III=24) reached target HR, but CFVR was abnormal. Death, acute coronary insufficiency, coronary intervention, coronary angiography without further intervention, and hospitalization were considered events. In 28 ± 4 months, there were 18 (21.6%) events: 6% (2/31) in GI, 18% (5/28) in GII, and 46% (11/24) in GIII. There were 4 (4.8%) deaths, 6 (7.2%) coronary interventions and 8 (9.6%) coronary angiographies without further intervention. In event-free survival by regression analysis, GIII had more events than GI (p < 0.001) and GII (p < 0.045), with no difference between GI and GII (p = 0.160). After adjustment, the only difference was between GIII and GI (p = 0.012). In patients with preserved LVEF and who completed their DSE, normal CFVR obtained before achieving target HR was associated with better prognosis. A reserva de velocidade de fluxo coronariano (RVFC) adequada (≥ 2) obtida na artéria descendente anterior (ADA) através do ecocardiograma transtorácico associa-se a bom prognóstico, mas não há estudo correlacionando-a com a frequência cardíaca (FC) alvo (submáxima). Avaliar o valor prognóstico da RVFC obtida na ADA de pacientes com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) preservada (>50%) e ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina

  20. The development of communication skills and the teacher's performance in the nursing student's perspective.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karime Rodrigues Emilio de; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2016-06-01

    To understand experiences in the development of communication skills and the teacher's role in this teaching-learning process under the perspective of undergraduate nursing students by considering two types of curriculum organization. Descriptive study with a qualitative approach conducted in two public schools located in São Paulo state, Brazil. Data were collected by means of self-completed forms from 81 students in the second and fourth years of the undergraduate program. Results were analyzed in light of Content Analysis. Results showed that the development of such skills is related to: students' individual characteristics, patients' characteristics, those of the health-disease process, the health-care team's profile and the theoretical knowledge acquired on communication in health-care provision and nursing. The teacher's role was perceived as one that supports and encourages interactions with patients and health-care teams by teaching and providing orientation about interpersonal communication. Students identify and value the importance of their teachers' performance in the development and acquisition of communication skills. Additionally, students who experience active teaching-learning methodologies acknowledge the teacher as essential to provide opportunities for students to express their knowledge and thoughts. Compreender, sob a ótica de graduandos de enfermagem, as experiências no desenvolvimento de habilidades comunicativas e a atuação do professor neste processo de ensino-aprendizagem, considerando dois tipos de organização curricular. Pesquisa descritiva com abordagem qualitativa, realizada em duas instituições de ensino públicas, situadas no interior do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A coleta dos dados foi realizada pelo autopreenchimento de formulário por 81 alunos de segundo e quartos anos da graduação. Os resultados foram analisados à luz da Análise de Conteúdo. Revelaram que o desenvolvimento desta habilidade está relacionado

  1. [Transobturator slings for female stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana; Jesus, André; Carvalho, Maria; Carvalho, Giselda; Marques, João; Falcão, Francisco; Torgal, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A incontinência urinária de esforço afeta 20 a 40% das mulheres. Os slings colocados sob a uretra média, aplicados por via transobturadora, são a terapêutica consensualmente aceite na atualidade. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e possíveis complicações associadas à aplicação dos slings colocados por via transobturadora no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço. Material e Métodos: Avaliaram-se retrospetivamente 363 doentes submetidas a cirurgia de incontinência urinária de esforço por via transobturadora, nos Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, no período de 1 Janeiro de 2008 a 1 Julho de 2010. Resultados: A média das idades das doentes foi de 56 anos [28-86]. Além da correção da incontinência urinária de esforço, em 13,5% das mulheres foi associada outra cirurgia vaginal. A maioria (95,3%) das mulheres apresentou hipermobilidade da uretra. Ocorreram complicações per-operatórias em 0,8%, complicações pós-operatórias imediatas em 5,2% e complicações pós-operatórias tardias em 15,7%. A taxa de sucesso global foi de 93,7%. A taxa de sucesso nas doentes com uretra fixa foi 77,8%, verificando-se melhores resultados (94,5%) naquelas com hipermobilidade da uretra (p = 0,02). A taxa de sucesso foi comparável nas doentes com e sem cirurgias vaginais associadas. Discussão: As técnicas transobturadoras têm taxas de sucesso elevadas, tendo-se tornado o tratamento de primeira linha para as doentes com IUE, independentemente se tratadas pela técnica outside-in (TOT®) ou pela inside-out (TVT-O®). Ambas as técnicas foram concebidas com o intuito de evitar a passagem no espaço retropúbico, reduzindo assim o número de complicações. Conclusão: As taxas de cura para as abordagens transobturadoras oscilam entre 80 e 95%. A taxa de cura aumenta quando o mecanismo responsável pela incontinência urinária de esforço é a hipermobilidade da uretra

  2. Pulmonary Embolism in Ambulatory Oncologic Patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia; Rosales, Maria; Milheiro, Maria João; Santos, Luísa L

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A associação entre a doença oncológica e a doença tromboembólica venosa é conhecida. O doente oncológico apresenta um risco de evento trombótico seis a sete vezes superior à população em geral. O tromboembolismo pulmonar é uma importante causa de morbilidade e mortalidade neste grupo de doentes, encontrando-se a sua prevalência subestimada. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo de todos os episódios de tromboembolismo pulmonar referenciados num período de cinco anos. Selecionaram-se os doentes oncológicos em regime de ambulatório, tendo sido revistos os dados demográficos, fatores de risco, presença de sintomatologia ao diagnóstico, estratificação de risco de doença tromboembólica venosa pelo modelo de Khorana, probabilidade de mortalidade aos 30 dias e sobrevivência global. O trabalho elaborado está de acordo com a declaração de Helsínquia. Resultados: Avaliaram-se 186 doentes, 55,9% do sexo feminino, mediana de idade de 64 anos. As neoplasias mais prevalentes foram a colo-rectal (24,2%) e a pulmonar (17,7%), sendo que a maioria apresentava metástases (66,1%) ou realizaram quimioterapia (69,4%). O tromboembolismo pulmonar foi um achado imagiológico em 69,4%, sendo que nenhum dado clínico analisado no nosso estudo mostrou ter significado estatístico na apresentação de tromboembolismo pulmonar com sintomatologia clínica evidente. Observou-se uma mortalidade aos 30 dias resultante do tromboembolismo pulmonar de 7,5%, tendo-se verificado que os doentes sintomáticos apresentaram uma sobrevivência média inferior relativamente aos assintomáticos (12 vs. 20 meses; p = 0,029). A aplicação retrospetiva do modelo preditivo de Khorana para doença tromboembólica venosa nos doentes sob quimioterapia permitiu identificar 11% dos indivíduos em alto risco. Discussão: O tromboembolismo pulmonar foi um achado imagiológico na maioria dos doentes, sendo que nenhuma variável clínica se associou à presença ou aus

  3. A highly salt-dependent enthalpy change for Escherichia coli SSB protein-nucleic acid binding due to ion-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Lohman, T M; Overman, L B; Ferrari, M E; Kozlov, A G

    1996-04-23

    . Such salt effects on delta Hobs may serve as a signature for differential ion-protein binding. These results underscore the need to examine the linkage of [salt] to delta Hobs, as well as delta Hobs degrees and delta S(obs) degrees, in order to understand the bases for stability and specificity of protein-nucleic acid interactions.

  4. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Chamas, Claudia; Faid, Miriam; Morel, Carlos

    2016-11-03

    This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives. Resumo: O objetivo central deste texto é discutir desenvolvimento e saúde sob a ótica da influência da governança da saúde global, utilizando como traçador a dimensão das políticas de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação em saúde, que se referem, de um lado, a insumos importantes para o sistema de saúde - como fármacos e medicamentos, vacinas, reativos para diagnóstico e equipamentos e, de outro, a conceitos e práticas inovadoras para o aperfeiçoamento dos sistemas de saúde e da saúde pública. Examina os dois principais macroprocessos que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a saúde: a Agenda do Desenvolvimento para o pós-2015 e o processo sobre pesquisa e desenvolvimento, propriedade intelectual e acesso a insumos em saúde em curso na Organiza

  5. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: case series, two years at an intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Taborda, Lúcia; Barros, Filipa; Fonseca, Vitor; Irimia, Manuel; Carvalho, Ramiro; Diogo, Cláudia; Ramos, Armindo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda apresenta incidência e mortalidade significativas em Cuidados Intensivos, justificando estudos adicionais, nomeadamente para definição de novas abordagens terapêuticas. Os autores propuseram-se caracterizaros casos duma Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos em dois anos.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se a um estudo observacional retrospectivo dos casos admitidos numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos, cumprindo os critérios diagnósticos da American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS, tendo sido excluídos os não ventilados invasivamente. Pesquisados e submetidos a tratamento estatístico: dados demográficos, etiologia do Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda, comorbilidades, Índices de Gravidade, PaO2/FiO2, modalidades e parâmetros ventilatórios, compliance pulmonar, dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva, corticoterapia, terapêuticas de resgate, complicações, duração do internamento, óbitos.Resultados: Obtiveram-se 40 doentes, com uma mediana de 72,5 anos (amplitude interquartil 22) e um ratio feminino:masculino ≈1:1,86. Cinquenta e cinco por cento dos Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda tiveram etiologia pulmonar. A média do PaO2/ FiO2 mínimo foi 88mm Hg (IC 95%: 78,5-97,6). A média da PEEP máxima aplicada foi 12,4 cmH2O (Desvio Padrão 4,12) e a médiado Volume Corrente máximo utilizado foi 8,2 mL/Kg peso ideal (IC 95%: 7,7-8,6). A mediana dos dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva foi 10. Em 47,5% dos doentes foram administrados corticóides. Em 52,5% foi executado recrutamento alveolar. A complicação mais frequente foi a Pneumonia Associada a Ventilação (20%). A mediana da duração do internamento foi 10,7 dias (amplitude interquartil10,85). Faleceram 60% dos doentes. A probabilidade de outcome favorável ‘não óbito na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos’ foi 4,4x superior nos doentes sob corticoterapia e 11x superior nos doentes com idade < 65 anos

  6. Vegetation Structure Changes in the South Part of Western Siberia at the End of XX Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, A. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding human impact on changes in vegetation composition and structure can be performed using analysis of space images obtained from high resolution satellite sensors. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early succession stages, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data obtained in various seasons and years. The studied area of the first test site (“Bakchar”) is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site “Tomsk” covered by cultivated lands and dark coniferous forest complexes. Vegetation classification was made using NELDA project legend (www.fsl.orst.edu/nelda). The main part of Site “Bakchar” is occupied by tree dominated classes (66%). Wetlands occupy about 43% of the area. Part of herbaceous vegetation is rather low (9%). Site “Tomsk” has completely different structure of classes. More than one-half of the area (52%) is covered by cultivated lands. Forests occupy 42% of the area. Wetlands (9%) exist in the Ob’-Tom’ interfluve and left bank of the Ob’ river. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed to reveal dynamics in vegetation cover. Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 at site “Bakchar” are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have

  7. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: is your patient at risk of non-adherence?

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Joana; Dias de Castro, Francisca; Boal Carvalho, Pedro; Leite, Sílvia; Moreira, Maria João; Cotter, José

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A adesão à terapêutica é um aspecto chave para a eficácia da terapêutica. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência e factores de risco associados à não adesão à terapêutica na doença inflamatória intestinal.Material e Métodos: Cento e trinta e oito doentes com doença inflamatória intestinal (55,8% com Doença de Crohn e 44,2% com Colite Ulcerosa) preencheram um questionário sobre dados referentes à sua doença e comportamentos de não adesão ao tratamento. A análise estatística foi realizada com SPSS 18, a associação entre variáveis categóricas foi determinada através do teste exato de Fisher. Variáveis estatisticamente significativas na análise univariada foram incluídas no modelo de regressão logística.Resultados: A não-adesão à terapêutica foi registada em 29,7% dos doentes. Em 70,7% dos casos foram referidos comportamentos não intencionais e 51,2% esqueceram pelo menos uma dose por semana. A não-adesão à terapêutica apresentou uma associação significativa com o diagnóstico recente da doença (p < 0,001), idade jovem (p = 0,001), aminossalicilatos tópicos (p = 0,005), percepção individual de baixa eficácia da terapêutica (p = 0,007) e uma escolaridade elevada (p = 0,011). No modelo de regressão logística os aminossalicilatos tópicos (p = 0,004), o diagnóstico recente da doença (p = 0,006) e a idade jovem (p = 0,027), foram identificados como preditores de não adesão à terapêutica.Discussão: Doentes jovens, com diagnóstico recente e sob terapêutica com aminossalicilatos tópicos apresentaram um maior risco para comportamentos de não adesão.Conclusões: A atenção dos gastrenterologistas deve focar-se na identificação dos fatores de risco envolvidos na não adesão e na promoção de medidas que contribuam para a diminuição da mesma.

  8. Hyperplastic polyp? Look again... the impact of the new classification for serrated polyps.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Catarina; Santos, Liliana; Rosa, Isadora; Fonseca, Ricardo; Lage, Pedro; Claro, Isabel; Chaves, Paula; Dias Pereira, António

    2014-01-01

    reclassificados quase sempre como adenomas serreados tornam estes resultados relevantes para a prática do dia a dia. Conclusão: Os nossos resultados mostram que, de acordo com a nova classificação da Organização Mundial de Saúde para os pólipos serreados, uma proporção considerável de pólipos hiperplásicos seria reclassificada. A via serreada de carcinogénese colorectal tem sido provavelmente subestimada e doentes em risco podem estar sob vigilância inadequada.

  9. Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography Safety in Chagas Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Rassi, Daniela do Carmo; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Hotta, Viviane Tiemi; Nunes, Colandy Godoy de Oliveira; Rassi, Luiz; Rassi, Salvador

    2017-02-01

    A few decades ago, patients with Chagas disease were predominantly rural workers, with a low risk profile for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). As urbanization has increased, they became exposed to the same risk factors for CAD of uninfected individuals. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has proven to be an important tool in CAD diagnosis. Despite being a potentially arrhythmogenic method, it is safe for coronary patients without Chagas disease. For Chagas disease patients, however, the indication of DSE in clinical practice is uncertain, because of the arrhythmogenic potential of that heart disease. To assess DSE safety in Chagas disease patients with clinical suspicion of CAD, as well as the incidence of arrhythmias and adverse events during the exam. Retrospective analysis of a database of patients referred for DSE from May/2012 to February/2015. This study assessed 205 consecutive patients with Chagas disease suspected of having CAD. All of them had their serology for Chagas disease confirmed. Their mean age was 64±10 years and most patients were females (65.4%). No patient had significant adverse events, such as acute myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, asystole, stroke, cardiac rupture and death. Regarding arrhythmias, ventricular extrasystoles occurred in 48% of patients, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 7.3%. DSE proved to be safe in this population of Chagas disease patients, in which no potentially life-threatening outcome was found. Até poucas décadas atrás, os pacientes chagásicos eram predominantemente trabalhadores rurais, com baixo perfil de risco para doença obstrutiva coronária. Com a crescente urbanização, passaram a ter os mesmos fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica que indivíduos não infectados. O ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina (EED) é uma importante ferramenta no diagnóstico de coronariopatia. É referido, porém, como um método potencialmente arritmogênico, mas

  10. ENDOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY FOR OBESITY TREATMENT: TWO YEARS OF EXPERIENCE.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Nava, Gontrand; Galvão, M P; Bautista-Castaño, I; Fernandez-Corbelle, J P; Trell, M; Lopez, N

    2017-01-01

    procedimento endoscópico de gastroplastia sleeve sob anestesia geral com observação do paciente internado durante a noite. Dos 154 pacientes iniciais, 143 estiveram disponíveis para acompanhamento de um mês, 133 durante seis meses, 64 durante 12 meses e 28 completaram a avaliação de 24 meses. O acompanhamento foi realizado por equipe multidisciplinar (nutricionista e psicólogo). Foram avaliados nos resultados as mudanças no IMC, no peso corporal (TWBL), no % de perda do peso corporal inicial (% TBWL) no % de excesso de perda de peso corporal (%EWL) segregado em > ou < 25% e efeitos adversos. Estudos radiológicos contratados orais voluntários foram programados para avaliar a gastroplastia em diferentes tempos após o procedimento. A idade média foi de 44,9 anos (23-69). Aos 24 meses após o procedimento a linha de base média do IMC mudou de 38,3 para 30,8 kg/m2. O TBWL, %TBWL e %EWL foram de 21,3 kg, 19,5% e 60,4%, respectivamente, e 85,7% dos pacientes alcançaram o objetivo de >25% EWL. Não houve eventos adversos graves peroperatórios ou durante os 24 meses de acompanhamento. A gastroplastia sleeve endoscópica com monitoramento regular por equipe multidisciplinar pode ser considerado procedimento eficaz, seguro e bem tolerado para o tratamento de pacientes com obesidade, pelo menos nos dois anos de acompanhamento.

  11. Psychological distress and community approach to the voice of the community health agent.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Pâmela Câmpelo; Torrenté, Mônica de Olivera Nunes de; Landim, Fátima Luna Pinheiro; Branco, July Grassiely de Oliveira; Tamboril, Bruna Caroline Rodrigues; Cabral, Ana Larisse Teles

    2016-06-01

    The user in psychological distress needs a service that provides a targeted assistance, that welcomes when required, acting as originator care device to the user on the network of health care. This study aimed to describe how people in psychological distress are perceived by the community in the voice of the community health worker. It is a qualitative research conducted with eighteen Community Health Agents, a Primary Care Unit Health (UAP) located in BE IV, in Fortaleza, Ceará. We used a semi-structured and individual interview. Data processing was due to the content analysis. Ethical and legal aspects on the advice No. 957,595. Through the speeches of ACS, it describes how the community perceives the person in psychic suffering and how it positions itself in the face of your everyday problems, as regards the rejection, prejudice, discrimination ne loss of identity. However it is emphasized that, because of being inserted in the community, the community health worker realizes more accurate way in which this social group is the person in mental distress. The rejection of the person who became ill is seen as a fairly common reaction, accompanied by prejudice and discrimination, marginalizing her from society. O usuário em sofrimento psíquico necessita de um serviço que proporcione uma assistência direcionada, que acolha no momento necessário, atuando como dispositivo ordenador do cuidado ao usuário na rede de atenção a saúde. Objetivou-se descrever como as pessoas em sofrimento psíquico são percebidas pela comunidade na voz do agente comunitário de saúde. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, realizada junto a dezoito Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, de uma Unidade de Atenção Primaria a Saúde (UAPS) situada na SER IV, em Fortaleza-Ceará. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semiestruturada e individual. O processamento dos dados deu-se pela análise de conteúdo. Aspectos éticos e legais sob parecer Nº 957.595. Através dos discursos dos ACS, descrevemos

  12. Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matos, Verena Sampaio Barbosa; Gomes, Felipe da Silva; Oliveira, Tarcio Macena; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Ribeiro, Lídia Cristina Villela; Gonzales, Astria Dias Ferrão; Lima, Januário Mourão; Guerreiro, Marcos Lázaro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG) underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1), 7 (EG7), and 21 (EG21). After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). In comparison with the CG and EG1, angiogenesis in the lung parenchyma and collagen deposition in tracheal tissues were significantly greater only in EG21 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). In this sample, emissions from sugar cane burning induced acute focal and diffuse inflammation in the lamina propria of tracheal tissues, with no loss of ciliated epithelial tissue. In the lung parenchyma of the animals in the experimental groups, there was interstitial and alveolar edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates. Avaliar os efeitos da exposição à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre mecanismos inflamatórios em tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar de ratos Wistar após diferentes períodos de exposição. Estudo experimental, randomizado, não cego. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle (GC), sob condições padrão de laboratório e os demais expostos à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos: em 1 (GE1), 7 (GE7) e 21 (GE21) dias

  13. INFLUENCE OF TOBACCO, ALCOHOL AND DIABETES ON THE COLLAGEN OF CREMASTER MUSCLE IN PATIENTS WITH INGUINAL HERNIAS.

    PubMed

    Módena, Sérgio Ferreira; Caldeira, Eduardo José; Peres, Marco Antonio O; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2016-01-01

    New findings point out that the mechanism of formation of the hernias can be related to the collagenous tissues, under activity of aggressive agents such as the tobacco, alcohol and diabetes. To analyze the collagen present in the cremaster muscle in patients with inguinal hernias, focusing the effect of tobacco, alcohol, and diabetes. Fifteen patients with inguinal hernia divided in three groups were studied: group I (n=5) was control; group II (n=5) were smokers and/or drinkers; and group III (n=5) had diabetes mellitus. All subjects were underwent to surgical repair of the inguinal hernias obeying the same pre, intra and postoperative conditions. During surgery, samples of the cremaster muscle were collected for analysis in polarized light microscopy, collagen morphometry and protein. The area occupied by the connective tissue was higher in groups II and III (p<0.05). The collagen tissue occupied the majority of the samples analyzed in comparison to the area occupied by muscle cells. The content of total protein was higher in groups II and III compared to the control group (p<0.05). The tobacco, alcohol and diabetes cause a remodel the cremaster muscle, leading to a loss of support or structural change in this region, which may enhance the occurrences and damage related to inguinal hernias. Estudos recentes sinalizam que o mecanismo de formação das hérnias pode estar relacionado aos tecidos colagenosos, sob a ação de agentes agressores como o tabaco, o álcool e o diabete. Avaliar o colágeno presente no músculo cremaster em pacientes com hérnias inguinais enfocando o efeito do tabaco, álcool e diabete. Foram estudados 15 pacientes com hérnias inguinais divididos em: grupo I (n=5) controles; grupo II (n=5) indivíduos fumantes e/ou etilistas; e grupo III (n=5) indivíduos que apresentavam diabete melito. Todos foram submetidos à correção cirúrgica das hérnias inguinais obedecendo às mesmas condições pré, intra e pós-operatórias. Durante o

  14. Smoking control: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da; Araújo, Alberto José de; Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias de; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. RESUMO O tabagismo é o fator de risco mais prevenível e controlável em saúde e, por isso, precisa ter a máxima atenção e ser muito mais enfocado por todos os profissionais da saúde. O tabaco é um produto de alta rentabilidade pela sua grande produção e pelo elevado número de consumidores. As políticas de controle e os recursos terapêuticos para o tabagismo avançaram muito nos últimos anos e têm mostrado resultados altamente satisfatórios, particularmente no Brasil. Entretanto, ainda resta um longo caminho a ser percorrido para que se possa considerar o tabagismo como uma doença controlada sob o ponto de vista da saúde pública. Já se observam modificações do comportamento da sociedade com relação ao tabagismo, mas ainda em escala muito lenta, de modo que os pneumologistas têm nesse setor um campo

  15. Does infection by the hepatitis C virus decrease the response of immunization against the hepatitis B virus in individuals undergoing dialysis?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tarcila Maria Bonfim; Guimarães, Tácio Giordano Santana; Fontenele, Andrea Martins Melo; Salgado, Natalino; Ferreira, Adalgisa de Souza Paiva; Costa, Alessandra Porto de Macedo

    2017-04-27

    Vaccination is the most effective tool in preventing transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). The patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis appear to be at greater risk of becoming infected with this virus and does not show the same vaccine response when compared to patients without uremia. To evaluate the results related to the HBV vaccine and identify factors associated with the response in patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Individuals with HBsAG and negative anti-HBC, under hemodialysis were assessed in two units of São Luis, Maranhão and were undergone full vaccination schedule for HBV. They were divided in groups: anti-HBs10 mUI/mL and compared as to age, gender, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), time on dialysis and anti-HCV status. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with the vaccine response. p10mUI/Ml (or = 5.239 IC: 1.279-21.459, p = 0.021). The rate of vaccine response to HBV in patients with CKD on dialysis was 70% and the lack of anti-HCV infection was associated with seroconversion of anti-HBs suggesting that infection by the hepatitis C virus may be a factor that decreases the response of the HBV vaccine in dialysis CKD patients. A vacinação é a medida mais efetiva na prevenção da transmissão do vírus da hepatite B (HBV). O portador de doença renal crônica (DRC) em diálise apresenta maior risco de se contaminar com este vírus e não tem a mesma resposta vacinal quando comparada com indivíduos sem uremia. Avaliar os resultados da vacina para o HBV e identificar fatores associados à resposta, em portadores de DRC em hemodiálise. Foram avaliados indivíduos com HBsAg e anti-HBc negativos, que estavam sob hemodiálise em duas unidades de São Luís, Maranhão e que haviam sido submetidos ao esquema completo de vacinação para o HBV. Foram distribuídos em dois grupos: anti-HBs < 10mUI/mL e anti-HBs ≥ 10mUI/mL e comparados quanto à idade, gênero, presença de diabetes

  16. Analysis of Family Clinical, vision of service nurses.

    PubMed

    Raimundi, Daniele Merisio; Ferreira, Francieli Furtado; Lima, Fernanda Cristina Aguiar; Siqueira, Valeria de Carvalho Araújo

    2016-06-01

    to know the practice of the Family Clinic in Cuiaba and its relationship with the precepts of the expanded clinic, from the perspective of the service nurses. qualitative descriptive research, data collection with semi-structured interviews and results analyzed according to the method of thematic content analysis. for nurses working in the service, this assumes a differentiated and innovative proposal, which seeks to correlate with shared management in its three spheres. Although most do not know the Enlarged Clinic term in his speech cited its main principles and its tools. The greatest potential described were related to the Support Center for Health and popular participation, and as challenges, the lack of community health worker, the national health establishment registration and the difficulty of operation due to the profile of the professionals technical level arising from secondary care. The clinic has positive aspects that can contribute to the advancement of the profession, to train health professionals and an innovative primary care model. Therefore, it emphasizes the need for implementation of continuing education in order to realize its proposal, and further studies on site. conhecer a prática da Clínica da Família em Cuiabá e sua relação com os preceitos da clínica ampliada, sob a perspectiva dos enfermeiros do serviço. pesquisa descritiva qualitativa, coleta de dados com entrevista semi-estruturada e resultados analisados segundo o método de análise de conteúdo do tipo temática. para os enfermeiros atuantes no serviço, este assume uma proposta diferenciada e inovadora, no qual busca se correlacionar com a gestão compartilhada em suas três esferas. Apesar de a maioria não conhecer o termo Clínica Ampliada em suas falas citaram seus principais preceitos e suas ferramentas. As maiores potencialidades descritas foram a relação com o Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família e a participação popular, e como desafios, a falta de agente

  17. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    the sulfide chimney samples indicating a predominance of archaeal communities within the warmer interior zones of the chimney walls that are dominated by the iron sulfides sphalerite and pyrrhotite. The SiO2-bearing cooler outer parts of a chimney revealed predominantly bacterial fatty acids, whereas archaeal GDGTs were detected only to a minor extent. In contrast, the low-temperature barite-bearing vents located at the slope of the massive sulfide mound revealed the dominance of a range of unusual branched and unsaturated fatty acids that are specific for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). PMIs, archaeol, and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as typically observed in methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea (AOM) have also been detected, although in much lower abundances. Ongoing compound-specific δ13C analyses will give additional information about carbon sources and metabolism of microbial consortia inhabiting actively venting sulfide and barite chimneys at Loki’s castle.

  18. Upper Triassic of the central part of Kotel,nyi Island, Russia, Arctic (stratigraphy, paleontology, paleobiogeography)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, Nikita; Konstantinov, Aleksei; Sobolev, Evgenii

    2010-05-01

    Triassic deposits of Kotel'nyi Island are characterized by distinctive lithological (fine-grained clastics) and paleontological characteristics (nektonic and planktonic organisms, Boreal assemblages with Tethyan elements). We represent here new data from the most complete section of central part of island at River Tikhaya. Lower Carnian is represented by clays with rare limestone lenses, siderite and phosphate concretions with ammonoids Arctophyllites sp. cf. A. taimyrensis (Popow), coleoids Atractites sp., and radiolarians Poulpus costatus (Kozur et Mostler), Eonapora robusta Kozur & Mostler, Annulotriassocampe baldii (Kozur) and others. This unit can be assigned to ammonoid zone Protrachyceras omkutchanicum. Thickness is 33 m. Lower part of Upper Carnian is represented by clays with rare limestone concretions with ammonoids Yakutosirenites pentastichus (Vozin), Proarcestes winnemae Smith, Clionites (Stantonites) evolutus Smith, nautiloids Proclydonautilus triadicus (Mojsisovics), P. sp. ex gr. P. pseudoseimkanensis Sob., orthoceratids Trematoceras sp., coleoids Belemnococeras darkense Popow. This unit belongs to ammonoid zone Yakutosirenites pentastichus that can be interpreted as equivalent of Tropites dilleri and Tropites welleri ammonoid zones according to paleontological data. Thickness is 15 m. Upper part of Upper Carnian is composed by clays with rare limestone and abundant phosphatic concretions with ammonoids Sirenites yakutensis Kiparisova, S. sp. aff. S. yakutensis Kiparisova, and diverse radiolarian assemblage with Pseudostylosphaera gracilis Kozur & Mock, Kahlerosphaera aspinosa Kozur & Mock, Capnuchosphaera triassica De Wever, and others (43 species). These strata were not observed before in this section. Thickness is 5 m. Lower Norian is represented by clays with layers of limestones and siderites, with common sideritic and rare phosphatic concretions, with ammonoids "Striatosirenites" kinasovi Bytschkov, Arctophyllites sp. ex gr. A. popovi

  19. Workload and associated factors: a study in maritime port in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde de; Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira

    2016-11-28

    to identify the effect of the mental, physical, temporal, performance, total effort and frustration demands in the overall workload, and in the same way analyze the global burden of port labor and associated factors that contribute most to their decrease or increase. a cross-sectional, quantitative study, developed with 232 dock workers. For data collection, a structured questionnaire with descriptive, occupational, smoking and illicit drug use variables was applied, as well as variables on the load on the tasks undertaken at work, based on the questionnaire NASA Task Load Index. For data analysis, we used the analysis of the Poisson regression model. the demands physical demand and total effort showed greater effect on the overall workload, indicating high overall load on port work (134 employees - 58.8%). The following remained associated statistically with high levels of workload: age (p = 0.044), to be employee of the wharfage (p = 0.006), work only at night (p = 0.025), smoking (p = 0.037) and use of illegal drugs (p = 0.029). the workload in this type of activity was high, and the professional category and work shift the factors that contributed to the increase, while the age proved to be a factor associated with a decrease. identificar o efeito das demandas mental, física, temporal, de desempenho, esforço total e frustração na carga global de trabalho, da mesma maneira que analisar a carga global de trabalho portuário e fatores associados que mais contribuem para sua diminuição ou aumento. estudo transversal, quantitativo, desenvolvido com 232 trabalhadores portuários. Para a coleta de dados, foi aplicado um questionário estruturado com variáveis de caracterização, ocupacional, tabagismo e uso de drogas ilícitas, além de variáveis sobre a carga nas tarefas desenvolvidas no trabalho, com base no questionário NASA Task Load Index. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se a análise do modelo de regressão de Poisson. as demandas exigência f

  20. Viability of gait speed test in hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Bruno Prata; Batista, Anne Karine Menezes Santos; Ramos, Isis Resende; Dantas, Júlio Cesar; Gomes, Isabela Barboza; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Camelier, Fernanda Rosa Warken; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção

    2016-01-01

    metros (TVM6) em idosos hospitalizados. Estudo com medidas repetidas envolvendo idosos hospitalizados (idade ≥ 60 anos) que realizaram o TVM6 até o quinto dia de hospitalização, sendo capazes de andar sem auxílio e não apresentando dispneia ou dor que os incapacitasse para a realização dos testes. O TVM6 foi realizado sequencialmente três vezes, com período de descanso, em um corredor plano, e a velocidade de marcha foi calculada em metros/segundo. A reprodutibilidade foi avaliada pela comparação das médias, coeficientes de correlação intraclasse (CCI) e disposições gráficas de Bland-Altman. Foram avaliados 110 idosos avaliados com um total de 330 testes. Todos os participantes completaram todos os testes. As comparações entre as velocidades obtidas nos três testes realizados indicaram CCIs elevados e viés médio baixo pela disposição gráfica de Bland-Altman. Em relação à maior velocidade aferida, a correlação e a precisão foram maiores quando comparadas à obtida no terceiro teste (1,26 ± 0,44 m/s vs. 1,22 ± 0,44 m/s; CCI = 0,99; p = 0,001; viés médio = 0,04; e limites de concordância = -0,27 a 0,15). O TVM6 mostrou-se seguro e teve boa reprodutibilidade nessa amostra de idosos hospitalizados. A terceira aferição parece corresponder à velocidade máxima, já que duas primeiras subestimaram o desempenho real.

  1. [Main Causes of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis: A Three Year Study in the Center of Portugal].

    PubMed

    Pestana, Catarina; Gomes, Raquel; Pinheiro, Vítor; Gouveia, Miguel; Antunes, Isabel; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2016-08-01

    ões variadas e testados com extensas séries de alergénios. Os alergénios e profissões classicamente referidas (mistura de tiurans, parafenilenodiamina, crómio, cobalto e em profissionais de saúde, cabeleireiros e construção civil) diagnosticados pela série básica de alergénios foram largamente ultrapassados pelos (met)acrilatos, a principal causa de dermatite de contacto alérgica ocupacional, particularmente em esteticistas. Salientamos ainda, de forma transversal a várias profissões, a metilsiotiazolinona como o segundo alérgeno mais frequente, certamente relacionado com a corrente ‘epidemia’ de alergia de contacto a este conservante.Conclusão: Apesar de a estética ungueal não ser referida como uma profissão de elevado risco de dermatite de contacto alérgica na maioria dos estudos, as tendências atuais da moda com o recurso frequente a unhas de gel, o desempenho desta profissão por indivíduos habitualmente pouco informados quanto aos riscos, aliado ao elevado potencial sensibilizante dos (met)acrilatos, motiva certamente a elevada frequência destes casos entre nós.

  2. CRITERIA FOR CONSULTANT AND ADVISOR IN THE BRAZILIAN POSTGRADUATE SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Petroianu, Andy

    2015-01-01

    within the limits and dimension that the wingspan of the professional allows. Revisar as normas, resoluções e documentos vigentes relativos ao tema consultoria e assessoria para melhor orientar as atuações de quem exerce esses papéis. Foram consultados os seguintes documentos: Estatuto da CAPES, por meio do Decreto Nº 7.692, de 02 de março de 2012; Portaria nº 47 de 17/10/1995; Parecer 977 de 1965 de Newton Sucupira; Documento de Área da Medicina III; Portaria Interministerial 251 de 2012, com base no Decreto nº 7642 de 2011 do Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia; e Regimento da CAPES. O gerenciamento dos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu requer estrutura multiprofissional diversificada em todos os seus níveis, constituída por corpo próprio da instituição e por componentes agregados, incluindo os consultores e assessores. O consultor é pessoa independente, sem vínculo com quem o convida e, nesse sentido, espera-se dele isenção na execução das tarefas solicitadas, nas quais se pressupõe domínio cultural, científico e humanístico. No Documento de Área da Medicina III, a consultoria é valorizada como atributo importante do Corpo Docente e está mencionada na Proposta dos Programas de Pós-graduação em seu item 2.1. Por outro lado, o assessor está vinculado ao solicitante em relação de dependência funcional. Dentro de sua área do conhecimento, o assessor é considerado adjunto do solicitante e pode substituí-lo ou representá-lo. No Documento de Área da Medicina III, o desempenho de assessoria pelo Corpo Docente está mencionado na Proposta dos Programas de Pós-graduação em seu item 5.2. Ter conhecimento sobre o que significa ser consultor e assessor é necessário para exercer a função dentro dos limites que lhe compete e na dimensão que a envergadura do profissional permite. Nada impede que uma pessoa seja consultora em situação e assessora em outra, até na mesma instituição. Ter conhecimento sobre o que significa

  3. Transcultural adaptation of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Iwamoto, Viviane Ernesto; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Noronha, Adriana Moreira; Oliveira, Ana Paula de Sousa; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Marques, Ifigenia Augusta Braga; Vendramim, Patrícia; Lopes, Paula Cristina; Sant'Ana, Thais Helena Saes de

    2016-08-29

    to perform the transcultural adaptation and content validity analysis of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool to assess both fall risk and fall-related injury risk for hospitalized elderly in Brazil. the transcultural adaptation consisted of translating the scale to Portuguese (Brazil), back-translating it into its language of origin, establishing a consensus version, and having an expert committee verify its transcultural equivalence. Content assessment was conducted by a committee of judges, ending with the calculation of the items and scales' content validity index. Nurses tested the tool. the scale's translated version went through two evaluation rounds by the judges, based on which, the items with unsatisfactory performance were changed. The content validity index for the items was ≥80.0% and the global index 97.1%. The experimental application showed the scale is user-friendly. the scale presents valid content for the assessment of fall risk and risk of fall-related injuries and is easy to use, with the potential to contribute to the proper identification of risks and the establishment of care actions. realizar a adaptação transcultural para uso no Brasil e a avaliação da validade de conteúdo da Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool para avaliação de risco de quedas e de danos por quedas em pacientes adultos hospitalizados. adaptação transcultural consistiu na tradução da escala para a língua portuguesa (Brasil), retrotradução para a língua de origem, versão de consenso e análise da equivalência transcultural por um comitê de especialistas. A avaliação do conteúdo foi realizada por meio de um comitê de juízes, finalizando com o cálculo do índice de validade de conteúdo dos itens e da escala. Foi realizada a aplicação experimental do instrumento por enfermeiros. a versão traduzida da escala passou por duas rodadas de avaliação pelos juízes, a partir das quais os itens com desempenho insatisfatório foram modificados

  4. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-11-10

    abordagem intensiva e tratamento do tabagismo engloba consultas, sessões de terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo e uso de medicamentos. Os custos do atendimento e gerenciamento do programa foram estimados utilizando a metodologia do microcusteio. A implementação plena do programa no município de Goiânia, Goiás, foi definida como sua expansão para suprir a demanda de todos os fumantes motivados a parar de fumar no município que seriam atendidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Foram considerados custos médicos e não médicos diretos: recursos humanos, medicamentos, material de consumo, despesas gerais, transporte, viagens, eventos e custos de capital. Foram incluídos custos dos níveis federal, estadual e municipal de gestão. A perspectiva da análise foi a do Sistema Único de Saúde. Análise de sensibilidade foi realizada variando parâmetros referentes à quantidade de atividades e aos recursos utilizados. As fontes de dados incluíram uma amostra de unidades de saúde da Atenção Primária, secretarias de saúde municipal e estadual e Ministério da Saúde. Os custos foram estimados em reais (R$) para o ano de 2010. O custo do programa em Goiânia foi de R$429.079, sendo 78,0% referentes à abordagem e tratamento do tabagismo. O custo por paciente foi de R$534 e, por paciente que deixou de fumar, de R$1.435. A implementação plena do programa no município de Goiânia geraria custo de R$20,28 milhões, para atender 35.323 fumantes. O Programa de Tratamento do Tabagismo tem bom desempenho em termos de custo por paciente que deixa de fumar. Tendo em vista a carga do tabagismo no Brasil, o tratamento para cessação de fumar deve ser considerado prioritário ao se programar a alocação de recursos de saúde.

  5. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  6. Geotechnical Risk Classification for Underground Mines / Klasyfikacja Poziomu Zagrożenia Geotechnicznego W Kopalniach Podziemnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Rinne, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Underground mining activities are prone to major hazards largely owing to geotechnical reasons. Mining combined with the confined working space and uncertain geotechnical data leads to hazards having the potential of catastrophic consequences. These incidents have the potential of causing multiple fatalities and large financial damages. Use of formal risk assessment in the past has demonstrated an important role in the prediction and prevention of accidents in risk prone industries such as petroleum, nuclear and aviation. This paper proposes a classification system for underground mining operations based on their geotechnical risk levels. The classification is done based on the type of mining method employed and the rock mass in which it is carried out. Mining methods have been classified in groups which offer similar geotechnical risk. The rock mass classification has been proposed based on bulk rock mass properties which are collected as part of the routine mine planning. This classification has been subdivided for various stages of mine planning to suit the extent of available data. Alpha-numeric coding has been proposed to identify a mining operation based on the competency of rock and risk of geotechnical failures. This alpha numeric coding has been further extended to identify mining activity under `Geotechnical Hazard Potential (GHP)'. GHP has been proposed to be used as a preliminary tool of risk assessment and risk ranking for a mining activity. The aim of such classification is to be used as a guideline for the justification of a formal geotechnical risk assessment. Górnictwo podziemne pociąga za sobą różnorakie zagrożenia spowodowane przez uwarunkowania geotechniczne. Urabianie złoża w połączeniu z pracą w zamkniętej przestrzeni oraz z niepewnymi danymi geotechnicznymi powodować może zagrożenia, które w konsekwencji prowadzić mogą do wypadków, a te potencjalnie powodować mogą skutki śmiertelne dla osób oraz

  7. Family violence against children and adolescents in context: How the territories of care are imbricated in the picture.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Diene Monique; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2016-08-08

    to understand the context of care addressed to the families involved in family violence against children and adolescents (IVCA), as produced in the context of the Primary Health Care (PHC), from the vantage point of the practitioners of a municipality in the State of Sao Paulo. qualitative research of the social-strategic type, based on the Complexity Paradigm. The participants were 41 health practitioners in five health units of the municipality under study, pertaining to the five districts of the municipality. Data collection was done through 5 focus groups and 10 semi-structured interviews from April 24th 2013 to December 12th 2013. Data analysis was oriented by the comprehension and contextualization mindset and based on the dialogic, recursive and hologramatic principles. two main issues regarding the care provided by the Health of the Family team were identified: the context of this violence (the domestic space) and the power relations that prevail in the territory where this violence surfaces. The community health workers are the targets of specific attention because they experience the live/work dialogic in this same area. paying attention to the territory, and considering the complexity of contexts and dimensions is inherently linked to the design of care to families involved in IVCA in the PHC environment. compreender o contexto de cuidado direcionado às famílias envolvidas na violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes (VICCA), produzido a partir da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS), sob a ótica de profissionais de um município do interior do estado de São Paulo. pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo social estratégica, fundamentada pelo Paradigma da Complexidade. Participaram do estudo 41 profissionais de saúde de cinco unidades do município estudado, cada qual pertencente a um de seus cinco Distritos Sanitários. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de 5 grupos focais e 10 entrevistas semiestruturadas, no período de 24/04/13 a 17

  8. The value of antibody-coated bacteria in tracheal aspirates for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ranzani, Otavio Tavares; Forte, Daniel Neves; Forte, Antonio Carlos; Mimica, Igor; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves

    2016-01-01

    aspirado traqueal (AT) no diagnóstico de PAVM. Estudo diagnóstico caso-controle envolvendo 45 pacientes sob ventilação mecânica. Amostras de AT foram obtidas de pacientes com e sem PAVM (casos e controles, respectivamente), e verificamos o número de bactérias revestidas com anticorpos monoclonais conjugados com FITC (IgA, IgM ou IgG) ou anticorpo polivalente conjugado com FITC. Utilizando microscopia de imunofluorescência, foi determinada a proporção de BRA em um número fixo de 80 bactérias. A mediana das proporções de BRA foi significativamente maior nos casos (n = 22) que nos controles (n = 23) - IgA (60,6% vs. 22,5%), IgM (42,5% vs. 12,5%), IgG (50,6% vs. 17,5%) e polivalente (75,6% vs. 33,8%) - p < 0,001 para todos. A acurácia dos melhores pontos de corte para o diagnostico de PAVM em relação aos BRA monoclonais e polivalentes foi > 95,0% e > 93,3%, respectivamente. O número de BRA em amostras de AT foi maior nos casos que nos controles. Nossos achados indicam que a avaliação de BRA no AT é uma ferramenta promissora para aumentar a especificidade do diagnóstico de PAVM. A técnica pode ser custo-efetiva e, portanto, útil em locais com poucos recursos, com as vantagens de minimizar resultados falso-positivos e evitar o tratamento excessivo.

  9. A Multivariate Model for Prediction of Obstructive Coronary Disease in Patients with Acute Chest Pain: Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Cerqueira, Maurício; Carvalhal, Manuela; Ferreira, Felipe; Garcia, Guilherme; Silva, André Barcelos da; Sá, Nicole de; Lopes, Fernanda; Barcelos, Ana Clara; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2017-04-01

    ça arterial coronariana (DAC) com base em variáveis avaliadas à admissão na unidade coronariana (UC) devido a dor torácica aguda. Foram estudados um total de 470 pacientes, 370 utilizados como amostra de derivação e os subsequentes 100 pacientes como amostra de validação. Como padrão de referência, a angiografia foi necessária para descartar DAC (estenose ≥ 70%), enquanto a angiografia ou um teste não invasivo negativo foi utilizado para confirmar a doença. Foram testadas como preditoras 13 variáveis basais relacionadas à história médica, 14 características de desconforto torácico e oito variáveis relacionadas ao exame físico ou testes laboratoriais. A prevalência de DAC foi de 48%. Por regressão logística, seis variáveis permaneceram como preditoras independentes de DAC: idade, gênero masculino, alívio com nitrato, sinais de insuficiência cardíaca, e eletrocardiograma e troponina positivos. A área sob a curva (area under the curve, AUC) deste modelo final foi de 0,80 (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] = 0,75 - 0,84) na amostra de derivação e 0,86 (IC95% = 0,79 - 0,93) na amostra de validação. O teste de Hosmer-Lemeshow indicou uma boa calibração em ambas as amostras (p = 0,98 e p = 0,23, respectivamente). Em comparação com o modelo básico contendo eletrocardiograma e troponina, o modelo completo ofereceu um incremento na AUC de 0,07 tanto na amostra de derivação (p = 0,0002) quanto na de validação (p = 0,039). A melhoria na discriminação integrada foi de 0,09 nas amostras de derivação (p < 0,001) e validação (p < 0,0015). Um modelo multivariado foi derivado e validado como uma ferramenta acurada para estimar a probabilidade pré-teste de DAC em pacientes com dor torácica aguda.

  10. Manchester Triage System: main flowcharts, discriminators and outcomes of a pediatric emergency care.

    PubMed

    Amthauer, Camila; Cunha, Maria Luzia Chollopetz da

    2016-08-29

    ,5%). Houve prevalência da categoria de risco urgente (43,6%). O principal fluxograma utilizado nos atendimentos foi pais preocupados (22,4%) e o discriminador mais prevalente foi evento recente (15,3%). O desfecho de internação hospitalar ocorreu em 10,4% dos atendimentos realizados na emergência pediátrica, entretanto 61,8% dos atendimentos necessitaram permanecer em observação e/ou ficar sob os cuidados da equipe de saúde na emergência pediátrica. pais preocupados foi o principal fluxograma utilizado e evento recente o discriminador mais prevalente, constando-se os desfechos de hospitalização e de permanencia em observação na emergência pediátrica, antes da alta para o domicílio. caracterizar la atención recibida por calificación de riesgo por el sistema de triaje de Manchester, identificando los datos demográficos (edad, sexo), principales organigramas, discriminadores y los resultados en la emergencia pediátrica. estudio cuantitativo transversal. Los datos sobre la clasificación de riesgo se obtuvieron a través de una búsqueda de los datos de registro informático de los registros médicos de los pacientes tratados en la emergencia pediátrica en el período de un año. Para el análisis se utilizó la estadística descriptiva con frecuencias absolutas y relativas. se llevaron a cabo 10.921 consultas en urgencias pediátricas, en su mayoría hombres (54,4%), con edades comprendidas entre 29 días y dos años (44,5%). Hubo una prevalencia de la categoría de riesgo urgente (43,6%). El diagrama de flujo principal utilizado en los cuidados fue padres preocupados (22,4%) y el discriminador más prevalente fue el evento reciente (15,3%). El resultado de internación se produjo en el 10,4% de los casos realizados en la emergencia pediátrica, sin embargo el 61,8% de las visitas precisaron permanecer en observación y/o estar bajo el cuidado del equipo de atención médica en la emergencia pediátrica. padres preocupados fue el diagrama de flujo

  11. Phenotypes of asthma in low-income children and adolescents: cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Anna Lucia Barros; Sousa, Andrey Wirgues; Mendes, Felipe Augusto Rodrigues; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de

    2017-01-01

    objetivo foi determinar como crianças e adolescentes asmáticas de baixa renda no Brasil são distribuídos através de uma análise de clusters. Foram incluídos 306 crianças e adolescentes (6-18 anos de idade) com diagnóstico clínico de asma e sob tratamento médico por pelo menos um ano de acompanhamento. No momento da inclusão, todos os pacientes estavam clinicamente estáveis. Vinte variáveis comumente determinadas na prática clínica e consideradas importantes na definição dos fenótipos de asma foram selecionadas para a análise de clusters. As variáveis com alta multicolinearidade foram excluídas. Uma análise de clusters foi realizada utilizando-se um teste aglomerativo em duas etapas e log-likelihood distance measure. Três clusters foram definidos para nossa população. O cluster 1 (n = 94) incluiu indivíduos com função pulmonar normal, inflamação eosinofílica leve, poucas exacerbações, início mais tardio da asma e atopia leve. O cluster 2 (n = 87) incluiu pacientes com função pulmonar normal, número moderado de exacerbações, início precoce da asma, inflamação eosinofílica mais grave e atopia moderada. O cluster 3 (n = 108) incluiu pacientes com função pulmonar ruim, exacerbações frequentes, inflamação eosinofílica e atopia graves. A asma foi caracterizada por presença de atopia, número de exacerbações e função pulmonar em crianças e adolescentes de baixa renda no Brasil. As muitas semelhanças entre esta e outras análises de clusters de fenótipos indicam que essa abordagem apresenta boa generalização.

  12. Evaluation in health: participatory methodology and involvement of municipal managers.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli de; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-08-04

    , its involvement with the evaluations at the federal level can also be stimulated. Analisar alcances e limites do uso de metodologia participativa de avaliação junto a gestores e gerentes municipais de saúde. Pesquisa qualitativa com gestores e gerentes de saúde da Comissão Intergestores Regional de uma região de saúde do estado de São Paulo. Representantes de sete municípios membros participaram de sete oficinas facilitadas pelos pesquisadores, com o objetivo de avaliar um problema específico da linha de cuidados sob a perspectiva da integralidade. A análise do material empírico coletado baseou-se na metodologia hermenêutica-dialética e visou a avaliação da metodologia participativa aplicada, segundo sua capacidade de promover um processo de avaliação passível de ser utilizado como suporte à gestão municipal. Com a abordagem participativa de avaliação, foi possível promover debates em profundidade com o grupo, principalmente relacionados à construção da integralidade da atenção e à inclusão da perspectiva do usuário na tomada de decisão, de forma vinculada à busca de solução para problemas concretos dos gestores. Mediante a exploração conjunta, foi aberta a possibilidade de utilização de dados advindos dos sistemas eletrônicos de informação, bem como de informações advindas diretamente dos usuários dos serviços, para enriquecer debates e negociações entre parceiros. Os participantes se mostraram descrentes do potencial de replicação deste tipo de avaliação sem o acompanhamento direto da academia, dada a dificuldade de organização do processo no cotidiano, já tomado por questões emergenciais e políticas. Avaliações de programas e serviços realizadas no âmbito da Comissão Intergestores Regional, partindo do interesse local e facilitando o envolvimento de seus membros pelo uso de metodologias participativas, podem contribuir para a construção da integralidade do cuidado. Na medida em que o ato de avaliar

  13. Single Derivation Fragmented QRS Can Predict Poor Prognosis in Successfully Revascularized Acute STEMI Patients.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Zulkif; Dursun, Huseyin; Colluoglu, Tugce; Kaya, Dayimi

    2017-07-20

    -fQRS é tão valioso quanto o fQRS clássico em pacientes com STEMI aguda que tiveram sucesso na revascularização com intervenção coronariana percutânea primária (ICPp). Incluímos 330 pacientes com um primeiro STEMI que tinham sido revascularizados com sucesso com ICPp. O eletrocardiograma do paciente foi obtido nas primeiras 48 horas, e os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos de acordo com a ausência de fQRS (não-fQRS); presença de fQRS numa única derivação (sl-fQRS); e ≥ 2 derivações com fQRS (fQRS clássico). A mortalidade intrahospitalar foi significativamente maior tanto em pacientes com sl-fQRS como em pacientes com ≥ 2 derivações com fQRS em comparação com pacientes com não-fQRS. Na análise da curva ROC, ≥ 1 derivação com fQRS produziu uma sensibilidade de 75% e especificidade de 57,4% para a predição de mortalidade intrahospitalar. A análise multivariada mostrou que sl-fQRS é um preditor independente de mortalidade intrahospitalar (OR: 3,989, IC 95%: 1,237-12,869, p = 0,021). Embora o conceito de pelo menos duas derivações seja mencionado para a definição clássica de fQRS, nosso estudo mostrou que fQRS em apenas uma derivação também está associado com maus resultados. Portanto, ≥ 1 derivação com fQRS pode ser útil ao descrever os pacientes sob risco cardíaco alto em STEMI agudo.

  14. Effect of Lactation on myocardial vulnerability to ischemic insult in rats.

    PubMed

    Askari, Sahar; Imani, Alireza; Sadeghipour, Hamidreza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Edalatyzadeh, Zohreh; Choopani, Samira; Karimi, Nasser; Fatima, Sulail

    2017-05-01

    vulnerabilidade do miocárdio ao insulto isquêmico. Dezoito ratas foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos: isquemia-reperfusão (IR), no qual os corações de ratas virgens foram submetidos à IR (n = 6); lactantes, no qual as ratas amamentaram seus filhotes por 3 semanas e os corações maternos foram, em seguida, submetidos à IR (n = 6); e não lactantes, no qual os filhotes foram separados após o nascimento e os corações maternos foram submetidos à IR (n = 6). As medidas de desfecho incluíram frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), duplo produto (DP), razão do tamanho do infarto sobre a área sob risco (TI/ASR %) e arritmias ventriculares - contração ventricular prematura (CVP) e taquicardia ventricular (TV). O TI/ASR foi substancialmente menor no grupo de lactantes quando comparado ao grupo de não lactantes (13,2 ± 2,5 versus 39,7 ± 3,5, p < 0,001) e ao grupo IR (13,2 ± 2,5 versus 34,0 ± 4,7, p < 0,05). A avaliação das arritmias ventriculares induzidas pela IR indicou que o número de CVPs compostas na isquemia, e o número e a duração das TVs na isquemia e nos primeiros 5 minutos de reperfusão no grupo de não lactantes foram significativamente (p < 0,05) mais elevados do que os encontrados nos grupos IR e de lactantes. A lactação induziu o aparecimento precoce de efeitos cardioprotetores, enquanto ratas que não foram permitidas a amamentar seus filhotes se mostraram mais suscetíveis à lesão miocárdica por IR.

  15. Incidence of phlebitis associated with the use of peripheral IV catheter and following catheter removal.

    PubMed

    Urbanetto, Janete de Souza; Peixoto, Cibelle Grassmann; May, Tássia Amanda

    2016-08-08

    cateter e, com a flebite pós-infusão, a punção em antebraço. Os medicamentos Ceftriaxona, Claritromicina e Oxacilina foram associados à flebite pós-infusão. este estudo possibilitou investigar a associação de fatores de risco e a ocorrência de flebites durante o uso e após a retirada do cateter. A frequência da flebite pós-infusão foi maior do que o número de flebites durante a permanência do cateter, sendo as de grau III e II, respectivamente, as mais frequentes. Podem ser elucidados aspectos relacionados à flebite pós-infusão, considerando-se poucos estudos abordam o tema sob esta perspectiva. investigar la incidencia de flebitis y la asociación de factores de riesgo con su ocurrencia durante el uso y después de la retirada del catéter intravenoso periférico (CIP) (flebitis post-infusión) en adultos hospitalizados. estudio de cohorte con 171 pacientes con CIP, totalizando 361 punciones. Fueron recolectadas variables sociodemográficas y relacionadas al catéter. Análisis estadístico descriptivo y analítico. de los pacientes, 51,5% eran hombres y el promedio de edad fue de 56,96 años. La incidencia de flebitis durante el uso del CIP fue de 1,25% y de post-infusión fue de 1,38%. Se asoció la flebitis durante el uso del CIP al tiempo de permanencia del catéter y con la post-infusión (punción en el antebrazo). Los medicamentos Ceftriaxona, Claritromicina y Oxacilina fueron asociados a la flebitis post-infusión. este estudio posibilitó investigar la asociación de factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de flebitis durante el uso y después de la retirada del catéter. La frecuencia de la flebitis post-infusión fue mayor que el número de flebitis asociada a la permanencia del catéter, siendo las de grado III y II, respectivamente, las más frecuentes. Se trato de elucidar aspectos relacionados a la flebitis post-infusión, considerando que existen pocos estudios que abordan el tema bajo esta perspectiva.

  16. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Assessment of Diastolic Function by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Nacif, Marcelo S; Almeida, Andre L C; Young, Alistair A; Cowan, Brett R; Armstrong, Anderson C; Yang, Eunice; Sibley, Christopher T; Hundley, W Gregory; Liu, Songtao; Lima, Joao Ac; Bluemke, David A

    2017-01-01

    étodo simples e robusto para a avaliação da função diastólica que pode ser feito com sequências protocolares de rotina. Desenvolver e validar a avaliação volumétrica da função diastólica através de um modelo tridimensional (3D) com utilização de imagens de ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) e comparar os resultados obtidos com este modelo com os obtidos por ecocardiografia. Os participantes do estudo assinaram um termo de consentimento e foram incluídos se tivessem sido submetidos no mesmo dia tanto à ecocardiografia quanto à cine RMC com precessão livre no estado estacionário (steady-state free precession, SSFP). Pontos-guia foram utilizados no anel mitral septal e lateral para definir a velocidade de estiramento no início da diástole (E'), enquanto curvas de volume-tempo do modelo 3D foram utilizadas para avaliar os parâmetros de enchimento diastólico. Foram determinadas a correlação entre a RMC 3D e a ecocardiografia, além da acurácia da RMC em classificar o grau de função diastólica. Ao todo, 102 sujeitos foram incluídos no estudo. A razão E/A pela RMC esteve positivamente associada com a razão E/A obtida pela ecocardiografia (r = 0,71, p < 0,0001). Estiveram positivamente associadas a velocidade de relaxamento diastólico inicial ao Doppler tecidual e a velocidade de relaxamento longitudinal de deslocamento do anel mitral lateral (p = 0,007), bem como a razão entre E/e' por Doppler e E/E' pela RMC (p = 0,01). A velocidade normalizada de pico de enchimento (EM) determinada pela RMC e o tempo de desaceleração (TD) foram capazes de predizer a disfunção diastólica (áreas sob a curva [AUCs] = 0,70 e 0,72, respectivamente). Além disso, a razão E/E' lateral mostrou boa utilidade para a identificação da disfunção diastólica (AUC = 0,80). No geral, a ecocardiografia e a RMC apresentaram excelente concordância interobservador e intraobservador (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse 0,72 - 0,97). Uma modelagem 3D de imagens padr

  17. Effectiveness of a nursing intervention in decreasing the anxiety levels of family members of patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hamester, Letícia; Souza, Emiliane Nogueira de; Cielo, Cibele; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; Pellanda, Lúcia Campos

    2016-08-15

    ário IDATE. foram incluídos 210 sujeitos, 105 em cada grupo, com idade média de 46,4±14,5 anos, sendo 69% do sexo feminino e 41% filhos dos pacientes. Na avaliação da ansiedade, o escore médio para o grupo intervenção foi de 41,3±8,6 pontos e, para o grupo controle, 50,6±9,4 pontos (p<0,001). a intervenção de enfermagem voltada à orientação de familiares, no momento que antecede a primeira visita no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca, contribui para possível redução da ansiedade dos acompanhantes, contribuindo para que se sintam mais preparados para esse momento. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (ReBEC) e The Universal Trial Number (UTN), sob o número U1111-1145-6172. verificar la efectividad de las orientaciones de enfermería - dadas a familiares de pacientes en el posoperatorio inmediato de cirugía cardíaca, antes de la primera visita, en la sala de recuperación postanestésica - en los niveles de ansiedad, comparados con la orientación de rutina de la unidad. ensayo clínico aleatorio, realizado con familiares abordados en la sala de espera, antes de la primera visita en el posoperatorio inmediato. Familiares designados para el grupo intervención recibieron orientaciones audiovisuales sobre las condiciones en que el paciente se encontraba en aquel momento, y el grupo control recibió las orientaciones de rutina de la unidad. El resultado ansiedad fue evaluado por el inventario IDATE. fueron incluidos 210 sujetos, 105 en cada grupo, con edad promedio de 46,4±14,5 años, siendo 69% del sexo femenino y 41% eran hijos de los pacientes. En la evaluación de la ansiedad, el puntaje promedio para el grupo intervención fue de 41,3±8,6 puntos y, para el grupo control, 50,6±9,4 puntos (p<0,001). la intervención de enfermería dirigida a orientar a familiares, en el momento que antecede a la primera visita en el posoperatorio inmediato de cirugía cardíaca, induce una posible reducción de la ansiedad de los acompa

  18. Microbiological evaluation of the steam sterilization of assembled laparoscopic instruments.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Tamara Carolina de; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Almeida, Alda Graciele Claudio Dos Santos; Suzuki, Karina; Silva, Cely Barreto da; Pinto, Flávia Morais Gomes

    2016-11-21

    assess the safety of steam sterilization of assembled laparoscopic instruments with challenge contamination. a laboratory experimental study, using as test samples trocars and laparoscopic graspers. Geobacillus stearothermophillus ATCC-7953 was used, with a microbial population of 106UFC/Filter paper substrate, removed from the biological indicator. Three of them were introduced into each instrument at the time of assembly, and sterilized at pressurized saturated steam, 134oC for 5 minutes. After sterilization, the instrument was disassembled and each filter paper substrate was inoculated in soybean casein culture and incubated at 56oC for 21 days. In case of absence of growth, they were subjected to heat shock of 80oC, for 20 minutes and re-incubated for 72 hours. Sample size: 185 graspers and 185 trocars, with 95% power. We paired the experiments with comparative negative control groups (5 graspers and 5 trocars with challenge contamination, sterilized disassembled) and positive control (30 filter paper supports, unsterilized), subject to the same incubation procedures. there was no microbial growth in experimental and negative control. The results of the positive control were satisfactory. this study provided strong scientific evidence to support the safety of steam sterilizing of the assembled laparoscopic instrument. avaliar a segurança da esterilização a vapor, do instrumental laparoscópico montado com desafio da contaminação. estudo experimental laboratorial, cujo corpo de prova foram trocarte e pinça laparoscópica. Utilizou-se esporos Geobacillus stearothermophillus ATCC-7953, com população microbiana de 106UFC/suporte de papel filtro, removidos do indicador biológico. Três deles foram introduzidos no interior de cada instrumento, no momento da montagem, sendo esterilizados a vapor saturado sob pressão, 134oC por 5 minutos. Depois da esterilização, o instrumental foi desmontado, e cada suporte de papel filtro foi inoculado em meio de cultura

  19. Access to medicines for chronic diseases in Brazil: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-12-01

    non-communicable diseases in Brazil is high and presents significant differences for age group, region of the country, number of non-communicable diseases, and for medicines prescribed and self-assessment of health. The major barriers to access to medicines were identified in the dimensions analyzed. Analisar o acesso a medicamentos para tratar doenças crônicas não transmissíveis no Brasil segundo fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos e de saúde, sob perspectiva multidimensional. Análise de dados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), inquérito domiciliar, plano amostral por conglomerados com representatividade da população brasileira e grandes regiões do País, segundo domínios de sexo e idade. Dados coletados em 2013-2014 com amostra constituída por adultos (≥ 20 anos) que referiram ter doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e indicação médica para usar medicamentos (n = 12.725). Avaliou-se a prevalência de acesso aos medicamentos para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis autorreferidas, considerando quatro dimensões: disponibilidade, acessibilidade geográfica, aceitabilidade e capacidade aquisitiva. Aplicou-se teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson para avaliar a significância estatística das diferenças entre os estratos, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. Foram encontradas prevalências de 94,3%, 5,2% e 0,5% para acesso total, parcial e nulo, respectivamente. Maiores prevalências ocorreram entre os idosos, na região Sul comparada à região Nordeste; naqueles que referiram ter uma doença crônica não transmissível comparados aos que referiram ter duas ou mais; naqueles que precisavam de um medicamento comparados aos que precisavam de três ou mais; e naqueles que autoavaliaram sua saúde como boa ou muito boa. A acessibilidade geográfica foi semelhante no Sistema Único de Saúde e nas farmácias privadas (72,0%). A disponibilidade total de medicamentos foi de 45

  20. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Macêdo, Vilma Costa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-08-17

    úde relacionados à ocorrência de sífilis em mulheres atendidas em maternidades públicas. Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle (239 casos e 322 controles) com mulheres admitidas em sete maternidades do município do Recife, no período de julho de 2013 a julho de 2014. As mulheres elegíveis foram recrutadas após o resultado do VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) sob qualquer titulação. A seleção dos casos e controles considerou o resultado da sorologia por ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), variável dependente utilizada como diagnóstico para sífilis neste estudo. As variáveis independentes foram agrupadas em: sociodemográficas; comportamentais; e antecedentes clínicos e obstétricos; e assistência à saúde no pré-natal e na maternidade. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevista, durante o internamento, por aplicação de um questionário. Foi calculado odds ratio (OR), intervalo de confiança de 95% e realizada análise de regressão logística para identificar os fatores preditores da variável a ser explicada. A análise de regressão logística identificou como fatores determinantes para a sífilis gestacional: nível de escolaridade fundamental incompleto ou analfabeta (OR = 2,02), ausência de acesso a telefone (OR = 2,4), religião católica (OR = 1,70), quatro ou mais gestações (OR = 2,2), três ou mais parceiros sexuais no último ano (OR = 3,1), uso de drogas ilícitas antes dos 18 anos (OR = 3,0) e uso de drogas ilícitas por parte do atual companheiro (OR = 1,7). Além desses, foram observadas a ocorrência de apenas uma a três consultas ao pré-natal (OR = 3,5) e história anterior de infecção sexualmente transmissível (OR = 9,7). Fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de assistência à saúde estão associados à ocorrência de sífilis em mulheres e devem ser levados em consideração na elaboração de estratégias universais direcionadas à prevenção e controle da sífilis, porém com foco em situa

  1. DIETARY MANAGEMENT FOR DYSLIPIDEMIA IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andressa S; Chedid, Marcio F; Guerra, Léa T; Cabeleira, Daiane D; Kruel, Cleber D P

    2016-01-01

    pacientes transplantados hepáticos com dislipidemia devem ser incluídos em um programa de intervenção dietética sob orientação de nutricionista.

  2. Quality of life and religious-spiritual coping in palliative cancer care patients.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ticiane Dionizio de Sousa; Meneguin, Silmara; Ferreira, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Miot, Helio Amante

    2017-07-10

    voluntários saudáveis, por meio de questionário utilizando dados sociodemográficos, o McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire e o Coping Religioso-Espiritual-Breve. foram entrevistados 192 participantes que apresentaram boa qualidade de vida e alta utilização do Coping Religioso-Espiritual. Houve maior uso de Coping Religioso-Espiritual negativo no Grupo A, assim como menor bem-estar físico, psicológico e de qualidade de vida. Observou-se associação entre escores de qualidade de vida e Coping Religioso-Espiritual (p<0,01) em ambos os grupos. Sexo masculino, religião católica e escore de Coping Regioso-Espiritual-Breve influenciaram, de forma independente, os escores de qualidade de vida (p<0,01). ambos os grupos apresentaram escores altos de qualidade de vida e de Coping Espiritual-Religioso. Participantes do sexo masculino, praticantes de religião católica e com maiores escores de Coping Espiritual-Religioso apresentaram melhor percepção de qualidade de vida, sugerindo que essa estratégia de enfrentamento possa ser estimulada em pacientes sob cuidados paliativos. comparar la calidad de vida y el coping religioso-espiritual de pacientes en cuidados paliativos oncológicos con un grupo de participantes sanos; evaluar si la calidad de vida percibida está asociada a las estrategias de coping religioso-espiritual; identificar las variables clínicas y sociodemográficas relacionadas a la calidad de vida y al coping religioso-espiritual. estudio transversal, desarrollado con 96 pacientes de ambulatorio de cuidados paliativos en un hospital público en el interior del Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, y 96 voluntarios sanos, mediante cuestionario utilizando datos sociodemográficos, el McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire y el Coping Religioso-Espiritual-Breve. fueron entrevistados 192 participantes que presentaron buena calidad de vida y alta utilización del Coping Religioso-Espiritual. Fue encontrado mayor uso de Coping Religioso-Espiritual negativo en el Grupo A

  3. Teaching astronomy mediated by information and communication technologies: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. H. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    O presente trabalho é parte preliminar de um estudo mais amplo em nível de doutorado sobre o ensino de astronomia mediado pelas tecnologias da informação e comunicação, utilizando dispositivos compactos, móveis e pessoais. Este estudo também faz parte do projeto institucional do CEFETMG sobre ambientes diversificados de aprendizagem sob fomento da agência estadual FAPEMIG (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais). Esta apresentação aborda o resultado das concepções prévias de estudantes em relação a conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, ligados à percepção e observação direta do céu. Três turmas de estudantes de 1ª série e uma turma de 3ª série do ensino integrado médio técnico da Educação Básica, Técnica e Tecnológica (EBTT) do CEFETMG Campus II - Belo Horizonte/MG foram submetidas a uma avaliação prévia através de questionário estruturado. Este questionário foi elaborado de forma a abordar a percepção dos estudantes em relação aos recursos gráficos (figuras e desenhos) representativos de conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, comuns em livros didáticos. Após a análise dos resultados desta avaliação, organizou-se uma estratégia de intervenção didática em sala de aula sobre o conteúdo de astronomia, utilizando-se de recursos de mediação baseados nas tecnologias da informação e comunicação. Os temas selecionados para esta estratégia didática foram relacionados aos assuntos básicos de astronomia em que ocorreu maior nível de desconhecimento dos estudantes. Os estudantes foram submetidos a avaliação posterior elaborada com os mesmos pressupostos da avaliação prévia. A análise dos resultados foi realizada a partir dos pressupostos da aprendizagem significativa (Ausubel; Novak e Hanesian, 1983). O ensino de astronomia por mediação das tecnologias da informação e comunicação indica uma alternativa preliminar aos trabalhos de campo usuais orientados na prática escolar, tais

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia: prevalence and predictive variables.

    PubMed

    Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Corrêa, Krislainy de Sousa; Rabahi, Helena; Rocha, Arthur Alves; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2017-01-01

    áveis, portadores de DPOC e hipoxemia leve (saturação de oxigênio = 90-94%) em um centro clínico especializado no atendimento de doenças respiratórias em Goiânia (GO). Os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação clínica, espirometria, polissonografia, ecocardiografia, gasometria arterial, teste de caminhada de seis minutos e radiografia de tórax. Foram avaliados 64 pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia leve, e 39 (61%) apresentaram distúrbios respiratórios do sono (14 com AOS e 25 com hipoxemia noturna isolada). A análise de correlação mostrou moderada correlação da PaO2 com saturação média do sono (r = 0,45; p = 0,0002), saturação média do sono rapid eye movement (REM; r = 0,43; p = 0,001) e saturação média do sono não-REM (r = 0,42; p = 0,001). Um ponto de corte de PaO2 ≤ 70 mmHg (OR = 4,59; IC95%: 1,54-13,67; p = 0,01) na gasometria arterial foi significativamente associada com distúrbios respiratórios do sono. O modelo mostrou que, para identificar distúrbios respiratórios do sono, o ponto de corte teve uma especificidade de 73,9% (IC95%: 51,6-89,8%), uma sensibilidade de 63,4% (IC95%: 46,9-77,9%) e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 81,3% (IC95%: 67,7-90,0%) e 53,1% (IC95%: 41,4-64,4%), respectivamente. A área sob a curva ROC foi de 0,69 (IC95%: 0,57-0,80), e a proporção de observações corretamente classificadas foi de 67,2% dos casos. A elevada prevalência de distúrbios respiratórios do sono em portadores de DPOC e hipoxemia leve nesta amostra (61%) sugere que esses pacientes podem se beneficiar da realização de estudos do sono.

  5. Newborns' temperature submitted to radiant heat and to the Top Maternal device at birth.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rosemeire Sartori de; Mariani, Corintio; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Dias, Vanessa Macedo; Silva, Maria Izabel Mota da

    2016-08-08

    to compare the axillar temperatures of newborns that are put immediately after birth in skin-to-skin contact under the Top Maternal device, as compared to those in a radiant heat crib. comparatives observational study of the case-control type about temperature of 60 babies born at the Obstetric Center and Normal Delivery Center of a public hospital of the municipality of Sao Paulo, being them: 29 receiving assistance in heated crib and 31 in skin-to skin contact, shielded by a cotton tissue placed on mother's thorax, called Top Maternal. the temperature of the babies of the skin-to-skin contact group presented higher values in a larger share of the time measures verified, as compared to those that were placed in radiant heat crib, independently from the place of birth. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. the study contributes to generate new knowledge, supporting the idea of keeping babies with their mothers immediately after birth protected with the Maternal Top, without harming their wellbeing, as it keeps the axillar temperature in recommendable levels. comparar a temperatura axilar dos recém-nascidos acomodados - imediatamente após o nascimento - em contato pele a pele, sob o Top Maternal, em berço de calor radiante. estudo comparativo observacional do tipo Caso-Controle sobre a temperatura de 60 bebês nascidos no Centro Obstétrico e Centro de Parto Normal de um hospital público do município de São Paulo, sendo: 29 assistidos em berço aquecido e 31 em contato pele a pele, protegidos por uma malha de algodão colocada sobre o tórax da mãe, denominada Top Maternal. a temperatura dos bebês do grupo de contato pele a pele teve maior valor na maioria dos tempos verificados comparada à dos que foram colocados em berço de calor radiante, independentemente do local de nascimento. A diferença entre os grupos não foi estatisticamente significante. o estudo contribui com a geração de um novo conhecimento que sustenta a

  6. In-Situ Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated with Underground Coal Gasification Products / Oczyszczanie In-Situ WÓD Podziemnych Zanieczyszczonych Przez Produkty Podziemnego Zgazowania WĘGLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suponik, Tomasz; Lutyński, Marcin

    2013-12-01

    In the paper the contaminants that may be generated in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) process were listed and include mainly mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, heavy metals, cyanides, ammonium, chloride and sulphate. As a method of UCG contaminated groundwater treatment a Permeable Reactive Barrier technology was proposed. To assess the effectiveness of this technology two tests were carried out. Granulated activated carbon (GAC) and zeolite, and granulated activated carbon and scrap iron were applied in the first and second test respectively. For these materials the hydro geological parameters called reactive material parameters were determined and discussed. The results of the experiments showed that GAC seems to be the most effective material for phenols, BTX, PAH, cyanides and slightly lowers ammonia removal, while zeolites and scrap iron removed free cyanide, ammonia and heavy metals respectively. Podziemne Zgazowanie Węgla (PZW) jest alternatywną metodą pozyskiwania energii z węgla. Jest to zespół przemian termicznych i chemicznych przebiegających bezpośrednio w złożu węgla, zachodzących pomiędzy substancją organiczną a czynnikiem zgazowującym, jakim może być powietrze, tlen, para wodna, dwutlenek węgla. Poza wieloma zaletami metoda ta niesie za sobą także wiele zagrożeń, które były rozważane w ramach projektu HUGE 2 (nr RFCR-CT-2011-00002). Jednym z nich jest zagrożenie środowiska wód podziemnych produktami PZW, do których należą wielopierścieniowe węglowodory aromatyczne, BTX, fenole, metale ciężkie, cyjanki, jony amonowe, chlorki i siarczany. W celu zminimalizowania tego zagrożenia w pracy rozważono zastosowanie w obszarze reaktora PZW technologii Przepuszczalnej Bariery Reaktywnej (PRB). W technologii tej zanieczyszczenia usuwane są in-situ poprzez przepływ wód przez odpowiednio dobrany materiał reaktywny. W tablicy 1 przedstawiono podstawowe parametry bariery, które należy określić, aby

  7. Laboratory Method for Evaluating the Characteristics of Expansion Rock Bolts Subjected to Axial Tension / Laboratoryjna Metoda Badania Charakterystyk Kotew Rozprężnych Poddanych Rozciąganiu Osiowemu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzeniowski, Waldemar; Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof; Herezy, Łukasz

    2015-03-01

    statycznym jak i dynamicznym. W podziemnych wyrobiskach górniczych wykonywanych na dużych głębokościach, szczególnie przy eksploatacji złóż rud miedzi w kopalniach LGOM, w których stosuje się samodzielną obudową kotwową istnieje niebezpieczeństwo nieprzewidzianego odpadania bloków skalnych do przestrzeni roboczej. Podstawowym zadaniem kotwienia wyrobisk górniczych jest zapewnienie ich stateczności, jako zasadniczy warunek bezpieczeństwa pracy. Powstają nowe konstrukcje przeznaczone do bardziej ekstremalnych warunków funkcjonowania, w szczególności w warunkach górniczych, ale również w tunelarstwie. Podstawowym rodzajem obudowy wyrobisk przygotowawczych i eksploatacyjnych w podziemnych kopalniach LGOM jest obudowa kotwowa rozprężna lub wklejana. Wybór sposobu utwierdzenia obudowy kotwowej zależy miedzy innymi od: czasu użytkowania, klasy stropu, wymiarów oraz przeznaczenia wyrobiska. W polach eksploatacyjnych, gdzie okres od wykonania wyrobiska do jego likwidacji jest stosunkowo krótki, częściej stosuje się kotwy rozprężne, które ze względu na mniejszą czasochłonność zabudowy, pozwalają na większą wydajność kotwienia. Doceniając rolę i znaczenie obudowy kotwowej oraz jej zużycie sięgające w warunkach polskich milionów sztuk rocznie, w niniejszym artykule opisano nowe stanowisko laboratoryjne umożliwiające badanie rzeczywistej obudowy kotwowej w warunkach obciążeń statycznych. Stanowisko laboratoryjne do badania wytrzymałości na rozciąganie obudowy kotwowej zbudowane w Katedrze Górnictwa Podziemnego AGH umożliwia badania obudów kotwowych przy różnych warunkach obciążeń. Składa się ono z kilku współpracujących ze sobą podzespołów: Hydraulicznego Układu Obciążającego Kotew (HUK), pulpitu sterującego I, pulpitu sterującego II, pulpitu rejestrującego oraz zespołu agregatu hydraulicznego (Rys. 1). W artykule scharakteryzowano zastosowaną aparaturę pomiarową oraz możliwości badawcze

  8. Visualization of Multidimensional Data in Purpose of Qualitative Classification of Various Types of Coal / Wizualizacja Wielowymiarowych Danych W Celu Klasyfikacji JAKOŚCIOWEJ RÓŻNYCH TYPÓW WĘGLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedoba, Tomasz; Jamróz, Dariusz

    2013-12-01

    . Surowce mineralne, które podlegają wzbogacaniu w celu ich lepszego wykorzystania mogą być (charakteryzują się) charakteryzowane wieloma wskaźnikami opisującymi ich, interesujące przeróbkarza, cechy. Podstawowymi cechami są wielkość ziaren oraz ich gęstość, które decydują o przebiegu rozdziału zbiorów ziaren (nadaw) i efektach takiego rozdziału. Rozdział prowadzi się z reguły, w celu uzyskania produktów o zróżnicowanych wartościach średnich wybranej cechy, która zwykle charakteryzowana jest zawartością określonego składnika surowca wyznaczoną na drodze analiz chemicznych. Takie podejście do surowca mineralnego prowadzi do potraktowania go jako wielowymiarowego wektora X = [X1, …, Xn]. Zasadniczym problemem jest także wybór jednostki populacji generalnej (ziarno, jednostka objętości lub masy), co może decydować o kierunkach charakteryzowania wielowymiarowych powiązań cech wektora X. Takimi kierunkami charakteryzowania mogą być: - wielowymiarowe rozkłady wektora losowego X wraz ze wszystkimi konsekwencjami metody (Lyman, 1993; Niedoba, 2009; 2011; Olejnik et al., 2010; Niedoba & Surowiak, 2012); - wielowymiarowe równania regresji wraz z analizą macierzy współczynników korelacji liniowej oraz korelacji cząstkowej (Niedoba, 2013); - analiza czynnikowa (Tumidajski & Saramak, 2009); - inne metody, w tym wizualizacja metodą tuneli obserwacyjnych (Jamróz, 2001), osi równoległych oraz wizualizacja zależności pomiędzy wielowymiarowymi bryłami (Jamróz, 2009). Wielowymiarowe rozkłady wektora X traktowanego jako wektor losowy, mają już swoją bogatą literaturę i praktyczne ich zastosowanie i nie będą przedmiotem tej publikacji. Pozostałe metody są ze sobą w pewien sposób powiązane, co skrótowo zostało przedstawione w artykule. Macierze współczynników korelacji liniowej i współczynników korelacji cząstkowej są związane, z reguły, z istniejącymi modelami liniowymi zależności występujących mi

  9. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    radicular, deve estar exposta ao fósforo para suprir as necessidades das plantas. Ademais, há um determinado valor de concentração de fósforo, na solução do solo, acima da qual a taxa de absorção não é aumentada. Essas considerações suscitam a possibilidade de questionar se a aplicação de fósforo em sulcos seria a forma mais eficiente de usá-lo quando se pretende alcancar elevadas produções. Deve-se lembrar entretanto, que solos tropicais, ainda com baixos teores fósforo e alta capacidade de adsorção, seria necessária dose muito elevada de P, quando aplicada á lanço, em todo o terreno. Se a aplicação localizada do fósforo pode, em parte, ser explicada, a do nitrogênio e potássio não são facilmente justificadas sob o aspecto de eficiéncia de utilização. Pelo contrário, ela pode ser questionada, principalmente pelas suas caracteristicas de difusão, pelo efeito que altas concentração de amónio e cloreto podem ter sobre a pressão osmotica da solução do solo junto aos tubérculos plantados, pelo efeito negativo do cloreto sobre a absorção de fósforo e também sobre a capacidade produtiva das plantas. Portanto, existe a possibilidade de ocorrer toxidez de amónio e de cloreto ao se aplicar doses altas dos fertilizantes nos sulcos de plantios. Isto pode determinar uma menor eficiéncia no uso dos fertilizantes. Materiais e Metodos: Nos desenvolverémos os três experimentos (i.e.: 1., 2., 3.) para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação com diferentes doságens do latossolo vermelho novo, do esterco de curral e do adubo fórmula 4N:14P:8K no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, da Brazília-DF no 1990. Caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo em faixa arado (dados estimados), e conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do esterco de curral e palha de arroz queimado (dados estimados): a., caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo