Science.gov

Sample records for design basis threat

  1. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  2. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  3. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  4. Factors influencing IUCN threat levels to orchids across Europe on the basis of national red lists.

    PubMed

    Kull, Tiiu; Selgis, Ulvi; Peciña, Miguel Villoslada; Metsare, Mirjam; Ilves, Aigi; Tali, Kadri; Sepp, Kalev; Kull, Kalevi; Shefferson, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, forests and inland wetlands) also significantly impacted the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pasture and grassland lowers it. Unexpectedly, a bigger share of inland wetland area in a country increased threat level, which we believe may be due to the threatened nature of wetlands themselves relative to other natural land cover types. Finally, species occurring in multiple countries are on average less threatened. We believe that large-scale analysis of current IUCN national red lists as based on their specific categories and criteria may particularly inform the development of coordinated regional or larger-scale management strategies. In this case, we advocate for a coordinated EU protection and restoration strategy particularly aimed at central European orchids and those occurring in wetland area. PMID:27648240

  5. Factors influencing IUCN threat levels to orchids across Europe on the basis of national red lists.

    PubMed

    Kull, Tiiu; Selgis, Ulvi; Peciña, Miguel Villoslada; Metsare, Mirjam; Ilves, Aigi; Tali, Kadri; Sepp, Kalev; Kull, Kalevi; Shefferson, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, forests and inland wetlands) also significantly impacted the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pasture and grassland lowers it. Unexpectedly, a bigger share of inland wetland area in a country increased threat level, which we believe may be due to the threatened nature of wetlands themselves relative to other natural land cover types. Finally, species occurring in multiple countries are on average less threatened. We believe that large-scale analysis of current IUCN national red lists as based on their specific categories and criteria may particularly inform the development of coordinated regional or larger-scale management strategies. In this case, we advocate for a coordinated EU protection and restoration strategy particularly aimed at central European orchids and those occurring in wetland area.

  6. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  7. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  8. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  9. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  10. Design basis for the NRC Operations Center

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, M.K.; Wise, J.A.; Griffin, B.N.; Desrosiers, A.E.; Meitzler, W.D.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the development of a design for a new NRC Operations Center (NRCOC). The project was conducted in two phases: organizational analysis and facility design. In order to control the amount of traffic, congestion and noise within the facility, it is recommended that information flow in the new NRCOC be accomplished by means of an electronic Status Information Management System. Functional requirements and a conceptual design for this system are described. An idealized architectural design and a detailed design program are presented that provide the appropriate amount of space for operations, equipment and circulation within team areas. The overall layout provides controlled access to the facility and, through the use of a zoning concept, provides each team within the NRCOC the appropriate balance of ready access and privacy determined from the organizational analyses conducted during the initial phase of the project.

  11. Physics Basis for NSTX Antenna Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P. M.; Strickler, D. J.; Majeski, R.

    1997-11-01

    The PICES(E.F. Jaeger, D.B. Batchelor, D.C. Stallings, Nucl. Fus. 33)(1993) 179 and RANT3D(M.D. Carter et.al., Nucl. Fus. 36) (1996) 209 codes have been used to study a phased array antenna system using 30 MHz fast waves for current drive in NSTX. Accurate finite β equilibria, such as provided by EQDSK, were needed in PICES to accurately calculate the RF current drive efficiency; a Solov'ev model gave significantly different results. The PICES code was modified to use pressure profiles consistent with the EQDSK magnetic input. Reasonable RF modes for various plasma scenarios were found to range from n_φ=3--10 for EQDSK equilibria with β=25%--5%. Substantially different total current profiles could be generated using different combinations of RF, bootstrap, and ohmic currents, with possible application for transport experiments. The RANT3D code was used to determine the RF near fields of the antenna for a boundary condition in the PICES code. Individual strap loading information required to design stable phase control for the antenna is presented. RF near fields from RANT3D provide an indicator of RF edge phenomena that may affect the antenna performance.

  12. `Intelligent Design' Poses ContinuedThreat to Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Science education in the United States has been the subject of more than usual attention, especially since 1 August 2005 when President George W. Bush stoked the fire by responding to a reporter's question about the teaching of `intelligent design' (ID) in science classrooms by saying that ``both sides ought to be properly taught. . . so people can understand what the debate is about.'' Prior to the 20 December 2005 ruling against the teaching of ID in public schools, by U.S. District Judge John E. Jones III in the Pennsylvania case Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, anti-evolutionists and ID proponents seemed to be enjoying a new momentum in the aftermath of President Bush's statements. William Dembski, senior fellow with the Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture in Seattle, Wash., a group that supports intelligent design, wrote on 4 August 2005 at http://www.designinference.com that President Bush ``is to be commended for his courage, wisdom, and foresight'' for supporting the teaching of ID alongside evolution.

  13. F-106 data summary and model results relative to threat criteria and protection design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. L.; Finelli, G. B.; Perala, R. A.; Rudolph, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA F-106 has acquired considerable data on the rates-of-change of electromagnetic parameters on the aircraft surface during 690 direct lightning strikes while penetrating thunderstorms at altitudes ranging from 15,000 to 40,000 feet. These in-situ measurements have provided the basis for the first statistical quantification of the lightning electromagnetic threat to aircrat appropriate for determining lightning indirect effects on aircraft. The data are presently being used in updating previous lightning criteria and standards developed over the years from ground-based measurements. The new lightning standards will, therefore, be the first which reflect actual aircraft responses measured at flight altitudes. The modeling technique developed to interpret and understand the direct strike electromagnetic data acquired on the F-106 provides a means to model the interaction of the lightning channel with the F-106. The reasonable results obtained with the model, compared to measured responses, yield confidence that the model may be credibly applied to other aircraft types and uses in the prediction of internal coupling effects in the design of lightning protection for new aircraft.

  14. A generalized algorithm to design finite field normal basis multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of some error-correcting coders and some cryptographic devices. There is a need for good multiplication algorithms which can be easily realized. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for finite fields based on a normal basis representation. Using the normal basis representation, the design of the finite field multiplier is simple and regular. The fundamental design of the Massey-Omura multiplier is based on a design of a product function. In this article, a generalized algorithm to locate a normal basis in a field is first presented. Using this normal basis, an algorithm to construct the product function is then developed. This design does not depend on particular characteristics of the generator polynomial of the field.

  15. The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, James L.

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

  16. Participatory action research designs in applied disability and rehabilitation science: protecting against threats to social validity.

    PubMed

    Seekins, Tom; White, Glen W

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement.

  17. A Simulation Study of Threats to Validity in Quasi-Experimental Designs: Interrelationship between Design, Measurement, and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holgado-Tello, Fco P; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Pérez-Gil, José A

    2016-01-01

    The Campbellian tradition provides a conceptual framework to assess threats to validity. On the other hand, different models of causal analysis have been developed to control estimation biases in different research designs. However, the link between design features, measurement issues, and concrete impact estimation analyses is weak. In order to provide an empirical solution to this problem, we use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a first approximation to operationalize the analytical implications of threats to validity in quasi-experimental designs. Based on the analogies established between the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and causal analysis, we describe an empirical study based on SEM in which range restriction and statistical power have been simulated in two different models: (1) A multistate model in the control condition (pre-test); and (2) A single-trait-multistate model in the control condition (post-test), adding a new mediator latent exogenous (independent) variable that represents a threat to validity. Results show, empirically, how the differences between both the models could be partially or totally attributed to these threats. Therefore, SEM provides a useful tool to analyze the influence of potential threats to validity. PMID:27378991

  18. A Simulation Study of Threats to Validity in Quasi-Experimental Designs: Interrelationship between Design, Measurement, and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holgado-Tello, Fco. P.; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Pérez-Gil, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The Campbellian tradition provides a conceptual framework to assess threats to validity. On the other hand, different models of causal analysis have been developed to control estimation biases in different research designs. However, the link between design features, measurement issues, and concrete impact estimation analyses is weak. In order to provide an empirical solution to this problem, we use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a first approximation to operationalize the analytical implications of threats to validity in quasi-experimental designs. Based on the analogies established between the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and causal analysis, we describe an empirical study based on SEM in which range restriction and statistical power have been simulated in two different models: (1) A multistate model in the control condition (pre-test); and (2) A single-trait-multistate model in the control condition (post-test), adding a new mediator latent exogenous (independent) variable that represents a threat to validity. Results show, empirically, how the differences between both the models could be partially or totally attributed to these threats. Therefore, SEM provides a useful tool to analyze the influence of potential threats to validity. PMID:27378991

  19. A Simulation Study of Threats to Validity in Quasi-Experimental Designs: Interrelationship between Design, Measurement, and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holgado-Tello, Fco P; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Pérez-Gil, José A

    2016-01-01

    The Campbellian tradition provides a conceptual framework to assess threats to validity. On the other hand, different models of causal analysis have been developed to control estimation biases in different research designs. However, the link between design features, measurement issues, and concrete impact estimation analyses is weak. In order to provide an empirical solution to this problem, we use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a first approximation to operationalize the analytical implications of threats to validity in quasi-experimental designs. Based on the analogies established between the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and causal analysis, we describe an empirical study based on SEM in which range restriction and statistical power have been simulated in two different models: (1) A multistate model in the control condition (pre-test); and (2) A single-trait-multistate model in the control condition (post-test), adding a new mediator latent exogenous (independent) variable that represents a threat to validity. Results show, empirically, how the differences between both the models could be partially or totally attributed to these threats. Therefore, SEM provides a useful tool to analyze the influence of potential threats to validity.

  20. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design...

  1. A Design Basis for Spacecraft Cabin Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    Successful trace chemical contamination control is one of the components necessary for achieving good cabin atmospheric quality. While employing seemingly simple process technologies, sizing the active contamination control equipment must employ a reliable design basis for the trace chemical load in the cabin atmosphere. A simplified design basis that draws on experience gained from the International Space Station program is presented. The trace chemical contamination control design load refines generation source magnitudes and includes key chemical functional groups representing both engineering and toxicology challenges.

  2. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  4. 14 CFR 121.162 - ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis. 121.162 Section 121.162 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... February 17, 2015 and except for a two-engine airplane that, when used in ETOPS, is only used for ETOPS...

  5. 14 CFR 121.162 - ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis. 121.162 Section 121.162 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... February 17, 2015 and except for a two-engine airplane that, when used in ETOPS, is only used for ETOPS...

  6. 14 CFR 121.162 - ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis. 121.162 Section 121.162 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... February 17, 2015 and except for a two-engine airplane that, when used in ETOPS, is only used for ETOPS...

  7. 14 CFR 121.162 - ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis. 121.162 Section 121.162 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... February 17, 2015 and except for a two-engine airplane that, when used in ETOPS, is only used for ETOPS...

  8. 14 CFR 121.162 - ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false ETOPS Type Design Approval Basis. 121.162 Section 121.162 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... February 17, 2015 and except for a two-engine airplane that, when used in ETOPS, is only used for ETOPS...

  9. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  10. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-03-23

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  11. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  12. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  13. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  14. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    SciTech Connect

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  15. Nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism: understanding the threat and designing responses.

    PubMed

    Simon, J D

    1999-01-01

    Today nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) terrorism is a serious issue. The threat of terrorist or rogue states acquiring and using NBC weapons has ushered in a new age of terrorism; an age that is far more dangerous than any previous period. It is an age of terrorism with which no one yet knows how to deal. This article reviews recent trends in terrorism, and identifies groups that have both the potential and the motive to use weapons of mass destruction. In addition, it discusses the design and implemention of effective measures to meet this threat, as well as the role of CISM teams in preparation for, and in the aftermath of, an incident involving NBC weapons.

  16. AN APPROACH TO SAFETY DESIGN BASIS DOCUMENTATION CHANGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2008-05-15

    This paper describes a safety design basis documentation change control process. The process identifies elements that can be used to manage the project/facility configuration during design evolution through the Initiation, Definition, and Execution project phases. The project phases addressed by the process are defined in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, in support of DOE project Critical Decisions (CD). This approach has been developed for application to two Hanford Site projects in their early CD phases and is considered to be a key element of safety and design integration. As described in the work that has been performed, the purpose of change control is to maintain consistency among design requirements, the physical configuration, related facility documentation, and the nuclear safety basis during the evolution of the design. The process developed (1) ensures an appropriate level of rigor is applied at each project phase and (2) is considered to implement the requirements and guidance provided in DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. Presentation of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008 or managing nuclear safety documentation in support of projects in-process.

  17. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  18. Design basis event consequence analyses for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, D.D.; Haas, M.N.; Martin, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    Design basis event (DBE) definition and analysis is an ongoing and integrated activity among the design and analysis groups of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). DBE`s are those that potentially lead to breach of the waste package and waste form (e.g., spent fuel rods) with consequent release of radionuclides to the environment. A Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) provided a systematic screening of external and internal events that were candidate DBE`s that will be subjected to analyses for radiological consequences. As preparation, pilot consequence analyses for the repository subsurface and surface facilities have been performed to define the methodology, data requirements, and applicable regulatory limits.

  19. The neural basis of self-face recognition after self-concept threat and comparison with important others.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Zhang, Qinglin; Yang, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The implicit positive association (IPA) theory attributed self-face advantage to the IPA with self-concept. Previous behavioral study has found that self-concept threat (SCT) could eliminate the self-advantage in face recognition over familiar-face, without taking levels of facial familiarity into account. The current event-related potential study aimed to investigate whether SCT could eliminate the self-face advantage over stranger-face. Fifteen participants completed a "self-friend" comparison task in which participants identified the face orientation of self-face and friend-face after SCT and non-self-concept threat (NSCT) priming, and a "self-stranger" comparison task was also completed in which participants identified the face orientation of self-face and stranger-face after SCT and NSCT priming. The results showed that the N2 amplitudes were more negative for processing friend-face than self-face after NSCT priming, but there was no significant difference between them after SCT priming. Moreover, the N2 amplitudes were more negative for processing stranger-face than self-face both after SCT priming and after NSCT priming. Furthermore, SCT manipulated the N2 amplitudes of friend-face rather than self-face. Overall, the present study made a supplementary to the current IPA theory and further indicated that SCT would only eliminate this self-face recognition advantage when comparing with important others. PMID:24852316

  20. The neural basis of self-face recognition after self-concept threat and comparison with important others.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Zhang, Qinglin; Yang, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The implicit positive association (IPA) theory attributed self-face advantage to the IPA with self-concept. Previous behavioral study has found that self-concept threat (SCT) could eliminate the self-advantage in face recognition over familiar-face, without taking levels of facial familiarity into account. The current event-related potential study aimed to investigate whether SCT could eliminate the self-face advantage over stranger-face. Fifteen participants completed a "self-friend" comparison task in which participants identified the face orientation of self-face and friend-face after SCT and non-self-concept threat (NSCT) priming, and a "self-stranger" comparison task was also completed in which participants identified the face orientation of self-face and stranger-face after SCT and NSCT priming. The results showed that the N2 amplitudes were more negative for processing friend-face than self-face after NSCT priming, but there was no significant difference between them after SCT priming. Moreover, the N2 amplitudes were more negative for processing stranger-face than self-face both after SCT priming and after NSCT priming. Furthermore, SCT manipulated the N2 amplitudes of friend-face rather than self-face. Overall, the present study made a supplementary to the current IPA theory and further indicated that SCT would only eliminate this self-face recognition advantage when comparing with important others.

  1. A parametric design of ceramic faced composite armor subject to air weapon threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. N.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    By taking into consideration the two categories of military projectile threats to aircraft structures, an optimal layer configuration of ceramic faced composite armor was designed in this paper. Using numerical simulations and the same layer arrangement of ceramic, UHMWPE, and carbon fiber laminates, a parametric finite element model using LS-DYNA code was built. Several thickness combinations were analyzed in order to determine the final lightest configuration that is capable of supporting a high-speed impact load and HEI blast wave load, which implements a high anti-penetration design for aircraft armor. This configuration can be used to improve the anti-impact ability of aircraft structures as well as achieve a structure/function integration design that considers a lighter weight.

  2. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  4. Title I Technical Issues as Threats to Internal Validity of Experimental and Quasiexperimental Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Steve; And Others

    Threats to the validity of the Title I Evaluation and Reporting System are covered in two parts: an annotated bibliography of reports concerned with technical issues, and a discussion of threats to validity--from the reporting system in general and from each model in particular. Threats common to all three evaluation models are reported:…

  5. Theoretical basis for design of thermal-stress-free fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Mcwithey, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical basis was developed for the design of fasteners which are free of thermal stress. A fastener can be shaped to eliminate the thermal stress which would otherwise result from differential thermal expansion between dissimilar fastener and sheet materials for many combinations of isotropic and orthotropic materials. The resulting joint remains snug, yet free of thermal stress at any temperature, if the joint is uniform in temperature, if it is frictionless, and if the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials do not change with temperature. In general, such a fastener has curved sides; however, if both materials have isotropic coefficients of thermal expansion, a conical fastener is free of thermal stress. Equations are presented for thermal stress free shapes at both initial and final temperature, and typical fastener shapes are shown.

  6. An incremental design of radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Reiner, Philip D; Xie, Tiantian; Bartczak, Tomasz; Wilamowski, Bogdan M

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes an offline algorithm for incrementally constructing and training radial basis function (RBF) networks. In each iteration of the error correction (ErrCor) algorithm, one RBF unit is added to fit and then eliminate the highest peak (or lowest valley) in the error surface. This process is repeated until a desired error level is reached. Experimental results on real world data sets show that the ErrCor algorithm designs very compact RBF networks compared with the other investigated algorithms. Several benchmark tests such as the duplicate patterns test and the two spiral problem were applied to show the robustness of the ErrCor algorithm. The proposed ErrCor algorithm generates very compact networks. This compactness leads to greatly reduced computation times of trained networks.

  7. Reducing Threats to Validity by Design in a Nonrandomized Experiment of a School-Wide Prevention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sørlie, Mari-Anne; Ogden, Terje

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the rationale, challenges, and recommendations for choosing a nonequivalent comparison (NEC) group design when evaluating intervention effects. After reviewing frequently addressed threats to validity, the paper describes recommendations for strengthening the research design and how the recommendations were…

  8. Severe burn injuries caused by bioethanol-design fireplaces-an overview on recreational fire threats.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert; Knobloch, Karsten; Lorenzen, Johan; Breuing, Karl H; Koennecker, Soeren; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Vogt, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become increasingly popular additions for interior home decoration in Europe and more recently in the United States. These fireplaces are advertised as smokeless, ecologically friendly, and do not require professional installation, formal gas lines, or venting. Although manufacturers and businesses promote their safety, recent presentations of injuries have alerted the authors to the relevant danger bioethanol fireplaces can pose for the incautious user. Are bioethanol fireplaces going to become the future threat in domestic burn accidents beside common barbeque burns? A Medline literature search on barbeque and domestic fireplace accidents was performed to compare and stratify the injury patterns reported and to identify a risk profile for contemporary bioethanol-fueled fireplaces. To exemplify, two representative clinical cases of severe burn accidents caused by bioethanol-fueled fireplaces, both treated in the burn unit of the authors, are being presented. Design fireplaces are being recognized as an increasing source of fuel and fire-related danger in the home. This risk may be underestimated by the uninformed customer, resulting in severe burn injuries. Because bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become more commonplace, they may overtake barbecue-related injury as the most common domestic burn injury.

  9. The ORP basis set designed for optical rotation calculations.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z

    2013-09-01

    Details of generation of the optical rotation prediction (ORP) basis set developed for accurate optical rotation (OR) calculations are presented. Specific rotation calculations carried out at the density functional theory (DFT) level for model chiral methane molecule, fluorooxirane, methyloxirane, and dimethylmethylenecyclopropane reveal that the ORP set outperforms larger basis sets, among them the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set of Dunning (J. Chem. Phys. 1989, 90, 1007) and the aug-pc-2 basis set of Jensen (J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 9234; J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2008, 4, 719). It is shown to be an attractive choice also in the case of larger systems, namely norbornanone, β-pinene, trans-pinane, and nopinone. The ORP basis set is further used in OR calculations for 24 other systems, and the results are compared to the aug-cc-pVDZ values. Whenever large discrepancies of results are observed, the ORP values are in an excellent agreement with the aug-cc-pVTZ results. The ORP basis set enables accurate specific rotation calculations at a reduced cost and thus can be recommended for routine DFT OR calculations, also for large and conformationally flexible molecules.

  10. Systems thinking as the basis for an ecological design education

    SciTech Connect

    DeKay, M.

    1996-10-01

    Design education is built on a combination of historical models that have little to do with ecological design or contemporary understandings of whole systems. In order to educate designers for ecologically and socially responsible practice, design schools will need to be radically redesigned in their structure, content, and methods. This paper uses a model from the natural sciences, Systems Theory, as a potential model for a foundational framework of design education. Basic tenets of systems thinking are outlined, along with principles of ecosystem function and organization. A series of fifteen suggested shifts in design education, eight as implications of ecosystem principles and seven derived from principles of ecosystem organization, are proposed.

  11. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants... Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and...- basis hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should...

  12. Towards a Basis for Designing Backwater and Side Channel Restorations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Design criteria for river channel restoration is becoming highly developed with several handbooks and guidance documents available, despite notable differences among various schools of thought. Basic principles of stable channel design and riverine habitat simulation undergird channel reconstructio...

  13. Reduced Design Load Basis for Ultimate Blade Loads Estimation in Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.; Kim, Taeseong; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar to the one computed using the full DLB. This observation is used to propose a scheme that is computationally cheap, and that can be integrated inside an MDO framework, providing a sufficiently reliable estimation of the blade ultimate loading. The latter aspect is of key importance when design variables implementing passive control methodologies are included in the formulation of the optimization problem. An MDO of a 10 MW wind turbine blade is presented as an applied case study to show the efficacy of the reduced DLB concept.

  14. Designing community surveys to provide a basis for noise policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    After examining reports from a large number of social surveys, two areas were identified where methodological improvements in the surveys would be especially useful for public policy. The two study areas are: the definition of noise indexes and the assessment of noise impact. Improvements in the designs of surveys are recommended which would increase the validity and reliability of the noise indexes. Changes in interview questions and sample designs are proposed which would enable surveys to provide measures of noise impact which are directly relevant for public policy.

  15. Dialogue as a Basis for the Design of Environmental Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Andrade, Daniel Fonseca; Sorrentino, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Colonizing processes take many forms. Although they are generally related to the use of force, they may also happen through subtler means such as education, and subconsciously, whenever educational proposals are designed to suit a wide variety of contexts. This essay suggests that environmental pedagogies should be based on a dialogical mindset…

  16. Instructional Design Project Success Factors: An Empirical Basis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimczak, Aimee K.; Wedman, John F.

    1997-01-01

    A study of four stakeholder groups identified 23 instructional design and development (ID) project success factors and grouped them into four categories: tangible resources, curriculum development, training strategies, and implementation support. Data analysis revealed differences in the importance attached to the factors by the stakeholder groups…

  17. A BASIS FOR MODIFYING THE TANK 12 COMPOSITE SAMPLING DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, G.

    2014-11-25

    The SRR sampling campaign to obtain residual solids material from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm Tank 12 primary vessel resulted in obtaining appreciable material in all 6 planned source samples from the mound strata but only in 5 of the 6 planned source samples from the floor stratum. Consequently, the design of the compositing scheme presented in the Tank 12 Sampling and Analysis Plan, Pavletich (2014a), must be revised. Analytical Development of SRNL statistically evaluated the sampling uncertainty associated with using various compositing arrays and splitting one or more samples for compositing. The variance of the simple mean of composite sample concentrations is a reasonable standard to investigate the impact of the following sampling options. Composite Sample Design Option (a). Assign only 1 source sample from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each of the composite samples. Each source sample contributes material to only 1 composite sample. Two source samples from the floor stratum would not be used. Composite Sample Design Option (b). Assign 2 source samples from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each composite sample. This infers that one source sample from the floor must be used twice, with 2 composite samples sharing material from this particular source sample. All five source samples from the floor would be used. Composite Sample Design Option (c). Assign 3 source samples from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each composite sample. This infers that several of the source samples from the floor stratum must be assigned to more than one composite sample. All 5 source samples from the floor would be used. Using fewer than 12 source samples will increase the sampling variability over that of the Basic Composite Sample Design, Pavletich (2013). Considering the impact to the variance of the simple mean of the composite sample concentrations

  18. 46 CFR 177.310 - Satisfactory service as a design basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satisfactory service as a design basis. 177.310 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.310 Satisfactory service as a design basis. When scantlings for the hull, deckhouse, and frames of the vessel differ from...

  19. 10 CFR 72.94 - Design basis external man-induced events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design basis external man-induced events. 72.94 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.94 Design basis external man-induced events. (a) The region must...

  20. 76 FR 50275 - Guidance for the Assessment of Beyond-Design-Basis Aircraft Impacts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Guidance for the Assessment of Beyond-Design-Basis Aircraft Impacts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...-Design-Basis Aircraft Impacts.'' This guide describes a method that the staff of NRC considers acceptable... power reactors. ADDRESSES: You can access publicly available documents related to this regulatory...

  1. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report II. Breckinridge Project design basis

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The Breckinridge Project is a pioneer endeavor involving the engineering, construction, and operation of a commercial facility that will convert 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine, high-sulfur coal into 50,000 barrels per day of liquid hydrocarbons equivalent to those produced from crude oil. The Initial Effort, now complete, was executed under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-80OR20717 between the Department of Energy and the Participants, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Airco Energy Company, Inc. The Initial Effort produced a preliminary design, capital estimate, and economic analysis of the commercial plant, as well as a plan for the design, construction, and operation of that plant. The extensive and rigorous attention given to environmental, socioeconomic, safety, and health considerations is indicative of the high priority these issues will continue to receive throughout the life of the project. The Breckinridge Energy Company, a partnership of several major corporations, is being formed to finance, own, and manage the Breckinridge Project. Report II is intended for the reader who is primarily interested in less detailed discussion of the coal liquefaction process and Breckinridge facility than presented in the eleven volumes of Reports IV and V. The overview section describes the project goals and briefly introduces the coal liquefaction process. The report continues with a discussion of the history of the project and the H-COAL process from its concept to the proposed commercialization technology. The report describes the site, the Breckinridge Facility, and concludes with a summary of the eleven reports that contain the deliverable documentation of the Initial Effort or Development Phase of the project.

  2. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  3. Toward understanding the molecular basis for chemical allosteric modulator design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Zheng, Mingyue; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Xinyi; Zhou, Huchen; Chen, Yingyi; Shi, Ting; Zhang, Jian

    2012-09-01

    Among the regulation mechanisms of cellular function, allosteric regulation is the most direct, rapid and efficient. Due to the wider receptor selectivity and lower target-based toxicity, compared with orthosteric ligands, allosteric modulators are expected to play a larger role in pharmaceutical research and development. However, current difficulties, such as a low affinity and unknown structural features of potential allosteric small-molecules, usually obstruct the discovery of allosteric modulators. In this study, we compared known allosteric modulators with various compounds from different databases to unveil the structural and qualitative characteristics of allosteric modulators. The results show that allosteric modulators generally contain more hydrophobic scaffolds and have a higher structural rigidity, i.e., less rotatable bonds and more rings. Based on this analysis, an empirical rule was defined to determine the structural requirements for an allosteric modulator. It was found that a large proportion of allosteric modulators (80%) can be successfully retrieved by this "allosteric-like" filter, which shows good discriminatory power in identifying allosteric modulators. Therefore, the study provides deeper insight into the chemical properties of allosteric modulators and has a good potential for the design or optimization of allosteric compounds. PMID:23085171

  4. Structural design and analysis of a mixer pump for beyond-design- basis load

    SciTech Connect

    Rezvani, M.A.; Strehlow, J.P.; Baliga, R.; Kok, S.B.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the structural evaluation of a mixer pump for a postulated drop accident. The mixer pump will be installed in a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This tank has a 1,000,000-gallon (3,785,000 liter) capacity and is used to store radioactive waste before final disposal. The beyond-design-basis load case presented here is a postmulated drop of the pump during installation or removal. It is assumed that the pump assembly might be dropped approximateely 140 ft (15 m) from a height at which the bottom of the pump assembly is slightly above the top of the access riser to the bottom of the tank. The acceptance criterion for this load case is that the pump assembly shall not penetrate the primary tank liner. To ensure the integrity of the liner, the kinetic energy (developed in the pump drop) must be absorbed by some means to limit the impact force on the tank dome and thereby keep the pump from contacting the bottom of the tank. The limited clearance near the mounting assembly warranted an innovative two-step design of the energy absorbing system to limit the impact force on the tank dome to an acceptable value. This innovative design incorporates two energy absorbers in a unique series arrangement, one with the pump assembly and tile other in the pump pit.

  5. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2012-02-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of coolant accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)]; Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components; and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004-design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by US ITER and AREVA Federal Services, the US ITER A and E Company. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design basis accident: a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassette lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

  6. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design - R00

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of cooling accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)], Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components, and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004 design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by U.S. ITER. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design-basis accident:1 a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassettes lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); tank layout anddimensions, including design

  7. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Design basis integrated operations plan (Title I design)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) will be a fully integrated, pilotscale facility for the demonstration of low-level, organic-matrix mixed waste treatment technologies. It will provide the bridge from bench-scale demonstrated technologies to the deployment and operation of full-scale treatment facilities. The MWMF is a key element in reducing the risk in deployment of effective and environmentally acceptable treatment processes for organic mixed-waste streams. The MWMF will provide the engineering test data, formal evaluation, and operating experience that will be required for these demonstration systems to become accepted by EPA and deployable in waste treatment facilities. The deployment will also demonstrate how to approach the permitting process with the regulatory agencies and how to operate and maintain the processes in a safe manner. This document describes, at a high level, how the facility will be designed and operated to achieve this mission. It frequently refers the reader to additional documentation that provides more detail in specific areas. Effective evaluation of a technology consists of a variety of informal and formal demonstrations involving individual technology systems or subsystems, integrated technology system combinations, or complete integrated treatment trains. Informal demonstrations will typically be used to gather general operating information and to establish a basis for development of formal demonstration plans. Formal demonstrations consist of a specific series of tests that are used to rigorously demonstrate the operation or performance of a specific system configuration.

  8. A mathematical basis for the design and design optimization of adaptive trusses in precision control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, S. K.; Utku, S.; Chen, G.-S.; Wada, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical basis for the optimal design of adaptive trusses to be used in supporting precision equipment is provided. The general theory of adaptive structures is introduced, and the global optimization problem of placing a limited number, q, of actuators, so as to maximally achieve precision control and provide prestress, is stated. Two serialized optimization problems, namely, optimal actuator placement for prestress and optimal actuator placement for precision control, are addressed. In the case of prestressing, the computation of a 'desired' prestress is discussed, the interaction between actuators and redundants in conveying the prestress is shown in its mathematical form, and a methodology for arriving at the optimal placement of actuators and additional redundants is discussed. With regard to precision control, an optimal placement scheme (for q actuators) for maximum 'authority' over the precision points is suggested. The results of the two serialized optimization problems are combined to give a suboptimal solution to the global optimization problem. A method for improving this suboptimal actuator placement scheme by iteration is presented.

  9. Stereotype Threat.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  10. Safeguards and security by design (SSBD) for the domestic threat - theft and sabotage

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott F; Mullen, Mark

    2011-10-05

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is receiving significant interest with respect to international safeguards objectives. However, less attention has been focused on the equally important topic of domestic Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD), which addresses requirements such as those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. While international safeguards are concerned with detecting State diversion of nuclear material from peaceful to nuclear explosives purposes, domestic Material Protection, Control and Accounting measures (MPC&A) are focused on non-State theft and sabotage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' This same concept is equally applicable to SSBD for domestic requirements. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a project through its Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and more specifically its Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, to develop a domestic SSBD discipline and methodology in parallel with similar efforts sponsored by the DOE Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the IAEA for international safeguards. This activity includes the participation of industry (through DOE-sponsored contracts) and DOE National Laboratories. This paper will identify the key domestic safeguards and security requirements (i.e. MC&A and physical protection) and explain how and why Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) is important and beneficial for the design of future US nuclear energy systems.

  11. 10 CFR 72.94 - Design basis external man-induced events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design basis external man-induced events. 72.94 Section 72.94 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.94 Design...

  12. 10 CFR 72.94 - Design basis external man-induced events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design basis external man-induced events. 72.94 Section 72.94 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.94 Design...

  13. 10 CFR 72.94 - Design basis external man-induced events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design basis external man-induced events. 72.94 Section 72.94 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.94 Design...

  14. 10 CFR 72.94 - Design basis external man-induced events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design basis external man-induced events. 72.94 Section 72.94 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.94 Design...

  15. Threats and vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present a review of threats and vulnerabilities that could afflict society and individuals in the AmI world in the context of the key policy issues of privacy, identity, trust, security and digital divide. We define a threat as the potential for one or more unwanted consequences caused by a circumstance, capability, action or event that could be harmful to a system or person. Threats can be caused naturally, accidentally or intentionally. In essence, a threat is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in a system's design, its implementation, operation or management that could be exploited to violate the system and, consequently, cause a threat. Vulnerabilities may have different dimensions: technical, functional or behavioural.1

  16. 77 FR 64564 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY....221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles.'' The purpose of this ISG is to supplement the guidance regarding the application of Regulatory Guide 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and...

  17. Current trends in pharmacy benefit designs: a threat to disease management in chronic complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gary; Emons, Matthew F; Christian-Herman, Jennifer; Lawless, Grant

    2007-04-01

    With a focus on those patients who are candidates for treatment with biologic agents, we review the impact that current pharmacy benefit trends have on patients with chronic complex diseases and how they affect opportunities for disease management in this unique patient population. Dramatic increases in health care costs have led to a variety of strategies to manage cost. Many of these strategies either limit access to care or increase the patient's responsibility for choosing and paying for care, especially for medications. These strategies have a disproportionate impact on patients with chronic complex diseases, particularly those who require the use of biologic medications. A fundamental prerequisite of disease management has been coverage of disease-modifying therapies. If current pharmacy benefit trends continue, unintended consequences will likely occur including lost opportunities for disease management. Current pharmacy benefit trends could adversely impact disease management, particularly for patients requiring the use of biologic agents. Health plans should consider innovative benefit designs that reflect an appropriate level of cost sharing across all key stake-holders, ensuring appropriate access to needed therapies. Additional research is needed to clarify the value of newer approaches to therapies or benefit design changes.

  18. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  19. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  20. Reconfigurable Flight Control Design using a Robust Servo LQR and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of a Robust Servo Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and a Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network in reconfigurable flight control designs in adaptation to a aircraft part failure. The method uses a robust LQR servomechanism design with model Reference adaptive control, and RBF neural networks. During the failure the LQR servomechanism behaved well, and using the neural networks improved the tracking.

  1. NDARC-NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft Theoretical Basis and Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical basis and architecture of the conceptual design tool NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) are described. The principal tasks of NDARC are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of off-design missions and point operating conditions. The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated. The aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. NDARC provides a capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and attributes of advanced rotor concepts. The software has been implemented with low-fidelity models, typical of the conceptual design environment. Incorporation of higher-fidelity models will be possible, as the architecture of the code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization.

  2. Design considerations and performance characteristics of AirSentinel: a new UV-LIF bio-aerosol threat detection trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFreez, Richard; Merrill, Ezra; Albanna, Sam; Davis, Bert; Call, Charles

    2005-10-01

    AirSentinel® is a new low cost, compact ultraviolet-based light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) bio-aerosol threat detection trigger. Earlier UV-LIF triggers, for example, FLAPS, BARTS, BAWS, Bioni, and BioLert, have used UV laser sources to induce fluorescence of biological aerosols. Two recent developments from the DARPA MTO SUVOS program, BAST and TAC-BIO, use UV LEDs for the same purpose, thereby broadening the term UV-LIF to mean laser or LED induced autofluorescence. All of these earlier triggers interrogate aerosols on a particle-by-particle basis on- the-fly. The major trade-off for these instruments is cost, size, and complexity versus counting efficiency (probability of detection) with the lower size end of the respirable range being most difficult to detect. AirSentinel® employs a different approach to UV-LIF detection: aerosol concentration by collection on a surface, surface interrogation, and surface rejuvenation prior to repeated concentration and interrogation cycles. Aerosol particle concentration via impaction on a surface addresses the issue of small particle counting efficiency since the fluorescence from the sum of the particles is the sum of the fluorescence signals from the collected particles, typically hundreds or thousands in number. Surface interrogation for a LIF signal is accomplished by illumination with a 280 nm and/or a 365 nm LED. As expected, test results show better relative detection performance using 280 nm excitation LEDs for bio-toxin simulants and somewhat better performance at 365 nm for standard Bacillus globigii spore targets. AirSentinel® beta technology is currently in long term testing in a number of public and other government buildings.

  3. Comparison of CRBR design-basis events with those of foreign LMFBR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.

    1983-04-01

    As part of the Construction Permit (CP) review of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBR), the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked to compare the Design Basis Accidents that are considered in CRBR Preliminary Safety Analysis Report with those of the foreign contemporary plants (PHENIX, SUPER-PHENIX, SNR-300, PFR, and MONJU). A brief introductory review of any special or unusual characteristics of these plants is given. This is followed by discussions of the design basis accidents and their acceptance criteria. In spite of some discrepancies due either to semantics or to licensing decisions, there appears to be a considerable degree of unanimity in the selection (definition) of DBAs in all of these plants.

  4. Ground motion following selection of SRS design basis earthquake and associated deterministic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a deterministic assessment of earthquake ground motions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The purpose of this study is to assist the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Laboratory in reevaluating the design basis earthquake (DBE) ground motion at SRS during approaches defined in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This work is in support of the Seismic Engineering Section's Seismic Qualification Program for reactor restart.

  5. AP1000 Design Basis Event Simulation at the APEX-1000 Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Richard F.; Groome, John

    2004-07-01

    The AP1000 is a 1000 MWe advanced nuclear power plant that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 relies heavily on the 600 MWe AP600 which received design certification in 1999. A critical part of the AP600 design certification process involved the testing of the passive safety systems. A one-fourth height, one-fourth pressure test facility, APEX-600, was constructed at the Oregon State University to study design basis events, and to provide a body of data to be used to validate the computer models used to analyze the AP600. This facility was extensively modified to reflect the design changes for AP1000 including higher power in the electrically heated rods representing the reactor core, and changes in the size of the pressurizer, core makeup tanks and automatic depressurization system. Several design basis events are being simulated at APEX-1000 including a double-ended direct vessel injection (DEDVI) line break and a 2-inch cold leg break. These tests show that the core remains covered with ample margin until gravity injection is established regardless of the initiating event. The tests also show that liquid entrainment from the upper plenum which is proportional to the reactor power does not impact the ability of the passive core cooling system to keep the core covered. (authors)

  6. Reducing Uncertainty in the Seismic Design Basis for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Reidel, S.P.; Gardner, M.G.

    2007-07-01

    The seismic design basis for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland was re-evaluated in 2005, resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. The original seismic design basis for the WTP was established in 1999 based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The 2005 analysis was performed to address questions raised by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) about the assumptions used in developing the original seismic criteria and adequacy of the site geotechnical surveys. The updated seismic response analysis used existing and newly acquired seismic velocity data, statistical analysis, expert elicitation, and ground motion simulation to develop interim design ground motion response spectra which enveloped the remaining uncertainties. The uncertainties in these response spectra were enveloped at approximately the 84. percentile to produce conservative design spectra, which contributed significantly to the increase in the seismic design basis. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analysis was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The velocity structure of the upper four basalt flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) and the inter-layered sedimentary interbeds (Ellensburg Formation) produces strong reductions in modeled earthquake ground motions propagating through them. Uncertainty in the strength of velocity contrasts between these basalts and interbeds primarily resulted from an absence of measured shear wave velocities (Vs) in the interbeds. For this study, Vs in the interbeds was estimated from older, limited compressional wave velocity (Vp) data using estimated ranges for the ratio of the two velocities (Vp/Vs) based on analogues in similar materials. A range of possible Vs for the interbeds and basalts was used and produced additional uncertainty in the resulting response spectra. Because of the

  7. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic

  8. Game Theoretic Evaluation of Threat Detection Problems-The Central Role of the Adversary

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of security problems hinge on the detection of threats and discrimination of threats from innocuous objects. The theory that frames these problems is common among medical diagnostics, radar and sonar imaging, and detection of radiological, chemical, and biological agents. In many of these problems, the nature of the threat is subject to control by a malicious adversary, and the choice of a reference (or "design basis") threat is a very diffcult, and often intractable, aspect of the problem. It is this class of problems that this report considers.

  9. Demonstrating Structural Adequacy of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures for Beyond Design-Basis Pressure Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.I.; Morante, R.

    2010-07-18

    ABSTRACT Demonstrating the structural integrity of U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) containment structures, for beyond design-basis internal pressure loadings, is necessary to satisfy Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements and performance goals. This paper discusses methods for demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment for beyond design-basis pressure loadings. Three distinct evaluations are addressed: (1) estimating the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structure (10 CFR 50 and US NRC Standard Review Plan, Section 3.8) ; (2) demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment subjected to pressure loadings associated with combustible gas generation (10 CFR 52 and 10 CFR 50); and (3) demonstrating the containment structural integrity for severe accidents (10 CFR 52 as well as SECY 90-016, SECY 93-087, and related NRC staff requirements memoranda (SRMs)). The paper describes the technical basis for specific aspects of the methods presented. It also presents examples of past issues identified in licensing activities related to these evaluations.

  10. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume IV. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  11. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  12. Improving variable-fidelity modelling by exploring global design space and radial basis function networks for aerofoil design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyan, Maxim; Van Nguyen, Nhu; Lee, Jae-Woo

    2015-07-01

    The global variable-fidelity modelling (GVFM) method presented in this article extends the original variable-complexity modelling (VCM) algorithm that uses a low-fidelity and scaling function to approximate a high-fidelity function for efficiently solving design-optimization problems. GVFM uses the design of experiments to sample values of high- and low-fidelity functions to explore global design space and to initialize a scaling function using the radial basis function (RBF) network. This approach makes it possible to remove high-fidelity-gradient evaluation from the process, which makes GVFM more efficient than VCM for high-dimensional design problems. The proposed algorithm converges with 65% fewer high-fidelity function calls for a one-dimensional problem than VCM and approximately 80% fewer for a two-dimensional numerical problem. The GVFM method is applied for the design optimization of transonic and subsonic aerofoils. Both aerofoil design problems show design improvement with a reasonable number of high- and low-fidelity function evaluations.

  13. Technical Basis for Certification of Seismic Design Criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Youngs, R.R.; Costantino, C.J.; Miller, L.F.

    2008-07-01

    In August 2007, Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman approved the final seismic and ground motion criteria for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Construction of the WTP began in 2002 based on seismic design criteria established in 1999 and a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The design criteria were reevaluated in 2005 to address questions from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. DOE announced in 2006 the suspension of construction on the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities within the WTP to validate the design with more stringent seismic criteria. In 2007, the U.S. Congress mandated that the Secretary of Energy certify the final seismic and ground motion criteria prior to expenditure of funds on construction of these two facilities. With the Secretary's approval of the final seismic criteria in the summer of 2007, DOE authorized restart of construction of the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities. The technical basis for the certification of seismic design criteria resulted from a two-year Seismic Boreholes Project that planned, collected, and analyzed geological data from four new boreholes drilled to depths of approximately 1400 feet below ground surface on the WTP site. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analyses was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The absence of directly-measured seismic shear wave velocities in the sedimentary interbeds resulted in the use of a wider and more conservative range of velocities in the 2005 analyses. The Seismic Boreholes Project was designed to directly measure the velocities and velocity contrasts in the basalts and sediments below the WTP, reanalyze the ground motion response, and assess the level of conservatism in the 2005 seismic design criteria

  14. 78 FR 31614 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... 2007 (ML070630003). On October 22, 2012 (77 FR 64564), the staff issued the proposed DC/COL-ISG-024... COMMISSION Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY....221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants,'' in support of...

  15. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Payne; V. W. Gorman; S. A. Jensen; M. E. Nitzel; M. J. Russell; R. P. Smith

    2000-03-01

    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.

  16. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  17. Adaptive critic autopilot design of bank-to-turn missiles using fuzzy basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuan-Kai

    2005-04-01

    A new adaptive critic autopilot design for bank-to-turn missiles is presented. In this paper, the architecture of adaptive critic learning scheme contains a fuzzy-basis-function-network based associative search element (ASE), which is employed to approximate nonlinear and complex functions of bank-to-turn missiles, and an adaptive critic element (ACE) generating the reinforcement signal to tune the associative search element. In the design of the adaptive critic autopilot, the control law receives signals from a fixed gain controller, an ASE and an adaptive robust element, which can eliminate approximation errors and disturbances. Traditional adaptive critic reinforcement learning is the problem faced by an agent that must learn behavior through trial-and-error interactions with a dynamic environment, however, the proposed tuning algorithm can significantly shorten the learning time by online tuning all parameters of fuzzy basis functions and weights of ASE and ACE. Moreover, the weight updating law derived from the Lyapunov stability theory is capable of guaranteeing both tracking performance and stability. Computer simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive critic autopilot.

  18. Design of chemical space networks on the basis of Tversky similarity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengjun; Vogt, Martin; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Chemical space networks (CSNs) have been introduced as a coordinate-free representation of chemical space. In CSNs, nodes represent compounds and edges pairwise similarity relationships. These network representations are mostly used to navigate sections of biologically relevant chemical space. Different types of CSNs have been designed on the basis of alternative similarity measures including continuous numerical similarity values or substructure-based similarity criteria. CSNs can be characterized and compared on the basis of statistical concepts from network science. Herein, a new CSN design is introduced that is based upon asymmetric similarity assessment using the Tversky coefficient and termed TV-CSN. Compared to other CSNs, TV-CSNs have unique features. While CSNs typically contain separate compound communities and exhibit small world character, many TV-CSNs are also scale-free in nature and contain hubs, i.e., extensively connected central compounds. Compared to other CSNs, these hubs are a characteristic of TV-CSN topology. Hub-containing compound communities are of particular interest for the exploration of structure-activity relationships.

  19. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  20. Experimental study of a cylindrical air inlet designed on the basis of plane flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vnuchkov, D. A.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Nalivaichenko, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    Results of an experimental study of a cylindrical air inlet designed for high flight speeds on the basis of plane flows are reported. For an air inlet intended for Mach number M = 4, the flow-rate characteristics at M = 2.85, 3.83, and 4.95 for angles of attack ranging from 0 to 9 degrees have been measured. The results of tests have shown that at free-stream Mach number M = 3.83, close to the design Mach number, the mass rate of the air flow captured by the air inlet was 96 % of its design value, and this rate increased to 99 % as the Mach number was increased to 4.95. At a lower, in comparison with the design value, free-stream Mach number, M = 2.85, the mass rate of the air flow captured by the inlet installed under zero angle of attack has decreased to 68 %. For all the examined Mach numbers, an increase in the angle of attack from 0 to 9 degrees resulted in an 8-14 % decrease of the mass rate of inlet-captured air flow. For comparison, numerical calculation of the air-inlet flow at Mach number M = 3.83 was performed. The obtained data were found to be in a qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  1. Post Test Analysis of a PCCV Model Dynamically Tested Under Simulated Design-Basis Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.; Chokshi, N.; James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Tsurumaki, S.; Zhang, L.

    1998-11-09

    In a collaborative program between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan under sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Ihdustry, the seismic behavior of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels (PCCV) is being investigated. A 1:10 scale PCCV model has been constructed by NUPEC and subjected to seismic simulation tests using the high performance shaking table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory. A primary objective of the testing program is to demonstrate the capability of the PCCV to withstand design basis earthquakes with a significant safety margin against major damage or failure. As part of the collaborative program, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting research in state-of-the-art analytical methods for predicting the seismic behavior of PCCV structures, with the eventual goal of understanding, validating, and improving calculations dated to containment structure performance under design and severe seismic events. With the increased emphasis on risk-informed- regulatory focus, more accurate ch&@erization (less uncertainty) of containment structural and functional integri~ is desirable. This paper presents results of post-test calculations conducted at ANATECH to simulate the design level scale model tests.

  2. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters during and after design basis accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.; Gilbert, H.; Jacox, J.W.

    1994-12-01

    We have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data.

  3. Maximal design basis accident of fusion neutron source DEMO-TIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    When analyzing the safety of nuclear (including fusion) facilities, the maximal design basis accident at which the largest release of activity is expected must certainly be considered. Such an accident is usually the failure of cooling systems of the most thermally stressed components of a reactor (for a fusion facility, it is the divertor or the first wall). The analysis of safety of the ITER reactor and fusion power facilities (including hybrid fission-fusion facilities) shows that the initial event of such a design basis accident is a large-scale break of a pipe in the cooling system of divertor or the first wall outside the vacuum vessel of the facility. The greatest concern is caused by the possibility of hydrogen formation and the inrush of air into the vacuum chamber (VC) with the formation of a detonating mixture and a subsequent detonation explosion. To prevent such an explosion, the emergency forced termination of the fusion reaction, the mounting of shutoff valves in the cooling systems of the divertor and the first wall or blanket for reducing to a minimum the amount of water and air rushing into the VC, the injection of nitrogen or inert gas into the VC for decreasing the hydrogen and oxygen concentration, and other measures are recommended. Owing to a continuous feed-out of the molten-salt fuel mixture from the DEMO-TIN blanket with the removal period of 10 days, the radioactivity release at the accident will mainly be determined by tritium (up to 360 PBq). The activity of fission products in the facility will be up to 50 PBq.

  4. Maximal design basis accident of fusion neutron source DEMO-TIN

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2015-12-15

    When analyzing the safety of nuclear (including fusion) facilities, the maximal design basis accident at which the largest release of activity is expected must certainly be considered. Such an accident is usually the failure of cooling systems of the most thermally stressed components of a reactor (for a fusion facility, it is the divertor or the first wall). The analysis of safety of the ITER reactor and fusion power facilities (including hybrid fission–fusion facilities) shows that the initial event of such a design basis accident is a large-scale break of a pipe in the cooling system of divertor or the first wall outside the vacuum vessel of the facility. The greatest concern is caused by the possibility of hydrogen formation and the inrush of air into the vacuum chamber (VC) with the formation of a detonating mixture and a subsequent detonation explosion. To prevent such an explosion, the emergency forced termination of the fusion reaction, the mounting of shutoff valves in the cooling systems of the divertor and the first wall or blanket for reducing to a minimum the amount of water and air rushing into the VC, the injection of nitrogen or inert gas into the VC for decreasing the hydrogen and oxygen concentration, and other measures are recommended. Owing to a continuous feed-out of the molten-salt fuel mixture from the DEMO-TIN blanket with the removal period of 10 days, the radioactivity release at the accident will mainly be determined by tritium (up to 360 PBq). The activity of fission products in the facility will be up to 50 PBq.

  5. Application of the MELCOR code to design basis PWR large dry containment analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jesse; Notafrancesco, Allen; Tills, Jack Lee

    2009-05-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under USNRC sponsorship to provide capability for independently auditing analyses submitted by reactor manufactures and utilities. MELCOR is a fully integrated code (encompassing the reactor coolant system and the containment building) that models the progression of postulated accidents in light water reactor power plants. To assess the adequacy of containment thermal-hydraulic modeling incorporated in the MELCOR code for application to PWR large dry containments, several selected demonstration designs were analyzed. This report documents MELCOR code demonstration calculations performed for postulated design basis accident (DBA) analysis (LOCA and MSLB) inside containment, which are compared to other code results. The key processes when analyzing the containment loads inside PWR large dry containments are (1) expansion and transport of high mass/energy releases, (2) heat and mass transfer to structural passive heat sinks, and (3) containment pressure reduction due to engineered safety features. A code-to-code benchmarking for DBA events showed that MELCOR predictions of maximum containment loads were equivalent to similar predictions using a qualified containment code known as CONTAIN. This equivalency was found to apply for both single- and multi-cell containment models.

  6. Approach to designing rotating drum bioreactors for solid-state fermentation on the basis of dimensionless design factors.

    PubMed

    Hardin, M T; Mitchell, D A; Howes, T

    2000-02-01

    The development of large-scale solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes is hampered by the lack of simple tools for the design of SSF bioreactors. The use of semifundamental mathematical models to design and operate SSF bioreactors can be complex. In this work, dimensionless design factors are used to predict the effects of scale and of operational variables on the performance of rotating drum bioreactors. The dimensionless design factor (DDF) is a ratio of the rate of heat generation to the rate of heat removal at the time of peak heat production. It can be used to predict maximum temperatures reached within the substrate bed for given operational variables. Alternatively, given the maximum temperature that can be tolerated during the fermentation, it can be used to explore the combinations of operating variables that prevent that temperature from being exceeded. Comparison of the predictions of the DDF approach with literature data for operation of rotating drums suggests that the DDF is a useful tool. The DDF approach was used to explore the consequences of three scale-up strategies on the required air flow rates and maximum temperatures achieved in the substrate bed as the bioreactor size was increased on the basis of geometric similarity. The first of these strategies was to maintain the superficial flow rate of the process air through the drum constant. The second was to maintain the ratio of volumes of air per volume of bioreactor constant. The third strategy was to adjust the air flow rate with increase in scale in such a manner as to maintain constant the maximum temperature attained in the substrate bed during the fermentation. PMID:10620257

  7. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)

    SciTech Connect

    , R

    2005-12-14

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  8. Simulation of a beyond design-basis-accident with RELAP5/MOD3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Banati, J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses, parametric and sensitivity studies, performed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 computer code for the 4th IAEA Standard Problem Exercise (SPE-4). The test, conducted on the PMK-2 facility in Budapest, involved simulation of a Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 7.4% break in the cold leg of a VVER-440 type pressurized water reactor. According to the scenario, the unavailability of the high pressure injection system led to a beyond design basis accident. For prevention of core damage, secondary side bleed-and-feed accident management measures were applied. A brief description of the PMK-2 integral type test facility is presented, together with the profile and some key phenomenological aspects of this particular experiment. Emphasis is placed on the ability of the code to predict the main trends observed in the test and thus, an assessment is given for the code capabilities to represent the system transient.

  9. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

  10. Design of radial basis function neural network classifier realized with the aid of data preprocessing techniques: design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sung-Kwun; Kim, Wook-Dong; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new architecture of optimized Radial Basis Function neural network classifier developed with the aid of fuzzy clustering and data preprocessing techniques and discuss its comprehensive design methodology. In the preprocessing part, the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) or Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm forms a front end of the network. The transformed data produced here are used as the inputs of the network. In the premise part, the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm determines the receptive field associated with the condition part of the rules. The connection weights of the classifier are of functional nature and come as polynomial functions forming the consequent part. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm optimizes a number of essential parameters needed to improve the accuracy of the classifier. Those optimized parameters include the type of data preprocessing, the dimensionality of the feature vectors produced by the LDA (or PCA), the number of clusters (rules), the fuzzification coefficient used in the FCM algorithm and the orders of the polynomials of networks. The performance of the proposed classifier is reported for several benchmarking data-sets and is compared with the performance of other classifiers reported in the previous studies.

  11. Threat driven modeling framework using petri nets for e-learning system.

    PubMed

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities at various levels are main cause of security risks in e-learning system. This paper presents a modified threat driven modeling framework, to identify the threats after risk assessment which requires mitigation and how to mitigate those threats. To model those threat mitigations aspects oriented stochastic petri nets are used. This paper included security metrics based on vulnerabilities present in e-learning system. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System designed to provide a normalized method for rating vulnerabilities which will be used as basis in metric definitions and calculations. A case study has been also proposed which shows the need and feasibility of using aspect oriented stochastic petri net models for threat modeling which improves reliability, consistency and robustness of the e-learning system. PMID:27119050

  12. Threat driven modeling framework using petri nets for e-learning system.

    PubMed

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities at various levels are main cause of security risks in e-learning system. This paper presents a modified threat driven modeling framework, to identify the threats after risk assessment which requires mitigation and how to mitigate those threats. To model those threat mitigations aspects oriented stochastic petri nets are used. This paper included security metrics based on vulnerabilities present in e-learning system. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System designed to provide a normalized method for rating vulnerabilities which will be used as basis in metric definitions and calculations. A case study has been also proposed which shows the need and feasibility of using aspect oriented stochastic petri net models for threat modeling which improves reliability, consistency and robustness of the e-learning system.

  13. Proceedings of the information exchange workshop: Design basis floods, March 20, 1990, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, W.R.; Lee, D.W. )

    1990-09-01

    An information exchange workshop was held on March 20, 1990, at the K-25 Plant to discuss Design Basis Floods (DBFLs) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PAD) as required by the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Upgrade Program. The attendees consisted of representatives of the Department of Energy (DOE)-Headquarters, DOE-Oak Ridge Operations, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and recognized experts in the flood evaluation field from Jack R. Benjamin and Associates (JRBA), the Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The principal goal of this workshop was to develop a consensus approach for defining the DBFL for PAD, based on information and direction from the team of experts assembled and DOE and Energy Systems representatives. To accomplish this, the applicable DOE order and related guidance documents were addressed and discussed for application to PAD. The representatives from JRBA, COE, and TVA made technical presentations that summarized flood-evalutation techniques. These presentations portrayed several different points of view for evaluating extreme flooding events. The JRBA approach is based on probabilistic methods. The approaches used by COE and TVA are based on deterministic methods. Both COE and TVA recognized Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) as a very extreme, deterministic flooding event. A discussion focused around the possiblity of defining (postulating) the PMF for the portion of the Ohio River Basin that would affect PAD. The representitive from JRBA expressed some technical concerns pertaining to a PMF approach. Several Energy Systems representatives felt that if a PMF were postulated for PAD, the calculated maximum flood stage would probably remain below plant grade. 30 figs.

  14. Multiple-site replacement analogs of glucagon. A molecular basis for antagonist design.

    PubMed

    Unson, C G; Wu, C R; Fitzpatrick, K J; Merrifield, R B

    1994-04-29

    Extensive structure activity analysis has allowed us to identify specific residues in the glucagon sequence that are responsible for either receptor recognition or signal transduction. For instance, we have demonstrated that aspartic acid 9 and histidine 1 are essential for activation, and that an ionic interaction between the negative carboxylate and the protonated imidazole may contribute to the activation reaction at the molecular level. In the absence of the carboxylic group at position 9, aspartic 21 or aspartic 15 might furnish distal electrostatic effects to maintain partial agonism. Further investigation established that each of the 4 serine residues in the hormone play distinct roles. Serine 8 provides an important determinant of binding. Whereas neither serines 2, 11, nor 16 are required for receptor recognition. We have shown that serine 16 is essential for signal transduction and thus have identified it to be the third residue in glucagon to participate in a putative catalytic triad together with aspartic 9 and histidine 1, in the transduction of the glucagon response. In this work, we utilized insights into the functional significance of particular residues in the peptide appropriated from our structure-function assignments, as the basis of a molecular approach for the design of active-site directed antagonists of glucagon. The importance as well as the accuracy of our findings are confirmed by the synthesis of a series of improved glucagon antagonists based on replacements at positions 1, 9, 11, 16, and 21. The inhibition index, (I/A)50, of our best antagonist des-His1-[Nle9-Ala11-Ala16]glucagon amide, has been improved 10-fold over the previous best glucagon inhibitor. PMID:8175663

  15. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat…

  16. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling all members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat…

  17. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  18. Implementation of an Industrial-Based Case Study as the Basis for a Design Project in an Introduction to Mechanical Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of an industrial-based case study as the basis for a design project for the Spring 2009 Introduction to Mechanical Design Course at the University of Mississippi. Course surveys documented the lack of student exposure in classes to the types of projects typically experienced by engineers…

  19. Transportation Package Seal Performance in Beyond Design Basis Thermal Exposures - 12472

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Felix; Bajwa, Christopher; Easton, Earl; Einziger, Robert; Yang, Jiann; Hnetkovsky, Edward

    2012-07-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) technical report, NUREG/CR-6886, 'Spent Fuel Transportation Package Response to the Baltimore Tunnel Fire Scenario', describes, in detail, an evaluation of the potential for a theoretical release of radioactive material from three different spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation packages, had they been exposed to the Baltimore tunnel fire that occurred in July of 2001. This evaluation determined the temperatures of various components of the packages, including the seals, using temperatures resulting from models of the Baltimore tunnel fire (as boundary conditions) and finite element models of the SNF packages. For two of the packages evaluated, the analyses indicated that the seals used would have exceeded their continuous-use rated service temperatures, meaning the release of radioactive material could not be ruled out with available information; However, for both of the packages evaluated, the analysis determined, by a bounding calculation, that the maximum potential release was well below the regulatory requirements for releases from a SNF package during the hypothetical accident condition (HAC) sequence of events in 10CFR Part 71. The NRC is investigating the performance of seals in SNF transportation packages exposed to fires that could exceed the HAC fire described in 10CFR Part 71, such as the Baltimore Tunnel Fire that occurred in 2001. The performance of package seals is important for determining the potential release of radioactive material from a package during a beyond-design-basis accident. The seals have lower temperature limits than other package components and are the containment barrier between the environment and the cask contents. The NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research contracted the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to conduct small-scale thermal testing to obtain experimental data of the performance of seals during extreme temperature exposures. The experimental testing

  20. On the structural and mechanistic basis of function, classification, and ligand design for 5-HT receptors.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, H; Osman, R

    1990-01-01

    . The recognition site is considered to consist of two aromatic residues separated by a hydrophilic residue. In contrast to the model for 5-HT1A, the recognition is based on the interaction of neutral molecules and the stabilization is provided by dispersion forces. The resulting activation mechanism is based on a structural rearrangement. These detailed descriptions of elements in the ligand-receptor interactions at the two receptor subtypes lead to a new basis for rational design of receptor-selective compounds with predetermined efficacy.

  1. Basis of Design and Seismic Action for Long Suspension Bridges: the case of the Messina Strait Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Bontempi, Franco

    2008-07-08

    The basis of design for complex structures like suspension bridges is reviewed. Specific attention is devoted to seismic action and to the performance required and to the connected structural analysis. Uncertainty is specially addressed by probabilistic and soft-computing techniques. The paper makes punctual reference to the work end the experience developed during the last years for the re-design of the Messina Strait Bridge.

  2. 75 FR 54918 - Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1247, “Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... August 31, 2010 (75 FR 53352), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published a notice of... missile velocities must also be defined. The NRC commissioned a report, NUREG/CR 7004, on design-basis hurricane-borne missile velocities. This report describes the method used to calculate velocities...

  3. An Expert System For Multispectral Threat Assessment And Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Alan N.

    1987-05-01

    A concept has been defined for an automatic system to manage the self-defense of a combat aircraft. Distinctive new features of this concept include: a. the flexible prioritization of tasks and coordinated use of sensor, countermeasures, flight systems and weapons assets by means of an automated planning function; b. the integration of state-of-the-art data fusion algorithms with event prediction processing; c. the use of advanced Artificial Intelligence tools to emulate the decision processes of tactical EW experts. Threat Assessment functions (a) estimate threat identity, lethality and intent on the basis of multi-spectral sensor data, and (b) predict the time to critical events in threat engagements (e.g., target acquisition, tracking, weapon launch, impact). Response Management functions (a) select candidate responses to reported threat situations; (b) estimate the effects of candidate actions on survival; and (c) coordinate the assignment of sensors, weapons and countermeasures with the flight plan. The system employs Finite State Models to represent current engagements and to predict subsequent events. Each state in a model is associated with a set of observable features, allowing interpretation of sensor data and adaptive use of sensor assets. Defined conditions on state transitions allow prediction of times to critical future states and are used in planning self-defensive responses, which are designed either to impede a particular state transition or to force a transition to a lower threat state.

  4. Optical design and tolerancing of freeform surfaces using anisotropic radial basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    We investigate use of the anisotropic radial basis functions expansion as a means to represent surface errors on aspheric and freeform surfaces. We show how the optimal choice of the shape parameter and the placement of radial basis function (RBF) nodes can increase accuracy of the surface approximation. We show an example of the adaptive grid refinement. In our approach, complex surfaces are modeled with general arbitrary representation while the anisotropic RBFs expansion models perturbation of the base surface. We show how both the global and the localized surface errors can be modeled across a wide spatial frequency range. With our method, the impact of the structured surface errors on the arbitrary surfaces when applied on the standardized image quality metrics can be assessed for the purpose of optical tolerancing.

  5. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Praga, A.N.

    1998-01-08

    Revisions 0 and 0A of this document provided estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories of spent nuclear fuel and sludge currently stored within the Hanford Site`s 105-K Basins. This Revision (Rev. 1) incorporates the following changes into Revision 0A: (1) updates the tables to reflect: improved cross section data, a decision to use accountability data as the basis for total Pu, a corrected methodology for selection of the heat generation basis fee, and a revised decay date; (2) adds section 3.3.3.1 to expand the description of the approach used to calculate the inventory values and explain why that approach yields conservative results; (3) changes the pre-irradiation braze beryllium value.

  6. Design solutions for water treatment plants constructed on the basis of membrane technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, A. A.; Ryabchikov, B. E.; Zhadan, A. V.; Khoruzhii, O. V.

    2012-07-01

    Two process circuits for demineralizing makeup water for power units at thermal power stations are considered. One of them is constructed on the basis of a combined plant comprising reverse-osmosis and ion-exchange apparatuses and the other comprises reverse-osmosis and electric deionization apparatuses. The considered circuits are analyzed by way of comparing them with the traditional chemical water demineralization system. Advantages and drawbacks of the new technologies for treating natural water are pointed out.

  7. Basis of Accreditation for Educational Programs in Designated Health Science Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Medical Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed as a guide to accreditation for educational programs in designated health science professions in Canada, this report provides educators with guidelines, general requirements, and requirements for specific programs. Following information on the organization, structure, goals, mission, values, philosophy, and terminology of accreditation of…

  8. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility worst-case design-basis accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sharirli, M.; Butner, J.M.; Rand, J.L.; Macek, R.J. ); McKinney, S.J. ); Roush, M.L. . Center for Reliability Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results from a Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering and Safety Analysis Group assessment of the worse-case design-basis accident associated with the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)/Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility. The primary goal of the analysis was to quantify the accident sequences that result in personnel radiation exposure in the WNR Experimental Hall following the worst-case design-basis accident, a complete spill of the LAMPF accelerator 1L beam. This study also provides information regarding the roles of hardware systems and operators in these sequences, and insights regarding the areas where improvements can increase facility-operation safety. Results also include confidence ranges to incorporate combined effects of uncertainties in probability estimates and importance measures to determine how variations in individual events affect the frequencies in accident sequences.

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility worst-case design-basis accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sharirli, M.; Butner, J.M.; Rand, J.L.; Macek, R.J.; McKinney, S.J.; Roush, M.L.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents results from a Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering and Safety Analysis Group assessment of the worse-case design-basis accident associated with the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)/Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility. The primary goal of the analysis was to quantify the accident sequences that result in personnel radiation exposure in the WNR Experimental Hall following the worst-case design-basis accident, a complete spill of the LAMPF accelerator 1L beam. This study also provides information regarding the roles of hardware systems and operators in these sequences, and insights regarding the areas where improvements can increase facility-operation safety. Results also include confidence ranges to incorporate combined effects of uncertainties in probability estimates and importance measures to determine how variations in individual events affect the frequencies in accident sequences.

  10. Somatic mutations in PI3K[alpha]: Structural basis for enzyme activation and drug design

    SciTech Connect

    Gabelli, Sandra B.; Mandelker, Diana; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Vogelstein, Bert; Amzel, L. Mario

    2011-09-06

    The PI3K pathway is a communication hub coordinating critical cell functions including cell survival, cell growth, proliferation, motility and metabolism. Because PI3K{alpha} harbors recurrent somatic mutations resulting in gains of function in human cancers, it has emerged as an important drug target for many types of solid tumors. Various PI3K isoforms are also being evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for inflammation, heart disease, and hematological malignancies. Structural biology is providing insights into the flexibility of the PI3Ks, and providing basis for understanding the effects of mutations, drug resistance and specificity.

  11. Somatic Mutations in PI3Kalpha: Structural Basis for Enzyme Activation and Drug Design

    SciTech Connect

    S Gabelli; D Mandelker; O Schmidt-Kittler; B Vogelstein; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    The PI3K pathway is a communication hub coordinating critical cell functions including cell survival, cell growth, proliferation, motility and metabolism. Because PI3K{alpha} harbors recurrent somatic mutations resulting in gains of function in human cancers, it has emerged as an important drug target for many types of solid tumors. Various PI3K isoforms are also being evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for inflammation, heart disease, and hematological malignancies. Structural biology is providing insights into the flexibility of the PI3Ks, and providing basis for understanding the effects of mutations, drug resistance and specificity.

  12. Designing Smart Artifacts for Adaptive Mediation of Social Viscosity: Triadic Actor-Network Enactments as a Basis for Interaction Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamanca, Juan

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of ubiquitous computing, interaction design has broadened its object of inquiry into how smart computational artifacts inconspicuously act in people's everyday lives. Although user-centered design approaches remains useful for exploring how people cope with interactive systems, they cannot explain how this new breed of…

  13. Ground motion following selection of SRS design basis earthquake and associated deterministic approach. Final report: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a deterministic assessment of earthquake ground motions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The purpose of this study is to assist the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Laboratory in reevaluating the design basis earthquake (DBE) ground motion at SRS during approaches defined in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This work is in support of the Seismic Engineering Section`s Seismic Qualification Program for reactor restart.

  14. Mechatronic design of strongly nonlinear systems on a basis of three wheeled mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliński, Krzysztof J.; Buchholz, Cezary

    2015-02-01

    Remarkable grow in demand both of mobile platform operability performance and reduction of project leading time development encourage to apply modern algorithms and reliable engineering tools for the design process. The paper discusses the mechatronic design applied for the surveillance system based on the energy performance index algorithm. The exploited mechatronic techniques i.e. virtual prototyping, Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (HILS) and rapid prototyping on target object, supported by the LabVIEW, allowed for integration of the developed control system and strongly nonlinear mobile platform, built simultaneously for the research purposes. Mathematical complexity of on-line algorithm and sophisticated model description affected all the process design. In order to boost mobile platform performance and handle its real time motion surveillance the authors implemented the Real Time controller. The presented design approach allowed authors to achieve the highest level of a mobile platform performance and increased probability of the final concept success.

  15. Theoretical Basis of the Test-Negative Study Design for Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sheena G; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-09-01

    Influenza viruses undergo frequent antigenic changes. As a result, the viruses circulating change within and between seasons, and the composition of the influenza vaccine is updated annually. Thus, estimation of the vaccine's effectiveness is not constant across seasons. In order to provide annual estimates of the influenza vaccine's effectiveness, health departments have increasingly adopted the "test-negative design," using enhanced data from routine surveillance systems. In this design, patients presenting to participating general practitioners with influenza-like illness are swabbed for laboratory testing; those testing positive for influenza virus are defined as cases, and those testing negative form the comparison group. Data on patients' vaccination histories and confounder profiles are also collected. Vaccine effectiveness is estimated from the odds ratio comparing the odds of testing positive for influenza among vaccinated patients and unvaccinated patients, adjusting for confounders. The test-negative design is purported to reduce bias associated with confounding by health-care-seeking behavior and misclassification of cases. In this paper, we use directed acyclic graphs to characterize potential biases in studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness using the test-negative design. We show how studies using this design can avoid or minimize bias and where bias may be introduced with particular study design variations. PMID:27587721

  16. Theoretical Basis of the Test-Negative Study Design for Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sheena G; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-09-01

    Influenza viruses undergo frequent antigenic changes. As a result, the viruses circulating change within and between seasons, and the composition of the influenza vaccine is updated annually. Thus, estimation of the vaccine's effectiveness is not constant across seasons. In order to provide annual estimates of the influenza vaccine's effectiveness, health departments have increasingly adopted the "test-negative design," using enhanced data from routine surveillance systems. In this design, patients presenting to participating general practitioners with influenza-like illness are swabbed for laboratory testing; those testing positive for influenza virus are defined as cases, and those testing negative form the comparison group. Data on patients' vaccination histories and confounder profiles are also collected. Vaccine effectiveness is estimated from the odds ratio comparing the odds of testing positive for influenza among vaccinated patients and unvaccinated patients, adjusting for confounders. The test-negative design is purported to reduce bias associated with confounding by health-care-seeking behavior and misclassification of cases. In this paper, we use directed acyclic graphs to characterize potential biases in studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness using the test-negative design. We show how studies using this design can avoid or minimize bias and where bias may be introduced with particular study design variations.

  17. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Nonsteroidal Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Antagonists: Molecular Basis of FXR Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huang; Si, Pei; Wang, Lei; Xu, Yong; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Jin; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Weihua; Chen, Lili; Li, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism. Recently, several studies on the molecular basis of FXR antagonism have been reported. However, none of these studies employs an FXR antagonist with nonsteroidal scaffold. On the basis of our previously reported FXR antagonist with a trisubstituted isoxazole scaffold, a novel nonsteroidal FXR ligand was designed and used as a lead for structural modification. In total, 39 new trisubstituted isoxazole derivatives were designed and synthesized, which led to pharmacological profiles ranging from agonist to antagonist toward FXR. Notably, compound 5s (4'-[(3-{[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-(2-thienyl)isoxazol-4-yl]methoxy}-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid), containing a thienyl-substituted isoxazole ring, displayed the best antagonistic activity against FXR with good cellular potency (IC50 =12.2 ± 0.2 μM). Eventually, this compound was used as a probe in a molecular dynamics simulation assay. Our results allowed us to propose an essential molecular basis for FXR antagonism, which is consistent with a previously reported antagonistic mechanism; furthermore, E467 on H12 was found to be a hot-spot residue and may be important for the future design of nonsteroidal antagonists of FXR.

  18. Research on a UAV path planning method for ground observation based on threat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hao; Fan, Xing; Xia, Xuezhi; Lin, Linshu

    2008-12-01

    The path planning method is one of the main research directions in current UAV(unmanned aerial vehicle) technologies. In this paper we perform analyses on the adversarial environment which may be broken through during the UAV mission for ground observation, and carry out the grade classification according to the threat level. On the basis of genetic algorithm, the encoding method of dimension reduction and direct quantization is used to combine the threat value of each leg with the flight distance, so as to construct the fitness evaluation function based on the threat amount and design the algorithm. This method is proven to be able to converge effectively and quickly via the simulation experiments, which meet the threat restriction and applicability of UAV in route planning.

  19. Contribution to the United States position paper on sodium fires: Design basis and testing

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, J.D.

    1988-06-01

    There were four large-scale sodium fire tests completed to provide a data base for computer code validation; three for the ABCOVE program and one for the SOFICOV program. The purpose of the ABCOVE program is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of existing aerosol behavior computer codes to describe inherent aerosol attenuation in containment buildings during postulated accidents. The program involves both analytical calculations by code developers and users, and large-scale confirmatory tests in the 850-m/sup 3/ containment vessel of the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. A key element of both programs is that all code calculations are made without knowledge of the experimental results, and thus, provide a true measure of the code capabilities without benefit of post-test fitting.

  20. Physics basis for an axicell design for the end plugs of MFTF-B

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-04-21

    The primary motivation for conversion of MFTF-B to an axicell configuration lies in its engineering promise as a reactor geometry based on circular high-magnetic-field coils. In comparing this configuration to the previous A-cell geometry, we find a number of differences that might significantly affect the physics performance. The purpose of the present document is to examine those features and to assess their impact on the performance of the axicell, as compared to the A-cell configuration, for MFTF-B. In so doing, we address only those issues thought to be affected by the change in geometry and refer to the original report Physics Basis for MFTF-B, for discussion of those issues thought not to be affected. In Sec. 1, we summarize these physics issues. In Sec. 2, we describe operating scenarios in the new configuration. In the Appendices, we discuss those physics issues that require more detailed treatment.

  1. Molecular design of performance proteins with repetitive sequences: recombinant flagelliform spider silk as basis for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Vendrely, Charlotte; Ackerschott, Christian; Römer, Lin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most performance proteins responsible for the mechanical stability of cells and organisms reveal highly repetitive sequences. Mimicking such performance proteins is of high interest for the design of nanostructured biomaterials. In this article, flagelliform silk is exemplary introduced to describe a general principle for designing genes of repetitive performance proteins for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli . In the first step, repeating amino acid sequence motifs are reversely transcripted into DNA cassettes, which can in a second step be seamlessly ligated, yielding a designed gene. Recombinant expression thereof leads to proteins mimicking the natural ones. The recombinant proteins can be assembled into nanostructured materials in a controlled manner, allowing their use in several applications. PMID:19031057

  2. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  3. A Basis for Solid Modeling of Gear Teeth with Application in Design and Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios; Oswald, Fred B.; Liu, Yung Sheng

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to modeling gear tooth surfaces. A computer graphics solid modeling procedure is used to simulate the tooth fabrication processes. This procedure is based on the principles of differential geometry that pertain to envelopes of curves and surfaces. The procedure is illustrated with the modeling of spur, helical, bevel, spiral bevel and hypoid gear teeth. Applications in design and manufacturing arc discussed. Extensions to nonstandard tooth forms, to cams, and to rolling element hearings are proposed.

  4. A basis for solid modeling of gear teeth with application in design and manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios; Oswald, Fred B.; Liu, Yung Sheng

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to modeling gear tooth surfaces is discussed. A computer graphics solid modeling procedure is used to simulate the tooth fabrication process. This procedure is based on the principles of differential geometry that pertain to envelopes of curves and surfaces. The procedure is illustrated with the modeling of spur, helical, bevel, spiral bevel, and hypoid gear teeth. Applications in design and manufacturing are discussed. Extensions to nonstandard tooth forms, to cams, and to rolling element bearings are proposed.

  5. Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, C.V.; King, J.L.; Perkins, D.M.; Mudd, R.W.; Richardson, A.M.; Calovini, J.C.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Emerson, D.O.

    1990-08-01

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts` structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Investigation of techniques for the development of seismic design basis using the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Boissonnade, A.C.; Short, C.M.

    1998-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to form a group of experts to assist them in revising the seismic and geologic siting criteria for nuclear power plants, Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This document describes a deterministic approach for determining a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) Ground Motion for a nuclear power plant site. One disadvantage of this approach is the difficulty of integrating differences of opinions and differing interpretations into seismic hazard characterization. In answer to this, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies incorporate differences of opinion and interpretations among earth science experts. For this reason, probabilistic hazard methods were selected for determining SSEs for the revised regulation, 10 CFR Part 100.23. However, because these methodologies provide a composite analysis of all possible earthquakes that may occur, they do not provide the familiar link between seismic design loading requirements and engineering design practice. Therefore, approaches used to characterize seismic events (magnitude and distance) which best represent the ground motion level determined with the probabilistic hazard analysis were investigated. This report summarizes investigations conducted at 69 nuclear reactor sites in the central and eastern U.S. for determining SSEs using probabilistic analyses. Alternative techniques are presented along with justification for key choices. 16 refs., 32 figs., 60 tabs.

  7. Structural basis for the design of selective phosphodiesterase 4B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fox, David; Burgin, Alex B; Gurney, Mark E

    2014-03-01

    Phosphodiesterase-4B (PDE4B) regulates the pro-inflammatory Toll Receptor -Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) pathway in monocytes, macrophages and microglial cells. As such, it is an important, although under-exploited molecular target for anti-inflammatory drugs. This is due in part to the difficulty of developing selective PDE4B inhibitors as the amino acid sequence of the PDE4 active site is identical in all PDE4 subtypes (PDE4A-D). We show that highly selective PDE4B inhibitors can be designed by exploiting sequence differences outside the active site. Specifically, PDE4B selectivity can be achieved by capture of a C-terminal regulatory helix, now termed CR3 (Control Region 3), across the active site in a conformation that closes access by cAMP. PDE4B selectivity is driven by a single amino acid polymorphism in CR3 (Leu674 in PDE4B1 versus Gln594 in PDE4D). The reciprocal mutations in PDE4B and PDE4D cause a 70-80 fold shift in selectivity. Our structural studies show that CR3 is flexible and can adopt multiple orientations and multiple registries in the closed conformation. The new co-crystal structure with bound ligand provides a guide map for the design of PDE4B selective anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:24361374

  8. Changing precipitation extremes in a warming climate: A basis for design flood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Conrad; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-04-01

    The potential for increasing intensity of future rainfall events has significant implications for flooding and the design of infrastructure. However the questions of how precipitation will change in the future, how important these changes are to flooding, and how engineers incorporate these changes into hydrologic design remain as open questions. In the absence of reliable point based estimates of how precipitation will change, many studies investigate the historical relationship between rainfall intensity and temperature as a proxy for what may happen in a warmer climate. Much of the research to date has focussed on changing precipitation intensity, however, temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation are just as important. Here we link higher temperatures to changes in temporal and spatial patterns of extreme precipitation events. We show, using observed high quality precipitation records from Australia covering all major climatic zones, that storms are intensifying in both time and space resulting in a greater potential for flooding especially in urban locales around the world. Given that precipitation and antecedent conditions are changing, and, the impacts to flooding are significant, methods of incorporating these changes in catchment modelling are required. Continuous simulation offers a natural flexibility to incorporate the many correlated changes in precipitation that may occur in a future climate. An argument for such a framework using existing continuous simulation alternatives is articulated in concluding this presentation.

  9. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. Therefore, empirically based approaches that are used for other regions, such as Western North America, are not appropriate for Eastern North America. Moreover, recent advances in science and technology have now made it possible to combine theoretical and empirical methods to develop new procedures and models for estimating ground motion. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. Specifically considered are magnitudes M from 5 to 8, distances from 0 to 500 km, and frequencies from 1 to 35 Hz.

  10. 78 FR 39781 - Consequence Study of a Beyond-Design-Basis Earthquake Affecting the Spent Fuel Pool for a U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... earthquake that occurred off the coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. That earthquake did not result in any... COMMISSION Consequence Study of a Beyond-Design-Basis Earthquake Affecting the Spent Fuel Pool for a U.S... comment, titled Consequence Study of a Beyond- Design-Basis Earthquake Affecting the Spent Fuel Pool for...

  11. Modeling of the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling Response to Beyond Design Basis Operations - Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Wilson, Chisom Shawn; Morrow, Charles; Osborn, Douglas; Gauntt, Randall O.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts are being pursued to develop and qualify a system-level model of a reactor core isolation (RCIC) steam-turbine-driven pump. The model is being developed with the intent of employing it to inform the design of experimental configurations for full-scale RCIC testing. The model is expected to be especially valuable in sizing equipment needed in the testing. An additional intent is to use the model in understanding more fully how RCIC apparently managed to operate far removed from its design envelope in the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 2 accident. RCIC modeling is proceeding along two avenues that are expected to complement each other well. The first avenue is the continued development of the system-level RCIC model that will serve in simulating a full reactor system or full experimental configuration of which a RCIC system is part. The model reasonably represents a RCIC system today, especially given design operating conditions, but lacks specifics that are likely important in representing the off-design conditions a RCIC system might experience in an emergency situation such as a loss of all electrical power. A known specific lacking in the system model, for example, is the efficiency at which a flashing slug of water (as opposed to a concentrated jet of steam) could propel the rotating drive wheel of a RCIC turbine. To address this specific, the second avenue is being pursued wherein computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of such a jet are being carried out. The results of the CFD analyses will thus complement and inform the system modeling. The system modeling will, in turn, complement the CFD analysis by providing the system information needed to impose appropriate boundary conditions on the CFD simulations. The system model will be used to inform the selection of configurations and equipment best suitable of supporting planned RCIC experimental testing. Preliminary investigations with the RCIC model indicate that liquid water ingestion by the turbine

  12. Basis of human factors methodology applied in the Westinghouse AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Carrera, J.P.; Easter, J.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The incident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 brought about an awareness that there is a need for a new perspective on nuclear power plant operator performance. It was discerned that besides executing control actions, the operator needs an additional role, that of systems supervisor-someone who considers plant health at the functional level of how all the plant processes are related and how they perform with regard to the high-level operational goals of the plant. Westinghouse has taken the initiative to apply these ideas in dealing with the operator by studying the work of Rasmussen of Denmark's Riso Laboratory, regarding knowledge-based behavior and the requirements for supporting the cognitive processes required of an operator. This has led to the Westinghouse Man-Machine-Interface System (MMIS) design process.

  13. TRAC analysis of design basis events for the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.C.; Elson, J.

    1997-08-01

    A two-loop primary cooling system with a residual heat removal system was designed to mitigate the heat generated in the tungsten neutron source rods inside the rungs of the ladders and the shell of the rungs. The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) was used to analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary cooling system during a pump coastdown transient; a cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA); a hot-leg LBLOCA; and a target downcomer LBLOCA. The TRAC analysis results showed that the heat generated in the tungsten neutron source rods can be mitigated by the primary cooling system for the pump coastdown transient and all the LBLOCAs except the target downcomer LBLOCA. For the target downcomer LBLOCA, a cavity flood system is required to fill the cavity with water at a level above the large fixed headers.

  14. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical & Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties.

  15. A basis set of de novo coiled-coil peptide oligomers for rational protein design and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jordan M; Boyle, Aimee L; Bruning, Marc; Bartlett, Gail J; Vincent, Thomas L; Zaccai, Nathan R; Armstrong, Craig T; Bromley, Elizabeth H C; Booth, Paula J; Brady, R Leo; Thomson, Andrew R; Woolfson, Derek N

    2012-06-15

    Protein engineering, chemical biology, and synthetic biology would benefit from toolkits of peptide and protein components that could be exchanged reliably between systems while maintaining their structural and functional integrity. Ideally, such components should be highly defined and predictable in all respects of sequence, structure, stability, interactions, and function. To establish one such toolkit, here we present a basis set of de novo designed α-helical coiled-coil peptides that adopt defined and well-characterized parallel dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric states. The designs are based on sequence-to-structure relationships both from the literature and analysis of a database of known coiled-coil X-ray crystal structures. These give foreground sequences to specify the targeted oligomer state. A key feature of the design process is that sequence positions outside of these sites are considered non-essential for structural specificity; as such, they are referred to as the background, are kept non-descript, and are available for mutation as required later. Synthetic peptides were characterized in solution by circular-dichroism spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation, and their structures were determined by X-ray crystallography. Intriguingly, a hitherto widely used empirical rule-of-thumb for coiled-coil dimer specification does not hold in the designed system. However, the desired oligomeric state is achieved by database-informed redesign of that particular foreground and confirmed experimentally. We envisage that the basis set will be of use in directing and controlling protein assembly, with potential applications in chemical and synthetic biology. To help with such endeavors, we introduce Pcomp, an on-line registry of peptide components for protein-design and synthetic-biology applications. PMID:23651206

  16. Structural and thermodynamic basis of resistance to HIV-1 protease inhibition: implications for inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Muzammil, Salman; Ohtaka, Hiroyasu; Schön, Arne; Vega, Sonia; Freire, Ernesto

    2003-12-01

    One of the most serious side effects associated with the therapy of HIV-1 infection is the appearance of viral strains that exhibit resistance to protease inhibitors. At the molecular level, resistance to protease inhibition predominantly takes the form of mutations within the protease molecule that preferentially lower the affinity of protease inhibitors with respect to protease substrates, while still maintaining a viable catalytic activity. Mutations associated with drug resistance occur within the active site cavity as well as distal sites. Active site mutations affect directly inhibitor/protease interactions while non-active site mutations affect inhibitor binding through long range cooperative perturbations. The effects of mutations associated with drug resistance are compounded by the presence of naturally occurring polymorphisms, especially those observed in non-B subtypes of HIV-1. The binding thermodynamics of all clinical inhibitors against the wild type protease, drug resistant mutations and non-B subtype HIV-1 proteases has been determined by high sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry. In conjunction with structural information, these data have provided a precise characterization of the binding mechanism of different inhibitors and their response to mutations. Inhibitors that exhibit extremely high affinity and low susceptibility to the effects of mutations share common features and binding determinants even if they belong to different chemical scaffolds. These binding determinants define a set of rules and constraints for the design of better HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  17. Survey of ethical issues reported by Indian medical students: basis for design of a new curriculum.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anuradha; George, Kuryan; T, Arul Dhas; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Education in ethics is now a formal part of the undergraduate medical curriculum. However, most courses are structured around principles and case studies more appropriate to western countries. The cultures and practices of countries like India differ from those of western countries. It is, therefore, essential that our teaching should address the issues which are the most relevant to our setting. An anonymised, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey of medical students was carried out to get a picture of the ethical problems faced by students in India. The data were categorised into issues related to professional behaviour and ethical dilemmas. Unprofessional behaviour was among the issues reported as a matter of concern by a majority of the medical students. The survey highlights the need to design the curriculum in a way that reflects the structure of medical education in India, where patients are not always considered socio-culturally equal by students or the medical staff. This perspective must underpin any further efforts to address education in ethics in India.

  18. Rational screening of antibodies and design of sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay on the basis of a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Hwan; Katakura, Yoshio; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-03-01

    A rational strategy for the rapid establishment of a sensitive sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay was developed. The kinetic properties required for the solid-phase and enzyme-conjugated antibodies of sandwich ELISA were determined rationally on the basis of a kinetic model describing antibody-antigen interaction. Some antibodies possessing the required kinetic properties against a model antigen, C-reactive protein (CRP), were successfully isolated from a phage antibody library under the screening conditions that were designed on the basis of simulation results. The best combination of solid-phase and enzyme-conjugated antibodies that gives the most sensitive sandwich ELISA was determined by simulation on the basis of the apparent association and dissociation rate constants of the isolated antibodies. It was confirmed by experiment that the sandwich ELISA using the best combination of antibodies was actually the most sensitive one. Our strategy would be useful for the rapid establishment of sensitive sandwich ELISAs compared with the traditional hybridoma method in which the best condition is determined by trial and error.

  19. Fundamental basis and implementation of shell and tube heat exchanger project design: condenser and evaporator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalkilic, A. S.; Acikgoz, O.; Tapan, S.; Wongwises, S.

    2016-03-01

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is used as a condenser and an evaporator in this theoretical study. Parametric performance analyses for various actual refrigerants were performed using well-known correlations in open sources. Condensation and evaporation were occurred in the shell side while the water was flowing in the tube side of heat exchanger. Heat transfer rate from tube side was kept constant for condenser and evaporator design. Condensing temperatures were varied from 35 to 60 °C whereas evaporating temperatures were ranging from -15 to 10 °C for the refrigerants of R12, R22, R134a, R32, R507A, R404A, R502, R407C, R152A, R410A and R1234ZE. Variation of convective heat transfer coefficients of refrigerants, total heat transfer coefficients with Reynolds numbers and saturation temperatures were given as validation process considering not only fouling resistance and omission of it but also staggered (triangular) and line (square) arrangements. The minimum tube lengths and necessary pumping powers were calculated and given as case studies for the investigated refrigerants considering validation criteria. It was understood that refrigerant type, fouling resistance and arrangement type are one of the crucial issues regarding the determination of heat exchanger's size and energy consumption. Consequently, R32 and R152a were found to require the shortest tube length and lowest pumping power in the condenser, whereas R507 and R407C have the same advantages in the evaporator. Their heat transfer coefficients were also determined larger than others as expectedly.

  20. Healthcare Stereotype Threat in Older Adults in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.; Jackson, James S.; Wheaton, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare stereotype threat is the threat of being personally reduced to group stereotypes that commonly operate within the healthcare domain, including stereotypes regarding unhealthy lifestyles and inferior intelligence. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which people fear being judged in healthcare contexts on several characteristics, including race/ethnicity and age, and to test predictions that experience of such threats would be connected with poorer health and negative perceptions of health care. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). A module on healthcare stereotype threat, designed by the research team, was administered to a random subset (n=2,048 of the total 20,555) of HRS participants. The final sample for the present healthcare stereotype threat experiment consists of 1,479 individuals. Logistic regression was used to test whether healthcare stereotype threat was associated with self-rated health, reported hypertension, and depressive symptoms, as well as with healthcare-related outcomes, including physician distrust, dissatisfaction with health care, and preventative care use. Results Seventeen percent of respondents reported healthcare stereotype threat with respect to one or more aspects of their identities. As predicted, healthcare stereotype threat was associated with higher physician distrust and dissatisfaction with health care, poorer mental and physical health (i.e., self-rated health, hypertension, and depressive symptoms), and lower odds of receiving the influenza vaccine. Conclusions The first of its kind, this study demonstrates that people can experience healthcare stereotype threat on the basis of various stigmatized aspects of social identity, and that these experiences can be linked with larger health and healthcare-related outcomes, thereby contributing to disparities among minority groups. PMID:26497263

  1. Open literature review of threats including sabotage and theft of fissile material transport in Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2005-06-01

    This report is a review of open literature concerning threats including sabotage and theft related to fissile material transport in Japan. It is intended to aid Japanese officials in the development of a design basis threat. This threat includes the external threats of the terrorist, criminal, and extremist, and the insider threats of the disgruntled employee, the employee forced into cooperation via coercion, the psychotic employee, and the criminal employee. Examination of the external terrorist threat considers Japanese demographics, known terrorist groups in Japan, and the international relations of Japan. Demographically, Japan has a relatively homogenous population, both ethnically and religiously. Japan is a relatively peaceful nation, but its history illustrates that it is not immune to terrorism. It has a history of domestic terrorism and the open literature points to the Red Army, Aum Shinrikyo, Chukaku-Ha, and Seikijuku. Japan supports the United States in its war on terrorism and in Iraq, which may make Japan a target for both international and domestic terrorists. Crime appears to remain low in Japan; however sources note that the foreign crime rate is increasing as the number of foreign nationals in the country increases. Antinuclear groups' recent foci have been nuclear reprocessing technology, transportation of MOX fuel, and possible related nuclear proliferation issues. The insider threat is first defined by the threat of the disgruntled employee. This threat can be determined by studying the history of Japan's employment system, where Keiretsu have provided company stability and lifetime employment. Recent economic difficulties and an increase of corporate crime, due to sole reliability on the honor code, have begun to erode employee loyalty.

  2. Development of Design Basis Earthquake Parameters for TMI-2 Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services; Geomatrix Consultants; Pacific Engineering and Analysis; S. M. Payne

    1999-11-01

    Probabilistically-based Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) ground motion parameters have been developed for the TMI-2 Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The probabilistic seismic hazard at INTEC has been recomputed using ground motion attenuation relationships more appropriate for extensional tectonic regimes. The empirical attenuation relationships used in this analysis were adjusted for extensional tectonic regimes as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. Seismic hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra for rock produced using the revised attenuation relationships result in lower ground motions when compared to the results of the 1996 INEEL site-wide seismic hazard evaluation. The DBE ground motions for rock and soil have been developed to be applicable to the TMI-2 ISFSI and the entire INTEC site by incorporating variations in the rock and soil properties over the INTEC area. The DBE rock and soil ground motions presented in the report are recommended for use in developing final design earthquake parameters. Peer reviewers of this report support this recommendation. Because the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations have recently evolved to incorporate probabilistically-based seismic design for independent fuel storage facilities, a deterministic Maximum Credible Earthquake analysis performed for INTEC earlier in this study is also presented in this report.

  3. The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

  4. Threat in Context: School Moderation of the Impact of Social Identity Threat on Racial/Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Paul; Bruch, Sarah K.; Gamoran, Adam; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Schools with very few and relatively low-performing marginalized students may be most likely to trigger social identity threats (including stereotype threats) that contribute to racial disparities. We test this hypothesis by assessing variation in the benefits of a self-affirmation intervention designed to counteract social identity threat in a…

  5. Facing ambiguous threats.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation.

  6. Facing ambiguous threats.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

  7. After Action Report:Idaho National Laboratory (INL) 2014 Multiple Facility Beyond Design Basis (BDBE) Evaluated Drill October 21, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    V. Scott Barnes

    2014-12-01

    On October 21, 2014, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in coordination with local jurisdictions, and Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) conducted an evaluated drill to demonstrate the ability to implement the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System” when responding to a beyond design basis event (BDBE) scenario as outlined in the Office of Health, Safety, and Security Operating Experience Level 1 letter (OE-1: 2013-01). The INL contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), in coordination with CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (CWI), and Idaho Treatment Group LLC (ITG), successfully demonstrated appropriate response measures to mitigate a BDBE event that would impact multiple facilities across the INL while protecting the health and safety of personnel, the environment, and property. Offsite response organizations participated to demonstrate appropriate response measures.

  8. Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Suzette

    2008-08-01

    Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

  9. Calculation of particulate dispersion in a design-basis tornadic storm from the Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.W.

    1980-10-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition (due to precipitation scavenging) after a hypothetical tornado strike at the Battelle Memorial Institute at Columbus, Ohio. Plutonium particles less than 20 ..mu..m in diameter are assumed to be lifted into the tornadic storm cell by the vortex. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are embedded within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system. The design-basis translational wind value is based on probabilities associated with existing records of tornado strikes in the vicinity of the plant site. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values deduced from experimental data in severe storms and from theoretical assumptions obtained from the literature. The method of moments is used to incorporate subgrid-scale resolution of the concentration within a grid cell volume.

  10. External threat and the definition of deviance.

    PubMed

    Laudedale, P; Smith-Cunnien, P; Parker, J; Inverarity, J

    1984-05-01

    Research ( Lauderdale , 1976; Schachter , 1951) suggests that an external threat to a group can lead to the rejection of deviant members of the group and alteration of group communication patterns and solidarity. This study sought to extend those findings, integrate them with concepts from Simmel 's (1917/1955) work on group conflict, and link them to key issues in the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior. We examined the effect of variation in level of threat, the relationship between deviant status and nonconformity to the central task norm, the role of high-status actors in deviance designation, the relationship between rejection and negative definition of the deviant, and the effects of rejection and negative definition on group solidarity. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design involving three conditions (strong threat, weak threat, and no threat). The results suggest that (a) the level of threat is directly related to the extent of rejection and negative definition, (b) nonconformity to the central task norm is not systematically related to deviant status, (c) high-status actors are more involved in the rejection of the deviant, (d) sociometric rejection of the deviant is accompanied by negative definition in the strong-threat condition, and (e) the level of group solidarity is related to the extent of rejection and negative definition. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior and analogous processes in other social groups.

  11. Design of serum-free medium for suspension culture of CHO cells on the basis of general commercial media.

    PubMed

    Miki, Hideo; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2015-08-01

    The design of serum-free media for suspension culture of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using general commercial media as a basis was investigated. Subcultivation using a commercial serum-free medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 with or without FCS necessitated additives other than IGF-1 to compensate for the lack of FCS and improve cell growth. Suspension culture with media containing several combinations of growth factors suggested the effectiveness of addition of both IGF-1 and the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) for promoting cell growth. Subcultivation of CHO cells in suspension culture using the commercial serum-free medium EX-CELL™302, which contained an IGF-1 analog, supplemented with LPA resulted in gradually increasing specific growth rate comparable to the serum-containing medium and in almost the same high antibody production regardless of the number of generations. The culture with EX-CELL™302 supplemented with LPA in a jar fermentor with pH control at 6.9 showed an apparently higher cell growth rate than the cultures without pH control and with pH control at 6.8. The cell growth in the medium supplemented with aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which was much cheaper than IGF-1, in combination with LPA was synergistically promoted similarly to that in the medium supplemented with IGF-1 and LPA. In conclusion, the serum-free medium designed on the basis of general commercial media could support the growth of CHO cells and antibody production comparable to serum-containing medium in suspension culture. Moreover, the possibility of cost reduction by the substitution of IGF-1 with ATA was also shown.

  12. Possible Methods to Estimate Core Location in a Beyond-Design-Basis Accident at a GE BWR with a Mark I Containment Stucture

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Rowland, M; Campbell, K

    2011-07-27

    It is difficult to track to the location of a melted core in a GE BWR with Mark I containment during a beyond-design-basis accident. The Cooper Nuclear Station provided a baseline of normal material distributions and shielding configurations for the GE BWR with Mark I containment. Starting with source terms for a design-basis accident, methods and remote observation points were investigated to allow tracking of a melted core during a beyond-design-basis accident. The design of the GE BWR with Mark-I containment highlights an amazing poverty of expectations regarding a common mode failure of all reactor core cooling systems resulting in a beyond-design-basis accident from the simple loss of electric power. This design is shown in Figure 1. The station blackout accident scenario has been consistently identified as the leading contributor to calculated probabilities for core damage. While NRC-approved models and calculations provide guidance for indirect methods to assess core damage during a beyond-design-basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), there appears to be no established method to track the location of the core directly should the LOCA include a degree of fuel melt. We came to the conclusion that - starting with detailed calculations which estimate the release and movement of gaseous and soluble fission products from the fuel - selected dose readings in specific rooms of the reactor building should allow the location of the core to be verified.

  13. Ancient woodlands: modern threats.

    PubMed

    Rackham, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses the following adverse influences on long-established forests, wood-pastures, and savannas in Europe and other continents: destruction and fragmentation; depletion; pollution and eutrophication; fire and lack of fire; excessive shade; excessive numbers of deer; invasive species and cultivars; infilling of savanna; climate change; and globalization of plant diseases. Human influences on the world's mainland forests and savannas have been pervasive throughout the Holocene, to the extent that recovering 'virgin forest' becomes a somewhat nebulous conservation objective. Present and future threats arise both from increasing human activities and from withdrawal of the human activities that have shaped forests in the past. The severity of different threats depends on so many factors, especially the properties of different plants and animals, that generalization is impossible; however, in the long term, spread of pathogens is probably the most serious threat. PMID:18771472

  14. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  15. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  16. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  17. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of deep-pleated HEPA filters with aluminum separators during and after design basis accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.

    1995-02-01

    We have reviewed the literature on the performance of HEPA filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509[1]. Other HEPA filter designs such as the mini-pleat and separatorless filters are not included in this study. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. There are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen. The estimation of the efficiency of the HEPA filters under DBA conditions involves three steps: (1) The filter pressure drop and environmental parameters are determined during and after the DBA, (2) Comparing the filter pressure drop to a set of threshold values above which the filter is damaged. There is a different threshold value for each combination of environmental parameters, and (3) Determining the filter efficiency. If the filter pressure drop is greater than the threshold value, the filter is damaged and is assigned 0% efficiency. If the pressure drop is less, then the filter is not damaged and the efficiency is determined from literature values of the efficiency at the environmental conditions.

  18. Cognitive appraisals of stereotype threat.

    PubMed

    Berjot, S; Roland-Levy, C; Girault-Lidvan, N

    2011-04-01

    Using the cognitive appraisal conceptualisation of the transactional model of stress, the goal was to assess how victims of stereotype threat respond to this situation in terms of primary appraisals (threat/challenge) and to investigate whether those appraisals may mediate the relation between stereotype threat and performance. Results show that, while participants from North Africa living in France did appraise the situation more as a threat and less as a challenge, only challenge appraisal mediated between stereotype threat and performance.

  19. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of deep-pleated HEPA filters with aluminum separators during and after design basis accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.; Gilbert, H.; Jacox, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    The authors have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data.

  20. Distance mitigates perceived threat.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Arthur E

    2011-12-01

    It has previously been shown that distance mitigates the extent to which visual cues convey perceived threat. It was hypothesized that the visual cues of eye contact, sex, facial expression, and posture would all convey threat. It was further hypothesized that the effects of visual cues on the perception of threat would decrease with distance, but the extent of those decreases was unknown. In the present study, participants were exposed to images of people situated in a physical venue. The images were created to exhibit combinations of the levels of the four visual cues (yes or no for eye contact, male or female for sex, hostile or benign for facial expression, and hostile or benign for posture). Participants were given an opportunity to record how threatening the images of the people seemed to be. The results supported all a priori hypotheses regarding the effects of the visual cues. The results also generated estimates of the distances at which those visual cues ceased to convey threat.

  1. The Population Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.

    1969-01-01

    In an address delivered at the University of Notre Dame, May 1969, Secretary McNamara discussed the threat of unmanageable population pressure which is undervalued and misunderstood by the general public. Unrestricted population growth will have catastrophic consequences unless it is dealt with rapidly and rationally. Copies from: Office of…

  2. ThreatView

    2007-09-25

    The ThreatView project is based on our prior work with the existing ParaView open-source scientific visualization application. Where ParaView provides a grapical client optimized scientific visualization over the VTK parallel client server architecture, ThreatView provides a client optimized for more generic visual analytics over the same architecture. Because ThreatView is based on the VTK parallel client-server architecture, data sources can reside on remote hosts, and processing and rendering can be performed in parallel. As seenmore » in Fig. 1, ThreatView provides four main methods for visualizing data: Landscape View, which displays a graph using a landscape metaphor where clusters of graph nodes produce "hills" in the landscape; Graph View, which displays a graph using a traditional "ball-and-stick" style; Table View, which displays tabular data in a standard spreadsheet; and Attribute View, which displays a tabular "histogram" of input data - for a selected table column, the Attribute View displays each unique value within the column, and the number of times that value appears in the data. There are two supplemental view types: Text View, which displays tabular data one-record-at-a-time; and the Statistics View, which displays input metadata, such as the number of vertices and edges in a graph, the number of rows in a table, etc.« less

  3. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    ;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

  4. [Bioterrorism--real threat].

    PubMed

    Wiackowski, Stanisław K

    2004-01-01

    In the presented paper natural and artificial threat concern of possible use of biological weapon was discussed. Special attention was given to viruses and bacteria which may be used by terrorists and methods of their application, utilisation of different organisms for example: insects such as intermediate hosts or transport medium of contagious microorganisms. PMID:15682939

  5. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.

  6. Threat Assessment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    With every new case of school violence, district leaders are urged to be proactive in hopes of averting potential violence. Experts say part of that proactive work comes from a threat assessment plan that every district should have. While every district that receives funds from the U.S. Department of Education for school safety is required to have…

  7. ThreatView

    SciTech Connect

    Shead, Timothy M.; Wylie, Brian

    2007-09-25

    The ThreatView project is based on our prior work with the existing ParaView open-source scientific visualization application. Where ParaView provides a grapical client optimized scientific visualization over the VTK parallel client server architecture, ThreatView provides a client optimized for more generic visual analytics over the same architecture. Because ThreatView is based on the VTK parallel client-server architecture, data sources can reside on remote hosts, and processing and rendering can be performed in parallel. As seen in Fig. 1, ThreatView provides four main methods for visualizing data: Landscape View, which displays a graph using a landscape metaphor where clusters of graph nodes produce "hills" in the landscape; Graph View, which displays a graph using a traditional "ball-and-stick" style; Table View, which displays tabular data in a standard spreadsheet; and Attribute View, which displays a tabular "histogram" of input data - for a selected table column, the Attribute View displays each unique value within the column, and the number of times that value appears in the data. There are two supplemental view types: Text View, which displays tabular data one-record-at-a-time; and the Statistics View, which displays input metadata, such as the number of vertices and edges in a graph, the number of rows in a table, etc.

  8. Environmental Threats at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Twhanna

    2005-01-01

    Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

  9. Threat in dreams: an adaptation?

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark; Turnbull, Oliver; Tredoux, Colin

    2008-12-01

    Revonsuo's influential Threat Simulation Theory (TST) predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area (South Africa: n=208) differed significantly from participants in a low crime area (Wales, UK: n=116) in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event (chi([1,N=186])(2)=14.84, p<.00012). Contrary to TST's predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams (chi([1,N=287])(2)=6.11, p<.0134), and did not differ from the Welsh participants in responses to dream threats (Fisher's Exact test, p=.2478). Overall, the incidence of threat in dreams was extremely low-less than 20% of dreams featured realistic survival threats. Escape from dream threats occurred in less than 2% of dreams. We conclude that this evidence contradicts key aspects of TST.

  10. Analysis of main steam isolation valve leakage in design basis accidents using MELCOR 1.8.6 and RADTRAD.

    SciTech Connect

    Salay, Michael; Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Radel, Tracy E.

    2008-10-01

    Analyses were performed using MELCOR and RADTRAD to investigate main steam isolation valve (MSIV) leakage behavior under design basis accident (DBA) loss-of-coolant (LOCA) conditions that are presumed to have led to a significant core melt accident. Dose to the control room, site boundary and LPZ are examined using both approaches described in current regulatory guidelines as well as analyses based on best estimate source term and system response. At issue is the current practice of using containment airborne aerosol concentrations as a surrogate for the in-vessel aerosol concentration that exists in the near vicinity of the MSIVs. This study finds current practice using the AST-based containment aerosol concentrations for assessing MSIV leakage is non-conservative and conceptually in error. A methodology is proposed that scales the containment aerosol concentration to the expected vessel concentration in order to preserve the simplified use of the AST in assessing containment performance under assumed DBA conditions. This correction is required during the first two hours of the accident while the gap and early in-vessel source terms are present. It is general practice to assume that at {approx}2hrs, recovery actions to reflood the core will have been successful and that further core damage can be avoided. The analyses performed in this study determine that, after two hours, assuming vessel reflooding has taken place, the containment aerosol concentration can then conservatively be used as the effective source to the leaking MSIV's. Recommendations are provided concerning typical aerosol removal coefficients that can be used in the RADTRAD code to predict source attenuation in the steam lines, and on robust methods of predicting MSIV leakage flows based on measured MSIV leakage performance.

  11. An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Kerekes, Ryan A; Treadwell, Jim N

    2009-01-01

    Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

  12. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    During the height of the Cold War, the Russian physicist Andre Sakharov said, `Reducing the risk of annihilating humanity in a nuclear war carries an absolute priority over all other considerations.` The end of the Cold War has reduced the threat of global nuclear war, but today a new threat is rising from the global spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Hostile groups and nations have tried - or have been able - to obtain these weapons, the technology, and homegrown ability to make them or ballistic missiles that can deliver the massive annihilation, poison, and death of these weapons hundreds of miles away. For rogue nations, these weapons are a ticket to power, stature, and confidence in regional war.

  13. Pollution: a global threat.

    PubMed

    McCrink-Goode, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat.

  14. Pollution: a global threat.

    PubMed

    McCrink-Goode, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat. PMID:24727071

  15. Emergicenters. Opportunity or threat?

    PubMed

    Meyer, L C

    1983-01-01

    Political, social, and economic pressures on the healthcare industry are resulting in the development of new approaches to the delivery of quality health care to consumers. One of the newest responses to these change forces has been the development and proliferation of freestanding emergency centers. This article examines the underlying causes behind their development, describes the distinct services and strengths of the "emergicenter" concept, and shows how medical group practices can turn a potential competitive threat into an opportunity for future growth.

  16. Space collision threat mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Stipanović, Dušan; Mehra, Raman K.; Pham, Khanh

    2014-06-01

    Mitigation of possible collision threats to current and future operations in space environments is an important an challenging task considering high nonlinearity of orbital dynamics and discrete measurement updates. Such discrete observations are relatively scarce with respect to space dynamics including possible unintentional or intentional rocket propulsion based maneuvers even in scenarios when measurement collections are focused to a one single target of interest. In our paper, this problem is addressed in terms of multihypothesis and multimodel estimation in conjunction with multi-agent multigoal game theoretic guaranteed evasion strategies. Collision threat estimation is formulated using conditional probabilities of time dependent hypotheses and spacecraft controls which are computed using Liapunov-like approach. Based on this formulation, time dependent functional forms of multi-objective utility functions are derived given threat collision risk levels. For demonstrating developed concepts, numerical methods are developed using nonlinear filtering methodology for updating hypothesis sets and corresponding conditional probabilities. Space platform associated sensor resources are managed using previously developed and demonstrated information-theoretic objective functions and optimization methods. Consequently, estimation and numerical methods are evaluated and demonstrated on a realistic Low Earth Orbit collision encounter.

  17. Not All Threats Are Equal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately, the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security, and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly,…

  18. Combating emerging viral threats

    PubMed Central

    Bekerman, Elena; Einav, Shirit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Most approved antiviral therapeutics selectively inhibit proteins encoded by a single virus, thereby providing a “one drug-one bug” solution. As a result of this narrow spectrum of coverage and the high cost of drug development, therapies are currently approved for fewer than ten viruses out of the hundreds known to cause human disease. This perspective summarizes progress and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral therapies. These strategies include targeting enzymatic functions shared by multiple viruses and host cell machinery by newly discovered compounds or by repurposing approved drugs. These approaches offer new practical means for developing therapeutics against existing and emerging viral threats. PMID:25883340

  19. Threats to international science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  20. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  1. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  2. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D.; Phipps, G.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  3. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective. PMID:21441217

  4. A knowledge-based approach to estimating the magnitude and spatial patterns of potential threats to soil biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Orgiazzi, Alberto; Panagos, Panos; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B; Gardi, Ciro; Montanarella, Luca; Ballabio, Cristiano

    2016-03-01

    Because of the increasing pressures exerted on soil, below-ground life is under threat. Knowledge-based rankings of potential threats to different components of soil biodiversity were developed in order to assess the spatial distribution of threats on a European scale. A list of 13 potential threats to soil biodiversity was proposed to experts with different backgrounds in order to assess the potential for three major components of soil biodiversity: soil microorganisms, fauna, and biological functions. This approach allowed us to obtain knowledge-based rankings of threats. These classifications formed the basis for the development of indices through an additive aggregation model that, along with ad-hoc proxies for each pressure, allowed us to preliminarily assess the spatial patterns of potential threats. Intensive exploitation was identified as the highest pressure. In contrast, the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture was considered as the threat with least potential. The potential impact of climate change showed the highest uncertainty. Fourteen out of the 27 considered countries have more than 40% of their soils with moderate-high to high potential risk for all three components of soil biodiversity. Arable soils are the most exposed to pressures. Soils within the boreal biogeographic region showed the lowest risk potential. The majority of soils at risk are outside the boundaries of protected areas. First maps of risks to three components of soil biodiversity based on the current scientific knowledge were developed. Despite the intrinsic limits of knowledge-based assessments, a remarkable potential risk to soil biodiversity was observed. Guidelines to preliminarily identify and circumscribe soils potentially at risk are provided. This approach may be used in future research to assess threat at both local and global scale and identify areas of possible risk and, subsequently, design appropriate strategies for monitoring and protection of soil

  5. A knowledge-based approach to estimating the magnitude and spatial patterns of potential threats to soil biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Orgiazzi, Alberto; Panagos, Panos; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B; Gardi, Ciro; Montanarella, Luca; Ballabio, Cristiano

    2016-03-01

    Because of the increasing pressures exerted on soil, below-ground life is under threat. Knowledge-based rankings of potential threats to different components of soil biodiversity were developed in order to assess the spatial distribution of threats on a European scale. A list of 13 potential threats to soil biodiversity was proposed to experts with different backgrounds in order to assess the potential for three major components of soil biodiversity: soil microorganisms, fauna, and biological functions. This approach allowed us to obtain knowledge-based rankings of threats. These classifications formed the basis for the development of indices through an additive aggregation model that, along with ad-hoc proxies for each pressure, allowed us to preliminarily assess the spatial patterns of potential threats. Intensive exploitation was identified as the highest pressure. In contrast, the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture was considered as the threat with least potential. The potential impact of climate change showed the highest uncertainty. Fourteen out of the 27 considered countries have more than 40% of their soils with moderate-high to high potential risk for all three components of soil biodiversity. Arable soils are the most exposed to pressures. Soils within the boreal biogeographic region showed the lowest risk potential. The majority of soils at risk are outside the boundaries of protected areas. First maps of risks to three components of soil biodiversity based on the current scientific knowledge were developed. Despite the intrinsic limits of knowledge-based assessments, a remarkable potential risk to soil biodiversity was observed. Guidelines to preliminarily identify and circumscribe soils potentially at risk are provided. This approach may be used in future research to assess threat at both local and global scale and identify areas of possible risk and, subsequently, design appropriate strategies for monitoring and protection of soil

  6. Using the common sense model to design interventions for the prevention and management of chronic illness threats: from description to process.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Lisa M; Musumeci-Szabó, Tamara J; Mora, Pablo A; Vileikyte, Loretta; Burns, Edith; Halm, Ethan A; Leventhal, Elaine A; Leventhal, Howard

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we discuss how one might use the common sense model of self-regulation (CSM) for developing interventions for improving chronic illness management. We argue that features of that CSM such as its dynamic, self-regulative (feedback) control feature and its system structure provide an important basis for patient-centered interventions. We describe two separate, ongoing interventions with patients with diabetes and asthma to demonstrate the adaptability of the CSM. Finally, we discuss three additional factors that need to be addressed before planning and implementing interventions: (1) the use of top-down versus bottom-up intervention strategies; (2) health care interventions involving multidisciplinary teams; and (3) fidelity of implementation for tailored interventions.

  7. Overview of the Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) envisioned within the Department of Defense modeling and simulation master plan requires a distributed virtual environment (DVE) wide consistent threat environment to achieve a useful mission rehearsal, training, test and evaluation capability. To achieve this objective, all threats in the DVE must appear at compatible levels of fidelity to all the entities operating in the DVE and they must interact with human- operated and computer-controlled entities in a realistic fashion. Achieving this goal is not currently possible for two reasons. First, each primary aircraft simulator training system developer has created their own threat system and made their own modeling decisions to support a specific user for a select few predetermined conditions. This traditional threat simulation approach is expensive and leads to ongoing difficulties in maintaining threat currency as intelligence updates are made, new weapons are introduced and new theaters of operation are identified. Second, the threat system interaction on a distributed network must be coordinated. The individualized nature of current threat systems precludes the possibility of introducing coordinated threats. The Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment (DMTITE) project is developing an effective solution to these issues. The DMTITE project is identifying the requirements for a distributed threat environment and building a demonstrator DOD High Level Architecture compatible system that can provide realistic threats for pilots to train against. The DMTITE prototype will instantiate a variety of threats for use in distributed training scenarios, including surface threats, air threats, radars, and jamming systems. A key element of the system will be the provision of realistic behaviors for the threat systems. We based DMTITE on a general software design methodology and software architecture for computer-generated forces (CGFs) that naturally supports `variety

  8. Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Y

    2003-01-01

    Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards. PMID:12803896

  9. Null testing of nonrotational symmetry transmission optical freeform: design, modeling, and inspection on the basis of Fermat principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Gufeng; Cui, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    We present a general design method for a type of transmission freeforms without rotational symmetry and achieve the null testing by putting a well-designed Fermat reflector on the transmitting optical path. The design principle of the reflector is given, and an eccentric spherical surface with 1-mm deviation is used as an example of testing freeform. We fabricated the reflector and the freeform with the single-point diamond turning machine. Both conventional interference inspection and our approach give consistent results. The design error is less than 106 mm, and the measurement accuracy is nearly completely determined by the fabrication precision. This approach can also be applied to the inspections of reflecting freeforms with low costs.

  10. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-30

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed.

  11. Moderators of and Mechanisms underlying Stereotype Threat Effects on Older Adults' Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Thomas M.; Hinson, Joey T.; Hodges, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that negative stereotypes about aging may have a detrimental influence on older adults' memory performance. This study sought to determine whether stereotype-based influences were moderated by age, education, and concerns about being stigmatized. Possible mechanisms underlying these influences on memory performance were also explored. The memory performance of adults aged 60 to 70 years and 71 to 82 years was examined under conditions designed to induce or eliminate stereotype threat. Threat was found to have a greater impact on performance in the young-old than in the old-old group, whereas the opposite was observed for the effects of stigma consciousness. In both cases, the effects were strongest for those with higher levels of education. Further analyses found little evidence in support of the mediating roles of affective responses or working memory. The only evidence of mediation was found with respect to recall predictions, suggesting a motivational basis of threat effects on performance. These findings highlight the specificity of stereotype threat effects in later adults as well as possible mechanisms underlying such effects. PMID:19280445

  12. Moderators of and mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects on older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Hinson, Joey T; Hodges, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that negative stereotypes about aging may have a detrimental influence on older adults' memory performance. This study sought to determine whether stereotype-based influences were moderated by age, education, and concerns about being stigmatized. Possible mechanisms underlying these influences on memory performance were also explored. The memory performance of adults aged 60 to 70 years and 71 to 82 years was examined under conditions designed to induce or eliminate stereotype threat. Threat was found to have a greater impact on performance in the young-old than in the old-old group, whereas the opposite was observed for the effects of stigma consciousness. In both cases, the effects were strongest for those with higher levels of education. Further analyses found little evidence in support of the mediating roles of affective responses or working memory. The only evidence of mediation was found with respect to recall predictions, suggesting a motivational basis of threat effects on performance. These findings highlight the specificity of stereotype threat effects in later adulthood as well as possible mechanisms underlying such effects.

  13. Surface-confined heterometallic triads on the basis of terpyridyl complexes and design of molecular logic gates.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Singh, Vikram; Jeyachandran, Yekkoni Lakshmanan; Zharnikov, Michael

    2015-04-29

    Surface-confined heterometallic molecular triads (SURHMTs) were fabricated on SiOx-based solid substrates using optically rich and redox-active Fe-, Os-, and Ru-based terpyridyl complexes as metalloligands and Cu(2+) ions as linkers. Optical and electrochemical studies reveal efficient electronic intramolecular communication in these assemblies. The UV-vis spectra of the triads exhibit a superposition of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands of individual complexes, providing a significant enlargement of the optical window, useful for application. Similarly, cyclic voltammograms of SURHMT layers show a variety of redox peaks corresponding to individual complexes as well as multi-redox states at a low potential. Interaction of a representative SURHMT assembly with redox-active NOBF4 was investigated and used as a basis for configuring molecular logic gates. PMID:25853640

  14. The Cognitive and Behavioral Basis of an Instructional Design: Using CBT to Teach Technical Information and Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, E. K.; Kazlauskas, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project that was developed to create production guidelines for instructional design of computer-based training (CBT) for industrial purposes. Topics addressed include Bloom's Taxonomy; Gagne's Events of Instruction; behavioral foundations; cognitive foundations; simulation as an example of cognitive instruction; learner control;…

  15. Notes on the Psychological Basis of Environmental Design: The Right-Left Dimension in Apartment Floor Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michael R.

    1977-01-01

    The previously recognized right-left asymmetry in aesthetic balance was applied to preferences in architectural design. Preferences for right-and left-oriented apartments in apartment floor plan layouts were noted in sophomore psychology students. Data examined from preferences of 67 right-handed and 5 left-handed students revealed that…

  16. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  17. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  18. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  19. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  20. Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2007-01-01

    Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

  1. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  2. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  3. Design of mirrors for generating prescribed continuous illuminance distributions on the basis of the supporting quadric method.

    PubMed

    Doskolovich, L L; Borisova, K V; Moiseev, M A; Kazanskiy, N L

    2016-02-01

    A method for the design of reflecting surfaces generating prescribed continuous illuminance distributions in two-dimensional domains is proposed. The mirror surface is represented as an envelope of a two-parameter family of ellipsoids. The first focus of each ellipsoid coincides with the point light source, while the second one is located at the illuminated domain. This surface representation can be interpreted as a limiting case of a segmented surface used in the supporting quadric method for focusing onto a set of points. The envelope equation depends on the function defining the lengths of the major axes of the ellipsoids of the family. The calculation of this function is performed using a continuous approximation of a discrete function obtained from the solution of a discrete problem of focusing onto a set of points. High efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by the designed examples of mirrors for generating uniform illuminance distributions in areas of different shapes. PMID:26836069

  4. Performance of NACA Eight-stage Axial-flow Compressor Designed on the Basis of Airfoil Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinnette, John T; Schey, Oscar W; King, J Austin

    1943-01-01

    The NACA has conducted an investigation to determine the performance that can be obtained from a multistage axial-flow compressor based on airfoil research. A theory was developed; an eight-stage axial-flow compressor was designed, constructed, and tested. The performance of the compressor was determined for speeds from 5000 to 14,000 r.p.m with varying air flow at each speed. Most of the tests were made with air at room temperature. The performance was determined in accordance with the Committee's recommended procedure for testing superchargers. The expected performance was obtained, showing that a multistage compressor of high efficiency can be designed by the application of airfoil theory.

  5. Design of mirrors for generating prescribed continuous illuminance distributions on the basis of the supporting quadric method.

    PubMed

    Doskolovich, L L; Borisova, K V; Moiseev, M A; Kazanskiy, N L

    2016-02-01

    A method for the design of reflecting surfaces generating prescribed continuous illuminance distributions in two-dimensional domains is proposed. The mirror surface is represented as an envelope of a two-parameter family of ellipsoids. The first focus of each ellipsoid coincides with the point light source, while the second one is located at the illuminated domain. This surface representation can be interpreted as a limiting case of a segmented surface used in the supporting quadric method for focusing onto a set of points. The envelope equation depends on the function defining the lengths of the major axes of the ellipsoids of the family. The calculation of this function is performed using a continuous approximation of a discrete function obtained from the solution of a discrete problem of focusing onto a set of points. High efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by the designed examples of mirrors for generating uniform illuminance distributions in areas of different shapes.

  6. Shape threat detection via adaptive computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudi, Ahmad; Thamvichai, Ratchaneekorn; Neifeld, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is used widely for screening purposes. Conventional x-ray threat detection systems employ image reconstruction and segmentation algorithms prior to making threat/no-threat decisions. We find that in many cases these pre-processing steps can degrade detection performance. Therefore in this work we will investigate methods that operate directly on the CT measurements. We analyze a fixed-gantry system containing 25 x-ray sources and 2200 photon counting detectors. We present a new method for improving threat detection performance. This new method is a so-called greedy adaptive algorithm which at each time step uses information from previous measurements to design the next measurement. We utilize sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) in order to derive both the optimal "next measurement" and the stopping criterion to insure a target probability of error Pe. We find that selecting the next x-ray source according to such a greedy adaptive algorithm, we can reduce Pe by a factor of 42.4× relative to the conventional measurement sequence employing all 25 sources in sequence.

  7. Molecular Design, Functional Characterization and Structural Basis of a Protein Inhibitor Against the HIV-1 Pathogenicity Factor Nef

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Sebastian; Schievink, Simone I.; Schulte, Antje; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Fackler, Oliver T.; Geyer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Increased spread of HIV-1 and rapid emergence of drug resistance warrants development of novel antiviral strategies. Nef, a critical viral pathogenicity factor that interacts with host cell factors but lacks enzymatic activity, is not targeted by current antiviral measures. Here we inhibit Nef function by simultaneously blocking several highly conserved protein interaction surfaces. This strategy, referred to as “wrapping Nef”, is based on structure-function analyses that led to the identification of four target sites: (i) SH3 domain interaction, (ii) interference with protein transport processes, (iii) CD4 binding and (iv) targeting to lipid membranes. Screening combinations of Nef-interacting domains, we developed a series of small Nef interacting proteins (NIs) composed of an SH3 domain optimized for binding to Nef, fused to a sequence motif of the CD4 cytoplasmic tail and combined with a prenylation signal for membrane association. NIs bind to Nef in the low nM affinity range, associate with Nef in human cells and specifically interfere with key biological activities of Nef. Structure determination of the Nef-inhibitor complex reveals the molecular basis for binding specificity. These results establish Nef-NI interfaces as promising leads for the development of potent Nef inhibitors. PMID:21625496

  8. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled.

  9. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled. PMID:27417495

  10. Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

  11. Designation of 15 serovars of Haemophilus parasuis on the basis of immunodiffusion using heat-stable antigen extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Kielstein, P; Rapp-Gabrielson, V J

    1992-01-01

    Previous independent investigations of the serotyping of Haemophilus parasuis strains have led to the designation of serovars A to D, 1 to 7, Jena 6 to Jena 12, and ND1 to ND5. Heat-stable antigen preparations from the reference strains for these serovars were tested by immunodiffusion with rabbit hyperimmune antisera. The existence of 15 distinct serologic groups was apparent, for which we propose the designations serovars 1 to 15. Examination of 290 field isolates from swine in the former German Democratic Republic indicated a prevalence of serovars 4 and 5, which together accounted for 41% of the isolates examined. However, 26.2% of the isolates were nontypeable with this test procedure and available antisera. Intraperitoneal inoculation of specific-pathogen-free pigs with cells representing the 15 serovars indicated differences in virulence which may be serovar related. Cells of strains representing serovars 1, 5, 10, 12, 13, and 14 were the most virulent, causing death or moribundity in inoculated pigs. Cells of serovars 2, 4, 8, and 15 caused polyserositis, but not death, in inoculated pigs. However, inoculation of cells of strains representing serovars 3, 6, 7, 9, and 11 resulted in no clinical symptoms or lesions indicative of H. parasuis infection. PMID:1572971

  12. Applying Human-performance Models to Designing and Evaluating Nuclear Power Plants: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.

    2009-11-30

    Human performance models (HPMs) are simulations of human behavior with which we can predict human performance. Designers use them to support their human factors engineering (HFE) programs for a wide range of complex systems, including commercial nuclear power plants. Applicants to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can use HPMs for design certifications, operating licenses, and license amendments. In the context of nuclear-plant safety, it is important to assure that HPMs are verified and validated, and their usage is consistent with their intended purpose. Using HPMs improperly may generate misleading or incorrect information, entailing safety concerns. The objective of this research was to develop guidance to support the NRC staff's reviews of an applicant's use of HPMs in an HFE program. The guidance is divided into three topical areas: (1) HPM Verification, (2) HPM Validation, and (3) User Interface Verification. Following this guidance will help ensure the benefits of HPMs are achieved in a technically sound, defensible manner. During the course of developing this guidance, I identified several issues that could not be addressed; they also are discussed.

  13. Design, experiments and simulation of voltage transformers on the basis of a differential input D-dot sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingang; Gao, Can; Yang, Jie

    2014-07-17

    Currently available traditional electromagnetic voltage sensors fail to meet the measurement requirements of the smart grid, because of low accuracy in the static and dynamic ranges and the occurrence of ferromagnetic resonance attributed to overvoltage and output short circuit. This work develops a new non-contact high-bandwidth voltage measurement system for power equipment. This system aims at the miniaturization and non-contact measurement of the smart grid. After traditional D-dot voltage probe analysis, an improved method is proposed. For the sensor to work in a self-integrating pattern, the differential input pattern is adopted for circuit design, and grounding is removed. To prove the structure design, circuit component parameters, and insulation characteristics, Ansoft Maxwell software is used for the simulation. Moreover, the new probe was tested on a 10 kV high-voltage test platform for steady-state error and transient behavior. Experimental results ascertain that the root mean square values of measured voltage are precise and that the phase error is small. The D-dot voltage sensor not only meets the requirement of high accuracy but also exhibits satisfactory transient response. This sensor can meet the intelligence, miniaturization, and convenience requirements of the smart grid.

  14. Design, Experiments and Simulation of Voltage Transformers on the Basis of a Differential Input D-dot Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingang; Gao, Can; Yang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Currently available traditional electromagnetic voltage sensors fail to meet the measurement requirements of the smart grid, because of low accuracy in the static and dynamic ranges and the occurrence of ferromagnetic resonance attributed to overvoltage and output short circuit. This work develops a new non-contact high-bandwidth voltage measurement system for power equipment. This system aims at the miniaturization and non-contact measurement of the smart grid. After traditional D-dot voltage probe analysis, an improved method is proposed. For the sensor to work in a self-integrating pattern, the differential input pattern is adopted for circuit design, and grounding is removed. To prove the structure design, circuit component parameters, and insulation characteristics, Ansoft Maxwell software is used for the simulation. Moreover, the new probe was tested on a 10 kV high-voltage test platform for steady-state error and transient behavior. Experimental results ascertain that the root mean square values of measured voltage are precise and that the phase error is small. The D-dot voltage sensor not only meets the requirement of high accuracy but also exhibits satisfactory transient response. This sensor can meet the intelligence, miniaturization, and convenience requirements of the smart grid. PMID:25036333

  15. Managing biosecurity threats in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2011-03-01

    Compared to the extensive literature on bioterrorism and biosecurity in the United States, less analysis has been conducted on similar challenges in China. This article seeks to fill this void by providing an integrated and updated assessment of 3 major biosecurity threats China faces: biowarfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes. An analysis of China's biosecurity threats and biodefense building suggest varying levels of risk associated with each threat type. First, a direct bioweapons attack on China is highly unlikely, although the threat of biowarfare cannot be simply written off. Second, potential perpetrators of bioterrorism have capabilities at their disposal for carrying out such attacks. While terrorist organizations in China do not have a strong interest in bioterrorism, the limited state capability to counter such a threat may increase the risk in the future. Third, unlike the threats of biowarfare and bioterrorism, potential perpetrators of biocrimes have both incentives and capabilities, and biocrimes can produce reactions far out of proportion to the actual number of casualties. Despite the distinct biosecurity challenges it faces, China has yet to articulate a differentiated and coherent strategy to effectively tackle the challenges. Assessing different types of biosecurity threats in terms of degrees of risk not only provides greater analytical clarity but also has important implications for the strategies required to manage the risks.

  16. Perceived threats of individuals recovering from myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S J

    1992-01-01

    Lazarus' phenomenological theory of stress and coping provided the basis for this descriptive study of perceived threats after myocardial infarction (MI). Sixty-four post-MI subjects enrolled in phase II cardiac rehabilitation programs identified threats they had experienced in the past month. Perceived threats were defined as situations that were difficult or troubling to the individual and were described by respondents in narrative form. Degree of threat was then measured by one item on which subjects indicated the degree of concern the threatening event had caused them. Responses to the one item were analyzed and categorized into the following five areas: physical problems; medical therapy/self-care; work/physical activity; interpersonal/family; and financial. The results provide an overview of the multiple concerns individuals deal with after a major life-threatening cardiac event.

  17. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  18. China. Population. New threat.

    PubMed

    Although China's population growth rate in 1980 was the lowest in 31 years, doubling of marriages and increasing life expectancy have emerged as threats to the government plan to hold national population growth to 1200 million by the end of the present century, a Beijing official magazine reported. Liaowang (Observation), published by the government's Xinhua news agency, quoted state family planning officials as saying that a subsequent doubling of marriages this year "threatens another baby boom in the world's most populous nation." The officials said the country's population stood at 982.55 million at the end of 1980, roughly equivalent to 20% of the world's total. According to the magazine, the natural population growth rate declined to 8.97 million last year as the number of births fell to 14.99 million and that of deaths stood at 6.02 million. During the past decade, the natural increase rate of China's population dropped from 26/1000 in 1970 to just 12/1000 in 1980. Owing to increase in production and living standards, along with expansion and improvement of medical facilities, the mortality rate fell from almost 30/1000 before the founding of the People's Republic of China to around 6-8/1000 by the 1970s. According to U.N. statistics prepared for the recently-held international conference on population and development in Beijing, China succeeded in reducing its birth rate by as much as 23.1% between 1960-65 and 1970-75. But such accomplishment is now in danger of being wiped out by a new birth peak expected during the next 10 or more years as those born during the baby boom of the 1960s reached childbearing age during the present decade. In addition, the population control program is also threatened by the rising life expectancy of the Chinese people. Latest statistics compiled by the Ministry of Public Health showed that the average life span of the Chinese population had doubled to 68 years in 1980 from 35 years in 1949.

  19. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    This audit is one in a series of audits the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested. As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, DoD agreed to assist the Russian Federation in disposing of its liquid rocket propellant. Public Law 102-228 (section 2551 NOTE, title 22, United States Code), the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 designates DoD as the executive agent for the CTR Program. Specific objectives of the act are to destroy chemical, nuclear, and other weapons; transport, store, disable, and safeguard weapons in connection with their destruction; and establish verifiable safeguards against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

  20. Providing the Basis for Innovative Improvements in Advanced LWR Reactor Passive Safety Systems Design: An Educational R&D Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian G. Williams; Jim C. P. Liou; Hiral Kadakia; Bill Phoenix; Richard R. Schultz

    2007-02-27

    This project characterizes typical two-phase stratified flow conditions in advanced water reactor horizontal pipe sections, following activation of passive cooling systems. It provides (1) a means to educate nuclear engineering students regarding the importance of two-phase stratified flow in passive cooling systems to the safety of advanced reactor systems and (2) describes the experimental apparatus and process to measure key parameters essential to consider when designing passive emergency core cooling flow paths that may encounter this flow regime. Based on data collected, the state of analysis capabilities can be determined regarding stratified flow in advanced reactor systems and the best paths forward can be identified to ensure that the nuclear industry can properly characterize two-phase stratified flow in passive emergency core cooling systems.

  1. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children. PMID:26613687

  2. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  3. Assessing the threat of firearms: new threat formula, resources, and ontological linking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2014-06-01

    The present work is part of an ongoing larger project.2, 3, 11, 12 The goal of this project is to develop a system capable of automatic threat assessment for instances of firearms use in public places. The main components of the system are: an ontology of firearms;1, 14 algorithms to create the visual footprint of the firearms,1, 14 to compare visual information,2, 3, 11, 12 to facilitate search in the ontology, and to generate the links between the conceptual and visual ontologies; as well as a formula to calculate the threat of individual firearms, firearms classes, and ammunition types in different environments. One part of the dual-level ontology for the properties of the firearms captures key visual features used to identify their type or class in images, while the other part captures their threat-relevant conceptual properties. The visual ontology is the result of image segmentation and matching methods, while the conceptual ontology is designed using knowledge-engineering principles and populated semi-automatically from Web resources. The focus of the present paper is two-fold. On the one hand, we will report on an update of the initial threat formula, based on the substantially increased population of the firearm ontology, including ammunition types and comparisons to actual incidents, and allowing for an overall more accurate assessment. On the other hand, the linking algorithms between the visual and conceptual ontologies are elaborated for faster transfer of information leading to an improvement in accuracy of the threat assessment.

  4. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  5. Conditioned social dominance threat: observation of others' social dominance biases threat learning.

    PubMed

    Haaker, Jan; Molapour, Tanaz; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Social groups are organized along dominance hierarchies, which determine how we respond to threats posed by dominant and subordinate others. The persuasive impact of these dominance threats on mental and physical well-being has been well described but it is unknown how dominance rank of others bias our experience and learning in the first place. We introduce a model of conditioned social dominance threat in humans, where the presence of a dominant other is paired with an aversive event. Participants first learned about the dominance rank of others by observing their dyadic confrontations. During subsequent fear learning, the dominant and subordinate others were equally predictive of an aversive consequence (mild electric shock) to the participant. In three separate experiments, we show that participants' eye-blink startle responses and amygdala reactivity adaptively tracked dominance of others during observation of confrontation. Importantly, during fear learning dominant vs subordinate others elicited stronger and more persistent learned threat responses as measured by physiological arousal and amygdala activity. Our results characterize the neural basis of learning through observing conflicts between others, and how this affects subsequent learning through direct, personal experiences.

  6. Understanding the structural basis of substrate recognition by Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V to aid in the design of potent inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Rajiv K; Patel, Chandan; Mishra, Vandana; Xiao, Huogen; Yada, Rickey Y; Bhaumik, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V (PfPMV) is an essential aspartic protease required for parasite survival, thus, considered as a potential drug target. This study reports the first detailed structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of PfPMV as an apoenzyme and its complexes with the substrate PEXEL as well as with the inhibitor saquinavir. The presence of pro-peptide in PfPMV may not structurally hinder the formation of a functionally competent catalytic active site. The structure of PfPMV-PEXEL complex shows that the unique positions of Glu179 and Gln222 are responsible for providing the specificity of PEXEL substrate with arginine at P3 position. The structural analysis also reveals that the S4 binding pocket in PfPMV is occupied by Ile94, Ala98, Phe370 and Tyr472, and therefore, does not allow binding of pepstatin, a potent inhibitor of most pepsin-like aspartic proteases. Among the screened inhibitors, the HIV-1 protease inhibitors and KNI compounds have higher binding affinities for PfPMV with saquinavir having the highest value. The presence of a flexible group at P2 and a bulky hydrophobic group at P3 position of the inhibitor is preferred in the PfPMV substrate binding pocket. Results from the present study will aid in the design of potent inhibitors of PMV. PMID:27531685

  7. Understanding the structural basis of substrate recognition by Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V to aid in the design of potent inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Rajiv K.; Patel, Chandan; Mishra, Vandana; Xiao, Huogen; Yada, Rickey Y.; Bhaumik, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V (PfPMV) is an essential aspartic protease required for parasite survival, thus, considered as a potential drug target. This study reports the first detailed structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of PfPMV as an apoenzyme and its complexes with the substrate PEXEL as well as with the inhibitor saquinavir. The presence of pro-peptide in PfPMV may not structurally hinder the formation of a functionally competent catalytic active site. The structure of PfPMV-PEXEL complex shows that the unique positions of Glu179 and Gln222 are responsible for providing the specificity of PEXEL substrate with arginine at P3 position. The structural analysis also reveals that the S4 binding pocket in PfPMV is occupied by Ile94, Ala98, Phe370 and Tyr472, and therefore, does not allow binding of pepstatin, a potent inhibitor of most pepsin-like aspartic proteases. Among the screened inhibitors, the HIV-1 protease inhibitors and KNI compounds have higher binding affinities for PfPMV with saquinavir having the highest value. The presence of a flexible group at P2 and a bulky hydrophobic group at P3 position of the inhibitor is preferred in the PfPMV substrate binding pocket. Results from the present study will aid in the design of potent inhibitors of PMV. PMID:27531685

  8. Structural behavior of a pool-type LMFBR reactor-vessel deck to beyond-design-basis loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.; Pan, Y.C.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the structural response of the reactor vessel deck to loads resulting from a hypothetical energetic accident for a conceptual design of a pool-type LMFBR was presented. The size of the reactor was in the 1000 MWe range with a 22m reactor vessel diameter and a vessel depth of 21 m. The vessel contains the entire primary system which includes the primary pumps, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs), reactor core, core support structure, a cylindrical internal vessel, called a redan, and the sodium pool. The redan serves as a separator between the hot sodium emerging from the top of the reactor and the cooler bulk sodium. The deck structure provides support to the rotatable plug assembly, primary pumps and IHXs. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of this deck during a 1000 MJ excursion, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed for a 45 degree sector of the deck. The model included the main structural elements or the deck and the conical support skirt. The triple rotatable plug (TRP), pumps, and IHXs were represented by concentrated masses.

  9. Threat ≠ prevention, challenge ≠ promotion: the impact of threat, challenge and regulatory focus on attention to negative stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sassenberg, Kai; Sassenrath, Claudia; Fetterman, Adam K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment was to distinguish between the impact of strategic and affective forms of gain- and loss-related motivational states on the attention to negative stimuli. On the basis of the counter-regulation principle and regulatory focus theory, we predicted that individuals would attend more to negative than to neutral stimuli in a prevention focus and when experiencing challenge, but not in a promotion focus and under threat. In one experiment (N = 88) promotion, prevention, threat, or challenge states were activated through a memory task, and a subsequent dot probe task was administered. As predicted, those in the prevention focus and challenge conditions had an attentional bias towards negative words, but those in promotion and threat conditions did not. These findings provide support for the idea that strategic mindsets (e.g., regulatory focus) and hot emotional states (e.g., threat vs. challenge) differently affect the processing of affective stimuli.

  10. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  11. Material Performance of Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel under Selected LWR Design Basis Scenarios: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Boer; R. S. Sen; M. A. Pope; A. M. Ougouag

    2011-09-01

    The extension to LWRs of the use of Deep-Burn coated particle fuel envisaged for HTRs has been investigated. TRISO coated fuel particles are used in Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel within a SiC matrix rather than the graphite of HTRs. TRISO particles are well characterized for uranium-fueled HTRs. However, operating conditions of LWRs are different from those of HTRs (temperature, neutron energy spectrum, fast fluence levels, power density). Furthermore, the time scales of transient core behavior during accidents are usually much shorter and thus more severe in LWRs. The PASTA code was updated for analysis of stresses in coated particle FCM fuel. The code extensions enable the automatic use of neutronic data (burnup, fast fluence as a function of irradiation time) obtained using the DRAGON neutronics code. An input option for automatic evaluation of temperature rise during anticipated transients was also added. A new thermal model for FCM was incorporated into the code; so-were updated correlations (for pyrocarbon coating layers) suitable to estimating dimensional changes at the high fluence levels attained in LWR DB fuel. Analyses of the FCM fuel using the updated PASTA code under nominal and accident conditions show: (1) Stress levels in SiC-coatings are low for low fission gas release (FGR) fractions of several percent, as based on data of fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2} kernels. However, the high burnup level of LWR-DB fuel implies that the FGR fraction is more likely to be in the range of 50-100%, similar to Inert Matrix Fuels (IMFs). For this range the predicted stresses and failure fractions of the SiC coating are high for the reference particle design (500 {micro}mm kernel diameter, 100 {micro}mm buffer, 35 {micro}mm IPyC, 35 {micro}mm SiC, 40 {micro}mm OPyC). A conservative case, assuming 100% FGR, 900K fuel temperature and 705 MWd/kg (77% FIMA) fuel burnup, results in a 8.0 x 10{sup -2} failure probability. For a 'best-estimate' FGR fraction

  12. Combating the Insider Cyber Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Moore, Andrew P.; Cappelli, Dawn M.; Andrews, Dee H.; Carroll, Lynn; Hull, Thomas D.

    2008-01-02

    This article represents a collaboration between PNNL, CERT/CMU, and AFRL that describes needs and related efforts by these institutions to develop technologies and approaches to counter cyber threats by insiders to informatin systems. The main focus of this article is on the need for effective training on insider threat to raise staff awareness and encourage organizations to adopt a more effective approach to identifying potential risks and take proactive steps to mitigate them.

  13. No-Threat Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Benjamin S.

    1996-01-01

    Thanks to a collegial training program conducted in their school's computer labs, teachers at a Sussex County, New Jersey, high school have grown comfortable with using computers for everything from lesson planning and recording grades to designing graphics and manipulating databases. A teacher-led committee developed the program, appointed…

  14. Insider Threat and Information Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

    The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

  15. EPR Severe Accident Threats and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Azarian, G.; Kursawe, H.M.; Nie, M.; Fischer, M.; Eyink, J.; Stoudt, R.H.

    2004-07-01

    Despite the extremely low EPR core melt frequency, an improved defence-in-depth approach is applied in order to comply with the EPR safety target: no stringent countermeasures should be necessary outside the immediate plant vicinity like evacuation, relocation or food control other than the first harvest in case of a severe accident. Design provisions eliminate energetic events and maintain the containment integrity and leak-tightness during the entire course of the accident. Based on scenarios that cover a broad range of physical phenomena and which provide a sound envelope of boundary conditions associated with each containment challenge, a selection of representative loads has been done, for which mitigation measures have to cope with. This paper presents the main critical threats and the approach used to mitigate those threats. (authors)

  16. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  17. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  18. From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Neuberg, Steven L

    2007-05-01

    More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions--the target of the threat (the self/one's group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors propose that these threats constitute the core of the broader stereotype threat construct and provide the foundation for understanding additional, as of yet uncharacterized, stereotype threats. The proposed threats likely differentially peril those with different stigmatizable characteristics, have different eliciting conditions and moderators, are mediated by somewhat different processes, are coped with and compensated for in different ways, and require different interventions to overcome.

  19. A balance procedure for calculating the model fuel assemblies reflooding during design basis accident and its verification on PARAMETER test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyuk, S. S.; Ignat'ev, D. N.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Popov, E. B.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.

    2013-05-01

    A balance procedure is proposed for estimating the main parameters characterizing the process of model fuel assemblies reflooding of a VVER reactor made on different scales under the conditions of a design basis accident by subjecting them to bottom reflooding1. The proposed procedure satisfactorily describes the experimental data obtained on PARAMETER test facility in the temperature range up to 1200°C. The times of fuel assemblies quenching by bottom reflooding calculated using the proposed procedure are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data obtained on model fuel assemblies of VVER- and PWR-type reactors and can be used in developing measures aimed at enhancing the safety of nuclear power stations.

  20. Modeling automatic threat detection: development of a face-in-the-crowd task.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Daffy, Martin

    2011-02-01

    An angry face is expected to be detected faster than a happy face because of an early, stimulus-driven analysis of threat-related properties. However, it is unclear to what extent results from the visual search approach-the face-in-the-crowd task-mirror this automatic analysis. The paper outlines a model of automatic threat detection that combines the assumption of a neuronal system for threat detection with contemporary theories of visual search. The model served as a guideline for the development of a new face-in-the-crowd task. The development involved three preliminary studies that provided a basis for the selection of angry and happy facial stimuli resembling each other in respect to perceptibility, homogeneity, and intensity. With these stimuli a signal detection version of the search task was designed and tested. For crowds composed of neutral faces, the sensitivity measure d' proved the expected detection advantage of angry faces compared to happy faces. However, the emotional expression made no difference if a neutral face had to be detected in crowd composed of either angry or happy faces. Results are in line with the assumption of a stimulus-driven shift of attention giving rise to the superior detection of angry target faces.

  1. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  2. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  3. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  4. Contamination threats to critical surfaces from handling and storage practices.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poehlmann, H. C.; Manning, R. R.; Jackman, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures and results of a program designed to remove the threat of sources of molecular and particulate contamination of critical optical, electrical, and mechanical elements in spacecraft. The results of recent contamination-probing thermal-vacuum tests indicate that some of the materials and practices commonly used to protect critical surfaces from molecular or particulate contamination can themselves represent significant threats. These contamination sources include clean-room and clean-tent materials, gloves, tissues, and covering or packaging materials. Mass and infrared spectral analyses of these materials and the environments and instruments exposed to them show that the contaminants are mostly plasticizers, slip or antistatic agents, and binders used in the manufacture of these products. Products of particular threat include vinyl gloves, boots, clean-tent walls, and some polyethylene sheets and bags. Techniques for reducing these threats are discussed.

  5. Recent advances in the development of a novel aerosol sorting and deposition system for bio-threat sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletcher, Timothy; McGinn, Joseph; Keller, David; Huston, Alan; Eversole, Jay; Sivaprakasum, Vasanthi

    2007-10-01

    Sarnoff Corporation and the Naval Research Laboratory, through support of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, are developing an automated, high throughput bio-aerosol physical enrichment system designed for use as part of a biological-threat protection system. The Biological Aerosol-Capture-Enrichment (BioACE) system is a bio-aerosol collection system that combines three unique technologies to create physically enriched aerosol samples that can be subsequently interrogated by any number of bio-threat detection systems for the presence of threat agents. An air-to-air concentrator uses an inertial separation technique to highly concentrate an aerosol sample presented to a dual wavelength ultra-violet laser induced fluorescence (UVLIF) optical trigger used to discriminate potential threat particles from non-threat particles conveyed in a collimated particle stream. This particle classification information is used to trigger an electrostatic deposition mechanism to deposit only those particles determined to be potential bio-threats onto a stainless steel substrate. Non-threat particles are discarded with the exiting airflow. The goal for the most recent development effort has been the integration and optimization of these technologies into a unit capable of producing highly enriched particulate samples from ambient air containing variable background aerosol loading and type. Several key technical and engineering challenges were overcome during the course of this development including a unique solution for compensating particle velocity dispersion within the airflow, development of a real-time signal acquisition and detection algorithm for determining material type on a particle by particle basis at rates greater than 2000 particles per second, and the introduction of a robust method for transferring deposited particulate into a 50ul wet sample suitable for most advanced bio-detection techniques. This paper will briefly describe the overall system architecture and

  6. Identifying chemicals that are planetary boundary threats.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Matthew; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; Persson, Linn M; Rudén, Christina; McLachlan, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a "safe operating space for humanity". Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical poses an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions: (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemicals could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Prioritization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainties and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for their potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical processes that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects.

  7. The Threat to College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barol, Bill

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of young academics, known as gypsy scholars, find themselves hired temporarily, drawing the worst teaching assignments, having the heaviest workloads, and having the lowest pay. Tenure is seen as academia's brass ring. The threat to tenure in Nevada is discussed. (MLW)

  8. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  9. Threats to the Inclusive Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiler, Anthony; Gibson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    This article explores four key threats to the movement toward inclusion within the field of special educational needs: the lack of precision in definitions of inclusion; the lack of research evidence, the tendency for some children to experience internal exclusion in the schools, and the continuing inclination to label children. (Author/CR)

  10. Measuring Vulnerability to Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Lucy; Burley, Hansel; Olivarez, Arturo; Crooks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of an instrument intended to measure vulnerability to stereotype threat. Method: We revised the instrument through assessing score reliability and then examined a domain specific model using confirmatory factor analyses. After examining the responses of the total sample…

  11. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  12. Dimensions of early experience and neural development: deprivation and threat.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, a growing area of research has focused on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impacts on neural and developmental outcomes. Work in the field to-date has generally conceptualized ACEs in terms of exposure to stress while overlooking the underlying dimensions of environmental experience that may distinctly impact neural development. Here, we propose a novel framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected cognitive and social input) and threat (presence of a threat to one's physical integrity). We draw support for the neural basis of this distinction from studies on fear learning and sensory deprivation in animals to highlight potential mechanisms through which experiences of threat and deprivation could affect neural structure and function in humans. PMID:25305194

  13. Looming vulnerability to threat: a cognitive paradigm for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Riskind, J H

    1997-08-01

    The concept that perceived threat or danger is a cognitive antecedent of anxiety is central in clinical psychology, personality psychology, and social psychology. The aim in the current article is to review this concept and present a new conception called the looming vulnerability model. Looming vulnerability is conceptualized as an important cognitive component of threat or danger that elicits anxiety, sensitizes the individual to signs of movement and threat, biases cognitive processing, and makes the anxiety more persistent and less likely to habituate. In addition, it is postulated as a principal theme that discriminates anxiety and focal fears from depression. The looming vulnerability model integrates a disparate collection of findings and integrates the conceptualization of anxiety and fear with ethological and developmental observations. The social-cognitive and evolutionary basis of the sense of looming vulnerability are discussed, as well as its roots in cognitive schemata (fear scripts), its state elicitation by several potential classes of antecedent conditions, and possible treatment implications.

  14. Dimensions of early experience and neural development: deprivation and threat.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, a growing area of research has focused on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impacts on neural and developmental outcomes. Work in the field to-date has generally conceptualized ACEs in terms of exposure to stress while overlooking the underlying dimensions of environmental experience that may distinctly impact neural development. Here, we propose a novel framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected cognitive and social input) and threat (presence of a threat to one's physical integrity). We draw support for the neural basis of this distinction from studies on fear learning and sensory deprivation in animals to highlight potential mechanisms through which experiences of threat and deprivation could affect neural structure and function in humans.

  15. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  16. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1996-10-04

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  17. Meteoroids and Meteor Storms: A Threat to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Robust system design is the best protection against meteoroid damage. Impacts by small meteoroids are common on satellite surfaces, but impacts by meteoroids large enough to damage well designed systems are very rare. Estimating the threat from the normal meteoroid environment is difficult. Estimates for the occasional "storm" are even more uncertain. Common sense precautions are in order for the 1999 Leonids, but wide-spread catastrophic damage is highly unlikely. Strong Leonid showers are also expected in 2000 and 2001, but these pose much less threat than 1999.

  18. An approach to estimating radiological risk of offsite release from a design basis earthquake for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Reny, D.A.; Brown, A.N.

    1990-09-01

    In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1A, a seismic analysis was performed on DOE's Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), a facility for processing low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste. Because no hazard curves were available for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), DOE guidelines were used to estimate the frequency for the specified design-basis earthquake (DBE). A dynamic structural analysis of the building was performed, using the DBE parameters, followed by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the PRA, a functional organization of the facility equipment was effected so that top events for a representative event tree model could be determined. Building response spectra (calculated from the structural analysis), in conjunction with generic fragility data, were used to generate fragility curves for the PREPP equipment. Using these curves, failure probabilities for each top event were calculated. These probabilities were integrated into the event tree model, and accident sequences and respective probabilities were calculated through quantification. By combining the sequences failure probabilities with a transport analysis of the estimated airborne source term from a DBE, onsite and offsite consequences were calculated. The results of the comprehensive analysis substantiated the ability of the PREPP facility to withstand a DBE with negligible consequence (i.e., estimated release was within personnel and environmental dose guidelines). 57 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Design of hybrid radial basis function neural networks (HRBFNNs) realized with the aid of hybridization of fuzzy clustering method (FCM) and polynomial neural networks (PNNs).

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Oh, Sung-Kwun; Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we propose Hybrid Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (HRBFNNs) realized with the aid of fuzzy clustering method (Fuzzy C-Means, FCM) and polynomial neural networks. Fuzzy clustering used to form information granulation is employed to overcome a possible curse of dimensionality, while the polynomial neural network is utilized to build local models. Furthermore, genetic algorithm (GA) is exploited here to optimize the essential design parameters of the model (including fuzzification coefficient, the number of input polynomial fuzzy neurons (PFNs), and a collection of the specific subset of input PFNs) of the network. To reduce dimensionality of the input space, principal component analysis (PCA) is considered as a sound preprocessing vehicle. The performance of the HRBFNNs is quantified through a series of experiments, in which we use several modeling benchmarks of different levels of complexity (different number of input variables and the number of available data). A comparative analysis reveals that the proposed HRBFNNs exhibit higher accuracy in comparison to the accuracy produced by some models reported previously in the literature.

  20. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) Direct threat means a significant risk to the health or safety of others that cannot be eliminated by a modification of policies... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make...

  1. Identifying Separation Threats in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argles, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the types of separation threats common in troubled families. Signs that threats are being used may include inappropriate clinging behavior, phobias, psychosomatic symptoms, and anxious attachment. Therapists may find other behaviors, often seen as problems in themselves, that are really reactions to perceived separation threats. (JAC)

  2. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  3. Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

  4. Unattended sensors for nuclear threat detection

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Kiff, Scott D.; Morris, Scott J.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Rohrer, John S.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2008-06-30

    This paper discusses the ongoing development of a compact, unattended, and low-power radiation detection system designed for deployment to the front lines of nuclear proliferation. Current countermeasure deployments aim to detect nuclear threats by screening cargo containers abroad or at ports of entry, but the defensive nature of these systems means that they face the immense challenge of detecting intentionally-concealed materials. A complementary strategy places countermeasures closer to the source of nuclear proliferation, but deployments to these regions often must operate autonomously and in the absence of infrastructure. This application motivates our development of a low-power system capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron emissions while operating autonomously for extended periods of time. Many challenges are present when developing radiation-detection systems for this application, and this paper describes work focused on two of them: the development of compact, low-power electronics for gamma-ray-spectrometer and 3He- tube signal processing, and analysis algorithms capable of distinguishing threats from benign sources in mid-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers. We discuss our development efforts on these fronts and present results based on implementation in a proof-of-principle system comprised of two 5 cm x 10 cm x 41 cm NaI(Tl) crystals and eight 40-cm 3He tubes.

  5. Perfectionism Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on STEM Majors' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Stinson, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of…

  6. Threats to Networked RFID Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Beye, Michael; Peris-Lopez, Pedro

    RFID technology is an area currently undergoing active development. An issue, which has received a lot of attention, is the security risks that arise due to the inherent vulnerabilities of RFID technology. Most of this attention, however, has focused on related privacy issues. The goal of this chapter is to present a more global overview of RFID threats. This can not only help experts perform risk analyses of RFID systems but also increase awareness and understanding of RFID security issues for non-experts. We use clearly defined and widely accepted concepts from both the RFID area and classical risk analysis to structure this overview.

  7. [Modern threat of Ebola virus].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2014-11-01

    Since the detection of Ebola virus in 1976. recorded 13 major epidemics in Africa. The current threat in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone absorbs another victims and threatened pandemic. Picture of the disease is initially very non-characteristic (influenza-like symptoms) and quickly leads to dehydration, shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, which is responsible for high mortality. Lack of effective antibiotic therapy and vaccine hampers the existing situation. For this reason, there is an absolute necessity to introduce regimes sanitation, quarantine at the suspects and maintain the highest safety measures for emergency responders. Developed procedures require absolute compliance.

  8. The role of threats in animal cooperation.

    PubMed

    Cant, Michael A

    2011-01-22

    In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identify three factors-impact, accuracy and perception-that together determine the effectiveness of threats to induce cooperation.

  9. A simple strategy to reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Everlyne; Wright, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stereotype threat, defined as the predicament felt by people in either positive or negative learning experiences where they could conform to negative stereotypes associated with their own group membership, can interfere with learning. The purpose of this study was to determine if a simple orientation session could reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents. Methods The intervention group received an orientation on 2 occasions focusing on their possible responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds and the operating room (OR). Participants completed a survey with 7 questions typical for stereotype threat evaluating responses to their experiences. The questions had 7 response options with a maximum total score of 49, where higher scores indicated greater degree of experiences typical of stereotype threat. Results Of the 84 eligible residents, 49 participated: 22 in the nonintervention and 27 in the intervention group. The overall scores were 29 and 29.4, and 26.2 and 25.8 in the nonintervention and intervention groups for their survey responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds (p = 0.85) and the OR (p = 0.84), respectively. Overall, responses typical of stereotype threat were greater for perceived poor performance at teaching rounds than in the OR (p = 0.001). Conclusion Residents experience low self-esteem following perceived poor performance, particularly at rounds. A simple orientation designed to reduce stereotype threat was unsuccessful in reducing this threat overall. Future research will need to consider longer-term intervention as possible strategies to reduce perceived poor performance at teaching rounds and in the OR. PMID:24666454

  10. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  12. Threat Sensitivity in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2015-01-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as “a test of general intelligence.” Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity—including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding— can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. PMID:25688436

  13. Sensor-netting algorithm for CB threat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Grim, Larry; Keiser, Christopher; Ginley, William

    2010-04-01

    Large networks of disparate chemical/biological (CB) sensors, MET sensors, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) sensors reporting to various command/display locations can lead to conflicting threat information, questions of alarm confidence, and a confused situational awareness. Sensor netting algorithms (SNA) are being developed to resolve these conflicts and to report high confidence consensus threat map data products on a common operating picture (COP) display. A phase I SBIR study to develop a conceptual design for a SNA was recently completed. Mathematical approaches for assigning uncertainty to incoming data streams, doing spatial/temporal correlation of point and standoff sensor data (via vector translation based tomography), estimating uncertainty for threat maps, and consistency checking between the consensus threat map result and the individual input data streams were developed. A set of simulation environment tools for testing the SNA, including a simple threat model, sensor models, and fused and un-fused COPs, were also prototyped during phase I. The SNA development and simulation based testing will continue during the phase II effort, which was just awarded.

  14. Teens Impulsively React Rather than Retreat from Threat

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfuss, Michael; Caudle, Kristina; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Johnston, Natalie E.; Cohen, Alexandra O.; Somerville, Leah H.; Galván, Adriana; Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Casey, BJ

    2014-01-01

    There is a significant inflection in risk taking and criminal behavior during adolescence, but the basis for this increase remains largely unknown. An increased sensitivity to rewards has been suggested to explain these behaviors. Yet juvenile offenses often occur in emotionally charged situations of negative valence. How behavior is altered by changes in negative emotional processes during adolescence has received less attention than changes in positive emotional processes. The current study uses a measure of impulsivity in combination with cues that signal threat or safety to assess developmental changes in emotional responses to threat cues. We show that adolescents, especially males, impulsively react to threat cues relative to neutral ones, more than adults or children, even when instructed not to respond. This adolescent specific behavioral pattern is paralleled by enhanced activity in limbic cortical regions implicated in detection and assignment of emotional value to inputs and in the subsequent regulation of responses to them when successfully suppressing impulsive responses to threat cues. In contrast, prefrontal control regions implicated in detecting and resolving competing responses show an adolescent emergent pattern (i.e., greater activity in adolescents and adults relative to children) during successful suppression of a response regardless of emotion. Our findings suggest that adolescence is a period of heightened sensitivity to social and emotional cues that results in diminished regulation of behavior in their presence. PMID:24821576

  15. Novel Threat-risk Index Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Human Reliability Analysis - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    George A. Beitel

    2004-02-01

    In support of a national need to improve the current state-of-the-art in alerting decision makers to the risk of terrorist attack, a quantitative approach employing scientific and engineering concepts to develop a threat-risk index was undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result of this effort, a set of models has been successfully integrated into a single comprehensive model known as Quantitative Threat-Risk Index Model (QTRIM), with the capability of computing a quantitative threat-risk index on a system level, as well as for the major components of the system. Such a threat-risk index could provide a quantitative variant or basis for either prioritizing security upgrades or updating the current qualitative national color-coded terrorist threat alert.

  16. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  17. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  18. World's soils are under threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  19. World's soils are under threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, L.; Pennock, D. J.; McKenzie, N. J.; Badraoui, M.; Chude, V.; Baptista, I.; Mamo, T.; Yemefack, M.; Singh Aulakh, M.; Yagi, K.; Hong, S. Young; Vijarnsorn, P.; Zhang, G.-L.; Arrouays, D.; Black, H.; Krasilnikov, P.; Sobocká, J.; Alegre, J.; Henriquez, C. R.; Mendonça-Santos, M. L.; Taboada, M.; Espinosa-Victoria, D.; AlShankiti, A.; AlaviPanah, S. K.; Elsheikh, E. A. E.; Hempel, J.; Camps Arbestain, M.; Nachtergaele, F.; Vargas, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecure among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the SWSR report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  20. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  1. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  2. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. OVERVIEW AND APPLICATION. INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  3. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 1: WATER UTILITIES PLANNING GUIDE - INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  4. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS, MODULE 3: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SAMPLING GUIDE. INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  5. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 4: ANALYTICAL GUIDE. INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  6. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    DOEpatents

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  7. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-07-12

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

  8. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  9. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  10. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology.

  11. Threat by association: do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    PubMed

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the threatening group, carry over to other groups that individuals actually do encounter in their local environment (e.g., immigrants). The main goal of our studies was to experimentally identify this carry-over effect of intergroup threat. Specifically, we hypothesized that (by definition relatively abstract) symbolic threats (e.g., threats to the ingroup's worldview) have an especially strong carry-over potential because those threats can be easily attributed to other outgroups. We tested these predictions in one correlational and two experimental studies. The results of all three studies confirmed our hypothesis that particularly distant symbolic threats were predictive of intolerance towards local outgroups.

  12. Integrated optic chip for laser threat identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2010-04-01

    In this conference last year, we proposed free-space gratings, Fizeau interferometers and wavefront estimation for detecting the different lasers deployed in the battlefield for range finding, target designation, communications, dazzle, location of targets, munitions guidance, and destruction. Since last year, advanced laser weapons of the electron cyclotron type, are in development, such as the free-electron laser, that are tunable and can, unlike conventional bound-electron state lasers, be used at any wavelength from microwaves to soft X-rays. We list the characteristics of the nine dominant laser weapons because we assume that the free-electron lasers will initially use one of the current threat wavelengths because of availability of components and instrumentation. In this paper we replace the free-space grating with a higher performing array waveguide grating integrated optic chip, similar to that used in telecommunications, because integrated circuits are more robust and less expensive. It consists of a star coupler that fans out amongst waveguides of different length followed by a star coupler that focuses different wavelengths to different outputs in order to separate them. Design equations are derived to cover a range of frequencies at specific frequency spacing relevant to this application.

  13. Nuclear threats from small states

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, J.H.

    1994-06-13

    What are the policy implications regarding proliferation and counter proliferation of nuclear weapons among Third World states. How does deterrence operate outside the parameters of superpower confrontation as defined by the cold war elaborate system of constraints enforced by concepts like mutual assured destruction, and counter-value and counter-force targeting. How can US policymakers devise contingencies for dealing with nuclear threats posed by countries like North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. These are some of the unsettling but nevertheless important questions addressed by the author in this monograph. In his analysis, Mr. Jerome Kahan examines the likelihood that one or more of these countries will use nuclear weapons before the year 2000. He also offers a framework that policymakers and planners might use in assessing US interests in preempting the use of nuclear weapons or in retaliating for their use. Ironically, with the end of the cold war, it is imperative that defense strategists, policymakers, and military professionals think about the `unthinkable`. In the interest of fostering debate on this important subject, the Strategic Studies Institute commends this insightful monograph.

  14. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    PubMed

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world.

  15. Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Shiffrin, Richard M; Boucher, Kathryn L; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T

    2010-08-10

    Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype "women are bad at math" causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task as an increasing rate of search for a target Chinese character in a display of such characters. Displays contained two or four characters and half of these contained a target. Search rate increased across a session of training for a control group of women, but not women under ST. Speeding of search is typically explained in terms of learned "popout" (automatic attraction of attention to a target). Did women under ST learn popout but fail to express it? Following training, the women were shown two colored squares and asked to choose the one with the greater color saturation. Superimposed on the squares were task-irrelevant Chinese characters. For women not trained under ST, the presence of a trained target on one square slowed responding, indicating that training had caused the learning of an attention response to targets. Women trained under ST showed no slowing, indicating that they had not learned such an attention response.

  16. Inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Kevin T; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosing the processes that threaten species persistence is critical for recovery planning and risk forecasting. Dominant threats are typically inferred by experts on the basis of a patchwork of informal methods. Transparent, quantitative diagnostic tools would contribute much-needed consistency, objectivity, and rigor to the process of diagnosing anthropogenic threats. Long-term census records, available for an increasingly large and diverse set of taxa, may exhibit characteristic signatures of specific threatening processes and thereby provide information for threat diagnosis. We developed a flexible Bayesian framework for diagnosing threats on the basis of long-term census records and diverse ancillary sources of information. We tested this framework with simulated data from artificial populations subjected to varying degrees of exploitation and habitat loss and several real-world abundance time series for which threatening processes are relatively well understood: bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) (exploitation) and Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) and Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis) (habitat loss). Our method correctly identified the process driving population decline for over 90% of time series simulated under moderate to severe threat scenarios. Successful identification of threats approached 100% for severe exploitation and habitat loss scenarios. Our method identified threats less successfully when threatening processes were weak and when populations were simultaneously affected by multiple threats. Our method selected the presumed true threat model for all real-world case studies, although results were somewhat ambiguous in the case of the Eurasian Skylark. In the latter case, incorporation of an ancillary source of information (records of land-use change) increased the weight assigned to the presumed true model from 70% to 92%, illustrating the value of the proposed framework in bringing diverse sources of

  17. Inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Kevin T; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosing the processes that threaten species persistence is critical for recovery planning and risk forecasting. Dominant threats are typically inferred by experts on the basis of a patchwork of informal methods. Transparent, quantitative diagnostic tools would contribute much-needed consistency, objectivity, and rigor to the process of diagnosing anthropogenic threats. Long-term census records, available for an increasingly large and diverse set of taxa, may exhibit characteristic signatures of specific threatening processes and thereby provide information for threat diagnosis. We developed a flexible Bayesian framework for diagnosing threats on the basis of long-term census records and diverse ancillary sources of information. We tested this framework with simulated data from artificial populations subjected to varying degrees of exploitation and habitat loss and several real-world abundance time series for which threatening processes are relatively well understood: bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) (exploitation) and Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) and Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis) (habitat loss). Our method correctly identified the process driving population decline for over 90% of time series simulated under moderate to severe threat scenarios. Successful identification of threats approached 100% for severe exploitation and habitat loss scenarios. Our method identified threats less successfully when threatening processes were weak and when populations were simultaneously affected by multiple threats. Our method selected the presumed true threat model for all real-world case studies, although results were somewhat ambiguous in the case of the Eurasian Skylark. In the latter case, incorporation of an ancillary source of information (records of land-use change) increased the weight assigned to the presumed true model from 70% to 92%, illustrating the value of the proposed framework in bringing diverse sources of

  18. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  19. Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

  20. Personality Correlates of Nuclear War Threat Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    This study investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and the threat of nuclear war among 192 introductory psychology students at a small college in the Pacific Northwest. One measure of nuclear threat perception was spontaneous concern, which was assessed using five presentations each of the incomplete sentences,…

  1. Keeping Schools Safe through Threat Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates how effective a threat assessment program like the Mid-Valley Student Threat Assessment (STAT) program can be in dealing with violent and threatening students. STAT is a a regional system that draws together resources from schools, mental health agencies, law enforcement bureaus, and other youth-serving organizations in…

  2. How species respond to multiple extinction threats.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Nick J. B.; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that different species vary in their vulnerability to extinction risk and that species biology can underpin much of this variation. By contrast, very little is known about how the same species responds to different threat processes. The purpose of this paper is therefore twofold: to examine the extent to which a species' vulnerability to different types of threat might covary and to explore the biological traits that are associated with threat-specific responses. We use an objective and quantitative measure of local extinction risk to show that vulnerability to local population decline in primates varies substantially among species and between threat types. Our results show that a species' response to one threat type does not predict its response to others. Multivariate analyses also suggest that different mechanisms of decline are associated with each type of threat, since different biological traits are correlated with each threat-specific response. Primate species at risk from forestry tend to exhibit low ecological flexibility, while those species vulnerable to agriculture tend to live in the canopy and eat low-fruit diets; in further contrast, primates at risk from hunting tend to exhibit large body size. Our analyses therefore indicate that a species' vulnerability to local extinction can be highly variable and is likely to depend on both threat type and biology. PMID:15306363

  3. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  4. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  5. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Orlando; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Alves, Rita C. S.; Campagnoli, Rafaela R.; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel P. A.; Erthal, Fátima C. S.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2013-01-01

    The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT) paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed toward the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during directed toward threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, directed away threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by threat stimuli directed toward the observer. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies. PMID:24115925

  6. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on current medical knowledge or on the...

  7. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on current medical knowledge or on the...

  8. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on current medical knowledge or on the...

  9. 28 CFR 35.139 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities of that public entity when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public entity must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on...

  10. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public accommodation must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on current medical knowledge or on the...

  11. 28 CFR 35.139 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities of that public entity when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, a public entity must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable judgment that relies on...

  12. Cosmic Impacts: The DoomsDay Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    1998-07-01

    Recent science fiction movies (Deep Impact and Armageddon) have brought public attention to the threat of possible impacts from space. Just how real is this threat and what would be the consequences of such an impact? Can we do anything to prevent it? The survival of civilization may depend on it.

  13. Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

  14. Shades of Threat: Racial Identity as a Moderator of Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Claytie, III; Aronson, Joshua; Salinas, Moises

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated Black racial identity attitudes as a moderator of intellectual performance in potentially stereotype threatening situations. Ninety-eight African American students were randomly assigned to one of three stereotype threatening conditions: low threat, medium threat, or high threat. Analyses confirmed a stereotype threat…

  15. Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.

    PubMed

    Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2012-01-01

    We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements. PMID:22580411

  16. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  17. An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on stress arousal, vigilance, working memory, and self-regulation to develop a process model of how negative stereotypes impair performance on cognitive and social tasks that require controlled processing, as well as sensorimotor tasks that require automatic processing. The authors argue that stereotype threat disrupts performance via 3 distinct, yet interrelated, mechanisms: (a) a physiological stress response that directly impairs prefrontal processing, (b) a tendency to actively monitor performance, and (c) efforts to suppress negative thoughts and emotions in the service of self-regulation. These mechanisms combine to consume executive resources needed to perform well on cognitive and social tasks. The active monitoring mechanism disrupts performance on sensorimotor tasks directly. Empirical evidence for these assertions is reviewed, and implications for interventions designed to alleviate stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:18426293

  18. Human Threat Management Systems: Self-Protection and Disease Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Neuberg, Steven L.; Kenrick, Douglas T.; Schaller, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Humans likely evolved precautionary systems designed to minimize the threats to reproductive fitness posed by highly interdependent ultrasociality. A review of research on the self-protection and disease avoidance systems reveals that each system is functionally distinct and domain-specific: Each is attuned to different cues; engages different emotions, inferences, and behavioral inclinations; and is rooted in somewhat different neurobiological substrates. These systems share important features, however. Each system is functionally coherent, in that perceptual, affective, cognitive, and behavioral processes work in concert to reduce fitness costs of potential threats. Each system is biased in a risk-averse manner, erring toward precautionary responses even when available cues only heuristically imply threat. And each system is functionally flexible, being highly sensitive to specific ecological and dispositional cues that signal greater vulnerability to the relevant threat. These features characterize a general template useful for understanding not only the self-protection and disease avoidance systems, but also a broader set of evolved, domain-specific precautionary systems. PMID:20833199

  19. Perceived threat predicts the neural sequelae of combat stress

    PubMed Central

    van Wingen, G A; Geuze, E; Vermetten, E; Fernández, G

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe stressors increases the risk for psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals, but can lead to positive outcomes for others. However, it remains unknown how severe stress affects neural functioning in humans and what factors mediate individual differences in the neural sequelae of stress. The amygdala is a key brain region involved in threat detection and fear regulation, and previous animal studies have suggested that stress sensitizes amygdala responsivity and reduces its regulation by the prefrontal cortex. In this study, we used a prospective design to investigate the consequences of severe stress in soldiers before and after deployment to a combat zone. We found that combat stress increased amygdala and insula reactivity to biologically salient stimuli across the group of combat-exposed individuals. In contrast, its influence on amygdala coupling with the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was dependent on perceived threat, rather than actual exposure, suggesting that threat appraisal affects interoceptive awareness and amygdala regulation. Our results demonstrate that combat stress has sustained consequences on neural responsivity, and suggest a key role for the appraisal of threat on an amygdala-centered neural network in the aftermath of severe stress. PMID:21242990

  20. An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance.

    PubMed

    Schmader, Toni; Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

    2008-04-01

    Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on stress arousal, vigilance, working memory, and self-regulation to develop a process model of how negative stereotypes impair performance on cognitive and social tasks that require controlled processing, as well as sensorimotor tasks that require automatic processing. The authors argue that stereotype threat disrupts performance via 3 distinct, yet interrelated, mechanisms: (a) a physiological stress response that directly impairs prefrontal processing, (b) a tendency to actively monitor performance, and (c) efforts to suppress negative thoughts and emotions in the service of self-regulation. These mechanisms combine to consume executive resources needed to perform well on cognitive and social tasks. The active monitoring mechanism disrupts performance on sensorimotor tasks directly. Empirical evidence for these assertions is reviewed, and implications for interventions designed to alleviate stereotype threat are discussed.

  1. A Quantitative Threats Analysis for the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered marine mammal endemic to the southeastern United States. The primary threats to manatee populations are collisions with watercraft and the potential loss of warm-water refuges. For the purposes of listing, recovery, and regulation under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), an understanding of the relative effects of the principal threats is needed. This work is a quantitative approach to threats analysis, grounded in the assumption that an appropriate measure of status under the ESA is based on the risk of extinction, as quantified by the probability of quasi-extinction. This is related to the qualitative threats analyses that are more common under the ESA, but provides an additional level of rigor, objectivity, and integration. In this approach, our philosophy is that analysis of the five threat factors described in Section 4(a)(1) of the ESA can be undertaken within an integrated quantitative framework. The basis of this threats analysis is a comparative population viability analysis. This involves forecasting the Florida manatee population under different scenarios regarding the presence of threats, while accounting for process variation (environmental, demographic, and catastrophic stochasticity) as well as parametric and structural uncertainty. We used the manatee core biological model (CBM) for this viability analysis, and considered the role of five threats: watercraft-related mortality, loss of warm-water habitat in winter, mortality in water-control structures, entanglement, and red tide. All scenarios were run with an underlying parallel structure that allowed a more powerful estimation of the effects of the various threats. The results reflect our understanding of manatee ecology (as captured in the structure of the CBM), our estimates of manatee demography (as described by the parameters in the model), and our characterization of the mechanisms by which the threats act on manatees. As an

  2. System for ranking relative threats of U.S. volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewert, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology to systematically rank volcanic threat was developed as the basis for prioritizing volcanoes for long-term hazards evaluations, monitoring, and mitigation activities. A ranking of 169 volcanoes in the United States and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (U.S. volcanoes) is presented based on scores assigned for various hazard and exposure factors. Fifteen factors define the hazard: Volcano type, maximum known eruptive explosivity, magnitude of recent explosivity within the past 500 and 5,000 years, average eruption-recurrence interval, presence or potential for a suite of hazardous phenomena (pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, tsunami, flank collapse, hydrothermal explosion, primary lahar), and deformation, seismic, or degassing unrest. Nine factors define exposure: a measure of ground-based human population in hazard zones, past fatalities and evacuations, a measure of airport exposure, a measure of human population on aircraft, the presence of power, transportation, and developed infrastructure, and whether or not the volcano forms a significant part of a populated island. The hazard score and exposure score for each volcano are multiplied to give its overall threat score. Once scored, the ordered list of volcanoes is divided into five overall threat categories from very high to very low. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  3. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  4. Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-02-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat.

  5. Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Richard P

    2002-01-01

    Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. PMID:12053717

  6. Depressed mood enhances anxiety to unpredictable threat

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, OJ; Overstreet, C; Letkiewicz, A; Grillon, C

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety disorders (AD) are highly comorbid, but the reason for this comorbidity is unclear. One possibility is that they predispose one another. An informative way to examine interactions between disorders without the confounds present in patient populations is to manipulate the psychological processes thought to underlie the pathological states in healthy individuals. In this paper we therefore asked whether a model of the sad mood in depression can enhance psychophysiological responses (startle) to a model of the anxiety in AD. We predicted that sad mood would increase anxious anxiety-potentiated startle responses. Methods In a between-subjects design, participants (N=36) completed either a sad mood induction procedure (N=18) or neutral mood induction procedure (N=18). Startle responses were assessed during short duration predictable electric shock conditions (fear-potentiated startle) or long-duration unpredictable threat of shock conditions (anxiety-potentiated startle). Results Induced sadness enhanced anxiety-, but not fear- potentiated startle. Conclusions This study provides support for the hypothesis that sadness can increase anxious responding measured by the affective startle response. This, taken together with prior evidence that AD can contribute to depression, provides initial experimental support for the proposition that AD and depression are frequently comorbid because they may be mutually reinforcing. PMID:22088577

  7. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  11. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  12. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  13. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-09

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs.

  14. The possibility of fuel cycle design for ABC/ATW complex with molten fuel on LiF-BeF2 basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, V. S.; Bychkov, A. V.

    1995-09-01

    The experience gained in the field of the development of molten salt reactors (MSR) can be made a basis of chemical processing of the ABC/ATW liquid fuel. The following combination of two processing principles are proposed for the ABC/ATW fuel (LiF-BeF2-PuF3,(4)-MAFn): -continious removal of radioactive gases, volatile impurities and ``noble fission products''; -portion-by-portion electrochemical processing with removal of rare earth elements and some other fission products at an autonomous plant. After processing the fuel salt is brought back to the blanket of the ABC/ATW complex. The analysis of information previously published in different countries allows for a safe assumption that the ABC/ATW fuel cycle with liquid fuel salt is feasible and can be demonstrated experimentally.

  15. The possibility of fuel cycle design for ABC/ATW complex with molten fuel on LiF-BeF2 basis

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, V. S.; Bychkov, A. V.

    1995-09-15

    The experience gained in the field of the development of molten salt reactors (MSR) can be made a basis of chemical processing of the ABC/ATW liquid fuel. The following combination of two processing principles are proposed for the ABC/ATW fuel (LiF-BeF2-PuF3,(4)-MAFn): -continious removal of radioactive gases, volatile impurities and 'noble fission products'; -portion-by-portion electrochemical processing with removal of rare earth elements and some other fission products at an autonomous plant. After processing the fuel salt is brought back to the blanket of the ABC/ATW complex. The analysis of information previously published in different countries allows for a safe assumption that the ABC/ATW fuel cycle with liquid fuel salt is feasible and can be demonstrated experimentally.

  16. Electrophysiological responses to threat in youth with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Simons, Robert F

    2012-04-01

    The current study was designed to examine event-related brain potentials and autonomic responses to pictures indicating threat, relative to non-threat, and acoustic startle reflexes in traumatized youth diagnosed with PTSD, relative to non-exposed children, before and after receiving psychotherapy. Children in the control group were individually yoked and demographically matched to the PTSD group. Both groups displayed enhanced late positive potentials and more prolonged heart rate deceleration to pictures indicating threat, relative to non-threat, and larger skin conductance responses to pictures indicating threat, relative to non-threat, at time one. At time two, controls appeared to habituate, as reflected by an overall attenuated skin conductance response, whereas the PTSD group showed little change. Across time points the PTSD group exhibited greater acoustic startle reflexes than the control group. Psychotherapy and symptom reduction was not associated with electrophysiology. Drawing from the adult literature, this study was an attempt to address the scarcity of research examining electrophysiological irregularities in childhood PTSD. The overall results suggest that children and adolescents allocate more attention to threat-related stimuli regardless of PTSD status, and exaggerated startle and a possible failure to habituate skin conductance responses to threat-related stimuli in youth with versus without PTSD. PMID:22406756

  17. Assessment of ionospheric threat modeling techniques over Marmara Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onur Karslioglu, Mahmut; Yeganehsahab, Amir; Durmaz, Murat

    2016-04-01

    It is generally known that extreme ionospheric density associated with severe magnetic storm degrades the Global Navigation satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements also at mid - to high latitudes. Strong solar activity can cause large local spatial and temporal gradients in the delays induced on the GNSS signals by the ionosphere. The local nature of gradients can result in significant decorrelation between Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) Ground Stations and the GNSS receiver on board the aircraft. For the mitigation of this effect either a special functional architecture is established to monitor the ionosphere on the basis of so called Extended GBAS or ionospheric threat models can be constructed for a certain region. In this work two different techniques have been evaluated for the estimation of ionospheric threat model parameters consisting of width, slope and velocity of the ionospheric wave front by using real ground-based observations from both GPS and GLONASS in the Marmara Region. The data collected between 2012 and 2015 also containing high ionospheric activities are pre-processed to extract ionospheric gradients. Ionospheric delays at each ionospheric piercing point are determined by applying a local ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) modeling and filtering techniques on the basis of raw carrier-phase observations. The ionospheric fronts are searched by looking at high ionospheric gradients which result from ionospheric delay differences between ionospheric piercing points. The first technique of the threat model evaluation is based on the propagation of an ideal plane wave as a wave front, velocity of which is estimated on the basis of a Gauss Markov Model using an ordinary least square estimation procedure. The remaining parameters namely slope and width are calculated afterwards using rate of change gradients and the duration of the wave front in context with the estimated front velocity. In the second technique both the magnitude of the

  18. Nuclear weapons are illegal threats

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, E.L.

    1985-05-01

    Challenging Harry Almond's position that nuclear deterrence is workable, the author contends that there is no historical basis for believing that anticipation of the horrors of war will be an effective deterrent. He questions the belief that the nuclear balance of terror has maintained the peace for the past 40 years because an arms race is inherently unstable. The argument that the pursuit of national interests takes precedence over any limitation imposed by international law reflects a perception of international law that is comparable to the Third Reich. The bases for a legal evaluation of the status of nuclear weapons under international law come from express and implicit treaty provisions, international custom, general principles of international law, judicial decisions, resolutions at the United Nations, and the opinions of qualified jurists as well as military necessity.

  19. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Burmeister, Jacob M.; Koball, Afton M.; Hinman, Nova G.; Davis, Alan K.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18–64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m2. Results Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Conclusion Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals’ susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes’ impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:23736227

  20. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O'Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  1. Children's Threats: When Are They Serious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV shows, movies, music, magazines, comics, books, video games, and Internet sites mental illness, such as depression, ... others are concerned? When a child makes a serious threat it should not be dismissed as just ...

  2. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  3. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  4. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  5. Encoding and reinstatement of threat: recognition potentials.

    PubMed

    Weymar, Mathias; Bradley, Margaret M; Hamm, Alfons O; Lang, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition test, stimuli originally encoded in the context of shock threat show an enhanced late parietal positivity during later recognition compared to stimuli encoded during safety, particularly for emotionally arousing stimuli. The present study investigated whether this ERP old/new effect is further influenced when a threat context is reinstated during the recognition test. ERPs were measured in a yes-no recognition test for words rated high or low in emotional arousal that were encoded and recognized in the context of cues that signaled threat of shock or safety. Correct recognition of words encoded under threat, irrespective of reinstatement, was associated with an enhanced old-new ERP difference (500-700ms; centro-parietal), and this difference was only reliable for emotionally arousing words. Taken together, the data suggest that information processed in a stressful context are associated with better recollection on later recognition, an effect that was not modulated by reinstating the stressful context at retrieval.

  6. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    PubMed

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  7. Hydrology: Indo-Gangetic groundwater threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendorf, Scott; Benner, Shawn G.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing groundwater extraction supports hundreds of millions of people across the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Data suggests that despite the increase in withdrawals, groundwater depletion is localized and the most widespread threat is contamination.

  8. Intergroup threat gates social attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujie; Zhao, Yufang

    2015-02-01

    Humans shift their attention to follow another person's gaze direction, a phenomenon called gaze cueing. This study examined whether a particular social factor, intergroup threat, modulates gaze cueing. As expected, stronger responses of a particular in-group to a threatening out-group were observed when the in-group, conditioned to perceive threat from one of two out-groups, was presented with facial stimuli from the threatening and non-threatening out-groups. These results suggest that intergroup threat plays an important role in shaping social attention. Furthermore, larger gaze-cueing effects were found for threatening out-group faces than for in-group faces only at the 200 ms but not the 800 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA); the specificity of the gaze-cueing effects at the short SOA suggests that threat cues modulate the involuntary component of gaze cueing. PMID:25716090

  9. Terahertz imaging system for stand-off detection of threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübers, H.-W.; Semenov, A. D.; Richter, H.; Böttger, U.

    2007-04-01

    Suicide bombers and hidden bombs or explosives have become serious threats especially for mass transportation. Until now there exists no established system which can be used against these threats. Therefore new technologies especially for stand-off detection of threats are required. Terahertz (THz) rays offer an alternative inspection method, which can cope with these new challenges. Major advantages of THz radiation as compared to other spectral regions are the possibility to penetrate through clothes and that THz radiation is not harmful for human health. In this report the design and results of a THz stand-off detection system will be presented. The sensor is based on active illumination of the object and sensitive heterodyne detection of reflected and backscattered radiation. The system operates at about 0.8 THz. A THz laser is used for illumination and a superconducting hot-electron bolometric mixer for detection. The local oscillator required for heterodyne detection is a multiplied microwave source. The optical system is designed to allow for stand-off detection at 20 m with a spatial resolution less than 2 cm.

  10. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  11. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  12. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  13. Nuclear Threat Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliasha, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The National Security Strategy states that the greatest threat to the American people is ``the pursuit of nuclear weapons by violent extremists and their proliferation to additional states.'' The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) addresses a key portion of that threat by focusing on detecting nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control within permissive operating environments. However, the force protection requirements of the Department of Defense (DoD) range across a wider mission space from permissive environments, where nuclear and radiological materials can be monitored while under regulatory control, to hostile environments where nuclear and radiological materials exist in defiance of international regulations and agreements. This wider range of operating environments and the inherent physics limitations on the range of radiation detection pose great challenges to radiation detection-focused approaches to nuclear threat detection. Consequently, DoD is in the process of defining an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance approach to countering nuclear threats that considers the observable signatures of all elements that comprise a potential threat; information, funds, people, material, equipment, and infrastructure. This strategy represents a shift from radiation detection as the primary sensing modality to radiation detection as one of many sensing modalities, including the human dimension, with a heavy emphasis on data fusion. This presentation will describe the attributes of a layered sensing approach to nuclear threat detection, illustrate the approach with examples, define potential building blocks, and discuss technical challenges.

  14. The threat from creationism to the rational teaching of biology.

    PubMed

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Cárdenas, María Luz

    2007-01-01

    Most biologists outside the USA and a few other countries, like Australia and Canada, are under the impression that the threat to the teaching of biology represented by creationism does not concern them directly. This is unfortunately no longer true: the recent growth of creationism, especially in its pseudo-scientific manifestation known as "intelligent design", has been obvious in several countries of Western Europe, especially the UK, Germany and Poland, and it is beginning to be noticeable in Brazil, and maybe elsewhere in Latin America. The problem is complicated by the fact that there are not just two possibilities, evolution and creationism, because creationism comes in various incompatible varieties. Turkey is now a major source of creationist propaganda outside the USA, and is especially significant in relation to its influence on Muslim populations in Europe. The time for biologists to address the creationist threat is now.

  15. The threat from creationism to the rational teaching of biology.

    PubMed

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Cárdenas, María Luz

    2007-01-01

    Most biologists outside the USA and a few other countries, like Australia and Canada, are under the impression that the threat to the teaching of biology represented by creationism does not concern them directly. This is unfortunately no longer true: the recent growth of creationism, especially in its pseudo-scientific manifestation known as "intelligent design", has been obvious in several countries of Western Europe, especially the UK, Germany and Poland, and it is beginning to be noticeable in Brazil, and maybe elsewhere in Latin America. The problem is complicated by the fact that there are not just two possibilities, evolution and creationism, because creationism comes in various incompatible varieties. Turkey is now a major source of creationist propaganda outside the USA, and is especially significant in relation to its influence on Muslim populations in Europe. The time for biologists to address the creationist threat is now. PMID:18064348

  16. LIF bio-aerosol threat triggers: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFreez, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Bio-aerosol terrorist attacks have been carried out against civilians in the United States and elsewhere. Unfortunately, recurrence appears inevitable. A fast, reliable, and inexpensive bioaerosol threat detection trigger can be an important tool for detect-to-protect and detect-to-treat countermeasure scenarios. Bio-aerosol threat detection triggers employing light, historically laser light but recently LED light, for induced native- or auto-fluorescence (LIF) have been developed for well over a decade without a generally accepted solution being found. This paper presents a brief history of LIF triggers and reviews many vendor efforts, past and current. Various technical approaches and design considerations are discussed. Triggers from ICx technology, currently available or in development, are also discussed.

  17. Race and imprisonments: vigilante violence, minority threat, and racial politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Malone, Chad; Iles, Gale

    2012-01-01

    The effects of lynchings on criminal justice outcomes have seldom been examined. Recent findings also are inconsistent about the effects of race on imprisonments. This study uses a pooled time-series design to assess lynching and racial threat effects on state imprisonments from 1972 to 2000. After controlling for Republican strength, conservatism, and other factors, lynch rates explain the growth in admission rates. The findings also show that increases in black residents produce subsequent expansions in imprisonments that likely are attributable to white reactions to this purported menace. But after the percentage of blacks reaches a substantial threshold—and the potential black vote becomes large enough to begin to reduce these harsh punishments—reductions in prison admissions occur. These results also confirm a political version of racial threat theory by indicating that increased Republican political strength produces additional imprisonments. PMID:22616115

  18. Race and imprisonments: vigilante violence, minority threat, and racial politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Malone, Chad; Iles, Gale

    2012-01-01

    The effects of lynchings on criminal justice outcomes have seldom been examined. Recent findings also are inconsistent about the effects of race on imprisonments. This study uses a pooled time-series design to assess lynching and racial threat effects on state imprisonments from 1972 to 2000. After controlling for Republican strength, conservatism, and other factors, lynch rates explain the growth in admission rates. The findings also show that increases in black residents produce subsequent expansions in imprisonments that likely are attributable to white reactions to this purported menace. But after the percentage of blacks reaches a substantial threshold—and the potential black vote becomes large enough to begin to reduce these harsh punishments—reductions in prison admissions occur. These results also confirm a political version of racial threat theory by indicating that increased Republican political strength produces additional imprisonments.

  19. Technical Basis for the Determination that Current Characterization Data and Processes are Sufficient to Ensure Safe Storage and to Design Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    SIMPSON, B.C.

    1999-08-12

    This document presents the technical basis for closure of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan milestone 5.6.3.13, ''Core sample all tanks by 2002'' (DOE-RL 1996). The milestone was based on the need for characterization data to ensure safe storage of the waste, to operate the tanks safely, and to plan and implement retrieval and processing of the waste. Sufficient tank characterization data have been obtained to ensure that existing controls are adequate for safe storage of the waste in the 177 waste tanks at the Hanford Site. In addition, a process has been developed, executed, and institutionalized to systemically identify information needs, to integrate and prioritize the needs, and to reliably obtain and analyze the associated samples. This document provides a technical case that the remaining 45 incompletely sampled tanks no longer require sampling to support the intent of the Implementation Plan milestone. Sufficient data have been obtained to close the Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQs), and to ensure that existing hazard controls are adequate and appropriately applied. However, in the future, additional characterization of tanks at the site will be required to support identified information needs. Closure of this milestone allows sampling and analytical data to be obtained in a manner that is consistent with the integrated priority process.

  20. Stereotype threat in the classroom: dejection mediates the disrupting threat effect on women's math performance.

    PubMed

    Keller, Johannes; Dauenheimer, Dirk

    2003-03-01

    Research on stereotype threat, which is defined as the risk of confirming a negative stereotypic expectation about one's group, has demonstrated that the applicability of negative stereotypes disrupts the performance of stigmatized social groups. While it has been shown that a reduction of stereotype threat leads to improved performance by members of stigmatized groups, there is a lack of clear-cut findings about the mediating processes. The aim of the present study is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that stereotype threat causes in women working on mathematical problems. In addition, the study set out to test stereotype threat theory in a natural environment: high school classrooms. The experiment involved the manipulation of the gender fairness of a math test. The results indicate that the stereotype threat effect exists in this everyday setting. Moreover, it appears that dejection emotions mediate the effect of threat manipulation. PMID:15273014

  1. Contending with Stereotype Threat at Work: A Model of Long-Term Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Caryn J.; Koch, Sandy M.; Liberman, Benjamin E.; Merriweather, Tarani J.; Roberson, Loriann

    2011-01-01

    Women and people of color are still underrepresented in many occupational roles. Being in a situation where one is underrepresented, and thus in the demographic minority, has been shown to be a factor leading to the experience of stereotype threat--the expectation that one will be judged or perceived on the basis of social identity group…

  2. Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one’s own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students’ performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women’s interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. PMID:23088232

  3. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... Assistant Program Manager, Attn: Federal Agency Comparability Check, Hazmat Threat Assessment...

  4. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... Assistant Program Manager, Attn: Federal Agency Comparability Check, Hazmat Threat Assessment...

  5. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... Assistant Program Manager, Attn: Federal Agency Comparability Check, Hazmat Threat Assessment...

  6. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as a Basis for Individualized and Personalized Therapy: Rationale, Design and Methods of the South Eastern Europe (SEE)-PTSD study.

    PubMed

    Kulenovic, Alma Dzubur; Agani, Ferid; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Jakovljevic, Miro; Babic, Dragan; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Kucukalic, Sabina; Dzananovic, Emina Sabic; Mehmedbasic, Alma Bravo; Uka, Aferdita Goci; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Hoxha, Blerina; Sinanovic, Osman; Kravic, Nermina; Muminovic, Mirnesa; Aukst-Margetic, Branka; Jaksic, Nenad; Franc, Ana Cima; Rudan, Dusko; Pavlovic, Marko; Babic, Romana; Bojic, Elma Feric; Marjanovic, Damir; Bozina, Nada; Ziegler, Christiane; Wolf, Christiane; Warrings, Bodo; Domschke, Katharina; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem in South Eastern Europe (SEE). Available treatment options are not efficient enough and the course is often chronic. Little is known about molecular mediators and moderators of pathogenesis and therapy. Genetic and epigenetic variation may be one central molecular mechanism. We therefore established a consortium combining clinical expertise on PTSD from SEE countries Bosnia-Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Tuzla and Mostar), Kosovo (Prishtina) and Croatia (Zagreb) with genetic and epigenetic competence from Germany (Würzburg) in 2011 within the framework of the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst)-funded Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. After obtaining ethical votes and performing rater trainings as well as training in DNA extraction from EDTA blood between 2011 and 2013, we recruited 747 individuals who had experienced war-related trauma in the SEE conflicts between 1991 and 1999. 236 participants had current PTSD, 161 lifetime PTSD and 350 did not have and never had PTSD. Demographic and clinical data are currently merged together with genetic and epigenetic data in a single database to allow for a comprehensive analysis of the role of genetic and epigenetic variation in the pathogenesis and therapy of PTSD. Analyses will be done to a great degree by PhD students from participating SEE centers who in addition to participation in the project had an opportunity to take part in spring and summer schools of the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) funded Research Training Group (RTG) 1253 and thus meet PhD students from Germany and other countries We are confident that our project will not only contribute to a better understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of PTSD as a basis for future individualized and personalized therapies, but also to the academic development of South Eastern Europe. PMID:27287790

  8. Threat inoculation: experienced and imagined intergenerational contact prevents stereotype threat effects on older people's math performance.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Crisp, Richard J; Marques, Sibila; Fagg, Emily; Bedford, Lauren; Provias, Dimitri

    2008-12-01

    The authors hypothesized that experienced and imagined intergenerational contact should improve older people's math test performance under stereotype threat. In Experiment 1 (N=51, mean age=69 years), positive prior contact with grandchildren eliminated stereotype threat, which was mediated partially by reduced test-related anxiety. In Experiment 2 (N=84, mean age=72 years), the effect of threat on performance was significantly improved when participants merely imagined intergenerational contact, a situation again mediated by reduced anxiety. Previous research established that intergroup contact improves intergroup attitudes. The findings show that intergroup (intergenerational) contact also provides a defense against stereotype threat.

  9. Stereotype threat and lift effects in motor task performance: the mediating role of somatic and cognitive anxiety.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to replicate the stereotype threat and lift effects in a motor task in a neutral sex-typed activity, using somatic and cognitive anxiety as key mediators of these phenomena. It was hypothesized that an ingroup/outgroup social categorization based on gender would have distinctive effects for female and male participants. A total of 161 French physical education students were randomly assigned to three threat conditions--no threat, female threat, and male threat--thus leading to a 3 x 2 (threat by gender) design. The analyses revealed a stereotype lift effect on the performances for both male and female participants, as well as a stereotype threat effect only for female participants. They also indicated that somatic anxiety had a mediating effect on the performance of female participants targeted by a negative stereotype, but that it had a facilitating effect on their performance. The stereotype threat and lift effects on motor tasks were replicated in a neutral sex-typed activity and somatic anxiety seems to have a facilitating mediating effect of the relationships between the gender-conditions (control or female threat) interaction and free-throw performance. The model used to distinguish somatic and cognitive anxiety appeared to be a relevant means of explaining the stereotype threat and lift mechanisms.

  10. Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:12053717

  11. Structural basis for the design of potent and species-specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthases.

    PubMed

    Pojer, Florence; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Richard, Stéphane B; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Chye, Mee-Len; Bach, Thomas J; Noel, Joseph P

    2006-08-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGS) catalyzes the first committed step in the mevalonate metabolic pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis and serves as an alternative target for cholesterol-lowering and antibiotic drugs. We have determined a previously undescribed crystal structure of a eukaryotic HMGS bound covalently to a potent and specific inhibitor F-244 [(E,E)-11-[3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-oxo-2-oxytanyl]-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4-undecadienenoic acid]. Given the accessibility of synthetic analogs of the F-244 natural product, this inhibited eukaryotic HMGS structure serves as a necessary starting point for structure-based methods that may improve the potency and species-specific selectivity of the next generation of F-244 analogs designed to target particular eukaryotic and prokaryotic HMGS.

  12. Crystal Structures of mPGES-1 Inhibitor Complexes Form a Basis for the Rational Design of Potent Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Luz, John Gately; Antonysamy, Stephen; Kuklish, Steven L; Condon, Bradley; Lee, Matthew R; Allison, Dagart; Yu, Xiao-Peng; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Backer, Ryan; Zhang, Aiping; Russell, Marijane; Chang, Shawn S; Harvey, Anita; Sloan, Ashley V; Fisher, Matthew J

    2015-06-11

    Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1) is an α-helical homotrimeric integral membrane inducible enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). Inhibition of mPGES-1 has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain, inflammation, and some cancers. Interest in mPGES-1 inhibition can, in part, be attributed to the potential circumvention of cardiovascular risks associated with anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors (coxibs) by targeting the prostaglandin pathway downstream of PGH2 synthesis and avoiding suppression of antithrombotic prostacyclin production. We determined the crystal structure of mPGES-1 bound to four potent inhibitors in order to understand their structure-activity relationships and provide a framework for the rational design of improved molecules. In addition, we developed a light-scattering-based thermal stability assay to identify molecules for crystallographic studies. PMID:25961169

  13. Structural Basis for the Design of Potent and Species-specific Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA Synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Pojer,F.; Ferrer, J.; Richard, S.; Nagegowda, D.; Chye, M.; Bach, T.; Noel, J.

    2006-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGS) catalyzes the first committed step in the mevalonate metabolic pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis and serves as an alternative target for cholesterol-lowering and antibiotic drugs. We have determined a previously undescribed crystal structure of a eukaryotic HMGS bound covalently to a potent and specific inhibitor F-244 [(E,E)-11-[3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-oxo-2-oxytanyl]-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4-undecadienenoic acid]. Given the accessibility of synthetic analogs of the F-244 natural product, this inhibited eukaryotic HMGS structure serves as a necessary starting point for structure-based methods that may improve the potency and species-specific selectivity of the next generation of F-244 analogs designed to target particular eukaryotic and prokaryotic HMGS.

  14. Structural Basis for Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Binding to the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor and Design of Conformation-selective Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Parker, Naomi R.; Gardella, Thomas J.; Xu, H. Eric

    2009-12-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) are two related peptides that control calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone development, respectively, through activation of the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R), a class B G protein-coupled receptor. Both peptides hold clinical interest for their capacities to stimulate bone formation. PTH and PTHrP display different selectivity for two distinct PTH1R conformations, but how their binding to the receptor differs is unclear. The high resolution crystal structure of PTHrP bound to the extracellular domain (ECD) of PTH1R reveals that PTHrP binds as an amphipathic {alpha}-helix to the same hydrophobic groove in the ECD as occupied by PTH, but in contrast to a straight, continuous PTH helix, the PTHrP helix is gently curved and C-terminally 'unwound.' The receptor accommodates the altered binding modes by shifting the side chain conformations of two residues within the binding groove: Leu-41 and Ile-115, the former acting as a rotamer toggle switch to accommodate PTH/PTHrP sequence divergence, and the latter adapting to the PTHrP curvature. Binding studies performed with PTH/PTHrP hybrid ligands having reciprocal exchanges of residues involved in different contacts confirmed functional consequences for the altered interactions and enabled the design of altered PTH and PTHrP peptides that adopt the ECD-binding mode of the opposite peptide. Hybrid peptides that bound the ECD poorly were selective for the G protein-coupled PTH1R conformation. These results establish a molecular model for better understanding of how two biologically distinct ligands can act through a single receptor and provide a template for designing better PTH/PTHrP therapeutics.

  15. Forecasting Lightning Threat using Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Goodman, Steven J.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Two new approaches are proposed and developed for making time and space dependent, quantitative short-term forecasts of lightning threat, and a blend of these approaches is devised that capitalizes on the strengths of each. The new methods are distinctive in that they are based entirely on the ice-phase hydrometeor fields generated by regional cloud-resolving numerical simulations, such as those produced by the WRF model. These methods are justified by established observational evidence linking aspects of the precipitating ice hydrometeor fields to total flash rates. The methods are straightforward and easy to implement, and offer an effective near-term alternative to the incorporation of complex and costly cloud electrification schemes into numerical models. One method is based on upward fluxes of precipitating ice hydrometeors in the mixed phase region at the-15 C level, while the second method is based on the vertically integrated amounts of ice hydrometeors in each model grid column. Each method can be calibrated by comparing domain-wide statistics of the peak values of simulated flash rate proxy fields against domain-wide peak total lightning flash rate density data from observations. Tests show that the first method is able to capture much of the temporal variability of the lightning threat, while the second method does a better job of depicting the areal coverage of the threat. Our blended solution is designed to retain most of the temporal sensitivity of the first method, while adding the improved spatial coverage of the second. Exploratory tests for selected North Alabama cases show that, because WRF can distinguish the general character of most convective events, our methods show promise as a means of generating quantitatively realistic fields of lightning threat. However, because the models tend to have more difficulty in predicting the instantaneous placement of storms, forecasts of the detailed location of the lightning threat based on single

  16. Rapid Threat Organism Recognition Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kelly P.; Solberg, Owen D.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.

    2013-05-07

    The RAPTOR computational pipeline identifies microbial nucleic acid sequences present in sequence data from clinical samples. It takes as input raw short-read genomic sequence data (in particular, the type generated by the Illumina sequencing platforms) and outputs taxonomic evaluation of detected microbes in various human-readable formats. This software was designed to assist in the diagnosis or characterization of infectious disease, by detecting pathogen sequences in nucleic acid sequence data from clinical samples. It has also been applied in the detection of algal pathogens, when algal biofuel ponds became unproductive. RAPTOR first trims and filters genomic sequence reads based on quality and related considerations, then performs a quick alignment to the human (or other host) genome to filter out host sequences, then performs a deeper search against microbial genomes. Alignment to a protein sequence database is optional. Alignment results are summarized and placed in a taxonomic framework using the Lowest Common Ancestor algorithm.

  17. Rapid Threat Organism Recognition Pipeline

    2013-05-07

    The RAPTOR computational pipeline identifies microbial nucleic acid sequences present in sequence data from clinical samples. It takes as input raw short-read genomic sequence data (in particular, the type generated by the Illumina sequencing platforms) and outputs taxonomic evaluation of detected microbes in various human-readable formats. This software was designed to assist in the diagnosis or characterization of infectious disease, by detecting pathogen sequences in nucleic acid sequence data from clinical samples. It has alsomore » been applied in the detection of algal pathogens, when algal biofuel ponds became unproductive. RAPTOR first trims and filters genomic sequence reads based on quality and related considerations, then performs a quick alignment to the human (or other host) genome to filter out host sequences, then performs a deeper search against microbial genomes. Alignment to a protein sequence database is optional. Alignment results are summarized and placed in a taxonomic framework using the Lowest Common Ancestor algorithm.« less

  18. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns. PMID:20855899

  19. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  20. Analysis of insider threats against computerized nuclear materials accountability applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

    1995-07-01

    DOE Order 5633.3B requires that nuclear material accountability (MA) systems provide for (1) tracking material inventories, (2) documenting material transactions, (3) issuing periodic reports, and (4) assisting in the detection of- unauthorized system access, data falsification, and material gains or losses. Insider threats against the MA system represent the potential to degrade the integrity with which these requirements are addressed (e.g., altering data to misrepresent the quantity or location of nuclear material). In this paper, we describe a methodology for evaluating potential insider threats against both current and future (e.g., client-server network) MA software applications. The methodology comprises a detail yet practical taxonomy for characterizing various types of MA system/software applications and their implementation options. This taxonomy facilitates the systematic collection and organization of key information that helps spotlight such things as stag of information flow, transaction procedures, or auditing procedures potentially susceptible to inside falsification. Methodology benefits include helping MA managers and policy makers: (1) examine proposed software designs or modifications with respect to how they might reduce or increase exposure to insider threats; and (2) better understand safeguards cost (e.g., operational hindrances) and benefit (resistance to falsification) tradeoffs of different system/software alternatives.

  1. Technological Innovations to Counter CBRNE Threat Vectors and Ecotage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    The ubiquitous presence of sensors for enhanced situational awareness necessitates an innovative, articulate, and focused review of their design, architecture, functionality, and interoperability. A comprehensive overview of the latest and state-of-the art technological innovations in point and stand-off sensing/detection platforms with the objective of countering threats arising from chemical-biological-nuclear-high yield explosives (CBRNE) is the focus of this investigation. Ongoing research efforts and future research directions based on advanced approaches, including nanomaterials to develop materials, devices, and systems for potential use in sensing and detection of such threat vectors are articulated. The concept of advanced sciences convergences is introduced to examine the feasibility of potentially new and innovative research directions for persistent surveillance of CBRNE agents and infectious diseases. The intentional release of such agents in the environment constitutes ecological sabotage. Advanced sensing/detection platforms for CBRNE are used to detect threats to the environment. Issues associated with the use of nanomaterials regarding societal implications and dual-use concerns are addressed by studying fate and transport and the development of guidelines for a risk-assessment model. A roadmap of the future of nanomaterials, in terms of complexity, a nexus of disciplines, and its emerging potential to provide advanced, futuristic, and a paradigm-shifting platform is presented.

  2. Driving experience moderates the effect of implicit versus explicit threat priming on hazard perception test.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Yaakov; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2016-07-01

    Due to the controversial evidence regarding the efficacy of threat campaigns on driving behavior, we addressed the effects of explicit vs. implicit threats. As in other areas of advertisements, we hypothesized that an implicit threat would be more effective, i.e., generate more anxiety than an explicit threat. Furthermore, we hypothesized that such effects would be moderated by driving experience: more experienced drivers when threatened will rely on driving skills and perform in a less cautious manner vs. less experienced drivers who have not yet acquired these skills, and therefore will tend to calm their fear by exercising more caution. Driving behavior in this experimental design was addressed by the Hazard Perception (HP) task. Results were as expected. Anxiety was higher under implicit vs. explicit threat. HP scores however were overall the same for both groups. Implicit priming generated less-cautious behavior in high-experienced drivers while generating more caution for less-experienced drivers. Demonstrating in a single experiment all three driving patterns following threat, namely, no change in driving behavior (whole sample), more cautious driving behavior (less-experience) and less cautious behavior (more-experience), potentially comprises an important step in resolving the aforementioned disparity concerning effects of threat campaigns on driving behavior.

  3. NEOShield - A global approach to NEO Impact Threat Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    NEOShield is a European-Union funded project coordinated by the German Aero-space Center, DLR, to address near-Earth object (NEO) impact hazard mitigation issues. The NEOShield consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The project is funded for a period of 3.5 years from January 2012 with a total of 5.8 million euros. The primary aim of the project is to investigate in detail promising mitigation techniques, such as the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises will also be investigated. The NEOShield work plan consists of scientific investigations into the nature of the impact hazard and the physical properties of NEOs, and technical and engineering studies of practical means of deflecting NEOs. There exist many ideas for asteroid deflection techniques, many of which would require considerable scientific and technological development. The emphasis of NEOShield is on techniques that are feasible with current technology, requiring a minimum of research and development work. NEOShield aims to provide detailed designs of feasible mitigation demonstration missions, targeting NEOs of the kind most likely to trigger the first space-based mitigation action. Most of the asteroid deflection techniques proposed to date require physical contact with the threatening object, an example being the kinetic impactor. NEOShield includes research into the mitigation-relevant physical properties of NEOs on the basis of remotely-sensed astronomical data and the results of rendezvous missions, the observational techniques required to efficiently gather mitigation-relevant data on the dynamical state and physical properties of a threatening NEO, and laboratory investigations using gas guns to fire projectiles into

  4. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  5. Epidemiology today: Mitigating threats to an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems comprise all the living and non-living things in a particular area (e.g., rain forest, desert), which interact and maintain equilibrium. Loss of equilibrium (e.g., clear-cutting trees in a rain forest) can mean the decline of the ecosystem, unless it is able to adapt to the new circumstances. The term "knowledge ecosystem" describes an approach to managing knowledge in a particular field; the components of this system include the people, the technological skills and resources, and information or data. Epidemiology can be thought of as a knowledge ecosystem and, like ecological systems, its existence can be threatened, from both internal and external forces that may alter its equilibrium. This paper describes some threats to the epidemiology knowledge ecosystem, how these threats came about, and what responses we can make that may serve to mitigate those threats. PMID:27348106

  6. On the special status of "ego threats".

    PubMed

    Schotte, D E

    1992-05-01

    This article comments on a recent article by Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy (1991) in which they suggest that ego threats are a prerequisite to affectively induced disinhibition of food intake in restrained eaters and current dieters. In contrast, the present review suggests that mood induction procedures that involve no apparent threat (e.g., viewing a frightening film) can also prompt disinhibition in restrained eaters. Thus, any mood induction procedure that does not directly physically threaten the S may disinhibit restrained eaters. It is concluded that recommendations to focus future research on ego threats are premature and may serve to obscure the mechanisms by which changes in affective state influence food intake in dieters. PMID:1507070

  7. Threat detection, precautionary responses, and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Nesse, Randolph M

    2011-03-01

    Study of the anxiety disorders may be a particularly useful vehicle for demonstrating how foundational sciences (e.g. cognitive-affective neuroscience, evolutionary psychology) can advance psychiatric theory and research. Here we consider important potential advances and remaining future challenges when basic research on threat detection and precautionary responses is used to address the anxiety disorders. We emphasize the potential value of a model of threat detection and precautionary responses that integrates cognitive-affective neuroscience and evolutionary approaches for understanding the anxiety disorders. However, we also suggest that substantial additional work is needed in order to link systematically the psychobiological mechanisms posited by basic work on threat detection and precautionary responses to the complex phenomena seen in the clinic. PMID:21147162

  8. Insider Threat Assessment: Model, Analysis and Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchani, Ramkumar; Ha, Duc; Iyer, Anusha; Ngo, Hung Q.; Upadhyaya, Shambhu

    Insider threat is typically attributed to legitimate users who maliciously leverage their system privileges, and familiarity and proximity to their computational environment to compromise valuable information or inflict damage. According to the annual CSI/FBI surveys conducted since 1996, internal attacks and insider abuse form a significant portion of reported incidents. The strongest indication yet that insider threat is very real is given by the recent study [2] jointly conducted by CERT and the US Secret Service; the first of its kind, which provides an in-depth insight into the problem in a real-world setting. However, there is no known body of work which addresses this problem effectively. There are several challenges, beginning with understanding the threat.

  9. [The threat of snake and scorpion venoms].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz; Smędzik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Venoms of snakes and scorpions pose a significant threat to the health and life of humans. The speed and range of their actions causes damage of the organ responsible for the maintenance of vital signs. Venomous snake venoms cause blood clotting disorders, tissue necrosis and hemolysis, and the release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines and impair antibody synthesis. Availability of antitoxins is limited and in the most cases supportive treatment is recommended. In turn, the venom of scorpions beside intestinal symptoms cause significant impairment of neuromuscular conduction, causing severe respiratory disorders. Action venom poses a particular threat to sensitive patients. The degree of threat to life caused by the venom of snakes and scorpions authorizes the treatment of these substances as a potential biological weapon. PMID:26449581

  10. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  11. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  12. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  13. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  14. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  15. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment. 1540.209...: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat assessment. This section describes the payment process for completion of the security threat assessments required under this...

  16. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment. 1540.209...: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat assessment. This section describes the payment process for completion of the security threat assessments required under this...

  17. Gas-Solid Interaction, Flow Behavior analysis and Development of a Design Basis equation for the Dense Entry Region of an Asymmetrically Loaded Cold Flow CFB Riser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastane, Rajiv

    dispersion of the tracer gas. Since the contacting between the gas and solid phases in a fluidized bed is mainly governed by the degree of gas mixing, the equations governing the gas mixing in fast-fluidized beds is useful in reactor design. The results from this work have been presented at the 2010 Multiphase Flow Workshop organized by NETL at Pittsburgh.

  18. Cyber Threat Assessment of Uplink and Commanding System for Mission Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Tan, Kymie M. C.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner; Faris, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Most of today's Mission Operations Systems (MOS) rely on Ground Data System (GDS) segment to mitigate cyber security risks. Unfortunately, IT security design is done separately from the design of GDS' mission operational capabilities. This incoherent practice leaves many security vulnerabilities in the system without any notice. This paper describes a new way to system engineering MOS, to include cyber threat risk assessments throughout the MOS development cycle, without this, it is impossible to design a dependable and reliable MOS to meet today's rapid changing cyber threat environment.

  19. Bioterrorism: is it a real threat?

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, René; Preiser, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    The Geneva Protocol of 1925 commits the signatory nations to refraining from the use of biological weapons. However, the terrorist assaults of September 2001 and, subsequently, the anthrax-containing letters are cause for great concerns: new threats to the security of nations are expected, as terrorist organizations seem to increasingly explore novel ways of spreading terror. In this context, naturally emerging diseases such as SARS, monkeypox or West Nile fever assume new importance because it is difficult to distinguish between natural epidemics and possible bioweapon assaults. Great efforts on the part of governments and public health authorities are necessary to counteract these threats. PMID:15349775

  20. [Assessing adolescents with school massacre threats].

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Sailas, Eila; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    School massacres have increased pressure on health-care authorities for assessing risk for severe violence. In acute situations, threat analysis focuses at thought processes and actions of adolescents presenting threat of violence, in order to assess to which extent the adolescent has progressed from thoughts to actions. Because of great variability in aggressive behavior, separate interventions for individual, family and other developmental surroundings are often needed. Structured risk-assessment in special health care is aimed for conducting decision making towards risk reduction and adequate help for adolescents at risk. PMID:24069639

  1. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does an operator identify potential threats to....917 How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification in its integrity program? (a) Threat identification. An operator must identify and evaluate...

  2. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an operator identify potential threats to....917 How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification in its integrity program? (a) Threat identification. An operator must identify and evaluate...

  3. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does an operator identify potential threats to....917 How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification in its integrity program? (a) Threat identification. An operator must identify and evaluate...

  4. Defensive activation to (un)predictable interoceptive threat: The NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr).

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Fantoni, Simona; Rivera, Carmen; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; van den Bergh, Omer; van Diest, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Potentially life-threatening interoceptive sensations easily engage the behavioral defensive system. Resulting fear and anxiety toward interoceptive threat are functionally distinct states that are hypothesized to play a prominent role in the etiology of panic disorder. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle responses occur to predictable and unpredictable interoceptive threat, respectively. Therefore, we modified the NPU threat test (Schmitz & Grillon, ) and replaced the aversive electrocutaneous stimulus with an aversive interoceptive stimulus (a breathing occlusion, making it briefly impossible to breathe). Healthy participants (N = 48) underwent three instructed conditions. A visual cue signaled the occlusion in the predictable condition (P), whereas another cue was unrelated to the occurrence of the occlusion in the unpredictable condition (U). The safe condition (N) also had a visual cue, but no occlusion. Both fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle blink responses were observed in response to predictable and unpredictable respiratory threat, respectively. The current study presents and validates the NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr) as an ecologically valid paradigm to study both anxiety and fear in response to a panic-relevant interoceptive threat. The paradigm allows future testing of contextual generalization, investigation of different clinical groups, and more explicit comparisons of defensive responding to interoceptive versus exteroceptive threats.

  5. Defensive activation to (un)predictable interoceptive threat: The NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr).

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Fantoni, Simona; Rivera, Carmen; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; van den Bergh, Omer; van Diest, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Potentially life-threatening interoceptive sensations easily engage the behavioral defensive system. Resulting fear and anxiety toward interoceptive threat are functionally distinct states that are hypothesized to play a prominent role in the etiology of panic disorder. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle responses occur to predictable and unpredictable interoceptive threat, respectively. Therefore, we modified the NPU threat test (Schmitz & Grillon, ) and replaced the aversive electrocutaneous stimulus with an aversive interoceptive stimulus (a breathing occlusion, making it briefly impossible to breathe). Healthy participants (N = 48) underwent three instructed conditions. A visual cue signaled the occlusion in the predictable condition (P), whereas another cue was unrelated to the occurrence of the occlusion in the unpredictable condition (U). The safe condition (N) also had a visual cue, but no occlusion. Both fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle blink responses were observed in response to predictable and unpredictable respiratory threat, respectively. The current study presents and validates the NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr) as an ecologically valid paradigm to study both anxiety and fear in response to a panic-relevant interoceptive threat. The paradigm allows future testing of contextual generalization, investigation of different clinical groups, and more explicit comparisons of defensive responding to interoceptive versus exteroceptive threats. PMID:26879710

  6. Threat captures attention, but not automatically: Top-down goals modulate attentional orienting to threat distractors.

    PubMed

    Vromen, Joyce M G; Lipp, Ottmar V; Remington, Roger W; Becker, Stefanie I

    2016-10-01

    The rapid orienting of attention to potential threats has been proposed to proceed outside of top-down control. However, paradigms that have been used to investigate this have struggled to separate the rapid orienting of attention (i.e. capture) from the later disengagement of focal attention that may be subject to top-down control. Consequently, it remains unclear whether and to what extent orienting to threat is contingent on top-down goals. The current study manipulated the goal-relevance of threat distractors (spiders), whilst a strict top-down attentional set was encouraged by presenting the saliently colored target and the threat distracter simultaneously for a limited time. The goal-relevance of threatening distractors was manipulated by including a spider amongst the possible target stimuli (Experiment 1: spider/cat targets) or excluding it (Experiment 2: bird/fish targets). Orienting and disengagement were disentangled by cueing attention away from or towards the threat prior to its onset. The results indicated that the threatening spider distractors elicited rapid orienting of attention when spiders were potentially goal-relevant (Experiment 1) but did so much less when they were irrelevant to the task goal (Experiment 2). Delayed disengagement from the threat distractors was even more strongly contingent on the task goal and occurred only when a spider was a possible target. These results highlight the role of top-down goals in attentional orienting to and disengagement from threat. PMID:27234013

  7. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  8. The Threat Index: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigdon, Michael A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The Threat Index (TI), theoretically based on George Kelly's personal construct theory, was developed as a measure of death orientation. Outlines the emerging reliability and validity picture. The aim is to give direction to future TI research by summarizing and critically evaluating the currently available data. (Author)

  9. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  10. Preempting Threats with a Sound School Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Administrators should regard each student threat as legitimate, but need flexibility in how they respond. Getting the facts and following due process are essential. School policy should require that students be referred to law-enforcement officials and specify communication, crisis-management, identification, and preventive/proactive procedures.…

  11. The silent threat of low genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Across the Caribbean, protected coastal waters have served as primary feeding and breeding grounds for the endangered Antillean manatee. Unfortunately, these same coastal waters are also a popular “habitat” for humans. In the past, the overlap between human and manatee habitat allowed for manatee hunting and threatened the survival of these gentle marine mammals. Today, however, threats are much more inadvertent and are often related to coastal development, degraded habitats and boat strikes. In the state of Florida, decades of research on the species’ biological needs have helped conservationists address threats to its survival. For example, low wake zones and boater education have protected manatees from boat strikes, and many of their critical winter refuges are now protected. The Florida population has grown steadily, thus increasing from approximately 1,200 in 1991 to more than 5,000 in 2010. It is conceivable that in Florida manatees may one day be reclassified as “threatened” rather than “endangered.” Yet, in other parts of the Caribbean, threats still loom. This includes small, isolated manatee populations found on islands that can be more susceptible to extinction and lack of genetic diversity. To ensure the species’ long-term viability, scientists have turned their sights to the overall population dynamics of manatees throughout the Caribbean. Molecular genetics has provided new insights into long-term threats the species faces. Fortunately, the emerging field of conservation genetics provides managers with tools and strategies for protecting the species’ long-term viability.

  12. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  13. The Asteroid Impact Threat: Decisions Upcoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweickart, Russell L.

    The asteroid impact threat has likely been constant for the past three billion years. What has accelerated is our knowledge of the impact hazard, and in particular the population of near- Earth objects (NEOs), those asteroids and near-Earth comets whose orbits approach or cross that of the Earth. In the next 10-15 years we will know the orbits of over 300,000 NEOs of a size capable of destroying a major city on impact. Based on current data 97 Given that a NEO deflection campaign can be initiated using existing space technology the international community will shortly be confronted with the decision of whether action should be taken, when it should be taken and who should take such action. The Association of Space Explorers (ASE)* and its Panel on Asteroid Threat Mitigation is currently concluding a two year process leading to a recommended decision program on asteroid threat mitigation that will be submitted to the United Nations in 2009. UN member states will soon be looking to the scientific community for their inputs on this matter. This presentation is intended to provide basic information on the NEO threat and our ability to take preventive action, anticipating an increasing demand for scientific opinion on this issue from international political institutions. (*) The Association of Space Explorers is the profession international organization of astronauts and cosmonauts. See www.space-explorers.org.

  14. Computer Security-Risks, Threats, and Safeguards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Describes a variety of Internet threats to computers and networks used in schools. Discusses electronic trashing; clearing hard drives; cyber spying on Web sites visited; protection against cyber spying, including disposable email accounts; password sniffers; privacy policies; email snooping; email attachments that carry viruses; and hoaxes. (LRW)

  15. Diversity, Racial Threat and Metropolitan Housing Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as the percent black or percent Hispanic grows, that group's residential segregation from whites tends to increase as well. Typically, these findings are explained in terms of white discriminatory reaction to the perceived threat associated with minority population growth. The present analysis examines whether…

  16. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  17. The Threat Index: An Additive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Paul J.; Wood, Keith

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of actualization and integration on death anxiety in 120 students who completed the Threat Index, Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale, and Templer Death Anxiety Scale. Results provided clear evidence that actualization and integration have an additive effect on death fear and anxiety. (JAC)

  18. The Nature of the Terrorism Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how Bruce Hoffman and Marc Sageman, two prominent scholars of terrorism, square off over whether Al Qaeda remains the primary global terrorist threat. The dispute began in the pages of "Foreign Affairs," where Hoffman, a professor in the security-studies program at Georgetown University, wrote a withering review of Sageman's…

  19. Using the Threat Probability Task to Assess Anxiety and Fear During Uncertain and Certain Threat

    PubMed Central

    Korhumel, Rachel A.; Curtin, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Fear of certain threat and anxiety about uncertain threat are distinct emotions with unique behavioral, cognitive-attentional, and neuroanatomical components. Both anxiety and fear can be studied in the laboratory by measuring the potentiation of the startle reflex. The startle reflex is a defensive reflex that is potentiated when an organism is threatened and the need for defense is high. The startle reflex is assessed via electromyography (EMG) in the orbicularis oculi muscle elicited by brief, intense, bursts of acoustic white noise (i.e., “startle probes”). Startle potentiation is calculated as the increase in startle response magnitude during presentation of sets of visual threat cues that signal delivery of mild electric shock relative to sets of matched cues that signal the absence of shock (no-threat cues). In the Threat Probability Task, fear is measured via startle potentiation to high probability (100% cue-contingent shock; certain) threat cues whereas anxiety is measured via startle potentiation to low probability (20% cue-contingent shock; uncertain) threat cues. Measurement of startle potentiation during the Threat Probability Task provides an objective and easily implemented alternative to assessment of negative affect via self-report or other methods (e.g., neuroimaging) that may be inappropriate or impractical for some researchers. Startle potentiation has been studied rigorously in both animals (e.g., rodents, non-human primates) and humans which facilitates animal-to-human translational research. Startle potentiation during certain and uncertain threat provides an objective measure of negative affective and distinct emotional states (fear, anxiety) to use in research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse and broadly in affective science. As such, it has been used extensively by clinical scientists interested in psychopathology etiology and by affective scientists interested in individual differences in emotion. PMID:25285398

  20. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  1. Forecasting Lightning Threat using Cloud-resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.; Goodman, S. J.; LaCasse, K. M.; Cecil, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    As numerical forecasts capable of resolving individual convective clouds become more common, it is of interest to see if quantitative forecasts of lightning flash rate density are possible, based on fields computed by the numerical model. Previous observational research has shown robust relationships between observed lightning flash rates and inferred updraft and large precipitation ice fields in the mixed phase regions of storms, and that these relationships might allow simulated fields to serve as proxies for lightning flash rate density. It is shown in this paper that two simple proxy fields do indeed provide reasonable and cost-effective bases for creating time-evolving maps of predicted lightning flash rate density, judging from a series of diverse simulation case study events in North Alabama for which Lightning Mapping Array data provide ground truth. One method is based on the product of upward velocity and the mixing ratio of precipitating ice hydrometeors, modeled as graupel only, in the mixed phase region of storms at the -15\\dgc\\ level, while the second method is based on the vertically integrated amounts of ice hydrometeors in each model grid column. Each method can be calibrated by comparing domainwide statistics of the peak values of simulated flash rate proxy fields against domainwide peak total lightning flash rate density data from observations. Tests show that the first method is able to capture much of the temporal variability of the lightning threat, while the second method does a better job of depicting the areal coverage of the threat. A blended solution is designed to retain most of the temporal sensitivity of the first method, while adding the improved spatial coverage of the second. Weather Research and Forecast Model simulations of selected North Alabama cases show that this model can distinguish the general character and intensity of most convective events, and that the proposed methods show promise as a means of generating

  2. A threat-based definition of IA- and IA-enabled products.

    SciTech Connect

    Shakamuri, Mayuri; Schaefer, Mark A.; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a definition of 'IA and IA-enabled products' based on threat, as opposed to 'security services' (i.e., 'confidentiality, authentication, integrity, access control or non-repudiation of data'), as provided by Department of Defense (DoD) Instruction 8500.2, 'Information Assurance (IA) Implementation.' The DoDI 8500.2 definition is too broad, making it difficult to distinguish products that need higher protection from those that do not. As a consequence the products that need higher protection do not receive it, increasing risk. The threat-based definition proposed in this paper solves those problems by focusing attention on threats, thereby moving beyond compliance to risk management. (DoDI 8500.2 provides the definitions and controls that form the basis for IA across the DoD.) Familiarity with 8500.2 is assumed.

  3. A threat-based definition of IA and IA-enabled products.

    SciTech Connect

    Shakamuri, Mayuri; Schaefer, Mark A.; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2010-09-01

    This paper proposes a definition of 'IA and IA-enabled products' based on threat, as opposed to 'security services' (i.e., 'confidentiality, authentication, integrity, access control or non-repudiation of data'), as provided by Department of Defense (DoD) Instruction 8500.2, 'Information Assurance (IA) Implementation.' The DoDI 8500.2 definition is too broad, making it difficult to distinguish products that need higher protection from those that do not. As a consequence the products that need higher protection do not receive it, increasing risk. The threat-based definition proposed in this paper solves those problems by focusing attention on threats, thereby moving beyond compliance to risk management. (DoDI 8500.2 provides the definitions and controls that form the basis for IA across the DoD.) Familiarity with 8500.2 is assumed.

  4. BASIS9. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Allsman, R.; Barrett, K.; Busby, L.; Chiu, Y.; Crotinger, J.; Dubois, B.; Dubois, P.F.; Langdon, B.; Motteler, Z.C.; Takemoto, J.; Taylor, S.; Willmann, P.; Wilson, S. )

    1993-08-01

    BASIS9.4 is a system for developing interactive computer programs in Fortran, with some support for C and C++ as well. Using BASIS9.4 you can create a program that has a sophisticated programming language as its user interface so that the user can set, calculate with, and plot, all the major variables in the program. The program author writes only the scientific part of the program; BASIS9.4 supplies an environment in which to exercise that scientific programming which includes an interactive language, an interpreter, graphics, terminal logs, error recovery, macros, saving and retrieving variables, formatted I/O, and online documentation.

  5. Sexual harassment under social identity threat: the computer harassment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Maass, Anne; Cadinu, Mara; Guarnieri, Gaia; Grasselli, Annalisa

    2003-11-01

    Two laboratory experiments investigated the hypothesis that threat to male identity would increase the likelihood of gender harassment. In both experiments, using the computer harassment paradigm, male university students (N=80 in Experiment 1, N=90 in Experiment 2) were exposed to different types of identity threat (legitimacy threat and threat to group value in Experiment 1 and distinctiveness threat and prototypicality threat in Experiment 2) or to no threat and were then given the opportunity to send pornographic material to a virtual female interaction partner. Results show that (a) participants harassed the female interaction partner more when they were exposed to a legitimacy, distinctiveness, or prototypicality threat than to no threat; (b) this was mainly true for highly identified males; and (c) harassment enhanced postexperimental gender identification. Results are interpreted as supporting a social identity account of gender harassment.

  6. A threat in the computer: the race implicit association test as a stereotype threat experience.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Cynthia M; Cuddy, Amy J C; Burnett, Molly; Ray, Heidi; Hart, Allen

    2004-12-01

    Three experiments test whether the threat of appearing racist leads White participants to perform worse on the race Implicit Association Test (IAT) and whether self-affirmation can protect from this threat. Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that White participants show a stereotype threat effect when completing the race IAT, leading to stronger pro-White scores when the test is believed to be diagnostic of racism. This effect increases for domain-identified (highly motivated to control prejudice) participants (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, self-affirmation inoculates participants against stereotype threat while taking the race IAT. These findings have methodological implications for use of the race IAT and theoretical implications concerning the malleability of automatic prejudice and the potential interpersonal effects of the fear of appearing racist.

  7. Performance of single-stage compressor designed on basis of constant total enthalpy with symmetrical velocity diagram at all radii and velocity ratio of 0.7 at rotor hub / Jack R. Burtt and Robert J. Jackson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burtt, Jack R; Jackson, Robert J

    1951-01-01

    A typical inlet axial-flow compressor inlet stage, which was designed on the basis of constant total enthalpy with symmetrical velocity diagram at all radii, was investigated. At a tip speed of 1126 feet per second, a peak pressure ratio of 1.28 was obtained at an efficiency of 0.76. At a tip speed, the highest practical flow was 28 pounds per second per square foot frontal area with an efficiency of 0.78. Data for a rotor relative inlet Mach number range of from 0.5 to 0.875 indicates that the critical value for any stage radial element is approximately 0.80 for the stage investigated.

  8. The high-resolution crystal structure of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIβ and the crystal structure of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα containing a nucleoside analogue provide a structural basis for isoform-specific inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Klima, Martin; Baumlova, Adriana; Chalupska, Dominika; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Dejmek, Milan; Nencka, Radim; Boura, Evzen

    2015-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) is the most abundant monophosphoinositide in eukaryotic cells. Humans have four phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) that synthesize PI4P, among which are PI4K IIβ and PI4K IIα. In this study, two crystal structures are presented: the structure of human PI4K IIβ and the structure of PI4K IIα containing a nucleoside analogue. The former, a complex with ATP, is the first high-resolution (1.9 Å) structure of a PI4K. These structures reveal new details such as high conformational heterogeneity of the lateral hydrophobic pocket of the C-lobe and together provide a structural basis for isoform-specific inhibitor design.

  9. Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.

    PubMed

    Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message.

  10. On keeping your enemies close: powerful leaders seek proximity to ingroup power threats.

    PubMed

    Mead, Nicole L; Maner, Jon K

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, humans have had to detect and deflect myriad threats from their social and physical environment in order to survive and flourish. When people detect a threat, the most common response is avoidance. In the present research, the authors provide evidence that ingroup power threats elicit a very different response. Three experiments supported the hypothesis that dominant leaders seek proximity to ingroup members who pose a threat to their power, as a way to control and downregulate the threat that those members pose. In each experiment, leaders high (but not low) in dominance motivation sought proximity to an ingroup member who threatened their power. Consistent with the hypothesis that increased proximity was designed to help leaders protect their own power, the proximity effect was apparent only under conditions of unstable power (not stable power), only in the absence of intergroup competition (not when a rival outgroup was present), and only toward a threatening group member (not a neutral group member). Moreover, the effect was mediated by perceptions of threat (Experiment 1) and the desire to monitor the threatening group member (Experiment 3). These results shed new light on one key strategy through which dominant leaders try to maintain control over valuable yet potentially threatening group members. Findings have implications for theories of power, leadership, and group behavior. PMID:21988276

  11. On keeping your enemies close: powerful leaders seek proximity to ingroup power threats.

    PubMed

    Mead, Nicole L; Maner, Jon K

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, humans have had to detect and deflect myriad threats from their social and physical environment in order to survive and flourish. When people detect a threat, the most common response is avoidance. In the present research, the authors provide evidence that ingroup power threats elicit a very different response. Three experiments supported the hypothesis that dominant leaders seek proximity to ingroup members who pose a threat to their power, as a way to control and downregulate the threat that those members pose. In each experiment, leaders high (but not low) in dominance motivation sought proximity to an ingroup member who threatened their power. Consistent with the hypothesis that increased proximity was designed to help leaders protect their own power, the proximity effect was apparent only under conditions of unstable power (not stable power), only in the absence of intergroup competition (not when a rival outgroup was present), and only toward a threatening group member (not a neutral group member). Moreover, the effect was mediated by perceptions of threat (Experiment 1) and the desire to monitor the threatening group member (Experiment 3). These results shed new light on one key strategy through which dominant leaders try to maintain control over valuable yet potentially threatening group members. Findings have implications for theories of power, leadership, and group behavior.

  12. Habitat preferences and conservation threats to Black-necked Cranes wintering in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Namgay, Rinchen; Wangchuk, Sangay

    2016-01-01

    Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a vulnerable Red list species whose populations are declining. However, little is known about Black-necked Cranes' habitat requirements or the causes of their population decline. We identified Black-necked Cranes' winter roost and foraging preferences of Black-necked Cranes in Bhutan during the winter of 2013-2014. Black-necked Cranes' roosts were recorded using Garmin GPSmap 60CSx, while foraging preferences and threats to the birds were identified based on a survey of household heads (n = 107) residing within a 3 km radius of roost sites. We grouped the threats identified by the communities into four major categories, viz. biological, social, political and natural threats based on the relevance. Of the four major threats, communities residing within the roosting and foraging habitat of the Black-necked Crane reported biological threat as major. Biological threats as reported by communities include loss of habitat, food shortage and competition from other animals. We recommend the present roosting areas be designated as part of the conservation areas for Black-necked Crane wintering in Bumthang district. In addition to preserving these areas, government should also encourage farming in foraging habitats of Black-necked Crane, because they mainly feed on barley, wheat, paddy, potatoes and buckwheat, besides roots, tubers and insects in the wetlands.

  13. Habitat preferences and conservation threats to Black-necked Cranes wintering in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Namgay, Rinchen; Wangchuk, Sangay

    2016-01-01

    Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a vulnerable Red list species whose populations are declining. However, little is known about Black-necked Cranes' habitat requirements or the causes of their population decline. We identified Black-necked Cranes' winter roost and foraging preferences of Black-necked Cranes in Bhutan during the winter of 2013-2014. Black-necked Cranes' roosts were recorded using Garmin GPSmap 60CSx, while foraging preferences and threats to the birds were identified based on a survey of household heads (n = 107) residing within a 3 km radius of roost sites. We grouped the threats identified by the communities into four major categories, viz. biological, social, political and natural threats based on the relevance. Of the four major threats, communities residing within the roosting and foraging habitat of the Black-necked Crane reported biological threat as major. Biological threats as reported by communities include loss of habitat, food shortage and competition from other animals. We recommend the present roosting areas be designated as part of the conservation areas for Black-necked Crane wintering in Bumthang district. In addition to preserving these areas, government should also encourage farming in foraging habitats of Black-necked Crane, because they mainly feed on barley, wheat, paddy, potatoes and buckwheat, besides roots, tubers and insects in the wetlands. PMID:27026922

  14. Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.

    PubMed

    Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message. PMID:24393019

  15. The Concept of Identification in Threat Assessment.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid; Mohandie, Kris; Knoll, James L; Hoffmann, Jens

    2015-06-01

    Identification is one of eight warning behaviors--superordinate patterns of accelerating risk--that are theorized to correlate with targeted violence, and have some empirical validation. It is characterized by one or more of five characteristics: pseudo-commando behavior, evidence of a warrior mentality, a close association with weapons or other military or law enforcement paraphernalia, wanting to imitate and often surmount previous attackers or assassins, or believing oneself to be an agent to advance a particular cause or belief system. The authors briefly explore the history of the psychology of identification, its current usage, and its application to threat assessment. Four cases are used to illustrate identification as both a process and a product, and a likely motive for targeted violence in some subjects. Its operational relevance for threat assessment is suggested. PMID:25728417

  16. Nursing science: more promise than threat.

    PubMed

    Jennings, B M

    1986-09-01

    This paper considers the issue of nursing science. Nursing, as an art, has long been accepted as integral to nursing. Nursing, as a science, however, is a more recent concept. Nursing science is viewed as a threat to the profession by its opponents, while the proponents of nursing science see it as a promise for advancement of the discipline. This paper examines the issue of nursing science by looking at its history and development, the definition of science, and five factors critical to the nursing science issue. The author concludes that nursing science is, in varying respects, both a threat and a promise. It is clear that the preponderance of evidence favours the promise nursing science holds for the profession of nursing. It is not a matter of choosing either art or science, but rather skillfully blending both for the betterment of nursing. Both art and science are necessary in nursing--neither, however, is sufficient.

  17. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  18. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  19. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  20. Political conservatism, authoritarianism, and societal threat: voting for Republican representatives in U.S. Congressional elections from 1946 to 1992.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-07-01

    The author found that the degree of national societal threat preceding congressional elections from 1946 to 1992 was positively associated with the mean state percentage of people voting for Republican representatives, supporting a conventional threat-authoritarianism hypothesis. However, threat was positively associated with the mean state percentage of people voting for Republican representatives in conservative states but not in liberal states, and the conventional threat-authoritarianism link was entirely driven by the relation in conservative states. The author classified states with a composite measure (alpha = .92) on the basis of state ideological identification, religious fundamentalism, composite policy liberalism, Republican Party elite ideology, and Democratic Party elite ideology. These results offer support to an interactive threat-authoritarianism hypothesis derived from the authoritarian dynamic theory of K. Stenner (2005), which postulates that only authoritarian persons are activated to manifest authoritarian behavior in times of normative threat. Also, the author discusses potential alternative explanations on the basis of system justification, need for closure, and terror-management theories. PMID:19606642

  1. Climate change and global infectious disease threats.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E K

    The world's climate is warming up and, while debate continues about how much change we can expect, it is becoming clear that even small changes in climate can have major effects on the spread of disease. Erwin K Jackson, a member of Greenpeace International's Climate Impacts Unit and a delegate to the 11th session of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Rome, 11-15 December), reviews the scientific evidence of this new global threat to health.

  2. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  3. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  4. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I.; Duggan, Ruth

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  5. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account.

  6. Toddlers’ Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children. PMID:21373365

  7. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  8. Posterror speeding after threat-detection failure.

    PubMed

    Caudek, Corrado; Ceccarini, Francesco; Sica, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive control enables individuals to rapidly adapt to changing task demands. To investigate error-driven adjustments in cognitive control, we considered performance changes in posterror trials, when participants performed a visual search task requiring detection of angry, happy, or neutral facial expressions in crowds of faces. We hypothesized that the failure to detect a potential threat (angry face) would prompt a different posterror adjustment than the failure to detect a nonthreatening target (happy or neutral face). Indeed, in 3 sets of experiments, we found evidence of posterror speeding, in the first case, and of posterror slowing, in the second case. Previous results indicate that a threatening stimulus can improve the efficiency of visual search. The results of the present study show that a similar effect can also be observed when participants fail to detect a threat. The impact of threat-detection failure on cognitive control, as revealed by the present study, suggests that posterror adjustments should be understood as the product of domain-specific mechanisms that are strongly influenced by affective information, rather than as the effect of a general-purpose error-monitoring system.

  9. Stereotype threat reinterpreted as a regulatory mismatch.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lisa R; Markman, Arthur B; Maddox, W Todd; Baldwin, Grant C

    2009-02-01

    This research documents performance decrements resulting from the activation of a negative task-relevant stereotype. The authors combine a number of strands of work to identify causes of stereotype threat in a way that allows them to reverse the effects and improve the performance of individuals with negative task-relevant stereotypes. The authors draw on prior work suggesting that negative stereotypes induce a prevention focus and on other research suggesting that people exhibit greater flexibility when their regulatory focus matches the reward structure of the task. This work suggests that stereotype threat effects emerge from a prevention focus combined with tasks that have an explicit or implicit gains reward structure. The authors find flexible performance can be induced in individuals who have a negative task-relevant stereotype by use of a losses reward structure. The authors demonstrate the interaction of stereotypes and the reward structure of the task with chronic stereotypes and Graduate Record Examination math problems (Experiment 1), and with primed stereotypes and a category learning task (Experiments 2A and 2B). The authors discuss implications of this research for other work on stereotype threat.

  10. Bot armies as threats to network security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2007-04-01

    "Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

  11. Validity Threats in Retrospective Pretest-Posttest Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Mirjam

    Social desirability responding and effort justification were each studied for their effect on response shift as seen in retrospective pretest-posttest responses. The first study used a bogus pipeline induction (half the subjects were told their self-reporting could later be validated) before the self-report pretest. After experimental or control…

  12. Vision-based threat detection in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2007-08-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A prevailing threat is the covert placement of bombs inside crowded public facilities. Although video-surveillance systems are increasingly common, current systems cannot detect the placement of bombs. It is also unlikely that security personnel could detect a bomb or its placement by observing video from surveillance cameras. The problems lie in the large number of cameras required to monitor large areas, the limited number of security personnel employed to protect these areas, and the intense diligence required to effectively screen live video from even a single camera. Different from existing video-detection systems designed to operate in nearly static environments, we are developing technology to detect changes in the background of dynamic environments: environments where motion and human activities are persistent over long periods. Our goal is to quickly detect background changes, even if the background is visible to the camera less than 5 percent of the time and possibly never free from foreground activity. Our approach employs statistical scene models based on mixture densities. We hypothesized that the background component of the mixture has a small variance compared to foreground components. Experiments demonstrate this hypothesis is true under a wide variety of operating conditions. A major focus involved the development of robust background estimation techniques that exploit this property. We desire estimation algorithms that can rapidly produce accurate background estimates and detection algorithms that can reliably detect background changes with minimal nuisance alarms. Another goal is to recognize unusual activities or foreground conditions that could signal an attack (e.g., large numbers of running people, people falling to the floor, etc.). Detection of background changes and/or unusual

  13. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  14. Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups

    PubMed Central

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

  15. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures.

  16. 75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... technology security, combating weapons of mass destruction (WMD), chemical and biological defense, the future... level briefings on WMD threats, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and the status of the...

  17. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  18. Stereotype Threat and Feedback Seeking in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Loriann; Deitch, Elizabeth A.; Brief, Arthur P.; Block, Caryn J.

    2003-01-01

    Among 166 African American managers, those who were the only minority-group member in their workgroup perceived more stereotype threat. Stereotype threat was related to indirect feedback seeking and discounting of supervisors' performance feedback. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)

  19. Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis.

    PubMed

    Tallis, Heather; Ferdaña, Zach; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-02-01

    The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system threats in a site-prioritization exercise for the Pacific Northwest coast ecoregion (U.S.A.). Cross-system threats are actions or features in one ecological realm that have effects on species in another realm. We considered bulkheads and other forms of shoreline hardening threats to terrestrial systems and roads, logging, agriculture, and urban areas threats to marine systems. We used 2 proxies of freshwater influence on marine environments, validated against a mechanistic model and field observations, to propagate land-based threats into marine sites. We evaluated the influence of cross-system threats on conservation priorities by comparing MARXAN outputs for 3 scenarios that identified terrestrial and marine priorities simultaneously: (1) no threats, (2) single-system threats, and (3) single- and cross-system threats. Including cross-system threats changed the threat landscape dramatically. As a result the best plan that included only single-system threats identified 323 sites (161,500 ha) at risk from cross-system threats. Including these threats changed the location of best sites. By comparing the best and sum solutions of the single- and cross-system scenarios, we identified areas ideal for preservation or restoration through integrated management. Our findings lend quantitative support to the call for explicitly integrated decision making and management action in terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  20. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 2: Threat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration, and debris.

  1. The eyes are sufficient to produce a threat superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Fox, Elaine; Damjanovic, Ljubica

    2006-08-01

    The research described in this article used a visual search task and demonstrated that the eye region alone can produce a threat superiority effect. Indeed, the magnitude of the threat superiority effect did not increase with whole-face, relative to eye-region-only, stimuli. The authors conclude that the configuration of the eyes provides a key signal of threat, which can mediate the search advantage for threat-related facial expressions.

  2. Isolating Neural Components of Threat Bias in Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Norcross, Maxine A.; Detloff, Allison; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention biases toward threat are often detected in individuals with anxiety disorders. Threat biases can be measured experimentally through dot-probe paradigms, in which individuals detect a probe following a stimulus pair including a threat. On these tasks, individuals with anxiety tend to detect probes that occur in a location…

  3. Death Threat and Death Concerns in the College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobacyk, Jerome; Eckstein, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Thanatology students reported significantly lesser death threat and significantly greater death concerns. Trait anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of change in death threat in the Thanatology Group, with lesser anxiety associated with greater decline in death threat. (Author)

  4. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat assessment. This section... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment....

  5. Student Reports of Peer Threats of Violence: Prevalence and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekvasil, Erin K.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2012-01-01

    Authorities in education and law enforcement have recommended that schools use a threat-assessment approach to prevent violence, but there is relatively little research on characteristics and outcomes of threats among students. The current study examined student reports of threat experiences in a sample of 3,756 high school students. Approximately…

  6. Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these…

  7. Gender, Stereotype Threat, and Anxiety: Psychophysiological and Cognitive Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis proposed that negative group stereotypes increase individual anxiety levels, hurting performance. However, the role of anxiety in stereotype threat has not been fully explored. This study examined the hypothesis that experimental manipulation of stereotype threat would influence real-time…

  8. Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logel, Christine R.; Walton, Gregory M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Peach, Jennifer; Mark, Zanna P.

    2012-01-01

    Social-psychological research conducted over the past 15 years provides compelling evidence that pervasive psychological threats are present in common academic environments--especially threats that originate in negative intellectual stereotypes--and that these threats undermine the real-world academic performance of non-Asian ethnic minority…

  9. Tabletop scenarios for realism in bioterrorism and threat preparedness.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rachel T; Walls, Richard T; Fischer, Mark; Markovic-Reed, Sandra; Solovieva, Tatiana I; Russell, Floyd K; Ducatman, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    Five realistic tabletop scenarios were designed to facilitate threat preparedness training of Medical, Public Health, Nursing, Emergency Services, Mental Health, Allied Health, and Pharmacy personnel. Training scenarios were (1) student contaminates lettuce (Act) in a state university with Shigella sonnei (Agent), (2) dismissed athlete contaminates ice (Act) at the basketball tournament with Escherichia coli (Agent), (3) workers fail to report abandoned backpacks (Act) at a state fair that contain smallpox virus (Agent), (4) terrorists expose county residents (Act) to Pneumonic plague bacterium (Agent), and (5) infected birds expose field-trip participants (Act) to Avian influenza virus (Agent). Evaluation of the tabletops yielded positive ratings of educational outcomes in these domains: well-structured, organized, plausible, realistic, engaging, on-target, useful, and multidisciplinary. Attendees with previous blended-learning courses on bioterrorism and threat preparedness enhanced performance in the tabletop exercises. Evaluative data indicated a new level of competence and self-confidence about being part of a coordinated, local-level, interdisciplinary response.

  10. Accountable care organizations and radiology: threat or opportunity?

    PubMed

    Abramson, Richard G; Berger, Paul E; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N

    2012-12-01

    Although the anticipated rise of accountable care organizations brings certain potential threats to radiologists, including direct threats to revenue and indirect systemic changes jeopardizing the bargaining leverage of radiology groups, accountable care organizations, and other integrated health care delivery models may provide radiology with an important opportunity to reassert its leadership and assume a more central role within health care systems. Capitalizing on this potential opportunity, however, will require radiology groups to abandon the traditional "film reader" mentality and engage actively in the design and implementation of nontraditional systems service lines aimed at adding differentiated value to larger health care organizations. Important interlinked and mutually reinforcing components of systems service lines, derived from radiology's core competencies, may include utilization management and decision support, IT leadership, quality and safety assurance, and operational enhancements to meet organizational goals. Such systems-oriented service products, tailored to the needs of individual integrated care entities and supported by objective performance metrics, may provide market differentiation to shield radiology from commoditization and could become an important source of new nonclinical revenue.

  11. Accountable care organizations and radiology: threat or opportunity?

    PubMed

    Abramson, Richard G; Berger, Paul E; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N

    2012-12-01

    Although the anticipated rise of accountable care organizations brings certain potential threats to radiologists, including direct threats to revenue and indirect systemic changes jeopardizing the bargaining leverage of radiology groups, accountable care organizations, and other integrated health care delivery models may provide radiology with an important opportunity to reassert its leadership and assume a more central role within health care systems. Capitalizing on this potential opportunity, however, will require radiology groups to abandon the traditional "film reader" mentality and engage actively in the design and implementation of nontraditional systems service lines aimed at adding differentiated value to larger health care organizations. Important interlinked and mutually reinforcing components of systems service lines, derived from radiology's core competencies, may include utilization management and decision support, IT leadership, quality and safety assurance, and operational enhancements to meet organizational goals. Such systems-oriented service products, tailored to the needs of individual integrated care entities and supported by objective performance metrics, may provide market differentiation to shield radiology from commoditization and could become an important source of new nonclinical revenue. PMID:23206648

  12. Neuromechanical Basis of Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoka, Roger M.

    This textbook provides a scientific basis for the study of human motion. The eight chapters are organized under three major sections. Part One--The Force-Motion Relationship--contains chapters on (1) motion; (2) force; (3) types of movement analysis. In Part Two--The Simple Joint System--chapters concern (4) simple joint system components; (5)…

  13. Protection without detection: a threat mitigation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joshua; McCoy, Joseph R.; Ratazzi, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Networking systems and individual applications have traditionally been defended using signature-based tools that protect the perimeter, many times to the detriment of service, performance, and information flow. These tools require knowledge of both the system on which they run and the attack they are preventing. As such, by their very definition, they only account for what is known to be malicious and ignore the unknown. The unknown, or zero day threat, can occur when defenses have yet to be immunized via a signature or other identifier of the threat. In environments where execution of the mission is paramount, the networks and applications must perform their function of information delivery without endangering the enterprise or losing the salient information, even when facing zero day threats. In this paper we, describe a new defensive strategy that provides a means to more deliberately balance the oft mutually exclusive aspects of protection and availability. We call this new strategy Protection without Detection, since it focuses on network protection without sacrificing information availability. The current instantiation analyzes the data stream in real time as it passes through an in-line device. Critical files are recognized, and mission-specific trusted templates are applied as they are forwarded to their destination. The end result is a system which eliminates the opportunity for propagation of malicious or unnecessary payloads via the various containers that are inherent in the definition of standard file types. In some cases, this method sacrifices features or functionality that is typically inherent in these files. However, with the flexibility of the template approach, inclusion or exclusion of these features becomes a deliberate choice of the mission owners, based on their needs and amount of acceptable risk. The paper concludes with a discussion of future extensions and applications.

  14. Negating Stereotype Threat: Autonomy Support and Academic Identification Boost Performance of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Dustin R.; Komarraju, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we examined the effects of stereotype threat and autonomy support on the test performance of 190 African American college students. Participants completed a set of 7 easy and 7 difficult problems from Raven's Progressive Matrices and a survey including measures of Academic Self-Concept, Learning Climate, and…

  15. Sticks, Stones, Words, and Broken Bones: New Field and Lab Evidence on Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is frequently purported to be an important determinant of gender gaps in math. Unlike prior studies, which mostly occur in lab settings, I use data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)--a large, representative assessment of U.S. children--where through a design quirk, students are randomly assigned test…

  16. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MAOP increases; or (iii) The stresses leading to cyclic fatigue increase. (4) ERW pipe. If a covered... internal corrosion, external corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking; (2) Static or resident threats, such... consider any threats unique to the integrity of plastic pipe. (e) Actions to address particular threats....

  17. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MAOP increases; or (iii) The stresses leading to cyclic fatigue increase. (4) ERW pipe. If a covered... internal corrosion, external corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking; (2) Static or resident threats, such... consider any threats unique to the integrity of plastic pipe. (e) Actions to address particular threats....

  18. Rabies: the emergence of a microbial threat.

    PubMed

    Borus, P

    1996-01-01

    Since 1912 when rabies was first confirmed in Kenya, the disease has largely existed in varying degrees of occurrence. Spatial and temporal distribution of cases of animal rabies are well documented. Records of human cases have not been as detailed as the veterinary cases. The principal animal reservoir for rabies has been the dog. Save for the 1960s, rabies outbreaks occurred in the country for most part of this century. The 1980's witnessed a dramatic upward swing in the number of cases reported annually. Over the years an enzootic pattern covering most parts of the country emerged. This article reviews available data showing rabies as an emerging microbial threat in Kenya.

  19. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    PubMed Central

    Banyard, Ashley C.; Evans, Jennifer S.; Luo, Ting Rong; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations. PMID:25093425

  20. Opportunities and Threats to Learning: Lessons from a Pedagogical Workshop for Faculty at a Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssentamu, Proscovia Namubiru

    2014-01-01

    Faculty quality is a key variable in the quality of teaching and learning. However, although learning is the basis for teaching, the circumstances under which faculty learn largely remain unexplained. This paper focuses on the opportunities and threats to learning by faculty at Uganda Management Institute (UMI). The paper is based on a study of…