Science.gov

Sample records for design challenge development

  1. SAFETY BASIS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IMECE2007-42747

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2007-09-24

    'Designing in Safety' is a desired part of the development of any new potentially hazardous system, process, or facility. It is a required part of nuclear safety activities as specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.B, Facility Safety. This order addresses the design of nuclear related facilities developed under federal regulation IOCFR830, Nuclear Safety Management. IOCFR830 requires that safety basis documentation be provided to identify how nuclear safety is being adequately addressed as a condition for system operation (e.g., the safety basis). To support the development of the safety basis, a safety analysis is performed. Although the concept of developing a design that addresses 'Safety is simple, the execution can be complex and challenging. This paper addresses those complexities and challenges for the design activity of a system to treat sludge, a corrosion product of spent nuclear fuel, at DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State. The system being developed is referred to as the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). This paper describes the portion of the safety analysis that addresses the selection of design basis events using the experience gained from the STP and the development of design requirements for safety features associated with those events. Specifically, the paper describes the safety design process and the application of the process for two types of potential design basis accidents associated with the operation of the system, (1) flashing spray leaks and (2) splash and splatter leaks. Also presented are the technical challenges that are being addressed to develop effective safety features to deal with these design basis accidents.

  2. Constellation Program Design Challenges as Opportunities for Educational Outreach and Workforce Development for Senior Design Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC) and the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) both have programs that present design challenges for university senior design classes that offer great opportunities for educational outreach and workforce development. These design challenges have been identified by NASA engineers and researchers as real design problems faced by the Constellation Program in its exploration missions and architecture. Student teams formed in their senior design class select and then work on a design challenge for one or two semesters. The senior design class follows the requirements set by their university, but it must also comply with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in order to meet the class academic requirements. Based on a one year fellowship at a TSGC university under the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) and several years of experience, results and metrics are presented on the NASA Design Challenge Program.

  3. Constellation Program Design Challenges as Opportunities for Educational Outreach and Workforce Development for Senior Design Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC) and the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) both have programs that present design challenges for university senior design classes that offer great opportunities for educational outreach and workforce development. These design challenges have been identified by NASA engineers and researchers as real design problems faced by the Constellation Program in its exploration missions and architecture. Student teams formed in their senior design class select and then work on a design challenge for one or two semesters. The senior design class follows the requirements set by their university, but it must also comply with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in order to meet the class academic requirements. Based on a one year fellowship at a TSGC university under the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) and several years of experience, results and metrics are presented on the NASA Design Challenge Program.

  4. Design and Development of the Blackbird: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The Lockheed Blackbirds hold a unique place in the development of aeronautics. In their day, the A-12, YF-12, M-21, D-21, and SR-71 variants outperformed all other jet airplanes in terms of altitude and speed. Now retired, they remain the only production aircraft capable of sustained Mach 3 cruise and operational altitudes above 80,000 feet. In this paper the author describes the design evolution of the Blackbird from Lockheed's early Archangel studies for the Central Intelligence Agency through Senior Crown, production of the Air Force's SR-71. He describes the construction and materials challenges faced by Lockheed, the Blackbird's performance characteristics and capabilities, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's role in using the aircraft as a flying laboratory to collect data on materials, structures, loads, heating, aerodynamics, and performance for high-speed aircraft.

  5. iPad Learning Ecosystem: Developing Challenge-Based Learning Using Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Catalina; Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and…

  6. DICE Mission Design, Development, and Implementation: Success and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, E.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Crowley, G.; Barjatya, A.; Petersen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Funded by the NSF CubeSat and NASA ELaNa programs, the Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment (DICE) mission consists of two 1.5U CubeSats which were launched into an eccentric low Earth orbit on October 28, 2011. Each identical spacecraft carries two Langmuir probes to measure ionospheric in-situ plasma densities, electric field probes to measure in-situ DC and AC electric fields, and a magnetometer to measure in-situ DC and AC magnetic fields. Given the tight integration of these multiple sensors with the CubeSat platforms, each of the DICE spacecraft is effectively a "sensor-sat" capable of comprehensive ionospheric diagnostics. Over time, the sensor-sats will separate relative to each other due to differences in the ejection velocity and enable accurate identification of geospace storm-time features, such as the geomagnetic Storm Enhanced Density (SED) bulge and plume. The use of two identical sensor-sats permits the de-convolution of spatial and temporal ambiguities in the observations of the ionosphere from a moving platform. In addition to demonstrating nanosat constellation science, the DICE mission downlink communications system is operating at 3 Mbit/s. To our knowledge, this transmission rate is a factor of 100 or more greater than previous CubeSat missions to date. This paper will focus on the DICE mission design, implementation, and on-orbit operations successes as well as the challenges faced in implementing a high-return science mission with limited resources. Specifically, it will focus on the lessons learned in integrating, calibrating, and managing a small constellation of sensor-sats for global science measurements.

  7. Designing photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy: strategies, challenges and promising developments.

    PubMed

    Garland, Martin J; Cassidy, Corona M; Woolfson, David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2009-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) are techniques that combine the effects of visible light irradiation with subsequent biochemical events that arise from the presence of a photosensitizing drug (possessing no dark toxicity) to cause destruction of selected cells. Despite its still widespread clinical use, Photofrin(®) has several drawbacks that limit its general clinical use. Consequently, there has been extensive research into the design of improved alternative photosensitizers aimed at overcoming these drawbacks. While there are many review articles on the subject of PDT and PACT, these have focused on the photosensitizers that have been used clinically, with little emphasis placed on how the chemical aspects of the molecule can affect their efficacy as PDT agents. Indeed, many of the PDT/PACT agents used clinically may not even be the most appropriate within a given class. As such, this review aims to provide a better understanding of the factors that have been investigated, while aiming at improving the efficacy of a molecule intended to be used as a photosensitizer. Recent publications, spanning the last 5 years, concerning the design, synthesis and clinical usage of photosensitizers for application in PDT and PACT are reviewed, including 5-aminolevulinic acid, porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins, texaphyrins, phthalocyanines and porphycenes. It has been shown that there are many important considerations when designing a potential PDT/PACT agent, including the influence of added groups on the lipophilicity of the molecule, the positioning and nature of these added groups within the molecule, the presence of a central metal ion and the number of charges that the molecule possesses. The extensive ongoing research within the field has led to the identification of a number of potential lead molecules for application in PDT/PACT. The development of the second-generation photosensitizers, possessing shorter periods of

  8. Elementary Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    How many of our students come to the classroom with little background knowledge about the world around them and how things work? To help students develop conceptual understanding and explore the design process, the author brought the NASA "Engineering Design Challenges" program to his school district, redeveloped for elementary students. In this…

  9. Elementary Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    How many of our students come to the classroom with little background knowledge about the world around them and how things work? To help students develop conceptual understanding and explore the design process, the author brought the NASA "Engineering Design Challenges" program to his school district, redeveloped for elementary students. In this…

  10. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  11. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  12. Use of a design challenge to develop postural support devices for intermediate wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Onguti, Brenda N; Tanuku, Deepti; Himelfarb Hurwitz, Elizabeth J; Moller, Nathaniel C; Yazdi, Youseph; Egan, Shannon; Bazant, Eva S; Gichangi, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The provision of an appropriate wheelchair, one that provides proper fit and postural support, promotes wheelchair users' physical health and quality of life. Many wheelchair users have postural difficulties, requiring supplemental postural support devices for added trunk support. However, in many low- and middle-income settings, postural support devices are inaccessible, inappropriate or unaffordable. This article describes the use of the design challenge model, informed by a design thinking approach, to catalyse the development of an affordable, simple and robust postural support device for low- and middle-income countries. The article also illustrates how not-for-profit organisations can utilise design thinking and, in particular, the design challenge model to successfully support the development of innovative solutions to product or process challenges.

  13. Use of a design challenge to develop postural support devices for intermediate wheelchair users

    PubMed Central

    Tanuku, Deepti; Moller, Nathaniel C.

    2017-01-01

    The provision of an appropriate wheelchair, one that provides proper fit and postural support, promotes wheelchair users’ physical health and quality of life. Many wheelchair users have postural difficulties, requiring supplemental postural support devices for added trunk support. However, in many low- and middle-income settings, postural support devices are inaccessible, inappropriate or unaffordable. This article describes the use of the design challenge model, informed by a design thinking approach, to catalyse the development of an affordable, simple and robust postural support device for low- and middle-income countries. The article also illustrates how not-for-profit organisations can utilise design thinking and, in particular, the design challenge model to successfully support the development of innovative solutions to product or process challenges. PMID:28936418

  14. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  15. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  16. The Backpack Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Something as simple as carrying books to school can be an interesting design challenge for students. It's an old problem that gets reinvented from time to time. In this article, the author discusses a backpack design challenge in which teachers work with students to design another way to carry books to school. The challenge started by trying to…

  17. Design and Development of Virtual Reality: Analysis of Challenges Faced by Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…

  18. Design and Development of Virtual Reality: Analysis of Challenges Faced by Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…

  19. Curriculum Design Practices of a Vocational Community College in a Developing Context: Challenges and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albashiry, Nabeel M.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2015-01-01

    Aligning vocational curricula with the labor market needs is a common reported challenge in developing countries. Little is known, however, about how vocational community colleges in such contexts regularly review and redesign their curricula to ensure the quality and relevance of their programs. From a curriculum design (CD) perspective, this…

  20. Curriculum Design Practices of a Vocational Community College in a Developing Context: Challenges and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albashiry, Nabeel M.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2015-01-01

    Aligning vocational curricula with the labor market needs is a common reported challenge in developing countries. Little is known, however, about how vocational community colleges in such contexts regularly review and redesign their curricula to ensure the quality and relevance of their programs. From a curriculum design (CD) perspective, this…

  1. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Team Aegis poses with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and Lockheed Martin CEO, Marillyn Hewson. Team Aegis was one of the semi-finalists in the Exploration Design Challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge is for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation. The winner of the challenge was announced on April 25, 2014 at the USA Science and Engineering Festival at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Team Lore poses with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and Lockheed Martin CEO, Marillyn Hewson. Team Lore was one of the semi-finalists in the Exploration Design Challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge is for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation. The winner of the challenge was announced on April 25, 2014 at the USA Science and Engineering Festival at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Designing and Developing Game-Like Learning Experience in Virtual Worlds: Challenges and Design Decisions of Novice Instructional Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Turkan Karakus; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Many virtual worlds have been adopted for implementation within educational settings because they are potentially useful for building effective learning environments. Since the flexibility of virtual worlds challenges to obtain effective and efficient educational outcomes, the design of such platforms need more attention. In the present study, the…

  4. NASA Exploration Design Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

  5. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  6. Design Opportunities and Challenges in the Development of Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    1978. 21. Totah, J.J. and Kinney, D.J. ÒSimulating Conceptual and Developmental AircraftÓ AIAA-98- 4161. 22. Dejarnette , F.R. and Mckay, C.P...1 Design Opportunities and Challenges in the Development of Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles Larry A. Young Robert T.N. Chen Edwin W. Aiken...Army/NASA Rotorcraft Division Geoffrey A. Briggs Center for Mars Exploration NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA Abstract The next few years

  7. The aerodynamic challenges of the design and development of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. C.; Underwood, J. M.; Hillje, E. R.; Whitnah, A. M.; Romere, P. O.; Gamble, J. D.; Roberts, B. B.; Ware, G. M.; Scallion, W. I.; Spencer, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The major aerodynamic design challenge at the beginning of the United States Space Transportation System (STS) research and development phase was to design a vehicle that would fly as a spacecraft during early entry and as an aircraft during the final phase of entry. The design was further complicated because the envisioned vehicle was statically unstable during a portion of the aircraft mode of operation. The second challenge was the development of preflight aerodynamic predictions with an accuracy consistent with conducting a manned flight on the initial orbital flight. A brief history of the early contractual studies is presented highlighting the technical results and management decisions influencing the aerodynamic challenges. The configuration evolution and the development of preflight aerodynamic predictions will be reviewed. The results from the first four test flights shows excellent agreement with the preflight aerodynamic predictions over the majority of the flight regimes. The only regimes showing significant disagreement is confined primarily to early entry, where prediction of the basic vehicle trim and the influence of the reaction control system jets on the flow field were found to be deficient. Postflight results are analyzed to explain these prediction deficiencies.

  8. Opportunities and Challenges for Drug Development: Public-Private Partnerships, Adaptive Designs and Big Data.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Oktay; Gottwald, Matthias; Schüler, Peter; Michel, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research and Development. Based on an international symposium organized by the Medical School of the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany) and held in January 2016, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of three specific areas, i.e., public-private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data. Public-private partnerships come in many different forms with regard to scope, duration and type and number of participants. They range from project-specific collaborations to strategic alliances to large multi-party consortia. Each of them offers specific opportunities and faces distinct challenges. Among types of collaboration, investigator-initiated studies are becoming increasingly popular but have legal, ethical, and financial implications. Adaptive trial designs are also increasingly discussed. However, adaptive should not be used as euphemism for the repurposing of a failed trial; rather it requires carefully planning and specification before a trial starts. Adaptive licensing can be a counter-part of adaptive trial design. The use of Big Data is another opportunity to leverage existing information into knowledge useable for drug discovery and development. Respecting limitations of informed consent and privacy is a key challenge in the use of Big Data. Speakers and participants at the symposium were convinced that appropriate use of the above new options may indeed help to increase the efficiency of future drug development.

  9. Opportunities and Challenges for Drug Development: Public–Private Partnerships, Adaptive Designs and Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Oktay; Gottwald, Matthias; Schüler, Peter; Michel, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research and Development. Based on an international symposium organized by the Medical School of the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany) and held in January 2016, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of three specific areas, i.e., public–private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data. Public–private partnerships come in many different forms with regard to scope, duration and type and number of participants. They range from project-specific collaborations to strategic alliances to large multi-party consortia. Each of them offers specific opportunities and faces distinct challenges. Among types of collaboration, investigator-initiated studies are becoming increasingly popular but have legal, ethical, and financial implications. Adaptive trial designs are also increasingly discussed. However, adaptive should not be used as euphemism for the repurposing of a failed trial; rather it requires carefully planning and specification before a trial starts. Adaptive licensing can be a counter-part of adaptive trial design. The use of Big Data is another opportunity to leverage existing information into knowledge useable for drug discovery and development. Respecting limitations of informed consent and privacy is a key challenge in the use of Big Data. Speakers and participants at the symposium were convinced that appropriate use of the above new options may indeed help to increase the efficiency of future drug development. PMID:27999543

  10. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Team Lore listens in the audience as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks at the event to announce the winner of the Exploration Design Challenge. Team Lore was one of the semi-finalists in the challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge is for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation. The winner of the challenge was announced on April 25, 2014 at the USA Science and Engineering Festival at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  11. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Pictured are all Semi-finalist teams in the Exploration Design Challenge. NASA Administrator, Charles Bolden and Lockheed Martin CEO, Marillyn Hewson announced the winner of the Exploration Design Challenge at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014. The goal of the challenge was for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation. The winning team's design will be built and flown aboard the Orion/EFT-1. The USA Science and Engineering Festival is taking place at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC on April 26 and 27, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    NASA Administrator, Charles Bolden and Lockheed Martin CEO, Marillyn Hewson announce the winner of the Exploration Design Challenge at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge was for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation.The USA Science and Engineering Festival is taking place at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC on April 26 and 27, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Team ARES poses with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and Lockheed Martin CEO, Marillyn Hewson. Team ARES was the winner of the Exploration Design Challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge is for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation. The winning team was announced on April 25, 2014 at the USA Science and Engineering Festival at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Team Titan Shielding Systems poses with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and Lockheed Martin CEO, Marillyn Hewson. Team Titan Shielding Systems was one of the semi-finalists in the Exploration Design Challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge is for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation. The winner of the challenge was announced on April 25, 2014 at the USA Science and Engineering Festival at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  15. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Sponsors of all of the semi-finalist teams in the Exploration Design Challenge pose for a group photo with the teams. Team ARES from the Governors School for Science and Technology in Hampton, Va. won the challenge with their radiation shield design, which will be built and flown aboard the Orion/EFT-1. The award was announced at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014 at the Washington Convention Center. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  16. 2002 Controls Design Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.; Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    This document is intended to provide the specifications and requirements for a flight control system design challenge. The response to the challenge will involve documenting whether the particular design has met the stated requirements through analysis and computer simulation. The response should be written in the general format of a technical publication with corresponding length limits, e.g., an approximate maximum length of 45 units, with each full-size figure and double-spaced typewritten page constituting one unit.

  17. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    NASA’s Administrator, Charles Bolden speaks with the winning high school team in the Exploration Design Challenge prior to the award ceremony. Team ARES from the Governors School for Science and Technology in Hampton, Va. won the challenge with their radiation shield design, which will be built and flown aboard the Orion/EFT-1. The award was announced at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014 at the Washington Convention Center. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Sponsors of Team ARES pose for a group photo with the winning high school team in the Exploration Design Challenge. Team ARES from the Governors School for Science and Technology in Hampton, Va. won the challenge with their radiation shield design, which will be built and flown aboard the Orion/EFT-1. The award was announced at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014 at the Washington Convention Center. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  19. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Astronaut Rex Walheim spoke at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014. The event was held to announce the winner of the Exploration Design Challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge was for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation.The winning team's design will be built and flown aboard the Orion/EFT-1. The USA Science and Engineering Festival takes place at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC on April 26 and 27, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Mark Geyer, Orion Program Manager, spoke at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014. The event was held to announce the winner of the Exploration Design Challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge was for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation.The winning team's design will be built and flown aboard the Orion/EFT-1. The USA Science and Engineering Festival takes place at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC on April 26 and 27, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    After announcing that Team ARES won the Exploration Design Challenge, NASA Administrator, Charles Bolden and CEO, Marillyn Hewson invite the team up to the stage to receive their award. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge was for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation.Team ARES's design will be built and flown aboard the Orion/EFT-1. The USA Science and Engineering Festival is taking place at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC on April 26 and 27, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. Rooftop Garden Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…

  3. Rooftop Garden Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…

  4. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    Lockheed Martin CEO Marillyn Hewson spoke at the Orion exhibit at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014. The event was held to announce the winner of the Exploration Design Challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge was for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation.The USA Science and Engineering Festival is taking place at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC on April 26 and 27, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden spoke at the Orion exhibit at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014. The event was held to announce the winner of the Exploration Design Challenge. The goal of the Exploration Design Challenge was for students to research and design ways to protect astronauts from space radiation.The USA Science and Engineering Festival is taking place at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC on April 26 and 27, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Exploration Design Challenge 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    NASA’s Administrator, Charles Bolden (left), President/CEO of Lockheed Martin, Marillyn Hewson (right), and astronaut Rex Walheim (back row) pose for a group photo with the winning high school team in the Exploration Design Challenge. Team ARES from the Governors School for Science and Technology in Hampton, Va. won the challenge with their radiation shield design, which will be built and flown aboard the Orion/EFT-1. The award was announced at the USA Science and Engineering Festival on April 25, 2014 at the Washington Convention Center. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  7. Kayak Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anson

    2011-01-01

    Living in the Adirondack Park and being an avid outdoorsman has often resulted in the author's love of the outdoors working its way into class projects. In 2010, the author gave a group of 25 students in grades 9-12 a challenge that required them to design and construct a prototype inexpensive, lightweight kayak for backpackers and fisherman. In…

  8. Kayak Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anson

    2011-01-01

    Living in the Adirondack Park and being an avid outdoorsman has often resulted in the author's love of the outdoors working its way into class projects. In 2010, the author gave a group of 25 students in grades 9-12 a challenge that required them to design and construct a prototype inexpensive, lightweight kayak for backpackers and fisherman. In…

  9. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    2016-09-13

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA’s limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  10. Design, Development and Test Challenges: Separation Mechanisms for the Orion Pad Abort-1 Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load

  11. Blogging at University as a Case Study in Instructional Design: Challenges and Suggestions towards Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muwanga-Zake, J. W. F.; Parkes, M.; Gregory, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potentials of ICT such as blogs seem to be obvious, universities find challenges in using them pedagogically. For example, there is dissonance between blogging and pedagogy, or rather a gap between rhetoric about blog potential and blog practice, which has prompted this investigation and professional development in the use of blogs at…

  12. The Challenge of Being an Instructional Designer for New Media Development: A View from the Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Gibby, Scott; Quiros, Ondrea; Demps, Elaine

    The rapid changes in the field of technology are redefining the process of developing technology-enhanced educational materials as well as the roles of developers involved in the process.The purpose of this study was to learn from practitioners the roles and responsibilities of an instructional designer in developing new media enhanced…

  13. Game Design & Development: Using Computer Games as Creative and Challenging Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Cheryl; Hundley, Jacqueline; Montgomery, Lacey Strange

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a game design and development course. The rationale for forming this class was to use student excitement with video games as an intrinsic motivation over traditional courses. Today's students have grown up exposed to gaming, interactive environments, and vivid 3D. Computer gaming has the capacity to attract many new students…

  14. Challenges of Developing Design Discharge Estimates with Uncertain Data and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senarath, S. U. S.

    2016-12-01

    This study focuses on design discharge estimates obtained for gauged basins through flood flow frequency analysis. Bulletin 17B (B17B) guidelines are widely used in the USA for developing these design estimates, which are required for many water resources engineering design applications. A set of outlier and historical data, and distribution parameter selection options is included in these guidelines. These options are provided in the guidelines as a means of accounting for uncertain data and information, primarily in the flow record. The individual as well as the cumulative effects of each of these preferences on design discharge estimates are evaluated in this study by using data from several gauges that are part of the United States Geological Survey's Hydro-Climatic Data Network. The results of this study show that despite the availability of rigorous and detailed guidelines for flood frequency analysis, the design discharge estimates can still vary substantially, from user to user, based on data and model parameter selection options chosen by each user. Thus, the findings of this study have strong implications for water resources engineers and other professionals who use B17B-based design discharge estimates in their work.

  15. X-15 Hardware Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Harrison A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Historical events in the development of the X-15 hardware design are presented. Some of the topics covered include: (1) drivers that led to the development of the X-15; (2) X-15 space research objectives; (3) original performance targets; (4) the X-15 typical mission; (5) X-15 dimensions and weight; (5) the propulsion system; (6) X-15 development milestones; (7) engineering and manufacturing challenges; (8) the X-15 structure; (9) ballistic flight control; (10) landing gear; (11) nose gear; and (12) an X-15 program recap.

  16. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  17. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  18. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  19. Alloy Design Challenge: Development of Low Density Superalloys for Turbine Blade Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Smialek, James L.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    New low density single crystal (LDS) alloys have been developed for turbine blade applications, which have the potential for significant improvements in the thrust to weight ratio over current production alloys. An innovative alloying strategy was identified to achieve high temperature creep resistance, alloy density reductions, microstructural stability, and cyclic oxidation resistance. The approach relies on the use of molybdenum (Mo) as a potent solid solution strengthener for the nickel (Ni)-base superalloy; Mo has a density much closer to Ni than other refractory elements, such as rhenium (Re) or tungsten (W). A host of testing and microstructural examinations was conducted on the superalloy single crystals, including creep rupture testing, microstructural stability, cyclic oxidation, and hot corrosion. The paper will provide an overview of the single crystal properties that were generated in this new superalloy design space. The paper will also demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative approach of low density single crystal superalloy design. It will be shown that the best LDS alloy possesses the best attributes of three generations of single crystal alloys: the low density of first-generation single crystal alloys, the excellent oxidation resistance of second-generation single crystal alloys, and a creep strength which exceeds that of second and third generation alloys.

  20. New Challenges in Optical Coating Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Olaf

    Modern mathematical algorithms allow to theoretically generate thin film designs that fit nearly any reasonable specification. Nevertheless, as practice has shown, the gap between calculated and technologically achievable characteristics may be significant, so that the search for qualitatively new design and production tools is still in progress and represents one of the most complex challenges in thin optical coating theory and technology today. Such new design challenges include the incorporation of gradient index layers into classical designs, the design of rugate filters, or novel filter concepts that are based on resonant grating waveguide structures. Moreover, the development of novel composite coating materials is expected to facilitate the optimisation of future designs.

  1. Challenges in polyoxometalate-mediated aerobic oxidation catalysis: catalyst development meets reactor design.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Manuel; Güttel, Robert; Streb, Carsten

    2016-11-14

    Selective catalytic oxidation is one of the most widely used chemical processes. Ideally, highly active and selective catalysts are used in combination with molecular oxygen as oxidant, leading to clean, environmentally friendly process conditions. For homogeneous oxidation catalysis, molecular metal oxide anions, so-called polyoxometalates (POMs) are ideal prototypes which combine high reactivity and stability with chemical tunability on the molecular level. Typically, POM-mediated aerobic oxidations are biphasic, using gaseous O2 and liquid reaction mixtures. Therefore, the overall efficiency of the reaction is not only dependent on the chemical components, but requires chemical engineering insight to design reactors with optimized productivity. This Perspective shows that POM-mediated aerobic liquid-phase oxidations are ideal reactions to be carried out in microstructured flow reactors as they enable facile mass and energy transfer, provide large gas-liquid interfaces and can be easily upscaled. Recent advances in POM-mediated aerobic catalytic oxidations are therefore summarized with a focus on technological importance and mechanistic insight. The principles of reactor design are discussed from a chemical engineering point of view with a focus on homogeneous oxidation catalysis using O2 in microfluidic systems. Further, current limitations to catalytic activity are identified and future directions based on combined chemistry and chemical engineering approaches are discussed to show that this approach could lead to sustainable production methods in industrial chemistry based on alternative energy sources and chemical feedstocks.

  2. Formulation design, challenges, and development considerations for fixed dose combination (FDC) of oral solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Desai, Divyakant; Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Li, Xuhong; Timmins, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fixed dose combination (FDC) products are common in the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, and tuberculosis. They make it possible to combine two or more drug molecules with different modes of pharmacological actions in a single dosing unit and optimize the treatment. From a patient perspective, they offer convenience, reduced dosing unit burden, and cost savings. From a clinical perspective, aging population in developed countries will need multiple medications to treat age related diseases and co-morbidities. FDC products simplify dosing regimen and enhance patient compliance. As outlined in the article, the number of FDC products has grown over the years and the trend is likely to continue. This review article gives an overview to pharmaceutical scientists about recent trends in the formulation development of the FDC products and provides decision trees to select most optimum formulation development strategy. While some formulation technologies such as multi-layer tablets, multiparticulate systems, active film coating, and hot-melt granulation are discussed in more detail, a few specialized technologies are also introduced briefly to the readers.

  3. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  4. Power-Efficient Design Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangrle, Barry

    significant gains can be realized and why power-efficiency requirements will continue to challenge designers into the future. Despite new process technologies, the future will continue to rely on innovative design approaches.

  5. Flight telerobot mechanism design: Problems and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, John B.; Kan, Edwin P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems and challenges of designing flight telerobot mechanisms are discussed. Specific experiences are drawn from the following system developments: (1) the Force Reflecting Hand Controller, (2) the Smart End Effector, (3) the force-torque sensor, and a generic multi-degrees-of-freedom manipulator.

  6. Ulysses mission design after Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthey, Joe L.; Peralta, Fernando; Pojman, Joan L.

    1990-01-01

    The delay of the Ulysses launch from May 1986 to October 1990, because of the Challenger disaster, has altered both the constraints under which the mission must be designed and the timing of several mission critical events. Safety and launch reliability concerns from the Shuttle have increased the effective launch window to durations greater than one hour. Fortuitously high declinations of the launch asymptote (DLA), of the order of the launch site latitude, ameliorate the impact of the new constraints on the launch window. Target overlays in the first hour of the launch window provide higher departure energies that improve mission performance and avoid a science schedule conflict at second opposition near the time of closest Jupiter approach. The mission design starts with the maximum earth departure energy that the upper stage can deliver within the launch constraints. The Jupiter arrival asymptotes are chosen from the optimal point of mission performance in the mission space defined in the Jupiter B-plane by contours mapped by the science and spacecraft constraints. More than half the orbital energy of the earth-to-Jupiter transfer orbit is lost in the Jupiter flyby, and the Jupiter gravitational assist rotates the orbit plane out of the ecliptic to an inclination of about 80 degrees.

  7. Development Challenges of Utilizing a Corner Cube Mechanism Design with Successful IASI Flight Heritage for the Infrared Sounder (IRS) on MTG: Recurrent Mechanical Design not Correlated to Recurrent Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudakis, Peter; Schwab, Philippe; Kiener, Lionel; Saudan, Herve; Perruchoud, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    The Corner Cube Mechanism (CCM) design for the Infra-Red Sounder (IRS) on MTG is based on the successful mechanism currently in orbit on the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometers (IASI) on the Metop satellites. The overall CCM performance is described with attention given to the specific design developments for the MTG project. A description is presented of the modifications introduced and challenges encountered to adapt the IASI space heritage design (which is only 15 years old) to meet the MTG specifications. A detailed account is provided regarding the tests performed on the adapted components for the new programme. The major issues encountered and solutions proposed are illustrated concerning the voice- coil actuator development, optical switch design, fatigue life of the flexure components and the adaptation of the launch locking device. Nevertheless, an Engineering Qualification Model was rapidly manufactured and now undergoing a qualification test campaign.

  8. Institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage in lesser-developed countries: challenges facing the Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shakil; Annear, Peter Leslie; Phonvisay, Bouaphat; Phommavong, Chansaly; Cruz, Valeria de Oliveira; Hammerich, Asmus; Jacobs, Bart

    2013-11-01

    There is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage.

  9. Developing Marine Science Instructional Materials Using Integrated Scientist-Educator Collaborative Design Teams: A Discussion of Challenges and Success Developing Real Time Data Projects for the COOL Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J.; Duncan, R. G.; Glenn, S.

    2007-12-01

    Current reforms in science education place increasing demands on teachers and students to engage not only with scientific content but also to develop an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996). Teachers are expected to engage students with authentic scientific practices including posing questions, conducting observations, analyzing data, developing explanations and arguing about them using evidence. This charge is challenging for many reasons most notably the difficulty in obtaining meaningful data about complex scientific phenomena that can be used to address relevant scientific questions that are interesting and understandable to K-12 students. We believe that ocean sciences provide an excellent context for fostering scientific inquiry in the classroom. Of particular interest are the technological and scientific advances of Ocean Observing Systems, which allow scientists to continuously interact with instruments, facilities, and other scientists to explore the earth-ocean- atmosphere system remotely. Oceanographers are making long-term measurements that can also resolve episodic oceanic processes on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales crucial to resolving scientific questions related to Earth's climate, geodynamics, and marine ecosystems. The availability of a diverse array of large data sets that are easily accessible provides a unique opportunity to develop inquiry-based learning environments in which students can explore many important questions that reflect current research trends in ocean sciences. In addition, due to the interdisciplinary nature of the ocean sciences these data sets can be used to examine ocean phenomena from a chemical, physical, or biological perspective; making them particularly useful for science teaching across the disciplines. In this session we will describe some of the efforts of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence- Mid Atlantic (COSEE MA) to develop instructional materials

  10. Challenges in Developing Clinical Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Venkatesh; Vedula, Venumadhav

    2008-09-01

    Over the years, medical imaging has become very common and data intensive. New technology is needed to help visualize and analyze these large, complex data sets, especially in an acute care situation where time is of the essence. Also it is very important to present the data in an efficient and simple manner to aid the clinical decision making processes. There is a need for a clinical workstation that handles data from different modalities and performs the necessary post- processing operations on the data in order to enhance the image quality and improve the reliability of diagnosis. This paper briefly explains clinical workstation, emphasizing the requirements and challenges in design and architecture for the development of such systems.

  11. Spaceflight Flow Cytometry: Design Challenges and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, Dimitri; Kao, Shih-Hsin; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2004-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will require analytical technology capable of providing both autonomous medical care to the crew and investigative capabilities to researchers. While several promising candidate technologies exist for further development, flow cytometry is an attractive technology as it offers both crew health and a wide array of biochemistry and immunology assays. While flow cytometry has been widely used for cellular analysis in both clinical and research settings, the requirements for proper operation in spaceflight impose constraints on any instrument designs. The challenges of designing a spaceflight-ready flow cytometer are discussed, as well as some preliminary results using a prototype system.

  12. Integrating Art and Science Through "Design Challenges"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, L.; Pompea, S. M.; Tzou, C.; Guthrie, M.; Tsurusaki, B.; Danielson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combining art with science can be a powerful way to engage audiences, yet there is little published evidence about effective STEAM approaches. Through our NSF-funded effort "Project STEAM: Integrating Art with Science to Build Science Identities among Girls," our team has developed a "design challenge" approach that combines optics, biology, and art. During these challenges, participants explore scientific concepts and use their understandings to design artistic products. The project aims to ultimately increase female representation in careers that currently have a high gender disparity, such as the geosciences, by changing attitudes and dispositions towards science among pre-middle school girls. We present evaluation and research results that suggest that our approach is effective in engaging and building science identities in participants.

  13. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  14. Challenging design and development of Ma_Miss, a miniaturised spectrometric instrument for Mars sub-soil analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, E.; Coradini, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Capanni, A.; Paolinetti, R.; Re, E.; Magnani, P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies), the miniaturized instrument for spectrometric and stratigraphic analysis of sub-soil developed by SELEX Galileo in the context of ESA ExoMars mission. The Ma_Miss experiment is coordinated by the Principal Investigator Angioletta Coradini (IFSI-INAF, Rome) and is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The exploration of Mars requires a detailed in-situ investigation of the Martian surface and sub-surface. Determining the composition of the Martian subsoil will provide a direct indication of the steps through which the sample material evolved along geological timescales. Ma_Miss is an instrument fully integrated in the Drill system (developed by SELEX Galileo) hosted by a Rover operating on Mars surface; Ma_Miss illuminates the wall of the drill borehole and acquires its reflectance signal in the Visible and Infrared (0.4-2.2 micron) range, analyzes it through a miniaturized spectrometer (20nm spectral resolution), and transmits the digital data to the Rover. The innovative instrument concept was driven by several key needs, related to challenging scientific requirements and extreme environmental constraints. Implementation of the concept has required a deep interdisciplinary concurrent development in order to solve critical aspects of engineering and manufacturing, covering miniaturized monolithic optics and novel concept for fiberoptic connectors capable to automatically mate/de-mate during the robotic assembly of the Drill elements on Mars.

  15. Exploration Rover Concepts and Development Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; McKissock, David B.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Zakrajsek, June F.; Oswald, Fred B.; McEntire, Kelly J.; Hill, Gerald M.; Abel, Phillip; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of exploration rover concepts and the various development challenges associated with each as they are applied to exploration objectives and requirements for missions on the Moon and Mars. A variety of concepts for surface exploration vehicles have been proposed since the initial development of the Apollo-era lunar rover. This paper provides a brief description of the rover concepts, along with a comparison of their relative benefits and limitations. In addition, this paper outlines, and investigates a number of critical development challenges that surface exploration vehicles must address in order to successfully meet the exploration mission vision. These include: mission and environmental challenges, design challenges, and production and delivery challenges. Mission and environmental challenges include effects of terrain, extreme temperature differentials, dust issues, and radiation protection. Design methods are discussed that focus on optimum methods for developing highly reliable, long-life and efficient systems. In addition, challenges associated with delivering a surface exploration system is explored and discussed. Based on all the information presented, modularity will be the single most important factor in the development of a truly viable surface mobility vehicle. To meet mission, reliability, and affordability requirements, surface exploration vehicles, especially pressurized rovers, will need to be modularly designed and deployed across all projected Moon and Mars exploration missions.

  16. Shuttle Propulsion Overview - The Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates, about eight and a half minutes into the flight, after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, with only the SSME s continuing operation to achieve orbital velocity. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970's. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper describes the design challenges and key areas where the design evolved during the program.

  17. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  18. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  19. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  20. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  1. Whatever Floats Your Boat: A Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a simple design challenge, based on the PBS program "Design Squad's" "Watercraft" activity that will prove engaging to most technology and engineering students. In this floating boat challenge, students are to build a boat that can float and support 25 pennies for at least 10 seconds--without leaking, sinking, or tipping…

  2. Whatever Floats Your Boat: A Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a simple design challenge, based on the PBS program "Design Squad's" "Watercraft" activity that will prove engaging to most technology and engineering students. In this floating boat challenge, students are to build a boat that can float and support 25 pennies for at least 10 seconds--without leaking, sinking, or tipping…

  3. Brazil - the Challenge of Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-07

    agency. BRAZIL -- THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPMENT BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL CLOVIS PURPER BANDEIRA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for publig release...MBER 7. ALU’-HOR(j) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER,’&I Clovis Purper Bandeira, LTC, IN 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PRO...agency. BRAZIL - THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPXENT AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Clovis Purper Bandeira, IN Colonel Alden M. Cunningham

  4. Challenges of Aircraft Design Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    aerodynamic and structural design and analysis codes, validation of advanced wing design methods and calibration of viscous flow analysis and drag...YVArte STORAGE CURSO T Figure 4: Typical VADOR Architecture Aerodynamic analysis of transonic flexible wings One important multi-disciplinary study is...deformation on the aerodynamic load distribution. The prediction of the bending and twisting of wings was achieved by coupling the transonic CFD code

  5. University Engineering Design Challenge Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    Universities utilizing engineering seniors to bring design solution ideas to AFOSR as well as bring a structured design program for the students . Each year...up to the point where the concrete silo and hged to the point the nail gun could not penetrate the concrete. Our lift worked for the students , but...was not sufficiently powered to carry the appropriate weight. Although not as successful as we had hoped, the students gained a very good

  6. Designing under Constraints: Cell Phone Case Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Kevin; Grubbs, Michael E.; Ernst, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Engineering design has been suggested as a viable instructional approach for Technology Education (TE) to intentionally provide students the opportunity to apply multidisciplinary concepts to solve ill-defined design challenges (Wells & Ernst, 2012; Sanders & Wells, 2010; Wicklein, 2006). Currently, the context for design challenges in TE…

  7. Designing under Constraints: Cell Phone Case Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Kevin; Grubbs, Michael E.; Ernst, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Engineering design has been suggested as a viable instructional approach for Technology Education (TE) to intentionally provide students the opportunity to apply multidisciplinary concepts to solve ill-defined design challenges (Wells & Ernst, 2012; Sanders & Wells, 2010; Wicklein, 2006). Currently, the context for design challenges in TE…

  8. WLMR Design Challenge 2010 Winning Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Meet the 1st place team from the 2010 Waste Limitation Management Recycling (WLMR) Design Challenge, West Fargo STEM Center. The team goes on a tour of Kennedy Space Center and watches a shuttle la...

  9. An overview: Challenges in wind technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, R. W.; Hock, S. M.

    1991-12-01

    Developing innovative wind turbine components and advanced turbine configurations is a primary focus for wind technology researchers. In their rush to bring these new components and systems to the marketplace, designers and developers should consider the lessons learned in the wind farms over the past 10 years. Experience has shown that a disciplined design approach is required that realistically accounts for the turbulence-induced loads, unsteady stall loading, and fatigue effects. This paper reviews past experiences and compares current modeling capabilities with experimental measurements in order to identify some of the knowledge gaps that challenge designers of advanced components and systems.

  10. An overview: Challenges in wind technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.W.; Hock, S.M.

    1991-12-01

    Developing innovative wind turbine components and advanced turbine configurations is a primary focus for wind technology researchers. In their rush to bring these new components and systems to the marketplace, designers and developers should consider the lessons learned in the wind farms over the past 10 years. Experience has shown that a disciplined design approach is required that realistically accounts for the turbulence-induced loads, unsteady stall loading, and fatigue effects. This paper reviews past experiences and compares current modelling capabilities with experimental measurements in order to identify some of the knowledge gaps that challenge designers of advanced components and systems. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  11. An overview: Challenges in wind technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R W; Hock, S M

    1991-12-01

    Developing innovative wind turbine components and advanced turbine configurations is a primary focus for wind technology researchers. In their rush to bring these new components and systems to the marketplace, designers and developers should consider the lessons learned in the wind farms over the past 10 years. Experience has shown that a disciplined design approach is required that realistically accounts for the turbulence-induced loads, unsteady stall loading, and fatigue effects. This paper reviews past experiences and compares current modelling capabilities with experimental measurements in order to identify some of the knowledge gaps that challenge designers of advanced components and systems. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Design Challenges Are "ELL-elementary"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Romero, Nancy Yocom; Slater, Pat; DeCristofano, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    It has always been a challenge for elementary school teachers to help special needs students and English learners understand challenging, standards-based science content while their students are still developing English language skills. Through their work as pilot teachers for the Engineering is Elementary (EiE) program developed by the Museum of…

  13. Design Challenges of Implantable Pressure Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guangqiang

    2010-01-01

    Pressure in various organs and body parts, such as blood vessels, heart, brain, eyes, bladder and GI tracts, is an important indication of health. Long term, continuous pressure monitoring is critically needed for a number of applications. When combined with existing neuro-prosthetics devices, they may provide better solutions to many neural disorders. First efforts toward a long-term implantable pressure monitoring system were initiated more than 40 years ago. However, a reliable, safe and implantable pressure sensor for long-term applications is not yet commercially available. This paper attempts to reveal the design challenges associated with the development of a long-term implantable pressure sensor. PMID:20582255

  14. Technology Challenges in Small UAV Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Shams, Qamar; Pollock, Dion S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of highly capable small UAVs present unique challenges for technology protagonists. Size constraints, the desire for ultra low cost and/or disposable platforms, lack of capable design and analysis tools, and unique mission requirements all add to the level of difficulty in creating state-of-the-art small UAVs. This paper presents the results of several small UAV developments, the difficulties encountered, and proposes a list of technology shortfalls that need to be addressed.

  15. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-06-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  16. Robot Design Challenge: This Design Challenge Is a Mirror on the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    A fun design challenge that can be used in the classroom and across the grades is presented in this article. No special tools, hardware, or supplies are needed, only imagination and teamwork. It is a fun exercise that illustrates technology education principles. This design challenge is a mirror on the world, very similar to how projects are…

  17. Robot Design Challenge: This Design Challenge Is a Mirror on the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    A fun design challenge that can be used in the classroom and across the grades is presented in this article. No special tools, hardware, or supplies are needed, only imagination and teamwork. It is a fun exercise that illustrates technology education principles. This design challenge is a mirror on the world, very similar to how projects are…

  18. Innovative Trajectory Designs to meet Exploration Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation of the conference paper. Missions incorporated into NASA's Vision for Space Exploration include many different destinations and regions; are challenging to plan; and need new and innovative trajectory design methods to enable them. By combining proven methods with chaos dynamics, exploration goals that require maximum payload mass or minimum duration can be achieved. The implementation of these innovative methods, such as weak stability boundaries, has altered NASA's approach to meet exploration challenges and is described to show how exploration goals may be met in the next decade. With knowledge that various perturbations play a significant role, the mission designer must rely on both traditional design strategies as well as these innovative methods. Over the past decades, improvements have been made that would at first glance seem dramatic. This paper provides a brief narrative on how a fundamental shift has occurred and how chaos dynamics improve the design of exploration missions with complex constraints.

  19. University of Minnesota Duluth Engineering Design Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-23

    with the flammability of hydraulic fluid and unsuccessful resolution to supporting the device in case of leaks or failures . Figure 39: Hydraulic ...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0077 University of Minnesota Duluth Engineering Design Challenge Bill Pederson REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA MINNEAPOLIS...Final Performance 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      30-09-2011 to 29-09-2014 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE University of Minnesota Duluth Engineering Design

  20. Reported Challenges for Socio-Cultural Curricula in Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinuthia, Wanjira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived challenges of attempting to integrate topics related to social and cultural issues into the coursework in graduate programs in Instructional Design and Technology (IDT). Design/methodology/approach: An open-ended online survey instrument was developed for this study for three reasons.…

  1. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA`s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  2. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.; Duren, R.; Frerking, M.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the Sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  3. Adaptive Design of Confirmatory Trials: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip W.; Tsang, Ka Wai

    2015-01-01

    The past decade witnessed major developments in innovative designs of confirmatory clinical trials, and adaptive designs represent the most active area of these developments. We give an overview of the developments and associated statistical methods in several classes of adaptive designs of confirmatory trials. We also discuss their statistical difficulties and implementation challenges, and show how these problems are connected to other branches of mainstream Statistics, which we then apply to resolve the difficulties and bypass the bottlenecks in the development of adaptive designs for the next decade. PMID:26079372

  4. Student Design Challenges in Capillary Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Dennis P.; Wollman, Andrew; Hall, Nancy R.; Weislogel, Mark; DeLombard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    For some grade 8-12 students, capillary flow has bridged the gap between the classroom and research facility, from normal gravity to microgravity. In the past four years, NASA and the Portland State University (PSU) have jointly challenged students to design test cells, using Computer-Aided Design (CAD), to study capillary action in microgravity as PSU has done on the International Space Station (ISS). Using the student-submitted CAD drawings, the test cells were manufactured by PSU and tested in their 2.1-second drop tower. The microgravity results were made available online for student analysis and reporting. Over 100 such experiments have been conducted, where there has been participation from 15 states plus a German school for the children of U.S. military personnel. In 2016, a related NASA challenge was held in partnership with the ASGSR, again, based on the research conducted by PSU. In this challenge, grade 9-12 students designed and built devices using capillary action to launch droplets as far as possible in NASAs 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Example results will be presented by students at this conference. The challenges engage students in ISS science and technology and can inspire them to pursue technical careers.

  5. Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    For over a century, technologists and scientists have actively sought the development of exoskeletons and orthoses designed to augment human economy, strength, and endurance. While there are still many challenges associated with exoskeletal and orthotic design that have yet to be perfected, the advances in the field have been truly impressive. In this commentary, I first classify exoskeletons and orthoses into devices that act in series and in parallel to a human limb, providing a few examples within each category. This classification is then followed by a discussion of major design challenges and future research directions critical to the field of exoskeletons and orthoses. PMID:19538735

  6. Challenges in Translational Development of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Kale, Dnyaneshwar P; Zode, Sandeep S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2017-02-01

    The last 2 decades have witnessed increased research in the area of cocrystals resulting in deeper scientific understanding, increase in intellectual property landscape, and evolution in the regulatory environment. Pharmaceutical cocrystals have received significant attention as a new solid form on account of their ability to modulate poor physicochemical properties of drug molecules. However, pharmaceutical development of cocrystals could be challenging, thus limiting their translation into viable drug products. In the present commentary, the role of cocrystals in the modulation of material properties and challenges involved in the pharmaceutical development of cocrystals have been discussed. The major hurdles encountered in the development of cocrystals such as safety of coformers, unpredictable performance during dissolution and solubility in different media, difficulties in establishing in vitro-in vivo correlation, and polymorphism have been extensively discussed. The influence of selecting appropriate formulation and process design on these challenges has been discussed. Finally, a brief outline of cocrystals that are undergoing clinical development has also been presented. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Next Generation Compton Telescope Design Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phlips, Bernard F.; Grove, J. Eric; Johnson, W. Neil; Woolf, Richard S.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-04-01

    The next generation Compton telescope faces many challenges in achieving the desired sensitivity in the 1-10 MeV energy band. Fine spectral and imaging performance point to the use of semiconducting detectors. Practical issues point to the use of scintillation detectors. We will discuss positive developments and disappointments encountered over the last few years of Compton Telescope development at NRL. This research is supported by the Chief of Naval Research.

  8. Achievements and Challenges in Computational Protein Design.

    PubMed

    Samish, Ilan

    2017-01-01

    Computational protein design (CPD), a yet evolving field, includes computer-aided engineering for partial or full de novo designs of proteins of interest. Designs are defined by a requested structure, function, or working environment. This chapter describes the birth and maturation of the field by presenting 101 CPD examples in a chronological order emphasizing achievements and pending challenges. Integrating these aspects presents the plethora of CPD approaches with the hope of providing a "CPD 101". These reflect on the broader structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics field and include: (1) integration of knowledge-based and energy-based methods, (2) hierarchical designated approach towards local, regional, and global motifs and the integration of high- and low-resolution design schemes that fit each such region, (3) systematic differential approaches towards different protein regions, (4) identification of key hot-spot residues and the relative effect of remote regions, (5) assessment of shape-complementarity, electrostatics and solvation effects, (6) integration of thermal plasticity and functional dynamics, (7) negative design, (8) systematic integration of experimental approaches, (9) objective cross-assessment of methods, and (10) successful ranking of potential designs. Future challenges also include dissemination of CPD software to the general use of life-sciences researchers and the emphasis of success within an in vivo milieu. CPD increases our understanding of protein structure and function and the relationships between the two along with the application of such know-how for the benefit of mankind. Applied aspects range from biological drugs, via healthier and tastier food products to nanotechnology and environmentally friendly enzymes replacing toxic chemicals utilized in the industry.

  9. The aerospace plane design challenge: Credible computational fluid dynamics results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1990-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is necessary in the design processes of all current aerospace plane programs. Single-stage-to-orbit (STTO) aerospace planes with air-breathing supersonic combustion are going to be largely designed by means of CFD. The challenge of the aerospace plane design is to provide credible CFD results to work from, to assess the risk associated with the use of those results, and to certify CFD codes that produce credible results. To establish the credibility of CFD results used in design, the following topics are discussed: CFD validation vis-a-vis measurable fluid dynamics (MFD) validation; responsibility for credibility; credibility requirement; and a guide for establishing credibility. Quantification of CFD uncertainties helps to assess success risk and safety risks, and the development of CFD as a design tool requires code certification. This challenge is managed by designing the designers to use CFD effectively, by ensuring quality control, and by balancing the design process. For designing the designers, the following topics are discussed: how CFD design technology is developed; the reasons Japanese companies, by and large, produce goods of higher quality than the U.S. counterparts; teamwork as a new way of doing business; and how ideas, quality, and teaming can be brought together. Quality control for reducing the loss imparted to the society begins with the quality of the CFD results used in the design process, and balancing the design process means using a judicious balance of CFD and MFD.

  10. Engineering Design Challenges in a Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Create a light and sound show to entertain friends. Design an improved safety device for a car. Develop a 2-3 minute voice-over for a sports clip explaining the physics involved in the sport. Modify the design of a roller coaster to meet the needs of a specific group of riders. Design an appliance package for a family limited by the power and…

  11. The ITEA-NASA STS-118 Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Shelli D.; Caron, Daniel W.; Gray, Aaron; Weaver, Kim

    2008-01-01

    In conjunction with the August 8, 2007 launch of STS-118, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed and recently debuted curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration, known as STS-118 Design Challenges. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA…

  12. The ITEA-NASA STS-118 Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Shelli D.; Caron, Daniel W.; Gray, Aaron; Weaver, Kim

    2008-01-01

    In conjunction with the August 8, 2007 launch of STS-118, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed and recently debuted curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration, known as STS-118 Design Challenges. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA…

  13. Summary of Martian Dust Filtering Challenges and Current Filter Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, W. J.

    2017-06-01

    Precursor and manned mission ISRU systems, habitat and rover ECLS systems, and airlock systems will include dust filtering in their design. This paper summarizes the challenges of filter development, and the status of the progress made in this area.

  14. Challenges Facing Design and Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The design and analysis of future aerospace systems will strongly rely on advanced engineering analysis tools used in combination with risk mitigation procedures. The implications of such a trend place increased demands on these tools to assess off-nominal conditions, residual strength, damage propagation, and extreme loading conditions in order to understand and quantify these effects as they affect mission success. Advances in computer hardware such as CPU processing speed, memory, secondary storage, and visualization provide significant resources for the engineer to exploit in engineering design. The challenges facing design and analysis tools fall into three primary areas. The first area involves mechanics needs such as constitutive modeling, contact and penetration simulation, crack growth prediction, damage initiation and progression prediction, transient dynamics and deployment simulations, and solution algorithms. The second area involves computational needs such as fast, robust solvers, adaptivity for model and solution strategies, control processes for concurrent, distributed computing for uncertainty assessments, and immersive technology. Traditional finite element codes still require fast direct solvers which when coupled to current CPU power enables new insight as a result of high-fidelity modeling. The third area involves decision making by the analyst. This area involves the integration and interrogation of vast amounts of information - some global in character while local details are critical and often drive the design. The proposed presentation will describe and illustrate these areas using composite structures, energy-absorbing structures, and inflatable space structures. While certain engineering approximations within the finite element model may be adequate for global response prediction, they generally are inadequate in a design setting or when local response prediction is critical. Pitfalls to be avoided and trends for emerging analysis tools

  15. Challenges Facing Design and Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The design and analysis of future aerospace systems will strongly rely on advanced engineering analysis tools used in combination with risk mitigation procedures. The implications of such a trend place increased demands on these tools to assess off-nominal conditions, residual strength, damage propagation, and extreme loading conditions in order to understand and quantify these effects as they affect mission success. Advances in computer hardware such as CPU processing speed, memory, secondary storage, and visualization provide significant resources for the engineer to exploit in engineering design. The challenges facing design and analysis tools fall into three primary areas. The first area involves mechanics needs such as constitutive modeling, contact and penetration simulation, crack growth prediction, damage initiation and progression prediction, transient dynamics and deployment simulations, and solution algorithms. The second area involves computational needs such as fast, robust solvers, adaptivity for model and solution strategies, control processes for concurrent, distributed computing for uncertainty assessments, and immersive technology. Traditional finite element codes still require fast direct solvers which when coupled to current CPU power enables new insight as a result of high-fidelity modeling. The third area involves decision making by the analyst. This area involves the integration and interrogation of vast amounts of information - some global in character while local details are critical and often drive the design. The proposed presentation will describe and illustrate these areas using composite structures, energy-absorbing structures, and inflatable space structures. While certain engineering approximations within the finite element model may be adequate for global response prediction, they generally are inadequate in a design setting or when local response prediction is critical. Pitfalls to be avoided and trends for emerging analysis tools

  16. Space shuttle main engine: Interactive design challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. P.; Wood, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The operating requirements established by NASA for the SSME were considerably more demanding than those for earlier rocket engines used in the military launch vehicles or Apollo program. The SSME, in order to achieve the high performance, low weight, long life, reusable objectives, embodied technical demands far in excess of its predecessor rocket engines. The requirements dictated the use of high combustion pressure and the staged combustion cycle which maximizes performance through total use of all propellants in the main combustion process. This approach presented a myriad of technical challenges for maximization of performance within attainable state of the art capabilities for operating pressures, operating temperatures and rotating machinery efficiencies. Controlling uniformity of the high pressure turbomachinery turbine temperature environment was a key challenge for thrust level and life capability demanding innovative engineering. New approaches in the design of the components were necessary to accommodate the multiple use, minimum maintenance objectives. Included were the use of line replaceable units to facilitate field maintenance automatic checkout and internal inspection capabilities.

  17. Challenges in Database Design with Microsoft Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Design, development and explorations of databases are popular topics covered in introductory courses taught at business schools. Microsoft Access is the most popular software used in those courses. Despite quite high complexity of Access, it is considered to be one of the most friendly database programs for beginners. A typical Access textbook…

  18. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  19. Accelerating clinical development of HIV vaccine strategies: methodological challenges and considerations in constructing an optimised multi-arm phase I/II trial design.

    PubMed

    Richert, Laura; Doussau, Adélaïde; Lelièvre, Jean-Daniel; Arnold, Vincent; Rieux, Véronique; Bouakane, Amel; Lévy, Yves; Chêne, Geneviève; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2014-02-26

    Many candidate vaccine strategies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are under study, but their clinical development is lengthy and iterative. To accelerate HIV vaccine development optimised trial designs are needed. We propose a randomised multi-arm phase I/II design for early stage development of several vaccine strategies, aiming at rapidly discarding those that are unsafe or non-immunogenic. We explored early stage designs to evaluate both the safety and the immunogenicity of four heterologous prime-boost HIV vaccine strategies in parallel. One of the vaccines used as a prime and boost in the different strategies (vaccine 1) has yet to be tested in humans, thus requiring a phase I safety evaluation. However, its toxicity risk is considered minimal based on data from similar vaccines. We newly adapted a randomised phase II trial by integrating an early safety decision rule, emulating that of a phase I study. We evaluated the operating characteristics of the proposed design in simulation studies with either a fixed-sample frequentist or a continuous Bayesian safety decision rule and projected timelines for the trial. We propose a randomised four-arm phase I/II design with two independent binary endpoints for safety and immunogenicity. Immunogenicity evaluation at trial end is based on a single-stage Fleming design per arm, comparing the observed proportion of responders in an immunogenicity screening assay to an unacceptably low proportion, without direct comparisons between arms. Randomisation limits heterogeneity in volunteer characteristics between arms. To avoid exposure of additional participants to an unsafe vaccine during the vaccine boost phase, an early safety decision rule is imposed on the arm starting with vaccine 1 injections. In simulations of the design with either decision rule, the risks of erroneous conclusions were controlled <15%. Flexibility in trial conduct is greater with the continuous Bayesian rule. A 12-month gain in

  20. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  1. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  2. Challenge of Staff Resources Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingster, Bernard

    1976-01-01

    Components of an effective human resource management function are identified and the position a personnel administrator must hold in the organizational structure in order to provide these services is discussed. Functions include personnel selection, institutional research and human resource planning, human resource development, and labor…

  3. Challenging Developments in Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mary Ball

    Rehabilitation psychology and medicine are growing rapidly and can provide rehabilitation psychologists many opportunities for the integration of psychological approaches with adjustment realities resulting from client functional limitations. This paper discusses significant developments in rehabilitation counseling in medical settings over the…

  4. Challenging Developments in Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mary Ball

    Rehabilitation psychology and medicine are growing rapidly and can provide rehabilitation psychologists many opportunities for the integration of psychological approaches with adjustment realities resulting from client functional limitations. This paper discusses significant developments in rehabilitation counseling in medical settings over the…

  5. Challenges to Arabian gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mutawa, E.N.

    1989-02-01

    The Middle East has over half of the world's oil reserves and more than a quarter of the world's gas reserves. During the 1970s and early 80s, when oil prices were high, gas resource development received high priority. However, with the recent availability of cheap oil, this enthusiasm has waned. The reason is twofold: from the producer's viewpoint, natural gas projects are highly capital-intensive with long lead times, inflexible, and sometimes hampered by non-remunerative pricing. From the consumer's end, there is a new attitude of waiting to see whether prices of gas products will go down further to reach parity with cheaper energy sources such as coal. Gas resource owners who were keen to develop their resources are restricted by this new pyschology in the industry.

  6. Ocean OSSEs: recent developments and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, V. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric OSSEs have had a much longer history of applications than OSSEs (and OSEs) in oceanography. Long standing challenges include the presence of coastlines and steep bathymetric changes, which require the superposition of a wide variety of space and time scales, leading to difficulties on ocean observation and prediction. For instance, remote sensing is critical for providing a quasi-synoptic oceanographic view, but the coverage is limited at the ocean surface. Conversely, in situ measurements are capable to monitor the entire water column, but at a single location and usually for a specific, short time. Despite these challenges, substantial progress has been made in recent years and international initiatives have provided successful OSSE/OSE examples and formed appropriate forums that helped define the future roadmap. These will be discussed, together with various challenges that require a community effort. Examples include: integrated (remote and in situ) observing system requirements for monitoring large scale and climatic changes, vs. short term variability that is particularly important on the regional and coastal spatial scales; satisfying the needs of both global and regional/coastal nature runs, from development to rigorous evaluation and under a clear definition of metrics; data assimilation in the presence of tides; estimation of real-time river discharges for Earth system modeling. An overview of oceanographic efforts that complement the standard OSSE methodology will also be given. These include ocean array design methods, such as representer-based analysis and adaptive sampling. Exciting new opportunities for both global and regional ocean OSSE/OSE studies have recently become possible with targeted periods of comprehensive data sets, such as the existing Gulf of Mexico observations from multiple sources in the aftermath of the DeepWater Horizon incident and the upcoming airborne AirSWOT, in preparation for the SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean

  7. Documenting Lessons Learned in Afghanistan Concerning Design and Construction Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan Concerning Design and Construction Challenges Rosa Affleck, and Peter Seman Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory U.S. Army...Engineer Research and Development Center 72 Lyme Road Hanover, IL 61822 Michael Deegan Institute of Water Resources U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...Sargand Ohio Research Institute for Transportation and the Environment Ohio University Athens, Ohio 45701 Final report Approved for public

  8. Interdisciplinary engagement with inclusive design - the Challenge Workshops model.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Julia; Dong, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The DBA Inclusive Design Challenge and the Challenge Workshops organised by the lead author has exposed numerous design teams to the benefit of working with extreme users - this paper will analyse the challenges and benefits of this approach to inclusive design and suggest how the lessons learned from competition can be transferred into design practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing Web-Based Curricula: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2002-01-01

    The emergence and rapid growth of computer network technologies are changing the way people live and learn. Computer networks provide new alternatives for the design, development, storage and distribution of, as well as access to, learning materials. Therefore, they present new and formidable challenges for curriculum designers and teachers. In…

  10. Two challenges in embedded systems design: predictability and robustness.

    PubMed

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    2008-10-28

    I discuss two main challenges in embedded systems design: the challenge to build predictable systems, and that to build robust systems. I suggest how predictability can be formalized as a form of determinism, and robustness as a form of continuity.

  11. Design, Results and Plans for Power Beaming Competitive Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Shelef, Ben

    2008-04-28

    In our context, Power Beaming refers to the extraction of useable electrical power from a directed electromagnetic beam. In order to promote interest in this technology, the Spaceward Foundation proposed and is managing a technology prize challenge based on a Space Elevator design scenario. The challenge has a prize purse of $2M, provided by NASA's Centennial Challenges office. This paper covers the considerations that went into the design of the challenge, a brief chronology of past results, and plans for the future.

  12. Design and manufacturing challenges of optogenetic neural interfaces: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, S. B.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Silva, A. F.; Costa, R. M.; Correia, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    Optogenetics is a relatively new technology to achieve cell-type specific neuromodulation with millisecond-scale temporal precision. Optogenetic tools are being developed to address neuroscience challenges, and to improve the knowledge about brain networks, with the ultimate aim of catalyzing new treatments for brain disorders and diseases. To reach this ambitious goal the implementation of mature and reliable engineered tools is required. The success of optogenetics relies on optical tools that can deliver light into the neural tissue. Objective/Approach: Here, the design and manufacturing approaches available to the scientific community are reviewed, and current challenges to accomplish appropriate scalable, multimodal and wireless optical devices are discussed. Significance: Overall, this review aims at presenting a helpful guidance to the engineering and design of optical microsystems for optogenetic applications.

  13. Minority dental faculty development: responsibility and challenge.

    PubMed

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; West, Joseph F

    2010-12-01

    Over at least the last twenty years, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) has given attention and priority to increasing the number of underrepresented minority (URM) dental school applicants, enrollees, and faculty members and to meeting the challenges of achieving diversity in the oral health workforce of the future as racial and ethnic minorities continue to grow and are expected to comprise more than 50 percent of the U.S. population by the middle of the twenty-first century. Dental schools have the responsibility of preparing dentists to provide oral health care for the nation's population. This includes creating a workforce of adequate size and racial/ethnic composition. As part of ADEA's priorities to improve the recruitment, retention, and development of URMs in the dental profession, with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, ADEA launched the Minority Dental Faculty Development Program in 2004. The intent of the program is to foster academic partnerships, mentoring, and institutional commitment and leadership designed to increase the number of URM individuals interested in and prepared for careers in academic dentistry.

  14. Strategic Challenges in Neurotherapeutic Pharmaceutical Development

    PubMed Central

    Gallen, Christopher C.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Developing new therapeutics presents formidable economic, scientific, and medical challenges that are exacerbated by special factors in neurotherapeutics development, e.g., the complexity of the CNS with its attendant need to sometimes affect multiple pathways, the lack of clarity of disease etiology, inadequacy of available animal models, and difficulties in defining disease populations and quantifying treatment response. This paper reviews the economic challenges faced by therapeutics developers in general and neurotherapeutics developers in particular. It discusses key scientific challenges, particularly those pertinent to neurotherapeutics development, as a background to proposing a different industrial strategy to drive future therapeutics development. This Biodesign strategy potentially surpasses previous paradigms by incorporating elements such as the use of disease modeling to select better targets and potential therapies, information science-based approaches to enhance small molecule chemistry, exploitation of the potential for biological technologies to rapidly generate mechanistic probes, and development of improved approaches for using animal models and studying human molecules mechanistically and biologically. Synergistic use of these elements can change the overall business model of companies engaged in neurotherapeutics development. The Biodesign paradigm has the potential to both markedly enhance the development of new therapies and to address some of the economic challenges facing healthcare systems and therapeutics developers alike. PMID:15717016

  15. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  16. Challenges for health care development in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of the research done in this paper was to establish key challenges and perspectives for health care development in the Republic of Croatia in the next two decades. Empirical research was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews involving 49 subjects, representatives of health care professionals from both, public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). The results have shown that key challenges and problems of Croatian health care can be divided into three groups: functioning of health care systems, health care personnel, and external factors. Research has shown that key challenges related to the functioning of health care are inefficiency, financial unviability, inadequate infrastructure, and the lack of system transparency. Poor governance is another limiting factor. With regard to health care personnel, they face the problems of low salaries, which then lead to migration challenges and a potential shortage of health care personnel. The following external factors are deemed to be among the most significant challenges: ageing population, bad living habits, and an increase in the number of chronic diseases. However, problems caused by the global financial crisis and consequential macroeconomic situation must not be neglected. Guidelines for responding to challenges identified in this research are the backbone for developing a strategy for health care development in the Republic of Croatia. Long-term vision, strategy, policies, and a regulatory framework are all necessary preconditions for an efficient health care system and more quality health services.

  17. Career Development by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sharon L.

    This book is intended to guide the reader in the process of designing his or her career and achieving it. Chapter 1 begins with a look at self: developing areas of self, personality type, self-concept, and self-efficacy, making positive personality changes, sharpening basic skills, and evaluating career potential. Chapter 2 explores developing…

  18. Career Development by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sharon L.

    This book is intended to guide the reader in the process of designing his or her career and achieving it. Chapter 1 begins with a look at self: developing areas of self, personality type, self-concept, and self-efficacy, making positive personality changes, sharpening basic skills, and evaluating career potential. Chapter 2 explores developing…

  19. The Challenging Academic Development (CAD) Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peseta, Tai

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Challenging Academic Development (CAD) Collective and describes how it came out of a symposium called "Liminality, identity, and hybridity: On the promise of new conceptual frameworks for theorising academic/faculty development." The CAD Collective is and represents a space where people can open up their…

  20. The Challenging Academic Development (CAD) Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peseta, Tai

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Challenging Academic Development (CAD) Collective and describes how it came out of a symposium called "Liminality, identity, and hybridity: On the promise of new conceptual frameworks for theorising academic/faculty development." The CAD Collective is and represents a space where people can open up their…

  1. QMI: Rising to the Space Station Design Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, W. E.; Farmer, J.; Coppens, C.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) materials processing furnace is being designed to operate for 8000 hours over four years on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). The Bridgman-type furnace is being built for the directional solidification processing of metals and alloys in the microgravity environment of space. Most notably it will be used for processing aluminum and related alloys. Designing for the space station environment presents intriguing design challenges in the form of a ten-year life requirement coupled with both limited opportunities for maintenance and resource constraints in the form of limited power and space. The long life requirement has driven the design of several features in the furnace, including the design of the heater core, the selection and placement of the thermocouples, overall performance monitoring, and the design of the chill block. The power and space limitations have been addressed through a compact furnace design using efficient vacuum insulation. Details on these design features, as well as development test performance results to date, are presented.

  2. QMI: Rising to the Space Station Design Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, W. E.; Farmer, J.; Coppens, C.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) materials processing furnace is being designed to operate for 8000 hours over four years on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). The Bridgman-type furnace is being built for the directional solidification processing of metals and alloys in the microgravity environment of space. Most notably it will be used for processing aluminum and related alloys. Designing for the space station environment presents intriguing design challenges in the form of a ten-year life requirement coupled with both limited opportunities for maintenance and resource constraints in the form of limited power and space. The long life requirement has driven the design of several features in the furnace, including the design of the heater core, the selection and placement of the thermocouples, overall performance monitoring, and the design of the chill block. The power and space limitations have been addressed through a compact furnace design using efficient vacuum insulation. Details on these design features, as well as development test performance results to date, are presented.

  3. Usability standards meet scenario-based design: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Christopher J; Blandford, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on the challenges and opportunities presented by developing scenarios of use for interactive medical devices. Scenarios are integral to the international standard for usability engineering of medical devices (IEC 62366:2007), and are also applied to the development of health software (draft standard IEC 82304-1). The 62366 standard lays out a process for mitigating risk during normal use (i.e. use as per the instructions, or accepted medical practice). However, this begs the question of whether "real use" (that which occurs in practice) matches "normal use". In this paper, we present an overview of the product lifecycle and how it impacts on the type of scenario that can be practically applied. We report on the development and testing of a set of scenarios intended to inform the design of infusion pumps based on "real use". The scenarios were validated by researchers and practitioners experienced in clinical practice, and their utility was assessed by developers and practitioners representing different stages of the product lifecycle. These evaluations highlighted previously unreported challenges and opportunities for the use of scenarios in this context. Challenges include: integrating scenario-based design with usability engineering practice; covering the breadth of uses of infusion devices; and managing contradictory evidence. Opportunities included scenario use beyond design to guide marketing, to inform purchasing and as resources for training staff. This study exemplifies one empirically grounded approach to communicating and negotiating the realities of practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Making Recycled Paper: An Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educators are facing the challenge of attracting more students. The disparity between the need for engineers and the enrollment of engineering students is growing (Genalo, Bruning, & Adams, 2000), and career aspirations of high school students are inconsistent with the employment…

  5. Making Recycled Paper: An Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educators are facing the challenge of attracting more students. The disparity between the need for engineers and the enrollment of engineering students is growing (Genalo, Bruning, & Adams, 2000), and career aspirations of high school students are inconsistent with the employment…

  6. Challenges in intervention research on adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2009-12-01

    The field of intervention and prevention research is rapidly growing. In this general discussion of the studies in the special issue on intervention and prevention with adolescents, we highlight some of the challenges facing researchers in this field. One is the community perspective. Family and school are the primary settings for intervention research today, and this special issue covers various approaches to family- and school-based interventions. Taking a community perspective, the question becomes how these different interventions can be co-ordinated across contexts and be integrated in a local community's broader intervention policies and activities. Another challenge for intervention and prevention research is to use better designs in order to better understand how interventions into young peoples' lives affect their future health and adjustment. Overall, the studies in this special issue illustrate well the many challenges that intervention researchers face when they go from theory to practice.

  7. The Perennial and the Particular Challenges of Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Education in design shares with other disciplines a number of perennial challenges, including the need to transfer human culture, the choice of what parts of human culture to transfer and the decision as to what approaches work best in accomplishing that transfer. Design education also faces particular challenges, which are shared with only a few…

  8. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: design, clinical application, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Forrest, John K

    2012-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a new technology that recently has been shown to improve survival and quality of life in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not surgical candidates. The development and design of transcatheter valves has been ongoing for the past 20 years, and TAVR has now been approved by the FDA as a treatment for aortic stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates. In the United States, there are currently two transcatheter valves available: the Edwards Sapien Valve and the Medtronic CoreValve. While similar in some design elements, they also have characteristic differences that affect both the mechanism of delivery as well as performance in patients. This review aims to take a closer look at the development of this new technology, review the published clinical results, and look toward the future of transcatheter valve therapeutics and the challenges therein.

  9. Data sharing policy design for consortia: challenges for sustainability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The field of human genomics has led advances in the sharing of data with a view to facilitating translation of research into innovations for human health. This change in scientific practice has been implemented through new policy developed by many principal investigators, project managers and funders, which has ultimately led to new forms of practice and innovative governance models for data sharing. Here, we examine the development of the governance of data sharing in genomics, and explore some of the key challenges associated with the design and implementation of these policies. We examine how the incremental nature of policy design, the perennial problem of consent, the gridlock caused by multiple and overlapping access systems, the administrative burden and the problems with incentives and acknowledgment all have an impact on the potential for data sharing to be maximized. We conclude by proposing ways in which the scientific community can address these problems, to improve the sustainability of data sharing into the future. PMID:24475754

  10. Data sharing policy design for consortia: challenges for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Jane; Hawkins, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    The field of human genomics has led advances in the sharing of data with a view to facilitating translation of research into innovations for human health. This change in scientific practice has been implemented through new policy developed by many principal investigators, project managers and funders, which has ultimately led to new forms of practice and innovative governance models for data sharing. Here, we examine the development of the governance of data sharing in genomics, and explore some of the key challenges associated with the design and implementation of these policies. We examine how the incremental nature of policy design, the perennial problem of consent, the gridlock caused by multiple and overlapping access systems, the administrative burden and the problems with incentives and acknowledgment all have an impact on the potential for data sharing to be maximized. We conclude by proposing ways in which the scientific community can address these problems, to improve the sustainability of data sharing into the future.

  11. Developing a PPO: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Range, R P

    1984-12-01

    When deciding upon which kind of alternative delivery system to develop, Saint Vincent Charity Hospital and Health Center, Cleveland, selected the preferred provider organization (PPO) mode because of four basic advantages: (1) the health care consumer's freedom to choose providers; (2) effective cost containment; (3) coordination of services among allied providers; and (4) health promotion programs. More specifically, the Ohio Health Choice Plan (OHCP) benefits hospitals by assisting to maintain or increase market share, facilitating prompt claims payments, and improving financial mix. Physicians benefit not only because they receive prompt payment and are not a risk but also because the fee-for-service system is retained and their market shares can also be preserved or enhanced. Employers' advantages include savings through controlled utilization, positive employee relations, and improved management information. Employees' benefits include lower out-of-pocket costs and freedom of choice. As a full-service PPO, the organization provides benefits plans designed to meet each employer's needs as well as actuary services, claims screening and processing, benefits coordination, utilization control, management reporting, health promotion activities, and networking capabilities. Four major challenges do confront PPOs: 1. Start-up and operating costs can be significant; 2. The administrative skills required are different from those used in traditional health care systems; 3. The commitment in implementing and operating a PPO; and 4. All participating providers must genuinely accept the PPO. A PPO's success also can be measured in three ways: the development of a strong network; size of enrollment; and effectiveness in utilization control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. An aircraft model for the AIAA controls design challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1991-01-01

    A generic, state-of-the-art, high-performance aircraft model, including detailed, full-envelope, nonlinear aerodynamics, and full-envelope thrust and first-order engine response data is described. While this model was primarily developed Controls Design Challenge, the availability of such a model provides a common focus for research in aeronautical control theory and methodology. An implementation of this model using the FORTRAN computer language, associated routines furnished with the aircraft model, and techniques for interfacing these routines to external procedures is also described. Figures showing vehicle geometry, surfaces, and sign conventions are included.

  13. Current status, key challenges and its solutions in the design and development of graphene based ORR catalysts for the microbial fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M V; Gnana Kumar, G

    2016-03-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are considered as the futuristic energy device that generates electricity from the catalytic degradation of biodegradable organic wastes using microbes, which exist in waste water. In MFCs, oxygen serves as a cathodic electron acceptor and oxygen reduction kinetics played a significant role in the determination of overall efficiency. A wide range of strategies have been developed for the preparation and substantial modification of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts to improve the maximum volumetric power density of MFCs, in which the efforts on graphene based ORR catalysts are highly imperative. Although numerous research endeavors have been achieved in relation with the graphene based ORR catalysts applicable for MFCs, still their collective summary has not been developed, which hinders the acquirement of adequate knowledge on tuning the specific properties of said catalysts. The intension of this review is to outline the significant role of ORR catalysts, factors influencing the ORR activity, strategies behind the modifications of ORR catalysts and update the research efforts devoted on graphene based ORR catalysts. This review can be considered as a pertinent guide to understand the design and developmental strategies of competent graphene based ORR catalysts, which are not only applicable for MFCs but also for number of electrochemical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Viral sequence diversity: challenges for AIDS vaccine designs.

    PubMed

    McBurney, Sean P; Ross, Ted M

    2008-11-01

    Among the greatest challenges facing AIDS vaccine development is the intrinsic diversity among circulating populations of HIV-1 in various geographical locations and the need to develop vaccines that can elicit enduring protective immunity to variant HIV-1 strains. While variation is observed in all of the viral proteins, the greatest diversity is localized to the viral envelope glycoproteins, evidently reflecting the predominant role of these proteins in eliciting host immune recognition and responses that result in progressive evolution of the envelope proteins during persistent infection. Interestingly, while envelope glycoprotein variation is widely assumed to be a major obstacle to AIDS vaccine development, there is very little experimental data in animal or human lentivirus systems addressing this critical issue. In this review, the state of vaccine development to address envelope diversity will be presented, focusing on the use of centralized and polyvalent sequence design as mechanisms to elicit broadly reactive immune responses.

  15. Collection Development "Universal Design": Design for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    As the first wave of baby boomers hit their "golden years," there is a growing demand for housing that meets their changing physical needs. The older and disabled population face a lot of physical challenges in a traditional home. Before homeowners can modify their houses, they must first understand the key design terminology involved.…

  16. Collection Development "Universal Design": Design for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    As the first wave of baby boomers hit their "golden years," there is a growing demand for housing that meets their changing physical needs. The older and disabled population face a lot of physical challenges in a traditional home. Before homeowners can modify their houses, they must first understand the key design terminology involved.…

  17. Challenges of Engaging Local Stakeholders for Statewide Program Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The University of Missouri Extension needed to develop an annual program review process that collaboratively engaged county-level stakeholders. The results from the first 2 years highlight the results, challenges, and implications of the design process. The annual review process needs to be adaptive, responsive, and reflective from year to year…

  18. Secondary Level Engineering Professional Development: Content, Pedagogy, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Jenny L.; Custer, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    The design of this study was a multiple case study conducted to examine the knowledge, pedagogical principles, and challenges involved in providing engineering-oriented professional development for teachers at the secondary school level. A set of criteria was used to identify five representative projects for analysis in the US. A variety of tools…

  19. Challenges in Veterinary Vaccine Development and Immunization.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Mark A; Graham, Simon P; La Ragione, Roberto M

    2016-01-01

    In approaching the development of a veterinary vaccine, researchers must choose from a bewildering array of options that can be combined to enhance benefit. The choice and combination of options is not just driven by efficacy, but also consideration of the cost, practicality, and challenges faced in licensing the product. In this review we set out the different choices faced by veterinary vaccine developers, highlight some issues, and propose some pressing needs to be addressed.

  20. Vibration Challenges in the Design of NASA's Ares Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the vibration challenges inherent in the design of NASA s Ares launch vehicles. A brief overview of the launch system architecture is provided to establish the context for the discussion. Following this is a general discussion of the design considerations and analytical disciplines that are affected by vibration. The first challenge discussed is that of coupling between the vehicle flight control system and fundamental vibrational modes of the vehicle. The potential destabilizing influence of the vibrational dynamics is described along with discussion of the typical methods employed to overcome this issue. Next is a general discussion of the process for developing the design loads for the primary structure. This includes quasi-steady loads and dynamic loads induced by the structural dynamic response. The two principal parts of this response are the gust induced responses of the lower frequency modes and the buffet induced responses of the higher frequency modes. Structural dynamic model validation will also be addressed. Following this, discussions of three somewhat unique topics of Pogo Instability, Solid Booster Thrust Oscillation, and Liquid Rocket Engine Turbopump Rotordynamic Stability and Response are presented.

  1. USU AFOSR University Engineering Design Challenge Proposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-02

    22‐Feb TMI Epoxy $107.82 19‐FebHome Depot Foam board, acetone $41.68 23‐FebHome Depot Sandpaper, lumber, paint  liner $51.87 4‐MarHD Supply White Cap...Lifters 3 Design Solution Telescopic Hydraulic Cylinder & Carbon Fiber Base Aggie Life Lifters 4 12/28/2014 3 Deployment 1 2 3 Aggie Life Lifters 5... Cylinder Custom Columbus Jack 3 Stage Ram 10,000 psi Aggie Life Lifters 6 12/28/2014 4 Base Assembly Pivot Design 6061-T6 AL Flanged for carbon fiber

  2. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  3. The Crab Boat Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Crab cakes and football, that's what Maryland does!" (Abrams, Levy, Panay, & Dobkin, 2005). Although the Old Line State is notorious for harvesting delectable blue crabs, the movie "Wedding Crashers" failed to highlight something else Maryland does well: engineering design competitions. This article discusses how a multistate…

  4. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  5. Achievements and challenges in automated parameter, shape and topology optimization for divertor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baelmans, M.; Blommaert, M.; Dekeyser, W.; Van Oevelen, T.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma edge transport codes play a key role in the design of future divertor concepts. Their long simulation times in combination with a large number of control parameters turn the design into a challenging task. In aerodynamics and structural mechanics, adjoint-based optimization techniques have proven successful to tackle similar design challenges. This paper provides an overview of achievements and remaining challenges with these techniques for complex divertor design. It is shown how these developments pave the way for fast sensitivity analysis and improved design from different perspectives.

  6. Translating Vision into Design: A Method for Conceptual Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for engineers is the definition of design solutions that will satisfy high-level strategic visions and objectives. Even more challenging is the need to demonstrate how a particular design solution supports the high-level vision. This paper describes a process and set of system engineering tools that have been used at the Johnson Space Center to analyze and decompose high-level objectives for future human missions into design requirements that can be used to develop alternative concepts for vehicles, habitats, and other systems. Analysis and design studies of alternative concepts and approaches are used to develop recommendations for strategic investments in research and technology that support the NASA Integrated Space Plan. In addition to a description of system engineering tools, this paper includes a discussion of collaborative design practices for human exploration mission architecture studies used at the Johnson Space Center.

  7. Exploration Life Support Technology Development Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss Joe; Rulis, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Life Support project is developing technologies to address the needs for life support during NASA s exploration missions. The focus of development is Air Revitalization, Water Recovery, and Waste Management Systems (ARS, WRS, and WMS). The approach to meeting exploration needs for life support intrinsically involves processing mixtures of gases, liquids and solids; thus the effects of micro or hypo gravity must be considered in developing and verifying the technologies. This paper provides an overview of the ELS project, how ELS technologies are planned to be used in exploration vehicles and the challenges being addressed.

  8. Constellation Program Design Challenges as Opportunities for Educational Outreach- Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC) and the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Education Office both have programs that present design challenges for university senior design classes that offer great opportunities for educational outreach and workforce development. These design challenges have been identified by NASA engineers and scientists as actual design problems faced by the Constellation Program in its exploration missions and architecture. Student teams formed in their senior design class select and then work on a design challenge for one or two semesters. The senior design class follows the requirements set by their university, but it must also comply with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in order to meet the class academic requirements. Based on a one year fellowship at a TSGC university under the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) and several years of experience, lessons learned are presented on the NASA Design Challenge Program.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Archer Daniels Midland, developed Archer RC, a nonvolatile, biobased, reactive coalescent that replaces volatile organic coalescents in architectural latex paints.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Clarke, developed Natular, a plaster matrix that encapsulates the pesticide spinosad, slowly releasing it into water and effectively controlling mosquito larvae.

  11. Surface design methodology - challenge the steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, M.; Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Anderberg, C.

    2014-03-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or "feeling" for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA.

  12. Nutrition and disease: challenges of research design.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J

    2002-04-01

    This review discusses research methodology in the relation between diet and disease. Medical research can be divided into two types: complex research (the detailed study of disease mechanisms using such methods as biochemistry and molecular genetics) and simple research (the investigation of the factors that cause or prevent disease using methods such as epidemiology, intervention trials, and analagous studies on animals). Although complex research has received the bulk of resources, the large majority of our information of practical value has come from simple research. This general principle is illustrated in the area of diet and disease by examples from various areas: selenium, carotenoids, and cancer; vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids, and coronary heart disease; dietary fat and obesity; dietary sodium and hypertension; and alcohol and stroke. Discussion then turns to aspects of the design of cohort (prospective) studies. Because of problems of sample size and relative lack of diversity, previous studies often failed to give clear-cut results. Suggestions are made concerning the design of cohort studies, notably the use of much larger numbers of subjects and with greater diversity in their diets. The problem of confounding also is discussed. Lifestyle factors often cluster together but cohort studies may not have fully unraveled this.

  13. An Overview of the Thermal Challenges of Designing Microgravity Furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1999-01-01

    In the last few years, Marshall Space Flight Center has become heavily involved in a wide variety of microgravity projects that require furnaces, with hot zone temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2300 C, requirements for isothermal and gradient processing, and both semi-conductor and metal materials. On these types of projects, the thermal engineer is a key player in the design process. These furnaces present unique challenges to the thermal designer. One challenge is designing a sample containment system that achieves dual containment, yet allows a high radial heat flux. Another challenge is providing a high axial gradient but a very low radial gradient. These furnaces also present unique challenges to the thermal analyst. First, there are several orders of magnitude difference in the size of the thermal "conductors" between various parts of the model. A second challenge is providing high fidelity in the sample model, and connecting the sample with the rest of the furnace model, yet maintaining some sanity in the number of total nodes in the model. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the challenges involved in designing and analyzing microgravity furnaces and how some of these challenges have been overcome. The thermal analysis tools presently used to analyze microgravity furnaces and how they have been applied will be explained. Challenges for the future and a description of future analysis tools will be given.

  14. An Overview of the Thermal Challenges of Designing Microgravity Furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center is involved in a wide variety of microgravity projects that require furnaces, with hot zone temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2300 C, requirements for gradient processing and rapid quench, and both semi-conductor and metal materials. On these types of projects, the thermal engineer is a key player in the design process. Microgravity furnaces present unique challenges to the thermal designer. One challenge is designing a sample containment assembly that achieves dual containment, yet allows a high radial heat flux. Another challenge is providing a high axial gradient but a very low radial gradient. These furnaces also present unique challenges to the thermal analyst. First, there are several orders of magnitude difference in the size of the thermal 'conductors' between various parts of the model. A second challenge is providing high fidelity in the sample model, and connecting the sample with the rest of the furnace model, yet maintaining some sanity in the number of total nodes in the model. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the challenges involved in designing and analyzing microgravity furnaces and how some of these challenges have been overcome. The thermal analysis tools presently used to analyze microgravity furnaces and will be listed. Challenges for the future and a description of future analysis tools will be given.

  15. Powering the Future: A Wind Turbine Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pries, Caitlin Hicks; Hughes, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nothing brings out the best in eighth-grade physical science students quite like an engineering challenge. The wind turbine design challenge described in this article has proved to be a favorite among students with its focus on teamwork and creativity and its (almost) sneaky reinforcement of numerous physics concepts. For this activity, pairs of…

  16. An Overview of the Thermal Challenges of Designing Microgravity Furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1999-01-01

    In the last few years, Marshall Space Flight Center has become heavily involved in a wide variety of microgravity projects that require furnaces, with hot zone temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2300 C, requirements for isothermal and gradient processing, and both semi-conductor and metal materials. On these types of projects, the thermal engineer is a key player in the design process. These furnaces present unique challenges to the thermal designer. One challenge is designing a sample containment system that achieves dual containment, yet allows a high radial heat flux. Another challenge is providing a high axial gradient but a very low radial gradient. These furnaces also present unique challenges to the thermal analyst. First, there are several orders of magnitude difference in the size of the thermal "conductors" between various parts of the model. A second challenge is providing high fidelity in the sample model, and connecting the sample with the rest of the furnace model, yet maintaining some sanity in the number of total nodes in the model. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the challenges involved in designing and analyzing microgravity furnaces and how some of these challenges have been overcome. The thermal analysis tools presently used to analyze microgravity furnaces and how they have been applied will be explained. Challenges for the future and a description of future analysis tools will be given.

  17. Powering the Future: A Wind Turbine Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pries, Caitlin Hicks; Hughes, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nothing brings out the best in eighth-grade physical science students quite like an engineering challenge. The wind turbine design challenge described in this article has proved to be a favorite among students with its focus on teamwork and creativity and its (almost) sneaky reinforcement of numerous physics concepts. For this activity, pairs of…

  18. MOOC Learning Experience Design: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Hélène; Kop, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present current work on various frameworks that are aimed at guiding the research, development, and evaluation efforts around Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Initiatives and activities, including current work by the National Research Council (NRC) in the context of Learning and Performance Support Systems and MOOCs, will be…

  19. MOOC Learning Experience Design: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Hélène; Kop, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present current work on various frameworks that are aimed at guiding the research, development, and evaluation efforts around Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Initiatives and activities, including current work by the National Research Council (NRC) in the context of Learning and Performance Support Systems and MOOCs, will be…

  20. Designing and Developing Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan Franklin, Ed.

    The 13 readings in this book offer guidelines for designing and developing programs for gifted students. An introductory chapter by the editor considers the benefits of special programs for gifted students and the challenges of their development. The following chapters are: (1) "From Needs and Goals to Program Organization: A Nuts-and-Bolts Guide"…

  1. Combinatorial and computational challenges for biocatalyst design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Frances H.

    2001-01-01

    Nature provides a fantastic array of catalysts extremely well suited to supporting life, but usually not so well suited for technology. Whether biocatalysis will have a significant technological impact depends on our finding robust routes for tailoring nature's catalysts or redesigning them anew. Laboratory evolution methods are now used widely to fine-tune the selectivity and activity of enzymes. The current rapid development of these combinatorial methods promises solutions to more complex problems, including the creation of new biosynthetic pathways. Computational methods are also developing quickly. The marriage of these approaches will allow us to generate the efficient, effective catalysts needed by the pharmaceutical, food and chemicals industries and should open up new opportunities for producing energy and chemicals from renewable resources.

  2. American Ginseng: Research Developments, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Punja, Zamir K.

    2011-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is grown in some regions of the USA and Canada and marketed for its health promoting attributes. While cultivation of this plant species has taken place in North America for over 100 years, there are many challenges that need to be addressed. In this article, the current production method used by growers is described and the challenges and opportunities for research on this valuable plant are discussed. These include studies on pharmacological activity, genetic diversity within the species, genetic improvement of currently grown plants, molecular characterization of gene expression, and management of diseases affecting plant productivity. The current research developments in these areas are reviewed and areas requiring further work are summarized. Additional research should shed light on the nature of the bioactive compounds and their clinical effects, and the molecular basis of active ingredient biosynthesis, and provide more uniform genetic material as well as improved plant growth, and potentially reduce losses due to pathogens. PMID:23717082

  3. Solar Probe Plus: Mission design challenges and trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanping

    2010-11-01

    NASA plans to launch the first mission to the Sun, named Solar Probe Plus, as early as 2015, after a comprehensive feasibility study that significantly changed the original Solar Probe mission concept. The original Solar Probe mission concept, based on a Jupiter gravity assist trajectory, was no longer feasible under the new guidelines given to the mission. A complete redesign of the mission was required, which called for developing alternative trajectories that excluded a flyby of Jupiter. Without the very powerful gravity assist from Jupiter it was extremely difficult to get to the Sun, so designing a trajectory to reach the Sun that is technically feasible under the new mission guidelines became a key enabler to this highly challenging mission. Mission design requirements and challenges unique to this mission are reviewed and discussed, including various mission scenarios and six different trajectory designs utilizing various planetary gravity assists that were considered. The V 5GA trajectory design using five Venus gravity assists achieves a perihelion of 11.8 solar radii ( RS) in 3.3 years without any deep space maneuver (DSM). The V 7GA trajectory design reaches a perihelion of 9.5 RS using seven Venus gravity assists in 6.39 years without any DSM. With nine Venus gravity assists, the V 9GA trajectory design shows a solar orbit at inclination as high as 37.9° from the ecliptic plane can be achieved with the time of flight of 5.8 years. Using combined Earth and Venus gravity assists, as close as 9 RS from the Sun can be achieved in less than 10 years of flight time at moderate launch C3. Ultimately the V 7GA trajectory was chosen as the new baseline mission trajectory. Its design allowing for science investigation right after launch and continuing for nearly 7 years is unprecedented for interplanetary missions. The redesigned Solar Probe Plus mission is not only feasible under the new guidelines but also significantly outperforms the original mission concept

  4. Challenges for Design of Computer-Based Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkinen, Paivi

    2002-01-01

    Presents a review of the basic foundations and recent challenges of the main instructional design traditions. Topics include learner characteristics; learner-controlled instruction; learning environments; the role of instructional interventions; computer-based instruction and other new technologies; and new theories of learning and design.…

  5. Technological Challenges: Designing Large Compressed Video and Multimedia Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Russ A.; Parker, Roger

    Designing a distance learning classroom requires integration of educational goals and philosophy with technology and ergonomics. The technological challenge and key to designing effective distance learning and multimedia classrooms is creating an environment in which the participants--students, and teacher--may easily interact with instructional…

  6. Challenges in the Development of Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M.C. Teague; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; M.W. Patterson

    2012-08-01

    Past generations of nuclear reactors have been successively developed and the next generation is currently being developed, demonstrating the constant progress and technical and industrial vitality of nuclear energy. In 2000 US Department of Energy launched Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is one of the main international frameworks for the development of future nuclear systems. The six systems that were selected were: sodium cooled fast reactor, lead cooled fast reactor, supercritical water cooled reactor, very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR), gas cooled fast reactor and molten salt reactor. This paper discusses some of the proposed advanced reactor concepts that are currently being researched to varying degrees in the United States, and highlights some of the major challenges these concepts must overcome to establish their feasibility and to satisfy licensing requirements.

  7. Classifications, applications, and design challenges of drones: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanalian, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing need for flying drones with diverse capabilities for both civilian and military applications. There is also a significant interest in the development of novel drones which can autonomously fly in different environments and locations and can perform various missions. In the past decade, the broad spectrum of applications of these drones has received most attention which led to the invention of various types of drones with different sizes and weights. In this review paper, we identify a novel classification of flying drones that ranges from unmanned air vehicles to smart dusts at both ends of this spectrum, with their new defined applications. Design and fabrication challenges of micro drones, existing methods for increasing their endurance, and various navigation and control approaches are discussed in details. Limitations of the existing drones, proposed solutions for the next generation of drones, and recommendations are also presented and discussed.

  8. Population challenge to development of the west.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lin, F

    2000-06-01

    This article discusses trends for population development in the eastern, central, and western China between 1990 and 2060 based on population size, age structure, and labor force. It is noted that China faces severe challenges to sustainable development of its population, economy, resources and environment across all regions. In terms of the population size, population in east, central, and west China will continue to grow until the 2030-40s, exerting a great pressure on the resources and environment. Excluding the migration factor, the population of the eastern region will peak at 606 million in 2031; central region will peak at 566 million in 2035; and the west at 369 million in 2043. Employment will also be a major challenge for the government as the oversupply of labor continues to grow. Moreover, the working-age population will keep increasing in the future while demand is shrinking. By 2040, the Chinese population will age faster than any other country in the world, with the eastern region to be the first to enter an aged society, followed by the central and the western regions. Overall, for China to achieve sustainable development, it has to continue its implementation of the family planning program and the establishment of old-age support institutions across the country.

  9. Achievements and challenges in bioartificial kidney development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Bioartificial kidneys (BAKs) combine a conventional hemofilter in series with a bioreactor unit containing renal epithelial cells. The epithelial cells derived from the renal tubule should provide transport, metabolic, endocrinologic and immunomodulatory functions. Currently, primary human renal proximal tubule cells are most relevant for clinical applications. However, the use of human primary cells is associated with many obstacles, and the development of alternatives and an unlimited cell source is one of the most urgent challenges. BAKs have been applied in Phase I/II and Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of critically ill patients with acute renal failure. Significant effects on cytokine concentrations and long-term survival were observed. A subsequent Phase IIb clinical trial was discontinued after an interim analysis, and these results showed that further intense research on BAK-based therapies for acute renal failure was required. Development of BAK-based therapies for the treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease is even more challenging, and related problems and research approaches are discussed herein, along with the development of mobile, portable, wearable and implantable devices. PMID:20698955

  10. Dune management challenges on developed coasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elko, Nicole A.; Brodie, Kate; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Houser, Chris; McKenna, Kim; Moore, Laura; Rosati, Julie D.; Ruggiero, Peter; Thuman, Roberta; Walker, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    From October 26-28, 2015, nearly 100 members of the coastal management and research communities met in Kitty Hawk, NC, USA to bridge the apparent gap between the coastal dune research of scientists and engineers and the needs of coastal management practitioners. The workshop aimed to identify the challenges involved in building and managing dunes on developed coasts, assess the extent to which scientific knowledge can be applied to the management community, and identify approaches to provide means to bridge the gap between needs and potential solutions.

  11. DNA origami nanopores: developments, challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2014-11-06

    DNA nanotechnology has enabled the construction of DNA origami nanopores; synthetic nanopores that present improved capabilities for the area of single molecule detection. Their extraordinary versatility makes them a new and powerful tool in nanobiotechnology for a wide range of important applications beyond molecular sensing. In this review, we briefly present the recent developments in this emerging field of research. We discuss the current challenges and possible solutions that would enhance the sensing capabilities of DNA origami nanopores. Finally, we anticipate novel avenues for future research and highlight a range of exciting ideas and applications that could be explored in the near future.

  12. Challenges in the development of the orbiter atmosphere revitalization subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, R. N.; Swider, J.; Wojnarowski, J.; Decrisantis, A.; Ord, G. R.; Walleshauser, J. J.; Gibb, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter atmospheric revitalization subsystem provides thermal and contaminant control as well as total- and oxygen partial-pressure control of the environment within the orbiter crew cabin. Challenges that occurred during the development of this subsystem for the space shuttle orbiter are described. The design of the rotating hardware elements of the system (pumps, fans, etc.) required significant development to meet the requirements of long service life, maintainability, and high cycle-fatigue life. As a result, a stringent development program, particularly in the areas of bearing life and heat dissipation, was required. Another area requiring significant development was cabin humidity control and condensate collection.

  13. Design for Effective Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagren, Alan T.

    This paper presents a model for designing an effective staff development program. The rationale, philosophy, and instructional design utilized in the instructional Staff Development (ISD) program provides the basis for the design presented. The ISD program was conceptualized, developed, pilot tested, and field tested as a cooperative research…

  14. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  15. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  16. Shale Gas: Development Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, Mark D.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    The use of horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing technologies has enabled the production of immense quantities of natural gas, to date principally in North America but increasingly in other countries around the world. The global availability of this resource creates both opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed in a timely and effective manner. There seems little question that rapid shale gas development, coupled with fuel switching from coal to natural gas for power generation, can have beneficial effects on air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy security in many countries. In this context, shale gas resources represent a critically important transition fuel on the path to a decarbonized energy future. For these benefits to be realized, however, it is imperative that shale gas resources be developed with effective environmental safeguards to reduce their impact on land use, water resources, air quality, and nearby communities.

  17. Structural Design Challenges in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.; Braverman, J.; Wei, X.; Hofmayer, C.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are confined within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of structural design chal- lenges encountered in recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  18. Challenges and solutions for high performance SWIR lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, M. C.; Rogers, P. J.; Wilde, M. F.; Cook, T.; Shipton, A.

    2016-10-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR) cameras are becoming increasingly attractive due to the improving size, resolution and decreasing prices of InGaAs focal plane arrays (FPAs). The rapid development of competitively priced HD performance SWIR cameras has not been matched in SWIR imaging lenses with the result that the lens is now more likely to be the limiting factor in imaging quality than the FPA. Adapting existing lens designs from the visible region by re-coating for SWIR will improve total transmission but diminished image quality metrics such as MTF, and in particular large field angle performance such as vignetting, field curvature and distortion are serious consequences. To meet this challenge original SWIR solutions are presented including a wide field of view fixed focal length lens for commercial machine vision (CMV) and a wide angle, small, lightweight defence lens and their relevant design considerations discussed. Issues restricting suitable glass types will be examined. The index and dispersion properties at SWIR wavelengths can differ significantly from their visible values resulting in unusual glass combinations when matching doublet elements. Materials chosen simultaneously allow athermalization of the design as well as containing matched CTEs in the elements of doublets. Recently, thinned backside-illuminated InGaAs devices have made Vis.SWIR cameras viable. The SWIR band is sufficiently close to the visible that the same constituent materials can be used for AR coatings covering both bands. Keeping the lens short and mass low can easily result in high incidence angles which in turn complicates coating design, especially when extended beyond SWIR into the visible band. This paper also explores the potential performance of wideband Vis.SWIR AR coatings.

  19. Dengue vaccine development: strategies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Nair, Radhakrishnan R

    2015-03-01

    Infection with dengue virus may result in dengue fever or a more severe outcome, such as dengue hemorrhagic syndrome/shock. Dengue virus infection poses a threat to endemic regions for four reasons: the presence of four serotypes, each with the ability to cause a similar disease outcome, including fatality; difficulties related to vector control; the lack of specific treatment; and the nonavailability of a suitable vaccine. Vaccine development is considered challenging due to the severity of the disease observed in individuals who have acquired dengue-specific immunity, either passively or actively. Therefore, the presence of vaccine-induced immunity against a particular serotype may prime an individual to severe disease on exposure to dengue virus. Vaccine development strategies include live attenuated vaccines, chimeric, DNA-based, subunit, and inactivated vaccines. Each of the candidates is in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. Issues pertaining to selection pressures, viral interaction, and safety still need to be evaluated in order to induce a complete protective immune response against all four serotypes. This review highlights the various strategies that have been employed in vaccine development, and identifies the obstacles to producing a safe and effective vaccine.

  20. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  1. High-End Computing Challenges in Aerospace Design and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. Ronald

    2004-01-01

    High-End Computing (HEC) has had significant impact on aerospace design and engineering and is poised to make even more in the future. In this paper we describe four aerospace design and engineering challenges: Digital Flight, Launch Simulation, Rocket Fuel System and Digital Astronaut. The paper discusses modeling capabilities needed for each challenge and presents projections of future near and far-term HEC computing requirements. NASA's HEC Project Columbia is described and programming strategies presented that are necessary to achieve high real performance.

  2. Design and simulation challenges for FERMI@elettra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.; Allaria, E.; Badano, L.; Bontoiu, C.; Cornacchia, M.; Craievich, P.; Danailov, M.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Ferrando, O.; Ferry, S.; Iazzourene, F.; Milton, S. V.; Penco, G.; Spampinati, S.; Trovo', M.; Veronese, M.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Sonnad, K. G.; Venturini, M.; Warnock, R.; Zholents, A. A.; Pogorelov, I. V.; Borland, M.; Bassi, G.; Ellison, J. A.; Heinemann, K.; Fiorito, R.; Shkvarunets, A.; Tobin, J. C.

    2009-09-01

    FERMI@elettra is a fourth-generation light source user facility under construction at the Elettra Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. The high-quality 1.2 GeV electron beam drives two-seeded Free Electron Lasers (FELs) in the wavelength range 100-10 nm. Wavelength tunability, variable polarization and higher electron beam energies to reach even shorter output wavelengths are also in the machine delivery plan. This paper describes the physics processes that have been modelled to simulate FERMI@elettra and the computer codes used to optimize the machine design. The paper focuses on several design challenges and how these translate into modelling and simulation challenges.

  3. Mission design challenges posed by the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesarone, R. J.; Potts, C. L.; Francis, K.; Kosmann, W. J.; Matousek, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    A major challenge for the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter lies in the detailed design of a trajectory that achieves science objectives at the planet as well as at its large satellite, Triton. This achievement demands a close flyby of the primary, whereas the planet's great distance makes such an undertaking especially challenging. Changing estimates and uncertainties of parameters characterizing the Neptune environment, particularly ring, atmosphere and radiation models, affect the mission design. These effects are investigated and trade-offs among candidate trajectories are examined with respect to spacecraft performance, avoidance of risk and science objective achievement.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Engelhard Corporation, developed a wide range of environmentally friendly Rightfit azo pigments that contain calcium, strontium, or barium instead of heavy metals.

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Buckman International, developed Maximyze enzymes that modify the cellulose in wood fibers to increase binding between fibers in paper and improve paper strength.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed Sentricon to eliminate termites with bait applied only where termites are active; it replaces widespread applications of pesticide to soil.

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed Sea-Nine, a marine antifoulant to control plants and animals on ship hulls. Sea-Nine replaces persistent, toxic organotin antifoulants.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed CONFIRM, a highly selective, reduced risk insecticide that disrupts the molting process of caterpillar pests in turf and a variety of crops.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, S.C. Johnson & Son, developed Greenlist, a rating system for environmental and health effects of ingredients. SC Johnson uses it to reformulate many of its products.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Cargill, Inc., developed a vegetable-oil-based transformer fluid that is much less flammable, provides superior performance, is less toxic, and has a substantially lower carbon footprint.

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Cargill, developed biobased polyols for polyurethane applications, including flexible foams. Cargill makes BiOH polyols from vegetable oils, not petroleum products.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Shaw Industries, developed EcoWorx carpet tiles with a backing that uses less toxic materials. The carpet tile fiber and backing are readily separated for recycling.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Chemical Specialties, developed an alkaline copper quaternary wood preservative to replace chromated copper arsenate preservative phased out due to risk to children.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Sherwin-Williams, developed water-based acrylic alkyd paints with VOCs that can be made from recycled soda bottle (PET), acrylics, and soybean oil.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed spinosad, a highly selective, low-toxicity, nonpersistant insecticide made by a soil microorganism. It controls many chewing insect pests.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, PPG Industries, developed cationic electrodeposition coatings with yttrium that resist corrosion in automobiles. Yttrium is a safe replacement for lead in this use.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winners, Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) and Cook Composites and Polymers Co. (CCP), developed Chempol MPS resins and Sefose sucrose esters to enable high-performance low-VOC alkyd paints.

  18. Mission Profile and Design Challenges for Mars Landing Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Sun, Z.; Rao, W.; Jia, Y.; Meng, L.; Wang, C.; Chen, B.

    2017-07-01

    An orbiter and a descent module will be delivered to Mars in the Chinese first Mars exploration mission. The descent module is composed of a landing platform and a rover. The module will be released into the atmosphere by the orbiter and make a controlled landing on Martian surface. After landing, the rover will egress from the platform to start its science mission. The rover payloads mainly include the subsurface radar, terrain camera, multispectral camera, magnetometer, anemometer to achieve the scientific investigation of the terrain, soil characteristics, material composition, magnetic field, atmosphere, etc. The landing process is divided into three phases (entry phase, parachute descent phase and powered descent phase), which are full of risks. There exit lots of indefinite parameters and design constrain to affect the selection of the landing sites and phase switch (mortaring the parachute, separating the heat shield and cutting off the parachute). A number of new technologies (disk-gap-band parachute, guidance and navigation, etc.) need to be developed. Mars and Earth have gravity and atmosphere conditions that are significantly different from one another. Meaningful environmental conditions cannot be recreated terrestrially on earth. A full-scale flight validation on earth is difficult. Therefore the end-to-end simulation and some critical subsystem test must be considered instead. The challenges above and the corresponding design solutions are introduced in this paper, which can provide reference for the Mars exploration mission.

  19. Persistent pharmacokinetic challenges to pediatric drug development.

    PubMed

    Sage, Daniel P; Kulczar, Christopher; Roth, Wyatt; Liu, Wanqing; Knipp, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic agents for the mitigation of pediatric disorders is largely hindered by the inability for investigators to assess pediatric pharmacokinetics (PK) in healthy patients due to substantial safety concerns. Pediatric patients are a clinical moving target for drug delivery due to changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and the potential for PK related toxicological (T) events to occur throughout development. These changes in ADMET can have profound effects on drug delivery, and may lead to toxic or sub-therapeutic outcomes. Ethical, economical, logistical, and technical barriers have resulted in insufficient investigation of these changes by industrial, regulatory, and academic bodies, leading to the classification of pediatric patients as therapeutic orphans. In response to these concerns, regulatory agencies have incentivized investigation into these ontogenic changes and their effects on drug delivery in pediatric populations. The intent of this review is to briefly present a synopsis of the development changes that occur in pediatric patients, discuss the effects of these changes on ADME and drug delivery strategies, highlight the hurdles that are still being faced, and present some opportunities to overcome these challenges.

  20. Persistent pharmacokinetic challenges to pediatric drug development

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Daniel P.; Kulczar, Christopher; Roth, Wyatt; Liu, Wanqing; Knipp, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic agents for the mitigation of pediatric disorders is largely hindered by the inability for investigators to assess pediatric pharmacokinetics (PK) in healthy patients due to substantial safety concerns. Pediatric patients are a clinical moving target for drug delivery due to changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and the potential for PK related toxicological (T) events to occur throughout development. These changes in ADMET can have profound effects on drug delivery, and may lead to toxic or sub-therapeutic outcomes. Ethical, economical, logistical, and technical barriers have resulted in insufficient investigation of these changes by industrial, regulatory, and academic bodies, leading to the classification of pediatric patients as therapeutic orphans. In response to these concerns, regulatory agencies have incentivized investigation into these ontogenic changes and their effects on drug delivery in pediatric populations. The intent of this review is to briefly present a synopsis of the development changes that occur in pediatric patients, discuss the effects of these changes on ADME and drug delivery strategies, highlight the hurdles that are still being faced, and present some opportunities to overcome these challenges. PMID:25221567

  1. Wright St Univ Participation in AFRL University Engineering Design Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    capstone sequence through the end of the year. Depending on the nature of the objectives of the competition , the team members were chosen depending on...advisor to provide the current project status, and to plan the following week’s objectives. Student Design Challenge Competition U U U SAR Scott K...the vehicle utilizing four-wheels also successfully ascended a testing wall. All three designs will be presented at the competition in order to ensure

  2. Challenges of the Viking Mars Lander system. [autonomous design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodlette, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A number of natural constraints have led to a highly autonomous Lander system design. Almost all communications to and from the Lander are via the Orbiter. A functional description of the Lander mission is given, taking into account deorbit and descent, entry, terminal descent, landing, and landed operations. The challenges of the system design are considered along with the mechanical configuration and aspects of thermal control. Attention is given to science data return, aspects of reliability and redundancy, and details regarding the software.

  3. Challenges in developing physician leadership and management.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, M B

    1999-01-01

    Many of the issues confronting healthcare organizations require physician involvement and understanding, and the physician executive is a tool to achieving physician participation. Physician leaders can become the mediators between physicians and organizational management, minimizing miscommunication and maximizing agreement and understanding. Yet few doctors seem willing to stand up and speak positively for the plans and proposals that will move the institution forward, and healthcare executives are often frustrated by physician leadership that fails to articulate and implement the vision and objectives of the organization. Understanding physician leadership and exploring the challenges in managing and leading physicians require an understanding of the physician mindset--a completely different mindset than that of the typical healthcare executive. Beginning with a discussion of the unique situation faced by physicians in leadership positions, this article attempts to define the obstacles faced by both the physician and the executive in developing the role of physician executive. After reviewing the opportunities open to physician executives for improving leadership ability, the author presents the essential characteristics and core skills for effective leadership. The second half of the article suggests ways in which an organization can reemphasize physician leadership development within an organization from selection of potential candidates to creating training and networking opportunities and offering appropriate incentives.

  4. Challenges facing the development of cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Mayer

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other effective immunization in medicine, cancer vaccines need to have antigens with particular specificity and immunostimulatory features, the immune responses to be elicited in the body, and therapeutic effect-regression or prevention of the cancer-must be meaningful and clinically observable. There are many choices for cancer antigens, such as tissue-specific proteins, cancer-specific proteins, class I- or class II-restricted peptides derived from those, or in situ and whole-cell-derived products are some examples. Another translational issue is that cancer patients are heterogeneous with respect to the extent to which the immune system is already activated with potential to impact the tumor growth or, conversely, the extent to which the immune system has been impaired through a prior and ongoing interaction with the tumor. Conventional or immunologic tests have potential to define a subset of patients with better chance or response, so that particular vaccines can be tested. Treatment of cancer patients is expensive, and trials are slow. To meet these challenges in practical terms will require not only careful scientific technical work for product development, coordination with clinicians to define patient subsets with diseases that can show responses, but also a comprehensive, practical implementation so that we can unlock the full potential of anticancer vaccines.

  5. CLASS Challenging Tasks: Using Cognitive Load Theory to Inform the Design of Challenging Mathematical Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, James; Hopkins, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a seven-step process for developing problem-solving tasks informed by cognitive load theory. Through an example of a task developed for Year 2 students, we show how this approach can be used to produce challenging mathematical tasks that aim to optimise cognitive load for each student.

  6. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  7. Urban design and health: progress to date and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Melanie; Boulange, Claire; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, a growing body of Australian and international evidence has demonstrated that urban design attributes are associated with a range of health outcomes. For example, the location of employment, shops and services, provision of public and active transport infrastructure and access to open space and recreational opportunities are associated with chronic disease risk factors such as physical activity levels, access to healthy food, social connectedness, and air quality. Despite the growing knowledge base, this evidence is not being consistently translated into urban planning policy and practice in Australia. Low-density neighbourhoods with poor access to public transport, shops and services continue to be developed at a rapid rate in the sprawling outer suburbs of Australian cities. This paper provides an overview of the evidence of the association between the built environment and chronic diseases, highlighting progress and future challenges for health promotion. It argues that health promotion practitioners and researchers need to more closely engage with urban planning practitioners, policymakers and researchers to encourage the creation of healthy urban environments through integrated transport, land use and infrastructure planning. There is also a need for innovative research to evaluate the effectiveness of policy options. This would help evidence to be more effectively translated into policy and practice, making Australia a leader in planning healthy communities.

  8. Neoadjuvant clinical trial designs: Challenges of the genomic era.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The modern era has brought huge changes in the way we approach breast cancer clinical trials. The neoadjuvant, or preoperative, approach is increasingly popular because of several advantages over traditional adjuvant trials in terms of size, speed, capacity for embedded correlative science, and design flexibility. True neoadjuvant trials test the administration of a new drug or regimen preoperatively, with clinical or pathologic evaluation post-therapy at the time of surgery serving as the primary endpoint. The most commonly used and validated neoadjuvant endpoint is pathologic complete response, or pCR, which is itself not clinically meaningful but has been amply demonstrated to be prognostic of both disease-free and overall survival. However, it has also become clear that the association of pCR to outcome is not clean and that we lack a formula for pCR augmentation that will translate into significant improvements in clinically meaningful endpoints such as survival. Breast cancer is well recognized to be comprised of multiple biologically distinct molecular subsets, which has driven the move to more economical approaches such as neoadjuvant clinical trials, but also produces considerable confounding since we lack clinical assays that accurately reflect underlying biology. In this sense, the challenge for the clinical research community is multifaceted; we need to delineate the breast cancer biologic entities that we want to target, develop and validate the assays to identify those entities, and test the targeted drugs in the appropriate setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Challenges of Precision Oncology Drug Development and Implementation.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Simon J; Biankin, Andrew V

    2015-01-01

    The drivers of precision medicine are clear: for patients (and physicians)--more options, durable clinical benefit, reduced exposure to non-effective drugs and potential to leverage current scientific and technological advances; for the pharmaceutical industry--the potential to tackle core challenges in discovering and developing better and more efficacious medicines, to reduce rates of attrition in drug development and to reduce development costs; for healthcare systems and payers--improved efficiency through the provision of effective care and avoiding ineffective treatments. Oncology has been at the vanguard, the improvements gained in patient survival notable. However, the increasing number of molecular subgroups requires an equally increasing number (and new generation) of highly selective agents targeting inevitably lower incidence molecular segments. Innovative trial designs (umbrella/basket studies) are emerging as a patient-centric approach to drug development, and the rise in public-private partnerships, cross-industry, government and non-profit sector collaborations is enabling implementation of complex clinical trial designs. This poses significant challenges for healthcare systems and regulatory approval. Further substantial evolution of policy and processes, particularly regulatory requirements for approval for new therapeutics, are required.

  10. Ethical challenges in developing drugs for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Felix; Banayan, David; Boley, Randy; Karnik, Niranjan

    2017-03-06

    As the classification of mental disorders advances towards a disease model as promoted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), there is hope that a more thorough neurobiological understanding of mental illness may allow clinicians and researchers to determine treatment efficacy with less diagnostic variability. This paradigm shift has presented a variety of ethical issues to be considered in the development of psychiatric drugs. These challenges are not limited to informed consent practices, industry funding, and placebo use. The consideration for alternative research models and quality of research design also present ethical challenges in the development of psychiatric drugs. The imperatives to create valid and sound research that justify the human time, cost, risk and use of limited resources must also be considered. Clinical innovation, and consideration for special populations are also important aspects to take into account. Based on the breadth of these ethical concerns, it is particularly important that scientific questions regarding the development of psychiatric drugs be answered collaboratively by a variety of stakeholders. As the field expands, new ethical considerations will be raised with increased focus on genetic markers, personalized medicine, patient-centered outcomes research, and tension over funding. We suggest that innovation in trial design is necessary to better reflect practices in clinical settings and that there must be an emphasized focus on expanding the transparency of consent processes, regard for suicidality, and care in working with special populations to support the goal of developing sound psychiatric drug therapies.

  11. Development of Innovative Design Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.S.; Park, C.O.

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear design analysis requires time-consuming and erroneous model-input preparation, code run, output analysis and quality assurance process. To reduce human effort and improve design quality and productivity, Innovative Design Processor (IDP) is being developed. Two basic principles of IDP are the document-oriented design and the web-based design. The document-oriented design is that, if the designer writes a design document called active document and feeds it to a special program, the final document with complete analysis, table and plots is made automatically. The active documents can be written with ordinary HTML editors or created automatically on the web, which is another framework of IDP. Using the proper mix-up of server side and client side programming under the LAMP (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) environment, the design process on the web is modeled as a design wizard style so that even a novice designer makes the design document easily. This automation using the IDP is now being implemented for all the reload design of Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) type PWRs. The introduction of this process will allow large reduction in all reload design efforts of KSNP and provide a platform for design and R and D tasks of KNFC. (authors)

  12. Opportunities and Challenges in RNA Structural Modeling and Design.

    PubMed

    Schlick, Tamar; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2017-02-02

    We describe opportunities and challenges in RNA structural modeling and design, as recently discussed during the second Telluride Science Research Center workshop organized in June 2016. Topics include fundamental processes of RNA, such as structural assemblies (hierarchical folding, multiple conformational states and their clustering), RNA motifs, and chemical reactivity of RNA, as used for structural prediction and functional inference. We also highlight the software and database issues associated with RNA structures, such as the multiple approaches for motif annotation, the need for frequent database updating, and the importance of quality control of RNA structures. We discuss various modeling approaches for structure prediction, mechanistic analysis of RNA reactions, and RNA design, and the complementary roles that both atomistic and coarse-grained approaches play in such simulations. Collectively, as scientists from varied disciplines become familiar and drawn into these unique challenges, new approaches and collaborative efforts will undoubtedly be catalyzed.

  13. Deploying Low-Latency Anonymity: Design Challenges and Social Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Page 1 of 807-1226-2439.txt Printed: 12/16/08 Dec 16 4:39:54 PM Printed For: Kate Green Deploying Low-Latency Anonymity : Design Challenges and Social...Security & Privacy, September/October 2007 (Vol. 5, No. 5), pp. 83-87 Anonymous communication systems hide conversations against unwanted observations...Deploying an anonymous communications infrastructure presents surprises unlike those found in other types of systems. For example, given that

  14. Design, challenge, and promise of stimuli-responsive nanoantibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edson, Julius A.; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-10-01

    Over the past few years, there have been calls for novel antimicrobials to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. While some promising new discoveries have met this call, it is not nearly enough. The major problem is that although these new promising antimicrobials serve as a short-term solution, they lack the potential to provide a long-term solution. The conventional method of creating new antibiotics relies heavily on the discovery of an antimicrobial compound from another microbe. This paradigm of development is flawed due to the fact that microbes can easily transfer a resistant mechanism if faced with an environmental pressure. Furthermore, there has been some evidence to indicate that the environment of the microbe can provide a hint as to their virulence. Because of this, the use of materials with antimicrobial properties has been garnering interest. Nanoantibiotics, (nAbts), provide a new way to circumvent the current paradigm of antimicrobial discovery and presents a novel mechanism of attack not found in microbes yet; which may lead to a longer-term solution against drug-resistance formation. This allows for environment-specific activation and efficacy of the nAbts but may also open up and create new design methods for various applications. These nAbts provide promise, but there is still ample work to be done in their development. This review looks at possible ways of improving and optimizing nAbts by making them stimuli-responsive, then consider the challenges ahead, and industrial applications.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Design, challenge, and promise of stimuli-responsive nanoantibiotics.

    PubMed

    Edson, Julius A; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, there have been calls for novel antimicrobials to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. While some promising new discoveries have met this call, it is not nearly enough. The major problem is that although these new promising antimicrobials serve as a short-term solution, they lack the potential to provide a long-term solution. The conventional method of creating new antibiotics relies heavily on the discovery of an antimicrobial compound from another microbe. This paradigm of development is flawed due to the fact that microbes can easily transfer a resistant mechanism if faced with an environmental pressure. Furthermore, there has been some evidence to indicate that the environment of the microbe can provide a hint as to their virulence. Because of this, the use of materials with antimicrobial properties has been garnering interest. Nanoantibiotics, (nAbts), provide a new way to circumvent the current paradigm of antimicrobial discovery and presents a novel mechanism of attack not found in microbes yet; which may lead to a longer-term solution against drug-resistance formation. This allows for environment-specific activation and efficacy of the nAbts but may also open up and create new design methods for various applications. These nAbts provide promise, but there is still ample work to be done in their development. This review looks at possible ways of improving and optimizing nAbts by making them stimuli-responsive, then consider the challenges ahead, and industrial applications.Graphical abstractA graphic detailing how the current paradigm of antibiotic discovery can be circumvented by the use of nanoantibiotics.

  16. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  17. Learning challenges and sustainable development: A methodological perspective.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable development requires learning, but the contents of learning are often complex and ambiguous. This requires new integrated approaches from research. It is argued that investigation of people's learning challenges in every-day work is beneficial for research on sustainable development. The aim of the paper is to describe a research method for examining learning challenges in promoting sustainable development. This method is illustrated with a case example from organic vegetable farming in Finland. The method, based on Activity Theory, combines historical analysis with qualitative analysis of need expressions in discourse data. The method linking local and subjective need expressions with general historical analysis is a promising way to overcome the gap between the individual and society, so much needed in research for sustainable development. Dialectically informed historical frameworks have practical value as tools in collaborative negotiations and participatory designs for sustainable development. The simultaneous use of systemic and subjective perspectives allows researchers to manage the complexity of practical work activities and to avoid too simplistic presumptions about sustainable development.

  18. Fish Farm Challenge Provides STEM Design Experiences for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton , Robert L.; House, Patty L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Monsanto Corporation partnered with National 4-H Council to help inspire and develop professional skills among young agriculturalists. The Ohio State University created Fish Farm Challenge, which engaged more than 8,000 youth across eight states. Youth were taught about worldwide food insecurity and the importance of aquaculture. They…

  19. Fish Farm Challenge Provides STEM Design Experiences for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton , Robert L.; House, Patty L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Monsanto Corporation partnered with National 4-H Council to help inspire and develop professional skills among young agriculturalists. The Ohio State University created Fish Farm Challenge, which engaged more than 8,000 youth across eight states. Youth were taught about worldwide food insecurity and the importance of aquaculture. They…

  20. Development of structural design criteria for ITER.

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-06-22

    The irradiation environment experienced by the in-vessel components of fusion reactors such as HER presents structural design challenges not envisioned in the development of existing structural design criteria such as the ASME Code or RCC-MR. From the standpoint of design criteria, the most significant issues stem from the irradiation-induced changes in material properties, specifically the reduction of ductility, strain hardening capability, and fracture toughness with neutron irradiation. Recently, Draft 7 of the interim ITER structural design criteria (ISDC), which provide new rules for guarding against such problems, was released for trial use by the ITER designers. The new rules, which were derived from a simple model based on the concept of elastic follow up factor, provide primary and secondary stress limits as functions of uniform elongation and ductility. The implication of these rules on the allowable surface heat flux on typical first walls made of type 316 stainless steel and vanadium alloys are discussed.

  1. Challenges in development of nanoparticle-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neil

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, nanotechnology has been increasingly applied to the area of drug development. Nanoparticle-based therapeutics can confer the ability to overcome biological barriers, effectively deliver hydrophobic drugs and biologics, and preferentially target sites of disease. However, despite these potential advantages, only a relatively small number of nanoparticle-based medicines have been approved for clinical use, with numerous challenges and hurdles at different stages of development. The complexity of nanoparticles as multi-component three dimensional constructs requires careful design and engineering, detailed orthogonal analysis methods, and reproducible scale-up and manufacturing process to achieve a consistent product with the intended physicochemical characteristics, biological behaviors, and pharmacological profiles. The safety and efficacy of nanomedicines can be influenced by minor variations in multiple parameters and need to be carefully examined in preclinical and clinical studies, particularly in context of the biodistribution, targeting to intended sites, and potential immune toxicities. Overall, nanomedicines may present additional development and regulatory considerations compared with conventional medicines, and while there is generally a lack of regulatory standards in the examination of nanoparticle-based medicines as a unique category of therapeutic agents, efforts are being made in this direction. This review summarizes challenges likely to be encountered during the development and approval of nanoparticle-based therapeutics, and discusses potential strategies for drug developers and regulatory agencies to accelerate the growth of this important field.

  2. Big Data in Designing Clinical Trials: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Charles S.; Matuszak, Martha M.; Schipper, Matthew J.; Jolly, Shruti; Hayman, James A.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of big data analytics resource systems (BDARSs) as a part of routine practice in Radiation Oncology is on the horizon. Gradually, individual researchers, vendors, and professional societies are leading initiatives to create and demonstrate use of automated systems. What are the implications for design of clinical trials, as these systems emerge? Gold standard, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have high internal validity for the patients and settings fitting constraints of the trial, but also have limitations including: reproducibility, generalizability to routine practice, infrequent external validation, selection bias, characterization of confounding factors, ethics, and use for rare events. BDARS present opportunities to augment and extend RCTs. Preliminary modeling using single- and muti-institutional BDARS may lead to better design and less cost. Standardizations in data elements, clinical processes, and nomenclatures used to decrease variability and increase veracity needed for automation and multi-institutional data pooling in BDARS also support ability to add clinical validation phases to clinical trial design and increase participation. However, volume and variety in BDARS present other technical, policy, and conceptual challenges including applicable statistical concepts, cloud-based technologies. In this summary, we will examine both the opportunities and the challenges for use of big data in design of clinical trials. PMID:28913177

  3. Some Challenges in the Design of Human-Automation Interaction for Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.; Roth, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amounts of automation are being introduced to safety-critical domains. While the introduction of automation has led to an overall increase in reliability and improved safety, it has also introduced a class of failure modes, and new challenges in risk assessment for the new systems, particularly in the assessment of rare events resulting from complex inter-related factors. Designing successful human-automation systems is challenging, and the challenges go beyond good interface development (e.g., Roth, Malin, & Schreckenghost 1997; Christoffersen & Woods, 2002). Human-automation design is particularly challenging when the underlying automation technology generates behavior that is difficult for the user to anticipate or understand. These challenges have been recognized in several safety-critical domains, and have resulted in increased efforts to develop training, procedures, regulations and guidance material (CAST, 2008, IAEA, 2001, FAA, 2013, ICAO, 2012). This paper points to the continuing need for new methods to describe and characterize the operational environment within which new automation concepts are being presented. We will describe challenges to the successful development and evaluation of human-automation systems in safety-critical domains, and describe some approaches that could be used to address these challenges. We will draw from experience with the aviation, spaceflight and nuclear power domains.

  4. Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.

    PubMed

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges.

  5. Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design

    PubMed Central

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  6. Chemical genomics: a challenge for de novo drug design.

    PubMed

    Dean, P M

    2007-11-01

    De novo design provides an in silico toolkit for the design of novel small molecular structures to a set of specified structural constraints. With the avalanche of bioinformatics data, de novo design is ideally suited for exploring molecules that could be useful for chemical genomics. The design process involves manipulation of the input, modification of structural constraints, and further processing of the de novo generated molecules using various modular toolkits. The development of a theoretical framework for each of these stages will provide novel practical solutions to the problem of creating compounds with maximal chemical diversity. This short review describes the fundamental problems encountered in the application of novel chemical design technologies to chemical genomics by means of a formal representation. This notation helps to outline and clarify ideas and hypotheses that can then be explored using mathematical algorithms. It is only by developing this rigorous foundation that in silico design can progress in a rational way.

  7. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  8. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Community Development Corporation of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    Building America/Builders Challenge fact sheet on Community Development Corp, an energy-efficient home builder in cold climate using advanced framing and compact duct design. Evaluates impacts to cost.

  9. Consumer exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Van Engelen, J G M; Heinemeyer, G; Rodriguez, C

    2007-12-01

    Exposure scenarios (ES) under REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals; new EU legislation) aim to describe safe conditions of product and substance use. Both operational conditions and risk management measures (RMMs) are part of the ES. For consumer use of chemicals, one of the challenges will be to identify all of the consumer uses of a given chemical and then quantify the exposure derived from each of them. Product use categories can be established to identify in a systematic fashion how products are used. These product categories comprise products that are used similarly (e.g. paints, adhesives). They deliver information about product use characteristics, and provide an easy-to-handle tool for exchanging standardised information. For practical reasons, broad ES will have to be developed, which cover a wide range of products and use. The challenge will be to define them broadly, but not in a way that they provide such an overestimation of exposure that a next iteration or a more complex model is always needed. Tiered and targeted approaches for estimation of exposure at the right level of detail may offer the best solution. RMMs relevant for consumers include those inherent to product design (controllable) and those that are communicated to consumers as directions for use (non-controllable). Quantification of the effect of non-controllable RMMs on consumer exposure can prove to be difficult. REACH requires aggregation of exposure from all relevant identified sources. Development of appropriate methodology for realistic aggregation of exposure will be no small challenge and will likely require probabilistic approaches and comprehensive databases on populations' habits, practices and behaviours. REACH regulation aims at controlling the use of chemicals so that exposure to every chemical can be demonstrated to be safe for consumers, workers, and the environment when considered separately, but also when considered in an integrated way. This

  10. IHE cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging: design challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-03-01

    Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) has recently published a new integration profile for sharing documents between multiple enterprises. The Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing Integration Profile (XDS) lays the basic framework for deploying regional and national Electronic Health Record (EHR). This profile proposes an architecture based on a central Registry that holds metadata information describing published Documents residing in one or multiple Documents Repositories. As medical images constitute important information of the patient health record, it is logical to extend the XDS Integration Profile to include images. However, including images in the EHR presents many challenges. The complete image set is very large; it is useful for radiologists and other specialists such as surgeons and orthopedists. The imaging report, on the other hand, is widely needed and its broad accessibility is vital for achieving optimal patient care. Moreover, a subset of relevant images may also be of wide interest along with the report. Therefore, IHE recently published a new integration profile for sharing images and imaging reports between multiple enterprises. This new profile, the Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I), is based on the XDS architecture. The XDS-I integration solution that is published as part of the IHE Technical Framework is the result of an extensive investigation effort of several design solutions. This paper presents and discusses the design challenges and the rationales behind the design decisions of the IHE XDS-I Integration Profile, for a better understanding and appreciation of the final published solution.

  11. The challenge of logistics facilities development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the experiences of a group of engineers and logisticians at John F. Kennedy Space center in the design, construction and activation of a consolidated logistics facility for support of Space Transportation System ground operations and maintenance. The planning, methodology and processes are covered, with emphasis placed on unique aspects and lessons learned. The project utilized a progressive design, baseline and build concept for each phase of construction, with the Government exercising funding and configuration oversight.

  12. Challenges Facing 3-D Audio Display Design for Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing successful multimedia presentation depend largely on the expectations of the designer and end user for a given application. Perceptual limitations in distance, elevation and azimuth sound source simulation differ significantly between headphone and cross-talk cancellation loudspeaker listening and therefore must be considered. Simulation of an environmental context is desirable but the quality depends on processing resources and lack of interaction with the host acoustical environment. While techniques such as data reduction of head-related transfer functions have been used widely to improve simulation fidelity, another approach involves determining thresholds for environmental acoustic events. Psychoacoustic studies relevant to this approach are reviewed in consideration of multimedia applications

  13. Challenges Facing 3-D Audio Display Design for Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing successful multimedia presentation depend largely on the expectations of the designer and end user for a given application. Perceptual limitations in distance, elevation and azimuth sound source simulation differ significantly between headphone and cross-talk cancellation loudspeaker listening and therefore must be considered. Simulation of an environmental context is desirable but the quality depends on processing resources and lack of interaction with the host acoustical environment. While techniques such as data reduction of head-related transfer functions have been used widely to improve simulation fidelity, another approach involves determining thresholds for environmental acoustic events. Psychoacoustic studies relevant to this approach are reviewed in consideration of multimedia applications

  14. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    PubMed Central

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. PMID:28182168

  15. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    PubMed

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  16. Challenges of developing and conducting clinical trials in rare disorders.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Lucas; Goldsmith, Jonathan C; Temple, Robert

    2017-08-16

    Rare disease drug development is a rapidly expanding field. Clinical researchers in rare diseases face many challenges when conducting trials in small populations. Disease natural history is often poorly understood and the ability to detect clinically meaningful outcomes requires understanding of their rate of occurrence and variability, both of which contribute to difficulties in powering a study. Standard trial designs are not optimized to obtain adequate safety and efficacy data from small numbers of patients, so alternative designs (enrichment, crossover, adaptive, N-of 1) need to be considered. The affected patients can be hard to identify, especially early in the course of their disease, are generally geographically dispersed, and are often children. Trials are frequently conducted on an international scale and may be subject to complex or multiple regulatory agency oversights and may be affected by local customs, cultures, and practices. A basic understanding of the FDA programs supporting development of drugs for rare diseases is provided by this review and the role of early consultation with the FDA is emphasized. Of recent FDA New Molecular Entities (NME) approvals, 41% (17 approvals) in 2014, 47% (21 approvals) in 2015, and 41% (9 approvals) in 2016 were for rare disease indications. Through effective interactions and collaborations with physicians, institutions, and patient groups, sponsors have been successful in bringing new treatments to market for individuals affected by rare diseases. Challenges to drug development have been overcome through the focused efforts of patients/families, non-profit patient advocacy groups, drug developers, and regulatory authorities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Adaptive Clinical Trials: Overview of Early-Phase Designs and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Marchenko, Olga; Fedorov, Valerii; Lee, J. Jack; Nolan, Christy; Pinheiro, José

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe developments in adaptive design methodology and discuss implementation strategies and operational challenges in early phase adaptive clinical trials. The BATTLE trial – the first completed, biomarker-based, Bayesian adaptive randomized study in lung cancer – is presented as a case study to illustrate main ideas and share learnings. PMID:28670507

  18. Grid Generation for Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization of an Aerospace Vehicle: Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss grid generation issues and to challenge the grid generation community to develop tools suitable for automated multidisciplinary analysis and design optimization of aerospace vehicles. Special attention is given to the grid generation issues of computational fluid dynamics and computational structural mechanics disciplines.

  19. Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjestani, Nicolas

    Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

  20. Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjestani, Nicolas

    Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

  1. Design Challenges in Converting a Paper Checklist to Digital Format for Dynamic Medical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Rosen, Brett J.; Kulp, Leah J.; Marsic, Ivan; Burd, Randall S.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a mobile digital checklist that we designed and developed for trauma resuscitation—a dynamic, fast-paced medical process of treating severely injured patients. The checklist design was informed by our analysis of user interactions with a paper checklist that was introduced to improve team performance during resuscitations. The design process followed an iterative approach and involved several medical experts. We discuss design challenges in converting a paper checklist to its digital counterpart, as well as our approaches for addressing those challenges. While we show that using a digital checklist during a fast-paced medical event is feasible, we also recognize several design constraints, including limited display size, difficulties in entering notes about the medical process and patient, and difficulties in replicating user experience with paper checklists. PMID:28480116

  2. Computational Protein Design Is a Challenge for Implicit Solvation Models

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Alfonso; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly complex schemes for representing solvent effects in an implicit fashion are being used in computational analyses of biological macromolecules. These schemes speed up the calculations by orders of magnitude and are assumed to compromise little on essential features of the solvation phenomenon. In this work we examine this assumption. Five implicit solvation models, a surface area-based empirical model, two models that approximate the generalized Born treatment and a finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann method are challenged in situations differing from those where these models were calibrated. These situations are encountered in automatic protein design procedures, whose job is to select sequences, which stabilize a given protein 3D structure, from a large number of alternatives. To this end we evaluate the energetic cost of burying amino acids in thousands of environments with different solvent exposures belonging, respectively, to decoys built with random sequences and to native protein crystal structures. In addition we perform actual sequence design calculations. Except for the crudest surface area-based procedure, all the tested models tend to favor the burial of polar amino acids in the protein interior over nonpolar ones, a behavior that leads to poor performance in protein design calculations. We show, on the other hand, that three of the examined models are nonetheless capable of discriminating between the native fold and many nonnative alternatives, a test commonly used to validate force fields. It is concluded that protein design is a particularly challenging test for implicit solvation models because it requires accurate estimates of the solvation contribution of individual residues. This contrasts with native recognition, which depends less on solvation and more on other nonbonded contributions. PMID:15377512

  3. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    The "conceptual storyline" of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content…

  4. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    The "conceptual storyline" of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content…

  5. Imaging Genetics and Development: Challenges and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Casey, BJ; Soliman, Fatima; Bath, Kevin G.; Glatt, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Excitement with the publication of the human genome has served as catalyst for scientists to uncover the functions of specific genes. The main avenues for understanding gene function have been in behavioral genetics on one end and on the other end, molecular mouse models. Attempts to bridge these approaches have used brain imaging to conveniently link anatomical abnormalities seen in knockout/transgenic mouse models and abnormal patterns of brain activity seen in humans. Although a convenient approach, this paper provides examples of challenges for imaging genetics, its application to developmental questions and promises for future directions. Attempts to link genes, brain and behavior using behavioral genetics, imaging genetics and mouse models of behavior are described. Each of these approaches alone, provide limited information on gene function in complex human behavior, but together, they are forming bridges between animal models and human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20496375

  6. Ethical challenges in designing and conducting medicine quality surveys.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Patricia; Parker, Michael; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Phanouvong, Souly; Yeung, Shunmay; Kitutu, Freddy E; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Mayxay, Mayfong; Guerin, Philippe J; Newton, Paul N

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the main ethical challenges related to the conduct of medicine quality surveys and make suggestions on how to address them. Most evidence-based information regarding medicine quality derives from surveys. However, existing research ethical guidelines do not provide specific guidance for medicine quality surveys. Hence, those conducting surveys are often left wondering how to judge what counts as best practice. A list of the main ethical challenges in the design and conduct of surveys is presented. It is vital that the design and conduct of medicine quality surveys uphold moral and ethical obligations and analyse the ethical implications and consequences of such work. These aspects include the impact on the local availability of and access to medicines; the confidentiality and privacy of the surveyors and the surveyed; questions as to whether outlet staff personnel should be told they are part of a survey; the need of ethical and regulatory approvals; and how the findings should be disseminated. Medicine quality surveys should ideally be conducted in partnership with the relevant national Medicine Regulatory Authorities. An international, but contextually sensitive, model of good ethical practice for such surveys is needed. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Gregory; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Phil; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  8. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  9. Environmental decision support systems (EDSS) development - Challenges and best practices

    Treesearch

    B. S. McIntosh; J. C. Ascough II; S. Chen; J. Chew; S. Cuddy; A. Elmahdi; D. Haase; J. Harou; D. Hepting; A. J. Jakeman; A. Kassahun; S. Lautenbach; K. Matthews; W. Merritt; N. W. T. Quinn; I. Rodriguez-Roda; S. Sieber; M. Stavenga; A. Sulis; J. Ticehurst; M. J. Twery; M. Volk; M. Wrobel; H. van Delden; S. El-Sawah; A. Rizzoli; A. Voinov

    2011-01-01

    Despite the perceived value of DSS in informing environmental and natural resource management, DSS tools often fail to be adopted by intended end users. By drawing together the experience of a global group of EDSS developers, we have identified and assessed key challenges in EDSS development and offer recommendations to resolve them. Challenges related to engaging end...

  10. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  11. Integrated Simulation Design Challenges to Support TPS Repair Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Huynh, An; Nguyen, Hung T.; MacLean, John

    2006-01-01

    )ntegrated Shuttle, SRMS, ISS (with active ACS) in the orbital environment, and (5) dual-arm SRMS/SSRMS dynamics topology. Integrated simulation V&V run suites were created and correlated to verification runs from subsystem simulations, in order to establish the validity of the results. This paper discusses the simulation design challenges encountered while developing simulation capabilities to mirror the ORM operations. The paper also describes the incremental build approach that was utilized, starting with the subsystem simulation elements and integration into increasing more complex simulations until the resulting ORM worksite dynamics simulation had been assembled. Furthermore, the paper presents an overall integrated simulation V&V methodology based upon a subsystem level testing, integrated comparisons, and phased checkout.

  12. The Challenges in Developing Academic Library Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankowski, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Defines collection development and discusses several issues related to this function in the academic library: (1) the importance of a collection development policy; (2) material selection; (3) faculty-library cooperation; (4) cooperation with other library departments; (5) weeding; and (6) effects of automation. Nine references are listed. (MES)

  13. Youth Development: Issues, Challenges and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Natalie, Ed.

    The Youth Development Project was established in 1998 as a vehicle for taking stock of and charting the issues involved in healthy youth development. This volume summarizes the project's work through papers prepared for discussions in May and October 1998 and edited for this collection. The essays in this volume are organized by three theme…

  14. [Sporotrichosis: development and challenges of an epidemic].

    PubMed

    Barros, Monica Bastos de Lima; Schubach, Tania Pacheco; Coll, Jesana Ornellas; Gremião, Isabella Dib; Wanke, Bodo; Schubach, Armando

    2010-06-01

    In the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sporotrichosis reached epidemic levels, involving humans and cats. Preliminary data indicate that approximately 2200 human cases were diagnosed between 1998 and December of 2009, and 3244 cats were treated. The geographic distribution of cases reveals a concentration in the City of Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. The disease affects mostly women of a low socioeconomic status, aged 40 to 55 years, who work as housekeepers. Itraconazole has been the drug of choice for treatment. Although sporotrichosis does not usually affect organs other than the skin, mucosa, and subcutaneous tissue, it has an indirect social impact resulting from absenteeism, pain, and discomfort during the active disease stage, and the unpleasant appearance of the scars. In turn, systemic involvement is frequent in cats, leading to serious and difficult to treat forms of the disease and death. Considering that treatment time in animals is longer than in human beings, treating cats with sporotrichosis has been the greatest obstacle and the most important challenge for the control of this epidemic infection.

  15. Clinical pharmacology in the development of new antidepressants: the challenges.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Robert C; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2014-02-01

    Given the lack of fundamental knowledge about the causes and pathophysiology of depression, it is a challenge for Phase I in antidepressant development to efficiently and thoroughly test new drugs. Initiation of Phase I should always be preceded by a careful consideration of what is known about the target and the molecule. While some early indicators of efficacy, such as the Emotional Test Battery, EEG markers, and fMRI correlates of anhedonia are available, further work is needed for their full incorporation in Phase I. Phase I studies of antidepressants should incorporate new measures and methods to the extent possible, and have the freedom to explore new hypotheses and move beyond the predetermined and inflexible study designs of traditional Phase I studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a CTD biotag: Challenges and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Heather A.; Ketterl, Thomas P.; Silverman, Alex M.; Torres, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small CTD biotag that measures a suite of oceanographic data. Though presently configured to measure conductivity, temperature, and depth along with geo-location, it is expandable to acquire behaviorally related data, including acceleration, ambient light, and compass heading. The size of the instrument (100 mm x 40 mm x 20 mm) has been optimized for deployments on medium-sized marine predators such as penguins, tuna, and sharks. Several first generation prototypes have been constructed and initial laboratory and field tests have been performed and are reported. In addition, this paper highlights the challenges and difficulties encountered during the developmental process of a new biologging instrument.

  17. 32 CFR 1907.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.24 Designation of authority to hear challenges. The...

  18. 32 CFR 1802.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges... COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action On Challenges § 1802.24 Designation of authority to hear challenges....

  19. Sustainable development: the challenge of our times.

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1988-12-01

    Sustainable development refers to the ability to satisfy the needs of the present generation without impinging on future generations' capability to supply demands. The world's present population reached 5 billion on July 11, 1987 and is symbolized in this paper as "child 5- billion". The population is increasing at a rate of 245,000 people/day which results in an increased demand for resources. This rate is 4 times greater for less developed countries than for more developed countries. Limitations are present in a sustainable environment and include food, air, and water. More specifically, increased population demands for increased food production could result in the degradation of cropland by over-cultivation, over-irrigation, and over-grazing. Degradation of the cropland, increased demand for fuelwood, and potential urbanization would lead to deforestation and soil erosion. With increased food production, water consumption would also rise which could result in waterlogged soil, inept sewage systems, and untreated, polluted water. Furthermore, air pollution could also pose a problem and could contribute to the greenhouse effect. Concerns for global environmental management should include utilization of limited resources, chemical waste, and dangers to the biosphere. Conservation of natural resources at a national level would contribute to sustainable development in 3rd World countries. 4 suggestions offer optimism for future. These include the demand for environmental precautions, increased awareness of sustainable development at a local level for 3rd World nations, 3rd World leadership in the global sustainable development operation, and employment of population policies for 3rd World countries.

  20. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  1. Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development ... or distraction?

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, J.R.; Panayotou, T.

    1997-04-04

    This editorial about sustainable development views it as a distraction to the main issues, pointing out that consumption patterns, not consumption levels is the critical problem. Topics include private consumption and environmental quality, private consumption and resource depletion, patterns versus levels. 21 refs.

  2. Dramatic Developments in the Neurosciences Challenge Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Recent dramatic developments in brain research and technology suggest that a comprehensive understanding of how the human brain works may soon be within reach. Just as the ability of the medical profession to treat patients improved dramatically with the advent of effective research skills and technology concerning the structure, biochemistry, and…

  3. Conceptualizing Heterosexual Identity Development: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes the work of R. L. Worthington and J. J. Mohr (2002); R. L. Worthington, H. B. Savoy, F. R. Dillon, and E. R. Vernaglia (2002); and J. J. Mohr (2002) on heterosexual identity development that constituted the Major Contribution section of the July 2002 issue of The Counseling Psychologist. The author provides an overview of…

  4. Dramatic Developments in the Neurosciences Challenge Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Recent dramatic developments in brain research and technology suggest that a comprehensive understanding of how the human brain works may soon be within reach. Just as the ability of the medical profession to treat patients improved dramatically with the advent of effective research skills and technology concerning the structure, biochemistry, and…

  5. Genetics: The New Staff Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Since genetics is about biological development and diversity, it is related to contentious social issues (like racism) and already permeates the K-12 curriculum. Staff who educated themselves about brain research can grasp genetics concepts and decide what knowledge is worth imparting to students. Print and web resources are listed. (MLH)

  6. Genetics: The New Staff Development Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Since genetics is about biological development and diversity, it is related to contentious social issues (like racism) and already permeates the K-12 curriculum. Staff who educated themselves about brain research can grasp genetics concepts and decide what knowledge is worth imparting to students. Print and web resources are listed. (MLH)

  7. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  8. Ethical Challenges in Biomarker-Driven Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips

    2017-09-25

    The increasing importance of biomarkers-as drivers of research and drug development activity, surrogate outcomes in clinical trials, and the centerpiece of precision medicine-raises many new ethical challenges. In what follows, I briefly review some of the major ethical challenges and debates already identified in the literature, and then describe a new ethical challenge that arises from the abstract nature of biomarker hypotheses. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  9. Challenges and Paradoxes of Human Factors in Health Technology Design

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Usability testing allows human factors professionals to identify and mitigate issues with the design and use of medical technology. The test results, however, can be paradoxical and therefore be misinterpreted, limiting their usefulness. The paradoxical findings can lead to products that are not aligned with the needs and constraints of their users. We herein report on our observations of the paradox of expertise, the paradox of preference versus performance, and the paradox of choice. Each paradox explored is in the perspective of the design of medical technology, the issues that need to be considered in the interpretation of the test results, as well as suggestions on how to avoid the pitfalls in the design of medical technology. Because these paradoxes can influence product design at various stages of product development, it is important to be aware of the effects to interpret the findings properly. PMID:27025862

  10. Design and Development of Molecular Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging, the visualization, characterization and measurement of biological processes at the cellular, subcellular level, or even molecular level in living subjects, has rapidly gained importance in the dawning era of personalized medicine. Molecular imaging takes advantage of the traditional diagnostic imaging techniques and introduces molecular imaging probes to determine the expression of indicative molecular markers at different stages of diseases and disorders. As a key component of molecular imaging, molecular imaging probe must be able to specifically reach the target of interest in vivo while retaining long enough to be detected. A desirable molecular imaging probe with clinical translation potential is expected to have unique characteristics. Therefore, design and development of molecular imaging probe is frequently a challenging endeavor for medicinal chemists. This review summarizes the general principles of molecular imaging probe design and some fundamental strategies of molecular imaging probe development with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:20388106

  11. Design Principles for High School Engineering Design Challenges: Experiences from High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    At the University of Pittsburgh, the author and his colleagues have been exploring a range of approaches to design challenges for implementation in high school science classrooms. In general, their approach has always involved students working during class time over the course of many weeks. So, their understanding of what works must be…

  12. Intestinal targeting of drugs: rational design approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Kevin J; Varma, Manthena V; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Ambler, Catherine M; Ruggeri, Roger B; Goosen, Theunis C; Cameron, Kimberly O

    2013-01-01

    Targeting drugs to the gastrointestinal tract has been and continues to be an active area of research. Gut-targeting is an effective means of increasing the local concentration of active substance at the desired site of action while minimizing concentrations elsewhere in the body that could lead to unwanted side-effects. Several approaches to intestinal targeting exist. Physicochemical property manipulation can drive molecules to large, polar, low absorption space or alternatively to lipophilic, high clearance space in order to minimize systemic exposure. Design of compounds that are substrates for transporters within the gastrointestinal tract, either uptake or efflux, or at the hepato-biliary interface, may help to increase intestinal concentration. Prodrug strategies have been shown to be effective particularly for colon targeting, and several different technology formulation approaches are currently being researched. This review provides examples of various approaches to intestinal targeting, and discusses challenges and areas in need of future scientific advances.

  13. The RHIC project: design, status, challenges, and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Harrison, M.

    1997-04-01

    The design and construction status of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is discussed. Those novel features of a heavy ion Collider that are distinct from conventional hadron Colliders in general are noted. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range including collisions between ions of unequal energies. The project is in the fifth year of a seven-year construction cycle. A review of the superconducting magnet program is given together with progress to date on the machine construction and commissioning. Emphasis is made on challenging issues including intrabeam scattering, interaction-region error compensation, magnet alignments, and matched transition-energy jump.

  14. Society and environment challenged by development

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Canada's environmental policy now seeks to balance the needs of human development with those of the natural environment, as evident in the effort to develop reforestation programs and to deal with acid rain, both of which are the result of externalizing social costs. Canada's new approach is to ascribe environmental costs at the source. The 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty with the US emphasized the right to equal enjoyment of shared resources and established a working relationship that can be applied to the problem of acid rain. Progress in reversing damage to the Great Lakes from eutrophication illustrates the benefits of proceeding before all the scientific data are complete. It is essential to the Canadian forest industry that the US recognize the damage from acid rain and proceed to the question of how to reduce emissions and who will pay the costs.

  15. Neuropsychiatric genetics in developing countries: Current challenges.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diego A; Vélez-van-Meerbeke, Alberto; Deshpande, Smita N; Nicolini, Humberto; Perry, George

    2014-12-22

    Neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) constitute a heavy burden on public health systems around the world and studies have demonstrated that the negative impact of NPDs is larger in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). In recent decades, several studies have come to the understanding that genetic factors play a major role in the risk for a large number of NPDs. However, few neuropsychiatric genetics studies have been published from LMICs. In this Editorial, we discuss important issues impinging on advances in neuropsychiatric genetics research in LMICs. It is essential that scientists educate policymakers and officials of funding agencies on the importance of providing adequate funding for research in these areas. Development of local well-supported research programs focused on NPD genetics should be an important asset to develop; it would facilitate the establishment of sustainable research efforts that could lead to appropriate diagnosis and specific, affordable and feasible interventions in LMICs. It is important to point out that research into the biological basis of human NPDs is not only an academic effort reserved for a few elite institutions in economically developed countries, but it is vitally important for the mental health of people around the world.

  16. Supporting Middle School Teachers' Implementation of STEM Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesseig, Kristin; Nelson, Tamara Holmlund; Slavit, David; Seidel, Ryan August

    2016-01-01

    We describe and analyze a professional development (PD) model that involved a partnership among science, mathematics and education university faculty, science and mathematics coordinators, and middle school administrators, teachers, and students. The overarching project goal involved the implementation of interdisciplinary STEM Design Challenges…

  17. Curriculum Design Requirements and Challenges of the Learning Society Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Sedighe; Nasr, Ahmad-Reza; Sharif, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Entering the twenty-first century with the development of communities, they are faced with the necessity of moving towards a learning society. University must extend the learning opportunities and improve the quality of them with curriculum design by learning society approach to respond to the necessity. Researchers believe that some conditions…

  18. Supporting Middle School Teachers' Implementation of STEM Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesseig, Kristin; Nelson, Tamara Holmlund; Slavit, David; Seidel, Ryan August

    2016-01-01

    We describe and analyze a professional development (PD) model that involved a partnership among science, mathematics and education university faculty, science and mathematics coordinators, and middle school administrators, teachers, and students. The overarching project goal involved the implementation of interdisciplinary STEM Design Challenges…

  19. New insights, new challenges; person centred transport design.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Andree

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the Hexagon Spindle model of ergonomics to provide a framework for the development of person centred approaches to vehicle and transport design. The benefits of taking this approach, and the factors that might be included under a more inclusive definition of automotive and Transport ergonomics are explained.

  20. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  1. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  2. Challenges, developments and perspectives in intermittent ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Although more than half the world's river networks comprise channels that periodically cease to flow and dry [intermittent rivers (IRs)], river ecology was largely developed from and for perennial systems. Ecological knowledge of IRs is rapidly increasing, so there is a need to synthesise this knowledge and deepen ecological understanding.In this Special Issue, we bring together 13 papers spanning observational case studies, field and laboratory experiments and reviews to guide research and management in this productive field of freshwater science. We summarise new developments in IR ecology, identify research gaps and needs, and address how the study of IRs as highly dynamic ecosystems informs ecological understanding more broadly.This series of articles reveals that contemporary IR ecology is a multifaceted and maturing field of research at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial ecology. This research contributes to fresh water and general ecology by testing concepts across a range of topics, including disturbance ecology, metacommunity ecology and coupled aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems.Drying affects flow continuity through time and flow connectivity across longitudinal, lateral and vertical dimensions of space, which aligns well with the recent emphasis of mainstream ecology on meta-system perspectives. Although most articles here focus on the wet phase, there is growing interest in dry phases, and in the terrestrial vegetation and invertebrate assemb

  3. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  4. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    PubMed

    Malone, Robert W; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-03-01

    Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

  5. Challenges, developments and perspectives in intermittent ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Although more than half the world's river networks comprise channels that periodically cease to flow and dry [intermittent rivers (IRs)], river ecology was largely developed from and for perennial systems. Ecological knowledge of IRs is rapidly increasing, so there is a need to synthesise this knowledge and deepen ecological understanding.In this Special Issue, we bring together 13 papers spanning observational case studies, field and laboratory experiments and reviews to guide research and management in this productive field of freshwater science. We summarise new developments in IR ecology, identify research gaps and needs, and address how the study of IRs as highly dynamic ecosystems informs ecological understanding more broadly.This series of articles reveals that contemporary IR ecology is a multifaceted and maturing field of research at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial ecology. This research contributes to fresh water and general ecology by testing concepts across a range of topics, including disturbance ecology, metacommunity ecology and coupled aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems.Drying affects flow continuity through time and flow connectivity across longitudinal, lateral and vertical dimensions of space, which aligns well with the recent emphasis of mainstream ecology on meta-system perspectives. Although most articles here focus on the wet phase, there is growing interest in dry phases, and in the terrestrial vegetation and invertebrate assemb

  6. Adolescents' conscious processes of developing regulation: learning to appraise challenges.

    PubMed

    Larson, Reed W

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects in organized programs and how they learn to address them. Adolescents' new higher-order cognitive capacities allow them to better understand the irregularities and complexity of real-world challenges. They also use these capacities to consciously develop skills to navigate these challenges. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. Promoting Antibacterial Drug Development: Select Policies and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sertkaya, Aylin; Jessup, Amber; Wong, Hui-Hsing

    2017-02-01

    The development pipeline for antibacterial drugs has not met the demand of hospitals and healthcare providers struggling to cope with increasing problems of antibacterial resistance. Although the challenges associated with antibacterial drug development have been known for some time, previous efforts to address them have not been sufficient. There remains an urgent need for targeted incentives to foster antibacterial drug development while encouraging prudent use. We examine the effects of two types of incentives, a 5-year delay in competition from generics and a lump-sum US$50 million prize payment upon successful US Food and Drug Administration approval, on antibacterial drug company returns. We use the decision-tree framework developed in a study for the US Department of Health and Human Services, which models the drug company's decision process as a revenue maximizer under uncertainty. Our results show that, to maximize societal benefit, such incentives need to take into consideration the indication(s) the new antibacterial drug is designed to treat as well as the drug development stage. Optimal policies should maximize the difference between societal benefit, primarily measured as the reduction in public health burden from the development of a new antibacterial drug that treats an infectious disease while ensuring prudent use, and social cost. Here, we show that the two types of policies examined under-incentivize early-stage developers (i.e., do not achieve the desired outcome) and over-incentivize late-stage developers (i.e., achieve the desired outcome but at a cost that is higher than needed) ceteris paribus.

  8. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  9. Challenges and opportunities in designing clinical trials for neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Weinshenker, Brian G; Barron, Gerard; Behne, Jacinta M; Bennett, Jeffery L; Chin, Peter S; Cree, Bruce A C; de Seze, Jerome; Flor, Armando; Fujihara, Kazuo; Greenberg, Benjamin; Higashi, Sayumi; Holt, William; Khan, Omar; Knappertz, Volker; Levy, Michael; Melia, Angela T; Palace, Jacqueline; Smith, Terry J; Sormani, Maria Pia; Van Herle, Katja; VanMeter, Susan; Villoslada, Pablo; Walton, Marc K; Wasiewski, Warren; Wingerchuk, Dean M; Yeaman, Michael R

    2015-04-28

    Current management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is noncurative and only partially effective. Immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory agents are the mainstays of maintenance treatment. Safer, better-tolerated, and proven effective treatments are needed. The perceived rarity of NMO has impeded clinical trials for this disease. However, a diagnostic biomarker and recognition of a wider spectrum of NMO presentations has expanded the patient population from which study candidates might be recruited. Emerging insights into the pathogenesis of NMO have provided rationale for exploring new therapeutic targets. Academic, pharmaceutical, and regulatory communities are increasingly interested in meeting the unmet needs of patients with NMO. Clinical trials powered to yield unambiguous outcomes and designed to facilitate rapid evaluation of an expanding pipeline of experimental agents are needed. NMO-related disability occurs incrementally as a result of attacks; thus, limiting attack frequency and severity are critical treatment goals. Yet, the severity of NMO and perception that currently available agents are effective pose challenges to study design. We propose strategies for NMO clinical trials to evaluate agents targeting recovery from acute attacks and prevention of relapses, the 2 primary goals of NMO treatment. Aligning the interests of all stakeholders is an essential step to this end. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Challenges and opportunities in designing clinical trials for neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Gerard; Behne, Jacinta M.; Bennett, Jeffery L.; Chin, Peter S.; Cree, Bruce A.C.; de Seze, Jerome; Flor, Armando; Fujihara, Kazuo; Greenberg, Benjamin; Higashi, Sayumi; Holt, William; Khan, Omar; Knappertz, Volker; Levy, Michael; Melia, Angela T.; Palace, Jacqueline; Smith, Terry J.; Sormani, Maria Pia; Van Herle, Katja; VanMeter, Susan; Villoslada, Pablo; Walton, Marc K.; Wasiewski, Warren; Wingerchuk, Dean M.; Yeaman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Current management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is noncurative and only partially effective. Immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory agents are the mainstays of maintenance treatment. Safer, better-tolerated, and proven effective treatments are needed. The perceived rarity of NMO has impeded clinical trials for this disease. However, a diagnostic biomarker and recognition of a wider spectrum of NMO presentations has expanded the patient population from which study candidates might be recruited. Emerging insights into the pathogenesis of NMO have provided rationale for exploring new therapeutic targets. Academic, pharmaceutical, and regulatory communities are increasingly interested in meeting the unmet needs of patients with NMO. Clinical trials powered to yield unambiguous outcomes and designed to facilitate rapid evaluation of an expanding pipeline of experimental agents are needed. NMO-related disability occurs incrementally as a result of attacks; thus, limiting attack frequency and severity are critical treatment goals. Yet, the severity of NMO and perception that currently available agents are effective pose challenges to study design. We propose strategies for NMO clinical trials to evaluate agents targeting recovery from acute attacks and prevention of relapses, the 2 primary goals of NMO treatment. Aligning the interests of all stakeholders is an essential step to this end. PMID:25841026

  11. Development of the Design Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silla, Harry

    1986-01-01

    Describes the design laboratory at the Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT). Considers course objectives, design projects, project structure, mechanical design, project management, and laboratory operation. This laboratory complements SIT's course in process design, giving students a complete design experience. (JN)

  12. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Eric A. F.; DeVincenzo, John P.; Boeckh, Michael; Bont, Louis; Crowe, James E.; Griffiths, Paul; Hayden, Frederick G.; Hodinka, Richard L.; Smyth, Rosalind L.; Spencer, Keith; Thirstrup, Steffen; Walsh, Edward E.; Whitley, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Two meetings, one sponsored by the Wellcome Trust in 2012 and the other by the Global Virology Foundation in 2013, assembled academic, public health and pharmaceutical industry experts to assess the challenges and opportunities for developing antivirals for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. The practicalities of clinical trials and establishing reliable outcome measures in different target groups were discussed in the context of the regulatory pathways that could accelerate the translation of promising compounds into licensed agents. RSV drug development is hampered by the perceptions of a relatively small and fragmented market that may discourage major pharmaceutical company investment. Conversely, the public health need is far too large for RSV to be designated an orphan or neglected disease. Recent advances in understanding RSV epidemiology, improved point-of-care diagnostics, and identification of candidate antiviral drugs argue that the major obstacles to drug development can and will be overcome. Further progress will depend on studies of disease pathogenesis and knowledge provided from controlled clinical trials of these new therapeutic agents. The use of combinations of inhibitors that have different mechanisms of action may be necessary to increase antiviral potency and reduce the risk of resistance emergence. PMID:25713060

  13. Challenges and opportunities in developing respiratory syncytial virus therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Simões, Eric A F; DeVincenzo, John P; Boeckh, Michael; Bont, Louis; Crowe, James E; Griffiths, Paul; Hayden, Frederick G; Hodinka, Richard L; Smyth, Rosalind L; Spencer, Keith; Thirstrup, Steffen; Walsh, Edward E; Whitley, Richard J

    2015-03-15

    Two meetings, one sponsored by the Wellcome Trust in 2012 and the other by the Global Virology Foundation in 2013, assembled academic, public health and pharmaceutical industry experts to assess the challenges and opportunities for developing antivirals for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. The practicalities of clinical trials and establishing reliable outcome measures in different target groups were discussed in the context of the regulatory pathways that could accelerate the translation of promising compounds into licensed agents. RSV drug development is hampered by the perceptions of a relatively small and fragmented market that may discourage major pharmaceutical company investment. Conversely, the public health need is far too large for RSV to be designated an orphan or neglected disease. Recent advances in understanding RSV epidemiology, improved point-of-care diagnostics, and identification of candidate antiviral drugs argue that the major obstacles to drug development can and will be overcome. Further progress will depend on studies of disease pathogenesis and knowledge provided from controlled clinical trials of these new therapeutic agents. The use of combinations of inhibitors that have different mechanisms of action may be necessary to increase antiviral potency and reduce the risk of resistance emergence.

  14. Sensium: an ultra-low-power wireless body sensor network platform: design & application challenges.

    PubMed

    Wong, A W; McDonagh, D; Omeni, O; Nunn, C; Hernandez-Silveira, M; Burdett, A J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a system-on-chip for wireless body sensor networks, which integrates a transceiver, hardware MAC protocol, microprocessor, IO peripherals, memories, ADC and custom sensor interfaces. Addressing the challenges in the design, this paper will continue to discuss the issues in the applications of this technology to body worn monitoring for real-time measurement of ECG, heart rate, physical activity, respiration and/or skin temperature. Two application challenges are described; the real-time measurement of energy expenditure using the LifePebble, and; the development issues surrounding the 'Digital Patch'.

  15. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  16. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA) study: Design challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug) and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies) timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone) to the effect of the first (stimulant). We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic). Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years) with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder) accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant) was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual comparison was stimulant

  17. Structure-based drug design to overcome drug resistance: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rafaela S; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a common concern for the development of novel antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer therapies. To overcome this problem, several strategies have been developed, many of which involving the theme of this review, the use of structure-based drug design (SBDD) approaches. These include the successful design of new compounds that target resistant mutant proteins, as well as the development of drugs that target multiple proteins involved in specific biochemical pathways. Finally, drug resistance can also be considered in the early stages of drug discovery, through the use of strategies to delay the development of resistance. The purpose of this brief review is to underline the usefulness of SBDD approaches based on case studies, highlighting present challenges and opportunities in drug design.

  18. New Challenges for Rural Economic Development. Working Paper No. 400.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Edward J.; And Others

    Eleven papers on rural economic development cover challenges and opportunities; employment trends affecting nonmetropolitan areas; status of nonmetropolitan women and minorities; case studies of Vermont, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California; western urban and regional development; economic development in small cities; and rural policy…

  19. Developing Teachers' Competences for Designing Inclusive Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Silvia Baldiris; Zervas, Panagiotis; Gesa, Ramon Fabregat; Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education, namely the process of providing all learners with equal educational opportunities, is a major challenge for many educational systems worldwide. In order to address this issue, a widely used framework has been developed, namely the Universal Design for Learning (UDL), which aims to provide specific educational design guidelines…

  20. Developing Teachers' Competences for Designing Inclusive Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Silvia Baldiris; Zervas, Panagiotis; Gesa, Ramon Fabregat; Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education, namely the process of providing all learners with equal educational opportunities, is a major challenge for many educational systems worldwide. In order to address this issue, a widely used framework has been developed, namely the Universal Design for Learning (UDL), which aims to provide specific educational design guidelines…

  1. Developing Designer Identity through Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Hutchinson, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    As designers utilize design thinking while moving through a design space between problem and solution, they must rely on design intelligence, precedents, and intuition in order to arrive at meaningful and inventive outcomes. Thus, instructional designers must constantly re-conceptualize their own identities and what it means to be a designer.…

  2. Developing Designer Identity through Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Hutchinson, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    As designers utilize design thinking while moving through a design space between problem and solution, they must rely on design intelligence, precedents, and intuition in order to arrive at meaningful and inventive outcomes. Thus, instructional designers must constantly re-conceptualize their own identities and what it means to be a designer.…

  3. Environmental exposure and mitochondrial epigenetics: study design and analytical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Hyang-Min; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    The environment can influence human health and disease in many harmful ways. Many epidemiological studies have been conducted with the aim of elucidating the association between environmental exposure and human disease at the molecular and pathological levels, and such associations can often be through induced epigenetic changes. One such mechanism for this is through environmental factors increasing oxidative stress in the cell, and this stress can subsequently lead to alterations in DNA molecules. The two cellular organelles that contain DNA are the nucleus and mitochondria, and the latter are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress, with mitochondrial functions often disrupted by increased stress. There has been a substantial increase over the past decade in the number of epigenetic studies investigating the impact of environmental exposures upon genomic DNA, but to date there has been insufficient attention paid to the impact upon mitochondrial epigenetics in studying human disease with exposure to environment. Here, in this review, we will discuss mitochondrial epigenetics with regards to epidemiological studies, with particular consideration given to study design and analytical challenges. Furthermore, we suggest future directions and perspectives in the field of mitochondrial epigenetic epidemiological studies. PMID:24402053

  4. NASA Composite Materials Development: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Pipes, R. Byron; Johnston, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials have emerged as the materials of choice for increasing the performance and reducing the weight and cost of military, general aviation, and transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. Major advancements have been made in the ability to design, fabricate, and analyze large complex aerospace structures. The recent efforts by Boeing and Airbus to incorporate composite into primary load carrying structures of large commercial transports and to certify the airworthiness of these structures is evidence of the significant advancements made in understanding and use of these materials in real world aircraft. NASA has been engaged in research on composites since the late 1960 s and has worked to address many development issues with these materials in an effort to ensure safety, improve performance, and improve affordability of air travel for the public good. This research has ranged from synthesis of advanced resin chemistries to development of mathematical analyses tools to reliably predict the response of built-up structures under combined load conditions. The lessons learned from this research are highlighted with specific examples to illustrate the problems encountered and solutions to these problems. Examples include specific technologies related to environmental effects, processing science, fabrication technologies, nondestructive inspection, damage tolerance, micromechanics, structural mechanics, and residual life prediction. The current state of the technology is reviewed and key issues requiring additional research identified. Also, grand challenges to be solved for expanded use of composites in aero structures are identified.

  5. Summary of Martian Dust Filtering Challenges and Current Filter Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, William J., IV

    2017-01-01

    Traditional air particulate filtering in manned spaceflight (Apollo, Shuttle, ISS, etc.) has used cleanable or replaceable catch filters such as screens and High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA) filters. However, the human mission to Mars architecture will require a new approach. It is Martian dust that is the particulate of concern but the need also applies to particulates generated by crew. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) high-lighted this concern in its Mars Science, Goals, Objectives, Investigations and Priorities document [7], by saying specifically that one high priority investigation will be to "Test ISRU atmospheric processing systems to measure resilience with respect to dust and other environmental challenge performance parameters that are critical to the design of a full-scale system." By stating this as high priority the MEPAG is acknowledging that developing and adequately verifying this capability is critical to success of a human mission to Mars. This architecture will require filtering capabilities that are highly reliable, will not restrict the flow path with clogging, and require little to no maintenance. This paper will summarize why this is the case, the general requirements for developing the technology, and the status of the progress made in this area.

  6. Challenges in the Development of Environmental Management Systems on the Modern University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bero, Bridget N.; Doerry, Eckehard; Middleton, Ryan; Meinhardt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe challenges and lessons learned in the design and development of a comprehensive, flexible environmental management system (EMS) in a real university setting; also to inform development of similar systems elsewhere and provide a modular, extensible software architecture for such efforts.…

  7. Challenges in the Development of Environmental Management Systems on the Modern University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bero, Bridget N.; Doerry, Eckehard; Middleton, Ryan; Meinhardt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe challenges and lessons learned in the design and development of a comprehensive, flexible environmental management system (EMS) in a real university setting; also to inform development of similar systems elsewhere and provide a modular, extensible software architecture for such efforts.…

  8. Endoscopic ultrasonography: Challenges and opportunities in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Furqaan

    2014-05-06

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has become a vital diagnostic modality for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pancreatic cysts and masses, anorectal pathology, subepithelial gastrointestinal lesions, and for the staging of many gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. Establishing a EUS program in a developing country presents many challenges. Doing so in Pakistan has led to the identification of the following challenges: initial investment, ongoing costs (particularly fine needle aspiration needle costs), awareness and cytopathology. Endoscopic ultrasonography has revolutionized aspects of the practice of gastroenterology and oncology in the West. This technique is becoming increasingly available in the developing world, where it poses unique challenges to its practice. These challenges include those relating to service initiation and maintenance costs, physician awareness, and on-site cytopathology access. If these issues are anticipated and addressed in ways appropriate to local circumstances, obstacles to the institution of EUS programs can be overcome.

  9. Optical interference coating design contest 2016: a dispersive mirror and coating uniformity challenge.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D T; Pervak, Vladimir; Keck, Jason; Bolshakov, Ilya; Gerig, Zachary; Lemarchand, Fabien; Sato, Kageyuki; Southwell, William; Sugiura, Muneo; Trubetskov, Michael; Yuan, Wenjia

    2017-02-01

    A dispersive mirror and a coating uniformity challenge were the topics of the design contest held in conjunction with the 2016 Optical Interference Coatings topical meeting of The Optical Society (OSA). A total of 18 designers from China, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States submitted 38 total designs for problems A and B. Michael Trubetskov submitted the winning designs for all four design challenges. The design problems and the submitted solutions are described and evaluated.

  10. Berkeley Lab scientists develop criteria for $20 million energy challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Labs Iain Walker and his colleagues in environmental energy research helped the Siebel Foundation develop the criteria for its Energy Free Home Challenge, which comes with a $20 million global incentive prize. The Challenge is a competition to create a new generation of systems and technologies for practical homes that realize a net-zero, non-renewable energy footprint without increasing the cost of ownership. It is open to everyone everywhere — university teams to handymen and hobbyists.

  11. Berkeley Lab scientists develop criteria for $20 million energy challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain

    2009-01-01

    Berkeley Labs Iain Walker and his colleagues in environmental energy research helped the Siebel Foundation develop the criteria for its Energy Free Home Challenge, which comes with a $20 million global incentive prize. The Challenge is a competition to create a new generation of systems and technologies for practical homes that realize a net-zero, non-renewable energy footprint without increasing the cost of ownership. It is open to everyone everywhere — university teams to handymen and hobbyists.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, The Solberg Company, replaced fluorinated surfactants in its firefighting foam concentrates with a blend of non-fluorinated surfactants and sugars.

  13. Challenges facing the development of the Arabic chatbot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHagbani, Eman Saad; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin

    2016-07-01

    The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To develop a chatbot or a computer program that can chat with humans in realistic manner to extent that human get impressions that he/she is talking with other human is a challenging task. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language. However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.

  14. Design Considerations for Developing Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. The complexity arises from the fact that biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and micro structure, and its effect on cellular behavior can be a difficult and time intensive process. A systems design approach driven by thermodynamics has the power to provide significant contributions in developing the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations and hurdles for developing new magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials [1].

  15. Learning Challenges Involved in Developing Leading for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperley, Helen S.

    2006-01-01

    The study in this article seeks to understand the learning challenges involved in developing learning-centered leadership in schools. It is based on Southworth's (1998, 2004) ideas of leadership for improving schools, which comprise promoting learning-centered improvement at all levels through professional development and a focus on the quality of…

  16. The Challenges Facing Staff Development in Promoting Quality Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Debbi

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of an academic professional development program, related to the use of WebCT in teaching programs, and discusses the challenges that have arisen for the members of the staff development team since the original implementation of the program. The training program begins with face-to-face workshops, covering…

  17. Working with Novice Teachers: Challenges for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jeffrey; Jones, Graham; Mooney, Edward; Thornton, Carol; Cady, JoAnn; Guinee, Patricia; Olson, Jo

    2002-01-01

    Examines the classroom practice and beliefs of two novice elementary teachers during their first year of teaching and the first year of their involvement in a district-wide professional development project. Analyzes the challenges faced by the novice teachers and the professional developer who worked with them. Discusses the effects of teachers'…

  18. Staff Development: Still a Major Challenge for Middle School Administrators!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Dale G.

    Middle school principals must continue to provide leadership for staff development programs. As the instructional leader of the middle school, the principal faces the challenge of assisting both new and experienced teachers in developing teaching strategies that are consistent with the characteristics and needs of transescent students. At the same…

  19. The occurrence of challenging behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorders and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Hattier, Megan A; Matson, Johnny L; Belva, Brian C; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the occurrence of challenging behaviours in children with ASDs and atypical development. This study is a descriptive non-experimental design that inspects the frequencies of challenging behaviours among two diagnostic groups. This type of methodology is important since research in this area is still in the beginning stages of development. The sample consisted of 2131 children, with 633 having an ASD and 1498 having atypical development. The Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits-Part 3 (BISCUIT-Part 3) assesses problematic behaviours within this population. The frequencies of challenging behaviours were examined along with an inspection of the co-occurring items. Greater percentages of problematic behaviours were found in the ASD group as compared to the group with atypical development. Challenging behaviours are variables affecting the behavioural presentation of those with ASDs and may be considered into the treatment plans for these children.

  20. Challenges and constraints to vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Alders, R G; Bagnol, B; Young, M P; Ahlers, C; Brum, E; Rushton, J

    2007-01-01

    The challenges and constraints to vaccinating poultry in areas where adequate infrastructure and human resources are lacking are addressed in both a technical and a socioeconomic framework. The key issues discussed are: (1) selection of an appropriate vaccine and vaccination technique, including the advantages and disadvantages of a combined vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease and addressing the differences between endemic disease and emergency disease control; (2) vaccine conservation and distribution; (3) evaluation of the flocks to be vaccinated in terms of their disease status, immunocompetence and production systems; (4) design of effective information, education and communication materials and methods with and for veterinary and extension staff as well as commercial and smallholder producers and community vaccinators in rural areas; (5) evaluation and monitoring systems for technical and socioeconomic factors that affect vaccination; (6) support and coordination of and by relevant public and private agencies; (7) the role of simultaneous implementation of other control activities in addition to vaccination; (8) the importance of assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of various approaches to the control of HPAI, including the prevention of other endemic killer diseases and options for cost-sharing; (9) evaluation of the incentives for poultry-holders, vaccinators and vaccine producers to contribute to and participate in effective vaccination campaigns; and (10) policy development and the organizational framework for short- and long-term implementation and communication to decision-makers.

  1. Management of Haemophilia in Developing Countries: Challenges and Options.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka

    2016-09-01

    There are significant challenges in managing haemophilia patients in developing countries. These challenges are (i) Lack of proper health care infrastructure and human resources suitable for haemophilia care (ii) Competing health care priorities of the government. (iii) Lack of penetrance of medical insurance in the population. (iv) Lesser visibility of the haemophilia patients in health care system (v) Low awareness across the medical profession, population and the policy makers about the condition (vi) Non availability of factor concentrates (vii) Inadequate utilization of knowledge for reducing factor concentrate use. (viii) Inadequate pain relief (ix) Challenges due to inhibitor developing (x) Viral hepatitis & (xi) Lack of research publications relevant to the country are some of the challenges faced by PWH for their management in developing country. The solutions are not easy but development of a strong patient organization with linkages with World Federation of Haemophilia is an important initial step. Following that internal and international twinning, use of internal sources, strong advocacy programme targeting government, doctors, opinion makers will solve many of the challenges in the time to come.

  2. School Building Designs: Principles and Challenges of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews school-facility challenges and design principles described in 2000 U.S. Department of Education report on school planning and design. Describes additional school-facility design challenges and planning principles. Describes five critical facility-planning issues for the 21st Century. (Contains 14 references.) (PKP)

  3. Designing trials for pressure ulcer risk assessment research: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Balzer, K; Köpke, S; Lühmann, D; Haastert, B; Kottner, J; Meyer, G

    2013-08-01

    For decades various pressure ulcer risk assessment scales (PURAS) have been developed and implemented into nursing practice despite uncertainty whether use of these tools helps to prevent pressure ulcers. According to current methodological standards, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are required to conclusively determine the clinical efficacy and safety of this risk assessment strategy. In these trials, PURAS-aided risk assessment has to be compared to nurses' clinical judgment alone in terms of its impact on pressure ulcer incidence and adverse outcomes. However, RCTs evaluating diagnostic procedures are prone to specific risks of bias and threats to the statistical power which may challenge their validity and feasibility. This discussion paper critically reflects on the rigour and feasibility of experimental research needed to substantiate the clinical efficacy of PURAS-aided risk assessment. Based on reflections of the methodological literature, a critical appraisal of available trials on this subject and an analysis of a protocol developed for a methodologically robust cluster-RCT, this paper arrives at the following conclusions: First, available trials do not provide reliable estimates of the impact of PURAS-aided risk assessment on pressure ulcer incidence compared to nurses' clinical judgement alone due to serious risks of bias and insufficient sample size. Second, it seems infeasible to assess this impact by means of rigorous experimental studies since sample size would become extremely high if likely threats to validity and power are properly taken into account. Third, means of evidence linkages seem to currently be the most promising approaches for evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of PURAS-aided risk assessment. With this kind of secondary research, the downstream effect of use of PURAS on pressure ulcer incidence could be modelled by combining best available evidence for single parts of this pathway. However, to yield reliable modelling

  4. Surgical Simulator Design and Development

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), it became necessary to develop training methods to learn skills outside the operating room. Several training simulators have become commercially available, but fundamental research into the requirements for effective and efficient training in MIS is still lacking. Three aspects of developing a training program are investigated here: what should be trained, how it should be trained, and how to assess the results of training. In addition, studies are presented that have investigated the role of force feedback in surgical simulators. Training should be adapted to the level of behavior: skill-based, rule-based, or knowledge-based. These levels can be used to design and structure a training program. Extra motivation for training can be created by assessment. During MIS, force feedback is reduced owing to friction in the laparoscopic instruments and within the trocar. The friction characteristics vary largely among instruments and trocars. When force feedback is incorporated into training, it should include the large variation in force feedback properties as well. Training different levels of behavior requires different training methods. Although force feedback is reduced during MIS, it is needed for tissue manipulation, and therefore force application should be trained as well. PMID:17653587

  5. Some challenges in designing a lunar, Martian, or microgravity CELSS.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, F B

    1992-01-01

    The design of a bioregenerative life-support system (a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System or CELSS) for long-duration stays on the moon, Mars, or in a space craft poses formidable problems in engineering and in theory. Technological (hardware) problems include: (1) Creation and control of gas composition and pressure, temperature, light, humidity, and air circulation, especially in microgravity to 1/3 xg and in the vacuum of space. Light (energy demanding), CO2 levels, and the rooting media are special problems for plants. (2) Developing specialized equipment for food preparation. (3) Equipment development for waste recycling. (4) Development of computer systems for environmental monitoring and control as well as several other functions. Problems of theory (software) include: (1) Determining crop species and cultivars (some bred especially for CELSS). (2) Optimum environments and growing and harvesting techniques for each crop. (3) Best and most efficient food-preparation techniques and required equipment. (4) Best and most efficient waste-recycling techniques and equipment. This topic includes questions about the extent of closure, resupply, and waste storage. (5) How to achieve long-term stability. (6) How to avoid catastrophic failures--and how to recover from near-catastrophic failures (for example, plant diseases). Many problems must be solved.

  6. World Development Report 1991: The Challenge of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report attempts to show how government and markets can interact most effectively to promote rapid economic development and benefit all people. The world economy is reviewed and an assessment is made of the impact of external factors on development. Alternative scenarios, optimistic and pessimistic, for the 1990s are considered. Four…

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Albright & Wilson Americas, discovered that tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate, THPS, is an effective, safer biocide for use in industrial water systems.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, used an artificial neural network to discover spinetoram, an improved spinosad biopesticide to replace organophosphates for key pests of fruit trees.

  9. The challenge of designing a database for auditing surgical in-patients.

    PubMed

    Branday, J M; Crandon, I; Carpenter, R; Rhoden, A; Meeks-Aitken, N

    1999-12-01

    Surgical audit is imperative in modern practice, particularly in the developing world where resources are limited and efficient allocation important. The structure, process and outcome of surgical care can be determined for quality assurance or for research. Improved efficiency and reduction of morbidity and mortality are additional goals which may be accomplished. However, computerization, medical staff cooperation and the availability of dedicated staff are among the hurdles which may be encountered. We report the challenge of designing and establishing a database for auditing surgical inpatients in a developing country and the difficulties which were encountered.

  10. [Challenges, knowledge, decisions in the context of sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Benachenhou, A

    1992-01-01

    This work explores challenges to sustainable development, identifies various currents of thought in the social sciences that are of potential relevance in the search for strategies to achieve sustainable development, and offers some reflections on the decision processes involved in selecting development strategies. 4 major challenges to sustainable development are identified. In the 1st place, the fundamental equilibrium of the exosphere is menaced by the expansion of industrial activity, with major ecological problem that of nonrecyclable waste which pollute the ecosystem. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 1 example. The irreversibility of some effects of human activity is becoming clearer with time. A 2nd challenge is the arising from the intrinsic risks of scientific and technological development. The examples of nuclear energy and genetic manipulation demonstrate the dangers and ethical problems of allowing technological progress to occur without adequate societal control. A 3rd challenge is that of mastery of the organization and use of knowledge so that technological progress can be marshalled to reduce poverty and inequality. The 4th challenge is that of demographic growth, which accentuates poverty and inequality and aggravates pressure on resources. 3 recent currents of thought in the social sciences, all stressing interdisciplinarity, may contribute to understanding the long term modifications needed for achieving sustainable development. Among systemic approached, the thermodynamic theory of economic processes attempts to take into account the irreversible character of expenditures of energy and raw materials, while other theories examine the complexity of system interactions and the limitations of a purely quantitative approach. Decision theory may become an essential component of reflection on technological choices because of its demonstration that the criteria of rational choice differ in the cases of risk and of uncertainty

  11. Drug Development and Challenges for Neuromuscular Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    El Mouelhi, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Drug development process faces many challenges, including those encountered in clinical trials for neuromuscular diseases. Drug development is a lengthy and highly costly process. Out of 10 compounds entering first study in man (phase 1), only one compound reaches the market after an average of 14 years with a cost of $2.7 billion. Nevertheless, according to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services, prescription drugs constituted only 9 % of each health care dollar spent in USA in 2013. Examples of challenges encountered in neuromuscular clinical trials include lack of validated patient-reported outcome tools, blinding issues, and the use of placebo in addition to lack of health authority guidance for orphan diseases. Patient enrollment challenge is the leading cause of missed clinical trial deadlines observed in about 80 % of clinical trials, resulting in delayed availability of potentially life-saving therapies. Another specific challenge introduced by recent technology is the use of social media and risk of bias. Sharing personal experiences while in the study could easily introduce bias among patients that would interfere with accurate interpretation of collected data. To minimize this risk, recent neuromuscular studies incorporate as an inclusion criterion the patient's agreement not to share any of study experiences through social media with other patients during the study conduct. Consideration of these challenges will allow timely response to the high unmet medical needs for many neuromuscular diseases.

  12. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  13. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  14. Developing Literacy and Literacy Competence: Challenges for Foreign Language Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi; Kord, Susanne

    This chapter provides a dialogue between two teachers that challenges philosophical and practical divisions both inside and outside the academy regarding the development of literacy and literary competence in foreign language departments. It also describes curricular revisions at their institution that address those divisions. One teacher crafts…

  15. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  16. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  17. Development of a sheep challenge model for Rift Valley fever

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that causes severe epizootic disease in ruminants, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in younger animals. The development of a reliable challenge model is an important prerequisite for evaluation of existing and novel vaccines. A stu...

  18. Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane R.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years provides…

  19. Sickle cell disease: management options and challenges in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Daniel; Akoto, Alex Osei; Ocloo, Delaena; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2013-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In a developing countries like Ghana, new-born screening is now about to be implemented on a national scale. Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), Stroke and hip necrosis. Approaches to the management of these morbidities are far advanced in the developed countries. The differences in setting and resource limitations in developing countries bring challenges that have a major influence in management options in developing countries. Obviously clinicians in developing countries face challenges in managing SCD patients. However understanding the disease, its progression, and instituting the appropriate preventive methods are paramount in its management. Emphasis should be placed on early counselling, new-born screening, anti-microbial prophylaxis, vaccination against infections, and training of healthcare workers, patients and caregivers. These interventions are affordable in developing countries.

  20. High School Engineering and Technology Education Integration through Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This study contextualized the use of the engineering design process by providing descriptions of how each element in a design process was integrated in an eleventh grade industry and engineering systems course. The guiding research question for this inquiry was: How do students engage in the engineering design process in a course where technology…

  1. The Challenges Facing the Implementation of Early Childhood Development and Education Policy in Bungoma County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangila, Violet Muyoka

    2017-01-01

    This paper scrutinises the challenges facing the implementation of Early Childhood Development and Education policy in Bungoma County, Kenya. The study used a mixed research design and study population comprised of the QASOs, the Head teachers, ECDE teachers and the non-teaching staff in respective ECDCs. The sample size of the study comprised of…

  2. Innovating for the developing world: meeting the affordability challenge.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H Benjamin; Ahn, Roy; Price, Daniel D; Burke, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound technologies have gained increasing prominence and accessibility in the developing world as manufacturers focus on this region as an emerging market. More extensive ultrasound use holds promise for addressing the disproportionate morbidity and mortality that continues to plague the developing world, particularly in the area of obstetrics. In this article, we describe the challenge of making ultrasound technologies affordable to health care providers in resource-limited regions vis-à-vis an innovative group of midwives in Nairobi.

  3. Advances and Challenges in Drug Design of PPARδ Ligands.

    PubMed

    Maltarollo, Vinicius Gonçalves; Kronenberger, Thales; Windshügel, Björn; Wrenger, Carsten; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart; Honorio, Kathia Maria

    2017-04-14

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors activated by endogenous fatty acids and prostaglandins that are classified into three types: α, γ and δ, which have different functions and tissue distribution. PPAR modulators have been exploited to the treatment of important metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, which are considered relevant epidemic diseases currently. Along the last decades, several studies have reported structural differences between the three PPAR subtypes associated with the discovery of selective ligands, dual and pan-agonists. Nowadays, there are several approved drugs that activate PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (glitazones), but up to now there is none clinically used drug targeting PPARδ. Additionally, several side-effects associated with the use of PPARα and γ agonists are reported by regulatory agencies, which do not indicate anymore their use as first-line drugs. A significant new market has grown in the last years, focusing on the development of new PPARδ agonists as drug candidates to treat metabolic diseases and, in this sense, this study proposes to review the structural requirements to achieve selective PPARδ activation, as well to discuss the most relevant agonists in clinical trials, providing information on the current phase in the drug discovery and design targeting PPARδ. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Designing Groups to Meet Evolving Challenges in Health Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Hart, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the special issue on groups in health care settings and describes how each contribution addresses challenges and opportunities in the health care field for group work. Fundamental criteria for evaluating groups in such settings are applied to each contribution. Finally, trends and opportunities about the future…

  5. Designing Groups to Meet Evolving Challenges in Health Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Hart, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the special issue on groups in health care settings and describes how each contribution addresses challenges and opportunities in the health care field for group work. Fundamental criteria for evaluating groups in such settings are applied to each contribution. Finally, trends and opportunities about the future…

  6. Cooperation and communication challenges in small-scale eHealth development projects.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lone Stub; Bertelsen, Pernille; Bjørnes, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    In eHealth development there is an increasing focus on user participation inspired by the information systems field of practice and research. There are, however, many other challenges in developing information systems that fit healthcare practices. One of these is the challenge of cooperation and communication in development projects that are initiated and managed by clinicians e.g. cooperating with IT professionals in 'bottom up' health informatics projects that have been initiated and are managed by healthcare professional project managers. The analysis and results are drawn from a qualitative case study on a systems development project that was managed by a local, non-technical, healthcare professional and the complex blend and interactions with the IT professionals in the phases of ideas, design, development, implementation, maintenance and distribution. We analyze the challenges of cooperation and communication using perspectives from information systems research and the concepts of 'language-games' and 'shared design spaces', and thereby exploring the boundaries between the different communication, practice and culture of the IT professionals and the healthcare professionals. There is a need to (a) develop a better understanding of the development process from the point of view of the 'user' and (b) tools for making technical knowledge explicit in the development process. Cooperative and communicative methods are needed that support and develop the shared design spaces between IT professionals and the clinical context in order to strengthen small-scale health information systems projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prodrug design to improve pharmacokinetic and drug delivery properties: challenges to the discovery scientists.

    PubMed

    Jana, S; Mandlekar, S; Marathe, P

    2010-01-01

    The prodrug design is a versatile, powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of parent drug molecules, administration routes, and formulations. Clinically, the majority of prodrugs are used with the aim of enhancing drug permeation by increasing lipophilicity, or by improving aqueous solubility. Prodrug design may improve the bioavailability of parent molecule, and thus can be integrated into the iterative process of lead optimization, rather than employing it as a post-hoc approach. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of advances and progress in the knowledge of current strategic approaches of prodrug design, along with their real-world utility in drug discovery and development. The review covers the type of prodrugs and functional groups that are amenable to prodrug design. Various prodrug approaches for improving oral drug delivery are discussed, with numerous examples of marketed prodrugs, including improved aqueous solubility, improved lipophilicity, transporter-mediated absorption, and prodrug design to achieve site-specific delivery. Tools employed for prodrug screening, and specific challenges in prodrug research and development are also elaborated. This article is intended to encourage discovery scientists to be creative and consider a rationally designed prodrug approach during the lead optimization phase of drug discovery programs, when the structure activity relationship (SAR) for the drug target is incompatible with pharmacokinetic or biopharmaceutical objectives.

  8. Design challenges and coordination issues in hotel projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Melvin L., IV; Marsh, David

    2002-11-01

    The design of a Five Star hotel facility encompasses a myriad of design dilemmas. On the same note, the design of a One Star or Two Star hotel has many dilemmas of its own. The ability of an acoustical consultant, as an integral part of the design team, to recognize the differences between these types of projects can be the difference between a successful hotel project and miserable failure. Different quality hotels require different levels of design criteria. Proper coordination and timing between trades and installations, such as loudspeakers, ceiling coffers, chandeliers, sprinkler heads, and ductwork, is also very important for the success of the overall project. This paper will discuss techniques and methods to produce successful hotel projects, as well as various noise sources throughout these spaces. It will also highlight a number of tips learned through many hotel design experiences.

  9. Academic Preparedness as a Predictor of Achievement in an Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan; Becker, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a student's academic success, measured by grade point average (GPA) in mathematics, science, and communication courses, is correlated with student change in achievement during an engineering design challenge. Engineering design challenges have been implemented and researched in K-16 environments where…

  10. The challenge of inclusive design in the US context.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Valerie; Bonome-Sims, Gabriela; Knecht, Barbara; Ostroff, Elaine; Otitigbe, Jennifer; Parente, Maura; Safdie, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the evolution of thinking and practice of inclusive design in the United States since 1993, the year of the first special edition of Applied Ergonomics on inclusive design. It frames the examination initially in terms of the US social mores that substantially influence behavior and attitudes from a defining individualism to legal mandates for accessibility to the nation's ingrained obsession with youth and delusional attitudes about aging. The authors explore the disparate patterns across the design disciplines and identify promising linkages and patterns that may be harbingers of a more expansive embrace of inclusive design in the years ahead.

  11. Co-design and implementation research: challenges and solutions for ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Jackson, Claire; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-11-16

    Implementation science research, especially when using participatory and co-design approaches, raises unique challenges for research ethics committees. Such challenges may be poorly addressed by approval and governance mechanisms that were developed for more traditional research approaches such as randomised controlled trials. Implementation science commonly involves the partnership of researchers and stakeholders, attempting to understand and encourage uptake of completed or piloted research. A co-creation approach involves collaboration between researchers and end users from the onset, in question framing, research design and delivery, and influencing strategy, with implementation and broader dissemination strategies part of its design from gestation. A defining feature of co-creation is its emergent and adaptive nature, making detailed pre-specification of interventions and outcome measures impossible. This methodology sits oddly with ethics committee protocols that require precise pre-definition of interventions, mode of delivery, outcome measurements, and the role of study participants. But the strict (and, some would say, inflexible) requirements of ethics committees were developed for a purpose - to protect participants from harm and help ensure the rigour and transparency of studies. We propose some guiding principles to help square this circle. First, ethics committees should acknowledge and celebrate the diversity of research approaches, both formally (through training) and informally (by promoting debate and discussion); without active support, their members may not understand or value participatory designs. Second, ground rules should be established for co-design applications (e.g. how to judge when 'consultation' or 'engagement' becomes research) and communicated to committee members and stakeholders. Third, the benefits of power-sharing should be recognised and credit given to measures likely to support this important goal, especially in research with

  12. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  13. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  14. NEXT Lunar Lander Mission - Overview and Challenges of the Lunar Rover Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouis, Elie

    Looking ahead at the 2015-2018 timeframe, the European Space Agency (ESA) has recently started the investigation of the Next Exploration Science and Technology missions (NEXT) to demonstrate a number of key technologies for future programmes such as the Mars Sample Return (MSR). This paper provides the first insights into the mobile rover concept investigated as part of the NEXT Lunar Lander Study. Operating at the South Pole of the Moon, the rover will face a very challenging environment. Subjected to 200-hours long cold lunar nights at -200C for an initial mission duration of 1 year, and a total traverse of 20km, the design and operation of the rover requires careful attention. Its design is initially based on the knowledge developed for the ESA ExoMars mission, but the major differences in the environment and operation of the rover, means that most of the systems need a thorough assessment of their capabilities under Lunar condition and, where required, the development of new solutions. From the locomotion system designed to cope with uncertain lunar terrain, the thermal system dealing with gradients of hundreds of degrees, to the navigation through dark shadows, this paper illustrates some of the challenges future missions will face when targeting location such as the south pole on the Moon, but it will also provide details of the enabling technologies leading to the Mars Sample Return Mission and beyond.

  15. Cassini/Huygens: a challenge in international interface design, integration, and cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Donald H.

    1996-10-01

    The Cassini mission is a joint venture between NASA, European Space Agency (ESA), and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A major interface is between the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) provided Orbiter and the ESA provided Atmospheric Probe. The Orbiter is designed to orbit the planet Saturn, while the Probe will descend into the atmosphere and impact the surface of Titan. After years of study and scientific meetings between NASA, JPL, and ESA, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between NASA and ESA on 17 December 1990. Project teams were formed at JPL and ESA and work began on the interface definition and integration of the Probe onto the Orbiter. Unique challenges were presented due to the fact that this was the first such atmospheric probe designed and developed in Europe, the complicated mechanical and electrical interface between the Probe and the Orbiter, and the nine hour time difference between JPL and ESA. As with the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Orbiter provides an environmentally acceptable vehicle for the Probe during the long cruise phase, a communication link to Earth for periodic Probe checkouts during this cruise phase, a stable and accurately pointed platform for Probe separation, and a relay link to Earth for the actual Probe mission descent into the Titan atmosphere. Management and technical interchange tools were developed to address these challenges. The Probe design and its interface with the Orbiter are the result of this effort.

  16. Support for Assessment Practice: Developing the Assessment Design Decisions Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Margaret; Dawson, Phillip; Boud, David; Bennett, Sue; Hall, Matt; Molloy, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There are many excellent publications outlining features of assessment and feedback design in higher education. However, university educators often find these ideas challenging to realise in practice, as much of the literature focuses on institutional change rather than supporting academics. This paper describes the conceptual development of a…

  17. Participatory Design in Open Education: A Workshop Model for Developing a Pattern Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor, Yishay; Winters, Niall

    2008-01-01

    Technologically enhanced learning environments raise complex challenges for their designers, developers and users. Design patterns and pattern languages have recently emerged as a potential framework for addressing some of these challenges. However, the uptake of design patterns has been slow outside of the computer science community. We argue…

  18. Teacher Challenges to Implement Engineering Design in Secondary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. This article is the third article in a three-part series presenting the results of this study. The first article in the series titled "Examination of Engineering Design Curriculum Content" highlighted the research…

  19. Design and Technology and the Challenge of Refugee Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Susan

    2000-01-01

    A resource designed to introduce design and technology to refugee students for whom English is an additional language uses graphics to help explain tasks. As a standalone resource, it can be used at any time during the year and it can be varied to suit students' abilities. (SK)

  20. Signals, Transducers, and Modulation: A Wireless Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    In this age of cell phones, digital television, and satellite radio, individuals easily forget that information and energy must undergo complex transformations to enable real-time wireless communication. This article describes a practical and proven design activity that enables secondary and post-secondary students to design and test a modulator…

  1. Signals, Transducers, and Modulation: A Wireless Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    In this age of cell phones, digital television, and satellite radio, individuals easily forget that information and energy must undergo complex transformations to enable real-time wireless communication. This article describes a practical and proven design activity that enables secondary and post-secondary students to design and test a modulator…

  2. Float Your Boat: Making Instant Design Challenges Meaningful and Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehrli, Robbie

    2016-01-01

    Engineering design is a core component of technology and engineering education, and although not every student will become an engineer following high school, all students can profit from having engineering design experiences in high school (Apedoe, Reynolds, Ellefson, & Schunn, 2008; Denson & Lammi, 2014; Grubbs & Strimel, 2015;…

  3. Float Your Boat: Making Instant Design Challenges Meaningful and Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehrli, Robbie

    2016-01-01

    Engineering design is a core component of technology and engineering education, and although not every student will become an engineer following high school, all students can profit from having engineering design experiences in high school (Apedoe, Reynolds, Ellefson, & Schunn, 2008; Denson & Lammi, 2014; Grubbs & Strimel, 2015;…

  4. Integrating Engineering Design Challenges into Secondary STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Ronald L.; Strobel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Engineering is being currently taught in the full spectrum of the P-12 system, with an emphasis on design-oriented teaching (Brophy, Klein, Portsmore, & Rogers, 2008). Due to only a small amount of research on the learning of engineering design in elementary and middle school settings, the community of practice lacks the necessary knowledge of the…

  5. Challenges in Designing Student Teaching Evaluations in a Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chulkov, Dmitriy V.; Van Alstine, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an empirical analysis of the effects of changes in the student teaching evaluation (STE) form in a business school. Design/methodology/approach: The authors discuss a case of STE re-design in a business school that focused on improving the STE instrument. They utilize empirical data collected from students…

  6. Challenges in Designing Student Teaching Evaluations in a Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chulkov, Dmitriy V.; Van Alstine, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an empirical analysis of the effects of changes in the student teaching evaluation (STE) form in a business school. Design/methodology/approach: The authors discuss a case of STE re-design in a business school that focused on improving the STE instrument. They utilize empirical data collected from students…

  7. Some challenges with statistical inference in adaptive designs.

    PubMed

    Hung, H M James; Wang, Sue-Jane; Yang, Peiling

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive designs have generated a great deal of attention to clinical trial communities. The literature contains many statistical methods to deal with added statistical uncertainties concerning the adaptations. Increasingly encountered in regulatory applications are adaptive statistical information designs that allow modification of sample size or related statistical information and adaptive selection designs that allow selection of doses or patient populations during the course of a clinical trial. For adaptive statistical information designs, a few statistical testing methods are mathematically equivalent, as a number of articles have stipulated, but arguably there are large differences in their practical ramifications. We pinpoint some undesirable features of these methods in this work. For adaptive selection designs, the selection based on biomarker data for testing the correlated clinical endpoints may increase statistical uncertainty in terms of type I error probability, and most importantly the increased statistical uncertainty may be impossible to assess.

  8. Methods and challenges in quantitative imaging biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Richard G; Burton, Kirsteen R; Yu, John-Paul J; Scalzetti, Ernest M; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Bartholmai, Brian J; Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy; Lenchik, Leon; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2015-01-01

    Academic radiology is poised to play an important role in the development and implementation of quantitative imaging (QI) tools. This article, drafted by the Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Quantitative Imaging Task Force, reviews current issues in QI biomarker research. We discuss motivations for advancing QI, define key terms, present a framework for QI biomarker research, and outline challenges in QI biomarker development. We conclude by describing where QI research and development is currently taking place and discussing the paramount role of academic radiology in this rapidly evolving field. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design requirements, challenges, and solutions for high-temperature falling particle receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford

    2016-05-01

    Falling particle receivers (FPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. Previous analysis for FPR systems include computational fluid dynamics (CFD), analytical evaluations, and experiments to determine the feasibility and achievability of this CSP technology. Sandia National Laboratories has fabricated and tested a 1 MWth FPR that consists of a cavity receiver, top hopper, bottom hopper, support structure, particle elevator, flux target, and instrumentation. Design requirements and inherent challenges were addressed to enable continuous operation of flowing particles under high-flux conditions and particle temperatures over 700 °C. Challenges include being able to withstand extremely high temperatures (up to 1200°C on the walls of the cavity), maintaining particle flow and conveyance, measuring temperatures and mass flow rates, filtering out debris, protecting components from direct flux spillage, and measuring irradiance in the cavity. Each of the major components of the system is separated into design requirements, associated challenges and corresponding solutions. The intent is to provide industry and researchers with lessons learned to avoid pitfalls and technical problems encountered during the development of Sandia's prototype particle receiver system at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF).

  10. What values in design? The challenge of incorporating moral values into design.

    PubMed

    Manders-Huits, Noëmi

    2011-06-01

    Recently, there is increased attention to the integration of moral values into the conception, design, and development of emerging IT. The most reviewed approach for this purpose in ethics and technology so far is Value-Sensitive Design (VSD). This article considers VSD as the prime candidate for implementing normative considerations into design. Its methodology is considered from a conceptual, analytical, normative perspective. The focus here is on the suitability of VSD for integrating moral values into the design of technologies in a way that joins in with an analytical perspective on ethics of technology. Despite its promising character, it turns out that VSD falls short in several respects: (1) VSD does not have a clear methodology for identifying stakeholders, (2) the integration of empirical methods with conceptual research within the methodology of VSD is obscure, (3) VSD runs the risk of committing the naturalistic fallacy when using empirical knowledge for implementing values in design, (4) the concept of values, as well as their realization, is left undetermined and (5) VSD lacks a complimentary or explicit ethical theory for dealing with value trade-offs. For the normative evaluation of a technology, I claim that an explicit and justified ethical starting point or principle is required. Moreover, explicit attention should be given to the value aims and assumptions of a particular design. The criteria of adequacy for such an approach or methodology follow from the evaluation of VSD as the prime candidate for implementing moral values in design.

  11. Developing Empathy towards Older Adults in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altay, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    In design disciplines, an affective understanding of users' everyday lives can increase designer sensitivity and awareness, leading to higher-quality design outcomes. Developing students' empathic understanding within design education is required to accomplish this goal. This article discusses learning strategies that enhance students' empathic…

  12. Curriculum Design and Neuropsychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research in the neurosciences is supplying much useful information for teachers and curriculum planners. Particularly promising areas of study are brain growth, periodization, and cerebral lateralization and dominance. More interactions between researchers in learning psychology, curriculum design, and the neurosciences is necessary. (FG)

  13. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  14. Review: New Vaccine Against Tuberculosis: Current Developments and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global health threat. BCG was developed as an attenuated live vaccine for tuberculosis control nearly a century ago. Despite being the most widely used vaccine in human history, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: its poor efficacy against adult pulmonary TB and its disconcerting safety in immunocompromised individuals. A safer and more effective TB vaccine is urgently needed. This review article discusses current strategies to develop the next generation of TB vaccines to replace BCG. While some progresses have been made in the past decade, significant challenges lie ahead.

  15. HIV envelope: challenges and opportunities for development of entry inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The HIV envelope proteins gp120 and gp41 play critical roles in HIV entry and thus are of extreme interest for the development of novel therapeutics. Study by diverse methods, including structural biology and mutagenesis, has resulted in a detailed model for envelope-mediated entry, which consists of multiple conformations, each a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In this review we discuss the challenges, strategies and progress to date for developing novel entry inhibitors directed at disrupting HIV gp120 and gp41 function. PMID:21377881

  16. Aerospace Payload Design and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-04

    2.6 VIPER ... ....................................... 3 2.7 LANGMUIR PROBE ................................. 4 2.8 POSITIONING TABLE...the design of the Langmuir probe and Sensor Potential (SENPOT) circuits. The actual Langmuir probe , flight qualified electronic components and...MUNDIS. II MUNDIS, III MUNDIS (662, 667, 672) - July 1990 - May 1992 2.28.1 Configuration/Mission High Temperature Flowing Afterglow 2.28.2 Task

  17. Designing Professional Development That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Beatrice F.; Desimone, Laura; Porter, Andrew C.; Garet, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    By studying survey data from 1,000 teachers participating in a Title II workshop, researchers identified three structural features (form, duration, and collective participation) that set a proper context for professional development. Three core features of professional-development learning experience include content focus, active learning, and…

  18. Designing Professional Development That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Beatrice F.; Desimone, Laura; Porter, Andrew C.; Garet, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    By studying survey data from 1,000 teachers participating in a Title II workshop, researchers identified three structural features (form, duration, and collective participation) that set a proper context for professional development. Three core features of professional-development learning experience include content focus, active learning, and…

  19. Issues and Challenges in the Design of Culturally Adapted Evidence-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe González; Barrera, Manuel; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines issues and challenges in the design of cultural adaptations that are developed from an original evidence-based intervention (EBI). Recently emerging multistep frameworks or stage models are examined, as these can systematically guide the development of culturally adapted EBIs. Critical issues are also presented regarding whether and how such adaptations may be conducted, and empirical evidence is presented regarding the effectiveness of such cultural adaptations. Recent evidence suggests that these cultural adaptations are effective when applied with certain subcultural groups, although they are less effective when applied with other subcultural groups. Generally, current evidence regarding the effectiveness of cultural adaptations is promising but mixed. Further research is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of culturally adapted EBIs. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented to guide the development of a new generation of culturally adapted EBIs. PMID:20192800

  20. Challenges and Progress in Aerodynamic Design of Hybrid Wingbody Aircraft with Embedded Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, May-Fun

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the contributions to high-fidelity capabilities for analysis and design of hybrid wingbody (HWB) configurations considered by NASA. Specifically, we focus on the embedded propulsion concepts of the N2-B and N3-X configurations, some of the future concepts seriously investigated by the NASA Fixed Wing Project. The objective is to develop the capability to compute the integrated propulsion and airframe system realistically in geometry and accurately in flow physics. In particular, the propulsion system (including the entire engine core-compressor, combustor, and turbine stages) is vastly more difficult and costly to simulate with the same level of fidelity as the external aerodynamics. Hence, we develop an accurate modeling approach that retains important physical parameters relevant to aerodynamic and propulsion analyses for evaluating the HWB concepts. Having the analytical capabilities at our disposal, concerns and issues that were considered to be critical for the HWB concepts can now be assessed reliably and systematically; assumptions invoked by previous studies were found to have serious consequences in our study. During this task, we establish firmly that aerodynamic analysis of a HWB concept without including installation of the propulsion system is far from realistic and can be misleading. Challenges in delivering the often-cited advantages that belong to the HWB are the focus of our study and are emphasized in this report. We have attempted to address these challenges and have had successes, which are summarized here. Some can have broad implications, such as the concept of flow conditioning for reducing flow distortion and the modeling of fan stages. The design optimization capability developed for improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline HWB configurations is general and can be employed for other applications. Further improvement of the N3-X configuration can be expected by expanding the design space. Finally, the support of

  1. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  2. Challenge Students to Design an Energy-Efficient Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity that gives students a practical understanding of how much energy the average home consumes and wastes, and shows how the construction technologies used in home design affect overall energy usage. In this activity, students will outline the cost of a home's electrical system, give a breakdown of how much power the…

  3. Concept Learning by Direct Current Design Challenges in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Breukelen, Dave H. J.; de Vries, Marc J.; Schure, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training. LBD uses the…

  4. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  5. Challenges of Designing the Next Generation of America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Daniel L.

    1998-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design at the University of Virginia, with associates representing architecture, business, education, engineering, sociology, and technology, wants to redesign both schools and schooling. The goal is to raise standards without destroying hope, promote responsibility without sacrificing safety, expand…

  6. Two Paper Airplane Design Challenges: Customizing for Different Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Meyer, Allison Antink

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of scientific inquiry into college classrooms has steadily risen as faculty work to move away from exclusively didactic methods. One type of inquiry structure, the design task, produces a product rather than simply a conclusion. This offers students a context to apply their understanding of content in a tangible way that has…

  7. Challenge Students to Design an Energy-Efficient Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity that gives students a practical understanding of how much energy the average home consumes and wastes, and shows how the construction technologies used in home design affect overall energy usage. In this activity, students will outline the cost of a home's electrical system, give a breakdown of how much power the…

  8. Design Development of the Apollo Lunar Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The lunar module autopilot is a first generation digital control system design. The two torque sources available for the control function of the descent stage configuration consist of 16 reaction jets and a slow, gimbaled, throttlable engine. Design history, the design requirements, criteria, constraints, and general design philosophy of the control system development are reviewed. Comparative flight test results derived from design testing are presented.

  9. Two Paper Airplane Design Challenges: Customizing for Different Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Meyer, Allison Antink

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of scientific inquiry into college classrooms has steadily risen as faculty work to move away from exclusively didactic methods. One type of inquiry structure, the design task, produces a product rather than simply a conclusion. This offers students a context to apply their understanding of content in a tangible way that has…

  10. Poverty in Eritrea: challenges and implications for development.

    PubMed

    Rena, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Poverty, one of the world's most serious problems, is particularly severe in Africa. Eritrea is a 16-year-old nation that gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993. The country's economy was doing relatively well between 1993 and 1997. Eritrea was then exposed to numerous challenges such as drought, famines and recurrent war. As a result, poverty has become more rampant in a country where over 66 per cent of people live below the poverty line. Some families live on remittances. The government has taken some poverty alleviation measures. However, it has not mitigated poverty due to a lack of resources and a poorly implemented poverty alleviation programme. This article attempts to explore the incidence of poverty. It also provides details of poverty surveys that have been conducted since independence. It discusses various poverty challenges and provides some policy implications for development.

  11. A unique peptide deformylase platform to rationally design and challenge novel active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fieulaine, Sonia; Alves de Sousa, Rodolphe; Maigre, Laure; Hamiche, Karim; Alimi, Mickael; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Taleb, Abbass; Denis, Alexis; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Artaud, Isabelle; Meinnel, Thierry; Giglione, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is considered an excellent target to develop antibiotics. We have performed an extensive characterization of a new PDF from the pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae, showing properties similar to other known PDFs. S. agalactiae PDF could be used as PDF prototype as it allowed to get complete sets of 3-dimensional, biophysical and kinetic data with virtually any inhibitor compound. Structure-activity relationship analysis with this single reference system allowed us to reveal distinct binding modes for different PDF inhibitors and the key role of a hydrogen bond in potentiating the interaction between ligand and target. We propose this protein as an irreplaceable tool, allowing easy and relevant fine comparisons between series, to design, challenge and validate novel series of inhibitors. As proof-of-concept, we report here the design and synthesis of effective specific bacterial PDF inhibitors of an oxadiazole series with potent antimicrobial activity against a multidrug resistant clinical isolate. PMID:27762275

  12. Design, Development and Analysis of Centrifugal Blower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloni, Beena Devendra; Channiwala, Salim Abbasbhai; Harsha, Sugnanam Naga Ramannath

    2017-05-01

    Centrifugal blowers are widely used turbomachines equipment in all kinds of modern and domestic life. Manufacturing of blowers seldom follow an optimum design solution for individual blower. Although centrifugal blowers are developed as highly efficient machines, design is still based on various empirical and semi empirical rules proposed by fan designers. There are different methodologies used to design the impeller and other components of blowers. The objective of present study is to study explicit design methodologies and tracing unified design to get better design point performance. This unified design methodology is based more on fundamental concepts and minimum assumptions. Parametric study is also carried out for the effect of design parameters on pressure ratio and their interdependency in the design. The code is developed based on a unified design using C programming. Numerical analysis is carried out to check the flow parameters inside the blower. Two blowers, one based on the present design and other on industrial design, are developed with a standard OEM blower manufacturing unit. A comparison of both designs is done based on experimental performance analysis as per IS standard. The results suggest better efficiency and more flow rate for the same pressure head in case of the present design compared with industrial one.

  13. Challenges and solutions for clinical development of new antibacterial agents: results of a survey among pharmaceutical industry professionals.

    PubMed

    Bettiol, Esther; Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Schmitt, Nicola; Harbarth, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of antibacterial medicines in the pipeline remains low, we anonymously surveyed pharmaceutical industry professionals on challenges and solutions for clinical development of these agents. Challenges were reported primarily as financial and regulatory. For multidrug-resistant organisms, there are needs for rapid diagnostic tests, new regulatory guidance, and adaptation of endpoints/trial designs. Regulators and public/private initiatives are addressing these challenges to help ensure that proposed solutions have the support of all involved stakeholders.

  14. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-02-25

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research.

  15. Drug discovery and development for ageing: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Evans, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of late-life dysfunction are the goals of most geriatricians and should be the primary target for discovery and development of new medicines for elderly people. However, the development of new medicines for elderly people will face a number of challenges that are not seen for other patient populations. The burdens of multiple chronic diseases, low physiological reserve and polypharmacy must result in new clinical trials in frail older people with a high expectation of safety and efficacy. The etiology of functional limitations in elderly people is complex and often ascribed to conditions that escape the traditional definition of disease. While our society urgently needs new treatments that can reduce the burden of physical decline among older persons, guidelines on how these treatments should be developed and tested are currently lacking, in part because a consensus has not yet been achieved regarding the identifiable target diseases. New potential indications included sarcopaenia, anorexia of ageing, frailty, mobility disability and reduced functional capacity secondary to hospitalization. The challenges to conducting clinical trials in the elderly should not offset the great opportunity for the development of new medicines to prevent or reverse age-associated changes in body composition and poor functional capacity in the elderly. PMID:21115538

  16. [Current situation and challenges in companion diagnostics development].

    PubMed

    Nishida, Miwa

    2014-12-01

    The personalized health care, it is defined as a medical care which provide the optimal therapy for each individual in consideration of a patient's individual difference, such as a genetic background and a physiological state. A companion diagnosis to stratify a patient appropriately is essential for the spread of personalized health care, and it is important that a companion diagnostic reagent used for the companion diagnosis is properly developed and clinically applied. However, as for the development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceuticals that require it, there are still many challenges such as its business model of cooperation of diagnostics companies and pharmaceutical companies, also, the regulations related to companion diagnostics. Furthermore, even in clinical practice, there are many issues such as the way of reimbursement for companion diagnostics and also the handling of laboratory developed test (LDT) as companion diagnostics. These are issues that should continue to discuss with industry, government and academia. In this report, from the point of view of a diagnostics company, we discuss the various challenges in clinical applications from the development of companion diagnostics.

  17. The battery designer's challenge — satisfying the ever-increasing demands of vehicle electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, John R.; Johnson, Richard T.

    The automotive battery designer of the 1990s and beyond will encounter an unprecedented array of complex challenges imposed by consumer desires, governmental mandates, and vehicle manufacturers' specifications. It is predicted that enhanced feature content in the areas of safety, convenience, performance, and guidance will result in a three- to six-fold increase in electrical power consumption in vehicles by the year 2000. In the absence of major break-throughs in vehicle electrical systems, these new loads will significantly modify the duty cycle to which the battery is subjected. The micro- and macro-environment in which the battery must survive will significantly impact the product's design and material specifications. Severe weight and size limits will be imposed on batteries in an attempt to meet mandated Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements and additional pre-start electrical loads may be introduced to reduce objectionable emissions. Finally, quality and reliability levels of vehicles and their component parts must undergo continuous improvement. In order to respond to these diverse and sometimes contradictory demands, the battery designer must participate as an integral part of the vehicle electrical system development team. Design considerations for the future must include elevated and multiple voltages, multiple batteries per vehicle designed for specific functions, and further improvements in power and energy density, as well as cycle-life.

  18. Development of Cryogenic Engine for GSLV MkIII: Technological Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, RS; Jayan, N.; Bijukumar, KS; Jayaprakash, J.; Narayanan, V.; Ayyappan, G.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogenic engine capable of delivering 200 kN thrust is being developed for the first time in the country by ISRO for powering the upper stage of GSLV Mk-III, the next generation launch vehicle of ISRO capable of launching four tonne class satellites to Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit(GTO). Development of this engine started a decade ago when various sub-systems development and testing were taken up. Starting with injector element development, the design, realization and testing of the major sub-systems viz the gas generator, turbopumps, start-up system and thrust chamber have been successfully done in a phased manner before conducting a series of developmental tests in the integrated engine mode. Apart from the major sub-systems, many critical components like the igniter, control components etc were independently developed and qualified. During the development program many challenges were faced in almost all areas of propulsion engineering. Systems engineering of the engine was another key challenge in the realization. This paper gives an outlook on various technological challenges faced in the key areas related to the engine development, insight to the solutions and measures taken to overcome the challenges.

  19. Communication challenges in system development: involvement of system developers in small-scale IT projects.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lone Stub; Bjoernes, Charlotte D; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    A well-known challenge in system development is the aspect of user participation. In this paper we shift perspective from how to involve users in system development to how project managers with a clinical background, but without technical system knowledge, can involve system developers in IT projects. Using data from the development of an online patient book (an ICT application for clinical practice), we analyze challenges using the concept of language-games. We conclude that further research and development of participatory and communicative methods to involve system developers in IT projects, based in a clinical context, is needed.

  20. Diabetes mellitus: Exploring the challenges in the drug development process.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Julius A; Patnaik, Ashis

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and continues to be a major burden on society globally. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated the global burden of diabetes to be 366 million in 2011 and predicted that by 2030 this will have risen to 552 million. In spite of newer and effective treatment options, newer delivery and diagnostic devices, stricter glycaemic targets, better treatment guidelines and increased awareness of the disease, baseline glycosylated hemoglobin remains relatively high in subjects diagnosed and treated with type 2 diabetes. The search continues for an ideal anti diabetic drug that will not only normalize blood glucose but also provide beta cell rest and possibly restoration of beta cell function. The development of anti diabetic drugs is riddled with fundamental challenges. The concept of beta cell rest and restoration is yet to be completely understood and proven on a long term. The ideal therapeutic approach to treating type 2 diabetes is not yet determined. Our understanding of drug safety in early clinical development is primarily limited to "Type A" reactions. Until marketing authorization most drugs are approved based on the principle of confirming non-inferiority with an existing gold standard or determining superiority to a placebo. The need to obtain robust pharmaco-economic data prior to marketing authorization in order to determine appropriate pricing of a new drug remains a major challenge. The present review outlines some of the challenges in drug development of anti-diabetic drugs citing examples of pulmonary insulin, insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones and the GLP1 analogues.

  1. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  2. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    PubMed Central

    Shabaruddin, Fatiha H; Fleeman, Nigel D; Payne, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response) or safety (avoidance of adverse events). The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are interlinked: the need to adapt available evaluation methods and identifying who is responsible for generating evidence for these technologies. PMID:26309416

  3. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments.

    PubMed

    Shabaruddin, Fatiha H; Fleeman, Nigel D; Payne, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response) or safety (avoidance of adverse events). The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are interlinked: the need to adapt available evaluation methods and identifying who is responsible for generating evidence for these technologies.

  4. The art of spacecraft design: A multidisciplinary challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdi, F.; Ide, H.; Levine, M.; Austel, L.

    1989-01-01

    Actual design turn-around time has become shorter due to the use of optimization techniques which have been introduced into the design process. It seems that what, how and when to use these optimization techniques may be the key factor for future aircraft engineering operations. Another important aspect of this technique is that complex physical phenomena can be modeled by a simple mathematical equation. The new powerful multilevel methodology reduces time-consuming analysis significantly while maintaining the coupling effects. This simultaneous analysis method stems from the implicit function theorem and system sensitivity derivatives of input variables. Use of the Taylor's series expansion and finite differencing technique for sensitivity derivatives in each discipline makes this approach unique for screening dominant variables from nondominant variables. In this study, the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic and sensitivity derivative/optimization techniques are applied for a simple cone-type forebody of a high-speed vehicle configuration to understand basic aerodynamic/structure interaction in a hypersonic flight condition.

  5. Challenges in New Service Development and Value Creation through Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, Bo; Gustafsson, Anders; Enquist, Bo

    Many companies are at a crossroad where they try to' stay competitive by creating customer value through service development. This combination produces the prerequisites that are necessary for favorable customer experiences. Our focus is not on issues directly related to the new service development process as such, which has often been the case in the service literature (Gupta and Wilemon 1990; Martin and Home 1993, Martin and Home 1995; Edvardsson et al., 1995, Edvardsson et al., 2000; John and Storey 1998; Scheuing and Johnson 1989; Kelly and Storey 2000). First we focus on challenges in the new business landscape where service competition, IT, and value creation through service, put pressure on companies and markets to develop service offerings preferredby demanding customers. Secondly, we focus on service value creation through favorable customer experiences.

  6. Dengue vaccines: recent developments, ongoing challenges and current candidates

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Monica A.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Edelman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dengue is among the most prevalent and important arbovirus diseases of humans. In order to effectively control this rapidly spreading disease, control of the vector mosquito and a safe and efficacious vaccine are critical. Despite considerable efforts, the development of a successful vaccine has remained elusive. Multiple factors have complicated the creation of a successful vaccine, not the least of which are the complex, immune-mediated responses against four antigenically distinct serotypes necessitating a tetravalent vaccine providing long lasting protective immunity. Despite the multiple impediments, there are currently many promising vaccine candidates in pre-clinical and clinical development. Here we review the recent advances in dengue virus vaccine development and briefly discuss the challenges associated with the use of these vaccines as a public health tool. PMID:23984962

  7. Challenges in developing nutrient guidelines for companion animals.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, Richard F; Erdman, John W; Hill, Richard C; Lewis, Austin J; Whittemore, Colin T

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present review is to highlight some of the challenges and issues in developing nutritional guidelines for companion animals, and to provide some insights that may influence their future direction. For this purpose, we have chosen to provide a brief historical review of the development of dog and cat nutrient guidelines, and an analysis of current recommendations and of key institutions and bodies (notably the National Research Council) that are influential in defining nutrient guidelines for companion animals. In addition, we have also included a review of current approaches for defining nutritional guidelines for humans and farm animal livestock, as they provide differing perspectives and insights that may be instructive for the future development of nutritional guidelines for companion animals.

  8. Challenges in the development of therapeutics for narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Black, Sarah Wurts; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2015-12-23

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that afflicts 1 in 2000 individuals and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy-a sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by positive emotions. Features of narcolepsy include dysregulation of arousal state boundaries as well as autonomic and metabolic disturbances. Disruption of neurotransmission through the hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) system, usually by degeneration of the HCRT-producing neurons in the posterior hypothalamus, results in narcolepsy. The cause of Hcrt neurodegeneration is unknown but thought to be related to autoimmune processes. Current treatments for narcolepsy are symptomatic, including wake-promoting therapeutics that increase presynaptic dopamine release and anticataplectic agents that activate monoaminergic neurotransmission. Sodium oxybate is the only medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that alleviates both sleep/wake disturbances and cataplexy. Development of therapeutics for narcolepsy has been challenged by historical misunderstanding of the disease, its many disparate symptoms and, until recently, its unknown etiology. Animal models have been essential to elucidating the neuropathology underlying narcolepsy. These models have also aided understanding the neurobiology of the Hcrt system, mechanisms of cataplexy, and the pharmacology of narcolepsy medications. Transgenic rodent models will be critical in the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of narcolepsy, particularly efforts directed to overcome challenges in the development of hypocretin replacement therapy.

  9. Current developments and challenges in the assessment of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Tania M; Dollfus, Sonia; Lyne, John

    2016-03-05

    Reliable and valid assessment of negative symptoms is crucial to further develop etiological models and improve treatments. Our understanding of the concept of negative symptoms has undergone significant advances since the introduction of quantitative assessments of negative symptoms in the 1980s. These include the conceptualization of cognitive dysfunction as separate from negative symptoms and the distinction of two main negative symptom factors (avolition and diminished expression). In this review we provide an overview of existing negative symptom scales, focusing on both observer-rated and self-rated measurement of negative symptoms. We also distinguish between measures that assess negative symptoms as part of a broader assessment of schizophrenia symptoms, those specifically developed for negative symptoms and those that assess specific domains of negative symptoms within and beyond the context of psychotic disorders. We critically discuss strengths and limitations of these measures in the light of some existing challenges, i.e. observed and subjective symptom experiences, the challenge of distinguishing between primary and secondary negative symptoms, and the overlap between negative symptoms and related factors (e.g. personality traits and premorbid functioning). This review is aimed to inform the ongoing development of negative symptom scales.

  10. The surgical challenges of disorders of sex development (DSD).

    PubMed

    Gorduza, Daniela; Vidal, Isabelle; Birraux, Jacques; Gay, Claire-Lise; Demède, Delphine; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Mouriquand, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) remain a fascinating challenge for the paediatricians, endocrinologists, biologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, radiologists, surgeons and for the whole society. This article aims at highlighting the current controversies and questions met with genital reconstruction in children born with abnormal genitalia. The main current techniques of masculinization and feminization are reviewed with their progress and their problems. The tools of decision used to assign a gender in some newborns with complex DSD are discussed showing that at the dawn of the third millenium, one still does not know why a boy is a boy, and a girl is a girl.

  11. [Fertility treatment in Denmark--development and challenges].

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Humaidan, Peter; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2012-10-08

    In Denmark, a total of 31,000 assisted reproductive technology (ART) and intrauterine insemination treatments yearly results in the delivery of around 6,300 children, which represents 9% of the Danish birth cohort. The delivery rate following ART (in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmatic sperm injection, frozen embryo replacement and oocyte donation) has been stable around 20% per cycle initiated during the last decade, despite the transfer of fewer embryos. The future challenges are the increasing age of women seeking fertility treatment, the development of biomarkers of embryonic implantation potential as well as the improvement of embryo culture, and embryo freezing techniques.

  12. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  13. Understanding the challenges of protein flexibility in drug design.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Dinler A; Devaurs, Didier; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2015-12-01

    Protein-ligand interactions play key roles in various metabolic pathways, and the proteins involved in these interactions represent major targets for drug discovery. Molecular docking is widely used to predict the structure of protein-ligand complexes, and protein flexibility stands out as one of the most important and challenging issues for binding mode prediction. Various docking methods accounting for protein flexibility have been proposed, tackling problems of ever-increasing dimensionality. This paper presents an overview of conformational sampling methods treating target flexibility during molecular docking. Special attention is given to approaches considering full protein flexibility. Contrary to what is frequently done, this review does not rely on classical biomolecular recognition models to classify existing docking methods. Instead, it applies algorithmic considerations, focusing on the level of flexibility accounted for. This review also discusses the diversity of docking applications, from virtual screening (VS) of small drug-like compounds to geometry prediction (GP) of protein-peptide complexes. Considering the diversity of docking methods presented here, deciding which one is the best at treating protein flexibility depends on the system under study and the research application. In VS experiments, ensemble docking can be used to implicitly account for large-scale conformational changes, and selective docking can additionally consider local binding-site rearrangements. In other cases, on-the-fly exploration of the whole protein-ligand complex might be needed for accurate GP of the binding mode. Among other things, future methods are expected to provide alternative binding modes, which will better reflect the dynamic nature of protein-ligand interactions.

  14. 32 CFR 1802.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges. 1802.24 Section 1802.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  15. 32 CFR 1802.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges. 1802.24 Section 1802.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  16. 32 CFR 1802.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges. 1802.24 Section 1802.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  17. 32 CFR 1802.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges. 1802.24 Section 1802.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  18. Adaptation to study design challenges in rural health disparities community research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intervention research in rural health disparities communities presents challenges for study design, implementation, and evaluation, thus threatening scientific rigor, reducing response rates, and confounding study results. A multisite nutrition intervention was conducted in the rural Lower Mississip...

  19. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  20. Challenges in the development of the shuttle extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmann, H. J.; Mcbarron, J. W., II

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) has required significant technology advances in the design of the astronaut life support system and space-suit assembly. The life support system and space-suit assemblies are integrated into a single system and optimized for the primary function of supporting astronaut extravehicular operations. Rather than accommodating a limited, male-only astronaut population, the EMU must satisfy size requirements for both males and females with a minimum of sized parts. In addition, the Shuttle EMU has been designed to implement Space Shuttle Program philosophy of long operating life and mission reuse capability to minimize program lifetime cost. The advancement in life support system and space-suit technology achieved by the development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) is illustrated by comparison with the requirements for and the design features of the Apollo EMU.

  1. Underwater lidar system: design challenges and application in pollution detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pradip; Sankolli, Swati; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-05-01

    The present remote sensing techniques have imposed limitations in the applications of LIDAR Technology. The fundamental sampling inadequacy of the remote sensing data obtained from satellites is that they cannot resolve in the third spatial dimension, the vertical. This limits our possibilities of measuring any vertical variability in the water column. Also the interaction between the physical and biological process in the oceans and their effects at subsequent depths cannot be modeled with present techniques. The idea behind this paper is to introduce underwater LIDAR measurement system by using a LIDAR mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The paper introduces working principles and design parameters for the LIDAR mounted AUV (AUV-LIDAR). Among several applications the papers discusses the possible use and advantages of AUV-LIDAR in water pollution detection through profiling of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in water bodies.

  2. The Challenges in Developing VET Competencies in E-Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John

    A formative evaluation was begun of an innovative project funded by the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) to develop competencies and qualifications in e-commerce. The formative evaluation was designed to focus on inputs, processes, and interim outputs, identifying both good practice and areas for improvement. Findings to date…

  3. Biomass harvesters: a new challenge for equipment designers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnall, L.O.

    1985-09-01

    The major economic and technical impediment to commercial production of methane from biomass has been the system for harvesting the plants and preparing them for digestion. Several harvesters are described, some of which are in early development and some ready for commercialization.

  4. Shared and Personal Learning Spaces: Challenges for Pedagogical Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkinen, Paivi; Hamalainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    The development of new tools for collaboration, such as social software, plays a crucial role in leisure time and work activities. The aim of this article is to summarize the research in the field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). This is done particularly from the perspective of the blurred line between individual (personal)…

  5. Shared and Personal Learning Spaces: Challenges for Pedagogical Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkinen, Paivi; Hamalainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    The development of new tools for collaboration, such as social software, plays a crucial role in leisure time and work activities. The aim of this article is to summarize the research in the field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). This is done particularly from the perspective of the blurred line between individual (personal)…

  6. Innovative approaches to clinical development and trial design.

    PubMed

    Orloff, John J; Stanski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is increasingly risky, costly and at times inefficient, which has led to a decline in industry productivity. Despite the increased investment in R&D by the industry, the number of new molecular entities achieving marketing authorization is not increasing. Novel approaches to clinical development and trial design could have a key role in overcoming some of these challenges by improving efficiency and reducing attrition rates. The effectiveness of clinical development can be improved by adopting a more integrated model that increases flexibility and maximizes the use of accumulated knowledge. Central to this model of drug development are novel tools, including modelling and simulation, Bayesian methodologies, and adaptive designs, such as seamless adaptive designs and sample-size re-estimation methods. Applications of these methodologies to early- and late-stage drug development are described with some specific examples, along with advantages, challenges, and barriers to implementation. Because they are so flexible, these new trial designs require significant statistical analyses, simulations and logistical considerations to verify their operating characteristics, and therefore tend to require more time for the planning and protocol development phase. Greater awareness of the distinct advantages of innovative designs by regulators and sponsors are crucial to increasing the adoption of these modern tools.

  7. Development and Design of Sludge Freezing Beds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Mathematical models for predicting the design depth were developed; values for the input parameters to the models were obtained from the literature or...those of ice. An analysis of the freezing and thawing models rqvvals that the design of a freezing bed will depend on the duration and intensity of the...also conducted with these sludges in the unfrozen state. Mathematical models were developed to predict the design depth based on the natural freezing

  8. Challenges in inhaled product development and opportunities for open innovation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Ben; Asgharian, Bahman; Dailey, Lea Ann; Ferguson, Douglas; Gerde, Per; Gumbleton, Mark; Gustavsson, Lena; Hardy, Colin; Hassall, David; Jones, Rhys; Lock, Ruth; Maas, Janet; McGovern, Tim; Pitcairn, Gary R; Somers, Graham; Wolff, Ron K

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry, safety and the efficacy of drugs in the lungs are critical factors in the development of inhaled medicines. This article considers the challenges in each of these areas with reference to current industry practices for developing inhaled products, and suggests collaborative scientific approaches to address these challenges. The portfolio of molecules requiring delivery by inhalation has expanded rapidly to include novel drugs for lung disease, combination therapies, biopharmaceuticals and candidates for systemic delivery via the lung. For these drugs to be developed as inhaled medicines, a better understanding of their fate in the lungs and how this might be modified is required. Harmonized approaches based on 'best practice' are advocated for dosimetry and safety studies; this would provide coherent data to help product developers and regulatory agencies differentiate new inhaled drug products. To date, there are limited reports describing full temporal relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) measurements. A better understanding of pulmonary PK and PK/PD relationships would help mitigate the risk of not engaging successfully or persistently with the drug target as well as identifying the potential for drug accumulation in the lung or excessive systemic exposure. Recommendations are made for (i) better industry-academia-regulatory co-operation, (ii) sharing of pre-competitive data, and (iii) open innovation through collaborative research in key topics such as lung deposition, drug solubility and dissolution in lung fluid, adaptive responses in safety studies, biomarker development and validation, the role of transporters in pulmonary drug disposition, target localisation within the lung and the determinants of local efficacy following inhaled drug administration.

  9. High Temperature Ferroelectrics for Actuators: Recent Developments and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Kowalski, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A variety of piezoelectric applications have been driving the research in development of new high temperature ferroelectrics; ranging from broader markets such as fuel and gas modulation and deep well oil drilling to very specific applications such as thermoacoustic engines and ultrasonic drilling on the surface of Venus. The focus has been mostly on increasing the Curie temperature. However, greater challenges for high temperature ferroelectrics limit the operating temperature to levels much below the Curie temperature. These include enhanced loss tangent and dc conductivity at high fields as well as depoling due to thermally activated domain rotation. The initial work by Eitel et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 40 [10, Part 1] 59996002 (2001)] increased interest in investigation of Bismuth containing perovskites in solid solution with lead titanate. Issues that arise vary from solubility limits to increased tetragonality; the former one prohibits processing of morphotropic phase boundary, while the latter one impedes thorough poling of the polycrystalline ceramics. This talk will summarize recent advances in development of high temperature piezoelectrics and provide information about challenges encountered as well as the approaches taken to improve the high temperature behavior of ferroelectrics with a focus on applications that employ the converse piezoelectric effect.

  10. Planning for sustainability in China's urban development: status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China.

  11. Challenges for drug discovery and development in China.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Lee, Vivian W Y

    2017-01-01

    The drug development industry is restructuring worldwide in terms of the research and development process. As with pharmaceuticals in the west, China faces major challenges for drug discovery and development. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss anti-cancer, anti-allergy, anti-infectious, and proprietary Chinese Medicines (pCM) for various chronic diseases (such as the allergic diseases: eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis), which remain the contemporary therapeutic strategies that are being explored and developed. Drug transporters, disease specific biomarkers, pharmacophores, bioactive natural products and pharmacogenetics are some aspects of research technologies. Proprietary Chinese medicine remains one of the most popular strategies. There is however the issue of good research documentation of efficacy versus adverse effects. China has a complex healthcare system involving a large patient pool. Expert opinion: Various factors can impact drug development in China including the concurrent use of both western and Chinese medicines, pharmacogenetic variances, lack of multidisciplinary team impact on disease management and drug safety. China may adopt the current development of big data analysis in other countries such as UK and US to build and centralize a nationwide database for better monitoring and clinical evaluation to provide more efficient care at a lower cost.

  12. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. PMID:26881271

  13. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-08-24

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases).

  14. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  15. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases). PMID:27563912

  16. Challenges in the development, licensure, and use of combination vaccines.

    PubMed

    Postema, A S; Myers, M G; Breiman, R F

    2001-12-15

    Before substantial public health benefits associated with use of combination vaccines can be realized, a variety of challenges must be addressed. In February 2000, the National Vaccine Program Office convened the International Symposium on Combination Vaccines to explore solutions for barriers to development, licensure, and use of safe and effective combination vaccines. The symposium focused on the following questions: (1) What immunologic standards should be used to evaluate new combination vaccines? (2) How should correlates of protection be developed, and how should the data they provide be interpreted? (3) What sample size is adequate for prelicensure safety trials of combination vaccines? (4) Should standards for evaluation of combination vaccines containing licensed components be different from standards for evaluation of combinations containing unlicensed components? (5) How can the "great expectations" of postlicensure surveillance be realized? Available data relevant to these issues were presented, providing a foundation for furthering the science of combination vaccines.

  17. Towards the development of a reflective radiographer: challenges and constraints

    PubMed Central

    Baird, MA

    2008-01-01

    Currently there is overwhelming support from the health professions for universities to devise curricular approaches that lead to the development of undergraduate reflective skills, and over time, reflective practice. However, in the case of radiography, irrespective of the degree to which radiographers might engage in reflective practice they constantly struggle to shed the perception they are little more than technical operatives. The four-year Bachelor of Radiography and Medical Imaging was introduced by Monash University in 1998 with an overt commitment to the development of a reflective radiographer. Findings from student and supervisor surveys generally support the program and its aims. However, as the findings and student feedback will attest, many challenges and constraints continue to face educators who seek to situate their curriculum within the reflective practice paradigm. PMID:21614320

  18. Entering the 21st century: the challenges for development

    PubMed Central

    Wolfensohn, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    By many people, the 20th century will be remembered as an era of great achievement in human endeavour, and of enormous economic growth and prosperity. Achievements in medical research, from eradicating infectious diseases to laser surgery; in engineering, from the transistor to space exploration; and in economic development have all contributed to greater well being in the world at the end of the 20th century. Among the challenges to development identified by the World Bank in the coming decades will be managing the twin processes of globalization and localization, as well as post-conflict reconstruction. These will form the backdrop of the Bank's main focus of creating a world free of poverty.

  19. Design challenges in nanoparticle-based platforms: Implications for targeted drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Douglas Gurnett

    Characterization and control of heterogeneous distributions of nanoparticle-ligand components are major design challenges for nanoparticle-based platforms. This dissertation begins with an examination of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-based targeted delivery platform. A folic acid targeted modular platform was developed to target human epithelial cancer cells. Although active targeting was observed in vitro, active targeting was not found in vivo using a mouse tumor model. A major flaw of this platform design was that it did not provide for characterization or control of the component distribution. Motivated by the problems experienced with the modular design, the actual composition of nanoparticle-ligand distributions were examined using a model dendrimer-ligand system. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) resolved the distribution of components in samples with mean ligand/dendrimer ratios ranging from 0.4 to 13. A peak fitting analysis enabled the quantification of the component distribution. Quantified distributions were found to be significantly more heterogeneous than commonly expected and standard analytical parameters, namely the mean ligand/nanoparticle ratio, failed to adequately represent the component heterogeneity. The distribution of components was also found to be sensitive to particle modifications that preceded the ligand conjugation. With the knowledge gained from this detailed distribution analysis, a new platform design was developed to provide a system with dramatically improved control over the number of components and with improved batch reproducibility. Using semi-preparative HPLC, individual dendrimer-ligand components were isolated. The isolated dendrimer with precise numbers of ligands were characterized by NMR and analytical HPLC. In total, nine different dendrimer-ligand components were obtained with degrees of purity ≥80%. This system has the potential to serve as a platform to which a precise number of functional molecules

  20. BRRISON Mission Design and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Terence; Kremic, T.; Adams, D.; Arnold, S.; Cheng, A.

    2013-10-01

    In September 2012, the comet C/2012 S1 “ISON” was discovered by Russian amateur astronomers. A team consisting of personnel from Glenn Research Center (GRC) Space Science Project Office, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (APL), and the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) was established to identify the science return on a high altitude balloon mission to observe ISON, and develop a plan based on re-using most of the hardware from the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory (STO). The team determined that measuring the comet’s H20/CO2 ratio with an infra-red Camera would be a high-value and unique scientific contribution of a balloon borne payload. The BRRISON scientific payload consists of a heritage 80-cm telescope, a near-ultraviolet visible optical bench and instruments, and an infrared optical bench and instruments. The telescope, which has flown on prior balloon missions, consists of a light-weighted f/1.5 hyperboloid 80 cm diameter primary and a secondary mirror to provide an f/17 beam. The near ultra-violet and visible cameras and associated instruments are being integrated to an optics bench by SwRI. These instruments consist of a fine steering mirror (FSM) and a CMOS high rate camera to provide sub-arcsec pointing, and a CCD camera for low noise science operation, and a dichroic for splitting the f/17 beam between the two cameras. The infrared optics bench and instruments consist of an optics bench, re-imaging optics and cold stop, filter wheel and filters, and an infrared camera that is sensitive over the required wavelengths of 2.5 - 5 microns. The IR optics bench and instruments will be enclosed in an aluminum housing, which will be cooled to reduce the thermal background contribution to the IR signal. The BRRISON gondola is composed of a metal frame that carries and protects the science payload and subsystems and is the structural interface with the balloon flight train. They are composed of a Command & Control system, a Pointing

  1. Browser App Approach: Can It Be an Answer to the Challenges in Cross-Platform App Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Minh; Ghimire, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: As smartphones proliferate, many different platforms begin to emerge. The challenge to developers as well as IS [Information Systems] educators and students is how to learn the skills to design and develop apps to run on cross-platforms. Background: For developers, the purpose of this paper is to describe an alternative to the complex…

  2. Challenges in Developing XML-Based Learning Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auksztol, Jerzy; Przechlewski, Tomasz

    There is no doubt that modular design has many advantages, including the most important ones: reusability and cost-effectiveness. In an e-leaming community parlance the modules are determined as Learning Objects (LOs) [11]. An increasing amount of learning objects have been created and published online, several standards has been established and multiple repositories developed for them. For example Cisco Systems, Inc., "recognizes a need to move from creating and delivering large inflexible training courses, to database-driven objects that can be reused, searched, and modified independent of their delivery media" [6]. The learning object paradigm of education resources authoring is promoted mainly to reduce the cost of the content development and to increase its quality. A frequently used metaphor of Learning Objects paradigm compares them to Lego Logs or objects in Object-Oriented program design [25]. However a metaphor is only an abstract idea, which should be turned to something more concrete to be usable. The problem is that many papers on LOs end up solely in metaphors. In our opinion Lego or OO metaphors are gross oversimplificatation of the problem as there is much easier to develop Lego set or design objects in OO program than develop truly interoperable, context-free learning content1.

  3. Inclusive indoor play: an approach to developing inclusive design guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mullick, Abir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Inclusive Indoor Play study was to learn about indoor play and develop design guidelines to inform design of inclusive playthings. Children with and without disabilities, parents, teachers, therapists, daycare owners and designers. Focus group interviews; Children's drawings; and Indoor play simulation. The major findings suggest that: 1) play should encourage a child's creativity and develop imagination, 2) inclusive play concept must be employed to design playthings for children with wide age group, 3) inclusive designs improve usability, broaden market appeal, and increase user base, and 4) customizable playthings help children with and without disabilities personalize play situations. Three play principles provide new directions to designing inclusive playthings: 1) offer many play opportunities, 2) provide many modes of play, and 3) include many levels of play challenges. Inclusive Design Guidelines were developed from the findings of three studies: Focus group interviews, Children's drawings, and Play simulation. The guidelines served as useful tools for inclusive design and they were employed to design of six indoor playthings. The playthings were instrumental in promoting social inclusion and they met the criteria of the Inclusive Indoor Play project.

  4. Design and Discovery of New Antibacterial Agents: Advances, Perspectives, Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jampilek, Josef

    2017-09-18

    Emerging resistance of bacterial pathogens to clinically used drugs, including not only first-choice but also second- and third-choice drugs, is alarming, but since the 1990s only a modest number of new, first in class, drugs for systemic administration have been marketed for the treatment of bacterial infections. This article provides a review of recently reported new antibacterial chemotherapeutics approved for clinical practice, antibacterial chemotherapeutics in clinical trials and antibacterial agents under development. They include new antibacterial compounds of used drug classes and new antibacterial agents with a novel mode of action. In addition, particular attention is given to agents decreasing bacterial resistance, i.e. to compounds that do not have significant intrinsic bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity, but in combination with antibacterial drugs are able to restore the effect of these drugs or demonstrate synergistic antibacterial properties together with the drugs. This review is specifically focused on small molecules rather than on peptides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Development of a sheep challenge model for Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Faburay, Bonto; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Liu, Qinfang; Davis, A Sally; Shivanna, Vinay; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Morozov, Igor; Ruder, Mark; Drolet, Barbara; Scott McVey, D; Ma, Wenjun; Wilson, William; Richt, Juergen A

    2016-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that causes severe epizootics in ruminants, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in younger animals. The development of a reliable challenge model is an important prerequisite for evaluation of existing and novel vaccines. A study aimed at comparing the pathogenesis of RVF virus infection in US sheep using two genetically different wild type strains of the virus (SA01-1322 and Kenya-128B-15) was performed. A group of sheep was inoculated with both strains and all infected sheep manifested early-onset viremia accompanied by a transient increase in temperatures. The Kenya-128B-15 strain manifested higher virulence compared to SA01-1322 by inducing more severe liver damage, and longer and higher viremia. Genome sequence analysis revealed sequence variations between the two isolates, which potentially could account for the observed phenotypic differences. We conclude that Kenya-128B-15 sheep infection represents a good and virulent challenge model for RVF.

  6. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  7. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  8. The challenge of developing structural materials for fusion power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Everett E.

    1998-10-01

    Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. Central in the goal of designing a safe, environmentally benign, and economically competitive fusion power system is the requirement for high performance, low activation materials. The general performance requirements for such materials have been defined and it is clear that materials developed for other applications (e.g. aerospace, nuclear fission, fossil energy systems) will not fully meet the needs of fusion. Advanced materials, with composition and microstructure tailored to yield properties that will satisfy the specific requirements of fusion must be developed. The international fusion programs have made significant progress towards this goal. Compositional requirements for low activation lead to a focus of development efforts on silicon carbide composites, vanadium alloys, and advanced martensitic steels as candidate structural material systems. Control of impurities will be critically important in actually achieving low activation but this appears possible. Neutron irradiation produces significant changes in the mechanical and physical properties of each of these material systems raising feasibility questions and design limitations. A focus of the research and development effort is to understand these effects, and through the development of specific compositions and microstructures, produce materials with improved and adequate performance. Other areas of research that are synergistic with the development of radiation resistant materials include fabrication, joining technology, chemical compatibility with coolants and tritium breeders and specific questions relating to the unique characteristics of a given material (e.g. coatings to reduce gas permeation in SiC composites) or design concept (e.g. electrical insulator coatings for liquid metal concepts).

  9. Outstanding challenges limiting the development of climate services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Soares, Marta Bruno; Liggins, Felicity

    2016-04-01

    Climate services attempt to make the available (or forthcoming) climate knowledge more usable by decision and policy makers in the development of a climate smart society. Since the launch of the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 there has been an exponential increase in investment in the development and delivery of climate services, leading to an array of projects and initiatives across Europe. However, to date little attention has been given to understanding the different ways in which climate services are defined, implemented, and evaluated in Europe. In addition, other aspects such as how to pursue the necessary processes of co-production, which business models to apply, and the implications for the careers of scientists and others involved in the development of climate services are also crucial elements that need to be further examined and discussed. Such aspects are critical to the future development of climate services as they have the potential to significantly constrain the growth of climate services in Europe. Starting from a set of questions that have arisen within some of the most prominent climate services projects and initiatives in Europe, our paper highlights and expands on the outstanding challenges that need to be resolved by both the scientific community and the funders in order to ensure climate services can prosper and grow in Europe.

  10. Organ donation in China: current status, challenges, and future development.

    PubMed

    Sui, Weiguo; Zheng, Can; Yang, Ming; Dai, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Development of effective immunosuppressive agents and advances in surgical practice are the main reasons for the success of transplantation in China. In some key areas such as liver, lung, and kidney transplants, Chinese transplant success rates are similar to the rates in developed countries. Organ donation also has developed rapidly. However, China is facing a serious organ shortage that restricts clinical treatment and medical research. This shortage is due to imperfect laws and improper management of organ donation, as well as Chinese traditional ethics. Finding an efficient way to make the number of donated organs keep pace with the need for organ transplants and to optimize allocation of organ resources is a long-term and arduous task. In some ways, Chinese organ donation nowadays is constrained more by legal issues than by medical issues. The current status of and challenges facing organ donation in China are analyzed with respect to ethics, management, laws, and policy, and the future development of transplantation in China is discussed.

  11. Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Gerard J.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Thomas G.; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The “Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy” session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials. PMID:25148426

  12. Health and sustainable development: can we rise to the challenge?

    PubMed

    von Schirnding, Yasmin

    2002-08-24

    The forthcoming World Summit on Sustainable Development is an unprecedented opportunity to place health higher on the environmental and development agenda. The world's leaders will be grappling with some of the major challenges of our times--how to eradicate poverty and meet the world's development needs in a way that does not destroy the environment. Topping the agenda are water, energy, health, agriculture, and biodiversity. Improvement of access of the world's poor people to clean water, sanitation, and safe sources of household energy would have a huge effect on the main killers of young children--pneumonia and diarrhoea. Similarly, improved environmental management could substantially affect many infectious disease outcomes. At the same time, the growing epidemic of non-communicable diseases could be reversed if people's consumption patterns and lifestyles could be put on a more sustainable and healthy footing. A shared health, environmental, and development agenda could address the large share of the burden of disease that is environmentally related, and vice versa. The health sector increasingly needs to work in partnership with others rather than work alone. New tools are needed to ensure that intersectoral action becomes embedded in the way that the health sector does business. Improving coordination might be one of the most important ways in which we can help put the planet back on a healthy and sustainable path.

  13. Development of Stable Influenza Vaccine Powder Formulations: Challenges and Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Amorij, J-P.; Huckriede, A.; Wilschut, J.; Frijlink, H. W.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought into the dry state using suitable excipients, stabilizers and drying processes. The resulting stable influenza vaccine powder is independent of cold-chain facilities. This can be attractive for the integration of the vaccine logistics with general drug distribution in Western as well as developing countries. In addition, a stockpile of stable vaccine formulations of potential vaccines against pandemic viruses can provide an immediate availability and simple distribution of vaccine in a pandemic outbreak. Finally, in the development of new needle-free dosage forms, dry and stable influenza vaccine powder formulations can facilitate new or improved targeting strategies for the vaccine compound. This review represents the current status of dry stable inactivated influenza vaccine development. Attention is given to the different influenza vaccine types (i.e. whole inactivated virus, split, subunit or virosomal vaccine), the rationale and need for stabilized influenza vaccines, drying methods by which influenza vaccines can be stabilized (i.e. lyophilization, spray drying, spray-freeze drying, vacuum drying or supercritical fluid drying), the current status of dry influenza vaccine development and the challenges for ultimate market introduction of a stable and effective dry-powder influenza vaccine. PMID:18338241

  14. Challenges and future in vaccines, drug development, and immunomodulatory therapy.

    PubMed

    Kling, Heather M; Nau, Gerard J; Ross, Ted M; Evans, Thomas G; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M; Flynn, JoAnne L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The "Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy" session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials.

  15. Challenges in the research and development of new human vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, T; Barral-Netto, M

    2013-02-01

    The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, "isolate, inactivate, and inject" the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion.

  16. Energy for sustainable development: Key issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2007-07-01

    Energy generation and use are strongly linked to all elements of sustainable development such as economic, social, and environmental. The history of human development rests on the availability and use of energy, the transformation from the early use of fire and animal power that improved lives, to the present world with use of electricity and clean fuels for a multitude of purposes. Energy is the neglected issue of the development debate. The lack of access to reliable and clean energy supplies is a major barrier to improving human well-being around the globe. There are an estimated 1.6 billion people living in the rural areas of developing countries who lack access to electricity, and so dependence on fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels produces large amounts of CO{sub 2}, an important greenhouse gas. In response to increasing concern about the effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on global climate, international action has been agreed to reduce these emissions. On the other hand, renewable energy is the great, barely tapped solution to the two great challenges of the coming century such as poverty and global warming. Not only can renewable energy provide a clean, flexible power source for homes, schools and hospitals, at the micro-to-medium scale it has huge potential to create meaningful and useful jobs.

  17. Challenges in Implementing Design-Led Technologies in Small Manufacturing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Huw; Dorrington, Peter; Lewis, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines some of the challenges of implementing design-led technologies, such as computer-aided design (CAD), in the context of small manufacturing companies. The research is based on university-company collaborations in the UK using the Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) model, and the paper adopts a case-study approach based on…

  18. Challenges in Implementing Design-Led Technologies in Small Manufacturing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Huw; Dorrington, Peter; Lewis, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines some of the challenges of implementing design-led technologies, such as computer-aided design (CAD), in the context of small manufacturing companies. The research is based on university-company collaborations in the UK using the Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) model, and the paper adopts a case-study approach based on…

  19. Commentary: Pediatric eHealth Interventions: Common Challenges During Development, Implementation, and Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Ric G.; Connelly, Mark A.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Ritterband, Lee M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of common challenges that pediatric eHealth researchers may encounter when planning, developing, testing, and disseminating eHealth interventions along with proposed solutions for addressing these challenges. Methods The article draws on the existing eHealth literature and the authors’ collective experience in pediatric eHealth research. Results and conclusions The challenges associated with eHealth interventions and their proposed solutions are multifaceted and cut across a number of areas from eHealth program development through dissemination. Collaboration with a range of individuals (e.g., multidisciplinary colleagues, commercial entities, primary stakeholders) is the key to eHealth intervention success. To ensure adequate resources for design, development, and planning for sustainability, a number of public and private sources of funding are available. A study design that addresses ethical concerns and security issues is critical to ensure scientific integrity and intervention dissemination. Table I summarizes key issues to consider during eHealth intervention development, testing, and dissemination. PMID:24816766

  20. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  1. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  2. Nano-formulations of drugs: Recent developments, impact and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, Jaison; Chan, Yen San; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed.

  3. Complex Challenges in the Less-Developed World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    The developing world faces special challenges in a changing climate. The immediate impacts of possible increased precipitation, more frequent and severe hazard events and sea-level rise are compounded by lack of resources and, often, rapidly growing populations. We examine the concept that the society that learns to deal with hazards in the current climate will be best placed to deal with possibly more frequent and more intense hazards in the future. We use as an example the conundrum facing Bangladesh where global sea-level rise is exaggerated by delta subsidence of river sediment. Sedimentation is expected to increase with increased river flow. We explore how authorities may deal with these multifaceted threats and how they need to carefully thread a strategy that leads to solutions and not exaggerations of the problem.

  4. Epilogue: regional development of travel medicine--the Saudi challenge.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Cunningham, Gwen

    2003-02-01

    To outline a plan for the expansion of travel medicine programmes and discipline in the mid eastern region, a panel of travel medicine experts convened at the First International Conference on Travel Medicine in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to present and discuss the risks, prevention strategies, and treatment methods for the myriad of travel-related health issues. During some formal and informal discussions, suggestions were put forth and strategies outlined on how to expand programmes for travel medicine and promote its discipline in the region. Expanding and/or developing programmes of any nature is not without its challenges. In this light, the cooperation and commitment of the appropriate government sectors and significant others must be established to ensure success.

  5. Functional imaging and the cerebellum: recent developments and challenges. Editorial.

    PubMed

    Habas, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Recent neuroimaging developments allow a better in vivo characterization of the structural and functional connectivity of the human cerebellum. Ultrahigh fields, which considerably increase spatial resolution, enable to visualize deep cerebellar nuclei and cerebello-cortical sublayers. Tractography reconstructs afferent and efferent pathway of the cerebellum. Resting-state functional connectivity individualizes the prewired, parallel close-looped sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective networks passing through the cerebellum. These results are un agreement with activation maps obtained during stimulation functional neuroimaging or inferred from neurological deficits due to cerebellar lesions. Therefore, neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that cerebellum constitutes a general modulator involved in optimizing mental performance and computing internal models. However, the great challenges will remain to unravel: (1) the functional role of red and bulbar olivary nuclei, (2) the information processing in the cerebellar microcircuitry, and (3) the abstract computation performed by the cerebellum and shared by sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective domains.

  6. Parkinson's disease--challenges in new drug development.

    PubMed

    Babić, Tomislav; Mahović, Darija

    2008-12-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Treatment aims in IPD include the provision of symptomatic relief reduction of functional disability, halting or slowing of the neurodegenerative process, and the prevention of long-term complications by proper initiation of therapy. At present, pharmacotherapeutic strategies allow the amelioration of motor symptoms of IPD only, whereas non-motor manifestations are not helped by dopamine replacement strategies. In addition, levodopa-induced fluctuation and dyskinesia are still challenging, particularly in long-term treatment. Despite advances in pharmacotherapy that have improved quality of life for these patients, the mortality rate remains largely unchanged. Sustained interest in IPD will hopefully allow increased funding of research to develop new and better treatments.

  7. Design and development of ceramic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtman, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the AGT 100 turbine components in structural ceramic materials is described. Development is defined as the complete and iterative cycle from design, analysis, test, and design refinement culminating in successful demonstration of the design requirements. The components are analyzed by a linear elastic probabilistic approach, which involves finite element (three- and/or two-dimensional) simulation of the component combined with a Weibull characterization of the brittle ceramic material strength distribution to calculate a probability of survival for the component in the operating environment. Component test failure investigation has resulted in design modifications, and an improvement in component reliability has been demonstrated. Engine testing (over 570 h to date) continues to assess design/development of structural ceramic components.

  8. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  9. Hearing assistive technologies in developing countries: background, achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Bradley

    2014-09-01

    The burden of hearing impairment and disability is substantial in the developing world. This review outlines the associated need for amplification devices in low and medium income countries and some of the initiatives that have been taken to improve access to such devices, particularly hearing aids. The main observed barriers to access are listed and possible ways to improve access are considered. Prevalence estimates for disabling hearing impairment are reviewed and a number of national and international examples of initiatives to facilitate use of hearing assistive devices in low and medium income countries are provided. Technologies that are potentially appropriate for hearing instruments in developing countries are suggested, as well as fitting programs that are more likely to be maintained over the long term. Challenges to successful hearing instrument fitting in low and medium income countries are many. However, some programs point the way to improved access to such devices. Successful hearing aid fitting programs in developing countries have typically combined appropriate technology with a sustainable local support base. With a rising middle class in many developing countries, advances in technology, and ongoing training programs for those involved in amplification fitting, hearing device usage rates may eventually reach parity with those in developed economies. The historical development of affordable hearing device fitting provision in low and middle income countries is outlined. Three key barriers to widespread access to hearing device provision in many low and middle income countries (LMICs) are identified: lack of trained personnel, the high cost of many existing devices marketed in LMICs and limited public awareness of the benefits of hearing assistive technologies. Examples of programs that have sought to overcome these barriers in LMICs are given and may influence the ways in which future hearing health care is provided.

  10. Ariane 5 - Design principles and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergott, R.

    1990-03-01

    The missions, design principles, main design features, and development status of the Ariane 5 are discussed. The special arrangements made for the launch of commercial payloads and for the Hermes launch are pointed out. The present status of the launch vehicle system, cryotechnic stage, solid propellant booster, upper stage, and vehicle equipment bay are described.

  11. How to Develop an Engineering Design Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dankenbring, Chelsey; Capobianco, Brenda M.; Eichinger, David

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of engineering and the engineering design process, and describe the steps they took to develop a fifth grade-level, standards-based engineering design task titled "Getting the Dirt on Decomposition." Their main goal was to focus more on modeling the discrete steps they took to create and…

  12. Teaching Design Patterns through Computer Game Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestwicki, Paul; Sun, Fu-Shing

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach for teaching design patterns that emphasizes object-orientation and patterns integration. The context of computer game development is used to engage and motivate students, and it is additionally rich with design patterns. A case study is presented based on "EEClone," an arcade-style computer game implemented in Java. Our…

  13. Instructional Design Applications to Nursing Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deere, Terrie A.; Hymel, Glenn M.

    In response to an existing need in the nursing education literature, this paper suggests a comprehensive strategy for applying instructional design procedures to the staff development of in-hospital nursing personnel. Although instructional design themes are present in the nursing education literature, each entry can be characterized as focusing…

  14. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  15. How to Develop an Engineering Design Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dankenbring, Chelsey; Capobianco, Brenda M.; Eichinger, David

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of engineering and the engineering design process, and describe the steps they took to develop a fifth grade-level, standards-based engineering design task titled "Getting the Dirt on Decomposition." Their main goal was to focus more on modeling the discrete steps they took to create and…

  16. Active Learning through Toy Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…

  17. The challenge of developing ethical guidelines for a research infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS RI) is to enable research to understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets and perturbations. The ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and GHG emissions. Technological developments and implementations, related to GHGs, will be promoted by the linking of research, education and innovation. In order to provide this data ICOS RI is a distributed research infrastructure. The backbones of ICOS RI are the national measurement stations such as ICOS atmosphere, ecosystem and ocean stations. ICOS Central Facilities are the European level ICOS RI Centres, which have the specific tasks in collecting and processing the data and samples received from the national measurement networks. During the establishment of ICOS RI ethical guidelines were developed. These guidelines describe principles of ethics in the research activities that should be applied within ICOS RI. They should be acknowledged and followed by all researchers affiliated to ICOS RI and should be supported by all participating institutions. The presentation describes (1) the general challenge to develop ethical guidelines in a complex international infrastructure and (2) gives an overview about the content that includes different kinds of conflicts of interests, data ethics and social responsibility.

  18. Design and development of diborane shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of a 200 pound container for the shipment of liquid diborane are reported. A record of the correspondence with the DOT to obtain a permit for liquid diborane shipment is presented.

  19. Lifelong Learning in the Global Knowledge Economy: Challenges for Developing Countries. Directions in Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    This report is an attempt to layout an analytical framework for understanding the challenges of developing a lifelong learning system in developing countries. Chapter 1, "The Knowledge Economy and the Changing Needs of the Labor Market" focuses on the role of education and training in helping build an educated and skilled populace to…

  20. Development of NASA's Sample Cartridge Assembly: Summary of GEDS Design, Development Testing, and Thermal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Brian; Hernandez, Deborah; Hornsby, Linda; Brown, Maria; Horton-Mullins, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Outline: Background of ISS (International Space Station) Material Science Research Rack; NASA SCA (Sample Cartridge Assembly) Design; GEDS (Gravitational Effects in Distortion in Sintering) Experiment Ampoule Design; Development Testing Summary; Thermal Modeling and Analysis. Summary: GEDS design development challenging (GEDS Ampoule design developed through MUGS (Microgravity) testing; Short duration transient sample processing; Unable to measure sample temperatures); MUGS Development testing used to gather data (Actual LGF (Low Gradient Furnace)-like furnace response; Provided sample for sintering evaluation); Transient thermal model integral to successful GEDS experiment (Development testing provided furnace response; PI (Performance Indicator) evaluation of sintering anchored model evaluation of processing durations; Thermal transient model used to determine flight SCA sample processing profiles).