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Sample records for design challenge development

  1. Constellation Program Design Challenges as Opportunities for Educational Outreach and Workforce Development for Senior Design Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC) and the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) both have programs that present design challenges for university senior design classes that offer great opportunities for educational outreach and workforce development. These design challenges have been identified by NASA engineers and researchers as real design problems faced by the Constellation Program in its exploration missions and architecture. Student teams formed in their senior design class select and then work on a design challenge for one or two semesters. The senior design class follows the requirements set by their university, but it must also comply with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in order to meet the class academic requirements. Based on a one year fellowship at a TSGC university under the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) and several years of experience, results and metrics are presented on the NASA Design Challenge Program.

  2. Design and Development of the Blackbird: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The Lockheed Blackbirds hold a unique place in the development of aeronautics. In their day, the A-12, YF-12, M-21, D-21, and SR-71 variants outperformed all other jet airplanes in terms of altitude and speed. Now retired, they remain the only production aircraft capable of sustained Mach 3 cruise and operational altitudes above 80,000 feet. In this paper the author describes the design evolution of the Blackbird from Lockheed's early Archangel studies for the Central Intelligence Agency through Senior Crown, production of the Air Force's SR-71. He describes the construction and materials challenges faced by Lockheed, the Blackbird's performance characteristics and capabilities, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's role in using the aircraft as a flying laboratory to collect data on materials, structures, loads, heating, aerodynamics, and performance for high-speed aircraft.

  3. iPad Learning Ecosystem: Developing Challenge-Based Learning Using Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Catalina; Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking,…

  4. DICE Mission Design, Development, and Implementation: Success and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, E.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Crowley, G.; Barjatya, A.; Petersen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Funded by the NSF CubeSat and NASA ELaNa programs, the Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment (DICE) mission consists of two 1.5U CubeSats which were launched into an eccentric low Earth orbit on October 28, 2011. Each identical spacecraft carries two Langmuir probes to measure ionospheric in-situ plasma densities, electric field probes to measure in-situ DC and AC electric fields, and a magnetometer to measure in-situ DC and AC magnetic fields. Given the tight integration of these multiple sensors with the CubeSat platforms, each of the DICE spacecraft is effectively a "sensor-sat" capable of comprehensive ionospheric diagnostics. Over time, the sensor-sats will separate relative to each other due to differences in the ejection velocity and enable accurate identification of geospace storm-time features, such as the geomagnetic Storm Enhanced Density (SED) bulge and plume. The use of two identical sensor-sats permits the de-convolution of spatial and temporal ambiguities in the observations of the ionosphere from a moving platform. In addition to demonstrating nanosat constellation science, the DICE mission downlink communications system is operating at 3 Mbit/s. To our knowledge, this transmission rate is a factor of 100 or more greater than previous CubeSat missions to date. This paper will focus on the DICE mission design, implementation, and on-orbit operations successes as well as the challenges faced in implementing a high-return science mission with limited resources. Specifically, it will focus on the lessons learned in integrating, calibrating, and managing a small constellation of sensor-sats for global science measurements.

  5. Designing photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy: strategies, challenges and promising developments.

    PubMed

    Garland, Martin J; Cassidy, Corona M; Woolfson, David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2009-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) are techniques that combine the effects of visible light irradiation with subsequent biochemical events that arise from the presence of a photosensitizing drug (possessing no dark toxicity) to cause destruction of selected cells. Despite its still widespread clinical use, Photofrin(®) has several drawbacks that limit its general clinical use. Consequently, there has been extensive research into the design of improved alternative photosensitizers aimed at overcoming these drawbacks. While there are many review articles on the subject of PDT and PACT, these have focused on the photosensitizers that have been used clinically, with little emphasis placed on how the chemical aspects of the molecule can affect their efficacy as PDT agents. Indeed, many of the PDT/PACT agents used clinically may not even be the most appropriate within a given class. As such, this review aims to provide a better understanding of the factors that have been investigated, while aiming at improving the efficacy of a molecule intended to be used as a photosensitizer. Recent publications, spanning the last 5 years, concerning the design, synthesis and clinical usage of photosensitizers for application in PDT and PACT are reviewed, including 5-aminolevulinic acid, porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins, texaphyrins, phthalocyanines and porphycenes. It has been shown that there are many important considerations when designing a potential PDT/PACT agent, including the influence of added groups on the lipophilicity of the molecule, the positioning and nature of these added groups within the molecule, the presence of a central metal ion and the number of charges that the molecule possesses. The extensive ongoing research within the field has led to the identification of a number of potential lead molecules for application in PDT/PACT. The development of the second-generation photosensitizers, possessing shorter periods of

  6. Elementary Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    How many of our students come to the classroom with little background knowledge about the world around them and how things work? To help students develop conceptual understanding and explore the design process, the author brought the NASA "Engineering Design Challenges" program to his school district, redeveloped for elementary students. In this…

  7. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  8. Design and Development of Virtual Reality: Analysis of Challenges Faced by Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…

  9. Curriculum Design Practices of a Vocational Community College in a Developing Context: Challenges and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albashiry, Nabeel M.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2015-01-01

    Aligning vocational curricula with the labor market needs is a common reported challenge in developing countries. Little is known, however, about how vocational community colleges in such contexts regularly review and redesign their curricula to ensure the quality and relevance of their programs. From a curriculum design (CD) perspective, this…

  10. The Backpack Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Something as simple as carrying books to school can be an interesting design challenge for students. It's an old problem that gets reinvented from time to time. In this article, the author discusses a backpack design challenge in which teachers work with students to design another way to carry books to school. The challenge started by trying to…

  11. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  12. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  13. NASA Exploration Design Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

  14. Designing and Developing Game-Like Learning Experience in Virtual Worlds: Challenges and Design Decisions of Novice Instructional Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Turkan Karakus; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Many virtual worlds have been adopted for implementation within educational settings because they are potentially useful for building effective learning environments. Since the flexibility of virtual worlds challenges to obtain effective and efficient educational outcomes, the design of such platforms need more attention. In the present study, the…

  15. The aerodynamic challenges of the design and development of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. C.; Underwood, J. M.; Hillje, E. R.; Whitnah, A. M.; Romere, P. O.; Gamble, J. D.; Roberts, B. B.; Ware, G. M.; Scallion, W. I.; Spencer, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The major aerodynamic design challenge at the beginning of the United States Space Transportation System (STS) research and development phase was to design a vehicle that would fly as a spacecraft during early entry and as an aircraft during the final phase of entry. The design was further complicated because the envisioned vehicle was statically unstable during a portion of the aircraft mode of operation. The second challenge was the development of preflight aerodynamic predictions with an accuracy consistent with conducting a manned flight on the initial orbital flight. A brief history of the early contractual studies is presented highlighting the technical results and management decisions influencing the aerodynamic challenges. The configuration evolution and the development of preflight aerodynamic predictions will be reviewed. The results from the first four test flights shows excellent agreement with the preflight aerodynamic predictions over the majority of the flight regimes. The only regimes showing significant disagreement is confined primarily to early entry, where prediction of the basic vehicle trim and the influence of the reaction control system jets on the flow field were found to be deficient. Postflight results are analyzed to explain these prediction deficiencies.

  16. 2002 Controls Design Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.; Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    This document is intended to provide the specifications and requirements for a flight control system design challenge. The response to the challenge will involve documenting whether the particular design has met the stated requirements through analysis and computer simulation. The response should be written in the general format of a technical publication with corresponding length limits, e.g., an approximate maximum length of 45 units, with each full-size figure and double-spaced typewritten page constituting one unit.

  17. Rooftop Garden Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…

  18. Design, Development and Test Challenges: Separation Mechanisms for the Orion Pad Abort-1 Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load

  19. Blogging at University as a Case Study in Instructional Design: Challenges and Suggestions towards Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muwanga-Zake, J. W. F.; Parkes, M.; Gregory, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potentials of ICT such as blogs seem to be obvious, universities find challenges in using them pedagogically. For example, there is dissonance between blogging and pedagogy, or rather a gap between rhetoric about blog potential and blog practice, which has prompted this investigation and professional development in the use of blogs at…

  20. The Challenge of Being an Instructional Designer for New Media Development: A View from the Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Gibby, Scott; Quiros, Ondrea; Demps, Elaine

    The rapid changes in the field of technology are redefining the process of developing technology-enhanced educational materials as well as the roles of developers involved in the process.The purpose of this study was to learn from practitioners the roles and responsibilities of an instructional designer in developing new media enhanced…

  1. Game Design & Development: Using Computer Games as Creative and Challenging Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Cheryl; Hundley, Jacqueline; Montgomery, Lacey Strange

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a game design and development course. The rationale for forming this class was to use student excitement with video games as an intrinsic motivation over traditional courses. Today's students have grown up exposed to gaming, interactive environments, and vivid 3D. Computer gaming has the capacity to attract many new students…

  2. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  3. Designing Design Challenges: Getting the Details Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In looking at successful inquiry activities, patterns in pedagogical approach emerge (Meyer et al. 2011). This article discusses one such approach--the design challenge. A design challenge can be defined as an activity in which students are given an explicit task to create a product that meets a defined goal. However, simply asking students to…

  4. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  5. Alloy Design Challenge: Development of Low Density Superalloys for Turbine Blade Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Smialek, James L.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    New low density single crystal (LDS) alloys have been developed for turbine blade applications, which have the potential for significant improvements in the thrust to weight ratio over current production alloys. An innovative alloying strategy was identified to achieve high temperature creep resistance, alloy density reductions, microstructural stability, and cyclic oxidation resistance. The approach relies on the use of molybdenum (Mo) as a potent solid solution strengthener for the nickel (Ni)-base superalloy; Mo has a density much closer to Ni than other refractory elements, such as rhenium (Re) or tungsten (W). A host of testing and microstructural examinations was conducted on the superalloy single crystals, including creep rupture testing, microstructural stability, cyclic oxidation, and hot corrosion. The paper will provide an overview of the single crystal properties that were generated in this new superalloy design space. The paper will also demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative approach of low density single crystal superalloy design. It will be shown that the best LDS alloy possesses the best attributes of three generations of single crystal alloys: the low density of first-generation single crystal alloys, the excellent oxidation resistance of second-generation single crystal alloys, and a creep strength which exceeds that of second and third generation alloys.

  6. The Parallel Curriculum: A Design To Develop High Potential and Challenge High-Ability Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Kaplan, Sandra N.; Renzulli, Joseph S.; Purcell, Jeanne; Leppien, Jann; Burns, Deborah

    This book presents a model of curriculum development for gifted students and offers four parallel approaches that focus on ascending intellectual demand as students develop expertise in learning. The parallel curriculum's four approaches include: (1) the core or basic curriculum; (2) the curriculum of connections, which expands on the core…

  7. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  8. Power-Efficient Design Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangrle, Barry

    significant gains can be realized and why power-efficiency requirements will continue to challenge designers into the future. Despite new process technologies, the future will continue to rely on innovative design approaches.

  9. Institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage in lesser-developed countries: challenges facing the Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shakil; Annear, Peter Leslie; Phonvisay, Bouaphat; Phommavong, Chansaly; Cruz, Valeria de Oliveira; Hammerich, Asmus; Jacobs, Bart

    2013-11-01

    There is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage.

  10. Design challenges for tomorrow's manned launch systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to capture some of the technical and national challenges facing the design of America's next manned launch system (MLS). There are three basic paths for pursuing tomorrow's MLS; each with variations. Some characteristics that will be sought regardless of the concept selected include low development (or front-end) and life-cycle costs, safety, operability, availability, and a host of other 'ilities'. In order to discriminate among the concepts, a robust design environment and a variety of new and improved analysis tools are needed that produce critical metrics in a timely, efficient manner from a large study space. This paper presents some of the challenges in development, integration, and application of optimization, costing, operations modeling, and several engineering disciplinary tools including geometry modeling, structures, aerodynamics/aeroheating, and trajectory/performance.

  11. Challenges in Developing Clinical Workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Venkatesh; Vedula, Venumadhav

    2008-09-26

    Over the years, medical imaging has become very common and data intensive. New technology is needed to help visualize and analyze these large, complex data sets, especially in an acute care situation where time is of the essence. Also it is very important to present the data in an efficient and simple manner to aid the clinical decision making processes. There is a need for a clinical workstation that handles data from different modalities and performs the necessary post- processing operations on the data in order to enhance the image quality and improve the reliability of diagnosis. This paper briefly explains clinical workstation, emphasizing the requirements and challenges in design and architecture for the development of such systems.

  12. Spaceflight Flow Cytometry: Design Challenges and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, Dimitri; Kao, Shih-Hsin; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2004-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will require analytical technology capable of providing both autonomous medical care to the crew and investigative capabilities to researchers. While several promising candidate technologies exist for further development, flow cytometry is an attractive technology as it offers both crew health and a wide array of biochemistry and immunology assays. While flow cytometry has been widely used for cellular analysis in both clinical and research settings, the requirements for proper operation in spaceflight impose constraints on any instrument designs. The challenges of designing a spaceflight-ready flow cytometer are discussed, as well as some preliminary results using a prototype system.

  13. Exploration Rover Concepts and Development Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; McKissock, David B.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Zakrajsek, June F.; Oswald, Fred B.; McEntire, Kelly J.; Hill, Gerald M.; Abel, Phillip; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of exploration rover concepts and the various development challenges associated with each as they are applied to exploration objectives and requirements for missions on the Moon and Mars. A variety of concepts for surface exploration vehicles have been proposed since the initial development of the Apollo-era lunar rover. This paper provides a brief description of the rover concepts, along with a comparison of their relative benefits and limitations. In addition, this paper outlines, and investigates a number of critical development challenges that surface exploration vehicles must address in order to successfully meet the exploration mission vision. These include: mission and environmental challenges, design challenges, and production and delivery challenges. Mission and environmental challenges include effects of terrain, extreme temperature differentials, dust issues, and radiation protection. Design methods are discussed that focus on optimum methods for developing highly reliable, long-life and efficient systems. In addition, challenges associated with delivering a surface exploration system is explored and discussed. Based on all the information presented, modularity will be the single most important factor in the development of a truly viable surface mobility vehicle. To meet mission, reliability, and affordability requirements, surface exploration vehicles, especially pressurized rovers, will need to be modularly designed and deployed across all projected Moon and Mars exploration missions.

  14. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  15. Integrating Art and Science Through "Design Challenges"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, L.; Pompea, S. M.; Tzou, C.; Guthrie, M.; Tsurusaki, B.; Danielson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combining art with science can be a powerful way to engage audiences, yet there is little published evidence about effective STEAM approaches. Through our NSF-funded effort "Project STEAM: Integrating Art with Science to Build Science Identities among Girls," our team has developed a "design challenge" approach that combines optics, biology, and art. During these challenges, participants explore scientific concepts and use their understandings to design artistic products. The project aims to ultimately increase female representation in careers that currently have a high gender disparity, such as the geosciences, by changing attitudes and dispositions towards science among pre-middle school girls. We present evaluation and research results that suggest that our approach is effective in engaging and building science identities in participants.

  16. The Aerospace Plane Design Challenge: Credible Computational Fluid Dynamics Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1991-01-01

    The aerospace plane design challenge is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following topics are included: the CFD design technology development; CFD validation vs. measurable fluid dynamics validation; and discussion of results.

  17. Shuttle Propulsion Overview - The Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates, about eight and a half minutes into the flight, after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, with only the SSME s continuing operation to achieve orbital velocity. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970's. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper describes the design challenges and key areas where the design evolved during the program.

  18. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  19. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  20. Whatever Floats Your Boat: A Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a simple design challenge, based on the PBS program "Design Squad's" "Watercraft" activity that will prove engaging to most technology and engineering students. In this floating boat challenge, students are to build a boat that can float and support 25 pennies for at least 10 seconds--without leaking, sinking, or tipping…

  1. Designing under Constraints: Cell Phone Case Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Kevin; Grubbs, Michael E.; Ernst, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Engineering design has been suggested as a viable instructional approach for Technology Education (TE) to intentionally provide students the opportunity to apply multidisciplinary concepts to solve ill-defined design challenges (Wells & Ernst, 2012; Sanders & Wells, 2010; Wicklein, 2006). Currently, the context for design challenges in TE…

  2. An overview: Challenges in wind technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R W; Hock, S M

    1991-12-01

    Developing innovative wind turbine components and advanced turbine configurations is a primary focus for wind technology researchers. In their rush to bring these new components and systems to the marketplace, designers and developers should consider the lessons learned in the wind farms over the past 10 years. Experience has shown that a disciplined design approach is required that realistically accounts for the turbulence-induced loads, unsteady stall loading, and fatigue effects. This paper reviews past experiences and compares current modelling capabilities with experimental measurements in order to identify some of the knowledge gaps that challenge designers of advanced components and systems. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  3. WLMR Design Challenge 2010 Winning Team

    NASA Video Gallery

    Meet the 1st place team from the 2010 Waste Limitation Management Recycling (WLMR) Design Challenge, West Fargo STEM Center. The team goes on a tour of Kennedy Space Center and watches a shuttle la...

  4. Design Challenges Are "ELL-elementary"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Romero, Nancy Yocom; Slater, Pat; DeCristofano, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    It has always been a challenge for elementary school teachers to help special needs students and English learners understand challenging, standards-based science content while their students are still developing English language skills. Through their work as pilot teachers for the Engineering is Elementary (EiE) program developed by the Museum of…

  5. Technology Challenges in Small UAV Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Shams, Qamar; Pollock, Dion S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of highly capable small UAVs present unique challenges for technology protagonists. Size constraints, the desire for ultra low cost and/or disposable platforms, lack of capable design and analysis tools, and unique mission requirements all add to the level of difficulty in creating state-of-the-art small UAVs. This paper presents the results of several small UAV developments, the difficulties encountered, and proposes a list of technology shortfalls that need to be addressed.

  6. Needs and Challenges in Education for Aircraft Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, Ulrich

    A brief review of recent developments in engineering education leads to basic reflections about the importance of design education. Aircraft design is singled out as a field where demands on design are particularly high and urgent. Basic needs are determined. Additional challenges posed by engineering technology, continuing studies,…

  7. Challenges and responses in human vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Stefan H E; McElrath, M Juliana; Lewis, David J M; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    Human vaccine development remains challenging because of the highly sophisticated evasion mechanisms of pathogens for which vaccines are not yet available. Recent years have witnessed both successes and failures of novel vaccine design and the strength of iterative approaches is increasingly appreciated. These combine discovery of novel antigens, adjuvants and vectors in the preclinical stage with computational analyses of clinical data to accelerate vaccine design. Reverse and structural vaccinology have revealed novel antigen candidates and molecular immunology has led to the formulation of promising adjuvants. Gene expression profiles and immune parameters in patients, vaccinees and healthy controls have formed the basis for biosignatures that will provide guidelines for future vaccine design.

  8. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-06-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  9. Robot Design Challenge: This Design Challenge Is a Mirror on the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    A fun design challenge that can be used in the classroom and across the grades is presented in this article. No special tools, hardware, or supplies are needed, only imagination and teamwork. It is a fun exercise that illustrates technology education principles. This design challenge is a mirror on the world, very similar to how projects are…

  10. Innovative Trajectory Designs to meet Exploration Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation of the conference paper. Missions incorporated into NASA's Vision for Space Exploration include many different destinations and regions; are challenging to plan; and need new and innovative trajectory design methods to enable them. By combining proven methods with chaos dynamics, exploration goals that require maximum payload mass or minimum duration can be achieved. The implementation of these innovative methods, such as weak stability boundaries, has altered NASA's approach to meet exploration challenges and is described to show how exploration goals may be met in the next decade. With knowledge that various perturbations play a significant role, the mission designer must rely on both traditional design strategies as well as these innovative methods. Over the past decades, improvements have been made that would at first glance seem dramatic. This paper provides a brief narrative on how a fundamental shift has occurred and how chaos dynamics improve the design of exploration missions with complex constraints.

  11. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA`s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  12. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.; Duren, R.; Frerking, M.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the Sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  13. Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1997-04-04

    This editorial about sustainable development points to consumption as one of the four interlinked global problems including population, environment, and development, and the least tractable of the four. Consumption patterns and expectations are deeply entrenched in most cultures, and hard to change, though change will come whether by design or defaults. Among the topics commented on are artificially priced fossil fuels, toxic pollutants, use of nonrenewable resources, etc. Also discussed are policy options and the role of science. A response is included. 21 refs.

  14. Reported Challenges for Socio-Cultural Curricula in Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinuthia, Wanjira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived challenges of attempting to integrate topics related to social and cultural issues into the coursework in graduate programs in Instructional Design and Technology (IDT). Design/methodology/approach: An open-ended online survey instrument was developed for this study for three reasons.…

  15. Adaptive Design of Confirmatory Trials: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip W.; Tsang, Ka Wai

    2015-01-01

    The past decade witnessed major developments in innovative designs of confirmatory clinical trials, and adaptive designs represent the most active area of these developments. We give an overview of the developments and associated statistical methods in several classes of adaptive designs of confirmatory trials. We also discuss their statistical difficulties and implementation challenges, and show how these problems are connected to other branches of mainstream Statistics, which we then apply to resolve the difficulties and bypass the bottlenecks in the development of adaptive designs for the next decade. PMID:26079372

  16. Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    For over a century, technologists and scientists have actively sought the development of exoskeletons and orthoses designed to augment human economy, strength, and endurance. While there are still many challenges associated with exoskeletal and orthotic design that have yet to be perfected, the advances in the field have been truly impressive. In this commentary, I first classify exoskeletons and orthoses into devices that act in series and in parallel to a human limb, providing a few examples within each category. This classification is then followed by a discussion of major design challenges and future research directions critical to the field of exoskeletons and orthoses. PMID:19538735

  17. The aerospace plane design challenge: Credible computational fluid dynamics results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1990-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is necessary in the design processes of all current aerospace plane programs. Single-stage-to-orbit (STTO) aerospace planes with air-breathing supersonic combustion are going to be largely designed by means of CFD. The challenge of the aerospace plane design is to provide credible CFD results to work from, to assess the risk associated with the use of those results, and to certify CFD codes that produce credible results. To establish the credibility of CFD results used in design, the following topics are discussed: CFD validation vis-a-vis measurable fluid dynamics (MFD) validation; responsibility for credibility; credibility requirement; and a guide for establishing credibility. Quantification of CFD uncertainties helps to assess success risk and safety risks, and the development of CFD as a design tool requires code certification. This challenge is managed by designing the designers to use CFD effectively, by ensuring quality control, and by balancing the design process. For designing the designers, the following topics are discussed: how CFD design technology is developed; the reasons Japanese companies, by and large, produce goods of higher quality than the U.S. counterparts; teamwork as a new way of doing business; and how ideas, quality, and teaming can be brought together. Quality control for reducing the loss imparted to the society begins with the quality of the CFD results used in the design process, and balancing the design process means using a judicious balance of CFD and MFD.

  18. Engineering Design Challenges in a Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Create a light and sound show to entertain friends. Design an improved safety device for a car. Develop a 2-3 minute voice-over for a sports clip explaining the physics involved in the sport. Modify the design of a roller coaster to meet the needs of a specific group of riders. Design an appliance package for a family limited by the power and…

  19. The ITEA-NASA STS-118 Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Shelli D.; Caron, Daniel W.; Gray, Aaron; Weaver, Kim

    2008-01-01

    In conjunction with the August 8, 2007 launch of STS-118, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed and recently debuted curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration, known as STS-118 Design Challenges. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA…

  20. Challenges and Perspectives in Designing Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Yan, Runyu; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-07-11

    The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting and CO2 reduction on a large scale for practical applications is the ultimate goal towards worldwide sustainability. This Concept highlights the state-of-the-art research trends of artificial photosynthesis concepts and designs from some new perspectives. Particularly, it is focused on five important aspects for the design of promising artificial photosynthetic systems: 1) catalyst development, 2) architecture design, 3) device buildup 4) mechanism exploration, and 5) theoretical investigations. Some typical progress and challenges, the most significant milestones achieved to date, as well as possible future directions are illustrated and discussed. This Concept article presents a selection of new developments to highlight new trends and possibilities, main barriers, or challenges; with this, we hope to inspire more advances in the field of artificial photosynthesis.

  1. Challenges Facing Design and Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The design and analysis of future aerospace systems will strongly rely on advanced engineering analysis tools used in combination with risk mitigation procedures. The implications of such a trend place increased demands on these tools to assess off-nominal conditions, residual strength, damage propagation, and extreme loading conditions in order to understand and quantify these effects as they affect mission success. Advances in computer hardware such as CPU processing speed, memory, secondary storage, and visualization provide significant resources for the engineer to exploit in engineering design. The challenges facing design and analysis tools fall into three primary areas. The first area involves mechanics needs such as constitutive modeling, contact and penetration simulation, crack growth prediction, damage initiation and progression prediction, transient dynamics and deployment simulations, and solution algorithms. The second area involves computational needs such as fast, robust solvers, adaptivity for model and solution strategies, control processes for concurrent, distributed computing for uncertainty assessments, and immersive technology. Traditional finite element codes still require fast direct solvers which when coupled to current CPU power enables new insight as a result of high-fidelity modeling. The third area involves decision making by the analyst. This area involves the integration and interrogation of vast amounts of information - some global in character while local details are critical and often drive the design. The proposed presentation will describe and illustrate these areas using composite structures, energy-absorbing structures, and inflatable space structures. While certain engineering approximations within the finite element model may be adequate for global response prediction, they generally are inadequate in a design setting or when local response prediction is critical. Pitfalls to be avoided and trends for emerging analysis tools

  2. Space shuttle main engine: Interactive design challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. P.; Wood, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The operating requirements established by NASA for the SSME were considerably more demanding than those for earlier rocket engines used in the military launch vehicles or Apollo program. The SSME, in order to achieve the high performance, low weight, long life, reusable objectives, embodied technical demands far in excess of its predecessor rocket engines. The requirements dictated the use of high combustion pressure and the staged combustion cycle which maximizes performance through total use of all propellants in the main combustion process. This approach presented a myriad of technical challenges for maximization of performance within attainable state of the art capabilities for operating pressures, operating temperatures and rotating machinery efficiencies. Controlling uniformity of the high pressure turbomachinery turbine temperature environment was a key challenge for thrust level and life capability demanding innovative engineering. New approaches in the design of the components were necessary to accommodate the multiple use, minimum maintenance objectives. Included were the use of line replaceable units to facilitate field maintenance automatic checkout and internal inspection capabilities.

  3. Challenges in Database Design with Microsoft Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Design, development and explorations of databases are popular topics covered in introductory courses taught at business schools. Microsoft Access is the most popular software used in those courses. Despite quite high complexity of Access, it is considered to be one of the most friendly database programs for beginners. A typical Access textbook…

  4. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  5. Integrated fuel processor development challenges.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Pereira, Lee, S. H. D.; Kaun, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-09

    In the absence of a hydrogen-refueling infrastructure, the success of the fuel cell system in the market will depend on fuel processors to enable the use of available fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, etc. The fuel processor includes several catalytic reactors, scrubbers to remove chemical species that can poison downstream catalysts or the fuel cell electrocatalyst, and heat exchangers. Most fuel cell power applications seek compact, lightweight hardware with rapid-start and load- following capabilities. Although packaging can partially address the size and volume, balancing the performance parameters while maintaining the fuel conversion (to hydrogen) efficiency requires careful integration of the unit operations and processes. Argonne National Laboratory has developed integrated fuel processors that are compact and light, and that operate efficiently. This paper discusses some of the difficulties encountered in the development process, focusing on the factors/components that constrain performance, and areas that need further research and development.

  6. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  7. Challenge of Staff Resources Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingster, Bernard

    1976-01-01

    Components of an effective human resource management function are identified and the position a personnel administrator must hold in the organizational structure in order to provide these services is discussed. Functions include personnel selection, institutional research and human resource planning, human resource development, and labor…

  8. Ocean OSSEs: recent developments and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, V. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric OSSEs have had a much longer history of applications than OSSEs (and OSEs) in oceanography. Long standing challenges include the presence of coastlines and steep bathymetric changes, which require the superposition of a wide variety of space and time scales, leading to difficulties on ocean observation and prediction. For instance, remote sensing is critical for providing a quasi-synoptic oceanographic view, but the coverage is limited at the ocean surface. Conversely, in situ measurements are capable to monitor the entire water column, but at a single location and usually for a specific, short time. Despite these challenges, substantial progress has been made in recent years and international initiatives have provided successful OSSE/OSE examples and formed appropriate forums that helped define the future roadmap. These will be discussed, together with various challenges that require a community effort. Examples include: integrated (remote and in situ) observing system requirements for monitoring large scale and climatic changes, vs. short term variability that is particularly important on the regional and coastal spatial scales; satisfying the needs of both global and regional/coastal nature runs, from development to rigorous evaluation and under a clear definition of metrics; data assimilation in the presence of tides; estimation of real-time river discharges for Earth system modeling. An overview of oceanographic efforts that complement the standard OSSE methodology will also be given. These include ocean array design methods, such as representer-based analysis and adaptive sampling. Exciting new opportunities for both global and regional ocean OSSE/OSE studies have recently become possible with targeted periods of comprehensive data sets, such as the existing Gulf of Mexico observations from multiple sources in the aftermath of the DeepWater Horizon incident and the upcoming airborne AirSWOT, in preparation for the SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean

  9. Developing by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Estelle M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper sets out the current situation in a number of schools and institutions of higher education with departments of design. A case is presented for the design curriculum to be regarded as a serious academic subject which makes a unique contribution to pupils' cognitive, emotional, psychomotor, and social development. (Author)

  10. Design, Results and Plans for Power Beaming Competitive Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Shelef, Ben

    2008-04-28

    In our context, Power Beaming refers to the extraction of useable electrical power from a directed electromagnetic beam. In order to promote interest in this technology, the Spaceward Foundation proposed and is managing a technology prize challenge based on a Space Elevator design scenario. The challenge has a prize purse of $2M, provided by NASA's Centennial Challenges office. This paper covers the considerations that went into the design of the challenge, a brief chronology of past results, and plans for the future.

  11. Strategic Challenges in Neurotherapeutic Pharmaceutical Development

    PubMed Central

    Gallen, Christopher C.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Developing new therapeutics presents formidable economic, scientific, and medical challenges that are exacerbated by special factors in neurotherapeutics development, e.g., the complexity of the CNS with its attendant need to sometimes affect multiple pathways, the lack of clarity of disease etiology, inadequacy of available animal models, and difficulties in defining disease populations and quantifying treatment response. This paper reviews the economic challenges faced by therapeutics developers in general and neurotherapeutics developers in particular. It discusses key scientific challenges, particularly those pertinent to neurotherapeutics development, as a background to proposing a different industrial strategy to drive future therapeutics development. This Biodesign strategy potentially surpasses previous paradigms by incorporating elements such as the use of disease modeling to select better targets and potential therapies, information science-based approaches to enhance small molecule chemistry, exploitation of the potential for biological technologies to rapidly generate mechanistic probes, and development of improved approaches for using animal models and studying human molecules mechanistically and biologically. Synergistic use of these elements can change the overall business model of companies engaged in neurotherapeutics development. The Biodesign paradigm has the potential to both markedly enhance the development of new therapies and to address some of the economic challenges facing healthcare systems and therapeutics developers alike. PMID:15717016

  12. Challenges for health care development in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of the research done in this paper was to establish key challenges and perspectives for health care development in the Republic of Croatia in the next two decades. Empirical research was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews involving 49 subjects, representatives of health care professionals from both, public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). The results have shown that key challenges and problems of Croatian health care can be divided into three groups: functioning of health care systems, health care personnel, and external factors. Research has shown that key challenges related to the functioning of health care are inefficiency, financial unviability, inadequate infrastructure, and the lack of system transparency. Poor governance is another limiting factor. With regard to health care personnel, they face the problems of low salaries, which then lead to migration challenges and a potential shortage of health care personnel. The following external factors are deemed to be among the most significant challenges: ageing population, bad living habits, and an increase in the number of chronic diseases. However, problems caused by the global financial crisis and consequential macroeconomic situation must not be neglected. Guidelines for responding to challenges identified in this research are the backbone for developing a strategy for health care development in the Republic of Croatia. Long-term vision, strategy, policies, and a regulatory framework are all necessary preconditions for an efficient health care system and more quality health services.

  13. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Colleen F; Shah, Maunank

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  14. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  15. Dengue vaccine design: issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cardosa, M J

    1998-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is now a global problem affecting tens of millions of people. The spread of the four dengue virus serotypes had led to increased incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) reported and with 2.5 billion people at risk, efforts towards the development of safe and effective vaccines against dengue must be accelerated. This chapter reviews some of the important lessons of pathogenesis which may be learnt from classical studies in the field and place these in the context of current knowledge about the molecular biology of the virus. The issues which have to be addressed in designing a safe vaccine against dengue are raised and the problems of designing subunit as well as whole virus vaccines are pointed out, particularly with regard to the phenomenon of antibody dependent enhancement and, more generally, the problem of immune potentiation of disease. More efforts must be made to understand the basis of pathogenesis in DHF and in finding out what nature has to teach about protection against and recovery from dengue virus infection.

  16. The Challenging Academic Development (CAD) Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peseta, Tai

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Challenging Academic Development (CAD) Collective and describes how it came out of a symposium called "Liminality, identity, and hybridity: On the promise of new conceptual frameworks for theorising academic/faculty development." The CAD Collective is and represents a space where people can open up their contexts and…

  17. Challenges in the development of the orbiter radiator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Oren, J. A.; Modest, M. F.; Howell, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    Major technical challenges which were met in the design and development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Radiator System are discussed. This system rejects up to 30 kW of waste heat from eight individual radiators having a combined surface area of 175 sq m. The radiators, which are deployable, are mounted on the inside of the payload bay doors for protection from aerodynamic heating during ascent and re-entry. While in orbit the payload bay doors are opened to expose the radiators for operation. An R21 coolant loop accumulates waste heat from various components in the Orbiter and delivers the heat to the radiators for rejection to space. Specific challenges included high acoustically induced loads during lift-off, severe radiating area constraints, demanding heat load control requirements, and long life goals. Details of major design and analysis efforts are discussed. The success of the developed hardware in satisfying mission objectives showed how well the design challenge was met.

  18. QMI: Rising to the Space Station Design Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carswell, W. E.; Farmer, J.; Coppens, C.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.

    2002-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) materials processing furnace is being designed to operate for 8000 hours over four years on the International Space Station as part of the first Materials Science Research Rack of the Materials Science Research Facility. The Bridgman-type furnace is being built for the directional solidification processing of metals and alloys in the microgravity environment of space. Most notably it will be used for processing aluminum and related alloys. Designing for the space station environment presents intriguing design challenges in the form of a ten-year life requirement coupled with both limited opportunities for maintenance and resource constraints in the form of limited power and space. The long life requirement has driven the design of several features in the furnace, including the design of the heater core, the selection and placement of the thermocouples, overall performance monitoring, and the design of the chill block. The power and space limitations have been addressed through a compact furnace design using efficient vacuum insulation. Details on these design features, as well as development test performance results to date, are presented.

  19. QMI: Rising to the Space Station Design Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, W. E.; Farmer, J.; Coppens, C.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) materials processing furnace is being designed to operate for 8000 hours over four years on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). The Bridgman-type furnace is being built for the directional solidification processing of metals and alloys in the microgravity environment of space. Most notably it will be used for processing aluminum and related alloys. Designing for the space station environment presents intriguing design challenges in the form of a ten-year life requirement coupled with both limited opportunities for maintenance and resource constraints in the form of limited power and space. The long life requirement has driven the design of several features in the furnace, including the design of the heater core, the selection and placement of the thermocouples, overall performance monitoring, and the design of the chill block. The power and space limitations have been addressed through a compact furnace design using efficient vacuum insulation. Details on these design features, as well as development test performance results to date, are presented.

  20. Career Development by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sharon L.

    This book is intended to guide the reader in the process of designing his or her career and achieving it. Chapter 1 begins with a look at self: developing areas of self, personality type, self-concept, and self-efficacy, making positive personality changes, sharpening basic skills, and evaluating career potential. Chapter 2 explores developing…

  1. Making Recycled Paper: An Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educators are facing the challenge of attracting more students. The disparity between the need for engineers and the enrollment of engineering students is growing (Genalo, Bruning, & Adams, 2000), and career aspirations of high school students are inconsistent with the employment…

  2. The Perennial and the Particular Challenges of Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Education in design shares with other disciplines a number of perennial challenges, including the need to transfer human culture, the choice of what parts of human culture to transfer and the decision as to what approaches work best in accomplishing that transfer. Design education also faces particular challenges, which are shared with only a few…

  3. The challenges of delivering validated personas for medical equipment design.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Christopher James; Blandford, Ann

    2014-07-01

    Representations of archetypal users (personas) have been advocated as a way to avoid designing in isolation. They allow communication of user needs and orient teams towards user experience. One of the challenges for developers of interactive medical devices is that most devices are used by a wide variety of people, and that developers have limited access to those people; personas have the potential to make developers more aware of who they are designing for. But this raises the question of whether it is possible to deliver useful, valid personas of interactive medical device users. The aim of this research was to develop and test a rigorous, empirically grounded process of constructing personas, with the objective of reflecting on that process. Many challenges were encountered: we found that directly linking the personas to a user population was not possible and although personas were a useful tool for supporting communication and elicitation across disciplines, it was hard to make them representative when picking details that were relevant and checking accuracy. Checking the content resulted in disparate, possibly incommensurable, views. Despite this, the personas proved useful in supporting the transfer of knowledge across professional perspectives.

  4. Current status, key challenges and its solutions in the design and development of graphene based ORR catalysts for the microbial fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M V; Gnana Kumar, G

    2016-03-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are considered as the futuristic energy device that generates electricity from the catalytic degradation of biodegradable organic wastes using microbes, which exist in waste water. In MFCs, oxygen serves as a cathodic electron acceptor and oxygen reduction kinetics played a significant role in the determination of overall efficiency. A wide range of strategies have been developed for the preparation and substantial modification of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts to improve the maximum volumetric power density of MFCs, in which the efforts on graphene based ORR catalysts are highly imperative. Although numerous research endeavors have been achieved in relation with the graphene based ORR catalysts applicable for MFCs, still their collective summary has not been developed, which hinders the acquirement of adequate knowledge on tuning the specific properties of said catalysts. The intension of this review is to outline the significant role of ORR catalysts, factors influencing the ORR activity, strategies behind the modifications of ORR catalysts and update the research efforts devoted on graphene based ORR catalysts. This review can be considered as a pertinent guide to understand the design and developmental strategies of competent graphene based ORR catalysts, which are not only applicable for MFCs but also for number of electrochemical applications.

  5. Current status, key challenges and its solutions in the design and development of graphene based ORR catalysts for the microbial fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M V; Gnana Kumar, G

    2016-03-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are considered as the futuristic energy device that generates electricity from the catalytic degradation of biodegradable organic wastes using microbes, which exist in waste water. In MFCs, oxygen serves as a cathodic electron acceptor and oxygen reduction kinetics played a significant role in the determination of overall efficiency. A wide range of strategies have been developed for the preparation and substantial modification of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts to improve the maximum volumetric power density of MFCs, in which the efforts on graphene based ORR catalysts are highly imperative. Although numerous research endeavors have been achieved in relation with the graphene based ORR catalysts applicable for MFCs, still their collective summary has not been developed, which hinders the acquirement of adequate knowledge on tuning the specific properties of said catalysts. The intension of this review is to outline the significant role of ORR catalysts, factors influencing the ORR activity, strategies behind the modifications of ORR catalysts and update the research efforts devoted on graphene based ORR catalysts. This review can be considered as a pertinent guide to understand the design and developmental strategies of competent graphene based ORR catalysts, which are not only applicable for MFCs but also for number of electrochemical applications. PMID:26606182

  6. An aircraft model for the AIAA controls design challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1991-01-01

    A generic, state-of-the-art, high-performance aircraft model, including detailed, full-envelope, nonlinear aerodynamics, and full-envelope thrust and first-order engine response data is described. While this model was primarily developed Controls Design Challenge, the availability of such a model provides a common focus for research in aeronautical control theory and methodology. An implementation of this model using the FORTRAN computer language, associated routines furnished with the aircraft model, and techniques for interfacing these routines to external procedures is also described. Figures showing vehicle geometry, surfaces, and sign conventions are included.

  7. Secondary Level Engineering Professional Development: Content, Pedagogy, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Jenny L.; Custer, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    The design of this study was a multiple case study conducted to examine the knowledge, pedagogical principles, and challenges involved in providing engineering-oriented professional development for teachers at the secondary school level. A set of criteria was used to identify five representative projects for analysis in the US. A variety of tools…

  8. Challenges of Engaging Local Stakeholders for Statewide Program Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The University of Missouri Extension needed to develop an annual program review process that collaboratively engaged county-level stakeholders. The results from the first 2 years highlight the results, challenges, and implications of the design process. The annual review process needs to be adaptive, responsive, and reflective from year to year…

  9. Viral sequence diversity: challenges for AIDS vaccine designs

    PubMed Central

    McBurney, Sean P; Ross, Ted M

    2009-01-01

    Among the greatest challenges facing AIDS vaccine development is the intrinsic diversity among circulating populations of HIV-1 in various geographical locations and the need to develop vaccines that can elicit enduring protective immunity to variant HIV-1 strains. While variation is observed in all of the viral proteins, the greatest diversity is localized to the viral envelope glycoproteins, evidently reflecting the predominant role of these proteins in eliciting host immune recognition and responses that result in progressive evolution of the envelope proteins during persistent infection. Interestingly, while envelope glycoprotein variation is widely assumed to be a major obstacle to AIDS vaccine development, there is very little experimental data in animal or human lentivirus systems addressing this critical issue. In this review, the state of vaccine development to address envelope diversity will be presented, focusing on the use of centralized and polyvalent sequence design as mechanisms to elicit broadly reactive immune responses. PMID:18980542

  10. Vibration Challenges in the Design of NASA's Ares Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the vibration challenges inherent in the design of NASA s Ares launch vehicles. A brief overview of the launch system architecture is provided to establish the context for the discussion. Following this is a general discussion of the design considerations and analytical disciplines that are affected by vibration. The first challenge discussed is that of coupling between the vehicle flight control system and fundamental vibrational modes of the vehicle. The potential destabilizing influence of the vibrational dynamics is described along with discussion of the typical methods employed to overcome this issue. Next is a general discussion of the process for developing the design loads for the primary structure. This includes quasi-steady loads and dynamic loads induced by the structural dynamic response. The two principal parts of this response are the gust induced responses of the lower frequency modes and the buffet induced responses of the higher frequency modes. Structural dynamic model validation will also be addressed. Following this, discussions of three somewhat unique topics of Pogo Instability, Solid Booster Thrust Oscillation, and Liquid Rocket Engine Turbopump Rotordynamic Stability and Response are presented.

  11. Collection Development "Universal Design": Design for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    As the first wave of baby boomers hit their "golden years," there is a growing demand for housing that meets their changing physical needs. The older and disabled population face a lot of physical challenges in a traditional home. Before homeowners can modify their houses, they must first understand the key design terminology involved.…

  12. Challenging the Challenged: Developing an Improvement Programme for Schools Facing Exceptionally Challenging Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, David; Harris, Alma; Clarke, Paul; Harris, Belinda; James, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines a research and development programme that focused on a group of 8 secondary schools in England. The schools in this study were considered to be facing exceptionally challenging circumstances characterised by high levels of socioeconomic disadvantage and deprivation. They were also schools considered to be seriously…

  13. Exploration Life Support Technology Development Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss Joe; Rulis, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Life Support project is developing technologies to address the needs for life support during NASA s exploration missions. The focus of development is Air Revitalization, Water Recovery, and Waste Management Systems (ARS, WRS, and WMS). The approach to meeting exploration needs for life support intrinsically involves processing mixtures of gases, liquids and solids; thus the effects of micro or hypo gravity must be considered in developing and verifying the technologies. This paper provides an overview of the ELS project, how ELS technologies are planned to be used in exploration vehicles and the challenges being addressed.

  14. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  15. Constellation Program Design Challenges as Opportunities for Educational Outreach- Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC) and the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Education Office both have programs that present design challenges for university senior design classes that offer great opportunities for educational outreach and workforce development. These design challenges have been identified by NASA engineers and scientists as actual design problems faced by the Constellation Program in its exploration missions and architecture. Student teams formed in their senior design class select and then work on a design challenge for one or two semesters. The senior design class follows the requirements set by their university, but it must also comply with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in order to meet the class academic requirements. Based on a one year fellowship at a TSGC university under the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) and several years of experience, lessons learned are presented on the NASA Design Challenge Program.

  16. Translating Vision into Design: A Method for Conceptual Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for engineers is the definition of design solutions that will satisfy high-level strategic visions and objectives. Even more challenging is the need to demonstrate how a particular design solution supports the high-level vision. This paper describes a process and set of system engineering tools that have been used at the Johnson Space Center to analyze and decompose high-level objectives for future human missions into design requirements that can be used to develop alternative concepts for vehicles, habitats, and other systems. Analysis and design studies of alternative concepts and approaches are used to develop recommendations for strategic investments in research and technology that support the NASA Integrated Space Plan. In addition to a description of system engineering tools, this paper includes a discussion of collaborative design practices for human exploration mission architecture studies used at the Johnson Space Center.

  17. Surface design methodology - challenge the steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, M.; Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Anderberg, C.

    2014-03-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or "feeling" for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA.

  18. An Overview of the Thermal Challenges of Designing Microgravity Furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1999-01-01

    In the last few years, Marshall Space Flight Center has become heavily involved in a wide variety of microgravity projects that require furnaces, with hot zone temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2300 C, requirements for isothermal and gradient processing, and both semi-conductor and metal materials. On these types of projects, the thermal engineer is a key player in the design process. These furnaces present unique challenges to the thermal designer. One challenge is designing a sample containment system that achieves dual containment, yet allows a high radial heat flux. Another challenge is providing a high axial gradient but a very low radial gradient. These furnaces also present unique challenges to the thermal analyst. First, there are several orders of magnitude difference in the size of the thermal "conductors" between various parts of the model. A second challenge is providing high fidelity in the sample model, and connecting the sample with the rest of the furnace model, yet maintaining some sanity in the number of total nodes in the model. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the challenges involved in designing and analyzing microgravity furnaces and how some of these challenges have been overcome. The thermal analysis tools presently used to analyze microgravity furnaces and how they have been applied will be explained. Challenges for the future and a description of future analysis tools will be given.

  19. Powering the Future: A Wind Turbine Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pries, Caitlin Hicks; Hughes, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nothing brings out the best in eighth-grade physical science students quite like an engineering challenge. The wind turbine design challenge described in this article has proved to be a favorite among students with its focus on teamwork and creativity and its (almost) sneaky reinforcement of numerous physics concepts. For this activity, pairs of…

  20. An Overview of the Thermal Challenges of Designing Microgravity Furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center is involved in a wide variety of microgravity projects that require furnaces, with hot zone temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2300 C, requirements for gradient processing and rapid quench, and both semi-conductor and metal materials. On these types of projects, the thermal engineer is a key player in the design process. Microgravity furnaces present unique challenges to the thermal designer. One challenge is designing a sample containment assembly that achieves dual containment, yet allows a high radial heat flux. Another challenge is providing a high axial gradient but a very low radial gradient. These furnaces also present unique challenges to the thermal analyst. First, there are several orders of magnitude difference in the size of the thermal 'conductors' between various parts of the model. A second challenge is providing high fidelity in the sample model, and connecting the sample with the rest of the furnace model, yet maintaining some sanity in the number of total nodes in the model. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the challenges involved in designing and analyzing microgravity furnaces and how some of these challenges have been overcome. The thermal analysis tools presently used to analyze microgravity furnaces and will be listed. Challenges for the future and a description of future analysis tools will be given.

  1. MOOC Learning Experience Design: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Hélène; Kop, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present current work on various frameworks that are aimed at guiding the research, development, and evaluation efforts around Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Initiatives and activities, including current work by the National Research Council (NRC) in the context of Learning and Performance Support Systems and MOOCs, will be…

  2. Combinatorial and computational challenges for biocatalyst design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Frances H.

    2001-01-01

    Nature provides a fantastic array of catalysts extremely well suited to supporting life, but usually not so well suited for technology. Whether biocatalysis will have a significant technological impact depends on our finding robust routes for tailoring nature's catalysts or redesigning them anew. Laboratory evolution methods are now used widely to fine-tune the selectivity and activity of enzymes. The current rapid development of these combinatorial methods promises solutions to more complex problems, including the creation of new biosynthetic pathways. Computational methods are also developing quickly. The marriage of these approaches will allow us to generate the efficient, effective catalysts needed by the pharmaceutical, food and chemicals industries and should open up new opportunities for producing energy and chemicals from renewable resources.

  3. Designing and Developing Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan Franklin, Ed.

    The 13 readings in this book offer guidelines for designing and developing programs for gifted students. An introductory chapter by the editor considers the benefits of special programs for gifted students and the challenges of their development. The following chapters are: (1) "From Needs and Goals to Program Organization: A Nuts-and-Bolts Guide"…

  4. Challenges in the Development of Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M.C. Teague; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; M.W. Patterson

    2012-08-01

    Past generations of nuclear reactors have been successively developed and the next generation is currently being developed, demonstrating the constant progress and technical and industrial vitality of nuclear energy. In 2000 US Department of Energy launched Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is one of the main international frameworks for the development of future nuclear systems. The six systems that were selected were: sodium cooled fast reactor, lead cooled fast reactor, supercritical water cooled reactor, very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR), gas cooled fast reactor and molten salt reactor. This paper discusses some of the proposed advanced reactor concepts that are currently being researched to varying degrees in the United States, and highlights some of the major challenges these concepts must overcome to establish their feasibility and to satisfy licensing requirements.

  5. Solar Probe Plus: Mission design challenges and trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanping

    2010-11-01

    NASA plans to launch the first mission to the Sun, named Solar Probe Plus, as early as 2015, after a comprehensive feasibility study that significantly changed the original Solar Probe mission concept. The original Solar Probe mission concept, based on a Jupiter gravity assist trajectory, was no longer feasible under the new guidelines given to the mission. A complete redesign of the mission was required, which called for developing alternative trajectories that excluded a flyby of Jupiter. Without the very powerful gravity assist from Jupiter it was extremely difficult to get to the Sun, so designing a trajectory to reach the Sun that is technically feasible under the new mission guidelines became a key enabler to this highly challenging mission. Mission design requirements and challenges unique to this mission are reviewed and discussed, including various mission scenarios and six different trajectory designs utilizing various planetary gravity assists that were considered. The V 5GA trajectory design using five Venus gravity assists achieves a perihelion of 11.8 solar radii ( RS) in 3.3 years without any deep space maneuver (DSM). The V 7GA trajectory design reaches a perihelion of 9.5 RS using seven Venus gravity assists in 6.39 years without any DSM. With nine Venus gravity assists, the V 9GA trajectory design shows a solar orbit at inclination as high as 37.9° from the ecliptic plane can be achieved with the time of flight of 5.8 years. Using combined Earth and Venus gravity assists, as close as 9 RS from the Sun can be achieved in less than 10 years of flight time at moderate launch C3. Ultimately the V 7GA trajectory was chosen as the new baseline mission trajectory. Its design allowing for science investigation right after launch and continuing for nearly 7 years is unprecedented for interplanetary missions. The redesigned Solar Probe Plus mission is not only feasible under the new guidelines but also significantly outperforms the original mission concept

  6. Exploring design features for enhancing players' challenge in strategy games.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Wen, Ming-Hui; Wu, Muh-Cherng

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines how to make a player feel more challenged in a strategic computer game. It is hypothesized that information availability and resource advantage affect play difficulty, which in turn affects the challenge experienced. The difficulty of play can be defined in terms of the mental workload that players experience and the physical effort that players exert. Forty-five male college and graduate students participated in a 3 x 3 (information availability x resource advantage) between-subjects factorial design experiment. This experiment measured player mental workload, physical effort, and challenge. The results indicate that information availability affects player mental workload, and resource advantage affects levels of player physical effort, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between mental workload and challenge was found to be an inverted U-shaped curve; in other words, too much or too little mental workload may decrease player challenge. The relationship between physical effort and challenge exhibited similar characteristics.

  7. Challenges in the development of the orbiter atmosphere revitalization subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, R. N.; Swider, J.; Wojnarowski, J.; Decrisantis, A.; Ord, G. R.; Walleshauser, J. J.; Gibb, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter atmospheric revitalization subsystem provides thermal and contaminant control as well as total- and oxygen partial-pressure control of the environment within the orbiter crew cabin. Challenges that occurred during the development of this subsystem for the space shuttle orbiter are described. The design of the rotating hardware elements of the system (pumps, fans, etc.) required significant development to meet the requirements of long service life, maintainability, and high cycle-fatigue life. As a result, a stringent development program, particularly in the areas of bearing life and heat dissipation, was required. Another area requiring significant development was cabin humidity control and condensate collection.

  8. Technological Challenges: Designing Large Compressed Video and Multimedia Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Russ A.; Parker, Roger

    Designing a distance learning classroom requires integration of educational goals and philosophy with technology and ergonomics. The technological challenge and key to designing effective distance learning and multimedia classrooms is creating an environment in which the participants--students, and teacher--may easily interact with instructional…

  9. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  10. Shale Gas: Development Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, Mark D.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    The use of horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing technologies has enabled the production of immense quantities of natural gas, to date principally in North America but increasingly in other countries around the world. The global availability of this resource creates both opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed in a timely and effective manner. There seems little question that rapid shale gas development, coupled with fuel switching from coal to natural gas for power generation, can have beneficial effects on air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy security in many countries. In this context, shale gas resources represent a critically important transition fuel on the path to a decarbonized energy future. For these benefits to be realized, however, it is imperative that shale gas resources be developed with effective environmental safeguards to reduce their impact on land use, water resources, air quality, and nearby communities.

  11. Turbine Aerodynamics Design Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Frank W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the Marshal Space Flight Center Fluids Workshop on Turbine Aerodynamic design tool development. The topics include: (1) Meanline Design/Off-design Analysis; and (2) Airfoil Contour Generation and Analysis. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  12. Design Challenges in High Power Free-electron Laser Oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Benson

    2005-08-21

    Several FELs have now demonstrated high power lasing and several projects are under construction to deliver higher power or shorter wavelengths. This presentation will summarize progress in upgrading FEL oscillators towards higher power and will discuss some of the challenges these projects face. The challenges fall into three categories: 1. energy recovery with large exhaust energy spread, 2. output coupling and maintaining mirror figure in the presence of high intracavity power loading, and 3. high current operation in an energy recovery linac (ERL). Progress in all three of these areas has been made in the last year. Energy recovery of over 12% of exhaust energy spread has been demonstrated and designs capable of accepting even larger energy spreads have been proposed. Cryogenic transmissive output couplers for narrow band operation and both hole and scraper output coupling have been developed. Investigation of short Rayleigh range operation has started as well. Energy recovery of over 20 mA CW has been demonstrated and several methods of mitigating transverse beam breakup instabilities were demonstrated. This talk will summarize these achievements and give a roadmap of where the field is headed.

  13. Vaccination Against Dengue: Challenges and Current Developments.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bruno; Lang, Jean; Saville, Melanie; Jackson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a growing threat worldwide, and the development of a vaccine is a public health priority. The completion of the active phase of two pivotal efficacy studies conducted in Asia and Latin America by Sanofi Pasteur has constituted an important step. Several other approaches are under development, and whichever technology is used, vaccine developers face several challenges linked to the particular nature and etiology of dengue disease. We start our review by defining questions and potential issues linked to dengue pathology and presenting the main types of vaccine approaches that have explored these questions; some of these candidates are in a late stage of clinical development. In the second part of the review, we focus on the Sanofi Pasteur dengue vaccine candidate, describing the steps from research to phase III efficacy studies. Finally, we discuss what could be the next steps, before and after vaccine introduction, to ensure that the vaccine will provide the best benefit with an acceptable safety profile to the identified target populations.

  14. Meeting the challenges of medical countermeasure development

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Carmen; Hu‐Primmer, Jean; MacGill, Tracy; Courtney, Brooke; Borio, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Summary Despite substantial investments since the events of 2001, much work remains to prepare the nation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) attack or to respond to an emerging infectious disease threat. Following a 2010 review of the US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, FDA launched its Medical Countermeasures initiative (MCMi) to facilitate the development and availability of medical products to counter CBRN and emerging disease threats. As a regulatory agency, FDA has a unique and critical part to play in this national undertaking. Using a three‐pillar approach, FDA is addressing key challenges associated with the regulatory review process for medical countermeasures; gaps in regulatory science for MCM development and evaluation; and issues related to the legal, regulatory and policy framework for an effective public health response. Filling the gaps in the MCM Enterprise is a huge national undertaking, requiring the collaboration of all stakeholders, including federal partners, current and prospective developers of medical countermeasures, relevant research organizations, and state and local responders. Especially critical to success are an appreciation of the long timelines, risks and high costs associated with developing medical countermeasures – and the systems to deliver them – and the requisite support of all stakeholders, including national leadership. PMID:22925432

  15. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  16. Vaccination Against Dengue: Challenges and Current Developments.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bruno; Lang, Jean; Saville, Melanie; Jackson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a growing threat worldwide, and the development of a vaccine is a public health priority. The completion of the active phase of two pivotal efficacy studies conducted in Asia and Latin America by Sanofi Pasteur has constituted an important step. Several other approaches are under development, and whichever technology is used, vaccine developers face several challenges linked to the particular nature and etiology of dengue disease. We start our review by defining questions and potential issues linked to dengue pathology and presenting the main types of vaccine approaches that have explored these questions; some of these candidates are in a late stage of clinical development. In the second part of the review, we focus on the Sanofi Pasteur dengue vaccine candidate, describing the steps from research to phase III efficacy studies. Finally, we discuss what could be the next steps, before and after vaccine introduction, to ensure that the vaccine will provide the best benefit with an acceptable safety profile to the identified target populations. PMID:26515983

  17. Dengue vaccine development: strategies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Nair, Radhakrishnan R

    2015-03-01

    Infection with dengue virus may result in dengue fever or a more severe outcome, such as dengue hemorrhagic syndrome/shock. Dengue virus infection poses a threat to endemic regions for four reasons: the presence of four serotypes, each with the ability to cause a similar disease outcome, including fatality; difficulties related to vector control; the lack of specific treatment; and the nonavailability of a suitable vaccine. Vaccine development is considered challenging due to the severity of the disease observed in individuals who have acquired dengue-specific immunity, either passively or actively. Therefore, the presence of vaccine-induced immunity against a particular serotype may prime an individual to severe disease on exposure to dengue virus. Vaccine development strategies include live attenuated vaccines, chimeric, DNA-based, subunit, and inactivated vaccines. Each of the candidates is in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. Issues pertaining to selection pressures, viral interaction, and safety still need to be evaluated in order to induce a complete protective immune response against all four serotypes. This review highlights the various strategies that have been employed in vaccine development, and identifies the obstacles to producing a safe and effective vaccine.

  18. Meeting the challenges of medical countermeasure development.

    PubMed

    Maher, Carmen; Hu-Primmer, Jean; MacGill, Tracy; Courtney, Brooke; Borio, Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Despite substantial investments since the events of 2001, much work remains to prepare the nation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) attack or to respond to an emerging infectious disease threat. Following a 2010 review of the US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, FDA launched its Medical Countermeasures initiative (MCMi) to facilitate the development and availability of medical products to counter CBRN and emerging disease threats. As a regulatory agency, FDA has a unique and critical part to play in this national undertaking. Using a three-pillar approach, FDA is addressing key challenges associated with the regulatory review process for medical countermeasures; gaps in regulatory science for MCM development and evaluation; and issues related to the legal, regulatory and policy framework for an effective public health response. Filling the gaps in the MCM Enterprise is a huge national undertaking, requiring the collaboration of all stakeholders, including federal partners, current and prospective developers of medical countermeasures, relevant research organizations, and state and local responders. Especially critical to success are an appreciation of the long timelines, risks and high costs associated with developing medical countermeasures - and the systems to deliver them - and the requisite support of all stakeholders, including national leadership. PMID:22925432

  19. High-End Computing Challenges in Aerospace Design and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. Ronald

    2004-01-01

    High-End Computing (HEC) has had significant impact on aerospace design and engineering and is poised to make even more in the future. In this paper we describe four aerospace design and engineering challenges: Digital Flight, Launch Simulation, Rocket Fuel System and Digital Astronaut. The paper discusses modeling capabilities needed for each challenge and presents projections of future near and far-term HEC computing requirements. NASA's HEC Project Columbia is described and programming strategies presented that are necessary to achieve high real performance.

  20. Structural Design Challenges in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.; Braverman, J.; Wei, X.; Hofmayer, C.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are confined within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of structural design chal- lenges encountered in recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  1. Challenges of randomized controlled trial design in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Herrera, Fernando A; Hassanein, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard of evidence-based medicine. In the field of plastic surgery, designing these studies is much more challenging than in pharmaceutical medicine. Randomized trials in plastic surgery encompass several road blocks including problems shared with other surgical trials: equipoise, high cost, placebo issues and learning curves following the establishment of a novel approach. In addition, plastic surgery has more subjective outcomes, thus making study design even more difficult in assessing the end result.

  2. Design, recruitment, and microbiological considerations in human challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Darton, Thomas C; Blohmke, Christoph J; Moorthy, Vasee S; Altmann, Daniel M; Hayden, Frederick G; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Adrian V S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research. A range of challenge models and practical approaches to generate important data exist and are used to expedite vaccine and therapeutic development and to support public health modelling and interventions. Although human challenge studies provide a unique opportunity to address complex research questions, participant and investigator safety is paramount. To increase the collaborative effort and future success of this area of research, we recommend the development of consensus frameworks and sharing of best practices between investigators. Furthermore, standardisation of challenge procedures and regulatory guidance will help with the feasibility for using challenge models in clinical testing of new disease intervention strategies.

  3. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  4. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  5. User-centred health design: reflections on D4D's experiences and challenges.

    PubMed

    Moody, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of user-centred design and testing in the healthcare technology domain. Challenges associated with user and stakeholder involvement in designing solutions for healthcare are recognized in the literature and need to be addressed to facilitate the development of new technology that is usable and acceptable to the end-user. The Devices for Dignity Health Technology Cooperative (D4D) has been involved in a range of technology development projects with an underpinning approach of addressing unmet needs through user involvement. This paper provides practical examples of some of the challenges that occur at different stages during a user-centred design process including ethical approval processes; stakeholder and user recruitment and involvement; eliciting needs from users regarding sensitive and personal issues; and interdisciplinary working. The paper will describe some of the strategies that have been employed by D4D to overcome these challenges and facilitate technology development.

  6. User-centred health design: reflections on D4D's experiences and challenges.

    PubMed

    Moody, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of user-centred design and testing in the healthcare technology domain. Challenges associated with user and stakeholder involvement in designing solutions for healthcare are recognized in the literature and need to be addressed to facilitate the development of new technology that is usable and acceptable to the end-user. The Devices for Dignity Health Technology Cooperative (D4D) has been involved in a range of technology development projects with an underpinning approach of addressing unmet needs through user involvement. This paper provides practical examples of some of the challenges that occur at different stages during a user-centred design process including ethical approval processes; stakeholder and user recruitment and involvement; eliciting needs from users regarding sensitive and personal issues; and interdisciplinary working. The paper will describe some of the strategies that have been employed by D4D to overcome these challenges and facilitate technology development. PMID:26453037

  7. Ligand-targeted liposome design: challenges and fundamental considerations.

    PubMed

    Noble, Gavin T; Stefanick, Jared F; Ashley, Jonathan D; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine, particularly liposomal drug delivery, has expanded considerably over the past few decades, and several liposomal drugs are already providing improved clinical outcomes. Liposomes have now progressed beyond simple, inert drug carriers and can be designed to be highly responsive in vivo, with active targeting, increased stealth, and controlled drug-release properties. Ligand-targeted liposomes (LTLs) have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. However, these highly engineered liposomes generate new problems, such as accelerated clearance from circulation, compromised targeting owing to non-specific serum protein binding, and hindered tumor penetration. This article highlights recent challenges facing LTL strategies and describes the advanced design elements used to circumvent them.

  8. Fish Farm Challenge Provides STEM Design Experiences for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton , Robert L.; House, Patty L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Monsanto Corporation partnered with National 4-H Council to help inspire and develop professional skills among young agriculturalists. The Ohio State University created Fish Farm Challenge, which engaged more than 8,000 youth across eight states. Youth were taught about worldwide food insecurity and the importance of aquaculture. They…

  9. Adhesive bonding of composite aircraft structures: Challenges and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelakis, Sp.; Tserpes, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper, the challenges and some recent developments of adhesive bonding technology in composite aircraft structures are discussed. The durability of bonded joints is defined and presented for parameters that may influence bonding quality. Presented is also, a numerical design approach for composite joining profiles used to realize adhesive bonding. It is shown that environmental ageing and pre-bond contamination of bonding surfaces may degrade significantly fracture toughness of bonded joints. Moreover, it is obvious that additional research is needed in order to design joining profiles that will enable load transfer through shearing of the bondline. These findings, together with the limited capabilities of existing non-destructive testing techniques, can partially explain the confined use of adhesive bonding in primary composite aircraft structural parts.

  10. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  11. Future challenges for nuclear power plant development research, and for radiological protection sciences.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Edward

    2007-11-01

    The promise of the future shines brightly for nuclear energy technology and production, yet also holds many challenges. Focus on new reactor designs is currently aiming at what is termed the fourth generation of reactors, which will come into operation after 2030. The 10 countries participating in the Generation-IV International Forum to develop the new generation of reactors have designated six reactor designs that will be studied. This paper will briefly discuss some of these challenges in new reactor designs in general. In addition to the challenges posed by new reactor designs, radiation protection is also faced with a series of challenges for the future. These are borne from experience with the implementation of the current system of radiological protection, from the evolution of radiation biological research, and from changes in society in the area of radiological risk assessment and management. This paper will address all of these emerging challenges, and point towards approaches to resolve them in the future.

  12. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Community Development Corporation of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    Building America/Builders Challenge fact sheet on Community Development Corp, an energy-efficient home builder in cold climate using advanced framing and compact duct design. Evaluates impacts to cost.

  13. Some Challenges in the Design of Human-Automation Interaction for Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.; Roth, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amounts of automation are being introduced to safety-critical domains. While the introduction of automation has led to an overall increase in reliability and improved safety, it has also introduced a class of failure modes, and new challenges in risk assessment for the new systems, particularly in the assessment of rare events resulting from complex inter-related factors. Designing successful human-automation systems is challenging, and the challenges go beyond good interface development (e.g., Roth, Malin, & Schreckenghost 1997; Christoffersen & Woods, 2002). Human-automation design is particularly challenging when the underlying automation technology generates behavior that is difficult for the user to anticipate or understand. These challenges have been recognized in several safety-critical domains, and have resulted in increased efforts to develop training, procedures, regulations and guidance material (CAST, 2008, IAEA, 2001, FAA, 2013, ICAO, 2012). This paper points to the continuing need for new methods to describe and characterize the operational environment within which new automation concepts are being presented. We will describe challenges to the successful development and evaluation of human-automation systems in safety-critical domains, and describe some approaches that could be used to address these challenges. We will draw from experience with the aviation, spaceflight and nuclear power domains.

  14. Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.

    PubMed

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  15. Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design

    PubMed Central

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  16. Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.

    PubMed

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges.

  17. IHE cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging: design challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-03-01

    Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) has recently published a new integration profile for sharing documents between multiple enterprises. The Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing Integration Profile (XDS) lays the basic framework for deploying regional and national Electronic Health Record (EHR). This profile proposes an architecture based on a central Registry that holds metadata information describing published Documents residing in one or multiple Documents Repositories. As medical images constitute important information of the patient health record, it is logical to extend the XDS Integration Profile to include images. However, including images in the EHR presents many challenges. The complete image set is very large; it is useful for radiologists and other specialists such as surgeons and orthopedists. The imaging report, on the other hand, is widely needed and its broad accessibility is vital for achieving optimal patient care. Moreover, a subset of relevant images may also be of wide interest along with the report. Therefore, IHE recently published a new integration profile for sharing images and imaging reports between multiple enterprises. This new profile, the Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I), is based on the XDS architecture. The XDS-I integration solution that is published as part of the IHE Technical Framework is the result of an extensive investigation effort of several design solutions. This paper presents and discusses the design challenges and the rationales behind the design decisions of the IHE XDS-I Integration Profile, for a better understanding and appreciation of the final published solution.

  18. Decentralized Software Development: Pitfalls and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Carlo

    The talk discusses different three main threads through which monolithic and centralized software development became increasingly distributed and decentralized. One is off-shoring, in which geographically distributed teams cooperate in the development of an application. Another is component-based software development, in which two separate development cycles interact: development of component and development of the composite. A third thread is software-as-service, in which the two main stakeholders (service provider and the service client) continue to interact at run time. Each of these threads has its own potential advantages over traditional software development, but also raises fundamental concerns. The talk discusses how they stress some of the conceptually difficult aspects of software development and how they introduce new problems and difficulties that did not exist before.

  19. Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjestani, Nicolas

    Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

  20. Challenges Facing 3-D Audio Display Design for Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing successful multimedia presentation depend largely on the expectations of the designer and end user for a given application. Perceptual limitations in distance, elevation and azimuth sound source simulation differ significantly between headphone and cross-talk cancellation loudspeaker listening and therefore must be considered. Simulation of an environmental context is desirable but the quality depends on processing resources and lack of interaction with the host acoustical environment. While techniques such as data reduction of head-related transfer functions have been used widely to improve simulation fidelity, another approach involves determining thresholds for environmental acoustic events. Psychoacoustic studies relevant to this approach are reviewed in consideration of multimedia applications

  1. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    The "conceptual storyline" of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content…

  2. Challenges in the Development of High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Carl Stoots

    2013-10-01

    Advanced reactor designs offer potentially significant improvements over currently operating light water reactors including improved fuel utilization, increased efficiency, higher temperature operation (enabling a new suite of non-electric industrial process heat applications), and increased safety. As with most technologies, these potential performance improvements come with a variety of challenges to bringing advanced designs to the marketplace. There are technical challenges in material selection and thermal hydraulic and power conversion design that arise particularly for higher temperature, long life operation (possibly >60 years). The process of licensing a new reactor design is also daunting, requiring significant data collection for model verification and validation to provide confidence in safety margins associated with operating a new reactor design under normal and off-normal conditions. This paper focuses on the key technical challenges associated with two proposed advanced reactor concepts: the helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the molten salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR).

  3. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  4. Ligand-targeted liposome design: challenges and fundamental considerations.

    PubMed

    Noble, Gavin T; Stefanick, Jared F; Ashley, Jonathan D; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine, particularly liposomal drug delivery, has expanded considerably over the past few decades, and several liposomal drugs are already providing improved clinical outcomes. Liposomes have now progressed beyond simple, inert drug carriers and can be designed to be highly responsive in vivo, with active targeting, increased stealth, and controlled drug-release properties. Ligand-targeted liposomes (LTLs) have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. However, these highly engineered liposomes generate new problems, such as accelerated clearance from circulation, compromised targeting owing to non-specific serum protein binding, and hindered tumor penetration. This article highlights recent challenges facing LTL strategies and describes the advanced design elements used to circumvent them. PMID:24210498

  5. Professional Development Research: Consensus, Crossroads, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Heather C.; Beisiegel, Mary; Jacob, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Commentaries regarding appropriate methods for researching professional development have been a frequent topic in recent issues of "Educational Researcher" as well as other venues. In this article, the authors extend this discussion by observing that randomized trials of specific professional development programs have not enhanced our…

  6. Challenges to Curriculum Development in Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that curriculum development in information science involves clarification of the scope and character of information science, and demands new approaches in dealing with the phenomenon of information transfer in various settings. A theoretical perspective is developed to generate novel approaches to the education of information professionals.…

  7. Computational protein design is a challenge for implicit solvation models.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Alfonso; Wodak, Shoshana J

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly complex schemes for representing solvent effects in an implicit fashion are being used in computational analyses of biological macromolecules. These schemes speed up the calculations by orders of magnitude and are assumed to compromise little on essential features of the solvation phenomenon. In this work we examine this assumption. Five implicit solvation models, a surface area-based empirical model, two models that approximate the generalized Born treatment and a finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann method are challenged in situations differing from those where these models were calibrated. These situations are encountered in automatic protein design procedures, whose job is to select sequences, which stabilize a given protein 3D structure, from a large number of alternatives. To this end we evaluate the energetic cost of burying amino acids in thousands of environments with different solvent exposures belonging, respectively, to decoys built with random sequences and to native protein crystal structures. In addition we perform actual sequence design calculations. Except for the crudest surface area-based procedure, all the tested models tend to favor the burial of polar amino acids in the protein interior over nonpolar ones, a behavior that leads to poor performance in protein design calculations. We show, on the other hand, that three of the examined models are nonetheless capable of discriminating between the native fold and many nonnative alternatives, a test commonly used to validate force fields. It is concluded that protein design is a particularly challenging test for implicit solvation models because it requires accurate estimates of the solvation contribution of individual residues. This contrasts with native recognition, which depends less on solvation and more on other nonbonded contributions.

  8. Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge. I. Experimental Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Gregory; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phil; Liao, Kai; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric; Rumbaugh, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ~103 strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of "ladders," each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  9. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Gregory; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Phil; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  10. Cancer in developing countries: opportunity and challenge.

    PubMed

    Magrath, I; Litvak, J

    1993-06-01

    Epidemiologic observations indicate that environment and lifestyle are the major determinants of the geographical patterns of cancer. The developing countries, which account for 75% of the world's population, have lower incidence rates of cancer compared with the industrialized nations but bear more than half the global cancer burden. Demographic trends resulting from economic progress (decreasing incidence of infectious diseases, population growth, aging, and urbanization), coupled with increased tobacco consumption and dietary changes, indicate that developing countries will bear a continually increasing proportion of the world's cancer burden and its accompanying demand for the provision of costly treatment programs. Yet the developing countries command only 5% of the world's economic resources, and health care programs are already fully extended and frequently inadequate. Thus, cancer control in the developing countries, including preemptive prevention of the anticipated increases in cancers presently more common in the industrialized nations (e.g., lung, breast, and colon), should include much greater emphasis on cancer prevention than is presently the case. But there is another perspective. The developing countries, with their dramatic contrasts in lifestyles and environments and equally diverse patterns of cancer, provide an unparalleled, and often neglected, opportunity for studies directed toward understanding the mechanisms of environmental carcinogenesis. Such an understanding should eventually lead to the development of novel intervention approaches. Unfortunately, cancer research is much more difficult to conduct in the developing countries because of the lack of population-based registries, poor communication and transportation systems, and deficiencies in infrastructure, financial support, and the training of health professionals. These difficulties could be overcome, to the benefit of all, if the extent of collaboration in cancer research between

  11. Integrated Simulation Design Challenges to Support TPS Repair Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Huynh, An; Nguyen, Hung T.; MacLean, John

    2006-01-01

    )ntegrated Shuttle, SRMS, ISS (with active ACS) in the orbital environment, and (5) dual-arm SRMS/SSRMS dynamics topology. Integrated simulation V&V run suites were created and correlated to verification runs from subsystem simulations, in order to establish the validity of the results. This paper discusses the simulation design challenges encountered while developing simulation capabilities to mirror the ORM operations. The paper also describes the incremental build approach that was utilized, starting with the subsystem simulation elements and integration into increasing more complex simulations until the resulting ORM worksite dynamics simulation had been assembled. Furthermore, the paper presents an overall integrated simulation V&V methodology based upon a subsystem level testing, integrated comparisons, and phased checkout.

  12. Slimhole wells challenge cementing design, execution. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsman, B.J. ); Mueller, D.T. ); Shook, R.A. )

    1994-10-01

    This is the second in a series of five articles identifying barriers to more widespread utilization of slimhole drilling and completion technologies for reducing the costs to drill and complete US gas wells. Last month, part one discussed slimhole drilling barriers. The focus of this article is slimhole cementing. Its purpose is to identify challenges to cementing operations in slim-hole applications, offer potential solutions to the challenges, and explore opportunities for additional technology development that may broaden slim-hole's applicability. Future articles will address slimhole stimulation, logging and perforating, and completion and workover tools. These articles summarize the results of a study funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and prepared by an industry team consisting of Maurer Engineering, BJ Services, Baker Oil Tools and Halliburton Energy Services.

  13. Development of a CTD biotag: Challenges and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Heather A.; Ketterl, Thomas P.; Silverman, Alex M.; Torres, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small CTD biotag that measures a suite of oceanographic data. Though presently configured to measure conductivity, temperature, and depth along with geo-location, it is expandable to acquire behaviorally related data, including acceleration, ambient light, and compass heading. The size of the instrument (100 mm x 40 mm x 20 mm) has been optimized for deployments on medium-sized marine predators such as penguins, tuna, and sharks. Several first generation prototypes have been constructed and initial laboratory and field tests have been performed and are reported. In addition, this paper highlights the challenges and difficulties encountered during the developmental process of a new biologging instrument.

  14. Sustainable development: the challenge of our times.

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1988-12-01

    Sustainable development refers to the ability to satisfy the needs of the present generation without impinging on future generations' capability to supply demands. The world's present population reached 5 billion on July 11, 1987 and is symbolized in this paper as "child 5- billion". The population is increasing at a rate of 245,000 people/day which results in an increased demand for resources. This rate is 4 times greater for less developed countries than for more developed countries. Limitations are present in a sustainable environment and include food, air, and water. More specifically, increased population demands for increased food production could result in the degradation of cropland by over-cultivation, over-irrigation, and over-grazing. Degradation of the cropland, increased demand for fuelwood, and potential urbanization would lead to deforestation and soil erosion. With increased food production, water consumption would also rise which could result in waterlogged soil, inept sewage systems, and untreated, polluted water. Furthermore, air pollution could also pose a problem and could contribute to the greenhouse effect. Concerns for global environmental management should include utilization of limited resources, chemical waste, and dangers to the biosphere. Conservation of natural resources at a national level would contribute to sustainable development in 3rd World countries. 4 suggestions offer optimism for future. These include the demand for environmental precautions, increased awareness of sustainable development at a local level for 3rd World nations, 3rd World leadership in the global sustainable development operation, and employment of population policies for 3rd World countries.

  15. Energy for development: an international challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.; Friedmann, E.; Howe, J.W.; Parra, F.R.; Pollock, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The first phase of the North-South Energy Roundtable provides background information and ideas from the ongoing international dialogue and research. The report begins by reviewing the global energy scene (by fuel) and suggesting that flexibility instead of confrontation couched in zero-sum game terms will be more productive. Areas of convergence and conflict among dialogue participants are defined in terms of their positions as oil-importing developing countries, oil-exporting developing countries, and industrialized countries. The book explores a framework for policies that will allow these countries to manage the transition from oil to other energy sources. 129 references, 16 figures, 28 tables. (DCK)

  16. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  17. Conceptualizing Heterosexual Identity Development: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes the work of R. L. Worthington and J. J. Mohr (2002); R. L. Worthington, H. B. Savoy, F. R. Dillon, and E. R. Vernaglia (2002); and J. J. Mohr (2002) on heterosexual identity development that constituted the Major Contribution section of the July 2002 issue of The Counseling Psychologist. The author provides an overview of…

  18. Dramatic Developments in the Neurosciences Challenge Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Recent dramatic developments in brain research and technology suggest that a comprehensive understanding of how the human brain works may soon be within reach. Just as the ability of the medical profession to treat patients improved dramatically with the advent of effective research skills and technology concerning the structure, biochemistry, and…

  19. Design of innovative therapeutics for pharmacoresistant epilepsy: challenges and needs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Donald F

    2013-05-01

    Effective therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy is an unmet clinical need. Pharmacologically, there are two logical approaches: super-antiictogenic drugs (SAIDs) or antiepileptogenic agents. However, can either of these agents be successfully designed and developed? Designing SAIDs or antiepileptogenics will require applying the techniques of twenty-first century drug design to this ancient "sacred disease." Before this task can be effectively realized, five fundamental needs will first have to be addressed: need for antiepileptogenic drug targets, need for druggable targets for SAIDs, need for new drug molecule platforms, need for new and relevant animal models, and need for innovative funding strategies.

  20. Challenges in image-guided therapy system design.

    PubMed

    Dimaio, Simon; Kapur, Tina; Cleary, Kevin; Aylward, Stephen; Kazanzides, Peter; Vosburgh, Kirby; Ellis, Randy; Duncan, James; Farahani, Keyvan; Lemke, Heinz; Peters, Terry; Lorensen, William Bill; Gobbi, David; Haller, John; Clarke, Laurence Larry; Pizer, Stephen; Taylor, Russell; Galloway, Robert; Fichtinger, Gabor; Hata, Nobuhiko; Lawson, Kimberly; Tempany, Clare; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc

    2007-01-01

    System development for image-guided therapy (IGT), or image-guided interventions (IGI), continues to be an area of active interest across academic and industry groups. This is an emerging field that is growing rapidly: major academic institutions and medical device manufacturers have produced IGT technologies that are in routine clinical use, dozens of high-impact publications are published in well regarded journals each year, and several small companies have successfully commercialized sophisticated IGT systems. In meetings between IGT investigators over the last two years, a consensus has emerged that several key areas must be addressed collaboratively by the community to reach the next level of impact and efficiency in IGT research and development to improve patient care. These meetings culminated in a two-day workshop that brought together several academic and industrial leaders in the field today. The goals of the workshop were to identify gaps in the engineering infrastructure available to IGT researchers, develop the role of research funding agencies and the recently established US-based National Center for Image Guided Therapy (NCIGT), and ultimately to facilitate the transfer of technology among research centers that are sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Workshop discussions spanned many of the current challenges in the development and deployment of new IGT systems. Key challenges were identified in a number of areas, including: validation standards; workflows, use-cases, and application requirements; component reusability; and device interface standards. This report elaborates on these key points and proposes research challenges that are to be addressed by a joint effort between academic, industry, and NIH participants.

  1. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  2. Advances and challenges in malaria vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruobing; Smith, Joseph D.; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the most devastating infectious diseases that threaten humankind. Human malaria is caused by five different species of Plasmodium parasites, each transmitted by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. Plasmodia are eukaryotic protozoans with more than 5000 genes and a complex life cycle that takes place in the mosquito vector and the human host. The life cycle can be divided into pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stages and mosquito stages. Malaria vaccine research and development faces formidable obstacles because many vaccine candidates will probably only be effective in a specific species at a specific stage. In addition, Plasmodium actively subverts and escapes immune responses, possibly foiling vaccine-induced immunity. Although early successful vaccinations with irradiated, live-attenuated malaria parasites suggested that a vaccine is possible, until recently, most efforts have focused on subunit vaccine approaches. Blood-stage vaccines remain a primary research focus, but real progress is evident in the development of a partially efficacious recombinant pre-erythrocytic subunit vaccine and a live-attenuated sporozoite vaccine. It is unlikely that partially effective vaccines will eliminate malaria; however, they might prove useful in combination with existing control strategies. Elimination of malaria will probably ultimately depend on the development of highly effective vaccines. PMID:20003658

  3. The industrial challenge in reproductive drug development.

    PubMed

    Southern, E M

    1978-01-01

    An enormous expenditure of time, research, and money is required to develop and market a new contraceptive in the U.S. In addition to the investigation of new scientific knowledge, the intricacy of government regulations, which are stricter for contraceptives than for most other drugs, adds to the complexity of the research process. Testing procedures are lengthy, beginning with tests on laboratory animals, and before a new contraceptive drug proven effective in animals can be tested on humans, a series of animal toxicology tests must be performed. Human clinical trials are also prolonged and complex; some 10-15 years may elapse between the discovery of a suitable contraceptive compound and final approval to market a useful product. The history of Depo-Provera illustrates some of the scientific and regulatory difficulties involved in bringing a new contraceptive to market. Because of rejection by Food and Drug Administration, despite recommendations by experts, the impact of this important new contraceptive method involving years of research has been severely curtailed. Research on prostaglandins is another contribution to the development of effective fertility control methods. Were this research to lead to the development of a safe, fully effective, self-administered agent for menstrual regulation available worldwide at a low cost, the impact on fertility could be highly significant. Overriding factors are availability of research funds and approval for marketing. Access to new, improved contraceptives will depend upon decisions by government policy-makers which effect research priorities and drug regulatory procedures.

  4. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  5. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  6. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases. PMID:25756549

  7. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  8. The RHIC project: design, status, challenges, and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Harrison, M.

    1997-04-01

    The design and construction status of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is discussed. Those novel features of a heavy ion Collider that are distinct from conventional hadron Colliders in general are noted. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range including collisions between ions of unequal energies. The project is in the fifth year of a seven-year construction cycle. A review of the superconducting magnet program is given together with progress to date on the machine construction and commissioning. Emphasis is made on challenging issues including intrabeam scattering, interaction-region error compensation, magnet alignments, and matched transition-energy jump.

  9. Intestinal targeting of drugs: rational design approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Kevin J; Varma, Manthena V; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Ambler, Catherine M; Ruggeri, Roger B; Goosen, Theunis C; Cameron, Kimberly O

    2013-01-01

    Targeting drugs to the gastrointestinal tract has been and continues to be an active area of research. Gut-targeting is an effective means of increasing the local concentration of active substance at the desired site of action while minimizing concentrations elsewhere in the body that could lead to unwanted side-effects. Several approaches to intestinal targeting exist. Physicochemical property manipulation can drive molecules to large, polar, low absorption space or alternatively to lipophilic, high clearance space in order to minimize systemic exposure. Design of compounds that are substrates for transporters within the gastrointestinal tract, either uptake or efflux, or at the hepato-biliary interface, may help to increase intestinal concentration. Prodrug strategies have been shown to be effective particularly for colon targeting, and several different technology formulation approaches are currently being researched. This review provides examples of various approaches to intestinal targeting, and discusses challenges and areas in need of future scientific advances.

  10. Design challenges and safety concept for the AVANTI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaias, G.; Ardaens, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    AVANTI is a formation-flight experiment involving two noncooperative satellites. After a brief overview of the challenges that experiment design and scenario induce, this paper presents the safety concept retained to guarantee the safety of the formation. The peculiarity of the proposed approach is that it does not rely on the continuous availability of tracking data of the client spacecraft but rather exploits the concept of passive safety of special relative trajectories. To this end, the formation safety criterion based on the minimum distance normal to the flight direction has been extended in order to be applicable also to drifting relative orbits, resulting from non-vanishing relative semi-major axis encountered during a rendezvous or produced by the action of the differential aerodynamic drag.

  11. Design Principles for High School Engineering Design Challenges: Experiences from High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    At the University of Pittsburgh, the author and his colleagues have been exploring a range of approaches to design challenges for implementation in high school science classrooms. In general, their approach has always involved students working during class time over the course of many weeks. So, their understanding of what works must be…

  12. Curriculum Design Requirements and Challenges of the Learning Society Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Sedighe; Nasr, Ahmad-Reza; Sharif, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Entering the twenty-first century with the development of communities, they are faced with the necessity of moving towards a learning society. University must extend the learning opportunities and improve the quality of them with curriculum design by learning society approach to respond to the necessity. Researchers believe that some conditions…

  13. New insights, new challenges; person centred transport design.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Andree

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the Hexagon Spindle model of ergonomics to provide a framework for the development of person centred approaches to vehicle and transport design. The benefits of taking this approach, and the factors that might be included under a more inclusive definition of automotive and Transport ergonomics are explained.

  14. Supporting Middle School Teachers' Implementation of STEM Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesseig, Kristin; Nelson, Tamara Holmlund; Slavit, David; Seidel, Ryan August

    2016-01-01

    We describe and analyze a professional development (PD) model that involved a partnership among science, mathematics and education university faculty, science and mathematics coordinators, and middle school administrators, teachers, and students. The overarching project goal involved the implementation of interdisciplinary STEM Design Challenges…

  15. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  16. Design and Development of Molecular Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging, the visualization, characterization and measurement of biological processes at the cellular, subcellular level, or even molecular level in living subjects, has rapidly gained importance in the dawning era of personalized medicine. Molecular imaging takes advantage of the traditional diagnostic imaging techniques and introduces molecular imaging probes to determine the expression of indicative molecular markers at different stages of diseases and disorders. As a key component of molecular imaging, molecular imaging probe must be able to specifically reach the target of interest in vivo while retaining long enough to be detected. A desirable molecular imaging probe with clinical translation potential is expected to have unique characteristics. Therefore, design and development of molecular imaging probe is frequently a challenging endeavor for medicinal chemists. This review summarizes the general principles of molecular imaging probe design and some fundamental strategies of molecular imaging probe development with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:20388106

  17. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Eric A. F.; DeVincenzo, John P.; Boeckh, Michael; Bont, Louis; Crowe, James E.; Griffiths, Paul; Hayden, Frederick G.; Hodinka, Richard L.; Smyth, Rosalind L.; Spencer, Keith; Thirstrup, Steffen; Walsh, Edward E.; Whitley, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Two meetings, one sponsored by the Wellcome Trust in 2012 and the other by the Global Virology Foundation in 2013, assembled academic, public health and pharmaceutical industry experts to assess the challenges and opportunities for developing antivirals for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. The practicalities of clinical trials and establishing reliable outcome measures in different target groups were discussed in the context of the regulatory pathways that could accelerate the translation of promising compounds into licensed agents. RSV drug development is hampered by the perceptions of a relatively small and fragmented market that may discourage major pharmaceutical company investment. Conversely, the public health need is far too large for RSV to be designated an orphan or neglected disease. Recent advances in understanding RSV epidemiology, improved point-of-care diagnostics, and identification of candidate antiviral drugs argue that the major obstacles to drug development can and will be overcome. Further progress will depend on studies of disease pathogenesis and knowledge provided from controlled clinical trials of these new therapeutic agents. The use of combinations of inhibitors that have different mechanisms of action may be necessary to increase antiviral potency and reduce the risk of resistance emergence. PMID:25713060

  18. Challenges and opportunities in designing clinical trials for neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Weinshenker, Brian G; Barron, Gerard; Behne, Jacinta M; Bennett, Jeffery L; Chin, Peter S; Cree, Bruce A C; de Seze, Jerome; Flor, Armando; Fujihara, Kazuo; Greenberg, Benjamin; Higashi, Sayumi; Holt, William; Khan, Omar; Knappertz, Volker; Levy, Michael; Melia, Angela T; Palace, Jacqueline; Smith, Terry J; Sormani, Maria Pia; Van Herle, Katja; VanMeter, Susan; Villoslada, Pablo; Walton, Marc K; Wasiewski, Warren; Wingerchuk, Dean M; Yeaman, Michael R

    2015-04-28

    Current management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is noncurative and only partially effective. Immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory agents are the mainstays of maintenance treatment. Safer, better-tolerated, and proven effective treatments are needed. The perceived rarity of NMO has impeded clinical trials for this disease. However, a diagnostic biomarker and recognition of a wider spectrum of NMO presentations has expanded the patient population from which study candidates might be recruited. Emerging insights into the pathogenesis of NMO have provided rationale for exploring new therapeutic targets. Academic, pharmaceutical, and regulatory communities are increasingly interested in meeting the unmet needs of patients with NMO. Clinical trials powered to yield unambiguous outcomes and designed to facilitate rapid evaluation of an expanding pipeline of experimental agents are needed. NMO-related disability occurs incrementally as a result of attacks; thus, limiting attack frequency and severity are critical treatment goals. Yet, the severity of NMO and perception that currently available agents are effective pose challenges to study design. We propose strategies for NMO clinical trials to evaluate agents targeting recovery from acute attacks and prevention of relapses, the 2 primary goals of NMO treatment. Aligning the interests of all stakeholders is an essential step to this end. PMID:25841026

  19. Rhabdomyosarcoma: current challenges and their implications for developing therapies.

    PubMed

    Hettmer, Simone; Li, Zhizhong; Billin, Andrew N; Barr, Frederic G; Cornelison, D D W; Ehrlich, Alan R; Guttridge, Denis C; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Helman, Lee J; Houghton, Peter J; Khan, Javed; Langenau, David M; Linardic, Corinne M; Pal, Ranadip; Partridge, Terence A; Pavlath, Grace K; Rota, Rossella; Schäfer, Beat W; Shipley, Janet; Stillman, Bruce; Wexler, Leonard H; Wagers, Amy J; Keller, Charles

    2014-11-03

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents a rare, heterogeneous group of mesodermal malignancies with skeletal muscle differentiation. One major subgroup of RMS tumors (so-called "fusion-positive" tumors) carries exclusive chromosomal translocations that join the DNA-binding domain of the PAX3 or PAX7 gene to the transactivation domain of the FOXO1 (previously known as FKHR) gene. Fusion-negative RMS represents a heterogeneous spectrum of tumors with frequent RAS pathway activation. Overtly metastatic disease at diagnosis is more frequently found in individuals with fusion-positive than in those with fusion-negative tumors. RMS is the most common pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma, and approximately 60% of all children and adolescents diagnosed with RMS are cured by currently available multimodal therapies. However, a curative outcome is achieved in <30% of high-risk individuals with RMS, including all those diagnosed as adults, those diagnosed with fusion-positive tumors during childhood (including metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors), and those diagnosed with metastatic disease during childhood (including fusion-positive and fusion-negative tumors). This white paper outlines current challenges in RMS research and their implications for developing more effective therapies. Urgent clinical problems include local control, systemic disease, need for improved risk stratification, and characterization of differences in disease course in children and adults. Biological challenges include definition of the cellular functions of PAX-FOXO1 fusion proteins, clarification of disease heterogeneity, elucidation of the cellular origins of RMS, delineation of the tumor microenvironment, and identification of means for rational selection and testing of new combination therapies. To streamline future therapeutic developments, it will be critical to improve access to fresh tumor tissue for research purposes, consider alternative trial designs to optimize early clinical testing of candidate

  20. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Current Challenges and Their Implications for Developing Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hettmer, Simone; Li, Zhizhong; Billin, Andrew N.; Barr, Frederic G.; Cornelison, D.D.W.; Ehrlich, Alan R.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Helman, Lee J.; Houghton, Peter J.; Khan, Javed; Langenau, David M.; Linardic, Corinne M.; Pal, Ranadip; Partridge, Terence A.; Pavlath, Grace K.; Rota, Rossella; Schäfer, Beat W.; Shipley, Janet; Stillman, Bruce; Wexler, Leonard H.; Wagers, Amy J.; Keller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents a rare, heterogeneous group of mesodermal malignancies with skeletal muscle differentiation. One major subgroup of RMS tumors (so-called “fusion-positive” tumors) carries exclusive chromosomal translocations that join the DNA-binding domain of the PAX3 or PAX7 gene to the transactivation domain of the FOXO1 (previously known as FKHR) gene. Fusion-negative RMS represents a heterogeneous spectrum of tumors with frequent RAS pathway activation. Overtly metastatic disease at diagnosis is more frequently found in individuals with fusion-positive than in those with fusion-negative tumors. RMS is the most common pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma, and approximately 60% of all children and adolescents diagnosed with RMS are cured by currently available multimodal therapies. However, a curative outcome is achieved in <30% of high-risk individuals with RMS, including all those diagnosed as adults, those diagnosed with fusion-positive tumors during childhood (including metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors), and those diagnosed with metastatic disease during childhood (including fusion-positive and fusion-negative tumors). This white paper outlines current challenges in RMS research and their implications for developing more effective therapies. Urgent clinical problems include local control, systemic disease, need for improved risk stratification, and characterization of differences in disease course in children and adults. Biological challenges include definition of the cellular functions of PAX-FOXO1 fusion proteins, clarification of disease heterogeneity, elucidation of the cellular origins of RMS, delineation of the tumor microenvironment, and identification of means for rational selection and testing of new combination therapies. To streamline future therapeutic developments, it will be critical to improve access to fresh tumor tissue for research purposes, consider alternative trial designs to optimize early clinical testing of candidate

  1. Sensium: an ultra-low-power wireless body sensor network platform: design & application challenges.

    PubMed

    Wong, A W; McDonagh, D; Omeni, O; Nunn, C; Hernandez-Silveira, M; Burdett, A J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a system-on-chip for wireless body sensor networks, which integrates a transceiver, hardware MAC protocol, microprocessor, IO peripherals, memories, ADC and custom sensor interfaces. Addressing the challenges in the design, this paper will continue to discuss the issues in the applications of this technology to body worn monitoring for real-time measurement of ECG, heart rate, physical activity, respiration and/or skin temperature. Two application challenges are described; the real-time measurement of energy expenditure using the LifePebble, and; the development issues surrounding the 'Digital Patch'.

  2. New Challenges for Rural Economic Development. Working Paper No. 400.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Edward J.; And Others

    Eleven papers on rural economic development cover challenges and opportunities; employment trends affecting nonmetropolitan areas; status of nonmetropolitan women and minorities; case studies of Vermont, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California; western urban and regional development; economic development in small cities; and rural policy…

  3. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  4. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed. PMID:25476753

  5. A snapshot of biologic drug development: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L; Ralston, S; Blomme, E; Barnhart, K

    2015-12-01

    Since the approval of insulin as the first recombinant therapeutic protein, the prominence of biologic therapies in drug development has grown significantly. Many modalities beyond traditional biologics are now being developed or explored for various indications with significant unmet medical needs. From early traditional replacement proteins to more recent, highly engineered antibodies, oligonucleotides, fusion proteins, and gene constructs, biologic agents have delivered life-changing therapies, despite often having scientifically and technically challenging development programs. This brief review outlines some of the major biotherapeutic classes and identifies the advantages and challenges with the development of these products. PMID:26614816

  6. NASA Composite Materials Development: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Pipes, R. Byron; Johnston, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials have emerged as the materials of choice for increasing the performance and reducing the weight and cost of military, general aviation, and transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. Major advancements have been made in the ability to design, fabricate, and analyze large complex aerospace structures. The recent efforts by Boeing and Airbus to incorporate composite into primary load carrying structures of large commercial transports and to certify the airworthiness of these structures is evidence of the significant advancements made in understanding and use of these materials in real world aircraft. NASA has been engaged in research on composites since the late 1960 s and has worked to address many development issues with these materials in an effort to ensure safety, improve performance, and improve affordability of air travel for the public good. This research has ranged from synthesis of advanced resin chemistries to development of mathematical analyses tools to reliably predict the response of built-up structures under combined load conditions. The lessons learned from this research are highlighted with specific examples to illustrate the problems encountered and solutions to these problems. Examples include specific technologies related to environmental effects, processing science, fabrication technologies, nondestructive inspection, damage tolerance, micromechanics, structural mechanics, and residual life prediction. The current state of the technology is reviewed and key issues requiring additional research identified. Also, grand challenges to be solved for expanded use of composites in aero structures are identified.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasonography: Challenges and opportunities in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Furqaan

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has become a vital diagnostic modality for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pancreatic cysts and masses, anorectal pathology, subepithelial gastrointestinal lesions, and for the staging of many gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. Establishing a EUS program in a developing country presents many challenges. Doing so in Pakistan has led to the identification of the following challenges: initial investment, ongoing costs (particularly fine needle aspiration needle costs), awareness and cytopathology. Endoscopic ultrasonography has revolutionized aspects of the practice of gastroenterology and oncology in the West. This technique is becoming increasingly available in the developing world, where it poses unique challenges to its practice. These challenges include those relating to service initiation and maintenance costs, physician awareness, and on-site cytopathology access. If these issues are anticipated and addressed in ways appropriate to local circumstances, obstacles to the institution of EUS programs can be overcome.

  8. Challenges in the Development of Environmental Management Systems on the Modern University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bero, Bridget N.; Doerry, Eckehard; Middleton, Ryan; Meinhardt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe challenges and lessons learned in the design and development of a comprehensive, flexible environmental management system (EMS) in a real university setting; also to inform development of similar systems elsewhere and provide a modular, extensible software architecture for such efforts.…

  9. Berkeley Lab scientists develop criteria for $20 million energy challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Labs Iain Walker and his colleagues in environmental energy research helped the Siebel Foundation develop the criteria for its Energy Free Home Challenge, which comes with a $20 million global incentive prize. The Challenge is a competition to create a new generation of systems and technologies for practical homes that realize a net-zero, non-renewable energy footprint without increasing the cost of ownership. It is open to everyone everywhere ? university teams to handymen and hobbyists.

  10. 32 CFR 1907.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.24 Designation of authority to hear challenges. The Deputy..., established pursuant to 32 CFR 1900.41, as the Agency authority to hear and decide challenges under...

  11. 32 CFR 1907.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.24 Designation of authority to hear challenges. The Deputy..., established pursuant to 32 CFR 1900.41, as the Agency authority to hear and decide challenges under...

  12. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 21, 2012 Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as...

  13. Developing Designer Identity through Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Hutchinson, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    As designers utilize design thinking while moving through a design space between problem and solution, they must rely on design intelligence, precedents, and intuition in order to arrive at meaningful and inventive outcomes. Thus, instructional designers must constantly re-conceptualize their own identities and what it means to be a designer.…

  14. The Challenges Facing Staff Development in Promoting Quality Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Debbi

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of an academic professional development program, related to the use of WebCT in teaching programs, and discusses the challenges that have arisen for the members of the staff development team since the original implementation of the program. The training program begins with face-to-face workshops, covering…

  15. ARISE: A Challenging 25-m Space Antenna Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Hoferer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth). Future scientific and communications missions are conceptualizing using very large reflector antennas in space. The antenna dimensions are targeted from lOm to 25m beyond. Frequencies coveting L-band through W-band are being considered. these challenging missions, one may refer to ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth), which is projected to utilize a 25-m dual Gregorian optics operating from 8 GHz to 86 Gl-lz . An artist's renditions Gregorian antenna concept is shown . The objective of this mission is to create a space-based VLBI system (integrated with ground based antennas) for high resolution mapping of black holes. Successful realization of ARISE necessitates development of several technologies . The most crucial technology is that of the deployable 25-m reflector that must work at frequencies as high as 43 and 86 GHz. The current baseline selection for ARISE is an inflatable antenna, under development for several other applications in communications and remote sensing.

  16. Management of Haemophilia in Developing Countries: Challenges and Options.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka

    2016-09-01

    There are significant challenges in managing haemophilia patients in developing countries. These challenges are (i) Lack of proper health care infrastructure and human resources suitable for haemophilia care (ii) Competing health care priorities of the government. (iii) Lack of penetrance of medical insurance in the population. (iv) Lesser visibility of the haemophilia patients in health care system (v) Low awareness across the medical profession, population and the policy makers about the condition (vi) Non availability of factor concentrates (vii) Inadequate utilization of knowledge for reducing factor concentrate use. (viii) Inadequate pain relief (ix) Challenges due to inhibitor developing (x) Viral hepatitis & (xi) Lack of research publications relevant to the country are some of the challenges faced by PWH for their management in developing country. The solutions are not easy but development of a strong patient organization with linkages with World Federation of Haemophilia is an important initial step. Following that internal and international twinning, use of internal sources, strong advocacy programme targeting government, doctors, opinion makers will solve many of the challenges in the time to come. PMID:27429529

  17. AGING SYSTEM DESIGN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. Beesley

    2005-02-07

    This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository.

  18. Progress versus precision: challenges in clinical trial design for left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Parides, Michael K; Moskowitz, Alan J; Ascheim, Deborah D; Rose, Eric A; Gelijns, Annetine C

    2006-09-01

    New left ventricular assist devices promise fewer adverse events but, currently, only minor improvements in survival. Small (survival) treatment effects, limited patient populations, and the increasing number of left ventricular assist devices in development challenge the efficient conduct of premarketing trials (especially in destination therapy) and, maybe more importantly, hamper innovation. Novel trial designs would facilitate this process. Among a range of trial designs, we opt for small randomized trials, which would preserve the advantages of randomization and also allow for a shorter enrollment period. We also advocate an evidence shift toward postmarketing studies, with the Interagency Registry of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support providing a robust infrastructure. PMID:16928569

  19. Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

  20. Development of a waterborne challenge model for Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Long, Amy; Fehringer, Tyson R; LaFrentz, Benjamin R; Call, Douglas R; Cain, Kenneth D

    2014-10-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease and can cause significant mortality in salmonid aquaculture. To better evaluate disease prevention or treatment methods for F. psychrophilum in the laboratory, a waterborne challenge model that mimics a natural outbreak is needed. Here we report on the development of a waterborne challenge model for F. psychrophilum in which we incorporated variables that may influence challenge success: specifically, scarification prior to bacterial exposure and culture of F. psychrophilum under iron-limited culture conditions to potentially increase the probability of establishing disease. Additionally, two F. psychrophilum strains, CSF 259-93 and THC 02-90, were used in this model to test whether there were virulence differences between strains. Mortality was significantly higher in scarred fish than unscarred fish (81.5 vs. 19.4%), supporting the hypothesis that disruptions in the dermal layer enhance mortality in F. psychrophilum waterborne challenges. Although mortality differences were not significant between iron-replete and iron-limited treatments, mortality was high overall (> 30%). There was a significant difference in mortality between CSF 259-93 and THC 02-90 treatments, although both strains caused high mortality in injection challenges. In conclusion, this waterborne challenge model can be used to evaluate potential disease prevention and treatment methods.

  1. Some challenges in designing a lunar, Martian, or microgravity CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    The design of a bioregenerative life-support system (a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System or CELSS) for long-duration stays on the moon, Mars, or in a space craft poses formidable problems in engineering and in theory. Technological (hardware) problems include: (1) Creation and control of gas composition and pressure, temperature, light, humidity, and air circulation, especially in microgravity to 1/3xg and in the vacuum of space. Light (energy demanding), CO 2 levels, and the rooting media are special problems for plants. (2) Developing specialized equipment for food preparation. (3) Equipment development for waste recycling. (4) Development of computer systems for environmental monitoring and control as well as several other functions. Problems of theory (software) include: (1) Determining crop species and cultivars (some bred especially for CELSS). (2) Optimum environments and growing and harvesting techniques for each crop. (3) Best and most efficient food-preparation techniques and required equipment. (4) Best and most efficient waste-recycling techniques and equipment. This topic includes questions about the extent of closure, resupply, and waste storage. (5) How to achieve long-term stability. (6) How to avoid catastrophic failures-and how to recover from near-catastrophic failures (for example, plant diseases). Many problems must be solved.

  2. Some challenges in designing a lunar, Martian, or microgravity CELSS.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, F B

    1992-01-01

    The design of a bioregenerative life-support system (a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System or CELSS) for long-duration stays on the moon, Mars, or in a space craft poses formidable problems in engineering and in theory. Technological (hardware) problems include: (1) Creation and control of gas composition and pressure, temperature, light, humidity, and air circulation, especially in microgravity to 1/3 xg and in the vacuum of space. Light (energy demanding), CO2 levels, and the rooting media are special problems for plants. (2) Developing specialized equipment for food preparation. (3) Equipment development for waste recycling. (4) Development of computer systems for environmental monitoring and control as well as several other functions. Problems of theory (software) include: (1) Determining crop species and cultivars (some bred especially for CELSS). (2) Optimum environments and growing and harvesting techniques for each crop. (3) Best and most efficient food-preparation techniques and required equipment. (4) Best and most efficient waste-recycling techniques and equipment. This topic includes questions about the extent of closure, resupply, and waste storage. (5) How to achieve long-term stability. (6) How to avoid catastrophic failures--and how to recover from near-catastrophic failures (for example, plant diseases). Many problems must be solved.

  3. Some challenges in designing a lunar, Martian, or microgravity CELSS.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, F B

    1992-01-01

    The design of a bioregenerative life-support system (a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System or CELSS) for long-duration stays on the moon, Mars, or in a space craft poses formidable problems in engineering and in theory. Technological (hardware) problems include: (1) Creation and control of gas composition and pressure, temperature, light, humidity, and air circulation, especially in microgravity to 1/3 xg and in the vacuum of space. Light (energy demanding), CO2 levels, and the rooting media are special problems for plants. (2) Developing specialized equipment for food preparation. (3) Equipment development for waste recycling. (4) Development of computer systems for environmental monitoring and control as well as several other functions. Problems of theory (software) include: (1) Determining crop species and cultivars (some bred especially for CELSS). (2) Optimum environments and growing and harvesting techniques for each crop. (3) Best and most efficient food-preparation techniques and required equipment. (4) Best and most efficient waste-recycling techniques and equipment. This topic includes questions about the extent of closure, resupply, and waste storage. (5) How to achieve long-term stability. (6) How to avoid catastrophic failures--and how to recover from near-catastrophic failures (for example, plant diseases). Many problems must be solved. PMID:11537566

  4. Drug Development and Challenges for Neuromuscular Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    El Mouelhi, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Drug development process faces many challenges, including those encountered in clinical trials for neuromuscular diseases. Drug development is a lengthy and highly costly process. Out of 10 compounds entering first study in man (phase 1), only one compound reaches the market after an average of 14 years with a cost of $2.7 billion. Nevertheless, according to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services, prescription drugs constituted only 9 % of each health care dollar spent in USA in 2013. Examples of challenges encountered in neuromuscular clinical trials include lack of validated patient-reported outcome tools, blinding issues, and the use of placebo in addition to lack of health authority guidance for orphan diseases. Patient enrollment challenge is the leading cause of missed clinical trial deadlines observed in about 80 % of clinical trials, resulting in delayed availability of potentially life-saving therapies. Another specific challenge introduced by recent technology is the use of social media and risk of bias. Sharing personal experiences while in the study could easily introduce bias among patients that would interfere with accurate interpretation of collected data. To minimize this risk, recent neuromuscular studies incorporate as an inclusion criterion the patient's agreement not to share any of study experiences through social media with other patients during the study conduct. Consideration of these challenges will allow timely response to the high unmet medical needs for many neuromuscular diseases. PMID:26691331

  5. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  6. Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane R.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years…

  7. Skills Development, Employment and Sustained Growth in Ghana: Sustainability Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Against a backdrop of some two decades of sustained economic growth in Ghana, this paper argues that there are a series of sustainability challenges related to technical and vocational skills development (TVSD) that need to be addressed. This paper analyses several sustainability dimensions of TVSD related to: promoting the sustainability of…

  8. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  9. Progress and Challenges in the Youth Development Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgespan Group, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a panel discussion, moderated by Kelly Campbell (a partner at Bridgespan), as part of Bridgespan's 10th anniversary celebration held in May 2010. The topic for conversation was "Progress and Challenges in the Youth Development Field." The invited panelists included: Earl Martin Phalen, co-founder of "BELL"…

  10. Development of a sheep challenge model for Rift Valley fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that causes severe epizootic disease in ruminants, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in younger animals. The development of a reliable challenge model is an important prerequisite for evaluation of existing and novel vaccines. A stu...

  11. Tuberculosis vaccine development: Shifting focus amid increasing development challenges

    PubMed Central

    Graves, AJ; Hokey, DA

    2015-01-01

    A new tuberculosis vaccine is needed to replace or enhance BCG, which induces variable protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis pulmonary infections in adults. Development of new TB vaccine candidates is severely hampered by the lack of a correlate of immunity, unproven animal models, and limited funding opportunities. One candidate, MVA85A, recently failed to meet its efficacy endpoint goals despite promising early-phase trial data. As a result, some in the field believe we should now shift our focus away from product development and toward a research-oriented approach. Here, we outline our suggestions for this research-oriented strategy including diversification of the candidate pipeline, expanding measurements of immunity, improving pre-clinical animal models, and investing in combination pre-clinical/experimental medicine studies. As with any evolution, this change in strategy comes at a cost but may also represent an opportunity for advancing the field. PMID:26125249

  12. Challenges and Learning Outcomes of Educational Design Research for PhD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronkhorst, Larike H.; de Kleijn, Renske A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational design research (EDR) is described as a complex research approach. The challenges resulting from this complexity are typically described as procedural, whereas EDR might also be challenging for different reasons, specifically for early career researchers. Yet, challenging experiences may be noteworthy in the process of learning to do…

  13. High School Engineering and Technology Education Integration through Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This study contextualized the use of the engineering design process by providing descriptions of how each element in a design process was integrated in an eleventh grade industry and engineering systems course. The guiding research question for this inquiry was: How do students engage in the engineering design process in a course where technology…

  14. Designing Groups to Meet Evolving Challenges in Health Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Hart, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the special issue on groups in health care settings and describes how each contribution addresses challenges and opportunities in the health care field for group work. Fundamental criteria for evaluating groups in such settings are applied to each contribution. Finally, trends and opportunities about the future…

  15. Methods and challenges in quantitative imaging biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Richard G; Burton, Kirsteen R; Yu, John-Paul J; Scalzetti, Ernest M; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Bartholmai, Brian J; Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy; Lenchik, Leon; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2015-01-01

    Academic radiology is poised to play an important role in the development and implementation of quantitative imaging (QI) tools. This article, drafted by the Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Quantitative Imaging Task Force, reviews current issues in QI biomarker research. We discuss motivations for advancing QI, define key terms, present a framework for QI biomarker research, and outline challenges in QI biomarker development. We conclude by describing where QI research and development is currently taking place and discussing the paramount role of academic radiology in this rapidly evolving field.

  16. Academic Preparedness as a Predictor of Achievement in an Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan; Becker, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a student's academic success, measured by grade point average (GPA) in mathematics, science, and communication courses, is correlated with student change in achievement during an engineering design challenge. Engineering design challenges have been implemented and researched in K-16 environments where…

  17. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  18. The challenge of inclusive design in the US context.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Valerie; Bonome-Sims, Gabriela; Knecht, Barbara; Ostroff, Elaine; Otitigbe, Jennifer; Parente, Maura; Safdie, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the evolution of thinking and practice of inclusive design in the United States since 1993, the year of the first special edition of Applied Ergonomics on inclusive design. It frames the examination initially in terms of the US social mores that substantially influence behavior and attitudes from a defining individualism to legal mandates for accessibility to the nation's ingrained obsession with youth and delusional attitudes about aging. The authors explore the disparate patterns across the design disciplines and identify promising linkages and patterns that may be harbingers of a more expansive embrace of inclusive design in the years ahead. PMID:24529531

  19. The challenge of inclusive design in the US context.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Valerie; Bonome-Sims, Gabriela; Knecht, Barbara; Ostroff, Elaine; Otitigbe, Jennifer; Parente, Maura; Safdie, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the evolution of thinking and practice of inclusive design in the United States since 1993, the year of the first special edition of Applied Ergonomics on inclusive design. It frames the examination initially in terms of the US social mores that substantially influence behavior and attitudes from a defining individualism to legal mandates for accessibility to the nation's ingrained obsession with youth and delusional attitudes about aging. The authors explore the disparate patterns across the design disciplines and identify promising linkages and patterns that may be harbingers of a more expansive embrace of inclusive design in the years ahead.

  20. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  1. Cassini/Huygens: a challenge in international interface design, integration, and cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Donald H.

    1996-10-01

    The Cassini mission is a joint venture between NASA, European Space Agency (ESA), and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A major interface is between the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) provided Orbiter and the ESA provided Atmospheric Probe. The Orbiter is designed to orbit the planet Saturn, while the Probe will descend into the atmosphere and impact the surface of Titan. After years of study and scientific meetings between NASA, JPL, and ESA, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between NASA and ESA on 17 December 1990. Project teams were formed at JPL and ESA and work began on the interface definition and integration of the Probe onto the Orbiter. Unique challenges were presented due to the fact that this was the first such atmospheric probe designed and developed in Europe, the complicated mechanical and electrical interface between the Probe and the Orbiter, and the nine hour time difference between JPL and ESA. As with the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Orbiter provides an environmentally acceptable vehicle for the Probe during the long cruise phase, a communication link to Earth for periodic Probe checkouts during this cruise phase, a stable and accurately pointed platform for Probe separation, and a relay link to Earth for the actual Probe mission descent into the Titan atmosphere. Management and technical interchange tools were developed to address these challenges. The Probe design and its interface with the Orbiter are the result of this effort.

  2. Float Your Boat: Making Instant Design Challenges Meaningful and Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehrli, Robbie

    2016-01-01

    Engineering design is a core component of technology and engineering education, and although not every student will become an engineer following high school, all students can profit from having engineering design experiences in high school (Apedoe, Reynolds, Ellefson, & Schunn, 2008; Denson & Lammi, 2014; Grubbs & Strimel, 2015;…

  3. Integrating Engineering Design Challenges into Secondary STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Ronald L.; Strobel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Engineering is being currently taught in the full spectrum of the P-12 system, with an emphasis on design-oriented teaching (Brophy, Klein, Portsmore, & Rogers, 2008). Due to only a small amount of research on the learning of engineering design in elementary and middle school settings, the community of practice lacks the necessary knowledge of the…

  4. Signals, Transducers, and Modulation: A Wireless Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    In this age of cell phones, digital television, and satellite radio, individuals easily forget that information and energy must undergo complex transformations to enable real-time wireless communication. This article describes a practical and proven design activity that enables secondary and post-secondary students to design and test a modulator…

  5. Teacher Challenges to Implement Engineering Design in Secondary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. This article is the third article in a three-part series presenting the results of this study. The first article in the series titled "Examination of Engineering Design Curriculum Content" highlighted the research…

  6. Participatory Design in Open Education: A Workshop Model for Developing a Pattern Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor, Yishay; Winters, Niall

    2008-01-01

    Technologically enhanced learning environments raise complex challenges for their designers, developers and users. Design patterns and pattern languages have recently emerged as a potential framework for addressing some of these challenges. However, the uptake of design patterns has been slow outside of the computer science community. We argue…

  7. The aerospace plane design challenge - Credible computational fluid dynamics results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1990-01-01

    In order to establish the credibility of CFD results utilized in aerospace plane design, the following topics are discussed: CFD validation in relation to 'measureable' fluid dynamics (MFD) validation, credibility requirements, responsibility for credibility, and a guide for establishing credibility. What is of paramount concern for fluid dynamic design is not CFD code validation but qualification of CFD unknowns so that their magnitude is greatly reduced and that these uncertainties are employed for designing with margin. The designers must be trained to properly use CFD if they are to produce good designs. In approximately 70 percent of the flight envelopes of SSTO aerospace planes with supersonic combustion, CFD will be necessary to determine dynamics performance and specifications.

  8. Design requirements, challenges, and solutions for high-temperature falling particle receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford

    2016-05-01

    Falling particle receivers (FPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. Previous analysis for FPR systems include computational fluid dynamics (CFD), analytical evaluations, and experiments to determine the feasibility and achievability of this CSP technology. Sandia National Laboratories has fabricated and tested a 1 MWth FPR that consists of a cavity receiver, top hopper, bottom hopper, support structure, particle elevator, flux target, and instrumentation. Design requirements and inherent challenges were addressed to enable continuous operation of flowing particles under high-flux conditions and particle temperatures over 700 °C. Challenges include being able to withstand extremely high temperatures (up to 1200°C on the walls of the cavity), maintaining particle flow and conveyance, measuring temperatures and mass flow rates, filtering out debris, protecting components from direct flux spillage, and measuring irradiance in the cavity. Each of the major components of the system is separated into design requirements, associated challenges and corresponding solutions. The intent is to provide industry and researchers with lessons learned to avoid pitfalls and technical problems encountered during the development of Sandia's prototype particle receiver system at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF).

  9. Challenges and approaches for the development of safer immunomodulatory biologics.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Jean G; Sethu, Swaminathan; Bielsky, Marie-Christine; de Haan, Lolke; French, Neil S; Govindappa, Karthik; Green, James; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Holgate, Stephen; Jones, David; Kimber, Ian; Moggs, Jonathan; Naisbitt, Dean J; Pirmohamed, Munir; Reichmann, Gabriele; Sims, Jennifer; Subramanyam, Meena; Todd, Marque D; Van Der Laan, Jan Willem; Weaver, Richard J; Park, B Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Immunomodulatory biologics, which render their therapeutic effects by modulating or harnessing immune responses, have proven their therapeutic utility in several complex conditions including cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, unwanted adverse reactions--including serious infections, malignancy, cytokine release syndrome, anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity as well as immunogenicity--pose a challenge to the development of new (and safer) immunomodulatory biologics. In this article, we assess the safety issues associated with immunomodulatory biologics and discuss the current approaches for predicting and mitigating adverse reactions associated with their use. We also outline how these approaches can inform the development of safer immunomodulatory biologics. PMID:23535934

  10. Chronic peritoneal dialysis catheters: challenges and design solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, S R

    2006-01-01

    Although highly successful as transcutaneous access devices, today's peritoneal dialysis catheters still have imperfect hydraulic function, biocompatibility and resistance to infection. Success of Tenckhoff catheters is greatly improved by the proper positioning of deep and subcutaneous cuffs and intraperitoneal segment. Newer peritoneal catheter designs are intended to improve hydraulic function, avoid outflow failure, and diminish exit site infection. These catheter designs serve as excellent alternatives for patients with various types of failure of Tenckhoff catheters. Catheters have been designed for Continuous Flow Peritoneal Dialysis, and have generally been successful in providing high peritoneal dialysis flow rate, but not always successful in optimally distributing flow of peritoneal fluid. Improvements in catheter design may expand the use of peritoneal dialysis as a successful home dialysis therapy. PMID:16485243

  11. Developing an Inpatient Group Psychotherapy Program: Challenges and Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Razaghi, Emran Mohammad; Tabatabaee, Maryam; Pourramzani, Ali; Shirali Mohammadpour, Reza; Mousazade Moghaddam, Arezou; Yahyavi, Seyyed Taha

    2015-01-01

    In Iran, inpatient group psychotherapy has been limited to transient practices for research purposes or fulfilling personal interest of therapists. The goal of this paper is to share and explain the experience of developing an inpatient group psychotherapy program in Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, Iran. After theoretical delineation and preparation of a draft of the program guideline, two pilot sessions were held. Based on this initial experience a final treatment guideline was prepared. Afterwards, the program was continued for more than 1 year in a female ward at Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. The output of this exercise was a guideline that covers important topics in development of inpatient group psychotherapy. It is concluded that inpatient group psychotherapy has its unique challenges. Of the most important challenges that can be mentioned in this regard are the participation of patients with significant differences in levels of psychopathology and psychiatric signs and symptoms, and high comorbidity with specific personality traits or disorders. Other challenges relevant to the structure of the group include items such as very limited time for working through and inevitable out-of-group contacts. PMID:26576176

  12. Challenges in the clinical development of a dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Derek; Canouet, Vincent; Garbes, Pedro; Wartel, T Anh

    2013-06-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal viral disease for which treatment is limited to supportive care, and prevention and control are based on mosquito vector control programs. It is the fastest growing arboviral infection and is currently endemic in more than 100 tropical and subtropical countries, placing over 40% of the world's population at risk. At least 50 million infections are thought to occur annually, resulting in approximately 500000 hospitalizations, mainly in children. In the context of an expanding and potentially fatal infectious disease without effective prevention or specific treatment, the public health value of a protective vaccine is clear. This review considers some of the challenges to dengue vaccine development, and in particular the challenges of demonstrating dengue vaccine efficacy.

  13. Challenges and approaches to statistical design and inference in high-dimensional investigations.

    PubMed

    Gadbury, Gary L; Garrett, Karen A; Allison, David B

    2009-01-01

    Advances in modern technologies have facilitated high-dimensional experiments (HDEs) that generate tremendous amounts of genomic, proteomic, and other "omic" data. HDEs involving whole-genome sequences and polymorphisms, expression levels of genes, protein abundance measurements, and combinations thereof have become a vanguard for new analytic approaches to the analysis of HDE data. Such situations demand creative approaches to the processes of statistical inference, estimation, prediction, classification, and study design. The novel and challenging biological questions asked from HDE data have resulted in many specialized analytic techniques being developed. This chapter discusses some of the unique statistical challenges facing investigators studying high-dimensional biology and describes some approaches being developed by statistical scientists. We have included some focus on the increasing interest in questions involving testing multiple propositions simultaneously, appropriate inferential indicators for the types of questions biologists are interested in, and the need for replication of results across independent studies, investigators, and settings. A key consideration inherent throughout is the challenge in providing methods that a statistician judges to be sound and a biologist finds informative.

  14. Curriculum Design and Neuropsychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research in the neurosciences is supplying much useful information for teachers and curriculum planners. Particularly promising areas of study are brain growth, periodization, and cerebral lateralization and dominance. More interactions between researchers in learning psychology, curriculum design, and the neurosciences is necessary. (FG)

  15. [Current situation and challenges in companion diagnostics development].

    PubMed

    Nishida, Miwa

    2014-12-01

    The personalized health care, it is defined as a medical care which provide the optimal therapy for each individual in consideration of a patient's individual difference, such as a genetic background and a physiological state. A companion diagnosis to stratify a patient appropriately is essential for the spread of personalized health care, and it is important that a companion diagnostic reagent used for the companion diagnosis is properly developed and clinically applied. However, as for the development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceuticals that require it, there are still many challenges such as its business model of cooperation of diagnostics companies and pharmaceutical companies, also, the regulations related to companion diagnostics. Furthermore, even in clinical practice, there are many issues such as the way of reimbursement for companion diagnostics and also the handling of laboratory developed test (LDT) as companion diagnostics. These are issues that should continue to discuss with industry, government and academia. In this report, from the point of view of a diagnostics company, we discuss the various challenges in clinical applications from the development of companion diagnostics. PMID:25596043

  16. Issues and Challenges in the Design of Culturally Adapted Evidence-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe González; Barrera, Manuel; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines issues and challenges in the design of cultural adaptations that are developed from an original evidence-based intervention (EBI). Recently emerging multistep frameworks or stage models are examined, as these can systematically guide the development of culturally adapted EBIs. Critical issues are also presented regarding whether and how such adaptations may be conducted, and empirical evidence is presented regarding the effectiveness of such cultural adaptations. Recent evidence suggests that these cultural adaptations are effective when applied with certain subcultural groups, although they are less effective when applied with other subcultural groups. Generally, current evidence regarding the effectiveness of cultural adaptations is promising but mixed. Further research is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of culturally adapted EBIs. Directions for future research and recommendations are presented to guide the development of a new generation of culturally adapted EBIs. PMID:20192800

  17. Challenges and Progress in Aerodynamic Design of Hybrid Wingbody Aircraft with Embedded Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, May-Fun

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the contributions to high-fidelity capabilities for analysis and design of hybrid wingbody (HWB) configurations considered by NASA. Specifically, we focus on the embedded propulsion concepts of the N2-B and N3-X configurations, some of the future concepts seriously investigated by the NASA Fixed Wing Project. The objective is to develop the capability to compute the integrated propulsion and airframe system realistically in geometry and accurately in flow physics. In particular, the propulsion system (including the entire engine core-compressor, combustor, and turbine stages) is vastly more difficult and costly to simulate with the same level of fidelity as the external aerodynamics. Hence, we develop an accurate modeling approach that retains important physical parameters relevant to aerodynamic and propulsion analyses for evaluating the HWB concepts. Having the analytical capabilities at our disposal, concerns and issues that were considered to be critical for the HWB concepts can now be assessed reliably and systematically; assumptions invoked by previous studies were found to have serious consequences in our study. During this task, we establish firmly that aerodynamic analysis of a HWB concept without including installation of the propulsion system is far from realistic and can be misleading. Challenges in delivering the often-cited advantages that belong to the HWB are the focus of our study and are emphasized in this report. We have attempted to address these challenges and have had successes, which are summarized here. Some can have broad implications, such as the concept of flow conditioning for reducing flow distortion and the modeling of fan stages. The design optimization capability developed for improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline HWB configurations is general and can be employed for other applications. Further improvement of the N3-X configuration can be expected by expanding the design space. Finally, the support of

  18. Challenges of Designing the Next Generation of America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Daniel L.

    1998-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design at the University of Virginia, with associates representing architecture, business, education, engineering, sociology, and technology, wants to redesign both schools and schooling. The goal is to raise standards without destroying hope, promote responsibility without sacrificing safety, expand…

  19. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  20. Challenge Students to Design an Energy-Efficient Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity that gives students a practical understanding of how much energy the average home consumes and wastes, and shows how the construction technologies used in home design affect overall energy usage. In this activity, students will outline the cost of a home's electrical system, give a breakdown of how much power the…

  1. Two Paper Airplane Design Challenges: Customizing for Different Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Meyer, Allison Antink

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of scientific inquiry into college classrooms has steadily risen as faculty work to move away from exclusively didactic methods. One type of inquiry structure, the design task, produces a product rather than simply a conclusion. This offers students a context to apply their understanding of content in a tangible way that has…

  2. A unique peptide deformylase platform to rationally design and challenge novel active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fieulaine, Sonia; Alves de Sousa, Rodolphe; Maigre, Laure; Hamiche, Karim; Alimi, Mickael; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Taleb, Abbass; Denis, Alexis; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Artaud, Isabelle; Meinnel, Thierry; Giglione, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is considered an excellent target to develop antibiotics. We have performed an extensive characterization of a new PDF from the pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae, showing properties similar to other known PDFs. S. agalactiae PDF could be used as PDF prototype as it allowed to get complete sets of 3-dimensional, biophysical and kinetic data with virtually any inhibitor compound. Structure-activity relationship analysis with this single reference system allowed us to reveal distinct binding modes for different PDF inhibitors and the key role of a hydrogen bond in potentiating the interaction between ligand and target. We propose this protein as an irreplaceable tool, allowing easy and relevant fine comparisons between series, to design, challenge and validate novel series of inhibitors. As proof-of-concept, we report here the design and synthesis of effective specific bacterial PDF inhibitors of an oxadiazole series with potent antimicrobial activity against a multidrug resistant clinical isolate. PMID:27762275

  3. Diabetes mellitus: Exploring the challenges in the drug development process.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Julius A; Patnaik, Ashis

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and continues to be a major burden on society globally. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated the global burden of diabetes to be 366 million in 2011 and predicted that by 2030 this will have risen to 552 million. In spite of newer and effective treatment options, newer delivery and diagnostic devices, stricter glycaemic targets, better treatment guidelines and increased awareness of the disease, baseline glycosylated hemoglobin remains relatively high in subjects diagnosed and treated with type 2 diabetes. The search continues for an ideal anti diabetic drug that will not only normalize blood glucose but also provide beta cell rest and possibly restoration of beta cell function. The development of anti diabetic drugs is riddled with fundamental challenges. The concept of beta cell rest and restoration is yet to be completely understood and proven on a long term. The ideal therapeutic approach to treating type 2 diabetes is not yet determined. Our understanding of drug safety in early clinical development is primarily limited to "Type A" reactions. Until marketing authorization most drugs are approved based on the principle of confirming non-inferiority with an existing gold standard or determining superiority to a placebo. The need to obtain robust pharmaco-economic data prior to marketing authorization in order to determine appropriate pricing of a new drug remains a major challenge. The present review outlines some of the challenges in drug development of anti-diabetic drugs citing examples of pulmonary insulin, insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones and the GLP1 analogues. PMID:23125962

  4. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    PubMed Central

    Shabaruddin, Fatiha H; Fleeman, Nigel D; Payne, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response) or safety (avoidance of adverse events). The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are interlinked: the need to adapt available evaluation methods and identifying who is responsible for generating evidence for these technologies. PMID:26309416

  5. Development and innovation on integrated engineering optics system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Quanxin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Liwei

    2010-10-01

    Answer the new challenge in project research and development on multiple subjects multiple domain, engineering optics, system design and essential methods applied to structure effective system. Base on system engineering theory, traditional optical design optimization is developed. General global optimization, which based on central optics system integrated with up-to-date comprehensive modules and methods in created way, is presented and supported by abundant results of research and development, especially on multiple configuration and adaptive system optimization. Advantages such as system intellect, response ability, research periods, venture eluding and compatibility for renew situations demonstrate validity and potential.

  6. Dengue vaccines: recent developments, ongoing challenges and current candidates

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Monica A.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Edelman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dengue is among the most prevalent and important arbovirus diseases of humans. In order to effectively control this rapidly spreading disease, control of the vector mosquito and a safe and efficacious vaccine are critical. Despite considerable efforts, the development of a successful vaccine has remained elusive. Multiple factors have complicated the creation of a successful vaccine, not the least of which are the complex, immune-mediated responses against four antigenically distinct serotypes necessitating a tetravalent vaccine providing long lasting protective immunity. Despite the multiple impediments, there are currently many promising vaccine candidates in pre-clinical and clinical development. Here we review the recent advances in dengue virus vaccine development and briefly discuss the challenges associated with the use of these vaccines as a public health tool. PMID:23984962

  7. Challenges in developing nutrient guidelines for companion animals.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, Richard F; Erdman, John W; Hill, Richard C; Lewis, Austin J; Whittemore, Colin T

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present review is to highlight some of the challenges and issues in developing nutritional guidelines for companion animals, and to provide some insights that may influence their future direction. For this purpose, we have chosen to provide a brief historical review of the development of dog and cat nutrient guidelines, and an analysis of current recommendations and of key institutions and bodies (notably the National Research Council) that are influential in defining nutrient guidelines for companion animals. In addition, we have also included a review of current approaches for defining nutritional guidelines for humans and farm animal livestock, as they provide differing perspectives and insights that may be instructive for the future development of nutritional guidelines for companion animals. PMID:22005432

  8. Dengue vaccines: recent developments, ongoing challenges and current candidates.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Monica A; Sztein, Marcelo B; Edelman, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Dengue is among the most prevalent and important arbovirus diseases of humans. To effectively control this rapidly spreading disease, control of the vector mosquito and a safe and efficacious vaccine are critical. Despite considerable efforts, the development of a successful vaccine has remained elusive. Multiple factors have complicated the creation of a successful vaccine, not the least of which are the complex, immune-mediated responses against four antigenically distinct serotypes necessitating a tetravalent vaccine providing long-lasting protective immunity. Despite the multiple impediments, there are currently many promising vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical development. Here, the recent advances in dengue virus vaccine development are reviewed and the challenges associated with the use of these vaccines as a public health tool are briefly discussed. PMID:23984962

  9. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  10. Global challenges in the development and delivery of paediatric antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Asha; Palasanthiran, Pamela; Sohn, Annette H

    2008-06-01

    By the end of 2006, compared with 28% coverage for adults, only 15% of children with HIV that needed antiretroviral treatment were receiving it. Major challenges in delivering treatment include the lack of paediatric antiretrovirals that can be dosed in small children and limited studies examining safety and efficacy for existing antiretroviral formulations. The high costs of treatment have been reduced through the use of generic, fixed-dose combination drugs. Evidence-based strategies for managing resistance and the scale-up of pharmacological trials for children in low- and middle-income countries are crucial to the success and future development of paediatric antiretrovirals.

  11. The surgical challenges of disorders of sex development (DSD).

    PubMed

    Gorduza, Daniela; Vidal, Isabelle; Birraux, Jacques; Gay, Claire-Lise; Demède, Delphine; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Mouriquand, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) remain a fascinating challenge for the paediatricians, endocrinologists, biologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, radiologists, surgeons and for the whole society. This article aims at highlighting the current controversies and questions met with genital reconstruction in children born with abnormal genitalia. The main current techniques of masculinization and feminization are reviewed with their progress and their problems. The tools of decision used to assign a gender in some newborns with complex DSD are discussed showing that at the dawn of the third millenium, one still does not know why a boy is a boy, and a girl is a girl. PMID:20876944

  12. Design Development of the Apollo Lunar Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The lunar module autopilot is a first generation digital control system design. The two torque sources available for the control function of the descent stage configuration consist of 16 reaction jets and a slow, gimbaled, throttlable engine. Design history, the design requirements, criteria, constraints, and general design philosophy of the control system development are reviewed. Comparative flight test results derived from design testing are presented.

  13. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  14. Progress and challenges in bipolar lead-acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    1995-05-01

    Bipolar lead-acid batteries have higher power densities than any other aqueous battery system. Predicted specific powers based on models and prototypes range from 800 kW/kg for 100 ms discharge times to 1.6 kW/kg for 10 s. A 48 V automotive bipolar battery could have 2 1/2 times the cold cranking rate of a monopolar 12 V design in the same size. Problems which have precluded the development of commercial bipolar designs include the instability of substrate materials and enhanced side reactions. Design approaches include pseudo-bipolar configurations, as well as true bipolar designs in planar and tubular configurations. Substrate materials used include lead and lead alloys, carbons, conductive ceramics, and tin-oxide-coated glass fibers. These approaches are reviewed and evaluated.

  15. Challenges in the development of the shuttle extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmann, H. J.; Mcbarron, J. W., II

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) has required significant technology advances in the design of the astronaut life support system and space-suit assembly. The life support system and space-suit assemblies are integrated into a single system and optimized for the primary function of supporting astronaut extravehicular operations. Rather than accommodating a limited, male-only astronaut population, the EMU must satisfy size requirements for both males and females with a minimum of sized parts. In addition, the Shuttle EMU has been designed to implement Space Shuttle Program philosophy of long operating life and mission reuse capability to minimize program lifetime cost. The advancement in life support system and space-suit technology achieved by the development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) is illustrated by comparison with the requirements for and the design features of the Apollo EMU.

  16. The Challenges in Developing VET Competencies in E-Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John

    A formative evaluation was begun of an innovative project funded by the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) to develop competencies and qualifications in e-commerce. The formative evaluation was designed to focus on inputs, processes, and interim outputs, identifying both good practice and areas for improvement. Findings to date…

  17. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  18. The art of spacecraft design: A multidisciplinary challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdi, F.; Ide, H.; Levine, M.; Austel, L.

    1989-01-01

    Actual design turn-around time has become shorter due to the use of optimization techniques which have been introduced into the design process. It seems that what, how and when to use these optimization techniques may be the key factor for future aircraft engineering operations. Another important aspect of this technique is that complex physical phenomena can be modeled by a simple mathematical equation. The new powerful multilevel methodology reduces time-consuming analysis significantly while maintaining the coupling effects. This simultaneous analysis method stems from the implicit function theorem and system sensitivity derivatives of input variables. Use of the Taylor's series expansion and finite differencing technique for sensitivity derivatives in each discipline makes this approach unique for screening dominant variables from nondominant variables. In this study, the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic and sensitivity derivative/optimization techniques are applied for a simple cone-type forebody of a high-speed vehicle configuration to understand basic aerodynamic/structure interaction in a hypersonic flight condition.

  19. High Temperature Ferroelectrics for Actuators: Recent Developments and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Kowalski, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A variety of piezoelectric applications have been driving the research in development of new high temperature ferroelectrics; ranging from broader markets such as fuel and gas modulation and deep well oil drilling to very specific applications such as thermoacoustic engines and ultrasonic drilling on the surface of Venus. The focus has been mostly on increasing the Curie temperature. However, greater challenges for high temperature ferroelectrics limit the operating temperature to levels much below the Curie temperature. These include enhanced loss tangent and dc conductivity at high fields as well as depoling due to thermally activated domain rotation. The initial work by Eitel et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 40 [10, Part 1] 59996002 (2001)] increased interest in investigation of Bismuth containing perovskites in solid solution with lead titanate. Issues that arise vary from solubility limits to increased tetragonality; the former one prohibits processing of morphotropic phase boundary, while the latter one impedes thorough poling of the polycrystalline ceramics. This talk will summarize recent advances in development of high temperature piezoelectrics and provide information about challenges encountered as well as the approaches taken to improve the high temperature behavior of ferroelectrics with a focus on applications that employ the converse piezoelectric effect.

  20. Designing Individualised Leadership Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery; Gronn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment of sufficient numbers of suitably qualified teachers into headship is an international issue and to address this in Scotland alternative headship preparation programmes were trialled to provide greater flexibility in order to better match the individual development needs and circumstances of the aspirant head teachers. Drawing from…

  1. Structural MRI connectome in development: challenges of the changing brain

    PubMed Central

    Hess, C P; Xu, D; Barkovich, A J

    2014-01-01

    MRI connectomics is an emerging approach to study the brain as a network of interconnected brain regions. Understanding and mapping the development of the MRI connectome may offer new insights into the development of brain connectivity and plasticity, ultimately leading to improved understanding of normal development and to more effective diagnosis and treatment of developmental disorders. In this review, we describe the attempts made to date to map the whole-brain structural MRI connectome in the developing brain and pay a special attention to the challenges associated with the rapid changes that the brain is undergoing during maturation. The two main steps in constructing a structural brain network are (i) choosing connectivity measures that will serve as the network “edges” and (ii) finding an appropriate way to divide the brain into regions that will serve as the network “nodes”. We will discuss how these two steps are usually performed in developmental studies and the rationale behind different strategies. Changes in local and global network properties that have been described during maturation in neonates and children will be reviewed, along with differences in network topology between typically and atypically developing subjects, for example, owing to pre-mature birth or hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Finally, future directions of connectomics will be discussed, addressing important steps necessary to advance the study of the structural MRI connectome in development. PMID:24827379

  2. Entry into space: challenges for the developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M.

    A developing country that desires to undertake space-related activities has a host of challenges it has to overcome: low level of awareness of the importance of space; lack of or unsustained political will and commitment; limitation of resources; inability to tap resources if they exist; inadequate infrastructure and support system; and incorrect international perception of motivation. Even if it manages to overcome these hurdles, it needs to demonstrate a fast return of value for investment. Hence rapid operationalisation of technology developments is vital which in turn has to be balanced with an optimized transfer of know-how and technology. It would do well for the world space community to assist in overcoming some of these obstacles because a world that is equitably engaged in space will also be inclined to be a world that recognizes the need for the global protection of space and space assets.

  3. Biomass energy development in California: Accomplishments and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.G.

    1994-12-31

    The recent and rapid growth of biomass power development in California has created the largest contiguous biomass fueled electrical generating capacity in U.S. This growth has been fostered by resource availability, federal (PURPA) incentives, and the entrepeneurial response of independent power producers. California`s environment has benefited from reduced air emissions, wildfire suppression, landfill reduction and the sequestering of carbon. The state has benefited economically through capital investment, employment for several thousand, and the generation of over $100 million in state and local tax revenues. Along with the benefits have come serious challenges brought about largely due to changes in the utility and regulatory environment. These changes threaten the continued existence and economic viability of the developed biomass power industry in California and threatens to establish national precedents. Specific issues are identified and recommended actions are presented.

  4. Planning for sustainability in China's urban development: status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China.

  5. Planning for sustainability in China's urban development: status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China. PMID:20082005

  6. Shared and Personal Learning Spaces: Challenges for Pedagogical Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkinen, Paivi; Hamalainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    The development of new tools for collaboration, such as social software, plays a crucial role in leisure time and work activities. The aim of this article is to summarize the research in the field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). This is done particularly from the perspective of the blurred line between individual (personal)…

  7. Challenges in Developing XML-Based Learning Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auksztol, Jerzy; Przechlewski, Tomasz

    There is no doubt that modular design has many advantages, including the most important ones: reusability and cost-effectiveness. In an e-leaming community parlance the modules are determined as Learning Objects (LOs) [11]. An increasing amount of learning objects have been created and published online, several standards has been established and multiple repositories developed for them. For example Cisco Systems, Inc., "recognizes a need to move from creating and delivering large inflexible training courses, to database-driven objects that can be reused, searched, and modified independent of their delivery media" [6]. The learning object paradigm of education resources authoring is promoted mainly to reduce the cost of the content development and to increase its quality. A frequently used metaphor of Learning Objects paradigm compares them to Lego Logs or objects in Object-Oriented program design [25]. However a metaphor is only an abstract idea, which should be turned to something more concrete to be usable. The problem is that many papers on LOs end up solely in metaphors. In our opinion Lego or OO metaphors are gross oversimplificatation of the problem as there is much easier to develop Lego set or design objects in OO program than develop truly interoperable, context-free learning content1.

  8. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. PMID:26881271

  9. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. PMID:26881271

  10. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases). PMID:27563912

  11. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  12. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases). PMID:27563912

  13. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-08-24

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases).

  14. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  15. Design challenges in nanoparticle-based platforms: Implications for targeted drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Douglas Gurnett

    Characterization and control of heterogeneous distributions of nanoparticle-ligand components are major design challenges for nanoparticle-based platforms. This dissertation begins with an examination of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-based targeted delivery platform. A folic acid targeted modular platform was developed to target human epithelial cancer cells. Although active targeting was observed in vitro, active targeting was not found in vivo using a mouse tumor model. A major flaw of this platform design was that it did not provide for characterization or control of the component distribution. Motivated by the problems experienced with the modular design, the actual composition of nanoparticle-ligand distributions were examined using a model dendrimer-ligand system. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) resolved the distribution of components in samples with mean ligand/dendrimer ratios ranging from 0.4 to 13. A peak fitting analysis enabled the quantification of the component distribution. Quantified distributions were found to be significantly more heterogeneous than commonly expected and standard analytical parameters, namely the mean ligand/nanoparticle ratio, failed to adequately represent the component heterogeneity. The distribution of components was also found to be sensitive to particle modifications that preceded the ligand conjugation. With the knowledge gained from this detailed distribution analysis, a new platform design was developed to provide a system with dramatically improved control over the number of components and with improved batch reproducibility. Using semi-preparative HPLC, individual dendrimer-ligand components were isolated. The isolated dendrimer with precise numbers of ligands were characterized by NMR and analytical HPLC. In total, nine different dendrimer-ligand components were obtained with degrees of purity ≥80%. This system has the potential to serve as a platform to which a precise number of functional molecules

  16. BMIPP-design and development.

    PubMed

    Knapp, F F; Kropp, J

    1999-02-01

    In the early 1980s a major obstacle for myocardial SPECT using iodine-123-labeled fatty acids and imaging technology available at that time was the rapid metabolism and myocardial washout of activity. Development of the 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue was based on the established effects of methyl-branching in delineating the enzymatic aberration in Refum's disease and our early studies with the tellurium (Te)-substituted fatty acid analogues. Extensive animal studies with the Te-fatty acids demonstrated that this major structural alteration did not affect initial myocardial extraction, but could successfully inhibit subsequent metabolism and significantly delay washout. Tracer kinetic evaluation and metabolic studies on experimental animals and Langendorff-perfused rat hearts clearly demonstrated that introduction of methyl-branching is an effective approach which alters tracer kinetics by delaying myocardial washout of radioiodinated fatty acids by increasing myocardial retention. Although irreversible retention of iodine-123 BMIPP is not observed, subsequent extensive human studies have clearly substantiated the delayed myocardial washout of BMIPP in comparison with the p-IPPA straight chain analogue. Although contemporary SPECT capabilities allow much more rapid acquisition periods, the delayed washout is still a practical benefit in relation to the use of BMIPP. Most important, the unexpected mis-match which has been widely observed between perfusion tracer distribution and the regional BMIPP distribution (i.e. BMIPP < flow tracer) has been linked to the identification of jeopardized, but viable myocardial regions. In this paper the development of BMIPP is discussed and the results of recent studies focusing on evaluating the effects of the absolute configuration of the branched methyl group using the 3(R)-BMIPP and 3(S)-BMIPP are described.

  17. Outstanding challenges limiting the development of climate services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Soares, Marta Bruno; Liggins, Felicity

    2016-04-01

    Climate services attempt to make the available (or forthcoming) climate knowledge more usable by decision and policy makers in the development of a climate smart society. Since the launch of the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 there has been an exponential increase in investment in the development and delivery of climate services, leading to an array of projects and initiatives across Europe. However, to date little attention has been given to understanding the different ways in which climate services are defined, implemented, and evaluated in Europe. In addition, other aspects such as how to pursue the necessary processes of co-production, which business models to apply, and the implications for the careers of scientists and others involved in the development of climate services are also crucial elements that need to be further examined and discussed. Such aspects are critical to the future development of climate services as they have the potential to significantly constrain the growth of climate services in Europe. Starting from a set of questions that have arisen within some of the most prominent climate services projects and initiatives in Europe, our paper highlights and expands on the outstanding challenges that need to be resolved by both the scientific community and the funders in order to ensure climate services can prosper and grow in Europe.

  18. Challenges in the research and development of new human vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, T; Barral-Netto, M

    2013-02-01

    The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, "isolate, inactivate, and inject" the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion.

  19. Energy for sustainable development: Key issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2007-07-01

    Energy generation and use are strongly linked to all elements of sustainable development such as economic, social, and environmental. The history of human development rests on the availability and use of energy, the transformation from the early use of fire and animal power that improved lives, to the present world with use of electricity and clean fuels for a multitude of purposes. Energy is the neglected issue of the development debate. The lack of access to reliable and clean energy supplies is a major barrier to improving human well-being around the globe. There are an estimated 1.6 billion people living in the rural areas of developing countries who lack access to electricity, and so dependence on fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels produces large amounts of CO{sub 2}, an important greenhouse gas. In response to increasing concern about the effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on global climate, international action has been agreed to reduce these emissions. On the other hand, renewable energy is the great, barely tapped solution to the two great challenges of the coming century such as poverty and global warming. Not only can renewable energy provide a clean, flexible power source for homes, schools and hospitals, at the micro-to-medium scale it has huge potential to create meaningful and useful jobs.

  20. Health and sustainable development: can we rise to the challenge?

    PubMed

    von Schirnding, Yasmin

    2002-08-24

    The forthcoming World Summit on Sustainable Development is an unprecedented opportunity to place health higher on the environmental and development agenda. The world's leaders will be grappling with some of the major challenges of our times--how to eradicate poverty and meet the world's development needs in a way that does not destroy the environment. Topping the agenda are water, energy, health, agriculture, and biodiversity. Improvement of access of the world's poor people to clean water, sanitation, and safe sources of household energy would have a huge effect on the main killers of young children--pneumonia and diarrhoea. Similarly, improved environmental management could substantially affect many infectious disease outcomes. At the same time, the growing epidemic of non-communicable diseases could be reversed if people's consumption patterns and lifestyles could be put on a more sustainable and healthy footing. A shared health, environmental, and development agenda could address the large share of the burden of disease that is environmentally related, and vice versa. The health sector increasingly needs to work in partnership with others rather than work alone. New tools are needed to ensure that intersectoral action becomes embedded in the way that the health sector does business. Improving coordination might be one of the most important ways in which we can help put the planet back on a healthy and sustainable path.

  1. Challenges in the research and development of new human vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, T; Barral-Netto, M

    2013-02-01

    The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, "isolate, inactivate, and inject" the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion. PMID:23558931

  2. Development of Stable Influenza Vaccine Powder Formulations: Challenges and Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Amorij, J-P.; Huckriede, A.; Wilschut, J.; Frijlink, H. W.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought into the dry state using suitable excipients, stabilizers and drying processes. The resulting stable influenza vaccine powder is independent of cold-chain facilities. This can be attractive for the integration of the vaccine logistics with general drug distribution in Western as well as developing countries. In addition, a stockpile of stable vaccine formulations of potential vaccines against pandemic viruses can provide an immediate availability and simple distribution of vaccine in a pandemic outbreak. Finally, in the development of new needle-free dosage forms, dry and stable influenza vaccine powder formulations can facilitate new or improved targeting strategies for the vaccine compound. This review represents the current status of dry stable inactivated influenza vaccine development. Attention is given to the different influenza vaccine types (i.e. whole inactivated virus, split, subunit or virosomal vaccine), the rationale and need for stabilized influenza vaccines, drying methods by which influenza vaccines can be stabilized (i.e. lyophilization, spray drying, spray-freeze drying, vacuum drying or supercritical fluid drying), the current status of dry influenza vaccine development and the challenges for ultimate market introduction of a stable and effective dry-powder influenza vaccine. PMID:18338241

  3. Challenges and future in vaccines, drug development, and immunomodulatory therapy.

    PubMed

    Kling, Heather M; Nau, Gerard J; Ross, Ted M; Evans, Thomas G; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M; Flynn, JoAnne L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The "Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy" session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials.

  4. Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Gerard J.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Thomas G.; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The “Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy” session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials. PMID:25148426

  5. Nano-formulations of drugs: Recent developments, impact and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, Jaison; Chan, Yen San; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed. PMID:27436182

  6. Nano-formulations of drugs: Recent developments, impact and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, Jaison; Chan, Yen San; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed.

  7. Developing nursing's future role: a challenge for the millennium: 1.

    PubMed

    Naughton, M; Nolan, M

    Over the past decade health care in general and nursing in particular have experienced a period of unprecedented change resulting from a variety of factors including demography, advances in technology and the introduction of differing service delivery systems. For nursing this has created a number of tensions, especially between professional aspirations and the demands of a new managerial culture. Many nurses have found themselves torn between the push towards the ideal of individualized holistic care and the reality of resource constrained environments. The new White Paper 'The New NHS: Modern, Dependable' (Secretary of State for Health, 1997) heralds a move away from the 'short termism' of the internal market towards a partnership model of integrated care. It also reaffirms the Government's commitment to further develop the role of the nurse. This article, the first of two, considers the challenges nurses face in responding to a managerial agenda while simultaneously maintaining the development of the nursing profession. The opportunities afforded by the recent White Paper are identified and the need to address a number of current tensions are highlighted. Developments at the Northern General Hospital in Sheffield are briefly described, with the results of a major survey being presented in the second article.

  8. The challenge of developing ethical guidelines for a research infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS RI) is to enable research to understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets and perturbations. The ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and GHG emissions. Technological developments and implementations, related to GHGs, will be promoted by the linking of research, education and innovation. In order to provide this data ICOS RI is a distributed research infrastructure. The backbones of ICOS RI are the national measurement stations such as ICOS atmosphere, ecosystem and ocean stations. ICOS Central Facilities are the European level ICOS RI Centres, which have the specific tasks in collecting and processing the data and samples received from the national measurement networks. During the establishment of ICOS RI ethical guidelines were developed. These guidelines describe principles of ethics in the research activities that should be applied within ICOS RI. They should be acknowledged and followed by all researchers affiliated to ICOS RI and should be supported by all participating institutions. The presentation describes (1) the general challenge to develop ethical guidelines in a complex international infrastructure and (2) gives an overview about the content that includes different kinds of conflicts of interests, data ethics and social responsibility.

  9. Recent developments and challenges of nanopositioning and nanomeasuring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manske, Eberhard; Jäger, Gerd; Hausotte, Tino; Füßl, Roland

    2012-07-01

    Rapid progress in several high-tech industries has significantly increased the need for dimensional micro- and nano-metrology. Structures to be measured are becoming more complex with smaller structure widths and higher aspect ratios in increasingly larger surface regions and potentially highly curved surfaces. Significant international effort can be seen to develop high-capacity measuring machines with nanometre precision in growing measuring ranges up to hundreds of millimetres. This paper begins with an outline of the requirements stemming from high-tech developments currently being done or expected in the future and discusses recent developments in the field of nanopositioning and nanomeasuring technology with respect to basic measurement approaches, laser interferometer systems. The large range of nanoprobe systems usable in nanomeasuring machines is discussed, such as optical focus sensors, white light interferometer microscopes, CCD camera microscopes using the depth from the focus method, tactile stylus probes, atomic force microscopes (AFMs) and 3D microprobes. The versatile properties of these sensors allow the machine to be used in many different metrological applications. The paper also introduces a multi-sensor approach using a microscope revolver. It concludes with an illustration of metrologically challenging measurements, e.g., scanning micro-structures of curved optical surfaces or performing AFM scans of very large regions with significant data volume.

  10. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  11. Take A Trip Reference Manual: An Authoring and Storage System for Designing and Sharing Challenging Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Evaluation Section.

    The Take a Trip program is an authoring and storage system for designing challenging curriculum. Using the power of hypermedia, specifically Apple Computer's HyperCard, Take a Trip provides course file stacks, help stacks, and personalized learning plan stacks. Designed to assist the user when new units are written, the help stacks provide an…

  12. Challenges in Implementing Design-Led Technologies in Small Manufacturing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Huw; Dorrington, Peter; Lewis, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines some of the challenges of implementing design-led technologies, such as computer-aided design (CAD), in the context of small manufacturing companies. The research is based on university-company collaborations in the UK using the Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) model, and the paper adopts a case-study approach based on…

  13. Microbicide vaginal rings: Technological challenges and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, R Karl; Boyd, Peter J; McCoy, Clare F; Murphy, Diarmaid J

    2016-08-01

    Vaginal rings (VRs) are flexible, torus-shaped, polymeric devices designed to sustain delivery of pharmaceutical drugs to the vagina for clinical benefit. Following first report in a 1970 patent application, several steroid-releasing VR products have since been marketed for use in hormone replacement therapy and contraception. Since 2002, there has been growing interest in the use of VR technology for delivery of drugs that can reduce the risk of sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although no vaginally-administered product has yet been approved for HIV reduction/prevention, extensive research efforts are continuing and a number of VR devices offering sustained release of so-called 'HIV microbicide' compounds are currently being evaluated in late-stage clinical studies. This review article provides an overview of the published scientific literature within this important field of research, focusing primarily on articles published within peer-reviewed journal publications. Many important aspects of microbicide-releasing VR technology are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the technological, manufacturing and clinical challenges that have emerged in recent years. PMID:26829289

  14. Design and Development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Guernsey, Carl S.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory mission successfully landed the largest interplanetary rover ever built, Curiosity, on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of this mission was by far the most complex landing ever attempted on a planetary body. The Descent Stage Propulsion System played an integral and critical role during Curiosity's EDL. The Descent Stage Propulsion System was a one of a kind hydrazine propulsion system designed specifically for the EDL phase of the MSL mission. It was designed, built, and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the design and development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System. Driving requirements, system design, component selection, operational sequence of the system at Mars, new developments, and key challenges will be discussed.

  15. High-temperature strain measurement techniques: Current developments and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1987, a very substantial amount of R&D has been conducted in an attempt to develop reliable strain sensors for the measurements of structural strains during ground testing and hypersonic flight, at temperatures up to at least 2000 deg F. Much of the effort has been focused on requirements of the NASP Program. This presentation is limited to the current sensor development work and characterization studies carried out within that program. It is basically an assessment as to where we are now and what remains to be done in the way of technical accomplishments to meet the technical challenges posed by the requirements and constraints established for the NASP Program. The approach for meeting those requirements and constraints has been multi-disciplinary in nature. It was recognized early on that no one sensor could meet all these requirements and constraints, largely because of the large temperature range (cryogenic to at least 2000 deg F) and many other factors, including the most challenging requirement that the sensor system be capable of obtaining valid 'first cycle data'. Present candidate alloys for resistance-type strain gages include Fe-Cr-Al and Pd-Cr. Although they have superior properties regarding withstanding very high temperatures, they exhibit large apparent strains that must either be accounted for or cancelled out by various techniques, including the use of a dual-element, half-bridge dummy gage, or electrical compensation networks. A significant effort is being devoted to developing, refining, and evaluating the effectiveness of those techniques over a broad range in temperature and time. In the quest to obtain first-cycle data, ways must be found to eliminate the need to prestabilize or precondition the strain gage, before it is attached to the test article. It should be noted that present NASP constraints do not permit prestabilization of the sensor, in situ. Gages are currently being 'heat treated' during manufacture in both the wire- and foil

  16. High-temperature strain measurement techniques: Current developments and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1992-09-01

    Since 1987, a very substantial amount of R&D has been conducted in an attempt to develop reliable strain sensors for the measurements of structural strains during ground testing and hypersonic flight, at temperatures up to at least 2000 deg F. Much of the effort has been focused on requirements of the NASP Program. This presentation is limited to the current sensor development work and characterization studies carried out within that program. It is basically an assessment as to where we are now and what remains to be done in the way of technical accomplishments to meet the technical challenges posed by the requirements and constraints established for the NASP Program. The approach for meeting those requirements and constraints has been multi-disciplinary in nature. It was recognized early on that no one sensor could meet all these requirements and constraints, largely because of the large temperature range (cryogenic to at least 2000 deg F) and many other factors, including the most challenging requirement that the sensor system be capable of obtaining valid 'first cycle data'. Present candidate alloys for resistance-type strain gages include Fe-Cr-Al and Pd-Cr. Although they have superior properties regarding withstanding very high temperatures, they exhibit large apparent strains that must either be accounted for or cancelled out by various techniques, including the use of a dual-element, half-bridge dummy gage, or electrical compensation networks. A significant effort is being devoted to developing, refining, and evaluating the effectiveness of those techniques over a broad range in temperature and time. In the quest to obtain first-cycle data, ways must be found to eliminate the need to prestabilize or precondition the strain gage, before it is attached to the test article. It should be noted that present NASP constraints do not permit prestabilization of the sensor, in situ. Gages are currently being 'heat treated' during manufacture in both the wire- and foil

  17. Benefits and challenges of newborn hearing screening for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, B O; Luxon, L M; Wirz, S L

    2004-03-01

    The late detection of permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL) often has severe effects on linguistic, speech, cognitive and educational development in affected children. Since newborn hearing screening (NHS) allows most PCEHL to be detected early enough for optimal intervention, the prospects of its introduction in the developing world are reviewed in this paper. It is observed that a simple generalisation on the feasibility of NHS for the developing countries seems inappropriate in view of the diversities in the health and socio-economic status of these countries and the recent favourable reports of universal newborn hearing screening from the region. NHS empowers parents to make timely choices that will allow their hearing impaired children to be given a good start in life and be fully integrated into the wider community. It also compels attention towards the development of essential hearing healthcare services, besides the specific documented benefits. Existing child-healthcare structures such as the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI), baby friendly hospital initiatives (BFHI) and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provide opportunities for the introduction of some form of NHS in many of these countries where routine or systematic childhood hearing screening does not exist. Limited funding, manpower shortages, inadequate support services, low public awareness and the uncertainty regarding the commitment from healthcare practitioners may present some challenges but these are not insurmountable. Pilot studies are necessary in each country to provide empirical data that will guide healthcare providers who wish to introduce such a programme at any level of healthcare delivery. PMID:15129939

  18. Space shuttle orbiter auxiliary power unit development challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, R.; Weary, D.

    1985-01-01

    When the flying spacecraft was approved for development, a power unit for the hydraulic system had to be developed. Unlike other systems on the orbiter, there was no precedent in earlier spacecraft for a hydraulic system nor for the power unit to drive the hydraulic pumps. The only prototypes available were airplane auxiliary power units (APU), which were not required to operate in the severe environments of a spacecraft nor to have the longevity of an orbiter hydraulic power unit. The challenge was to build a hydraulic power unit which could operate in 0g or 3g, in a vacuum or at sea level pressure, and at -65 F or 225 F, which would be capable of restarting while hot, and which would be capable of sustaining the hydraulic loads for the life of the orbiter. The basic approach to providing hydraulic power for the orbiter was to use a small, high speed, monopropellant fueled turbine power unit to drive a conventional aircraft type hydraulic pump. The stringent requirements imposed on the orbiter APU quickly made this machine different from existing aircraft APUs.

  19. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  20. How to Develop an Engineering Design Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dankenbring, Chelsey; Capobianco, Brenda M.; Eichinger, David

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of engineering and the engineering design process, and describe the steps they took to develop a fifth grade-level, standards-based engineering design task titled "Getting the Dirt on Decomposition." Their main goal was to focus more on modeling the discrete steps they took to create and…

  1. Teaching Design Patterns through Computer Game Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestwicki, Paul; Sun, Fu-Shing

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach for teaching design patterns that emphasizes object-orientation and patterns integration. The context of computer game development is used to engage and motivate students, and it is additionally rich with design patterns. A case study is presented based on "EEClone," an arcade-style computer game implemented in Java. Our…

  2. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  3. Active Learning through Toy Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…

  4. Challenges in the development of the orbiter active thermal control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nason, J. R.; Wierum, F. A.; Yanosy, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A number of major challenges were faced in the design and development of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS). At the system level, the initial challenges were to define an approach that would interface dual Freon coolant loops with multiple coolant loops from other vehicle subsystems with the lowest weight penalty to the Orbiter; and to provide highly responsive vehicle heat rejection throughout all of the Orbiter mission phases. Optimized heat exchangers, representing an advance in the state-of-the-art in heat exchanger design, were developed to transfer heat between the orbiter Freon coolant loops and five other vehicle systems. Flash evaporation was selected as a highly efficient and responsive means for cooling the Orbiter Freon loops during ascent and entry. The Flash Evaporator Subsystem (FES) utilizes cyclic water spray cooling in a chamber maintained at or below the water triple point pressure. A summary of the basic heat transfer research conducted to identify the fundamental heat transfer processes involved in water spray cooling in support of the FES design is given. The high fidelity dynamic analytical model of the FES that was generated to aid in the design of control logic, evaluate performance and simulate ground test and flight anomalies is discussed. A description of the FES and Integrated ATCS testing conducted in the SESL chamber A at NASA-JSC is also presented.

  5. Design and development of diborane shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of a 200 pound container for the shipment of liquid diborane are reported. A record of the correspondence with the DOT to obtain a permit for liquid diborane shipment is presented.

  6. Challenges and concepts for design of an interaction region with push-pull arrangement of detectors - an interface document

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.; Herve, A.; Osborne, J.; Mikhailichenko, A.; Buesser, K.; Ashmanskas, B.; Kuchler, V.; Mokhov, N.; Enomoto, A.; Sugimoto, Y.; Tauchi, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba /NSF, Wash., D.C. /Oxford U. /SLAC /Rutherford /Tohoku U.

    2008-06-01

    Two experimental detectors working in a push-pull mode has been considered for the Interaction Region of the International Linear Collider [1]. The push-pull mode of operation sets specific requirements and challenges for many systems of detector and machine, in particular for the IR magnets, for the cryogenics and alignment system, for beamline shielding, for detector design and overall integration, and so on. These challenges and the identified conceptual solutions discussed in the paper intend to form a draft of the Interface Document which will be developed further in the nearest future. The authors of the present paper include the organizers and conveners of working groups of the workshop on engineering design of interaction region IRENG07 [2], the leaders of the IR Integration within Global Design Effort Beam Delivery System, and the representatives from each detector concept submitting the Letters Of Intent.

  7. Challenges And Concepts for Design of An Interaction Region With Push-Pull Arrangement of Detectors - An Interface Document

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.; Herve, Alain; Osborne, J.; Mikhailichenko, A.; Buesser, K.; Ashmanskas, B.; Kuchler, Victor P.; Mokhov, N.; Enomoto, A.; Sugimoto, Y.; Tauchi, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Weisend, J.; Burrows, P.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Oriunno, M.; Seryi, Andrei; Sullivan, M.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Sanuki, T.; Yamamoto, H.; /Tohoku U.

    2011-10-14

    Two experimental detectors working in a push-pull mode has been considered for the Interaction Region of the International Linear Collider. The push-pull mode of operation sets specific requirements and challenges for many systems of detector and machine, in particular for the IR magnets, for the cryogenics and alignment system, for beamline shielding, for detector design and overall integration, and so on. These challenges and the identified conceptual solutions discussed in the paper intend to form a draft of the Interface Document which will be developed further in the nearest future. The authors of the present paper include the organizers and conveners of working groups of the workshop on engineering design of interaction region IRENG07, the leaders of the IR Integration within Global Design Effort Beam Delivery System, and the representatives from each detector concept submitting the Letters Of Intent.

  8. Dengue vaccines: challenges, development, current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Dar, L

    2015-01-01

    Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The clinical spectrum of dengue, caused by any of the four serotypes of DENV, ranges from mild self-limiting dengue fever to severe dengue, in the form dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Increased rates of hospitalization due to severe dengue, during outbreaks, result in massive economic losses and strained health services. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy, control of transmission of DENV by vector management is the sole method available for decreasing dengue-associated morbidity. Since vector control strategies alone have not been able to satisfactorily achieve reduction in viral transmission, the implementation of a safe, efficacious and cost-effective dengue vaccine as a supplementary measure is a high public health priority. However, the unique and complex immunopathology of dengue has complicated vaccine development. Dengue vaccines have also been challenged by critical issues like lack of animal models for the disease and absence of suitable markers of protective immunity. Although no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available, several vaccine candidates are under phases of development, including live attenuated virus vaccines, live chimeric virus vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, DNA vaccines and viral-vectored vaccines. Although some vaccine candidates have progressed from animal trials to phase II and III in humans, a number of issues regarding implementation of dengue vaccine in countries like India still need to be addressed. Despite the current limitations, collaborative effects of regulatory bodies like World Health Organization with vaccine manufacturers and policy makers, to facilitate vaccine development and standardize field trials can make a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine a reality in near future.

  9. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very

  10. Outcome of Adult Brain Tumor Consortium (ABTC) prospective dose-finding trials of I-125 balloon brachytherapy in high-grade gliomas: challenges in clinical trial design and technology development when MRI treatment effect and recurrence appear similar

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, V.; Mikkelsen, T.; Judy, K.; Weingart, J.; Barnett, G.; Olson, J.; Desideri, S.; Ye, X.; Grossman, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to define the maximal safe radiation dose to guide further study of the GliaSite balloon brachytherapy (GSBT) system in untreated newly diagnosed glioblastoma (NEW-GBM) and recurrent high-grade glioma (REC-HGG). GBST is a balloon placed in the resection cavity and later filled through a subcutaneous port with liquid I-125 Iotrex, providing radiation doses that diminish uniformly with distance from the balloon surface. Methods The Adult Brain Tumor Consortium initiated prospective dose-finding studies to determine maximum tolerated dose in NEW-GBM treated before standard RT or after surgery for REC-HGG. Patients were inevaluable if there was progression before the 90-day posttreatment toxicity evaluation point. Results Ten NEW-GBM patients had the balloon placed, and 2/10 reached the 90 day timepoint. Five REC-HGG enrolled and two were assessable at the 90-day evaluation endpoint. Imaging progression occurred before 90-day evaluation in 7/12 treated patients. The trials were closed as too few patients were assessable to allow dose escalation, although no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed. Median survival from treatment was 15.3 months (95 % CI 7.1–23.6) for NEW-GBM and 12.8 months (95 % CI 4.2–20.9) for REC-HGG. Conclusion These trials failed to determine a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for further testing as early imaging changes, presumed to be progression, were common and interfered with the assessment of treatment-related toxicity. The survival outcomes in these and other related studies, although based on small populations, suggest that GSBT may be worthy of further study using clinical and survival endpoints, rather than standard imaging results. The implications for local therapy development are discussed.

  11. Development of a Mental Health Nursing Simulation: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Lori I.; Morgan, Karyn I.; Savery, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education programs are proliferating rapidly in the United States in an effort to meet demand for nurse professionals. Multiple challenges arise from this rapid expansion. One challenge is finding sufficient clinical sites to accommodate students. Increased competition for scarce resources requires creativity in clinical contracting. This…

  12. Adolescents' Conscious Processes of Developing Regulation: Learning to Appraise Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects…

  13. Biological challenges to effective vaccines in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C.; Kang, Gagandeep; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The reason for holding a meeting to discuss biological challenges to vaccines is simple: not all vaccines work equally well in all settings. This special issue reviews the performance of vaccines in challenging environments, summarizes current thinking on the reasons why vaccines underperform and considers what approaches are necessary to understand the heterogeneity in responses and to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. PMID:25964451

  14. Biological challenges to effective vaccines in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Kang, Gagandeep; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-06-19

    The reason for holding a meeting to discuss biological challenges to vaccines is simple: not all vaccines work equally well in all settings. This special issue reviews the performance of vaccines in challenging environments, summarizes current thinking on the reasons why vaccines underperform and considers what approaches are necessary to understand the heterogeneity in responses and to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy.

  15. Early-phase Development of Cancer Prevention Agents, Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Perloff, Marjorie; Steele, Vernon E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemoprevention is the administration of agents (drugs, biologics, dietary supplements, or nutrients) to reduce the risk of developing cancer or prevent the recurrence of cancer. The National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP) is a major sponsor of cancer preventive preclinical and clinical research. As such, it has developed a comprehensive drug development program specifically designed to meet the requirements needed for cancer preventive drugs to achieve initial regulatory approval. Clinical development of cancer prevention agents presents unique challenges not encountered with most cancer therapeutic agents. To meet these challenges, NCI, DCP has implemented new approaches and programs, including Phase 0 clinical trial designs and microdose studies. In addition, the PREVENT Cancer Program was recently implemented by NCI, DCP to offer a formalized structure for moving drugs forward in the prevention pipeline using a continue/not continue decision process. Likewise, DCP has implemented a clinical trials Consortium to further develop these agents. These and other approaches will be discussed in this commentary. PMID:23466485

  16. Vaccine development and deployment: opportunities and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjukta Sen; Nair, G Balakrish; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Ganguly, Nirmal Kumar

    2013-04-18

    The Indian economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world. The country forayed into manufacturing vaccines starting with a few public-sector manufacturers in the late 1960s but has emerged as the major supplier of basic Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) because of substantial private-sector investment in the area. The Indian vaccine industry is now able to produce new and more complex vaccines such as the meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, rotavirus vaccine and influenza A (H1N1) vaccines. This has been possible because of an attractive investment environment, effective and innovative governmental support, international partnerships and the growing in-country technical work force. A large number of vaccines, including those mentioned, is available and administered in the private sector within the country, but India has been slow in introducing new vaccines in its publically funded programs. Growth in the economy and technological accomplishments are not reflected in a reduction in health inequalities, and India continues to contribute significantly to global child mortality figures. This paper reviews the development of the Indian vaccine industry, policy support for it and its current status. It also highlights opportunities and challenges for the introduction of new and underutilized vaccines at home. PMID:23598492

  17. Vaccine development and deployment: opportunities and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjukta Sen; Nair, G Balakrish; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Ganguly, Nirmal Kumar

    2013-04-18

    The Indian economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world. The country forayed into manufacturing vaccines starting with a few public-sector manufacturers in the late 1960s but has emerged as the major supplier of basic Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) because of substantial private-sector investment in the area. The Indian vaccine industry is now able to produce new and more complex vaccines such as the meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, rotavirus vaccine and influenza A (H1N1) vaccines. This has been possible because of an attractive investment environment, effective and innovative governmental support, international partnerships and the growing in-country technical work force. A large number of vaccines, including those mentioned, is available and administered in the private sector within the country, but India has been slow in introducing new vaccines in its publically funded programs. Growth in the economy and technological accomplishments are not reflected in a reduction in health inequalities, and India continues to contribute significantly to global child mortality figures. This paper reviews the development of the Indian vaccine industry, policy support for it and its current status. It also highlights opportunities and challenges for the introduction of new and underutilized vaccines at home.

  18. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. PMID:25521968

  19. Water management problems in the Ethiopian rift: Challenges for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayenew, Tenalem

    2007-06-01

    The Ethiopian rift is characterized by many perennial rivers and lakes occupying volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable hydrogeological setting. The rift lakes and rivers were the focal points for relatively large-scale water resources development. They are used for irrigation, soda abstraction, commercial fish farming, recreation and support a wide variety of endemic birds and wild animals. Ethiopia's major mechanized irrigation farms and commercial fishery are confined within the rift. A few of the lakes have shrunk as a result of excessive abstraction of water; others expanded due to increased surface runoff and groundwater flux from percolated over-irrigated fields and active tectonism. Excessive land degradation and deforestation have also played a role. Human factors, in combination with the natural conditions of climate and geology have influenced the water quality. The chemistry of some of the lakes has been changed dramatically. This paper tries to present the challenges of surface water resources development with particular reference to environmental problems caused in the last few decades. The methods employed include field hydrological mapping supported by aerial photograph and satellite imagery interpretations, hydrometeorological and hydrochemical data analysis and catchment hydrological modeling. A converging evidence approach was adapted to reconstruct the temporal and spatial variations of lake levels and the hydrochemistry. The result revealed that the major changes in the rift valley are related mainly to recent improper utilization of water and land resources in the rivers draining the rift floor and the lakes' catchment, and to direct lake water abstraction, aggravated intermittently by natural factors (climate and tectonism). These changes appear to have grave environmental consequences, which demand urgent integrated basin-wide water management practice.

  20. DARPA challenge: developing new technologies for brain and spinal injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonia, Christian; Zamisch, Monica; Judy, Jack; Ling, Geoffrey

    2012-06-01

    The repair of traumatic injuries to the central nervous system remains among the most challenging and exciting frontiers in medicine. In both traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries, the ultimate goals are to minimize damage and foster recovery. Numerous DARPA initiatives are in progress to meet these goals. The PREventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma program focuses on the characterization of non-penetrating brain injuries resulting from explosive blast, devising predictive models and test platforms, and creating strategies for mitigation and treatment. To this end, animal models of blast induced brain injury are being established, including swine and non-human primates. Assessment of brain injury in blast injured humans will provide invaluable information on brain injury associated motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The Blast Gauge effort provided a device to measure warfighter's blast exposures which will contribute to diagnosing the level of brain injury. The program Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury from Explosive Blast developed mathematical models that predict stresses, strains, and cavitation induced from blast exposures, and is devising mitigation technologies to eliminate injuries resulting from cavitation. The Revolutionizing Prosthetics program is developing an avant-garde prosthetic arm that responds to direct neural control and provides sensory feedback through electrical stimulation. The Reliable Neural-Interface Technology effort will devise technologies to optimally extract information from the nervous system to control next generation prosthetic devices with high fidelity. The emerging knowledge and technologies arising from these DARPA programs will significantly improve the treatment of brain and spinal cord injured patients.

  1. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue.

  2. Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M

    2011-03-10

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was passed with the goal 'to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security.' Energy security and independence cannot be achieved unless the United States addresses the issue of energy consumption in the building sector and significantly reduces energy consumption in buildings. Commercial and residential buildings account for approximately 40% of the U.S. energy consumption and emit 50% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the U.S. which is more than twice the total energy consumption of the entire U.S. automobile and light truck fleet. A 50%-80% improvement in building energy efficiency in both new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings could significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption and mitigate climate change. Reaching these aggressive building efficiency goals will not happen without significant Federal investments in areas of computational and mathematical sciences. Applied and computational mathematics are required to enable the development of algorithms and tools to design, control and optimize energy efficient buildings. The challenge has been issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Dr. Steven Chu (emphasis added): 'We need to do more transformational research at DOE including computer design tools for commercial and residential buildings that enable reductions in energy consumption of up to 80 percent with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 10 years.' On July 8-9, 2010 a team of technical experts from industry, government and academia were assembled in Arlington, Virginia to identify the challenges associated with developing and deploying newcomputational methodologies and tools thatwill address building energy efficiency. These experts concluded that investments in fundamental applied and computational mathematics will be required to build enabling technology that can be used to realize the target of 80% reductions in energy consumption. In addition the

  3. Recommendations for the Optimal Design of Exergame Interventions for Persons with Disabilities: Challenges, Best Practices, and Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Judith; Malone, Laurie A.; Rowland, Jennifer L.; Swartz, Maria C.; Xiong, Jianjing; Zhang, Fang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A group discussion of individuals with expertise working in the field of exergaming and rehabilitation focused on the issue of designing exergames for persons with disabilities as well as appropriate interventions using exergames. The purpose of these discussions was to develop recommendations for the design, evaluation, and application of exergames in therapy serving as potential guidelines for researchers, developers, and therapists. The following key issues were addressed: (1) Challenges in exergame design for persons with disabilities, (2) adaptation of exergames for persons with disabilities, (3) exergame interventions, and (4) future research directions. It is the hope of the group that the results of these recommendations will help improve the quality of exergame design and interventions and thereby increase opportunities for persons with disabilities to engage sustainably in exergaming. PMID:26181682

  4. The "New" America Electronic Medical Record (EMR)-design criteria and challenge.

    PubMed

    Grams, Ralph

    2009-12-01

    As you can see from a review of the physician interface, there are many exciting potentials that exist for the future of the EMR. None of these will happen unless we change the focus of the system design process and start by making the physician a key and primary player in this equation. To get a proactive physician following is the most important step forward and should be a primary focus for the large investments that are planned. We need a company or organization that sees the need for a future product that will accomplish these goals. We need funding for that process and a prototype development effort to perfect the design. We need the construction of a relational database of medicine with a professional staff to support its operation. Are there entrepreneurs still out there that can see this challenge and are willing to invest in its accomplishment? I sure hope so and I would be delighted to hear from you by email. Please send your comments and critique to: kqinc@aol.com

  5. Meeting the Challenges of Active Learning in Web-Based Case Studies for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Maggie; Hadfield, Mark; Howarth, George; Lewarne, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Teaching staff, designing conventional courses in higher education, must make decisions about selecting content and activities to engage students in learning. When the Internet is chosen as the principal delivery vehicle it presents particular challenges for the design of active learning. Further challenges are added when working with a complex,…

  6. Lead-cooled system design and challenges in the frame of Generation IV International Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinotti, Luciano; Smith, Craig F.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Mansani, Luigi; Reale, Marco; Sienicki, James J.

    2011-08-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Technology Roadmap identified the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) as a technology well suited for electricity generation, hydrogen production and actinide management in a closed fuel cycle. One of the most important features of the LFR is the fact that lead is a relatively inert coolant, a feature that conveys significant advantages in terms of safety, system simplification, and the consequent potential for economic performance. In 2004, the GIF LFR Provisional System Steering Committee was organized and began to develop the LFR System Research Plan. The committee selected two pool-type reactor concepts as candidates for international cooperation and joint development in the GIF framework: these are the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR); and the European Lead-cooled System (ELSY). The high boiling point (1745 °C) of lead has a beneficial impact to the safety of the system, whereas its high melting point (327.4 °C) requires new engineering strategies, especially for In-Service-Inspection and refuelling. Lead, especially at high temperatures, is also relatively corrosive towards structural materials. This necessitates that coolant purity and the level of dissolved oxygen be carefully controlled, in addition to the proper selection of structural materials. For the GIF LFR concepts, lead has been chosen as the coolant rather than Lead-Bismuth Eutectic primarily because of its greatly reduced generation of the alpha-emitting 210Po isotope formed in the coolant. This results in significantly reduced levels of radioactive contamination of the coolant while minimizing the effect of decay power in the coolant from such contaminants; an additional consideration is the desire to eliminate dependence on bismuth which might be a limited resource. This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the LFR, a summary of the advantages and challenges associated with heavy liquid metal coolants, and an

  7. Protein design in systems metabolic engineering for industrial strain development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Accelerating the process of industrial bacterial host strain development, aimed at increasing productivity, generating new bio-products or utilizing alternative feedstocks, requires the integration of complementary approaches to manipulate cellular metabolism and regulatory networks. Systems metabolic engineering extends the concept of classical metabolic engineering to the systems level by incorporating the techniques used in systems biology and synthetic biology, and offers a framework for the development of the next generation of industrial strains. As one of the most useful tools of systems metabolic engineering, protein design allows us to design and optimize cellular metabolism at a molecular level. Here, we review the current strategies of protein design for engineering cellular synthetic pathways, metabolic control systems and signaling pathways, and highlight the challenges of this subfield within the context of systems metabolic engineering.

  8. Participatory Design Activities and Agile Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    This paper contributes to the studies of design activities in information systems development. It provides a case study of a large agile development project and focusses on how customers and users participated in agile development and design activities in practice. The investigated project utilized the agile method eXtreme Programming. Planning games, user stories and story cards, working software, and acceptance tests structured the customer and user involvement. We found genuine customer and user involvement in the design activities in the form of both direct and indirect participation in the agile development project. The involved customer representatives played informative, consultative, and participative roles in the project. This led to their functional empowerment— the users were enabled to carry out their work to their own satisfaction and in an effective, efficient, and economical manner.

  9. The MedlinePlus public user interface: studies of design challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Marill, Jennifer L.; Miller, Naomi; Kitendaugh, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Question: What are the challenges involved in designing, modifying, and improving a major health information portal that serves over sixty million page views a month? Setting: MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) consumer health Website, is examined. Method: Challenges are presented as six “studies,” which describe selected design issues and how NLM staff resolved them. Main Result: Improving MedlinePlus is an iterative process. Changes in the public user interface are ongoing, reflecting Web design trends, usability testing recommendations, user survey results, new technical requirements, and the need to grow the site in an orderly way. Conclusion: Testing and analysis should accompany Website design modifications. New technologies may enhance a site but also introduce problems. Further modifications to MedlinePlus will be informed by the experiences described here. PMID:16404467

  10. Surgical and ethical challenges in disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E; Hertweck, Paige; Ralston, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    A resolution to the difficulties faced by parents, physicians, and pediatric patients in treating DSDs will only come with better communication and improved research methodologies. Advocacy groups and the Internet have allowed the intersex community to have a larger role in guiding the research and the ethical frameworks that are used in treating these disorders. These disorders are unusual and collaboration across medical centers should be the rule rather than the exception. When possible, treatments that are innovative or experimental should be subjected to rigorous research oversight [29,30]. Defined periods of family crisis in which counseling and education become important are at the time of diagnosis [30,31], at the time of any surgical procedure, and at the beginning of major developmental stages. Historically, children were often left uninformed until someone judged them old and mature enough to comprehend how they were different. These attempts to protect individual children from their condition may have left them vulnerable to a personal crisis at an age when sexual identity and identity with a peer group are important. Both the needs of the child and the adult the child will become should be considered in making treatment decisions for children and adolescents with DSDs. It is best to counsel parents and educate developing children in a way that parallels chronologic and conceptual growth. When possible, the child should be involved in an age-appropriate fashion in the decision-making process and accurate information about the child's history and body should be made available. In addition, parents and families need as much information as possible and support systems that will help them navigate these challenging situations. PMID:22789583

  11. Surgical and ethical challenges in disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E; Hertweck, Paige; Ralston, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    A resolution to the difficulties faced by parents, physicians, and pediatric patients in treating DSDs will only come with better communication and improved research methodologies. Advocacy groups and the Internet have allowed the intersex community to have a larger role in guiding the research and the ethical frameworks that are used in treating these disorders. These disorders are unusual and collaboration across medical centers should be the rule rather than the exception. When possible, treatments that are innovative or experimental should be subjected to rigorous research oversight [29,30]. Defined periods of family crisis in which counseling and education become important are at the time of diagnosis [30,31], at the time of any surgical procedure, and at the beginning of major developmental stages. Historically, children were often left uninformed until someone judged them old and mature enough to comprehend how they were different. These attempts to protect individual children from their condition may have left them vulnerable to a personal crisis at an age when sexual identity and identity with a peer group are important. Both the needs of the child and the adult the child will become should be considered in making treatment decisions for children and adolescents with DSDs. It is best to counsel parents and educate developing children in a way that parallels chronologic and conceptual growth. When possible, the child should be involved in an age-appropriate fashion in the decision-making process and accurate information about the child's history and body should be made available. In addition, parents and families need as much information as possible and support systems that will help them navigate these challenging situations.

  12. Evaluating impacts of development and conservation projects using sustainability indicators: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Agol, Dorice; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N.

    2014-09-15

    There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of development and conservation projects. Past and recent experiences have shown that sustainability indicators can be powerful tools for measuring the outcomes of various interventions, when used appropriately and adequately. Currently, there is a range of methods for applying sustainability indicators for project impact evaluation at the environment–development interface. At the same time, a number of challenges persist which have implication for impact evaluation processes especially in developing countries. We highlight some key and recurrent challenges, using three cases from Kenya, Indonesia and Brazil. In this study, we have conducted a comparative analysis across multiple projects from the three countries, which aimed to conserve biodiversity and improve livelihoods. The assessments of these projects were designed to evaluate their positive, negative, short-term, long term, direct and indirect impacts. We have identified a set of commonly used sustainability indicators to evaluate the projects and have discussed opportunities and challenges associated with their application. Our analysis shows that impact evaluation processes present good opportunities for applying sustainability indicators. On the other hand, we find that project proponents (e.g. managers, evaluators, donors/funders) face challenges with establishing full impacts of interventions and that these are rooted in monitoring and evaluation processes, lack of evidence-based impacts, difficulties of measuring certain outcomes and concerns over scale of a range of impacts. We outline key lessons learnt from the multiple cases and propose ways to overcome common problems. Results from our analysis demonstrate practical experiences of applying sustainability indicators in developing countries context where there are different prevailing socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. The

  13. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    PubMed

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors.

  14. The post-2015 development agenda for diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Renzaho, Andre M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes is one of the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) which is rising significantly across sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and posing a threat to the social, economic, and cultural fabric of the SSA population. The inclusion of NCDs into the post-2015 development agenda along with the global monitoring framework provides an opportunity to monitor progress of development programmes in developing countries. This paper examines challenges associated with dealing with diabetes within the development agenda in SSA and explores some policy options. Design This conceptual review draws from a range of works published in Medline and the grey literature to advance the understanding of the post-2015 development agenda and how it relates to NCDs. The paper begins with the burden of diabetes in sub-Sahara Africa and then moves on to examine challenges associated with diabetes prevention, treatment, and management in Africa. It finishes by exploring policy implications. Results With regards to development programmes on NCDs in the SSA sub-continent, several challenges exist: 1) poor documentation of risk factors, 2) demographic transitions (rapid urbanisation and ageing), 3) the complementary role of traditional healers, 4) tuberculosis and the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as risk factors for diabetes, 5) diabetes in complex emergencies, 6) diabetes as an international development priority and not a policy agenda for many SSA countries, and 7) poorly regulated food and beverage industry. Conclusion For the post-2015 development agenda for NCDs to have an impact, sufficient investments will be needed to address legislative, technical, human, and fiscal resource constraints through advocacy, accountability, political leadership, and effective public–private partnership. Striking the right balance between competing demands and priorities, policies, and implementation strategies hold the key to an effective response to diabetes in SSA

  15. Challenges and technical requirements for multi-beam mask writer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Lee, Ho June; Shin, In Kyun; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Jeon, Chan-Uk

    2014-07-01

    Because mask patterning quality of CD uniformity, MTT, registration and smaller assist feature size is important for wafer patterning, the higher exposure dose and complex pattern design will be necessary. It is the reason why the faster and more accurate e-beam mask writer is needed for future design node. Multi-beam mask writer is the most promising new e-beam mask writer technology for future sub-10nm device mask patterning to solve the pattern quality issue and writing time problem. In this report, the technical challenges of multi-beam mask writer are discussed by comparison with problems of current VSB e-beam mask writer. Comparing with e-beam mask writer which has the critical issues of beam size and position control, the application of entirely different methods and techniques of CD and position control is essential for multi-beam mask writer which has new architecture and writing strategy. Using the simulation method, we present the different challenges between VSB and multi-beam mask writer. And there are many important technical requirements to achieve expected specification of multi-beam mask writer. To understand such requirements, the patterning simulation and mathematical calculation are done for analysis. Based on the patterning simulation, the detail technical requirements and issues of multi-beam mask writer are achieved. Consequently, we suggest the direction of multi-beam mask writer development in terms of technical challenges and requirements.

  16. 75 FR 47819 - Workshop on Optimizing Clinical Trial Design for the Development of Pediatric Cardiovascular Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Workshop on Optimizing Clinical Trial Design for the... ``Optimizing Clinical Trial Design for the Development of Pediatric Cardiovascular Devices.'' The topic to be... various efficient and pragmatic clinical trial designs that are conducive to overcoming the challenges...

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  18. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  19. Challenges in Integrating a Complex Systems Computer Simulation in Class: An Educational Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Swee-Kin; Al-Sallami, Hesham S.; Wright, Daniel F. B.; McDonald, Jenny; Jadhav, Sheetal; Duffull, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems are typically difficult for students to understand and computer simulations offer a promising way forward. However, integrating such simulations into conventional classes presents numerous challenges. Framed within an educational design research, we studied the use of an in-house built simulation of the coagulation network in four…

  20. Risk, Challenge and Safety: Implications for Play Quality and Playground Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen; Eager, David

    2010-01-01

    In many countries playground design is driven more by safety than developmental benefits. As risk minimisation strategies become more stringent, many researchers and practitioners are questioning whether young children are able to take sufficient risks in play in order for their play experiences to be interesting and developmentally challenging.…

  1. Designing Self-Evaluation Instruments for Academic Programmes: Lessons and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansah, Francis

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to design valid and reliable self-evaluation instruments for periodic evaluation of academic programmes of Bolgatanga Polytechnic in Ghana, using evaluation experts and relevant stakeholders of the polytechnic. This paper presents some of the challenges, including those of institutional support, the technical demands of…

  2. 32 CFR 1907.23 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Information Review Officers from the various Directorates and the Director, Central Intelligence... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges. 1907.23 Section 1907.23 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense...

  3. 32 CFR 1907.23 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Information Review Officers from the various Directorates and the Director, Central Intelligence... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges. 1907.23 Section 1907.23 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense...

  4. The Challenges of Designing and Implementing a Cross-Cultural Unit of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the challenges that were experienced as I engaged in an action research project in which I designed and enacted a cross-cultural unit of work entitled "Maintaining Health". George has advocated the use of traditional knowledge as a strategy for increasing the relevance of science curricula within the Trinidad and Tobago…

  5. ASRM case insulation design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Matthew S.; Tam, William F. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the achievements made on the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case insulation design and development program. The ASRM case insulation system described herein protects the metal case and joints from direct radiation and hot gas impingement. Critical failure of solid rocket systems is often traceable to failure of the insulation design. The wide ranging accomplishments included the development of a nonasbestos insulation material for ASRM that replaced the existing Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) along with a performance gain of 300 pounds, and improved reliability of all the insulation joint designs, i.e., segmented case joint, case-to-nozzle and case-to-igniter joint. The insulation process development program included the internal stripwinding process. This process advancement allowed Aerojet to match to exceed the capability of other propulsion companies.

  6. Zika crisis in Brazil: challenges in research and development.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lucas Secchim; Marques, Rafael Elias; Jesus, Amélia Maria Ribeiro de; Almeida, Roque Pacheco de; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-06-01

    Infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) usually causes a mild acute illness, but two major severe syndromes have been described during the epidemic in Brazil: microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré Syndrome. There is now much evidence to show that ZIKV can infect and damage neuronal cells in vitro. In experimental animals, ZIKV has significant neurotropism and can cause brain damage. At present, diagnosis is still a challenge in the field and there is no treatment available. Another major challenge is that one must devise therapies for pregnant women, at all stages of pregnancy. Devising adequate treatment for ZIKV infections represents a challenge that will only be met by the joint effort of the research community. PMID:27179929

  7. Zika crisis in Brazil: challenges in research and development.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lucas Secchim; Marques, Rafael Elias; Jesus, Amélia Maria Ribeiro de; Almeida, Roque Pacheco de; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-06-01

    Infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) usually causes a mild acute illness, but two major severe syndromes have been described during the epidemic in Brazil: microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré Syndrome. There is now much evidence to show that ZIKV can infect and damage neuronal cells in vitro. In experimental animals, ZIKV has significant neurotropism and can cause brain damage. At present, diagnosis is still a challenge in the field and there is no treatment available. Another major challenge is that one must devise therapies for pregnant women, at all stages of pregnancy. Devising adequate treatment for ZIKV infections represents a challenge that will only be met by the joint effort of the research community.

  8. Hydraulic design development of Xiluodu Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. L.; Li, G. Y.; Shi, Q. H.; Wang, Z. N.

    2012-11-01

    Hydraulic optimization design with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method, hydraulic optimization measures and model test results in the hydraulic development of Xiluodu hydropower station by DFEM (Dongfang Electric Machinery) of DEC (Dongfang Electric Corporation) of China were analyzed in this paper. The hydraulic development conditions of turbine, selection of design parameter, comparison of geometric parameters and optimization measure of turbine flow components were expatiated. And the measures of improving turbine hydraulic performance and the results of model turbine acceptance experiment were discussed in details.

  9. Design-for-reliability (DfR) of aerospace electronics: Attributes and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensoussan, A.; Suhir, E.

    The next generation of multi-beam satellite systems that would be able to provide effective interactive communication services will have to operate within a highly flexible architecture. One option to develop such flexibility is to employ microwaves and/or optoelectronic components and to make them reliable. The use of optoelectronic devices, equipments and systems will result indeed in significant improvement in the state-of-the-art only provided that the new designs will suggest a novel and effective architecture that will combine the merits of good functional performance, satisfactory mechanical (structural) reliability and high cost effectiveness. The obvious challenge is the ability to design and fabricate equipment based on EEE components that would be able to successfully withstand harsh space environments for the entire duration of the mission. It is imperative that the major players in the space industry, such as manufacturers, industrial users, and space agencies, understand the importance and the limits of the achievable quality and reliability of optoelectronic devices operated in harsh environments. It is equally imperative that the physics of possible failures is well understood and, if necessary, minimized, and that adequate Quality Standards are developed and employed. The space community has to identify and to develop the strategic approach for validating optoelectronic products. This should be done with consideration of numerous intrinsic and extrinsic requirements for the systems' performance. When considering a particular next generation optoelectronic space system, the space community needs to address the following major issues: proof of concept for this system, proof of reliability and proof of performance. This should be done with taking into account the specifics of the anticipated application. High operational reliability cannot be left to the prognostics and health monitoring/management (PHM) effort and stage, no matter how important and

  10. Method and tool for generating and managing image quality allocations through the design and development process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.; Olson, Craig; Theisen, Michael J.; Addiego, Chris J.; Hutchins, Tiffany G.; Goodman, Timothy D.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models for infrared imaging systems require image quality parameters; optical design engineers need image quality design goals; systems engineers develop image quality allocations to test imaging systems against. It is a challenge to maintain consistency and traceability amongst the various expressions of image quality. We present a method and parametric tool for generating and managing expressions of image quality during the system modeling, requirements specification, design, and testing phases of an imaging system design and development project.

  11. A developing country's university oriented toward strengthening health systems: challenges and results.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, J H; Marsh, D R; Khan, K S; D'Souza, R; Husein, K; Aslam, A; Qureshi, A F; deWit, V; Harnar, R M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The Aga Khan University in Karachi has a mission to educate leaders and to contribute to the development of health systems for Pakistan amid challenges of scarcity and complexity. METHODS. Its key activities are (1) to design and test urban and rural health system prototypes, (2) to develop faculty in medical and nursing postgraduate community health sciences programs, and (3) to design and implement community-based undergraduate medical and nursing curricula. RESULTS. The university has developed equity-based, cost-effective primary health care prototypes in Karachi slums. With government counterparts it has tested village-, facility-, and district-level interventions in a poor rural district. Federal policymakers have taken models from each for widespread replication. The university is training 49 medical and 19 nursing faculty for postgraduate programs in community health sciences. Most faculty retain institutional leadership positions, including teaching community-based, problem-solving, community health sciences as 20% of the medical and nursing undergraduate curriculum. CONCLUSIONS. The mission and experience of the Aga Khan University in population-based health systems design and health sciences education can guide universities in both developing and developed countries. PMID:8238674

  12. Metalloprotein and metallo-DNA/RNAzyme design: current approaches, success measures, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi

    2006-12-11

    Specific metal-binding sites have been found in not only proteins but also DNA and RNA molecules. Together these metalloenzymes consist of a major portion of the enzyme family and can catalyze some of the most difficult biological reactions. Designing these metalloenzymes can be both challenging and rewarding because it can provide deeper insights into the structure and function of proteins and cheaper and more stable alternatives for biochemical and biotechnological applications. Toward this goal, both rational and combinatorial approaches have been used. The rational approach is good for designing metalloenzymes that are well characterized, such as heme proteins, while the combinatorial approach is better at designing those whose structures are poorly understood, such as metallo-DNA/RNAzymes. Among the rational approaches, de novo design is at its best when metal-binding sites reside in a scaffold whose structure has been designed de novo (e.g., alpha-helical bundles). Otherwise, design using native scaffolds can be equally effective, allowing more choices of scaffolds whose structural stability is often more resistant to multiple mutations. In addition, computational and empirical designs have both enjoyed successes. Because of the limitation in defining structural parameters for metal-binding sites, a computational approach is restricted to mostly metal-binding sites that are well defined, such as mono- or homonuclear centers. An empirical approach, even though it is less restrictive in the metal-binding sites to be designed, depends heavily on one's knowledge and choice of templates and targets. An emerging approach is a combination of both computational and empirical approaches. The success of these approaches can be measured not only by three-dimensional structural comparison between the designed and target enzymes but also by the total amount of insight obtained from the design process and studies of the designed enzymes. One of the biggest advantages of

  13. Disease management: program design, development, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, N; DePue, D M

    1997-06-01

    Disease management is an emerging approach to patient management, customer satisfaction, and cost containment that comprises disease modeling; patient segmentation and risk assessment; clinical protocols; and wellness, self-management, and education. Implementing a disease management program poses significant challenges to healthcare organizations. To successfully implement a disease management program, a tightly integrated continuum of care, sophisticated information systems, and disease management support systems must be in place. Strategic partnerships with outside vendors may speed program implementation and provide opportunities to develop risk-sharing relationships. PMID:10167840

  14. WFC3: Design and Development History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John W.; Kimble, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Townsend, J. A.; WFC3 Team

    2010-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) was developed to ensure that HST offers a high capability imager beyond SM4 and to significantly extend HST's performance in the near UV and near IR. This paper describes the eleven-year development history, major design decisions, and technology development items of WFC3, including a discussion of the consequences of schedule changes to the HST program. The decisions behind the re-use of WF/PC-1 hardware, the multiple ACS heritage elements, and our efforts to develop improved detectors and filters are considered. We also discuss the unique teaming, management and oversight arrangements adopted by WFC3.

  15. Some challenges in design and construction of the Draugen gravity base structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandvik, K.; Karal, K.

    1994-12-31

    The paper gives a general description of the Concrete Gravity Base Structure (GBS) for the Draugen platform installed by Norwegian Contractors a.s. The GBS was installed at the Haltenbank area on the Norwegian continental shelf in May 1993 for A/S Norske Shell. Further, the paper describes the following challenging aspects encountered during the design and construction: design for high frequency response to wave loading, so called ringing, discovered during construction of the GBS; impact of the ringing effect discovery on the construction schedule; design to prevent delamination of concrete structural elements; modifications to prevent damages on pipe work caused by deformations of the concrete structure.

  16. The challenges of designing a lightweight spacecraft structure for landing on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Timothy J.; Bassler, Julie; Cooper, Scott; Stephens, Vince; Ponnusamy, Devamanohar; Briere, Marc; Betenbaugh, Theresa

    2012-02-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been working with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on a lunar lander design that would take scientific measurements on the surface of the moon. This effort is part of NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) Development Project. The requirements imposed on the design of the lander are: (1) Provide a lightweight lander structure to minimize the launch costs and maximize the payload carrying capability, (2) Minimize the lander launch envelope to allow for launching multiple landers on a single launch vehicle, (3) Given specific approach velocities, design a lander with geometric properties (low center-of-gravity, etc.) that maximizes the chances for a controlled landing on the lunar surface, (4) Provide a stable platform for all of the various scientific instruments.The lightweight lander requirement originates from the desire to minimize the launch costs and possibly package multiple landers on a single launch vehicle. The use of lightweight composite materials and advanced manufacturing techniques are employed throughout the design and construction of the structure in order to minimize mass and maximize structural stiffness.Minimizing the launch envelope enables the potential packaging of several spacecraft into one launch vehicle shroud. By having multiple landers, the scientific return is enhanced. Multiple spacecraft on the lunar surface provides independent confirmation of science measurements taken and also highlights any variance in the science data taken at differing lunar latitudes. Naturally, the launch cost per lander is greatly reduced if more than one lander can be packaged on a single launch vehicle.The lunar lander vehicle must arrive at the lunar surface at an upright orientation. In order to accomplish this, the structure geometry must be designed to accommodate attitude errors in roll, pitch and yaw. In addition, the structure must be able to withstand various landing

  17. Development Challenges, Tuition Barriers, and High School Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian; Shi, Yaojiang

    2009-01-01

    China has made remarkable progress along the path of economic transformation over the past three decades. To continue its rapid growth in an economy with increasingly higher wages, China's key challenge is whether it can become competitive enough in quasi-skilled and skilled sectors so that more technologically advanced industries and service…

  18. TESOL in Developing Countries: Challenges for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Alex; Turner, Lyn

    This paper reports the survey of a small population of international English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) student teachers at Deakin University (Melbourne, Victoria) in Australia. Particular emphasis of the study was on what these student teachers have learned from their courses and what challenges they believe they will face on return to their home…

  19. Development of a waterborne challenge model for Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease and can cause significant mortality in salmonid aquaculture. To better evaluate disease prevention or treatment methods for F. psychrophilum in the laboratory, a waterborne challenge model that mimics a natural outbre...

  20. Opportunities and Challenges in the Development of Smart PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, Chris

    2015-06-25

    An update is presented on the background of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) products, including sub-module power converters, and the performance advantages of distributed (module-level) electronics. Some opportunities and challenges in the field are presented. This presentation was given at the 2015 Trina Solar 'state key laboratory' annual meeting.

  1. Principal Professional Development in China: Challenges, Opportunities, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hongqi; Cravens, Xiu Chen

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the essential role of school principals in China's "Quality-Oriented Education" national reform movement. Keeping China's cultural and historical context in mind, and taking into consideration the impact of political and societal forces on the nation, we discuss the major challenges faced by Chinese schools, specifically the…

  2. School-Based Management Developments: Challenges and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandur, Agustinus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the current school-based management (SBM) policy reform in Indonesia, with an emphasis on the impacts of shifting authority and responsibility to school level, as well as challenges confronted by the school council members, followed by remedial measures to minimize the problems.…

  3. Review and Analysis of Development of "Safety by Design" Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Scott A.; Hockert, John

    2009-10-20

    This report, the deliverable for Task 4 of the NA-243 Safeguards by Design Work Plan for Fiscal Year 2009, develops the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards By Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. This experience was selected for study because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. Development of DOE-STD-1189 began in January 2006 and the standard was issued for implementation in March 2008. The process was much more time consuming than originally anticipated and might not have come to fruition had senior DOE management been less committed to its success. Potentially valuable lessons can be learned from both the content and presentation of the integration approach in DOE-STD-1189 and from the DOE experience in developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189. These lessons are important because the instutionalization of SBD does not yet appear to have the level of senior management commitment afforded development and implementation of DOE-STD-1189.

  4. Development of a hydraulic turbine design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassanos, Ioannis; Anagnostopoulos, John; Papantonis, Dimitris

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a hydraulic turbine parametric design method is presented which is based on the combination of traditional methods and parametric surface modeling techniques. The blade of the turbine runner is described using Bezier surfaces for the definition of the meridional plane as well as the blade angle distribution, and a thickness distribution applied normal to the mean blade surface. In this way, it is possible to define parametrically the whole runner using a relatively small number of design parameters, compared to conventional methods. The above definition is then combined with a commercial CFD software and a stochastic optimization algorithm towards the development of an automated design optimization procedure. The process is demonstrated with the design of a Francis turbine runner.

  5. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Solar Array Program is required to provide a 75 kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low Earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-year design point. Lockheed Missles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) is providing the flexible substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years. Trade studies and development testing, important for evolving any design to maturity, are presently underway at LMSC on the flexible solar array. The trade study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  6. Designing, Developing, and Marketing Multimedia Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Anna; Randall, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    States that more and more technical writers across the discipline are likely to become involved in designing and developing multimedia products in the future. Finds that this will require retooling current skills used in production of text-based information products. Presents an overview of the process of bringing a multimedia product to the point…

  7. Designing a Collection Development Plan for Sailor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Denise M.

    1996-01-01

    Sailor, Maryland's public information network, has become a national model for public libraries and states planning telecommunications networks and library systems integration. This article summarizes the design and implementation of the network's Internet resource collection development, highlighting the database committee, editorial board,…

  8. Design, Development, and Validation of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Gwen; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Samal, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A learning object is a small, stand-alone, mediated content resource that can be reused in multiple instructional contexts. In this article, we describe our approach to design, develop, and validate Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant learning objects for undergraduate computer science education. We discuss the advantages of…

  9. Research development of designing flow cells for optical absorption detectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sandong; Tang, Tao; Li, Tong; Wang, Fengyun; Hao, Qingli

    2016-02-01

    The optical absorption detector is one of the most commonly used detectors for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As a core part of this kind of detector, the designs of flow cells, where light passes through samples for acquiring samples information, will affect the performance of a detector. In order to enhance the signal to noise ratio of detectors and reduce the bands broadening that come from flow cells, it is necessary to design a flow cell with a longer optical path length and a less cell volume while maintaining the luminous flux. However the limitations of the machining capacity make it difficult to increase the optical path length, reduce the cell volume and keep or increase the luminous flux simultaneously. It is a challenge to optimize the designing and machining of flow cells so as to improve the performance of detectors. This review discusses the development of designing flow cells based on the detection principle in some aspects of increasing the optical path length, reducing the cell volume, taking the advantages of total reflection and so on. At the same time, some of the designs are illustrated in detail. These various ideas and structures are significant references for designing flow cells and developing optical absorption detectors. PMID:27382716

  10. Technical Challenges in the Development of a NASA Synthetic Vision System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrah, Steve; Arthur, J. J., III

    2002-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, the Synthetic Vision Systems Project is developing display system concepts to improve pilot terrain/situation awareness by providing a perspective synthetic view of the outside world through an on-board database driven by precise aircraft positioning information updating via Global Positioning System-based data. This work is aimed at eliminating visibility-induced errors and low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents, as well as replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Synthetic vision research and development activities at NASA Langley Research Center are focused around a series of ground simulation and flight test experiments designed to evaluate, investigate, and assess the technology which can lead to operational and certified synthetic vision systems. The technical challenges that have been encountered and that are anticipated in this research and development activity are summarized.

  11. Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the preliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challenges in large-scale, real-world application. This report describes current approaches, recent results, and challenges for multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization as demonstrated by experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.!

  12. The design and development of a finger joint simulator.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Artificial finger joints lack the long-term clinical success seen with hip and knee prostheses. In part, this can be explained by the challenges of rheumatoid arthritis, a progressive disease which attacks surrounding tissues as well as the joint itself. Therefore, the natural finger joints' biomechanics are adversely affected, and consequently, this imbalance due to subluxing forces further challenges any prosthesis. Many different designs of finger prosthesis have been offered over a period of greater than 50 years. Most of these designs have failed, and it is likely that many of these failures could have been identified had the prostheses been appropriately tested prior to implantation into patients. While finger joint simulators have been designed, arguably only those from a single centre have been able to reproduce clinical-type failures of the finger prostheses tested in them. This article describes the design and development of a finger simulator at Durham University, UK. It explains and justifies the engineering decisions made and thus the evolution of the finger simulator. In vitro results and their linkage to clinical-type failures are outlined to help to show the effectiveness of the simulator. Failures of finger implants in vivo continue to occur, and the need for appropriate in vitro testing of finger prostheses remains strong.

  13. The design and development of a finger joint simulator.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Artificial finger joints lack the long-term clinical success seen with hip and knee prostheses. In part, this can be explained by the challenges of rheumatoid arthritis, a progressive disease which attacks surrounding tissues as well as the joint itself. Therefore, the natural finger joints' biomechanics are adversely affected, and consequently, this imbalance due to subluxing forces further challenges any prosthesis. Many different designs of finger prosthesis have been offered over a period of greater than 50 years. Most of these designs have failed, and it is likely that many of these failures could have been identified had the prostheses been appropriately tested prior to implantation into patients. While finger joint simulators have been designed, arguably only those from a single centre have been able to reproduce clinical-type failures of the finger prostheses tested in them. This article describes the design and development of a finger simulator at Durham University, UK. It explains and justifies the engineering decisions made and thus the evolution of the finger simulator. In vitro results and their linkage to clinical-type failures are outlined to help to show the effectiveness of the simulator. Failures of finger implants in vivo continue to occur, and the need for appropriate in vitro testing of finger prostheses remains strong. PMID:26833697

  14. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W.; Davies, J.; Zammit, M.; Patterson, P.

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  15. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. ); Davies, J. ); Zammit, M. ); Patterson, P. )

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  16. Developing human factors/ergonomics as a design discipline.

    PubMed

    Norros, Leena

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with internal challenges that the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) research faces when wishing to strengthen its contribution to development of work systems. Three established characteristics of high-quality HFE, i.e., HFE takes a systems approach, HFE is design-driven, and HFE focuses on two closely related outcomes, performance and well-being, are taken as a starting point of a methodological discussion, in which conceptual innovations, e.g. adopting the technology-in-use perspective, are proposed to support development of HFE towards the high-quality aims. The feasibility of the proposed conceptual choices is demonstrated by introducing a naturalistic HFE analysis approach including four HFE functions. The gained experience of the use of this approach in a number of complex work domains allows the conclusion that becoming design-driven appears as that most difficult quality target for HFE to reach. Creating an own design discipline identity in a multi-voiced collaboration is the key internal challenge for human factors/ergonomics.

  17. Inquiry science as a discourse: New challenges for teachers, students, and the design of curriculum materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Carrie Teh-Li

    Science education reform emphasizes learning science through inquiry as a way to engage students in the processes of science at the same time that they learn scientific concepts. However, inquiry involves practices that are challenging for students because they have underlying norms with which students may be unfamiliar. We therefore cannot expect students to know how to engage in such practices simply by giving them opportunities to do so, especially if the norms for inquiry practices violate traditional classroom norms for engaging with scientific ideas. Teachers therefore play a key role in communicating expectations for inquiry. In this dissertation, I present an analytical framework for characterizing two teachers' enactments of an inquiry curriculum. This framework, based on Gee's (1996) notion of Discourses, describes inquiry practices in terms of three dimensions: cognitive, social, and linguistic. I argue that each of these dimensions presents challenges to students and, therefore, sites at which teachers' support is important for students' participation in inquiry practices. I use this framework to analyze two teachers' support of inquiry practices as they enact an inquiry-based curriculum. I explore three questions in my study: (1) what is the nature of teachers' support of inquiry practices? (2) how do teachers accomplish goals along multiple dimensions of inquiry?, and (3) what aspects of inquiry are in tension and how can we describe teachers' practice in terms of the tradeoff spaces between elements of inquiry in tension? In order to study these questions, I studied two eighth grade teachers who both enacted the same inquiry-based science curriculum developed by me and others in the context of a large design-based research project called IQWST (Investigating and Questioning my World through Science and Technology. I found that the teachers provided support for inquiry along all three dimensions, sometimes in ways in which the dimensions were

  18. Orion Pad Abort 1 GN and C Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Edgar A.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The first flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test project is scheduled to launch in Spring 2010. This flight test is known as Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) and it is intended to accomplish a series of flight test objectives, including demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System (LAS) to propel the Crew Module (CM) to a safe distance from a launch vehicle during a pad abort. The PA-1 Flight Test Article (FTA) is actively controlled by a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for much of its flight. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development, and analysis of the PA-1 GN&C system. A description of the technical solutions that were developed to meet the challenge of satisfying many competing requirements is presented. A historical perspective of how the Orion LAV compares to the Apollo Launch Escape Vehicle (LEV) design will also be included.

  19. Challenges and Opportunities for New Protein Crystallization Strategies in Structure-Based Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Jessica; Thompson, David

    2010-01-01

    Structure-based drug design (SBDD) has emerged as a valuable pharmaceutical lead discovery tool, showing potential for accelerating the discovery process, while reducing developmental costs and boosting potencies of the drug that is ultimately selected. SBDD is a iterative, rational, lead compound sculpting process that involves both the synthesis of new derivatives and the evaluation of their binding to the target structure either through computational docking or elucidation of the target structure as a complex with the lead compound. This method heavily relies on the production of high-resolution (< 2Å) three-dimensional structures of the drug target, obtained through X-ray crystallographic analysis, in the presence or absence of the drug candidate. The lack of generalized methods for high quality crystal production is still a major bottleneck in the process of macromolecular crystallization. This review provides a brief introduction to SBDD and describes several macromolecular crystallization strategies, with an emphasis on advances and challenges facing researchers in the field today. Recent trends in the development of more universal macromolecular crystallization techniques, particularly nucleation-based techniques that are applicable to both soluble and integral membrane proteins, are also discussed. PMID:21116481

  20. Addressing the challenges of solar thermal fuels via atomic-scale computational design and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpak, Alexie; Kucharski, Timothy; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    By reversibly storing solar energy in the conformations of photo-isomers, solar thermal fuels (STFs) provide a mechanism for emissions-free, renewable energy storage and conversion in a single system. Development of STFs as a large-scale energy technology has been hampered by technical challenges that beset the photo-isomers of interest: low energy density, storage lifetime, and quantum yield; UV absorption; and irreversible degradation upon repeated cycling. In this talk, we discuss our efforts to design new STFs that overcome these hurdles. We present computational results on various STFs based on our recently proposed photo-isomer/template STF concept [Kolpak and Grossman, Nano Letters 11, 3156 (2011)], as well as new experimental results on azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotube STFs. Our approach yields significant improvements with respect to STFs studied in the past, with energy densities similar to Li-ion batteries, storage lifetimes > 1 year, and increased quantum yield and absorption efficiency. Our strategy also suggests mechanisms for inhibiting photo-isomer degradation. With a large phase space yet to be explored, there remain numerous possibilites for property enhancement, suggesting that STFs could become a competitive renewable energy technology.

  1. Developing Conceptual Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines Using Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlemann, Shelly M.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.; Martin, John G.; Leonard, Charles P.; Taylor, Lawrence W.; Kamhawi, Hilmi

    2000-01-01

    Designing a hypersonic vehicle is a complicated process due to the multi-disciplinary synergy that is required. The greatest challenge involves propulsion-airframe integration. In the past, a two-dimensional flowpath was generated based on the engine performance required for a proposed mission. A three-dimensional CAD geometry was produced from the two-dimensional flowpath for aerodynamic analysis, structural design, and packaging. The aerodynamics, engine performance, and mass properties arc inputs to the vehicle performance tool to determine if the mission goals were met. If the mission goals were not met, then a flowpath and vehicle redesign would begin. This design process might have to be performed several times to produce a "closed" vehicle. This paper will describe an attempt to design a hypersonic cruise vehicle propulsion flowpath using a Design of' Experiments method to reduce the resources necessary to produce a conceptual design with fewer iterations of the design cycle. These methods also allow for more flexible mission analysis and incorporation of additional design constraints at any point. A design system was developed using an object-based software package that would quickly generate each flowpath in the study given the values of the geometric independent variables. These flowpath geometries were put into a hypersonic propulsion code and the engine performance was generated. The propulsion results were loaded into statistical software to produce regression equations that were combined with an aerodynamic database to optimize the flowpath at the vehicle performance level. For this example, the design process was executed twice. The first pass was a cursory look at the independent variables selected to determine which variables are the most important and to test all of the inputs to the optimization process. The second cycle is a more in-depth study with more cases and higher order equations representing the design space.

  2. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  3. New Challenges in High-Reliability Space Power System Design and Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Winnie W.

    2008-09-01

    In the recent years, several AIAA standards and Aerospace Technical Operating Reports (TOR) were created for space power system design, and solar array and battery qualification. The intent of these new design and qualification standards is to improve the reliability of future satellites for critical and long life missions. A number of satellite programs in the United States have already imposed these requirements on their new satellite fleet. These new requirements present many new challenges. New requirements such as using higher design margins when inserting new technology may increase cost and mass of the spacecraft. Or it may discourage the insertion of new technology. Another requirement of adding a solar array I-V curve measurement circuit can have significant impact to spacecraft design. The qualification of new solar cells in "combined environmental effects" requires capital investment in new test equipment. The duration of real time life test required for battery cell qualification could delay the launch of new battery technologies. In addition, battery chemistry and material changes over time may invalidate a battery's cell qualification program. This paper addresses many of these challenges and some potential options to deal with some of these challenges.

  4. Fastrac Nozzle Design, Performance and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Warren; Rogers, Pat; Lawrence, Tim; Davis, Darrell; DAgostino, Mark; Brown, Andy

    2000-01-01

    With the goal of lowering the cost of payload to orbit, NASA/MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) researched ways to decrease the complexity and cost of an engine system and its components for a small two-stage booster vehicle. The composite nozzle for this Fastrac Engine was designed, built and tested by MSFC with fabrication support and engineering from Thiokol-SEHO (Science and Engineering Huntsville Operation). The Fastrac nozzle uses materials, fabrication processes and design features that are inexpensive, simple and easily manufactured. As the low cost nozzle (and injector) design matured through the subscale tests and into full scale hot fire testing, X-34 chose the Fastrac engine for the propulsion plant for the X-34. Modifications were made to nozzle design in order to meet the new flight requirements. The nozzle design has evolved through subscale testing and manufacturing demonstrations to full CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), thermal, thermomechanical and dynamic analysis and the required component and engine system tests to validate the design. The Fastrac nozzle is now in final development hot fire testing and has successfully accumulated 66 hot fire tests and 1804 seconds on 18 different nozzles.

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Overview, Developments, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann, Alexandra; Kronimus, Alexander; Kühn, Michael

    2010-05-01

    largest piece of cake is referring to R&D projects on a small-scale demonstration basis. Numerous further demonstration or small-scale commercial projects have been announced for the near future. Such developments demonstrate that there are no major technological barriers to widespread geological CO2 storage. Main challenges are rather on the public acceptance, legislation and commercial site. Commercially CCS costs are mainly dominated by the high costs of CO2 capture where, depending on the capture method, CO2 needs to be separated from the emission gas stream produced during energy production. Policy, legislation and regulatory framework issues are further hurdles that need to be considered for large scale implementation of this technology. Finally public acceptance of this technology will likely affect the large-scale implementation of CO2 geological storage.

  6. Ideal pre-conceptual design development

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzlinger, R.; Mendelsohn, S.; Abel, B.

    1993-12-31

    A preconceptual design has been produced for a plasma device to further divertor concepts and validate technology in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor program. The ITER Diverter Experiment and Laboratory (IDEAL) design effort is to develop a reliable, maintainable and robust facility for steady-state divertor simulation experiments. The configuration includes a 30 meter vacuum vessel, enclosed within a set of 30 high field superconducting solenoid modules, a resistive quadrupole coil set, a radio-frequency heating system and a complement of diagnostics. It is planned to utilize existing facilities, and off-the-shelf hardware, wherever possible to maximize technological return on investment.

  7. Challenges in the development of high-speed true 600-dpi thermal ink-jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, May F.; Keefe, Brian

    1996-03-01

    Hewlett-Packard Company recently introduced a line of thermal ink jet printers which delivers 6 to 8 pages per minute laser parity text throughput with true 600 X 600 dpi resolution. In the development of this technology, we achieved major breakthrough in many key areas in the design of the HP 51645A ink jet print cartridge. In order to print at true 600 dpi resolution, the dot size has to be reduced proportionally from the previous 300 dpi resolution. To increase the print engine throughput to meet customer needs, firing frequency of the drop generator has to be higher than any previous thermal ink jet designs. As a result of the need to improve print quality and throughput, all fluidic dimensions in the vicinity of the ink jet drop generator have to be redesigned and scaled down. This geometric redesigning and scaling poses significant challenges to the capabilities of our manufacturing processes, leading to the redesign of the orifice plate. Major development work in ink formulation has resulted in significant improvements in printer performance as well. The pigmented ink designed for this new generation of ink jet printers provides the highest optical density and media independency to meet customer's print quality needs. The ink formulation also improves dry time so as to meet the pages per minute throughput design objective.

  8. Intranet Development and Design that Works

    SciTech Connect

    BACA,BOBBY G.; CASSIDY,ANDREA L.

    1999-09-09

    Making information available and easy to find is the objective of designing a good web site. A company's Intranet typically provides a great deal of information to its employees in an effort to help them better perform their jobs. If the information is available but is difficult to locate, the usefulness of this information is diminished. Sandia National Laboratories performed a redesign of its home page and has obtained a successful design which enables its employees to locate information quickly and efficiently. Three phases of usability testing were conducted to develop and optimize the home page. This paper will discuss the redesign of the Intranet home page and describe how usability studies were used to help ensure a usable design.

  9. Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend, J. G., II; Beßler, Y.; Klaus, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (< 5 meV for cold neutrons); two of which will use liquid hydrogen at 17 K as the moderating and cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

  10. Design Challenges Encountered in a Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maine, Trindel; Burken, John; Burcham, Frank; Schaefer, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center conducted flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft system on an F-15 airplane. This system was designed to explore the feasibility of providing safe emergency landing capability using only the engines to provide flight control in the event of a catastrophic loss of conventional flight controls. Control laws were designed to control the flightpath and bank angle using only commands to the throttles. Although the program was highly successful, this paper highlights some of the challenges associated with using engine thrust as a control effector. These challenges include slow engine response time, poorly modeled nonlinear engine dynamics, unmodeled inlet-airframe interactions, and difficulties with ground effect and gust rejection. Flight and simulation data illustrate these difficulties.

  11. The Challenge of Developing New Therapies for Childhood Cancers.

    PubMed

    Balis

    1997-01-01

    are refractory to any form of therapy. In essence, the children with refractory cancers who are entered on phase I and phase II trials are becoming less and less representative of children with newly diagnosed cancers. The tolerance of children and adults to anticancer drugs was reviewed by Marsoni et al. (Cancer Treat Rep 1985;69:1263-1269). Seventeen agents that entered into clinical testing prior to 1980 were studied on similar schedules in children and adults, and the pediatric maximum tolerated dose (MTD) exceeded the adult MTD for 16 of the 17 agents. For half the drugs the pediatric MTD was 30% higher than the adult MTD, suggesting that children had a significantly greater tolerance to the toxicity of cancer chemotherapy than adults. In the 1990s we have performed a number of phase I trials in children who were more heavily pretreated than those children treated on phase I trials in the 1970s, and the pediatric MTD has been equivalent to or below the adult MTD in several of our trials. Similarly, childhood cancers have been considered to be more chemosensitive than adult forms of cancer, but several recently approved agents that have significant antitumor activity in adult cancers appear to be inactive in conventional phase II trials performed in children with recurrent cancers. Careful meta-analysis of the results of phase I and II trials performed in children and adults in the 1990s will be needed to determine if the changes in the intensity of front-line and salvage treatment regimens for childhood cancers are having a significant impact on the results of conventional phase I and II trials. The clinical development of investigational drugs and the design of phase I and II may need to be adjusted to account for the apparent greater intolerance of the heavily pretreated children entering onto these trials and the greater refractoriness of their tumors. Phase I trials may need to be performed in both heavily pretreated and less heavily pretreated children, as

  12. Challenges in developing biohydrogen as a sustainable energy source: implications for a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Peccia, Jordan; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program aims to develop hydrogen as an energy carrier to decrease emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants and reduce the use of fossil fuels. However, current hydrogen production technologies are not sustainable as they rely heavily on fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly through electricity generation. Production of hydrogen by microorganisms, biohydrogen, has potential as a renewable alternative to current technologies. The state-of-the-art for four different biohydrogen production mechanisms is reviewed, including biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photofermentation, and dark fermentation. Future research challenges are outlined for bioreactor design, optimization of bioreactor conditions, and metabolic engineering. Development of biohydrogen technologies is still in the early stages, although some fermentation systems have demonstrated efficiencies reasonable for implementation. To enhance the likelihood of biohydrogen as a feasible system to meet future hydrogen demands sustainably, directed investment in a strategic research agenda will be necessary.

  13. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  14. The Challenges of Designing the Rocker-Bogie Suspension for the Mars Exploration Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Brian D.; Voorhees, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the rocker-bogie suspension design has become a proven mobility application known for its superior vehicle stability and obstacle-climbing capability. Following several technology and research rover implementations, the system was successfully flown as part of Mars Pathfinder s Sojourner rover. When the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project was first proposed, the use of a rocker-bogie suspension was the obvious choice due to its extensive heritage. The challenge posed by MER was to design a lightweight rocker-bogie suspension that would permit the mobility to stow within the limited space available and deploy into a configuration that the rover could then safely use to egress from the lander and explore the Martian surface. This paper will describe how the MER rocker-bogie suspension subsystem was able to meet these conflicting design requirements while highlighting the variety of deployment and latch mechanisms employed in the design.

  15. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  16. Technology Transfer Challenges: A Case Study of User-Centered Design in NASA's Systems Engineering Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Stage (US) section of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ares I rocket will require internal access platforms for maintenance tasks performed by humans inside the vehicle. Tasks will occur during expensive critical path operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) including vehicle stacking and launch preparation activities. Platforms must be translated through a small human access hatch, installed in an enclosed worksite environment, support the weight of ground operators and be removed before flight - and their design must minimize additional vehicle mass at attachment points. This paper describes the application of a user-centered conceptual design process and the unique challenges encountered within NASA's systems engineering culture focused on requirements and "heritage hardware". The NASA design team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) initiated the user-centered design process by studying heritage internal access kits and proposing new design concepts during brainstorming sessions. Simultaneously, they partnered with the Technology Transfer/Innovative Partnerships Program to research inflatable structures and dynamic scaffolding solutions that could enable ground operator access. While this creative, technology-oriented exploration was encouraged by upper management, some design stakeholders consistently opposed ideas utilizing novel, untested equipment. Subsequent collaboration with an engineering consulting firm improved the technical credibility of several options, however, there was continued resistance from team members focused on meeting system requirements with pre-certified hardware. After a six-month idea-generating phase, an intensive six-week effort produced viable design concepts that justified additional vehicle mass while optimizing the human factors of platform installation and use. Although these selected final concepts closely resemble heritage internal access platforms, challenges from the application of the

  17. Engine Development Design Margins Briefing Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    ways to hold competing engine manufacturers more accountable for engine hot section design margins during the entire Engine Development process as well as provide tools to assess the design temperature margins in the hot section parts of Service Engines.

  18. Modeling and design of challenge tests: Inflammatory and metabolic biomarker study examples.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Hjorth, Stephan; Vogg, Barbara; Harlfinger, Stephanie; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Peletier, Lambertus; Pehrson, Rikard; Davidsson, Pia

    2015-01-25

    Given the complexity of pharmacological challenge experiments, it is perhaps not surprising that design and analysis, and in turn interpretation and communication of results from a quantitative point of view, is often suboptimal. Here we report an inventory of common designs sampled from anti-inflammatory, respiratory and metabolic disease drug discovery studies, all of which are based on animal models of disease involving pharmacological and/or patho/physiological interaction challenges. The corresponding data are modeled and analyzed quantitatively, the merits of the respective approach discussed and inferences made with respect to future design improvements. Although our analysis is limited to these disease model examples, the challenge approach is generally applicable to the vast majority of pharmacological intervention studies. In the present five Case Studies results from pharmacodynamic effect models from different therapeutic areas were explored and analyzed according to five typical designs. Plasma exposures of test compounds were assayed by either liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or ligand binding assays. To describe how drug intervention can regulate diverse processes, turnover models of test compound-challenger interaction, transduction processes, and biophase time courses were applied for biomarker response in eosinophil count, IL6 response, paw-swelling, TNFα response and glucose turnover in vivo. Case Study 1 shows results from intratracheal administration of Sephadex, which is a glucocorticoid-sensitive model of airway inflammation in rats. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluid were obtained at different time points via destructive sampling and then regressed by the mixed-effects modeling. A biophase function of the Sephadex time course was inferred from the modeled eosinophil time courses. In Case Study 2, a mouse model showed that the time course of cytokine-induced IL1β challenge was altered with or without drug intervention. Anakinra

  19. Modeling and design of challenge tests: Inflammatory and metabolic biomarker study examples.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Hjorth, Stephan; Vogg, Barbara; Harlfinger, Stephanie; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Peletier, Lambertus; Pehrson, Rikard; Davidsson, Pia

    2015-01-25

    Given the complexity of pharmacological challenge experiments, it is perhaps not surprising that design and analysis, and in turn interpretation and communication of results from a quantitative point of view, is often suboptimal. Here we report an inventory of common designs sampled from anti-inflammatory, respiratory and metabolic disease drug discovery studies, all of which are based on animal models of disease involving pharmacological and/or patho/physiological interaction challenges. The corresponding data are modeled and analyzed quantitatively, the merits of the respective approach discussed and inferences made with respect to future design improvements. Although our analysis is limited to these disease model examples, the challenge approach is generally applicable to the vast majority of pharmacological intervention studies. In the present five Case Studies results from pharmacodynamic effect models from different therapeutic areas were explored and analyzed according to five typical designs. Plasma exposures of test compounds were assayed by either liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or ligand binding assays. To describe how drug intervention can regulate diverse processes, turnover models of test compound-challenger interaction, transduction processes, and biophase time courses were applied for biomarker response in eosinophil count, IL6 response, paw-swelling, TNFα response and glucose turnover in vivo. Case Study 1 shows results from intratracheal administration of Sephadex, which is a glucocorticoid-sensitive model of airway inflammation in rats. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluid were obtained at different time points via destructive sampling and then regressed by the mixed-effects modeling. A biophase function of the Sephadex time course was inferred from the modeled eosinophil time courses. In Case Study 2, a mouse model showed that the time course of cytokine-induced IL1β challenge was altered with or without drug intervention. Anakinra

  20. Design study to simulate the development of a commercial freight transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.; Costello, Kevin; Pinkelman, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The Notre Dame Aerospace Engineering senior class was divided into six design teams. A request for proposals (RFP) asking for the design of a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) was given to the class, and each design team was responsible for designing, developing, producing, and presenting an RPV concept. The RFP called for the design of commercial freight transport RPV. The RFP provided a description of a fictitious world called 'Aeroworld'. Aeroworld's characteristics were scaled to provide the same types of challenges for RPV design that the real world market provides for the design of commercial aircraft. Fuel efficiency, range and payload capabilities, production and maintenance costs, and profitability are a few of the challenges that were addressed in this course. Each design team completed their project over the course of a semester by designing and flight testing a prototype, freight-carrying remotely piloted vehicle.

  1. Progress and challenges in enzyme development for biomass utilization.

    PubMed

    Merino, Sandra T; Cherry, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Enzymes play a critical role in the conversion of lignocellulosic waste into fuels and chemicals, but the high cost of these enzymes presents a significant barrier to commercialization. In the simplest terms, the cost is a function of the large amount of enzyme protein required to break down polymeric sugars in cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable monomers. In the past 6 years, significant effort has been expended to reduce the cost by focusing on improving the efficiency of known enzymes, identification of new, more active enzymes, creating enzyme mixes optimized for selected pretreated substrates, and minimization of enzyme production costs. Here we describe advances in enzyme technology for use in the production of biofuels and the challenges that remain.

  2. The challenge of education and learning in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Michael; Brannen, Conner; Glennerster, Rachel

    2013-04-19

    Across many different contexts, randomized evaluations find that school participation is sensitive to costs: Reducing out-of-pocket costs, merit scholarships, and conditional cash transfers all increase schooling. Addressing child health and providing information on how earnings rise with education can increase schooling even more cost-effectively. However, among those in school, test scores are remarkably low and unresponsive to more-of-the-same inputs, such as hiring additional teachers, buying more textbooks, or providing flexible grants. In contrast, pedagogical reforms that match teaching to students' learning levels are highly cost effective at increasing learning, as are reforms that improve accountability and incentives, such as local hiring of teachers on short-term contracts. Technology could potentially improve pedagogy and accountability. Improving pre- and postprimary education are major future challenges. PMID:23599477

  3. Developing an Experiential Learning Program: Milestones and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, M. Jill; Rust, Dianna Zeh

    2015-01-01

    College and University faculty members have increasingly adopted experiential learning teaching methods that are designed to engage students in the learning process. Experiential learning is simply defined as "hands-on" learning and may involve any of the following activities: service learning, applied learning in the discipline,…

  4. Education for Developing a Global Omani Citizen: Current Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Maamari, Saif

    2014-01-01

    Oman is a developing country which reformed its educational system in 1998 in order to meet the challenges of the 21st century, especially economic challenges. Strength of national identity and developing a sense of global citizenship were among the priorities of the new educational reform. This paper is based on a review of current practices…

  5. Challenges in Assessing the Development of Writing Ability: Theories, Constructs and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slomp, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses three sets of challenges involved in the assessment of writing from a developmental perspective. These challenges include defining a workable theory of development, developing a suitable construct, and overcoming limitations in technocentric approaches to writing assessment. In North America in recent years, a burgeoning…

  6. The Challenge of Teaching Technology in a Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mativo, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Educators must know their students' backgrounds to effectively increase their knowledge and skills. In determining the best delivery approach, educators must also understand the "market" in which their students will likely work after their formal education. While many students from developing countries attend universities in developed countries,…

  7. Development of Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Challenges for Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virasai, Banphot, Ed.

    Five articles on the development of higher education in Southeast Asia are presented. In "Philosophy and Objectives for Higher Education in Southeast Asia," William B. Relf discusses the historical background of education in Southeast Asia, three general purposes for a university, education and national development, future needs, recommendations…

  8. Managing Reward in Developing Economies: The Challenge for Multinational Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opute, John

    2010-01-01

    Reward has been, and continues to be, subject to significant changes in developing economies; the industrial relations model prevalent being driven by the complex socio-economic and cultural paradigms and the increasing demands of globalisation. The issue of reward in developing economies is therefore central and dependent on numerous contextual…

  9. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Challenges to develop a Zika vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health: NLM update Transcript Challenges to develop a Zika vaccine : 10/31/2016 To use the sharing ... develop and test a vaccine to prevent the Zika virus, finds a timely perspective recently published in ...

  10. Challenges in the design of clinically useful brain-targeted drug nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Costantino, L; Boraschi, D; Eaton, M

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the delivery of drugs by means of intravenously administered nanosized drug carriers - polymerdrug conjugates, liposomes and micelles, is technically possible. These delivery systems are mainly designed for tumour therapy, and accumulate passively into tumours by means of the well known EPR effect. Targeted nanocarriers, that additionally contain ligands for receptors expressed on cell surfaces, are also widely studied but products of this kind are not marketed, and only a few are in clinical trial. Polymeric nanoparticles (Np) able to deliver drugs to the CNS were pioneered in 1995; a number of papers have been published dealing with brain-targeted drug delivery using polymeric Np able to cross the BBB, mainly for the treatment of brain tumours. At present, however, the translation potential of these Np seems to have been exceeded by targeted liposomes, a platform based on a proven technology. This drug delivery system entered clinical trials soon after its discovery, while the challenges in formulation, characterization and manufacturing of brain-targeted polymeric Np and the cost/benefit ratio could be the factors that have prevented their development. A key issue is that it is virtually impossible to define the in vivo fate of polymers, especially in the brain, which is a regulatory requirement; perhaps this is why no progress has been made. The most advanced Np for brain tumours treatment will be compared here with the published data available for those in clinical trial for tumours outside the CNS, to highlight the knowledge gaps that still penalise these delivery systems. At present, new approaches for brain tumours are emerging, such as lipid Np or the use of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-drug conjugates, which avoid polymers. The success or failure in the approval of the polymeric Np currently in clinical trials will certainly affect the field. At present, the chances of their approval appear to be very low.

  11. Design goals and challenges for a photovoltaic-powered electrochromic window covering

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Branz, H M

    1994-12-01

    An estimated 1.0%-1.5% of the total cooling energy need in U.S. buildings, and 10%-30% of the peak electric utility power demand, is caused by unwanted solar heat-gain through windows. A large fraction of the approximately two billion square meters of building windows in the United States could benefit from the use of some solar gain control strategy. If a cost-effective, retrofit, electrochromic (EC) window covering were available, this energy savings potential could be realized in a relatively short time. A {open_quotes}glue on{close_quotes}, retrofit EC window treatment, similar to conventional static solar-gain control .films, could accelerate the application of this new technology in buildings. However, the costs of electrical wiring for each retrofitted window could dominate the economics of the retrofit decision and slow market acceptance of EC-windows. By incorporating a photovoltaic (PV) power source into the EC window retrofit, this wiring cost could be reduced or eliminated, and the installation of the EC window treatment could be greatly simplified. In this paper, we suggest the use of an integrated, photovoltaic-powered electrochromic (PV-EC) window treatment that can be applied to an existing window in much the same way that conventional, static, solar-gain control films are now applied. This concept is the subject of a new three-year research and development (R&D) project at our laboratory. We present our design concepts and rationale and identify some of the technical challenges involved.

  12. Challenges in Developing Competency-based Training Curriculum for Food Safety Regulators in India

    PubMed Central

    Thippaiah, Anitha; Allagh, Komal Preet; Murthy, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Food Safety and Standards Act have redefined the roles and responsibilities of food regulatory workforce and calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Aims: 1) Identify the competencies needed among the food regulatory workforce in India. 2) Develop a competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in the country. 3) Develop training materials for use to train the food regulatory workforce. Settings and Design: The Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, led the development of training curriculum on food safety with technical assistance from the Royal Society for Public Health, UK and the National Institute of Nutrition, India. The exercise was to facilitate the implementation of new Act by undertaking capacity building through a comprehensive training program. Materials and Methods: A competency-based training needs assessment was conducted before undertaking the development of the training materials. Results: The training program for Food Safety Officers was designed to comprise of five modules to include: Food science and technology, Food safety management systems, Food safety legislation, Enforcement of food safety regulations, and Administrative functions. Each module has a facilitator guide for the tutor and a handbook for the participant. Essentials of Food Hygiene-I (Basic level), II and III (Retail/ Catering/ Manufacturing) were primarily designed for training of food handlers and are part of essential reading for food safety regulators. Conclusion: The Food Safety and Standards Act calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Despite having developed a comprehensive competency-based training curriculum by joint efforts by the local, national, and international agencies, implementation remains a challenge in resource-limited setting. PMID:25136155

  13. Environmental exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Andreas; Traas, Theo P

    2007-12-01

    Under the new REACH system, companies importing, producing and marketing chemical substances will be obliged to register the single substances and to carry out a safety assessment for all identified uses during the life cycle of the substance. This duty will apply to about 10,000 existing substances in the EU market exceeding an annual production or import volume of 10 t per company. If the substance is already known to be dangerous or turns out to be dangerous(1) during the hazard assessment, the registrant is obliged to carry out an exposure assessment and a risk characterisation for all identified uses. The goal of the safety assessment is to define the conditions of use that allow for adequate control of risk with regard to health and safety at the work place, consumer safety and protection of the environment. Once the registrant has established and documented these conditions in the Chemicals Safety Report (CSR), that information is to be communicated down the supply chain by means of the Extended Safety Data Sheet (eSDS). The ultimate aim of the new legislation is to establish duties and mechanisms that systematically prevent or limit exposure to dangerous industrial chemicals. The current paper explains this concept with regard to environmental exposure and highlights the challenges and possible solutions. PMID:18000528

  14. Challenges to the Future Development of Iran's Protected Areas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur.

  15. Challenges to the future development of Iran's protected areas system.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur.

  16. Environmental exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Andreas; Traas, Theo P

    2007-12-01

    Under the new REACH system, companies importing, producing and marketing chemical substances will be obliged to register the single substances and to carry out a safety assessment for all identified uses during the life cycle of the substance. This duty will apply to about 10,000 existing substances in the EU market exceeding an annual production or import volume of 10 t per company. If the substance is already known to be dangerous or turns out to be dangerous(1) during the hazard assessment, the registrant is obliged to carry out an exposure assessment and a risk characterisation for all identified uses. The goal of the safety assessment is to define the conditions of use that allow for adequate control of risk with regard to health and safety at the work place, consumer safety and protection of the environment. Once the registrant has established and documented these conditions in the Chemicals Safety Report (CSR), that information is to be communicated down the supply chain by means of the Extended Safety Data Sheet (eSDS). The ultimate aim of the new legislation is to establish duties and mechanisms that systematically prevent or limit exposure to dangerous industrial chemicals. The current paper explains this concept with regard to environmental exposure and highlights the challenges and possible solutions.

  17. Challenges to the future development of Iran's protected areas system.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur. PMID:22797765

  18. Translational challenges of animal models in Chagas disease drug development: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Eric; Konar, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasite infection is endemic in Latin America and presents an increasing clinical challenge due to migrating populations. Despite being first identified over a century ago, only two drugs are available for its treatment, and recent outcomes from the first clinical trials in 40 years were lackluster. There is a critical need to develop new drugs to treat Chagas disease. This requires a better understanding of the progression of parasite infection, and standardization of animal models designed for Chagas disease drug discovery. Such measures would improve comparison of generated data and the predictability of test hypotheses and models designed for translation to human disease. Existing animal models address both disease pathology and treatment efficacy. Available models have limited predictive value for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapies and need to more confidently predict the efficacy of new drug candidates in clinical trials. This review highlights the overall lack of standardized methodology and assessment tools, which has hampered the development of efficacious compounds to treat Chagas disease. We provide an overview of animal models for Chagas disease, and propose steps that could be undertaken to reduce variability and improve predictability of drug candidate efficacy. New technological developments and tools may contribute to a much needed boost in the drug discovery process. PMID:26316715

  19. Translational challenges of animal models in Chagas disease drug development: a review.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Eric; Konar, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasite infection is endemic in Latin America and presents an increasing clinical challenge due to migrating populations. Despite being first identified over a century ago, only two drugs are available for its treatment, and recent outcomes from the first clinical trials in 40 years were lackluster. There is a critical need to develop new drugs to treat Chagas disease. This requires a better understanding of the progression of parasite infection, and standardization of animal models designed for Chagas disease drug discovery. Such measures would improve comparison of generated data and the predictability of test hypotheses and models designed for translation to human disease. Existing animal models address both disease pathology and treatment efficacy. Available models have limited predictive value for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapies and need to more confidently predict the efficacy of new drug candidates in clinical trials. This review highlights the overall lack of standardized methodology and assessment tools, which has hampered the development of efficacious compounds to treat Chagas disease. We provide an overview of animal models for Chagas disease, and propose steps that could be undertaken to reduce variability and improve predictability of drug candidate efficacy. New technological developments and tools may contribute to a much needed boost in the drug discovery process.

  20. Career Development: Challenging the New Breed of Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Cheryl S.

    1986-01-01

    Career development is a systematic and logical method for helping employees acquire skills and knowledge for professional growth. It benefits both the employee and the organization and should be a shared responsibility. The process is described. (MT)

  1. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  2. Design, Development and Testing of the GMI Reflector Deployment Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Larry; Foster, Mike; McEachen, Mike; Pellicciotti, Joseph; Kubitschek, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The GMI Reflector Deployment Assembly (RDA) is an articulating structure that accurately positions and supports the main reflector of the Global Microwave Imager (GMI) throughout the 3 year mission life. The GMI instrument will fly on the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and will be used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydrometeorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements1. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The RDA was designed and manufactured by ATK Aerospace Systems Group to meet a number of challenging packaging and performance requirements. ATK developed a flight-like engineering development unit (EDU) and two flight mechanisms that have been delivered to BATC. This paper will focus on driving GMI instrument system requirements, the RDA design, development, and test activities performed to demonstrate that requirements have been met.

  3. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  4. Challenges of the opto-mechanical conceptual design of a small far-IR balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Berthod, Christophe; Horville, David; Huet, Jean-Michel; Laporte, Philippe; Wiedner, Martina; Romanow, Alexia; Krieg, Jean-Michel; Pagani, Laurent; Evrard, Jean; Gomes, Albert; Jouret, Martine

    2014-07-01

    Astronomers require more and more precise instruments for their observations. Here we describe the challenges encountered in the optical and mechanical designs of the CIDRE (Campagne d'Identification du Deutérium par Réception hEtérodyne) project, which was to be flown on a high altitude balloon at 40 km. The project aimed to measure the transitions of the HD molecule at 2.675 THz band and some other THz lines in our galaxy. The astronomers asked to fly the biggest possible telescope in a standard balloon gondola, and required high pointing accuracy (7 arcsec). In January 2014, the technical project, including the optical and mechanical designs, was evaluated to be of excellent standard, but, for all that, the project was cancelled because of financial constraints. Nevertheless the phase A study allowed us to identify the optical and mechanical challenges of balloon projects and we were able to come up with a simple design, that fulfilled all the requirements. The 900 mm primary mirror and the rest of the optics were designed to be supported by a sandwich-panel composite structure with carbon epoxy skins and aluminum honeycomb core to improve the mechanical stiffness and the thermal behavior of the instrument without increasing its mass or its complexity. In this paper, we describe the optical design and the mechanical structure of the instrument. Finite element analysis is carried out to estimate the gravitational flexure and the thermal deformations, which can both harm the pointing accuracy and the performances of the instrument. These simulations show that the proposed design would fulfill the different requirements (pointing accuracy, landing survival as well as the dynamic behavior).

  5. Designing for Success: Developing Engineers Who Consider Universal Design Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Kimberly Edginton

    2012-01-01

    Engineers must design for a diverse group of potential users of their products; however, engineering curricula rarely include an emphasis on universal design principles. This research article details the effectiveness of a design project implemented in a first-year engineering course in an effort to raise awareness of the need for engineers to be…

  6. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Myers, G.; Cvercko, A.; Williams, J.R.

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  7. Preliminary design for a MAGLEV development facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, H. T.; He, J. L.; Chang, S. L.; Bouillard, J. X.; Chen, S. S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L. O.; Lottes, S. A.; Rote, D. M.; Zhang, Z. Y.

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh from 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  8. Developing leaders via experience: the role of developmental challenge, learning orientation, and feedback availability.

    PubMed

    Derue, D Scott; Wellman, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Prior research offers limited insight into the types of work experiences that promote leadership skill development and the ways that the person and context shape the developmental value of these experiences. In this article, the authors develop a series of hypotheses linking leadership skill development to features of the experience (developmental challenge), person (learning orientation), and context (feedback availability). Based on 225 on-the-job experiences across 60 managers, their results demonstrate that the relationship between developmental challenge and leadership skill development exhibits a pattern of diminishing returns. However, access to feedback can offset the diminishing returns associated with high levels of developmental challenge. PMID:19594230

  9. Recent developments in virtual experience design and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1995-03-01

    Today, the media of VR and Telepresence are in their infancy and the emphasis is still on technology and engineering. But, it is not the hardware people might use that will determine whether VR becomes a powerful medium--instead, it will be the experiences that they are able to have that will drive its acceptance and impact. A critical challenge in the elaboration of these telepresence capabilities will be the development of environments that are as unpredictable and rich in interconnected processes as an actual location or experience. This paper will describe the recent development of several Virtual Experiences including: `Menagerie', an immersive Virtual Environment inhabited by virtual characters designed to respond to and interact with its users; and `The Virtual Brewery', an immersive public VR installation that provides multiple levels of interaction in an artistic interpretation of the brewing process.

  10. Developing a science of land change: Challenges and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Turner, B. L.; Fox, Jefferson; Mishra, Vinod

    2004-01-01

    Land-change science has emerged as a foundational element of global environment change and sustainability science. It seeks to understand the human and environment dynamics that give rise to changed land uses and covers, not only in terms of their type and magnitude but their location as well. This focus requires the integration of social, natural, and geographical information sciences. Each of these broad research communities has developed different ways to enter the land-change problem, each with different means of treating the locational specificity of the critical variables, such as linking the land manager to the parcel being managed. The resulting integration encounters various data, methodological, and analytical problems, especially those concerning aggregation and inference, land-use pixel links, data and measurement, and remote sensing analysis. Here, these integration problems, which hinder comprehensive understanding and theory development, are addressed. Their recognition and resolution are required for the sustained development of land-change science. PMID:15383671

  11. [Health and development in Brazil: progress and challenges].

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira

    2012-12-01

    The structural sustainability of the Brazilian health system refers to the country's pattern of development according to how this pattern is expressed and reproduced in the Brazilian population. This derives not only from its social dimension, but also from the economic one, as it accounts for a significant part of the gross domestic product and of job creation, and produces a great impact on the generation of innovation and national competitiveness. The federal government has institutionalized the role of health in the national development agenda due to its strategic aspect. Despite this, the fragility of its productive base continues to be a major vulnerability for the National Health System and for Brazil's competitiveness in a global environment. This signals that the virtuous establishment of the relation between health and development involves the rupture of cognitive and political paradigms that separate, in an impermeable way, the economic from the social order.

  12. Small Craft Advisory!: Cardboard Boat Challenges Students' Research, Design and Construction Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffis, Kurt; Brand, Lance; Shackelford, Ray

    2006-01-01

    Throughout history, people have moved themselves and cargo across water in boats and other types of vessels. Most vessels are developed using a technological design process, which typically involves problem solving and a series of steps. The designer documents each step to provide an accurate record of accomplishments and information to guide…

  13. Design Challenges of a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron for Carbon/Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Nathan

    2012-03-01

    The growing interest in radiation therapy with protons and light ions has driven demand for new methods of ion acceleration and the delivery of ion beams. One exciting new platform for ion beam acceleration and delivery is the rapid cycling synchrotron. Operating at 15Hz, rapid cycling achieves faster treatment times by making beam extraction possible at any energy during the cycle. Moreover, risk to the patient is reduced by requiring fewer particles in the beam line at a given time, thus eliminating the need for passive filtering and reducing the consequences of a malfunction. Lastly, the ability to switch between carbon ion and proton beam therapy provides the machine with an unmatched flexibility. However, these features do stipulate challenges in accelerator design. Maintaining a compact lattice requires careful tuning of lattice functions, tight focusing combined function magnets, and fast injection and extraction systems. Providing the necessary acceleration over a short cycle time also necessitates a five-fold frequency swing for carbon ions, further burdening the design requirements of ferrite-driven radiofrequency cavities. We will consider these challenges as well as some solutions selected for our current design.

  14. Development challenges for Low Temperature Plasma Sources ``from Idea to Prototype''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, T.; Baudler, J.-S.; Horn, S.; Schmidt, M.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2015-09-01

    While plasma medicine is a well-motivated and intensively investigated topic, the requirements on the plasma sources change for individual applications. For example in dermatology, a large scale treatment is favored, while in dentistry, a localized application of plasma sources is required. Meanwhile, plasma source development is based on feasibility and not on the application. When a source is developed, it is usually motivated towards an application instead of considering an application and designing a plasma source to fit its needs. Each approach has its advantage and can lead to an advance in the field. With this contribution, we will present an approach from idea to prototype and show challenges in the plasma source development. For example, the consideration of legal regulations, adaption of the plasma source for a specific field of application and the interplay of gas flow dynamics with electrical field distribution. The solution was developed within several iterations to optimize it for different requirements. The obstacles that occurred during the development process will be highlighted and discussed. Afterwards the final source is characterized for a potential medical application and compared directly with a plasma source certified as a medical product. Acknowledging grants: AU 11 038; ESF/IV-BM-B35-0010/13.

  15. Challenging Change: An Instructor's Role in Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Ruth A.; Sundre, Sharon K.

    1983-01-01

    Asubjective classification of participants in a career development course for women provides keys to the instructor's role with each type. Students are deciders, explorers, dabblers, or evaders, and the instructor is respectively promoter, facilitator, motivator, or encourager. (CPAD Network, 1190 South Bascom, Suite 211, San Jose, CA 95128) (SK)

  16. Meeting Challenges to Sustainable Development through Science and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Jack

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to stimulate discussion and recommendations related to science and technology education and its role in sustainable development. It puts forward points of view and addresses concerns in science education. The paper recognizes that all in not well within science and technology education and that there are concerns related to…

  17. Human Growth and Development: Educational and Professional Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Malachy; Boland, Elizabeth A.; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards were revised to include Human Growth and Development (HGD) as a knowledge domain. The HGD domain introduces a significant amount of new content to the curriculum, including several topics that have not traditionally appeared in the rehabilitation counselor educational curriculum. Thus,…

  18. Challenges, developments and perspectives in intermittent river ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although more than half the world's river networks comprise channels that periodically cease to flow and dry [intermittent rivers (IRs)], river ecology was largely developed from and for perennial systems. Ecological knowledge of IRs is rapidly increasing, so there is a need to s...

  19. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  20. Developing Tutorials for Several Institutional Partners: A Real Challenge!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzile, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    This case describes the two-year development of a set of interactive tutorials for students and faculty at a number of community colleges and one university in order to target information literacy skills among their students, primarily searching for and evaluating information found online. The tools created were published under a "Creative…

  1. Higher Education Challenges in Developing Countries: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Diane E.

    2004-01-01

    This review of literature was written in preparation for conducting a research study on the U.S. community college system as a potential model for developing countries, and using Vietnam as a specific case. It is divided into four sections: (a) a discussion of the purposes of higher education (HE), (b) an examination of problems faced by the HE…

  2. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  3. Using Evidence to Encourage Inclusive School Development: Possibilities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel; Kaplan, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that inquiry-based approaches can be powerful in stimulating the development of inclusive practices. However, the implementation of such approaches can be difficult, particularly in contexts where there is a strong emphasis on improving standards, as measured by test and examination scores. This article describes and…

  4. Development of a sheep challenge model for Rift Valley fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever is a zoonotic disease responsible for severe outbreaks in ruminant livestock characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in younger animals. The lack of a fully licensed vaccine in the US has spurred increased demand for a protective vaccine. Thus, development of a reli...

  5. [The demographic development in Germany : challenge and chances for urology].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A W; Fichtner, J

    2014-08-01

    Urology is affected by the demographic development in Germany more than any other medical discipline. Despite a relatively stable total population, by the year 2040 there will be an absolute and relevant increase in urological diseases caused only by the demographic development in the population. This is particularly true for the increase in oncological treatment just in the field of the discipline of urology. Even now the current numbers for tumor development in Germany (RKI 2014) in the urological oncology segment of all tumor diseases show an increasing trend with more than 23 %. This significant increase in performance is in contrast to the age development of the specialists in this discipline. In total but especially due to the significantly over-aged specialist medical profession in urology, this leads to a substantial bottleneck of specialists in the discipline of urology. This deficiency of personnel resources in urology is aggravated by the requirements of Generation Y for a well-adjusted work-life balance and the associated feminization of the medical profession. This requires intelligent strategies for.

  6. Counseling Psychology Licensure in Taiwan: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…

  7. Rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Chen, Robert T. N.; Key, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Joint NASA/Army efforts at the Ames Research Center to develop rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria began in earnest in 1975. Notable results were the UH-1H VSTOLAND variable stability helicopter, the VFA-2 camera-and-terrain-board simulator visual system, and the generic helicopter real-time mathematical model, ARMCOP. An initial series of handling-qualities studies was conducted to assess the effects of rotor design parameters, interaxis coupling, and various levels of stability and control augmentation. The ability to conduct in-flight handling-qualities research was enhanced by the development of the NASA/Army CH-47 variable-stability helicopter. Research programs conducted using this vehicle include vertical-response investigations, hover augmentation systems, and the effects of control-force characteristics. The handling-qualities data base was judged to be sufficient to allow an update of the military helicopter handling-qualities specification, MIL-H-8501. These efforts, including not only the in-house experimental work but also contracted research and collaborative programs performed under the auspices of various international agreements. The report concludes by reviewing the topics that are currently most in need of work, and the plans for addressing these topics.

  8. 36 CFR 910.15 - New development design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New development design. 910... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.15 New development design....

  9. Current and future challenges in the development of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Micro-organisms exist to survive. Even in the absence of antimicrobial agents, many have determinants of resistance that may be expressed phenotypically, should the need arise. With the advent of the antibiotic age, as more and more drugs were developed to treat serious infections, micro-organisms (particularly bacteria) rapidly developed resistance determinants to prevent their own demise.The most important determinants of resistance have been in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among Gram-positive bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) have taxed researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop new agents that are effective against these resistant strains. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes, carbapenemases (CREs) and the so-called amp-C enzymes that may be readily transferred between species of enterobacteriaceae and other facultative species have created multi-drug resistant organisms that are difficult to treat. Other resistance determinants have been seen in other clinically important bacterial species such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Clostridium difficile, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These issues have now spread to fungal agents of infection.A variety of modalities have been used to stem the tide of resistance. These include the development of niche compounds that target specific resistance determinants. Other approaches have been to find new targets for antimicrobial activity, use of combination agents that are effective against more than one target in the cell, or new delivery mechanism to maximize the concentration of antimicrobial agents at the site of infection without causing toxicity to the host. It is important that such new modalities have been proved effective for clinical therapy. Animal models and non-mammalian systems have been developed to

  10. Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: New Challenges for the Development of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Jara, María José; Ilabaca, Alejandra; Vega, Marco; García, Apolinaria

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms. PMID:27681929

  11. Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: New Challenges for the Development of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Jara, María José; Ilabaca, Alejandra; Vega, Marco; García, Apolinaria

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms.

  12. Challenges of Ophthalmic Care in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Alfred; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ravilla, Thulasiraj D.; West, Sheila; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Chiang, Michael F.; Robin, Alan L.; Mills, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Global blindness exacts an enormous financial and social cost on developing countries. Reducing the prevalence of blindness globally requires a set of strategies that are different from those typically employed in developed countries. This was the subject of the 2013 Knapp symposium at the American Ophthalmological Society Annual Meeting, and this article summarizes the presentations of epidemiologists, health care planners, and ophthalmologists. It explores a range of successful strategies from the multinational Vision 2020 Initiative to disease-specific schemes in cataract, trachoma control, infectious corneal ulceration, cytomegalovirus retinitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. In each example, the importance of an attitudinal set towards the public health becomes clear. There is reason for optimism in the struggle against global blindness, in large measure because of innovative programs like those described here. PMID:24604415

  13. Development of Clinically Relevant Implantable Pressure Sensors: Perspectives and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Ingelin; Glott, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This review describes different aspects to consider when developing implantable pressure sensor systems. Measurement of pressure is in general highly important in clinical practice and medical research. Due to the small size, light weight and low energy consumption Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology represents new possibilities for monitoring of physiological parameters inside the human body. Development of clinical relevant sensors requires close collaboration between technological experts and medical clinicians. Site of operation, size restrictions, patient safety, and required measurement range and resolution, are only some conditions that must be taken into account. An implantable device has to operate under very hostile conditions. Long-term in vivo pressure measurements are particularly demanding because the pressure sensitive part of the sensor must be in direct or indirect physical contact with the medium for which we want to detect the pressure. New sensor packaging concepts are demanded and must be developed through combined effort between scientists in MEMS technology, material science, and biology. Before launching a new medical device on the market, clinical studies must be performed. Regulatory documents and international standards set the premises for how such studies shall be conducted and reported. PMID:25248071

  14. Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.

  15. Development of a Rubber-Based Product Using a Mixture Experiment: A Challenging Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Yahya; Piepel, Gregory F.; Caniyilmaz, Erdal

    2013-07-01

    Many products used in daily life are made by blending two or more components. The properties of such products typically depend on the relative proportions of the components. Experimental design, modeling, and data analysis methods for mixture experiments provide for efficiently determining the component proportions that will yield a product with desired properties. This article presents a case study of the work performed to develop a new rubber formulation for an o-ring (a circular gasket) with requirements specified on 10 product properties. Each step of the study is discussed, including: 1) identifying the objective of the study and requirements for properties of the o-ring, 2) selecting the components to vary and specifying the component constraints, 3) constructing a mixture experiment design, 4) measuring the responses and assessing the data, 5) developing property-composition models, 6) selecting the new product formulation, and 7) confirming the selected formulation in manufacturing. The case study includes some challenging and new aspects, which are discussed in the article.

  16. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture

  17. Challenges to development in India: The Role of Education

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-05-08

    This talk is based on my experiences with issues in development and education in India. I will describe three unfinished journeys: (i) How HIV/AIDS education and awareness lead to a program of "students as agents of change" through the creation of multimedia presentations on societal issues; (ii) how teaching health to village outreach workers lead to an understanding of adolescent migration from villages to towns in search for jobs and the spectre of alcoholism; and(iii) how teaching health to sex workers in Kolkata lead to an understanding of their closed world.

  18. The challenges of developing a trauma system for Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Plani, Frank; Carson, Phil

    2008-12-01

    Trauma systems have been shown to provide the best trauma care for injured patients. A trauma system developed for Indigenous people should take into account many factors including geographical remoteness and cultural diversity. Indigenous people suffer from a significant intentional and non-intentional burden of injury, often greater than non-Indigenous populations, and a public health approach in dealing with trauma can be adopted. This includes transport issues, prevention and control of intentional violence, cultural sensitization of health providers, community emergency responses, community rehabilitation and improving resilience. The ultimate aim is to decrease the trauma burden through a trauma system with which indigenous people can fully identify.

  19. China's environment and the challenge of sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Kristen A. Day

    2005-01-15

    China has been experiencing extraordinary economic growth for over two decades. Behind the remarkable statistics, however, it is facing a pressing issue: balancing its economic development needs with protecting its environmental resources. The environmental issue in China has a profound impact on the rest of the world as well, in such concerns as global warming and ethical and legal considerations about environmental enforcement. This book covers a broad range of topics, from specific environmental assessments in key sectors (i.e. desertification) to the policy implications of China's entry into the WTO.

  20. The Large Deployable Reflector - A technology development challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, R. B.; Gualdoni, R.

    1984-01-01

    The proposed Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) telescope is an astrophysical orbiting platform whose aperture is of the order of 20 m, and is dedicated to observations in the IR and sub-mm wavelengths. NASA is currently planning a 5-year technology development program that will allow the requisite hardware and software to reach the state required for economical and reliable implementation. A computer model simulation is envisioned toward this end that will encompass and integrate structural, thermal, control, optics, and systems program elements. Possession of the enabling technology is foreseen for the early 1990s.

  1. Challenges to Development in India: The Role of Education

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-05-08

    This talk is based on my experiences with issues in development and education in India. I will describe three unfinished journeys: (i) How HIV/AIDS education and awareness lead to a program of 'students as agents of change' through the creation of multimedia presentations on societal issues; (ii) how teaching health to village outreach workers lead to an understanding of adolescent migration from villages to towns in search for jobs and the spectre of alcoholism; and(iii) how teaching health to sex workers in Kolkata lead to an understanding of their closed world.

  2. Developing suitable methods of nutritional status assessment: a continuous challenge.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L

    2014-09-01

    Reliable information about the nutritional status is essential to identify potential critical nutrients and the population groups at risk of deficiency, as well as to develop effective public health policies to counteract unfavorable nutrition patterns that contribute to morbidity and mortality. In this review, the important role of biomarkers in the assessment of nutritional status is outlined, major strengths and limitations of established and new biomarkers are described, and important criteria for biomarker selection and development are discussed. Indeed, biomarkers offer a more objective assessment tool than pure dietary approaches that suffer from inadequate data reporting in particular, although biomarkers are often only measured in subsamples because of the higher costs and proband burden they entail. However, biomarkers are subject to individual variability and influences from other factors besides the nutrient of interest. Rapid turnover or tight control of nutrient concentrations in blood (homeostasis) limits their sensitivity as biomarkers, as in the case of many trace elements. The existence of different forms of a micronutrient in the body adds additional complexity. Functional biomarkers, such as enzyme activities, mirror long-term status better but are subject to confounding factors, and some are influenced by several micronutrients, not specific for only 1, so using a combination of biomarkers is advisable. Additionally, the applicability of a biomarker also depends on the existence of adequate reference values and cutoff points for the target population. Therefore, a careful selection is warranted, especially when biomarkers are to be used in larger samples.

  3. A Method for Universal Screening of Elementary School Students: Development of the Social Challenges Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Pollard, Elena; Stein, Alexander J.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda; Matthews, Nicole L.; Openden, Daniel; Melmed, Raun D.

    2015-01-01

    Schools regularly screen students for hearing and vision impairments because they present impediments to academic progress. For the same reason, schools should consider adding a universal screening for social challenges, which may also impede the learning process. This study reports on the development of the Social Challenges Screening…

  4. Developing Outcome Measures for a Family Intensive Support Service for Children Presenting with Challenging Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Bethany; John, Mary; Coombes, Rachel; Singh, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Seven per cent of individuals with learning disabilities also display challenging behaviour ("Challenging behaviour: analysis and intervention in people with severe intellectual disabilities," 2001, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press), which has an effect on the whole family. Services need to be developed to support and reflect this…

  5. Design and Development of a Learning Design Virtual Internship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Dana; Boehm, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of practical experience in learning design and technology education has long been accepted as an important step in the developmental process of future learning designers. The proliferation of adult online education has increased the number of graduate students who are in need of a practical internship placement but have limited…

  6. Report on Challenges and Resolutions for the Purple Development Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Futral, W S; Gyllenhaal, J C; Wolfe, M E; Chambreau, C M

    2006-12-12

    Previous AIX development environment experience with ASC White and Early Delivery systems UV and UM was leveraged to provide a smooth and robust transition to the Purple development environment. Still, there were three major changes that initially caused serious problems for Purple users. The first was making 64-bit builds of executables the default instead of 32-bit. The second was requiring all executables to use large page memory. The third was the phase-out of the popular, but now defunct, third-party C++ compiler KCC, which required the migration of many codes to IBM's xlC C++ compiler. On Purple, the default build environment changed from 32-bit builds to 64-bit builds in order to enable executables to use the 4GB per processor (32GB per node) memory available, and in order for the MPI library to do collective optimizations that required the larger 64-bit address space. The 64-bit build environment was made default by setting the IBM environment variable OBJECT{_}MODE to 64 and wrapping third-party software (mainly the gnu compilers) in order to make them handle OBJECT{_}MODE properly. Because not all applications could port to 64-bit right away, (usually due to third-party constraints, such as python not supporting 64-bit AIX builds until very recently), 32-bit builds of the major common third-party libraries also had be supported. This combined 32/64 bit build support was accomplished fairly seamlessly using the AIX feature that allows both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the code to appear in the same library file, and documentation with clear examples helped our library developers generate the required combined 32-bit and 64-bit libraries for Purple. In general, the port to 64-bit AIX executables went smoothly. The most common problem encountered with 64-bit was that many C codes didn't prototype malloc everywhere, via ''include '', which caused invalid pointers to be returned by unprototyped malloc calls. This was usually seen in old crusty C

  7. Ground test challenges in the development of the Space Shuttle orbiter auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffee, N. H.; Lance, R. J.; Weary, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional aircraft hydraulic system design approach was selected to provide fluid power for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Developing the power unit, known as the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), to drive the hydraulic pumps presented a major technological challenge. A small, high speed turbine drive unit powered by catalytically decomposed hydrazine and operating in the pulse mode was selected to meet the requirement. Because of limitations of vendor test facilities, significant portions of the development, flight qualification, and postflight anomaly testing of the Orbiter APU were accomplished at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) test facilities. This paper discusses the unique requirements of attitude, gravity forces, pressure profiles, and thermal environments which had to be satisfied by the APU, and presents the unique test facility and simulation techniques employed to meet the ground test requirements. In particular, the development of the zero-g lubrication system, the development of necessary APU thermal control techniques, the accomplishment of integrated systems tests, and the postflight investigation of the APU lube oil cooler behavior are discussed.

  8. Strategies for Developing Sustainable Design Practice for Students and SME Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Eyto, A.; Mc Mahon, M.; Hadfield, M.; Hutchings, M.

    2008-01-01

    Designers and engineers seem finally to be awakening to the challenge that sustainable development has given. Educators and students alike are keenly aware of the need to become more effective in the training and practice of their specific disciplines with respect to sustainability. In the past four years since this research has developed, there…

  9. New challenge of developing combined radio-drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Maingon, Philippe; Govaerts, Anne-Sophie; Rivera, Sofia; Vens, Conchita; Shash, Emad; Grégoire, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Combined modality treatment can be used to improve control of the local disease at the expense of increased toxicity. Several randomized trials have demonstrated that this combined modality therapy is better than radiotherapy alone or chemotherapy alone in the treatment of locally advanced diseases. Several new targets as well as potential new radio-sensitizers have been identified. To speed-up the process of developing new combined modality treatments, good preclinical models for optimization of the ratio between efficacy and toxicity and a well established methodology within a network of advanced high-tech laboratories and clinical departments devoted to early phase trials, are mandatory. The Synergy of Targeted Agents and Radiation Therapy (STAR) platform of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) is gathering these tools. PMID:25841414

  10. The development of mountain risk governance: challenges for application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, S.; Stötter, J.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity the management of mountain risks in the Alps has considerably increased since its institutionalisation in the late nineteenth century. In the history of approaches to dealing with mountain risks four successive paradigms can be distinguished on the basis of key indicators such as guiding principles, characteristic elements and typical instruments: "hazard protection", "hazard management", "risk management", and "risk governance". In this contribution, special attention is paid to the development of hazard zone planning and the growing importance of communication and participation over the course of this transformation. At present, the risk management paradigm has reached maturity. In the Alps, risk governance frameworks are not yet applied to risks from natural hazards. Based on a historical analysis, the suitability and applicability of general risk governance frameworks in the context of mountain risks are discussed. Necessary adaptations (e.g., in administration, educational, and legal structures) are proposed for the upcoming transformation towards mountain risk governance.

  11. The young athlete: challenges of growth, development, and society.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Youth sports provide numerous health-enhancing and other important benefits to participating children and adolescents. However, the motivations and goals of young athletes often conflict with those of adult stakeholders, and they are redirected. The youth sports industry has become exclusionary, as the professional model of development increasingly is prevalent and accepted. Youth who follow this model often cannot keep up with the unrealistic expectations and excessive demands. Too much play, training, travel, and pressure frequently lead to a variety of physical and psychological problems, particularly concurrent with the vulnerability of a young athlete going through pre- or early adolescence and the rapid growth phase. The need for alternative models, emphasizing fun and fundamentals, is becoming increasingly clear and urgent. With appropriate changes, youth sports once again can be an effective entry point for a lifetime of healthy sports participation and enjoyment.

  12. The challenge of developing green tea polyphenols as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Huo, C; Wan, S B; Lam, W H; Li, L; Wang, Z; Landis-Piwowar, K R; Chen, D; Dou, Q P; Chan, T H

    2008-10-01

    The health benefits of green tea and its main constituent (-)-epigallocatechin gallate [(-)-EGCG] have been widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. On the other hand, there are a number of issues, such as stability, bioavailability and metabolic transformations under physiological conditions, facing the development of green tea polyphenols into therapeutic agents. We previously reported that the synthetic peracetate of (-)-EGCG has improved stability and better bioavailability than (-)-EGCG itself and can act as pro-drug under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Analogs of catechins have been synthesized and their structure activity relationship provides an understanding to the mechanism of proteasome inhibition. Metabolic methylation of catechins leading to methylated (-)-EGCG may alter the biological activities of these compounds. PMID:18815735

  13. Developing countries and neglected diseases: challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2007-01-01

    It is now commonly admitted that the so-called (most) neglected tropical diseases have been given little attention. According to World Health Organization, neglected diseases are hidden diseases as they affect almost exclusively extremely poor populations living in remote areas beyond the reach of health service. The European Parliament recognised that, to our shame, Neglected Diseases have not received the attention they deserve from EU actions. In the Millennium Development Goals they were given very little attention and mentioned just as other disease. Investing in drugs for these diseases is thought to be not marketable or profitable. However, despite their low mortality, neglected diseases are causing severe and permanent disabilities and deformities affecting approximately 1 billion people in the world, yielding more than 20 millions of Disability Adjusted Life Years (56.6 million according to Lancet's revised estimates) and important socio-economic losses. Urgent pragmatic and efficient measures are needed both at international and national levels. PMID:18036265

  14. Tools for regulatory assessment of occupational exposure: development and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Erik; Warren, Nick; Schneider, Thomas; Tischer, Martin; Ritchie, Peter; Goede, Henk; Kromhout, Hans; Van Hemmen, Joop; Cherrie, John W

    2007-12-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of CHemicals) requires improved exposure models that can be incorporated into screening tools and refined assessment tools. These are referred to as tier 1 and 2 models, respectively. There are a number of candidate in tier 1 models that could be used with REACH. Tier 2 models, producing robust and realistic exposure assessments, are currently not available. A research programme is proposed in this paper that will result in a new, advanced exposure assessment tool for REACH. In addition, issues related to variability and uncertainty are discussed briefly, and some examples of tier 1 screening tools are presented. The proposed framework for the tier 2 tool is based on a Bayesian approach, and makes full use of mechanistically modelled estimates and any relevant measurements of exposure. The new approach will preclude the necessity to conduct of case-by-case exposure measurements for each chemical and scenario, since the system will allow for the use of analogous exposure data from relatively comparable scenarios. The development of the new approach requires substantial effort in the area of mechanistic modelling, database development and Bayesian statistical techniques. In this paper, the data gaps and areas for future research are identified to help realise and further improve this type of approach within REACH. A structured data collection and storage system is a central element of the research programme and the availability of this type of tool may also facilitate the sharing of exposure data down and up the supply chain. In addition, new data that are stored according to the proposed structure could enable the validation of any exposure model and thus this programme enhances the exposure assessment field as a whole.

  15. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-09-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed.

  16. The challenge of developing career pathways for senior academic pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G

    2005-06-01

    Physicians are living longer and are healthier than in previous times. The opportunity to use their experience, expertise, and wisdom after what would be "normal" retirement age needs to be explored. The object of this study was to survey senior academic pediatricians and pediatric department chairs to define the present status of pediatricians who are in academic settings and are older than 65 y, to explore the options that are open to pediatricians who are older than 65 y for continuing to use their skills, and to increase the awareness of the unused potential that exists among senior pediatricians. Structured questionnaires were sent to the 1444 members of the American Pediatric Society (APS) and to the 148 pediatric department chairs of the medical schools in the United States and Canada to identify current practices concerning retirement and utilization of senior pediatricians. Thirty-five percent of APS members and 40% of chairs of pediatrics responded. The responding APS members were interested in exploring avenues to continue to use the skills that they had developed. The responding pediatric chairs reported that they were constrained from supporting their senior faculty members by institutional pressures for space, salary monies, and the need to recruit new faculty members. However, they recognized the value of senior pediatricians. The skills and expertise of senior pediatricians (and probably other physicians) are often not used after the usual age of "retirement." New programs and pathways need to be developed not only to use the resource of these skills but also to enhance the health and sense of satisfaction of senior pediatricians.

  17. Development of Tripropellant CFD Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary C.; Anderson, Peter G.

    1998-01-01

    A tripropellant, such as GO2/H2/RP-1, CFD design code has been developed to predict the local mixing of multiple propellant streams as they are injected into a rocket motor. The code utilizes real fluid properties to account for the mixing and finite-rate combustion processes which occur near an injector faceplate, thus the analysis serves as a multi-phase homogeneous spray combustion model. Proper accounting of the combustion allows accurate gas-side temperature predictions which are essential for accurate wall heating analyses. The complex secondary flows which are predicted to occur near a faceplate cannot be quantitatively predicted by less accurate methodology. Test cases have been simulated to describe an axisymmetric tripropellant coaxial injector and a 3-dimensional RP-1/LO2 impinger injector system. The analysis has been shown to realistically describe such injector combustion flowfields. The code is also valuable to design meaningful future experiments by determining the critical location and type of measurements needed.

  18. Ethical challenges and how to develop ethics support in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Lillemoen, Lillian; Pedersen, Reidar

    2013-02-01

    Ethics support in primary health care has been sparser than in hospitals, the need for ethics support is probably no less. We have, however, limited knowledge about how to develop ethics support that responds to primary health-care workers' needs. In this article, we present a survey with a mixture of closed- and open-ended questions concerning: How frequent and how distressed various types of ethical challenges make the primary health-care workers feel, how important they think it is to deal with these challenges better and what kind of ethics support they want. Five primary health-care institutions participated. Ethical challenges seem to be prominent and common. Most frequently, the participants experienced ethical challenges related to scarce resources and lack of knowledge and skills. Furthermore, ethical challenges related to communication and decision making were common. The participants welcomed ethics support responding to their challenges and being integrated in their daily practices.

  19. Quantitative In Vivo Imaging of Embryonic Development: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Chelsea L.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models are critically important for mechanistic understanding of embryonic morphogenesis. For decades, visualizing these rapid and complex multidimensional events has relied on projection images and thin section reconstructions. While much insight has been gained, fixed tissue specimens offer limited information on dynamic processes that are essential for tissue assembly and organ patterning. Quantitative imaging is required to unlock the important basic science and clinically relevant secrets that remain hidden. Recent advances in live imaging technology have enabled quantitative longitudinal analysis of embryonic morphogenesis at multiple length and time scales. Four different imaging modalities are currently being used to monitor embryonic morphogenesis: optical, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Each has its advantages and limitations with respect to spatial resolution, depth of field, scanning speed, and tissue contrast. In addition, new processing tools have been developed to enhance live imaging capabilities. In this review, we analyze each type of imaging source and its use in quantitative study of embryonic morphogenesis in small animal models. We describe the physics behind their function, identify some examples in which the modality has revealed new quantitative insights, and then conclude with a discussion of new research directions with live imaging. PMID:22695188

  20. Quantitative in vivo imaging of embryonic development: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Chelsea L; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2012-07-01

    Animal models are critically important for a mechanistic understanding of embryonic morphogenesis. For decades, visualizing these rapid and complex multidimensional events has relied on projection images and thin section reconstructions. While much insight has been gained, fixed tissue specimens offer limited information on dynamic processes that are essential for tissue assembly and organ patterning. Quantitative imaging is required to unlock the important basic science and clinically relevant secrets that remain hidden. Recent advances in live imaging technology have enabled quantitative longitudinal analysis of embryonic morphogenesis at multiple length and time scales. Four different imaging modalities are currently being used to monitor embryonic morphogenesis: optical, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Each has its advantages and limitations with respect to spatial resolution, depth of field, scanning speed, and tissue contrast. In addition, new processing tools have been developed to enhance live imaging capabilities. In this review, we analyze each type of imaging source and its use in quantitative study of embryonic morphogenesis in small animal models. We describe the physics behind their function, identify some examples in which the modality has revealed new quantitative insights, and then conclude with a discussion of new research directions with live imaging. PMID:22695188

  1. Development of the fetal ilium – challenging concepts of bipedality

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Craig A; Black, Sue M

    2009-01-01

    Macroradiographs of 30 human fetal and neonatal ilia were analysed to investigate the early pattern of trabecular bone organization prior to the influences of direct weight-bearing locomotion. Consistent and well-defined patterns of internal organization were identified within the fetal and neonatal ilium, which correspond with previously recognized regions that have been attributed directly to forces associated with bipedal locomotion. This study proposes that patterns previously attributed to weight-bearing locomotive responses are present in the earliest stages of the development of this bone. It is suggested that the rudimentary scaffold seen in the fetal and neonatal ilium could indicate a predetermined template upon which locomotive influences may be superimposed and perhaps reinforced at a later age. Alternatively, this early pattern may mimic the adult form due to the effects of in-uterolimb movement activity even though it is not weight bearing. This is a preliminary study that will be supported in a further communication with three-dimensional micro-computed trabecular analysis. PMID:19018881

  2. Minireview: Challenges and opportunities in development of PPAR agonists.

    PubMed

    Wright, Matthew B; Bortolini, Michele; Tadayyon, Moh; Bopst, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The clinical impact of the fibrate and thiazolidinedione drugs on dyslipidemia and diabetes is driven mainly through activation of two transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ. However, substantial differences exist in the therapeutic and side-effect profiles of specific drugs. This has been attributed primarily to the complexity of drug-target complexes that involve many coregulatory proteins in the context of specific target gene promoters. Recent data have revealed that some PPAR ligands interact with other non-PPAR targets. Here we review concepts used to develop new agents that preferentially modulate transcriptional complex assembly, target more than one PPAR receptor simultaneously, or act as partial agonists. We highlight newly described on-target mechanisms of PPAR regulation including phosphorylation and nongenomic regulation. We briefly describe the recently discovered non-PPAR protein targets of thiazolidinediones, mitoNEET, and mTOT. Finally, we summarize the contributions of on- and off-target actions to select therapeutic and side effects of PPAR ligands including insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular actions, inflammation, and carcinogenicity. PMID:25148456

  3. Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator Being Designed and Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macosko, Robert P.; Donovan, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    As the need for achieving super high temperatures (2000 K and above) in solar heat receivers has developed so has the need for secondary concentrators. These concentrators refocus the already highly concentrated solar energy provided by a primary solar collector, thereby significantly reducing the light entrance aperture of the heat receiver and the resulting infrared radiation heat loss from the receiver cavity. Although a significant amount of research and development has been done on nonimaging hollow reflective concentrators, there has been no other research or development to date on solid, single crystal, refractive concentrators that can operate at temperatures above 2000 K. The NASA Lewis Research Center recently initiated the development of single-crystal, optically clear, refractive secondary concentrators that, combined with a flux extractor, offer a number of significant advantages over the more conventional, hollow, reflective concentrators at elevated temperatures. Such concentrators could potentially provide higher throughput (efficiency), require no special cooling device, block heat receiver material boiloff from the receiver cavity, provide for flux tailoring in the cavity via the extractor, and potentially reduce infrared heat loss via an infrared block coating.The many technical challenges of designing and fabricating high-temperature refractive secondary concentrators and flux extractors include identifying optical materials that can survive the environment (high-temperature, vacuum and/or hydrogen atmosphere), developing coatings for enhanced optical and thermal performance, and developing crystal joining techniques and hardware that can survive launch loads.

  4. Human-Centred Design Projects and Co-Design in/outside the Turkish Classroom: Responses and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanouil, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other professional group in modern history, designers have felt compelled to undertake the responsibility of addressing and engaging with societal problems in their practice. Initially, this liability involved concerns of form and production methods during the industrial revolution era, and developed into existential, ethical…

  5. Software-Based Challenges of Developing the Future Distribution Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Emma; Kiliccote, Sila; McParland, Charles

    2014-06-01

    The software that the utility industry currently uses may be insufficient to analyze the distribution grid as it rapidly modernizes to include active resources such as distributed generation, switch and voltage control, automation, and increasingly complex loads. Although planners and operators have traditionally viewed the distribution grid as a passive load, utilities and consultants increasingly need enhanced analysis that incorporates active distribution grid loads in order to ensure grid reliability. Numerous commercial and open-source tools are available for analyzing distribution grid systems. These tools vary in complexity from providing basic load-flow and capacity analysis under steady-state conditions to time-series analysis and even geographical representations of dynamic and transient events. The need for each type of analysis is not well understood in the industry, nor are the reasons that distribution analysis requires different techniques and tools both from those now available and from those used for transmission analysis. In addition, there is limited understanding of basic capability of the tools and how they should be practically applied to the evolving distribution system. The study reviews the features and state of the art capability of current tools, including usability and visualization, basic analysis functionality, advanced analysis including inverters, and renewable generation and load modeling. We also discuss the need for each type of distribution grid system analysis. In addition to reviewing basic functionality current models, we discuss dynamics and transient simulation in detail and draw conclusions about existing software?s ability to address the needs of the future distribution grid as well as the barriers to modernization of the distribution grid that are posed by the current state of software and model development. Among our conclusions are that accuracy, data transfer, and data processing abilities are key to future

  6. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry. PMID:20863690

  7. Guidance for evidence-informed policies about health systems: rationale for and challenges of guidance development.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Dröschel, Daniel; Beck, Lise; Abalos, Edgardo; El-Jardali, Fadi; Gilson, Lucy; Oliver, Sandy; Wyss, Kaspar; Tugwell, Peter; Kulier, Regina; Pang, Tikki; Haines, Andy

    2012-01-01

    In the first paper in a three-part series on health systems guidance, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch and colleagues examine how guidance is currently formulated in low- and middle-income countries, and the challenges to developing such guidance.

  8. Development of Waypoint Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Matt; Hardin, Danny; Conover, Helen; Graves, Sara; Meyer, Paul; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. For mission scientists, planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Multiple aircrafts are often involved in NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircrafts with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. A flight planning tool is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama-Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point -and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin and Java Web Start/Applet on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with new JavaScript frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. The newly innovated, cross ]platform, modular designed Java

  9. Development of Way Point Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Conover, H.; Graves, S. J.; Meyer, P.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. For mission scientists, planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Multiple aircrafts are often involved in NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircrafts with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. A flight planning tool is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama-Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point-and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin and Java Web Start/Applet on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with new JavaScript frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. The newly innovated, cross-platform, modular designed Java

  10. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies...

  11. The utility of human challenge studies in vaccine development: lessons learned from cholera.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Debbie-Ann T; McArthur, Monica A

    2011-10-01

    Experiments in which virulent infectious organisms are administered to healthy adult volunteers with the intent to deliberately induce infection have been practiced for centuries. Many useful applications have developed from these experiments such as the provision of evidence of microbial pathogenicity and the identification of key virulence factors. Challenge studies have also played an important role in the evaluation of preliminary efficacy of potential vaccine candidates. Over the past 40 years, these experimental human challenge studies have found particular utility with regards to the development of both living and nonliving attenuated cholera vaccines. This review highlights some of the important contributions made by these challenge studies to cholera vaccine research. PMID:24482781

  12. 36 CFR 910.15 - New development design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.15 New development design. (a) All new development shall represent the best contemporary architectural and urban planning...

  13. 36 CFR 910.15 - New development design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.15 New development design. (a) All new development shall represent the best contemporary architectural and urban planning...

  14. 36 CFR 910.15 - New development design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.15 New development design. (a) All new development shall represent the best contemporary architectural and urban planning concepts. (b) Where...

  15. Molecularly targeted therapies for asthma: Current development, challenges and potential clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Ibrahim; Lim, Jonathan Chee Woei; Soo, Hon Liong; Stanslas, Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Extensive research into the therapeutics of asthma has yielded numerous effective interventions over the past few decades. However, adverse effects and ineffectiveness of most of these medications especially in the management of steroid resistant severe asthma necessitate the development of better medications. Numerous drug targets with inherent airway smooth muscle tone modulatory role have been identified for asthma therapy. This article reviews the latest understanding of underlying molecular aetiology of asthma towards design and development of better antiasthma drugs. New drug candidates with their putative targets that have shown promising results in the preclinical and/or clinical trials are summarised. Examples of these interventions include restoration of Th1/Th2 balance by the use of newly developed immunomodulators such as toll-like receptor-9 activators (CYT003-QbG10 and QAX-935). Clinical trials revealed the safety and effectiveness of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) antagonists such as OC0000459, BI-671800 and ARRY-502 in the restoration of Th1/Th2 balance. Regulation of cytokine activity by the use of newly developed biologics such as benralizumab, reslizumab, mepolizumab, lebrikizumab, tralokinumab, dupilumab and brodalumab are at the stage of clinical development. Transcription factors are potential targets for asthma therapy, for example SB010, a GATA-3 DNAzyme is at its early stage of clinical trial. Other candidates such as inhibitors of Rho kinases (Fasudil and Y-27632), phosphodiesterase inhibitors (GSK256066, CHF 6001, roflumilast, RPL 554) and proteinase of activated receptor-2 (ENMD-1068) are also discussed. Preclinical results of blockade of calcium sensing receptor by the use of calcilytics such as calcitriol abrogates cardinal signs of asthma. Nevertheless, successful translation of promising preclinical data into clinically viable interventions remains a major challenge to the development of

  16. Molecularly targeted therapies for asthma: Current development, challenges and potential clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Ibrahim; Lim, Jonathan Chee Woei; Soo, Hon Liong; Stanslas, Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Extensive research into the therapeutics of asthma has yielded numerous effective interventions over the past few decades. However, adverse effects and ineffectiveness of most of these medications especially in the management of steroid resistant severe asthma necessitate the development of better medications. Numerous drug targets with inherent airway smooth muscle tone modulatory role have been identified for asthma therapy. This article reviews the latest understanding of underlying molecular aetiology of asthma towards design and development of better antiasthma drugs. New drug candidates with their putative targets that have shown promising results in the preclinical and/or clinical trials are summarised. Examples of these interventions include restoration of Th1/Th2 balance by the use of newly developed immunomodulators such as toll-like receptor-9 activators (CYT003-QbG10 and QAX-935). Clinical trials revealed the safety and effectiveness of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) antagonists such as OC0000459, BI-671800 and ARRY-502 in the restoration of Th1/Th2 balance. Regulation of cytokine activity by the use of newly developed biologics such as benralizumab, reslizumab, mepolizumab, lebrikizumab, tralokinumab, dupilumab and brodalumab are at the stage of clinical development. Transcription factors are potential targets for asthma therapy, for example SB010, a GATA-3 DNAzyme is at its early stage of clinical trial. Other candidates such as inhibitors of Rho kinases (Fasudil and Y-27632), phosphodiesterase inhibitors (GSK256066, CHF 6001, roflumilast, RPL 554) and proteinase of activated receptor-2 (ENMD-1068) are also discussed. Preclinical results of blockade of calcium sensing receptor by the use of calcilytics such as calcitriol abrogates cardinal signs of asthma. Nevertheless, successful translation of promising preclinical data into clinically viable interventions remains a major challenge to the development of

  17. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  18. Randomized controlled trials and challenge trials: design and criterion for validity.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Kelton, D F; O'Connor, A M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the third of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. This article provides an overview of clinical trials, both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and challenge trials, where the disease outcome is deliberately induced by the investigator. RCTs are not the only study design used in systematic reviews, but are preferred when available as the gold standard for evaluating interventions under real-world conditions. RCTs are planned experiments, which involve diseased or at-risk study subjects and are designed to evaluate interventions (therapeutic treatments or preventive strategies, including antibiotics, vaccines, management practices, dietary changes, management changes or lifestyle changes). Key components of the RCT are the use of one or more comparison (control) groups and investigator control over intervention allocation. Important design features in RCTs include as follows: how the population is selected, approach to allocation of intervention and control group subjects, how allocation is concealed prior to enrolment of study subjects, how outcomes are defined, how allocation to group is concealed (blinding) and how withdrawals from the study are managed. Guidelines for reporting important features of RCTs have been published and are useful tools for writing, reviewing and reading reports of RCTs. PMID:24905993

  19. Instructional Design Practices in the Design and Development of Digital Humanities Virtual Environments (DH-VEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Valerie Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments, virtual worlds, simulations, 3D models are loaded with potential, promise, and problems. While learning in virtual settings is still being researched, instructional designers are challenged as to which instructional design practices are best suited for virtual environments (VEs). The problem is there is a lack of a conceptual…

  20. Urban drainage system planning and design--challenges with climate change and urbanization: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazdanfar, Zeinab; Sharma, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are in general failing in their functions mainly due to non-stationary climate and rapid urbanization. As these systems are becoming less efficient, issues such as sewer overflows and increase in urban flooding leading to surge in pollutant loads to receiving water bodies are becoming pervasive rapidly. A comprehensive investigation is required to understand these factors impacting the functioning of urban drainage, which vary spatially and temporally and are more complex when weaving together. It is necessary to establish a cost-effective, integrated planning and design framework for every local area by incorporating fit for purpose alternatives. Carefully selected adaptive measures are required for the provision of sustainable drainage systems to meet combined challenges of climate change and urbanization. This paper reviews challenges associated with urban drainage systems and explores limitations and potentials of different adaptation alternatives. It is hoped that the paper would provide drainage engineers, water planners, and decision makers with the state of the art information and technologies regarding adaptation options to increase drainage systems efficiency under changing climate and urbanization. PMID:26177398