Science.gov

Sample records for design iteration test

  1. Validation of the ITER CXRS design by tests on TEXTORa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaspers, R. J. E.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Delabie, E.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O.; Yao, L.

    2008-10-01

    The charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system (CXRS) for ITER is designed to measure the core helium concentration, and in addition, profiles of ion temperature and rotation. This highly demanding task, due to the huge background radiation (bremsstrahlung) and the high attenuation of the dedicated diagnostic neutral beam, requires high throughput spectrometers with high resolution. On TEXTOR, a CXRS system has been developed with the aim to test the physics implications of these specifications. (i) A relevant spectrometer has been tested. (ii) A method to determine the helium concentrations from the CXRS intensity, using the beam emission has been evaluated. A 20% discrepancy in beam emission was revealed. (iii) The determination of the magnetic pitch angle by the ratio of Balmer lines showed qualitatively the right behavior, although the accuracy was limited by the polarization sensitivity of the first mirror. (iv) The simulation code developed for the prediction of the CXRS spectra was quantitatively confronted with experimental data.

  2. ITER test programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Casini, G.

    1991-07-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was designed to operate in two phases. The first phase, which lasts for 6 years, is devoted to machine checkout and physics testing. The second phase lasts for 8 years and is devoted primarily to technology testing. This report describes the technology test program development for ITER, the ancillary equipment outside the torus necessary to support the test modules, the international collaboration aspects of conducting the test program on ITER, the requirements on the machine major parameters and the R and D program required to develop the test modules for testing in ITER.

  3. General-Purpose Heat Source development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 2

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be Designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the first Design Iteration Test (DIT-1), a full GPHS module ontaining four iridium-alloy capsules loaded with /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was impacted at 57 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. All four capsules survived and none was breached. The capsules used in DIT-1 were loaded and welded at Los Alamos. The second Design Iteration Test (DIT-2) also used a full GPHS module and was impacted at 58 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The four iridium-alloy capsules used in this test were loaded and welded at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Postimpact examination revealed that two capsules had survived and two capsules had breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 ..mu..g) of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was released from the breached capsules. Internal cracking similar to that observed in the DIT-1 capsules was evident in all four of the DIT-2 capsules. Postimpact analyses of the units are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

  4. Test blanket modules in ITER: An overview on proposed designs and required DEMO-relevant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancarli, L.; Chuyanov, V.; Abdou, M.; Akiba, M.; Hong, B. G.; Lässer, R.; Pan, C.; Strebkov, Y.; TBWG Team

    2007-08-01

    Within the framework of the ITER Test Blanket Working Group, the ITER Parties have made several proposals for test blanket modules to be tested in ITER from the first day of H-H operation. This paper gives an overview of the proposed TBMs designs, of the ITER boundary conditions and of the expected TBM operating conditions. Operating conditions will vary throughout the various ITER phases, starting from the initial H-H phase where no neutrons and, therefore, no nuclear volume heating will be present, to the later D-T phase where pulses of up to 3000 s length may be expected. The paper is focused on the design requirements for the materials and subcomponents that will be used in the various TBMs, from the viewpoint of both the materials performance and the required R&D.

  5. General-purpose heat source development: Safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, design iteration test 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, F. W.

    1984-04-01

    The general purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of (238)PuO decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive reentry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The first DIT used a full GPHS module containing two graphite impact shells (GISs); each GIS contained two iridium (0.3 wt%) capsules filled with (238)PuO. It was impacted at 57 m/s and 930 C. All four fuel capsules survived and none was breached. However, serious cracking of the iridium alloy capsules was found; some cracks extended through approx. 70% of the wall thickness. Postimpact analyses of the unit are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

  6. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 4

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-12-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. The fourth test (DIT-4) was designed to evaluate the effect on impact behavior of changing the procedure used at the Mound Facility (MF) to remove surface defects from drawn cups. The change involved switching from a manual abrasion technique to a motorized, rubber-bonded abrasive wheel. In DIT-4 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one cleaned manually, and one cleaned with an abrasive wheel) was impacted at a velocity of 58 m/s and a temperature of 930/sup 0/C. Both capsules were severely deformed by the impact and contained large internal cracks. Although the manually cleaned capsule breached, the breaching crack was only 2 ..mu..m wide and released negligible amounts of fuel. There did not appear to be any correlation between cleaning method and capsule performance. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-4 test components are described with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  7. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 5

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-12-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The fifth test (DIT-5) was designed to compare the impact response of a GPHS fueled clad that had been welded with a four-pole arc oscillator with the impact response of a clad welded with a two-pole oscillator. In DIT-5 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one welded with a four-pole oscillator and one welded with a two-pole oscillator) was impacted at 60.5 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The fuel capsules were severely deformed by the impact; both clads breached. The capsule welded with a four-pole oscillator failed extensively. Neither failure was related to the welding technique. Postimpact analyses of the test components are described, with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  8. General-purpose heat source development: Safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, design iteration test 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.; Schonfeld, F. W.

    1984-12-01

    The general-purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of Pu-238 decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both reentry and Earth impact. The design iteration test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The DIT-5 was designed to compare the impact response of a GPHS fueled clad that was welded with a four-pole arc oscillator with the impact response of a clad welded with a two-pole oscillator. In DIT-5 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads was impacted at 60.5 m/s and 930 C. The fuel capsules were severly deformed by the impact; both clads breached. The capsule welded with a four-pole oscillator failed extensively. Neither failure was related to the welding technique. Postimpact analyses of the test components are described, with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  9. Techniques for design and testing of iterative and systolic arrays. [C-testability concept

    SciTech Connect

    Elhuni, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis, the author studies the issue of testing array-type structures such as iterative arrays of combinational cells and systolic arrays with a constant number of test vectors independent of the array size (C-Testability). The main contribution of this work is the extension of the C-testability concept in different directions. It is extended to orthogonally connected iterative arrays in chapter three. This is a contribution to the C-testability theory because of the undecidability property of general two-dimensional arrays. The C-testability is extended further to hexagonal iterative arrays in chapter four. The application of the C-testability concept was limited to few arrays such as ripple-carry adders, bit-sliced microprocessors and array multipliers. In chapter five, the author extended the concept to systolic arrays and apply it to some systolic designs. The application to hexagonal systolic arrays is made in chapter six. It is shown that several systolic arrays such as those used for matrix multiplication can be tested with a small number of test vectors; twice the number required to test a single cell. The testing time of such arrays is also introduced and discussed. In chapter seven, he introduces a new concept called STV-testability for testing bilateral systolic arrays. STV-testable arrays have simple test generation and verification procedures.

  10. Preliminary system design and analysis of an optimized infrastructure for ITER prototype cryoline test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Nitin Dineshkumar; Bhattacharya, Ritendra Nath; Sarkar, Biswanath; Badgujar, Satish; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Patel, Pratik

    2012-06-01

    The prototype cryoline (PTCL) for ITER is a representative cryoline from the complicated network of all cryolines for the project. The PTCL is being designed with four process pipes at temperature level 4.5 K, two process pipes at 80 K and will be manufactured in a 1:1 scale with a configuration of main line and branch line including vacuum barriers. The test objectives are focused to demonstrate best possible risk free engineering and reliable manufacturing of the cryolines as per the ITER functional requirements. The measured physical parameters will assess the confirmation for acceptable heat loads, stresses and mechanical integrity in normal, off-normal and accident scenarios such as a break of insulation vacuum (BIV). The PTCL will be tested to measure heat load at 4.5 K with scaled mass flow rate having the thermal shield at 80 K. Necessary infrastructure along with the control system have been designed, analyzed and optimized within the imposed constraints to fulfill the test objectives. The system approach along with instrumentations and controls, results of the optimization study, and its usefulness in the present context within the constraints of economics and schedule have been described.

  11. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills.

  12. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability

    PubMed Central

    FAIRMAN, ANDREA D.; YIH, ERIKA T.; MCCOY, DANIEL F.; LOPRESTI, EDMUND F.; MCCUE, MICHAEL P.; PARMANTO, BAMBANG; DICIANNO, BRAD E.

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18–40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  13. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  14. Design of load-to-failure tests of high-voltage insulation breaks for ITER's cryogenic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langeslag, S. A. E.; Rodriguez Castro, E.; Aviles Santillana, I.; Sgobba, S.; Foussat, A.

    2015-12-01

    The development of new generation superconducting magnets for fusion research, such as the ITER experiment, is largely based on coils wound with so-called cable-in-conduit conductors. The concept of the cable-in-conduit conductor is based on a direct cooling principle, by supercritical helium, flowing through the central region of the conductor, in close contact with the superconducting strands. Consequently, a direct connection exists between the electrically grounded helium coolant supply line and the highly energised magnet windings. Various insulated regions, constructed out of high-voltage insulation breaks, are put in place to isolate sectors with different electrical potential. In addition to high voltages and significant internal helium pressure, the insulation breaks will experience various mechanical forces resulting from differential thermal contraction phenomena and electro-magnetic loads. Special test equipment was designed, prepared and employed to assess the mechanical reliability of the insulation breaks. A binary test setup is proposed, where mechanical failure is assumed when leak rate of gaseous helium exceeds 10-9·Pa·m3/s. The test consists of a load-to-failure insulation break charging, in tension, while immersed in liquid nitrogen at the temperature of 77 K. Leak tightness during the test is monitored by measuring the leak rate of the gaseous helium, directly surrounding the insulation break, with respect to the existing vacuum inside the insulation break. The experimental setup is proven effective, and various insulation breaks performed beyond expectations.

  15. Qualification tests and facilities for the ITER superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Wesche, R.; Stepanov, B.; Cau, F.; Bagnasco, M.; Calvi, M.; Herzog, R.; Vogel, M.

    2009-06-01

    All the ITER superconductors are tested as short length samples in the SULTAN test facility at CRPP. Twenty-four TF conductor samples with small layout variations were tested since February 2007 with the aim of verifying the design and qualification of the manufacturers. The sample assembly and the measurement techniques at CRPP are discussed. Starting in 2010, another test facility for ITER conductors, named EDIPO, will be operating at CRPP to share with SULTAN the load of the samples for the acceptance tests during the construction of ITER.

  16. Designing Diagnostics to Survive in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Christopher; ITER Team

    2014-10-01

    Adapting diagnostics to withstand the incredibly harsh environment of the ITER D-T plasma is a formidable engineering task. Hindrances include not only the nuclear environment, but also the high radiative heat fluxes, high particle fluxes and stray ECH radiation. Strategies to mitigate the impact of these run the gamut from shielding, through recessing, through appropriate materials selection, to refurbishment. Examples include the Langmuir probe system, where individual probes are protected by passive heat shields; retroreflectors recessed into the tokamak first wall in deep, baffled tunnels; plasma mirror cleaning systems; electronics components like piezo crystals and x-ray detectors vetted for the nuclear environment. These and other ITER diagnostic system designs will be highlighted to emphasize their strategies for dealing with the ITER environment. *The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the ITER Organization.

  17. Fatigue tests on the ITER PF jacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jinggang; Weiss, Klaus-Peter; Wu, Yu; Wu, Zhixiong; Li, Laifeng; Liu, Sheng

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on fatigue tests on the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) jacket made of 316L stainless steel material. During manufacture, the conductor will be compacted and spooled after cable insertion. Therefore, sample jackets were prepared under compaction, bending and straightening in order to simulate the status of PF conductor during manufacturing and winding. The fatigue properties of materials were measured at T < 7 K, including S-N and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR). The testing results show that the present Chinese PF jacket has good fatigue properties, which conclude that the results are accordant with the requirements of ITER.

  18. Overview on Experiments On ITER-like Antenna On JET And ICRF Antenna Design For ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nightingale, M. P. S.; Blackman, T.; Edwards, D.; Fanthome, J.; Graham, M.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Hancock, D.; Jacquet, P.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I.; Nicholls, K.; Stork, D.; Whitehurst, A.; Wilson, D.; Wooldridge, E.

    2009-11-26

    Following an overview of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) system, the JET ITER-like antenna (ILA) will be described. The ILA was designed to test the following ITER issues: (a) reliable operation at power densities of order 8 MW/m{sup 2} at voltages up to 45 kV using a close-packed array of straps; (b) powering through ELMs using an internal (in-vacuum) conjugate-T junction; (c) protection from arcing in a conjugate-T configuration, using both existing and novel systems; and (d) resilience to disruption forces. ITER-relevant results have been achieved: operation at high coupled power density; control of the antenna matching elements in the presence of high inter-strap coupling, use of four conjugate-T systems (as would be used in ITER, should a conjugate-T approach be used); operation with RF voltages on the antenna structures up to 42 kV; achievement of ELM tolerance with a conjugate-T configuration by operating at 3{omega} real impedance at the conjugate-T point; and validation of arc detection systems on conjugate-T configurations in ELMy H-mode plasmas. The impact of these results on the predicted performance and design of the ITER antenna will be reviewed. In particular, the implications of the RF coupling measured on JET will be discussed.

  19. Design of the ITER ICRF Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, D.; Nightingale, M.; Bamber, R.; Dalton, N.; Durodie, F.; Firdaouss, M.; Lister, J.; Porton, M.; Shannon, M.; Wilson, D.; Winkler, K.; Wooldridge, E.

    2011-12-01

    The CYCLE consortium has been designing the ITER ICRF antenna since March 2010, supported by an F4E grant. Following a brief introduction to the consortium, this paper: describes the present status and layout of the design; highlights the key mechanical engineering features; shows the expected impact of cooling and radiation issues on the design and outlines the need for future R&D to support the design process. A key design requirement is the need for the mechanical design and analysis to be consistent with all requirements following from the RF physics and antenna layout optimisation. As such, this paper complements that of Durodie et al [1].

  20. Progress on an ITER ECH Transmission system development and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Tim; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Peters, Brian; Rumbolt, Robin; Schaich, Chuck; Sanabria, Roberto; McElehaney, Karen; White, John; Allison, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Progress on further development of the ITER ECH Transmission system design and testing of waveguide components will be presented. Work on the preliminary design of the system configuration is proceeding based on the conceptual design from the ITER Organization. Requirements for precision of waveguide supports and components are being analyzed and thermal and mechanical modeling of prototype components is being performed. Several prototype components have been procured from industry and some have been tested to nearly 1 MW at 170 GHz for long pulses at JAEA in Japan. A high power test stand is being developed at ORNL to provide component, system, and instrumentation tests at 1 MW cw or higher power conditions. The high voltage power supply has been tested and 140 GHz and 170 GHz gyrotrons are expected to be operational in the near future.

  1. Diagnostics of the ITER neutral beam test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Agostini, M.; Brombin, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Gazza, E.; Pomaro, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Spolaore, M.; Zaniol, B.; Sonato, P.; De Muri, M.; Croci, G.; Gorini, G.

    2012-02-15

    The ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) injector, based on negative ions accelerated at 1 MV, will be tested and optimized in the SPIDER source and MITICA full injector prototypes, using a set of diagnostics not available on the ITER HNB. The RF source, where the H{sup -}/D{sup -} production is enhanced by cesium evaporation, will be monitored with thermocouples, electrostatic probes, optical emission spectroscopy, cavity ring down, and laser absorption spectroscopy. The beam is analyzed by cooling water calorimetry, a short pulse instrumented calorimeter, beam emission spectroscopy, visible tomography, and neutron imaging. Design of the diagnostic systems is presented.

  2. Diagnostics of the ITER neutral beam test facility.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, R; Serianni, G; Sonato, P; Agostini, M; Brombin, M; Croci, G; Dalla Palma, M; De Muri, M; Gazza, E; Gorini, G; Pomaro, N; Rizzolo, A; Spolaore, M; Zaniol, B

    2012-02-01

    The ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) injector, based on negative ions accelerated at 1 MV, will be tested and optimized in the SPIDER source and MITICA full injector prototypes, using a set of diagnostics not available on the ITER HNB. The RF source, where the H(-)∕D(-) production is enhanced by cesium evaporation, will be monitored with thermocouples, electrostatic probes, optical emission spectroscopy, cavity ring down, and laser absorption spectroscopy. The beam is analyzed by cooling water calorimetry, a short pulse instrumented calorimeter, beam emission spectroscopy, visible tomography, and neutron imaging. Design of the diagnostic systems is presented.

  3. Iterative LQG Controller Design Through Closed-Loop Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Cox, David E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller design approach for a linear stochastic system with an uncertain open-loop model and unknown noise statistics. This approach consists of closed-loop identification and controller redesign cycles. In each cycle, the closed-loop identification method is used to identify an open-loop model and a steady-state Kalman filter gain from closed-loop input/output test data obtained by using a feedback LQG controller designed from the previous cycle. Then the identified open-loop model is used to redesign the state feedback. The state feedback and the identified Kalman filter gain are used to form an updated LQC controller for the next cycle. This iterative process continues until the updated controller converges. The proposed controller design is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments on a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system.

  4. Iter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iotti, Robert

    2015-04-01

    ITER is an international experimental facility being built by seven Parties to demonstrate the long term potential of fusion energy. The ITER Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA) defines the structure and governance model of such cooperation. There are a number of necessary conditions for such international projects to be successful: a complete design, strong systems engineering working with an agreed set of requirements, an experienced organization with systems and plans in place to manage the project, a cost estimate backed by industry, and someone in charge. Unfortunately for ITER many of these conditions were not present. The paper discusses the priorities in the JIA which led to setting up the project with a Central Integrating Organization (IO) in Cadarache, France as the ITER HQ, and seven Domestic Agencies (DAs) located in the countries of the Parties, responsible for delivering 90%+ of the project hardware as Contributions-in-Kind and also financial contributions to the IO, as ``Contributions-in-Cash.'' Theoretically the Director General (DG) is responsible for everything. In practice the DG does not have the power to control the work of the DAs, and there is not an effective management structure enabling the IO and the DAs to arbitrate disputes, so the project is not really managed, but is a loose collaboration of competing interests. Any DA can effectively block a decision reached by the DG. Inefficiencies in completing design while setting up a competent organization from scratch contributed to the delays and cost increases during the initial few years. So did the fact that the original estimate was not developed from industry input. Unforeseen inflation and market demand on certain commodities/materials further exacerbated the cost increases. Since then, improvements are debatable. Does this mean that the governance model of ITER is a wrong model for international scientific cooperation? I do not believe so. Had the necessary conditions for success

  5. Testing Short Samples of ITER Conductors and Projection of Their Performance in ITER Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-08-20

    Qualification of the ITER conductor is absolutely necessary. Testing large scale conductors is expensive and time consuming. To test straight 3-4m long samples in a bore of a split solenoid is a relatively economical way in comparison with fabrication of a coil to be tested in a bore of a background field solenoid. However, testing short sample may give ambiguous results due to different constraints in current redistribution in the cable or other end effects which are not present in the large magnet. This paper discusses processes taking place in the ITER conductor, conditions when conductor performance could be distorted and possible signal processing to deduce behavior of ITER conductors in ITER magnets from the test data.

  6. Magnet design technical report---ITER definition phase

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.

    1989-04-28

    This report contains papers on the following topics: conceptual design; radiation damage of ITER magnet systems; insulation system of the magnets; critical current density and strain sensitivity; toroidal field coil structural analysis; stress analysis for the ITER central solenoid; and volt-second capabilities and PF magnet configurations.

  7. The Iterative Design Process in Research and Development: A Work Experience Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, George F. III

    2013-01-01

    The iterative design process is one of many strategies used in new product development. Top-down development strategies, like waterfall development, place a heavy emphasis on planning and simulation. The iterative process, on the other hand, is better suited to the management of small to medium scale projects. Over the past four months, I have worked with engineers at Johnson Space Center on a multitude of electronics projects. By describing the work I have done these last few months, analyzing the factors that have driven design decisions, and examining the testing and verification process, I will demonstrate that iterative design is the obvious choice for research and development projects.

  8. Design standard issues for ITER in-vessel components

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1994-06-01

    Unique requirements that must be addressed by a structural design code for the ITER have been summarized. Existing codes such as ASME Section III, or the French RCC-MR were developed primarily for fission reactor out-of-core components and are not directly applicable to the ITER. They may be used either as a guide for developing a design code for the ITER or as interim standards. However, new rules will be needed for handling the irradiation-induced embrittlement problems faced by the ITER blanket components. Design standards developed in the past for the design of fission reactor core components in the United States can be used as guides in this area.

  9. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) neutral beam design

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.J.; Brook, J.W.; Spampinato, P.T.; Mueller, J.P.; Luzzi, T.E.; Sedgley, D.W. . Space Systems Div.)

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on ITER neutral beam design: ion dump; neutralizer and module gas flow analysis; vacuum system; cryogenic system; maintainability; power distribution; and system cost.

  10. Safety Analysis of the US Dual Coolant Liquid Lead-Lithium ITER Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad; Reyes, Susana; Sawan, Mohamed; Wong, Clement

    2006-07-01

    The US is proposing a prototype of a dual coolant liquid lead-lithium (DCLL) DEMO blanket concept for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM). Because safety considerations are an integral part of the design process to ensure that this TBM does not adversely impact the safety of ITER, a safety assessment has been conducted for this TBM and its ancillary systems as requested by the ITER project. Four events were selected by the ITER International Team (IT) to address specific reactor safety concerns, such as VV pressurization, confinement building pressure build-up, TBM decay heat removal capability, tritium and activation products release from the TBM system, and hydrogen and heat production from chemical reactions. This paper summarizes the results of this safety assessment conducted with the MELCOR computer code.

  11. The Effect of Iteration on the Design Performance of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looijenga, Annemarie; Klapwijk, Remke; de Vries, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    Iteration during the design process is an essential element. Engineers optimize their design by iteration. Research on iteration in Primary Design Education is however scarce; possibly teachers believe they do not have enough time for iteration in daily classroom practices. Spontaneous playing behavior of children indicates that iteration fits in…

  12. The Employment of an Iterative Design Process to Develop a Pulmonary Graphical Display

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, S. Blake; Agutter, Jim; Syroid, Noah; Drews, Frank; Weinger, Matthew B.; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Data representations on today's medical monitors need to be improved to advance clinical awareness and prevent data vigilance errors. Simply building graphical displays does not ensure an improvement in clinical performance because displays have to be consistent with the user's clinical processes and mental models. In this report, the development of an original pulmonary graphical display for anesthesia is used as an example to show an iterative design process with built-in usability testing. Design: The process reported here is rapid, inexpensive, and requires a minimal number of subjects per development cycle. Three paper-based tests evaluated the anatomic, variable mapping, and graphical diagnostic meaning of the pulmonary display. Measurements: A confusion matrix compared the designer's intended answer with the subject's chosen answer. Considering deviations off the diagonal of the confusion matrix as design weaknesses, the pulmonary display was modified and retested. The iterative cycle continued until the anatomic and variable mapping cumulative test scores for a chosen design scored above 90% and the graphical diagnostic meaning test scored above 75%. Results: The iterative development test resulted in five design iterations. The final graphical pulmonary display improved the overall intuitiveness by 18%. The display was tested in three categories: anatomic features, variable mapping, and diagnostic accuracy. The anatomic intuitiveness increased by 25%, variable mapping intuitiveness increased by 34%, and diagnostic accuracy decreased slightly by 4%. Conclusion: With this rapid iterative development process, an intuitive graphical display can be developed inexpensively prior to formal testing in an experimental setting. PMID:12668693

  13. Visible and Infrared Optical Design for the ITER Upper Ports

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Seppala, L; Morris, K; Groth, M; Fenstermacher, M; Allen, S; Synakowski, E; Ortiz, J

    2007-03-01

    This document contains the results of an optical design scoping study of visible-light and infrared optics for the ITER upper ports, performed by LLNL under contract for the US ITER Project Office. ITER is an international collaboration to build a large fusion energy tokamak with a goal of demonstrating net fusion power for pulses much longer than the energy confinement time. At the time of this report, six of the ITER upper ports are planned to each to contain a camera system for recording visible and infrared light, as well as other diagnostics. the performance specifications for the temporal and spatial resolution of this system are shown in the Section II, Functional Specifications. They acknowledge a debt to Y. Corre and co-authors of the CEA Cadarache report ''ITER wide-angle viewing and thermographic and visible system''. Several of the concepts used in this design are derived from that CEA report. The infrared spatial resolution for optics of this design is diffraction-limited by the size of the entrance aperture, at lower resolution than listed in the ITER diagnostic specifications. The size of the entrance aperture is a trade-off between spatial resolution, optics size in the port, and the location of relay optics. The signal-to-noise ratio allows operation at the specified time resolutions.

  14. Design Issues of the Pre-Compression Rings of Iter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Baker, W.; Bettinali, L.; Jong, C.; Mallick, K.; Nardi, C.; Rajainmaki, H.; Rossi, P.; Semeraro, L.

    2010-04-01

    The pre-compression system is the keystone of ITER. A centripetal force of ˜30 MN will be applied at cryogenic conditions on top and bottom of each TF coil. It will prevent the `breathing effect' caused by the bursting forces occurring during plasma operation that would affect the machine design life of 30000 cycles. Different alternatives have been studied throughout the years. There are two major design requirements limiting the engineering possibilities: 1) the limited available space and 2) the need to hamper eddy currents flowing in the structures. Six unidirectionally wound glass-fibre composite rings (˜5 m diameter and ˜300 mm cross section) are the final design choice. The rings will withstand the maximum hoop stresses <500 MPa at room temperature conditions. Although retightening or replacing the pre-compression rings in case of malfunctioning is possible, they have to sustain the load during the entire 20 years of machine operation. The present paper summarizes the pre-compression ring R&D carried out during several years. In particular, we will address the composite choice and mechanical characterization, assessment of creep or stress relaxation phenomena, sub-sized rings testing and the optimal ring fabrication processes that have led to the present final design.

  15. ITER relevant testing of a cryogenic distillation column system

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, D.G.; Robins, J.R.; Woodall, K.B.; Sood, S.K.; Gierszewski, P.

    1995-10-01

    A new experimental system has been constructed to test ITER relevant distillation columns and related cryogenic distillation (CD) hardware and control systems. These columns are used to purify tritium in the ITER fuel cycle. The ITER test column reported here has a diameter of about 30 mm and a packed length of approximately 150 cm. It can operate with a hydrogen isotope (Q{sub 2}) boilup of about 60 watts. Two 30 W refrigeration systems were coupled together to deliver as close as possible to 60 watts of cooling. The separation performance of the column was determined by accurately measuring the tritium concentration in the feed and product streams using a mixture of D{sub 2} and DT gas. Conditions which yield a column theoretical plate height as low as 2.05 cm. and a plate inventory of 0.118 moles are reported. The goal of this research program is to measure the performance of ITER relevant columns, packings, condensers, and reboilers in order to minimize hydrogen (Q{sub 2}) and tritium holdup and to show that ITER objectives can be met with smaller diameter and lower tritium inventory columns than have previously been considered. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  16. ITER TCWS Conceptual Design Chit Resolution Report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Design Chits resulted from the External Conceptual Design Review (CDR) held at Cadarache on July 21-23, 2009 (Reference [5.1.3]). Those Chits were categorized into 3 categories in accordance with the following rules: Category 1 - Chits to be resolved before proceeding with preliminary design; Category 2 - Chits to be resolved during preliminary design; and Category 3 - Chits already resolved or covered by higher category Chits such that no further action is required. Prior to the preliminary design, all the category 1 chits were resolved and the category chit 1 resolution report was approved (Reference [5.1.4]). However, as the design has been evolving, one of the category 1 chits needs to be re-addressed. The purpose of this report is to present the resolutions to one CDR Category 1 Chit (Cat 1 Chit No.5) and twenty-three CDR Category 2 Chits. The Category 2 Chit resolutions presented are listed in order from item number one to item number twenty-three.

  17. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, D. W.; Baity, F. W.; Bigelow, T. S.; Ryan, P. M.; Goulding, R. H.; Carter, M. D.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Hoffman, D. J.

    1996-02-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10-20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher that can meet the new requirements are presented.

  18. Status of PRIMA, the test facility for ITER neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonato, P.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Chitarin, G.; Luchetta, A.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; ITER International Team

    2013-02-01

    The ITER project requires additional heating by two neutral beam injectors, each accelerating to 1MV a 40A beam of negative deuterons, delivering to the plasma about 17MW up to one hour. As these requirements have never been experimentally met, it was decided to build a test facility, PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator), in Italy, including a full-size negative ion source, SPIDER, and a prototype of the whole ITER injector, MITICA, aiming to develop the heating injectors to be installed in ITER. The Japan and the India Domestic Agencies participate in the PRIMA enterprise; European laboratories, such as KIT-Karlsruhe, IPP-Garching, CCFE-Culham, CEA-Cadarache and others are also cooperating. In the paper the main requirements are discussed and the design of the main components and systems are described.

  19. RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KAHN,S.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.

    1997-05-12

    Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.

  20. Design of fast tuning elements for the ITER ICH system

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.W.; Goulding, R.H.

    1996-05-01

    The coupling between the ion cyclotron (IC) antenna and the ITER plasma (as expressed by the load resistance the antenna sees) will experience relatively fast variations due to plasma edge profile modifications. If uncompensated, these will cause an increase in the amount of power reflected back to the transmitter and ultimately a decrease in the amount of radio frequency (rf) power to the plasma caused by protective suppression of the amount of rf power generated by the transmitter. The goals of this task were to study several alternate designs for a tuning and matching (T&M) system and to recommend some research and development (R&D) tasks that could be carried out to test some of the most promising concepts. Analyses of five different T&M configurations are presented in this report. They each have different advantages and disadvantages, and the choice among them must be made depending on the requirements for the IC system. Several general conclusions emerge from our study: The use of a hybrid splitter as a passive reflected-power dump [``edge localized mode (ELM)-dump``] appears very promising; this configuration will protect the rf power sources from reflected power during changes in plasma loading due to plasma motion or profile changes (e.g., ELM- induced changes in the plasma scrape-off region) and requires no active control of the rf system. Trade-offs between simplicity of design and capability of the system must be made. Simple system designs with few components near the antenna either have high voltages over considerable distances of transmission lines, or they are not easily tuned to operate at different frequencies. Designs using frequency shifts and/or fast tuning elements can provide fast matching over a wide range of plasma loading; however, the designs studied here require components near the antenna, complicating assembly and maintenance. Capacitor-tuned resonant systems may offer a good compromise.

  1. How to Combine Objectives and Methods of Evaluation in Iterative ILE Design: Lessons Learned from Designing Ambre-Add

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogry, S.; Jean-Daubias, S.; Guin, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with evaluating an interactive learning environment (ILE) during the iterative-design process. Various aspects of the system must be assessed and a number of evaluation methods are available. In designing the ILE Ambre-add, several techniques were combined to test and refine the system. In particular, we point out the merits of…

  2. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  3. Research and development needs for ITER engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, C.

    1991-08-01

    In the series of documents that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), this document describes the research and development (R and D) plans for 1991 - 1995. Part A describes the physics R and D, and Part B the technology R and D. The physics R and D needs are presented in terms of task descriptions of an ITER-related R and D program for 1991/1992 and beyond, while diagnostics R and D needs, although covered in Appendix A, are described in Part B. In Chapter 2 of Part A, 'ITER-related Physics R and D Needs for 91/92 and Beyond', the following tasks are described as most crucial: (1) demonstration that (a) operation with a cold divertor plasma is possible, (b) the peak heat flux onto the divertor plate can be kept below about 10 MW per square meter, and (c) helium exhaust conditions allow a fractional burnup of about three percent or more; (2) a characterization of disruptions that allows to specify their consequences for the plasma-facing-components, and that provides evidence that the number of disruptions expected allows acceptable plasma-facing-component lifetimes; (3) demonstration that steady-state operation in an enhanced-confinement regime and satisfactory plasma purity is possible, and provision of energy confinement scaling allowing the prediction of ITER performance; and (4) ensurance that the presence of a fast ion population does not jeopardize plasma performance in ITER. Part B, 'ITER Technology Research and Development Needs', describes planning R and D for magnets, containment structure, assembly and maintenance, current drive and heating, plasma facing components, blanket, fuel cycle, structural materials, and diagnostics. A table of key milestones for technology R and D is included, as well as cost estimates.

  4. Status of the design of the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer System for ITER first plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biewer, T. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Devan, B.; Graves, V.; Marcus, C.; Younkin, T.; Andrew, P.; Johnson, D. W.

    2013-10-01

    Among the ITER procurements awarded to the US ITER Domestic Agency, and subsequently to the ORNL Fusion & Materials for Nuclear Systems Division, is the design and fabrication of the Diagnostc Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) system. The DRGA system reached the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in Spring 2013, and has transitioned into the Final Design phase. As a result of the PDR, and ITER systems design evolutions, several design changes have been incorporated into the DRGA system. The design effort has focused on the vacuum and mechanical interface of the DRGA gas sampling tube with the ITER vacuum vessel and cyrostat. Moreover, R&D tasks to demonstrate the 3-sensor instrumentation design (quadrupole mass spectrometer, ion-trap mass spectrometer, and optical Penning gauge) are maturing through the construction and testing of a DRGA prototype at ORNL. Results will be presented at this poster along with the DRGA design overview. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  5. Materials development for ITER shielding and test blanket in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Wu, J. H.; Liu, X.; Wang, P. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Li, Z. N.; Wang, X. S.; Zhang, P. C.; Zhang, N. M.; Fu, H. Y.; Liu, D. H.

    2011-10-01

    China is a member of the ITER program and is developing her own materials for its shielding and test blanket modules. The materials include vacuum-hot-pressing (VHP) Be, CuCrZr alloy, 316L(N) and China low activation ferritic/martensitic (CLF-1) steels. Joining technologies including Be/Cu hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and electron beam (EB) weldability of 316L(N) were investigated. Chinese VHP-Be showed good properties, with BeO content and ductility that satisfy the ITER requirements. Be/Cu mock-ups were fabricated for Be qualification tests at simulated ITER vertical displacement event (VDE) and heat flux cycling conditions. Fine microstructure and good mechanical strength of the CuCrZr alloy were achieved by a pre-forging treatment, while the weldability of 316L(N) by EB was demonstrated for welding depths varying from 5 to 80 mm. Fine microstructure, high strength, and good ductility were achieved in CLF-1 steel by an optimized normalizing, tempering and aging procedure.

  6. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  7. Detailed design optimization of the MITICA negative ion accelerator in view of the ITER NBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; de Esch, H. P. L.; De Lorenzi, A.; Fonnesu, N.; Gambetta, G.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Kashiwagi, M.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Singh, M.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.; Zaccaria, P.

    2016-01-01

    The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (PRIMA) is presently under construction at Consorzio RFX (Padova, Italy). PRIMA includes two experimental devices: an ITER-size ion source with low voltage extraction, called SPIDER, and the full prototype of the whole ITER Heating Neutral Beams (HNBs), called MITICA. The purpose of MITICA is to demonstrate that all operational parameters of the ITER HNB accelerator can be experimentally achieved, thus establishing a large step forward in the performances of neutral beam injectors in comparison with the present experimental devices. The design of the MITICA extractor and accelerator grids, here described in detail, was developed using an integrated approach, taking into consideration at the same time all the relevant physics and engineering aspects. Particular care was taken also to support and validate the design on the basis of the expertise and experimental data made available by the collaborating neutral beam laboratories of CEA, IPP, CCFE, NIFS and JAEA. Considering the operational requirements and the other physics constraints of the ITER HNBs, the whole design has been thoroughly optimized and improved. Furthermore, specific innovative concepts have been introduced.

  8. Conceptual design of the ITER fast-ion loss detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Kocan, M.; Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Bertalot, L.; Bonnet, Y.; Casal, N.; Galdon, J.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Giacomin, T.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Gunn, J. P.; Jimenez-Ramos, M. C.; Kiptily, V.; Pinches, S. D.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Reichle, R.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J. F.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Snicker, A.; Vayakis, G.; Veshchev, E.; Vorpahl, Ch.; Walsh, M.; Walton, R.

    2016-11-01

    A conceptual design of a reciprocating fast-ion loss detector for ITER has been developed and is presented here. Fast-ion orbit simulations in a 3D magnetic equilibrium and up-to-date first wall have been carried out to revise the measurement requirements for the lost alpha monitor in ITER. In agreement with recent observations, the simulations presented here suggest that a pitch-angle resolution of ˜5° might be necessary to identify the loss mechanisms. Synthetic measurements including realistic lost alpha-particle as well as neutron and gamma fluxes predict scintillator signal-to-noise levels measurable with standard light acquisition systems with the detector aperture at ˜11 cm outside of the diagnostic first wall. At measurement position, heat load on detector head is comparable to that in present devices.

  9. Testing of ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors in the FENIX facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.S.; Chaplin, M.R.; Felker, B.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Kishiyama, K.I.; Parker, J.M.

    1993-09-15

    The Fusion Engineering International experiment (FENIX) Test Facility has been operational since 1991 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for testing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) prototype conductors. These conductors are designed to operate stably with transport current of more than 40 kA at a magnetic field of 13 T. The FENIX facility consists of four magnet sets that are configured to allow easy access to the 40-cm high-field region with a test cross-section area of 10 * 15 cm{sup 2}. FENIX provides test conditions that closely simulate the ITER magnet operation mode. Performed experiments Include measurements of critical current, current-sharing temperature, forced-flow properties, stability, joint performance and cyclic fatigue effects. This paper describes the design and performance of these experiments.

  10. Progress and Design Status of the ITER MSE Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, M A; Allen, S L; Holcomb, C T; Lerner, S; Morris, K; Wong, N

    2008-05-07

    The Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic will be essential for the study of advanced scenarios on ITER and its design is currently underway. In order meet the ITER MSE diagnostic design requirements, two approaches for the measurement are under consideration. The first is based on standard polarimeter techniques to measure the polarization of the emitted light, whereas the second measures the Stark splitting from which |B| can be inferred, where |B| is the magnitude of the total magnetic field. The baseline design of the optical system is centered on the first approach. Emphasis in this case is placed on minimizing the polarization aberrations of the optical relay system. Motivation for the second method results from concern that the optical properties of the plasma-facing mirror, particularly its diattenuation and retardance, will degrade with plasma exposure. The second approach, while less sensitive to aberrations induced by plasma exposure effects, requires greater optical throughput in order to measure the complete Stark spectrum. We have developed optimized designs for both techniques and will present a comparison of them and discuss the associated design trade-offs.

  11. An iterative ray tracing model for ultrasonic nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvy, J. A.

    A three-dimensional ray tracing model is proposed for predicting ultrasonic energy propagation in anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials. The model is designed as an iterative tool capable of calculating energy paths between specified start and end points. The use of the model for assessing defect location and sizing errors in components containing anisotropic or inhomogeneous materials is demonstrated for an austenitic cladding layer and an austenitic steel V-weld. Although the predicted errors are generally small, they are found to be dependent on the nominal probe angles, except for cracks close to the cladding layer, where significant underestimation of the distance between the top of the defect and the cladding occurs.

  12. Status of the 1 MeV Accelerator Design for ITER NBI

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, M.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Svensson, L.; Graceffa, J.; Schunke, B.; Decamps, H.; Tanaka, M.; Bonicelli, T.; Masiello, A.

    2011-09-26

    The beam source of neutral beam heating/current drive system for ITER is needed to accelerate the negative ion beam of 40A with D{sup -} at 1 MeV for 3600 sec. In order to realize the beam source, design and R and D works are being developed in many institutions under the coordination of ITER organization. The development of the key issues of the ion source including source plasma uniformity, suppression of co-extracted electron in D beam operation and also after the long beam duration time of over a few 100 sec, is progressed mainly in IPP with the facilities of BATMAN, MANITU and RADI. In the near future, ELISE, that will be tested the half size of the ITER ion source, will start the operation in 2011, and then SPIDER, which demonstrates negative ion production and extraction with the same size and same structure as the ITER ion source, will start the operation in 2014 as part of the NBTF. The development of the accelerator is progressed mainly in JAEA with the MeV test facility, and also the computer simulation of beam optics also developed in JAEA, CEA and RFX. The full ITER heating and current drive beam performance will be demonstrated in MITICA, which will start operation in 2016 as part of the NBTF.

  13. Status of the 1 MeV Accelerator Design for ITER NBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Svensson, L.; Graceffa, J.; Schunke, B.; Decamps, H.; Tanaka, M.; Bonicelli, T.; Masiello, A.; Bigi, M.; Chitarin, G.; Luchetta, A.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; Kraus, W.; Franzen, P.; Heinemann, B.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Tobari, H.; De Esch, H.

    2011-09-01

    The beam source of neutral beam heating/current drive system for ITER is needed to accelerate the negative ion beam of 40A with D- at 1 MeV for 3600 sec. In order to realize the beam source, design and R&D works are being developed in many institutions under the coordination of ITER organization. The development of the key issues of the ion source including source plasma uniformity, suppression of co-extracted electron in D beam operation and also after the long beam duration time of over a few 100 sec, is progressed mainly in IPP with the facilities of BATMAN, MANITU and RADI. In the near future, ELISE, that will be tested the half size of the ITER ion source, will start the operation in 2011, and then SPIDER, which demonstrates negative ion production and extraction with the same size and same structure as the ITER ion source, will start the operation in 2014 as part of the NBTF. The development of the accelerator is progressed mainly in JAEA with the MeV test facility, and also the computer simulation of beam optics also developed in JAEA, CEA and RFX. The full ITER heating and current drive beam performance will be demonstrated in MITICA, which will start operation in 2016 as part of the NBTF.

  14. Design of the DEMO Fusion Reactor Following ITER

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, Paul R.; McFadden, Geoffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Runs of the NSTAB nonlinear stability code show there are many three-dimensional (3D) solutions of the advanced tokamak problem subject to axially symmetric boundary conditions. These numerical simulations based on mathematical equations in conservation form predict that the ITER international tokamak project will encounter persistent disruptions and edge localized mode (ELMS) crashes. Test particle runs of the TRAN transport code suggest that for quasineutrality to prevail in tokamaks a certain minimum level of 3D asymmetry of the magnetic spectrum is required which is comparable to that found in quasiaxially symmetric (QAS) stellarators. The computational theory suggests that a QAS stellarator with two field periods and proportions like those of ITER is a good candidate for a fusion reactor. For a demonstration reactor (DEMO) we seek an experiment that combines the best features of ITER, with a system of QAS coils providing external rotational transform, which is a measure of the poloidal field. We have discovered a configuration with unusually good quasisymmetry that is ideal for this task. PMID:27504224

  15. The Iterative Design of a Virtual Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevis, Eli; Lim, Youn-kyung; Stolterman, Erik; Makice, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain how they implemented Design eXchange as a shared collaborative online and physical space for design for their students. Their notion for Design eXchange favors a complex mix of key elements namely: (1) a virtual online studio; (2) a forum for review of all things related to design, especially design with the…

  16. Design of Matching Optics Unit (MOU) for coaxial ITER gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jianbo; Gantenbein, Gerd; Kern, Stefan; Rzesnicki, Tomasz; Thumm, Manfred

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the design of a MOU for the coaxial ITER gyrotron. Corrugated waveguides are used to transmit the high power mm-waves generated by gyrotrons to the plasma Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) and Current Drive (CD). The MOU contains two focusing mirrors, which are used to convert the gyrotron output into a Gaussian distribution with optimal parameters to improve the coupling efficiency of the TEM{sub 00} Gaussian distribution to the HE{sub 11} mode of the corrugated wave guide. The calculation results reveal that the coupling efficiency of the Gaussian beam to the HE{sub 11} mode is approximately 96.33%. (author)

  17. Design Evolution and Analysis of the ITER Cryostat Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Han; Song, Yuntao; Wang, Songke

    2015-12-01

    The cryostat is a vacuum tight container enveloping the entire basic systems of the ITER tokamak machine, including a vacuum vessel, a superconducting magnet and thermal shield etc. It is evacuated to a pressure of 10-4 Pa to limit the heat transfer via gas conduction and convection to the cryogenically cooled components. Another important function of cryostat is to support all the loads from the tokamak to the concrete floor of the pit by its support system during different operational regimes and accident scenarios. This paper briefly presents the design evolution and associated analysis of the cryostat support system and the structural interface with the building.

  18. Experimental study on subaperture testing with iterative triangulation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lisong; Wang, Xiaokun; Zheng, Ligong; Zeng, Xuefeng; Hu, Haixiang; Zhang, Xuejun

    2013-09-23

    Applying the iterative triangulation stitching algorithm, we provide an experimental demonstration by testing a Φ120 mm flat mirror, a Φ1450 mm off-axis parabolic mirror and a convex hyperboloid mirror. By comparing the stitching results with the self-examine subaperture, it shows that the reconstruction results are in consistent with that of the subaperture testing. As all the experiments are conducted with a 5-dof adjustment platform with big adjustment errors, it proves that using the above mentioned algorithm, the subaperture stitching can be easily performed without a precise positioning system. In addition, with the algorithm, we accomplish the coordinate unification between the testing and processing that makes it possible to guide the processing by the stitching result.

  19. THERMAL DESIGN OF THE ITER VACUUM VESSEL COOLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-01-01

    RELAP5-3D models of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) have been developed. The design of the cooling system is described in detail, and RELAP5 results are presented. Two parallel pump/heat exchanger trains comprise the design one train is for full-power operation and the other is for emergency operation or operation at decay heat levels. All the components are located inside the Tokamak building (a significant change from the original configurations). The results presented include operation at full power, decay heat operation, and baking operation. The RELAP5-3D results confirm that the design can operate satisfactorily during both normal pulsed power operation and decay heat operation. All the temperatures in the coolant and in the different system components are maintained within acceptable operating limits.

  20. Design, fabrication and test of block 4 design solar cell modules. Part 2: Residential module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of the Block IV residential load module are reported. Design changes from the proposed module design through three iterations to the discontinuance of testing are outlined.

  1. Metamorphic manipulating mechanism design for MCCB using index reduced iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Zhen; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2013-03-01

    The present research on moulded case circuit breaker(MCCB) focuses on the enhancement of current-limiting interrupting performance during short circuit, overload, under voltage and phase failure, involving electrics, magnetic, mechanics, thermal, material, friction, arc extinguishing, impact vibration, skin effect, etc. The rigid-flexible coupling of the parts and components of the metamorphic manipulating mechanism in multi-fields leads to the non-rigid, high frequency, high damping, singularity of the Euler-Lagrange equations which represents the multi-body dynamics. The small step iteration which is used for obtaining the instantaneous and short time critical interrupting performance of metamorphic mechanism appears inaccuracy. It is difficult to realize top-down design by existing CAD systems. Therefore, a metamorphic manipulating mechanism design method for MCCB using index reduced iteration(IRI) is put forward. The metamorphic manipulating mechanism of MCCB is decomposed into three mechanisms: main switch connector mechanism, electromagnet-drawbar-jump buckle mechanism, and bimetallic strip-drawbar mechanism, which is respectively described by electro-dynamic force, electromagnet force, and bimetallic strip force. The dummy part(virtual rigid) without moment of inertia and mass is employed as intermediate to join the flexible body and rigid body. The model of rigid-flexible coupling metamorphic mechanism multi-body dynamics is built. The differential algebraic equations(DAEs) of the multibody dynamics model are converted to pure ordinary differential equations(ODEs) by coordinate partition. Order reduced integration with multi-step and variable step-size is preceded based on IRI. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved in each integration step by Newton-Rapson iteration. There is no ill-condition and singularity of Jacobian matrix when step size reduces to zero. The independent prototype design system using ACIS R13, HOOPS V11.0 and Visual C++.NET 2003

  2. DESIGN OF THE ITER IN-VESSEL COILS

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C; Bryant, L; Chrzanowski, J; Feder, R; Gomez, M; Heitzenroeder, P; Kalish, M; Lipski, A; Mardenfeld, M; Simmons, R; Titus, P; Zatz, I; Daly, E; Martin, A; Nakahira, M; Pillsbury, R; Feng, J; Bohm, T; Sawan, M; Stone, H; Griffiths, I; Schaffer, M

    2010-11-27

    The ITER project is considering the inclusion of two sets of in-vessel coils, one to mitigate the effect of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and another to provide vertical stabilization (VS). The in-vessel location (behind the blanket shield modules, mounted to the vacuum vessel inner wall) presents special challenges in terms of nuclear radiation (~3000 MGy) and temperature (100oC vessel during operations, 200oC during bakeout). Mineral insulated conductors are well suited to this environment but are not commercially available in the large cross section required. An R&D program is underway to demonstrate the production of mineral insulated (MgO or Spinel) hollow copper conductor with stainless steel jacketing needed for these coils. A preliminary design based on this conductor technology has been developed and is presented herein.

  3. Initial results for a 170 GHz high power ITER waveguide component test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Kaufman, Michael; White, John; Bell, Gary; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave

    2014-10-01

    A high power microwave test stand is being setup at ORNL to enable prototype testing of 170 GHz cw waveguide components being developed for the ITER ECH system. The ITER ECH system will utilize 63.5 mm diameter evacuated corrugated waveguide and will have 24 >150 m long runs. A 170 GHz 1 MW class gyrotron is being developed by Communications and Power Industries and is nearing completion. A HVDC power supply, water-cooling and control system has been partially tested in preparation for arrival of the gyrotron. The power supply and water-cooling system are being designed to operate for >3600 second pulses to simulate the operating conditions planned for the ITER ECH system. The gyrotron Gaussian beam output has a single mirror for focusing into a 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide in the vertical plane. The output beam and mirror are enclosed in an evacuated duct with absorber for stray radiation. Beam alignment with the waveguide is a critical task so a combination of mirror tilt adjustments and a bellows for offsets will be provided. Analysis of thermal patterns on thin witness plates will provide gyrotron mode purity and waveguide coupling efficiency data. Pre-prototype waveguide components and two dummy loads are available for initial operational testing of the gyrotron. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  4. TRANSP Tests Of TGLF and Predictions For ITER

    SciTech Connect

    none,; Budny, Robert; Yuan, Xingqiu

    2014-02-26

    Gyro kinetic simulations of turbulence capture some of the features observed in transport, fluctuations, and correlations measured in tokamak plasmas. These codes calculations are CPU intensive, and are not practical for incorporation in present time-dependant transport codes, so reduced models based on these gyro kinetic codes are being used. An example is the TGLF model [1] which is a quasilinear gyrofluid model calibrated to nonlinear results from the GYRO code [2]. Recently TGLF has been incorporated into TRANSP. Analysis of experimental data using TRANSP with such models provides fundamental understanding of turbulent transport. Predictions of ITER performance with various plasma scenarios using such models are useful for optimizing design and for exposing issues that can be addressed in present experiments and theory. For instance, which combinations of heating, torquing, and current drive are optimal. Another application is for nuclear licensing (e.g. system integrity, neutron rates). Others are generating inputs for design of diagnostic systems and for theoretical studies. An example of the later is Alfv´en Eigenmode and AE-induced loss of fast ions. The beam ion distribution can either enhance or reduce the alpha pressure drive of the AE instability. The AE instability can cause dangerous amounts of fast ion losses, as was seen in TFTR.

  5. Status of the design of the ITER ECE diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Austin, M. E.; Beno, J. H.; Danani, S.; Ellis, R. F.; Feder, R.; Hesler, J. L.; Hubbard, A. E.; Johnson, D. W.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, V.; Ouroua, A.; Pandya, H. K. B.; Phillips, P. E.; Roman, C.; Rowan, W. L.; Udintsev, V.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.

    2015-03-01

    The baseline design for the ITER electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic has entered the detailed preliminary design phase. Two plasma views are planned, a radial view and an oblique view that is sensitive to distortions in the electron momentum distribution near the average thermal momentum. Both views provide high spatial resolution electron temperature profiles when the momentum distribution remains Maxwellian. The ECE diagnostic system consists of the front-end optics, including two 1000 K calibration sources, in equatorial port plug EP9, the 70-1000 GHz transmission system from the front-end to the diagnostics hall, and the ECE instrumentation in the diagnostics hall. The baseline ECE instrumentation will include two Michelson interferometers that can simultaneously measure ordinary and extraordinary mode ECE from 70 to 1000 GHz, and two heterodyne radiometer systems, covering 122-230 GHz and 244-355 GHz. Significant design challenges include 1) developing highly-reliable 1000 K calibration sources and the associated shutters/mirrors, 2) providing compliant couplings between the front-end optics and the polarization splitter box that accommodate displacements of the vacuum vessel during plasma operations and bake out, 3) protecting components from damage due to stray ECH radiation and other intense millimeter wave emission and 4) providing the low-loss broadband transmission system.

  6. Status of the design of the ITER ECE diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Austin, M. E.; Beno, J. H.; Danani, S.; Feder, R.; Hesler, J. L.; Hubbard, A. E.; Johnson, D. W.; Kumar, R.; Pandya, H. K. B.; Roman, C.; Rowan, W. L.; Udintsev, V.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.; Kubo, S.

    2015-03-12

    In this study, the baseline design for the ITER electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic has entered the detailed preliminary design phase. Two plasma views are planned, a radial view and an oblique view that is sensitive to distortions in the electron momentum distribution near the average thermal momentum. Both views provide high spatial resolution electron temperature profiles when the momentum distribution remains Maxwellian. The ECE diagnostic system consists of the front-end optics, including two 1000 K calibration sources, in equatorial port plug EP9, the 70-1000 GHz transmission system from the front-end to the diagnostics hall, and the ECE instrumentation in the diagnostics hall. The baseline ECE instrumentation will include two Michelson interferometers that can simultaneously measure ordinary and extraordinary mode ECE from 70 to 1000 GHz, and two heterodyne radiometer systems, covering 122-230 GHz and 244-355 GHz. Significant design challenges include 1) developing highly-reliable 1000 K calibration sources and the associated shutters/mirrors, 2) providing compliant couplings between the front-end optics and the polarization splitter box that accommodate displacements of the vacuum vessel during plasma operations and bake out, 3) protecting components from damage due to stray ECH radiation and other intense millimeter wave emission and 4) providing the low-loss broadband transmission system.

  7. Status of the design of the ITER ECE diagnostic

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, G.; Austin, M. E.; Beno, J. H.; Danani, S.; Ellis, R. F.; Feder, R.; Hesler, J. L.; Hubbard, A. E.; Johnson, D. W.; Kumar, R.; et al

    2015-03-12

    In this study, the baseline design for the ITER electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic has entered the detailed preliminary design phase. Two plasma views are planned, a radial view and an oblique view that is sensitive to distortions in the electron momentum distribution near the average thermal momentum. Both views provide high spatial resolution electron temperature profiles when the momentum distribution remains Maxwellian. The ECE diagnostic system consists of the front-end optics, including two 1000 K calibration sources, in equatorial port plug EP9, the 70-1000 GHz transmission system from the front-end to the diagnostics hall, and the ECE instrumentation inmore » the diagnostics hall. The baseline ECE instrumentation will include two Michelson interferometers that can simultaneously measure ordinary and extraordinary mode ECE from 70 to 1000 GHz, and two heterodyne radiometer systems, covering 122-230 GHz and 244-355 GHz. Significant design challenges include 1) developing highly-reliable 1000 K calibration sources and the associated shutters/mirrors, 2) providing compliant couplings between the front-end optics and the polarization splitter box that accommodate displacements of the vacuum vessel during plasma operations and bake out, 3) protecting components from damage due to stray ECH radiation and other intense millimeter wave emission and 4) providing the low-loss broadband transmission system.« less

  8. Development of a 2-MW, CW Coaxial Gyrotron at 70 GHz and Test Facility for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogge, J. P.; Alberti, S.; Arnold, A.; Bariou, D.; Benin, P.; Bonicelli, T.; Bruschi, A.; Chavan, R.; Cirant, S.; Dumbrajs, O.; Fasel, D.; Gandini, F.; Giguet, E.; Goodman, T.; Heidinger, R.; Henderson, M.; Illy, S.; Jin, J.; Lievin, C.; Magne, R.; Marmillod, P.; Mondino, P. L.; Perez, A.; Piosczyk, B.; Porte, L.; Rzesnicki, T.; Santinelli, M.; Thumm, M.; Tran, M. Q.; Yovchev, I.

    2005-01-01

    In ITER, EC heating and current drive (H&CD) is foreseen not only as a principal auxiliary system for plasma heating and as assist for plasma start-up, but is considered essential in meeting the key requirement of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) stabilisation, by localized current drive. In the reference ECH design, ITER requires a total of 20 MW/CW power at 170 GHz using gyrotrons with a unit power of 1 MW. A higher power per unit (2 MW/gyrotron) would result in a strong reduction of the cost of the whole ECRH system, and would also relax the room constraints on the launcher antenna design. In view of the capability of coaxial cavity gyrotrons demonstrated with short pulse experiments at FZK, the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has started in 2003 the development of an industrial 170 GHz 2 MW/CW coaxial cavity gyrotron, in a collaborative effort between European research associations CRPP/EPFL, FZK, TEKES and Thals Electron Devices (TED). The development plan includes three steps to reach successively 2 MW/1s, 2 MW/60s and finally 2 MW/CW operation. The procurement of the first prototype is in progress and it scheduled to be delivered during the first quarter of 2006. The experimental tests of the prototypes will be carried out at CRPP/EPFL, where an ITER relevant test facility is presently under construction and will be achieved during the second half of 2005. The test facility is designed to be flexible enough, allowing the possible commissioning of tubes with different characteristics, as well the tests of the launcher antenna at full performances.

  9. Design and Analysis of the ITER Vertical Stability Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. Titus, et. al.

    2012-09-06

    The ITER vertical stability (VS) coils have been developed through the preliminary design phase by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Final design, prototyping and construction will be carried out by the Chinese Participant Team contributing lab, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The VS coils are a part of the in-vessel coil systems which include edge localized mode (ELM) coils as well as the VS coils. An overview of the ELM coils is provided in another paper at this conference. 15 The VS design employs four turns of stainless steel jacketed mineral insulated copper (SSMIC) conductors The mineral insulation is Magnesium Oxide (MgO). Joule and nuclear heat is removed by water flowing at 3 m/s through the hollow copper conductor. A key element in the design is that slightly elevated temperatures in the conductor and its support spine during operation impose compressive stresses that mitigate fatigue damage. Away from joints, and break-outs, conductor thermal stresses are low because of the axisymmetry of the winding (there are no corner bends as in the ELM coils).The 120 degree segment joint, and break-out or terminal regions are designed with similar but imperfect constraint compared with the ring coil portion of the VS. The support for the break-out region is made from a high strength copper alloy, CuCrZr. This is needed to conduct nuclear heat to the actively cooled conductor and to the vessel wall. The support "spine" for the ring coil portion of the VS is 316 stainless steel, held to the vessel with preloaded 718 bolts. Lorentz loads resulting from normal operating loads, disruption loads and loads from disruption currents in the support spine shared with vessel, are applied to the VS coil. The transmission of the Lorentz and thermal expansion loads from the "spine" to the vessel rails is via friction augmented with a restraining "lip" to ensure the coil frictional slip is minimal and acceptable. Stresses in the coil

  10. EU contribution to the test and analysis of the ITER poloidal field conductor insert and the central solenoid model coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanino, R.; Bagnasco, M.; Ciazynski, D.; Lacroix, B.; van Lanen, E. P. A.; Nicollet, S.; Nijhuis, A.; Savoldi Richard, L.; Sborchia, C.; Torre, A.; Vostner, A.; Zani, L.

    2009-08-01

    The PFCI is a single-layer solenoid wound from a 45 m long ITER-type NbTi dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductor, designed to be representative of the one currently proposed for the ITER PF1&6 coils. The PFCI, installed in the bore of the ITER central solenoid model coil (CSMC) at JAEA Naka, Japan, and well instrumented from both the thermal hydraulic and the electromagnetic points of view, has been successfully tested in June-August 2008. The test concentrated on DC performance (current sharing temperature and critical current measurements) and AC loss measurements. The results of the analysis of those measurements are reported in the paper, with particular attention to the comparison with the PFCI short sample, which was previously tested in the SULTAN facility. The evolution of the DC performance of the CSMC is also discussed.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF A TEST LOOP FOR THE COOLING SYSTEM OF THE ITER TF COIL UNDER PULSED HEAT LOAD

    SciTech Connect

    Rousset, B.; Girard, A.; Maze, S.; Poncet, J. M.; Roussel, P.; Murdoch, D.; Sanmarti, M.

    2008-03-16

    CEA is involved in the design of the cooling scheme of the future ITER tokamak. Pulsed operation of ITER will result in heat load variations (which refrigerators have difficulties to cope with). A load smoothing device has been proposed by the ITER team which needs to be validated. To do this, a scaled-down experiment (hereafter also called model) has been proposed and studied in the framework of an EFDA sub-task. This paper presents the test loop dimensioning and the preliminary design for constructing the model. The choice of the relevant design criteria had to be defined so as to obtain in fine a geometric ratio between the ITER system and the model. It is shown that this ratio is then applicable for the mass flow rates as well as the different volumes (heat exchanger, pipes,...) existing on ITER and on the proposed experimental model. Details of the scaling, model design and 3D views corresponding to this preliminary study are presented in this paper.

  12. Computational study of the electromagnetic forces and torques on different ITER first wall designs.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Garde, Joseph Maurico; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Pasik, Michael Francis; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2009-06-01

    An electromagnetic analysis is performed on different first wall designs for the ITER device. The electromagnetic forces and torques present due to a plasma disruption event are calculated and compared for the different designs.

  13. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rista, P. E. C.; Shull, J.; Sargent, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen & helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper.

  14. JPL-IDEAS - ITERATIVE DESIGN OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Iterative DEsign of Antenna Structures (IDEAS) program is a finite element analysis and design optimization program with special features for the analysis and design of microwave antennas and associated sub-structures. As the principal structure analysis and design tool for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Ground Antenna and Facilities Engineering section of NASA's Deep Space Network, IDEAS combines flexibility with easy use. The relatively small bending stiffness of the components of large, steerable reflector antennas allows IDEAS to use pinjointed (three translational degrees of freedom per joint) models for modeling the gross behavior of these antennas when subjected to static and dynamic loading. This facilitates the formulation of the redesign algorithm which has only one design variable per structural element. Input data deck preparation has been simplified by the use of NAMELIST inputs to promote clarity of data input for problem defining parameters, user selection of execution and design options and output requests, and by the use of many attractive and familiar features of the NASTRAN program (in many cases, NASTRAN and IDEAS formatted bulk data cards are interchangeable). Features such as simulation of a full symmetric structure based on analyses of only half the structure make IDEAS a handy and efficient analysis tool, with many features unavailable in any other finite element analysis program. IDEAS can choose design variables such as areas of rods and thicknesses of plates to minimize total structure weight, constrain the structure weight to a specified value while maximizing a natural frequency or minimizing compliance measures, and can use a stress ratio algorithm to size each structural member so that it is at maximum or minimum stress level for at least one of the applied loads. Calculations of total structure weight can be broken down according to material. Center of gravity weight balance, static first and second moments about the center of

  15. The Structural Design and Analysis of Pallet in ITER Transfer Cask for Remote Handling Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zibo; Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Li, Ge

    2009-06-01

    Necessary adjustment ranges and accuracies of the pallet for ITER are presented. Detailed structural designs and structural finite element analyses for pallet components are made to determine whether the results satisfy the requirements of the pallet structure to be used in ITER.

  16. Perspectives on the Final Design Review process from the US ITER DRGA team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biewer, T. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Devan, W.; Graves, V.; Marcus, C.; Andrew, P.; Johnson, D. W.

    2014-10-01

    Among the ITER procurements awarded to the US ITER Domestic Agency, and subsequently to the ORNL Fusion & Materials for Nuclear Systems Division, is the design and fabrication of the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) system. The DRGA system reached the Final Design Review (FDR) in July 2014, and is the first US-credited diagnostic system to achieve this milestone. The design effort has focused on the vacuum and mechanical interface of the DRGA gas sampling tube with the ITER vacuum vessel and cyrostat. In addition to technical issues needed to negotiate the mechanical interface, a significant number of procedural issues at US ITER and the ITER IO were encountered to navigate the DRGA project to this milestone. The process has been beneficial to both the DRGA project, and in-turn to US ITER, by illuminating the procedures in practice. This presentation will highlight some of the issues encountered and relay perspectives for designing hardware for ITER. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  17. Object-oriented design of preconditioned iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bruaset, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    In this talk the author discusses how object-oriented programming techniques can be used to develop a flexible software package for preconditioned iterative methods. The ideas described have been used to implement the linear algebra part of Diffpack, which is a collection of C++ class libraries that provides high-level tools for the solution of partial differential equations. In particular, this software package is aimed at rapid development of PDE-based numerical simulators, primarily using finite element methods.

  18. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited).

    PubMed

    Antoni, V; Agostinetti, P; Aprile, D; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Fonnesu, N; Marconato, N; Pilan, N; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

    2014-02-01

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  19. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G. Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2014-02-15

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  20. ITER Construction--Plant System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, E.; Matsuda, S.

    2009-02-19

    This brief paper introduces how the ITER will be built in the international collaboration. The ITER Organization plays a central role in constructing ITER and leading it into operation. Since most of the ITER components are to be provided in-kind from the member countries, integral project management should be scoped in advance of real work. Those include design, procurement, system assembly, testing, licensing and commissioning of ITER.

  1. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  2. Design of computer-generated beam-shaping holograms by iterative finite-element mesh adaption.

    PubMed

    Dresel, T; Beyerlein, M; Schwider, J

    1996-12-10

    Computer-generated phase-only holograms can be used for laser beam shaping, i.e., for focusing a given aperture with intensity and phase distributions into a pregiven intensity pattern in their focal planes. A numerical approach based on iterative finite-element mesh adaption permits the design of appropriate phase functions for the task of focusing into two-dimensional reconstruction patterns. Both the hologram aperture and the reconstruction pattern are covered by mesh mappings. An iterative procedure delivers meshes with intensities equally distributed over the constituting elements. This design algorithm adds new elementary focuser functions to what we call object-oriented hologram design. Some design examples are discussed.

  3. The performance test and analysis of the third and fourth China PF conductor for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Yu; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Stepanov, Boris; Qin, Jinggang; Long, Feng

    2014-04-01

    The third Chinese PF conductor for ITER PF5 (PFCN3) and the fourth Chinese PF conductor for ITER PF2/3/4 (PFCN4) conductor in Phase II were manufactured in ASIPP and tested in the SULTAN facility. This paper introduces the PFCN3 and PFCN4 sample manufacture, including strand, sample preparation, current sharing temperature (Tcs), AC loss and Minimum Quench Energy (MQE) test performance of PFCN3 and PFCN4 conductors. The Tcs test result of PFCN4 conductor is consistent with the calculated result used the strand scaling and the Tcs test result of PFCN3 conductor is a little larger than calculated result, whose maximum difference is about 0.2 K. According to the SULTAN test result, the Tcs performance of both PFCN3 and PFCN4 conductor sample could meet the ITER requirement.

  4. Design studies for ITER x-ray diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for adapting conventional tokamak x-ray diagnostics to the harsh radiation environment of ITER include use of grazing-incidence (GI) x-ray mirrors or man-made Bragg multilayer (ML) elements to remove the x-ray beam from the neutron beam, or use of bundles of glass-capillary x-ray ``light pipes`` embedded in radiation shields to reduce the neutron/gamma-ray fluxes onto the detectors while maintaining usable x-ray throughput. The x-ray optical element with the broadest bandwidth and highest throughput, the GI mirror, can provide adequate lateral deflection (10 cm for a deflected-path length of 8 m) at x-ray energies up to 12, 22, or 30 keV for one, two, or three deflections, respectively. This element can be used with the broad band, high intensity x-ray imaging system (XIS), the pulseheight analysis (PHA) survey spectrometer, or the high resolution Johann x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS), which is used for ion-temperature measurement. The ML mirrors can isolate the detector from the neutron beam with a single deflection for energies up to 50 keV, but have much narrower bandwidth and lower x-ray power throughput than do the GI mirrors; they are unsuitable for use with the XIS or PHA, but they could be used with the XCS; in particular, these deflectors could be used between ITER and the biological shield to avoid direct plasma neutron streaming through the biological shield. Graded-d ML mirrors have good reflectivity from 20 to 70 keV, but still at grazing angles (<3 mrad). The efficiency at 70 keV for double reflection (10 percent), as required for adequate separation of the x-ray and neutron beams, is high enough for PHA requirements, but not for the XIS. Further optimization may be possible.

  5. Electromagnetic Analysis For The Design Of ITER Diagnostic Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y

    2014-03-03

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to plasma. The design of diagnotic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate response of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs). Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  6. Current status of final design and R&D for ITER blanket shield blocks in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, M. S.; Kim, S. W.; Jung, H. C.; Hwang, H. S.; Heo, Y. G.; Kim, D. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, H. G.; Jung, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    The main function of the ITER blanket shield block (SB) is to provide nuclear shielding and support the first wall (FW) panel. It needs to accommodate all the components located on the vacuum vessel (in particular the in-vessel coils, blanket manifolds and the diagnostics). The conceptual, preliminary and final design reviews have been completed in the framework of the Blanket Integrated Product Team. The Korean Domestic Agency has successfully completed not only the final design activities, including thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analyses for SBs #2, #6, #8 and #16, but also the SB full scale prototype (FSP) pre-qualification program prior to issuing of the procurement agreement. SBs #2 and #6 are located at the in-board region of the tokamak. The pressure drop was less than 0.3 MPa and fully satisfied the design criteria. The thermo-mechanical stresses were also allowable even though the peak stresses occurred at nearby radial slit end holes, and their fatigue lives were evaluated over many more than 30 000 cycles. SB #8 is one of the most difficult modules to design, since this module will endure severe thermal loading not only from nuclear heating but also from plasma heat flux at uncovered regions by the FW. In order to resolve this design issue, the neutral beam shine-through module concept was applied to the FW uncovered region and it has been successfully verified as a possible design solution. SB #16 is located at the out-board central region of the tokamak. This module is under much higher nuclear loading than other modules and is covered by an enhanced heat flux FW panel. In the early design stage, many cooling headers on the front region were inserted to mitigate peak stresses near the access hole and radial slit end hole. However, the cooling headers on the front region needed to be removed in order to reduce the risk from cover welding during manufacturing. A few cooling headers now remain after efforts through several iterations to remove

  7. ITER Building Design (D230-B), Task No. 28. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project requires a set of buildings, each with its own distinct function, to support ITER`s mission. The Joint Central Team (JCT) has identified all the buildings in the set and has placed them in an efficient arrangement on the site. The JCT has developed a conceptual layout of each individual building. The buildings have been categorized into two main groups: (1) {open_quotes}Level 1 Buildings{close_quotes} which are on the construction schedule critical path and (2) {open_quotes}Level 2 Buildings{close_quotes} which, while important, are not on the critical path. The buildings are further categorized according to construction material, that is, {open_quotes}reinforced concrete{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes}. This Report responds to the Project`s request to perform the initial structural steel design for all the {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings. Of the twelve (12) {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings, four (4) are Level 1 and eight (8) are Level 2 Buildings. This Report is a deliverable for the ITER Task Assignment entitled {open_quotes}ITER Buildings Design (D230-B){close_quotes}, also designated as Task No. 28. ITER U.S. Home Team Industrial Consortium members, Raytheon Engineers & Constructors (RE&C) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), teamed to perform Task 28. This task commenced in May 1995. It was performed in accordance with the design criteria specified by the ITER-JCT, San Diego Joint Work Site.

  8. Not All Wizards Are from Oz: Iterative Design of Intelligent Learning Environments by Communication Capacity Tapering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrikis, Manolis; Gutierrez-Santos, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the design of intelligent learning environments. We recognise that in the educational technology field, theory development and system-design should be integrated and rely on an iterative process that addresses: (a) the difficulty to elicit precise, concise, and operationalized knowledge from "experts" and (b)…

  9. Refractive and Relativistic Effects on ITER Low Field Side Reflectometer Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Peebles, W. A.; Harvey, R. W.; Budny, R. V.

    2010-06-01

    The ITER low field side reflectometer faces some unique design challenges, among which are included the effect of relativistic electron temperatures and refraction of probing waves. This paper utilizes GENRAY, a 3- D ray tracing code, to investigate these effects. Using a simulated ITER operating scenario, characteristics of the reflected RF waves returning to the launch plane are quantified as a function of a range of design parameters, including antenna height, antenna size, and antenna radial position. Results for edge/SOL measurement with both O- and X-modes using proposed antennas are reported.

  10. Refractive and relativistic effects on ITER low field side reflectometer design.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Rhodes, T L; Peebles, W A; Harvey, R W; Budny, R V

    2010-10-01

    The ITER low field side reflectometer faces some unique design challenges, among which are included the effect of relativistic electron temperatures and refraction of probing waves. This paper utilizes GENRAY, a 3D ray tracing code, to investigate these effects. Using a simulated ITER operating scenario, characteristics of the reflected millimeter waves after return to the launch plane are quantified as a function of a range of design parameters, including antenna height, antenna diameter, and antenna radial position. Results for edge/SOL measurement with both O- and X-mode polarizations using proposed antennas are reported.

  11. Learner Interest: An Affective Variable in Iterative Course Design Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined interest, a unique affective construct distinct from motivation, as an important instructional design consideration. New interest theory suggests that interest develops along a continuum, and at its earliest stages, may be triggered through intentional use of interesting materials and environments. Instructional designers need…

  12. Tensile tests of ITER TF conductors jacket materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anashkin, O. P.; Kеilin, V. E.; Krivykh, A. V.; Diev, D. N.; Dinisilov, A. S.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Tronza, V. I.

    2012-06-01

    The set of very tough requirements has been formulated for TF jacket materials with extremely high plasticity at liquid helium temperature. The stainless steel 316LN-IG is recommended to be used for TF jacket tubes. Samples of 316LN-IG tubes (whole tubes and sub-size samples) made of the material from the same electro slag remelt have been tested in different conditions - as received tubes and tubes after prescribed compaction, 2.5% deformation at room temperature and heat treatment at 650 0C, 200 hours. The tensile tests were carried out at room, liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures down to 4.2 K, meeting corresponding ASME and ASTM requirements. The low temperature testing devices are described. The tests results for sub-size samples and whole tubes show that the latter tests are considerably more representative and important for butt weld qualification at LHe temperature. It was observed that the ferromagnetic properties of all samples and especially of butt welds increase with lowering the temperature and increasing the degree of deformation. At LHe temperature a non-uniform and highly localized serrated deformations were observed.

  13. Computer Designed Instruction & Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on computer designed instruction and testing at the college level are discussed in 13 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching at New Mexico State University. Titles and authors are as follows: "Don't Bother Me with Instructional Design, I'm Busy Programming! Suggestions for More Effective Educational…

  14. Multiphysics Engineering Analysis for an Integrated Design of ITER Diagnostic First Wall and Diagnostic Shield Module Design

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y.; Loesser, G.; Smith, M.; Udintsev, V.; Giacomin, T., T.; Khodak, A.; Johnson, D,; Feder, R,

    2015-07-01

    ITER diagnostic first walls (DFWs) and diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) inside the port plugs (PPs) are designed to protect diagnostic instrument and components from a harsh plasma environment and provide structural support while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of DFWs and DSMs are driven by 1) plasma radiation and nuclear heating during normal operation 2) electromagnetic loads during plasma events and associate component structural responses. A multi-physics engineering analysis protocol for the design has been established at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and it was used for the design of ITER DFWs and DSMs. The analyses were performed to address challenging design issues based on resultant stresses and deflections of the DFW-DSM-PP assembly for the main load cases. ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-Vessel Components (SDC-IC) required for design by analysis and three major issues driving the mechanical design of ITER DFWs are discussed. The general guidelines for the DSM design have been established as a result of design parametric studies.

  15. Test of prototype ITER vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer and its application to impurity study in KSTAR plasmas.

    PubMed

    Seon, C R; Hong, J H; Jang, J; Lee, S H; Choe, W; Lee, H H; Cheon, M S; Pak, S; Lee, H G; Biel, W; Barnsley, R

    2014-11-01

    To optimize the design of ITER vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer, a prototype VUV spectrometer was developed. The sensitivity calibration curve of the spectrometer was calculated from the mirror reflectivity, the grating efficiency, and the detector efficiency. The calibration curve was consistent with the calibration points derived in the experiment using the calibrated hollow cathode lamp. For the application of the prototype ITER VUV spectrometer, the prototype spectrometer was installed at KSTAR, and various impurity emission lines could be measured. By analyzing about 100 shots, strong positive correlation between the O VI and the C IV emission intensities could be found.

  16. Test of prototype ITER vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer and its application to impurity study in KSTAR plasmas.

    PubMed

    Seon, C R; Hong, J H; Jang, J; Lee, S H; Choe, W; Lee, H H; Cheon, M S; Pak, S; Lee, H G; Biel, W; Barnsley, R

    2014-11-01

    To optimize the design of ITER vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer, a prototype VUV spectrometer was developed. The sensitivity calibration curve of the spectrometer was calculated from the mirror reflectivity, the grating efficiency, and the detector efficiency. The calibration curve was consistent with the calibration points derived in the experiment using the calibrated hollow cathode lamp. For the application of the prototype ITER VUV spectrometer, the prototype spectrometer was installed at KSTAR, and various impurity emission lines could be measured. By analyzing about 100 shots, strong positive correlation between the O VI and the C IV emission intensities could be found. PMID:25430310

  17. Thermo-mechanical analysis of ITER first mirrors and its use for the ITER equatorial visible/infrared wide angle viewing system optical design

    SciTech Connect

    Joanny, M.; Salasca, S.; Dapena, M.; Cantone, B.; Travere, J. M.; Thellier, C.; Ferme, J. J.; Marot, L.; Buravand, O.; Perrollaz, G.; Zeile, C.

    2012-10-15

    ITER first mirrors (FMs), as the first components of most ITER optical diagnostics, will be exposed to high plasma radiation flux and neutron load. To reduce the FMs heating and optical surface deformation induced during ITER operation, the use of relevant materials and cooling system are foreseen. The calculations led on different materials and FMs designs and geometries (100 mm and 200 mm) show that the use of CuCrZr and TZM, and a complex integrated cooling system can limit efficiently the FMs heating and reduce their optical surface deformation under plasma radiation flux and neutron load. These investigations were used to evaluate, for the ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system, the impact of the FMs properties change during operation on the instrument main optical performances. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  18. Thermo-mechanical analysis of ITER first mirrors and its use for the ITER equatorial visible∕infrared wide angle viewing system optical design.

    PubMed

    Joanny, M; Salasca, S; Dapena, M; Cantone, B; Travère, J M; Thellier, C; Fermé, J J; Marot, L; Buravand, O; Perrollaz, G; Zeile, C

    2012-10-01

    ITER first mirrors (FMs), as the first components of most ITER optical diagnostics, will be exposed to high plasma radiation flux and neutron load. To reduce the FMs heating and optical surface deformation induced during ITER operation, the use of relevant materials and cooling system are foreseen. The calculations led on different materials and FMs designs and geometries (100 mm and 200 mm) show that the use of CuCrZr and TZM, and a complex integrated cooling system can limit efficiently the FMs heating and reduce their optical surface deformation under plasma radiation flux and neutron load. These investigations were used to evaluate, for the ITER equatorial port visible∕infrared wide angle viewing system, the impact of the FMs properties change during operation on the instrument main optical performances. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  19. Non-destructive qualification tests for ITER cryogenic axial insulating breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kosek, Jacek; Lopez, Roberto; Tommasini, Davide; Rodriguez-Mateos, Felix

    2014-01-29

    In the ITER superconducting magnets the dielectric separation between the CICC (Cable-In-Conduit Conductors) and the helium supply pipes is made through the so-called insulating breaks (IB). These devices shall provide the required dielectric insulation at a 30 kV level under different types of stresses and constraints: thermal, mechanical, dielectric and ionizing radiations. As part of the R and D program, the ITER Organization launched contracts with industrial companies aimed at the qualification of the manufacturing techniques. After reviewing the main functional aspects, this paper describes and discusses the protocol established for non-destructive qualification tests of the prototypes.

  20. Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: different approaches to diffractive optical element design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeren, Marek; Richter, Ivan; Fiala, Pavel

    2002-10-01

    This contribution focuses on the study and comparison of different design approaches for designing phase-only diffractive optical elements (PDOEs) for different possible applications in laser beam shaping. Especially, new results and approaches, concerning the iterative Fourier transform algorithm, are analyzed, implemented, and compared. Namely, various approaches within the iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) are analyzed for the case of phase-only diffractive optical elements with quantizied phase levels (either binary or multilevel structures). First, the general scheme of the IFTA iterative approach with partial quantization is briefly presented and discussed. Then, the special assortment of the general IFTA scheme is given with respect to quantization constraint strategies. Based on such a special classification, the three practically interesting approaches are chosen, further-analyzed, and compared to eachother. The performance of these algorithms is compared in detail in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio characteristic developments with respect to the numberof iterations, for various input diffusive-type objects chose. Also, the performance is documented on the complex spectra developments for typical computer reconstruction results. The advantages and drawbacks of all approaches are discussed, and a brief guide on the choice of a particular approach for typical design tasks is given. Finally, the two ways of amplitude elimination within the design procedure are considered, namely the direct elimination and partial elimination of the amplitude of the complex hologram function.

  1. Iterative method for optimal design of flat-spectral-response arrayed waveguide gratings.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Woong; Park, Yohan; Yi, Yun; Kim, Hwi

    2013-10-20

    A novel iterative projection-type optimal design algorithm of arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) with a flat spectral response is proposed based on the Fourier optics model of AWG. The enhancement of the spectral-response flatness of the AWG is demonstrated, with an analysis on the trade-off relationship between band flatness and crosstalk.

  2. A Toolset for Supporting Iterative Human Automation: Interaction in Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of automation has greatly extended humans' capability to accomplish tasks, including those that are difficult, complex and safety critical. The majority of Human - Automation Interacton (HAl) results in more efficient and safe operations, ho,,:,ever ertain unpected atomatlon behaviors or "automation surprises" can be frustrating and, In certain safety critical operations (e.g. transporttion, manufacturing control, medicine), may result in injuries or. the loss of life.. (Mellor, 1994; Leveson, 1995; FAA, 1995; BASI, 1998; Sheridan, 2002). This papr describes he development of a design tool that enables on the rapid development and evaluation. of automaton prototypes. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a design platform upon which automation surprise vulnerability analyses can be integrated.

  3. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  4. Neutronics and thermal design analyses of US solid breeder blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Billone, M.; Attaya, H. ); Sawan, M. )

    1990-09-01

    The US Solid Breeder Blanket is designed to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Safety, low tritium inventory, reliability, flexibility cost, and minimum R D requirements are the other design criteria. To satisfy these criteria, the produced tritium is recovered continuously during operation and the blanket coolant operates at low pressure. Beryllium multiplier material is used to control the solid-breeder temperature. Neutronics and thermal design analyses were performed in an integrated manner to define the blanket configuration. The reference parameters of ITER including the operating scenarios, the neutron wall loading distribution and the copper stabilizer are included in the design analyses. Several analyses were performed to study the impact of the reactor parameters, blanket dimensions, material characteristics, and heat transfer coefficient at the material interfaces on the blanket performance. The design analyses and the results from the different studies are summarized. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Progress in design and integration of the ITER Electron Cyclotron H&CD system

    SciTech Connect

    Darbos, Caroline; Henderson, Mark; Kobayashi, N.; Albajar, F.; Bonicelli, T.; Saibene, G.; Bigelow, Timothy S; Rasmussen, David A; Chavan, R.; Fasel, D.; Hogge, J. P.; Denisov, G. G.; Heidinger, R.; Piosczyk, B.; Thumm, M.; Rao, S. L.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahaski, K.; Thumm, M.

    2009-06-01

    The Electron Cyclotron system for ITER is an in-kind procurement shared between five parties and the total installed power will be 24 MW, corresponding to a nominal injected power of 20 MW to the plasma, with a possible upgrade up to 48 MW (corresponding to 40 MW injected). Some critical issues have been raised and changes are proposed to simplify these procurements and to facilitate the integration into ITER. The progress in the design and the integration of the EC system into the whole project is presented in this paper, as well as some issues still under studies and some recommendations made by external expert committees.

  6. FEMCAM Analysis of SULTAN Test Results for ITER Nb3SN Cable-conduit Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhu Zhai, Pierluigi Bruzzone, Ciro Calzolaio

    2013-03-19

    Performance degradation due to filament fracture of Nb3 Sn cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) is a critical issue in large-scale magnet designs such as ITER which is currently being constructed in the South of France. The critical current observed in most SULTAN TF CICC samples is significantly lower than expected and the voltage-current characteristic is seen to have a much broader transition from a single strand to the CICC. Moreover, most conductors exhibit the irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and strain relaxation under electromagnetic cyclic loading. With recent success in monitoring thermal strain distribution and its evolution under the electromagnetic cyclic loading from in situ measurement of critical temperature, we apply FEMCAM which includes strand filament breakage and local current sharing effects to SULTAN tested CICCs to study Nb3 Sn strain sensitivity and irreversible performance degradation. FEMCAM combines the thermal bending effect during cool down and the EM bending effect due to locally accumulating Lorentz force during magnet operation. It also includes strand filament fracture and related local current sharing for the calculation of cable n value. In this paper, we model continuous performance degradation under EM cyclic loading based on strain relaxation and the transition broadening upon cyclic loading to the extreme cases seen in SULTAN test data to better quantify conductor performance degradation.

  7. Design of a -1 MV dc UHV power supply for ITER NBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Takemoto, J.; Yamashita, Y.; Dairaku, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Tobari, H.; Umeda, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Inoue, T.

    2009-05-01

    Procurement of a dc -1 MV power supply system for the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) is shared by Japan and the EU. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA) for ITER contributes to the procurement of dc -1 MV ultra-high voltage (UHV) components such as a dc -1 MV generator, a transmission line and a -1 MV insulating transformer for the ITER NBI power supply. The inverter frequency of 150 Hz in the -1 MV power supply and major circuit parameters have been proposed and adopted in the ITER NBI. The dc UHV insulation has been carefully designed since dc long pulse insulation is quite different from conventional ac insulation or dc short pulse systems. A multi-layer insulation structure of the transformer for a long pulse up to 3600 s has been designed with electric field simulation. Based on the simulation the overall dimensions of the dc UHV components have been finalized. A surge energy suppression system is also essential to protect the accelerator from electric breakdowns. The JADA contributes to provide an effective surge suppression system composed of core snubbers and resistors. Input energy into the accelerator from the power supply can be reduced to about 20 J, which satisfies the design criteria of 50 J in total in the case of breakdown at -1 MV.

  8. Design and first plasma measurements of the ITER-ECE prototype radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M. E.; Brookman, M. W.; Rowan, W. L.; Danani, S.; Bryerton, E. W.; Dougherty, P.

    2016-11-01

    On ITER, second harmonic optically thick electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the range of 220-340 GHz will supply the electron temperature (Te). To investigate the requirements and capabilities prescribed for the ITER system, a prototype radiometer covering this frequency range has been developed by Virginia Diodes, Inc. The first plasma measurements with this instrument have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak, with lab bench tests and measurements of third through fifth harmonic ECE from high Te plasmas. At DIII-D the instrument shares the transmission line of the Michelson interferometer and can simultaneously acquire data. Comparison of the ECE radiation temperature from the absolutely calibrated Michelson and the prototype receiver shows that the ITER radiometer provides accurate measurements of the millimeter radiation across the instrument band.

  9. Semi-Technical Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed for the Tritium Extraction System of the Test Blanket Module for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Beloglazov, S.; Bekris, N.; Glugla, M.; Wagner, R.

    2005-07-15

    The tritium extraction from the ITER Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Module purge gas is proposed to be performed in a two steps process: trapping water in a cryogenic Cold Trap, and adsorption of hydrogen isotopes (H{sub 2}, HT, T{sub 2}) as well as impurities (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}) in a Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) at 77K. A CMSB in a semi-technical scale (one-sixth of the flow rate of the ITER-HCPB) was design and constructed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The full capacity of CMSB filled with 20 kg of MS-5A was calculated based on adsorption isotherm data to be 9.4 mol of H{sub 2} at partial pressure 120 Pa. The breakthrough tests at flow rates up to 2 Nm{sup 3}h{sup -1} of He with 110 Pa of H{sub 2} conformed with good agreement the adsorption capacity of the CMSB. The mass-transfer zone was found to be relatively narrow (12.5 % of the MS Bed height) allowing to scale up the CMSB to ITER flow rates.

  10. In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2013-01-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

  11. Conceptual design of a High Temperature Superconductor current feeder system for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanna, V. L.; Fietz, W. H.; Heller, R.; Vostner, A.; Wesche, R.; Zahn, G. R.

    2006-06-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project envisages a techno-economically feasible solution of its current feeder system in order to reduce the overall cryogenic requirements and operational costs. Since the ITER magnet system has a long stand-by time with respect to its operation duty cycle, it is essential to optimize the operational costs of the current feeder system taking into consideration both, the full current and stand-by modes. The present HTS technology has reached the maturity that HTS conductors are applicable for the current feeder system of ITER. The replacement of the actually planned conventional current leads by HTS current leads would provide considerable savings in the refrigeration investment and operational costs. Another option is the substitution of the water cooled high current aluminum feeders by HTS feeders, so called HTS bus bars. In this paper, the different design options of Bi-2223/Ag HTS based bus bars as prototype unit modules for ITER are discussed. The performance of different cooling schemes for HTS bus bars is studied and the design related critical issues e.g. metallic transition (65 K -300 K) and bending of bus bar, AC loss, thermal loss and reliability of the cooling system are investigated.

  12. Physics and Engineering Design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, W. L.; Austin, M. E.; Houshmandyar, S.; Phillips, P. E.; Beno, J. H.; Ouroua, A.; Weeks, D. A.; Hubbard, A. E.; Stillerman, J. A.; Feder, R. E.; Khodak, A.; Taylor, G.; Pandya, H. K.; Danani, S.; Kumar, R.

    2015-11-01

    Electron temperature (Te) measurements and consequent electron thermal transport inferences will be critical to the non-active phases of ITER operation and will take on added importance during the alpha heating phase. Here, we describe our design for the diagnostic that will measure spatial and temporal profiles of Te using electron cyclotron emission (ECE). Other measurement capability includes high frequency instabilities (e.g. ELMs, NTMs, and TAEs). Since results from TFTR and JET suggest that Thomson Scattering and ECE differ at high Te due to driven non-Maxwellian distributions, non-thermal features of the ITER electron distribution must be documented. The ITER environment presents other challenges including space limitations, vacuum requirements, and very high-neutron-fluence. Plasma control in ITER will require real-time Te. The diagnosic design that evolved from these sometimes-conflicting needs and requirements will be described component by component with special emphasis on the integration to form a single effective diagnostic system. Supported by PPPL/US-DA via subcontract S013464-C to UT Austin.

  13. Experimental characterization of the ITER TF structure cooling in HELIOS test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, C.; Rousset, B.; Lacroix, B.; Nicollet, S.; Vallcorba, R.; Bessette, D.; Vostner, A.; Gauthier, F.

    2015-12-01

    During ITER plasma operation, large thermal loads are generated in the stainless steel Toroidal Field (TF) coil casing. To minimize the impact on the temperature of the TF Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC), these heat loads are intercepted by case cooling channels which are implemented at the interface to the winding pack. One of the design options for the case cooling channels consists of a stainless steel pipe inserted in a rectangular groove which is machined in the casing and filled by a charged resin of high thermal conductivity. A higher number of cooling pipes is arranged at the plasma facing wall of the case, thus providing a better shielding to the TF conductor at high field. To assess the efficiency of the cooling pipes and their thermal coupling with the charged resin, experimental characterizations have been performed. First of all, the thermal resistance vs temperature of some of the individual components of a TF coil has been measured on representative samples in a cryogenic bench. Further characterizations have been performed on an integrated mock-up of the TF cooling scheme at cryogenic temperature in HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. The mock-up consists of a piece of TF casing that can be heated uniformly on its surface, one cooling channel implemented in the groove which is filled with the charged resin, the filler, the ground insulation, the radial plate and one insulated CICC. The cooling pipe and the CICC are cooled by supercritical helium at 4.4 K and 5 bar; the instrumentation consists of temperature, pressure and mass flow sensors. Both stationary and transient operating modes have been investigated to assess the thermal efficiency of the case cooling design. The experimental tests are presented and the first results are discussed and analyzed in this document.

  14. Mechanical property tests on structural materials for ITER magnet system at low temperatures in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuanjun; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Laifeng

    2014-01-01

    High field superconducting magnets need strong non-superconducting components for structural reinforcement. For instance, the ITER magnet system (MS) consists of cable-in-conduit conductor, coil case, magnet support, and insulating materials. Investigation of mechanical properties at magnet operation temperature with specimens machined at the final manufacturing stages of the conductor jacket materials, magnet support material, and insulating materials, even the component of the full-size conductor jacket is necessary to establish sound databases for the products. In China, almost all mechanical property tests of structural materials for the ITER MS, including conductor jacket materials of TF coils, PF coils, CCs, case material of CCs, conductor jacket materials of Main Busbars (MB) and Corrector Busbars (CB), material of magnet supports, and insulating materials of CCs have been carried out at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In this paper, the mechanical property test facilities are briefly demonstrated and the mechanical tests on the structural materials for the ITER MS, highlighting test rigs as well as test methods, are presented.

  15. An iterative approach to the optimal co-design of linear control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Wang, Yebin; Bortoff, Scott A.; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the optimal co-design of both physical plants and control policies for a class of continuous-time linear control systems. The optimal co-design of a specific linear control system is commonly formulated as a nonlinear non-convex optimisation problem (NNOP), and solved by using iterative techniques, where the plant parameters and the control policy are updated iteratively and alternately. This paper proposes a novel iterative approach to solve the NNOP, where the plant parameters are updated by solving a standard semi-definite programming problem, with non-convexity no longer involved. The proposed system design is generally less conservative in terms of the system performance compared to the conventional system-equivalence-based design, albeit the range of applicability is slightly reduced. A practical optimisation algorithm is proposed to compute a sub-optimal solution ensuring the system stability, and the convergence of the algorithm is established. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated by its application to the optimal co-design of a physical load positioning system.

  16. In-vacuum sensors for the beamline components of the ITER neutral beam test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Veltri, P.

    2016-11-01

    Embedded sensors have been designed for installation on the components of the MITICA beamline, the prototype ITER neutral beam injector (Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement), to derive characteristics of the particle beam and to monitor the component conditions during operation for protection and thermal control. Along the beamline, the components interacting with the particle beam are the neutralizer, the residual ion dump, and the calorimeter. The design and the positioning of sensors on each component have been developed considering the expected beam-surface interaction including non-ideal and off-normal conditions. The arrangement of the following instrumentation is presented: thermal sensors, strain gages, electrostatic probes including secondary emission detectors, grounding shunt for electrical currents, and accelerometers.

  17. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, I.; Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Sentkerestiova, J.; Bem, P.

    2010-10-15

    We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum.

  18. First results of the ITER-relevant negative ion beam test facility ELISE (invited).

    PubMed

    Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Heinemann, B; Wünderlich, D

    2014-02-01

    An important step in the European R&D roadmap towards the neutral beam heating systems of ITER is the new test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) for large-scale extraction from a half-size ITER RF source. The test facility was constructed in the last years at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik Garching and is now operational. ELISE is gaining early experience of the performance and operation of large RF-driven negative hydrogen ion sources with plasma illumination of a source area of 1 × 0.9 m(2) and an extraction area of 0.1 m(2) using 640 apertures. First results in volume operation, i.e., without caesium seeding, are presented.

  19. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra.

    PubMed

    Ďuran, I; Bolshakova, I; Viererbl, L; Sentkerestiová, J; Holyaka, R; Lahodová, Z; Bém, P

    2010-10-01

    We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10(16) cm(-2) was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum.

  20. Iterative procedure for in-situ EUV optical testing with an incoherent source

    SciTech Connect

    Miyawaka, Ryan; Naulleau, Patrick; Zakhor, Avideh

    2009-12-01

    We propose an iterative method for in-situ optical testing under partially coherent illumination that relies on the rapid computation of aerial images. In this method a known pattern is imaged with the test optic at several planes through focus. A model is created that iterates through possible aberration maps until the through-focus series of aerial images matches the experimental result. The computation time of calculating the through-focus series is significantly reduced by a-SOCS, an adapted form of the Sum Of Coherent Systems (SOCS) decomposition. In this method, the Hopkins formulation is described by an operator S which maps the space of pupil aberrations to the space of aerial images. This operator is well approximated by a truncated sum of its spectral components.

  1. Modeling Design Iteration in Product Design and Development and Its Solution by a Novel Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Due to fierce market competition, how to improve product quality and reduce development cost determines the core competitiveness of enterprises. However, design iteration generally causes increases of product cost and delays of development time as well, so how to identify and model couplings among tasks in product design and development has become an important issue for enterprises to settle. In this paper, the shortcomings existing in WTM model are discussed and tearing approach as well as inner iteration method is used to complement the classic WTM model. In addition, the ABC algorithm is also introduced to find out the optimal decoupling schemes. In this paper, firstly, tearing approach and inner iteration method are analyzed for solving coupled sets. Secondly, a hybrid iteration model combining these two technologies is set up. Thirdly, a high-performance swarm intelligence algorithm, artificial bee colony, is adopted to realize problem-solving. Finally, an engineering design of a chemical processing system is given in order to verify its reasonability and effectiveness. PMID:25431584

  2. ITER vacuum vessel design (D201 subtask 1.3 and subtask 3). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    ITER Task No. D201, Vacuum Vessel Design (Subtask 1.3 and Subtask 3), was initiated to propose and evaluate local vacuum vessel reinforcement alternatives in proximity to the Neutral Beam, Radial Mid-Plane, Top, and Divertor Ports. These areas were reported to be highly stressed regions based on the results of preliminary stress analyses performed by the USHT (US Home Team) and the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) at the Garching JWS (Joint Work Site). Initial design activities focused on the divertor port region which was reported to experience the highest stress intensities. Existing stress analysis models and results were reviewed with the USHT stress analysts to obtain an overall understanding of the vessel response to the various applied loads. These reviews indicated that the reported stress intensities in the divertor port region were significantly affected by the loads applied to the vessel in adjacent regions.

  3. Design finalization and material qualification towards procurement of the ITER vacuum vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioki, K.; Barabash, V.; Bachmann, C.; Chappuis, P.; Choi, C. H.; Cordier, J.-J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Heitzenroeder, Ph.; Her, N.; Johnson, G.; Jones, L.; Jun, C.; Kim, B. C.; Kuzmin, E.; Loesser, D.; Martin, A.; Merola, M.; Pathak, H.; Readman, P.; Sugihara, M.; Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu.; Wang, X.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; ITER Organization; ITER Parties

    2011-10-01

    Procurement arrangements for ITER key components including the vacuum vessel (VV) have been signed and the ITER activities are now fully devoted towards construction. Final design reviews have been carried out for the main vessel and ports. One of the design review topics is the selection of materials, material procurement, and assessment of material performance during operation. The width of the inner shell splice plates was increased from 120 mm to 160 mm to minimize risk during the assembly of the Thermal shields and the VV. Instead of facet shaping, 3D shaping was introduced for the outboard inner shell. The material qualification procedures have been started for VV structural materials such as 316L(N) IG for licensing as a nuclear pressure equipment component. In accordance with the regulatory requirements and quality requirements for operation, common material specifications have been prepared in collaboration with the domestic agencies.

  4. Toward a design for the ITER plasma shape and stability control system

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Kellman, A.G.; Haney, S.W.; Bulmer, R.H.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Portone, A.

    1994-07-01

    A design strategy for an integrated shaping and stability control algorithm for ITER is described. This strategy exploits the natural multivariable nature of the system so that all poloidal field coils are used to simultaneously control all regulated plasma shape and position parameters. A nonrigid, flux-conserving linearized plasma response model is derived using a variational procedure analogous to the ideal MHD Extended Energy Principle. Initial results are presented for the non-rigid plasma response model approach applied to an example DIII-D equilibrium. For this example, the nonrigid model is found to yield a higher passive growth rate than a rigid current-conserving plasma response model. Multivariable robust controller design methods are discussed and shown to be appropriate for the ITER shape control problem.

  5. Design of a diagnostic residual gas analyzer for the ITER divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C Christopher; Biewer, T. M.; Graves, Van B; Andrew, P.; Marcus, Chris; Shimada, M.; Hughes, S.; Boussier, B.; Johnson, D. W.; Gardner, W. L.; Hillis, D. L.; Vayakis, G.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the ITER diagnostics having reached an advanced design stage is a diagnostic RGA for the divertor, i.e. residual gas analysis system for the ITER divertor, which is intended to sample the divertor pumping duct region during the plasma pulse and to have a response time compatible with plasma particle and impurity lifetimes in the divertor region. Main emphasis is placed on helium (He) concentration in the ducts, as well as the relative concentration between the hydrogen isotopes (H2, D2, T2). Measurement of the concentration of radiative gases, such as neon (Ne) and nitrogen (N2), is also intended. Numerical modeling of the gas flow from the sampled region to the cluster of analysis sensors, through a long (~8m long, ~110mm diameter) sampling pipe terminating in a pressure reducing orifice, confirm that the desired response time (~1s for He or D2) is achieved with the present design.

  6. Design and Analysis of the Main AC/DC Converter System for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Zhicai; Xu, Liuwei; Fu, Peng

    2012-04-01

    A design of the main AC/DC converter system for ITER is described and the configuration of the main AC/DC converters is presented. To reduce the reactive power absorbed from the converter units, the main AC/DC converters are designed to be series-connected and work in a sequential mode. The structure of the regulator of the converter system is described. A simulation model was built up for the PSCAD/EMTDC code, and the design was validated accordingly. Harmonic analysis and reactive power calculation of the converters units are presented. The results reveal the advantage of sequential control in reducing reactive power and harmonics.

  7. Optimal design of a shape memory alloy actuated composite structure with iterative finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdle, Richard D., Jr.; Grimshaw, Matthew T.; Shome, Moushumi

    2009-03-01

    A method is described for solving an inverse design problem to find the unassembled, stress-free component shapes of a structure thatis integrally actuated with shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. Morphing and multifunctional structures are of interest in the aerospace industry becasue of the potential for improving structural and aerodynamic performance across multiple operating conditions. The focus of this work is on structures that are morphed with SMA flexural actuators. For the case where the geometry is known for unassembled components, assembly can be simulated to find the assembled shapes of the morphing structure. In the usual design case, however, only the desired shapes as assembled are known in multiple actuation states, and the corresponding unassembled shapes must be determined by an iterative solution process. An iterative finite element analysis approach to this problem is reported here. First an initial guess for the unassembled shapes is made and assembly is simulated with the finite element method. The resulting shapes are found for both SMA phases and compared with the desired shapes. A gradient-based optimization method is employed to update the initial geometry and iteration continues until the desired shapes are achieved. A simplified method of modeling the SMA material behavior is used for computational efficiently. It is found that this approach provides a practical way to solve the inverse design problem for structures that are integrally actuated with SMA material.

  8. Experimental neutronics tests for a neutron activation system for the European ITER TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Klix, A.; Fischer, U.; Gehre, D.; Kleizer, G.; Raj, P.; Rovni, I.; Ruecker, Tom

    2014-08-21

    We are investigating methods for neutron flux measurement in the ITER TBM. In particular we have tested sets of activation materials leading to induced gamma activities with short half-lives of the order of tens of seconds up to minutes and standard activation materials. Packages of activation foils have been irradiated with the intense neutron generator of Technical University of Dresden in a pure DT neutron field as well as in a neutronics mock-up of the European ITER HCLL TBM. An important aim was to check whether the gamma activity induced in the activation foils in these packages could be measured simultaneously. It was indeed possible to identify gamma lines of interest in gamma-ray measurements immediately after extraction from the irradiation.

  9. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; de Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J.-K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K.-I.; Zeng, L.; DIII-D Team

    2011-10-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Δv/v ~ 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Δn/n, Δβ/β and ΔH98/H98 were ~3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher β. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L- and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  10. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M. J.; Testa, D.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; De Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A.; Gates, D.A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W.; La Haye, R.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Oyama, N.; Osakabe, M.; Park, J. K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Saimi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, Donald A; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Zhai, K.; Boedo, J.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, Raffi; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Sanchez, Raul; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M.; You, K. I.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Delta upsilon/upsilon similar to 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Delta n/n, Delta beta/beta and Delta H(98)/H(98) were similar to 3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher beta. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L-and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  11. Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-18

    Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest.

  12. First Test Results on ITER CS Model Coil and CS Insert

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N; Michael, P; Minervini, J; Radovinsky, A; Takayasu, M; Thome, R; Ando, T; Isono, T; Kato, T; Nakajima, H; Nishijima, G; Nunoya, Y; Sugimoto, M; Takahashi, Y; Tsuji, H; Bessette, D; Okuno, K; Ricci, M; Maix, R

    2000-10-12

    The Inner and Outer modules of the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) were built by US and Japanese home teams in collaboration with European and Russian teams to demonstrate the feasibility of a superconducting Central Solenoid for ITER and other large tokamak reactors. The CSMC mass is about 120 t, OD is about 3.6 m and the stored energy is 640 MJ at 46 kA and peak field of 13 T. Testing of the CSMC and the CS Insert took place at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from mid March until mid August 2000. This paper presents the main results of the tests performed.

  13. Engineering aspects of design and integration of ECE diagnostic in ITER

    DOE PAGES

    Udintsev, V. S.; Taylor, G.; Pandya, H. K.B.; Austin, M. E.; Casal, N.; Catalin, R.; Clough, M.; Cuquel, B.; Dapena, M.; Drevon, J. -M.; et al

    2015-03-12

    ITER ECE diagnostic [1] needs not only to meet measurement requirements, but also to withstand various loads, such as electromagnetic, mechanical, neutronic and thermal, and to be protected from stray ECH radiation at 170 GHz and other millimeter wave emission, like Collective Thomson scattering which is planned to operate at 60 GHz. Same or similar loads will be applied to other millimetre-wave diagnostics [2], located both in-vessel and in-port plugs. These loads must be taken into account throughout the design phases of the ECE and other microwave diagnostics to ensure their structural integrity and maintainability. The integration of microwave diagnosticsmore » with other ITER systems is another challenging activity which is currently ongoing through port integration and in-vessel integration work. Port Integration has to address the maintenance and the safety aspects of diagnostics, too. Engineering solutions which are being developed to support and to operate ITER ECE diagnostic, whilst complying with safety and maintenance requirements, are discussed in this paper.« less

  14. Engineering aspects of design and integration of ECE diagnostic in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Udintsev, V. S.; Taylor, G.; Pandya, H. K.B.; Austin, M. E.; Casal, N.; Catalin, R.; Clough, M.; Cuquel, B.; Dapena, M.; Drevon, J. -M.; Feder, R.; Friconneau, J. P.; Giacomin, T.; Guirao, J.; Henderson, M. A.; Hughes, S.; Iglesias, S.; Johnson, D.; Kumar, Siddhart; Kumar, Vina; Levesy, B.; Loesser, D.; Messineo, M.; Penot, C.; Portalès, M.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Sirinelli, A; Vacas, C.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M. J.; Kubo, S.

    2015-03-12

    ITER ECE diagnostic [1] needs not only to meet measurement requirements, but also to withstand various loads, such as electromagnetic, mechanical, neutronic and thermal, and to be protected from stray ECH radiation at 170 GHz and other millimeter wave emission, like Collective Thomson scattering which is planned to operate at 60 GHz. Same or similar loads will be applied to other millimetre-wave diagnostics [2], located both in-vessel and in-port plugs. These loads must be taken into account throughout the design phases of the ECE and other microwave diagnostics to ensure their structural integrity and maintainability. The integration of microwave diagnostics with other ITER systems is another challenging activity which is currently ongoing through port integration and in-vessel integration work. Port Integration has to address the maintenance and the safety aspects of diagnostics, too. Engineering solutions which are being developed to support and to operate ITER ECE diagnostic, whilst complying with safety and maintenance requirements, are discussed in this paper.

  15. Test and Analysis of China's First Short Conductor Sample for ITER Toroidal Field Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Yu

    2011-02-01

    In the framework of the ITER qualification tests, the first China TF conductor sample (CNTF1) was tested at the SULTAN facility. The sample was made of two TF conductor sections manufactured from identical internal stannum strands provided by the Oxford Superconducting technology company (OST). In order to evaluate the conductor performance, the current sharing temperature (Tcs) was measured at specified electromagnetic load cycling steps. Both conductor sections of the CNTF1 sample showed identical performance. Tcs was 7.2 K before cycling loading, and 6.9 K even after 950 cycles, without significant degradation, which substantially exceeds the ITER requirement of 5.7 K. The tests of the CNTF1 conductor sample showed that the electromagnetic cyclic load exhibited a negligible effect on the conductor performance. The coupling time constant θ for AC loss was 214 ms and 71.52 ms before and after the cycling load, respectively. The test results of the sample are compared with the strand performance and parameter model analysis.

  16. RF Measurements and Modeling from the JET-ITER Like Antenna Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Vrancken, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Huygen, S.; Lamalle, P. U.; Messiaen, A. M.; Vervier, M.; Argouarch, A.; Blackman, T.; Graham, M.; Nicholls, K.; Nightingale, M.

    2007-09-28

    The RF characteristics of the JET-ITER Like (JET-IL) antenna relevant for operation on plasma have been assessed using full wave three Dimensional (3D) electromagnetic CST registered Microwave Studio (MWS) simulations, measurements of the full 8-port antenna strap array S/Z-matrix, and RF circuit modeling. These efforts are made in parallel with the high voltage testing of the antenna inside a vacuum tank and the hardware implementation of a RF (Radio Frequency) matching feedback control system prior to installation of the antenna on the JET tokamak.

  17. Current Sharing Temperature Test and Simulation with GANDALF Code for ITER PF2 Conductor Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaolei; Wu, Yu; Liu, Bo; Weng, Peide

    2011-10-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) conductor sample of the PF2 coil for ITER was tested in the SULTAN facility. According to the test results, the CICC conductor sample exhibited a stable performance regarding the current sharing temperature. Under the typical operational conditions of a current of 45 kA, a magnetic field of 4 T and a temperature of 5 K for PF2, the test result for the conductor current sharing temperature is 6.71 K, with a temperature margin of 1.71 K. For a comparison thermal-hydraulic analysis of the PF2 conductor was carried out using GANDALF code in a 1-D model, and the result is consistent with the test one.

  18. Facilities for technology testing of ITER divertor concepts, models, and prototypes in a plasma environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.A.

    1991-12-01

    The exhaust of power and fusion-reaction products from ITER plasma are critical physics and technology issues from performance, safety, and reliability perspectives. Because of inadequate pulse length, fluence, flux, scrape-off layer plasma temperature and density, and other parameters, the present generation of tokamaks, linear plasma devices, or energetic beam facilities are unable to perform adequate technology testing of divertor components, though they are essential contributors to many physics issues such as edge-plasma transport and disruption effects and control. This Technical Requirements Documents presents a description of the capabilities and parameters divertor test facilities should have to perform accelerated life testing on predominantly technological divertor issues such as basic divertor concepts, heat load limits, thermal fatigue, tritium inventory and erosion/redeposition. The cost effectiveness of such divertor technology testing is also discussed.

  19. Design of freeform imaging systems with linear field-of-view using a construction and iteration process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong; Zhu, Jun; Jin, Guofan

    2014-02-10

    In this paper, a design method based on a construction and iteration process is proposed for designing freeform imaging systems with linear field-of-view (FOV). The surface contours of the desired freeform surfaces in the tangential plane are firstly designed to control the tangential rays of multiple field angles and different pupil coordinates. Then, the image quality is improved with an iterative process. The design result can be taken as a good starting point for further optimization. A freeform off-axis scanning system is designed as an example of the proposed method. The convergence ability of the construction and iteration process to design a freeform system from initial planes is validated. The MTF of the design result is close to the diffraction limit and the scanning error is less than 1 μm. This result proves that good image quality and scanning linearity were achieved.

  20. RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J; Reiersen, Wayne T

    2011-01-01

    U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment

  1. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Modeling of the ITER ICRF Antenna (External Matching Design)

    SciTech Connect

    Louche, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Dumortier, P.; Messiaen, A.M.

    2005-09-26

    The present work reports on 3D radio-frequency (RF) analysis of a design for the ITER antenna with the CST Microwave Studio registered software. The four-port junctions which connect the straps in triplets have been analyzed. Non-TEM effects do not play any significant role in the relevant frequency domain, and a well-balanced splitting of current between the straps inside a triplet is achieved. The scattering matrix has also been compared with RF measurements on a scaled antenna mockup, and the agreement is very good. Electric field patterns along the system have been obtained, and the RF optimization of the feeding sections is under way.

  2. Iterative design of a helically folded aromatic oligoamide sequence for the selective encapsulation of fructose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramouli, Nagula; Ferrand, Yann; Lautrette, Guillaume; Kauffmann, Brice; Mackereth, Cameron David; Laguerre, Michel; Dubreuil, Didier; Huc, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ab initio design of synthetic molecular receptors for a specific biomolecular guest remains an elusive objective, particularly for targets such as monosaccharides, which have very close structural analogues. Here we report a powerful approach to produce receptors with very high selectivity for specific monosaccharides and, as a demonstration, we develop a foldamer that selectively encapsulates fructose. The approach uses an iterative design process that exploits the modular structure of folded synthetic oligomer sequences in conjunction with molecular modelling and structural characterization to inform subsequent refinements. Starting from a first-principles design taking size, shape and hydrogen-bonding ability into account and using the high predictability of aromatic oligoamide foldamer conformations and their propensity to crystallize, a sequence that binds to β-D-fructopyranose in organic solvents with atomic-scale complementarity was obtained in just a few iterative modifications. This scheme, which mimics the adaptable construction of biopolymers from a limited number of monomer units, provides a general protocol for the development of selective receptors.

  3. Design considerations for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) toroidal field coils

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the US TIBER concept. The nuclear heating generated during operation is removed from the windings by helium flowing through the conductor. The heat in the coil case is removed through a separate cooling circuit operating at approximately 20 K. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete coil cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Test Design and Speededness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    A critical component of test speededness is the distribution of the test taker's total time on the test. A simple set of constraints on the item parameters in the lognormal model for response times is derived that can be used to control the distribution when assembling a new test form. As the constraints are linear in the item parameters, they can…

  5. Test Results of the First US ITER TF Conductor in SULTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N; Hatfield, D R; Miller, J R; Gung, C; Schultz, J S; Cheggour, N; Goodrich, L F; Bruzzone, P; Stepanov, B; Wesche, R; Seeber, B

    2008-08-18

    The US Domestic Agency is one of six parties supplying TF cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) for ITER. Previous tests have shown that measured performance of the TF CICCs can be much lower than expected from the strand properties at the projected uniaxial strain and that the cabling pattern may also be an important factor. Worst of all, voltage signals well below the expected critical surface could not be reliably interpreted or canceled, making test results very suspect. The TFUS1 sample was prepared to achieve multiple goals: (1) to ensure uniform current distribution and to eliminate parasitic voltage signals by improving joints, (2) to explore the potential benefits of a different cabling pattern for better support of strain-sensitive strands, and (3) to explore the source of voltage development in the cable through the use of innovative penetrating diagnostics. Test results of the first US-made samples are presented and discussed.

  6. Tensile and fatigue qualification testing of ITER-CS conduit alloy JK2LB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. P.; McRae, D. M.; Han, K.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils utilize cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) and the conduit alloy is JK2LB. The production grade conduit alloy (and it's welds) must meet strict requirements for strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and fabricability. The conduit alloy must retain good mechanical properties after additional fabrication steps such as welding, coil winding strain and exposure to the Nb3Sn superconductor's reaction heat treatment. Here we present data from cryogenic tensile, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate, and axial fatigue tests of JK2LB alloy and conduit butt welds, before and after the exposure to the reaction heat treatment. The tests of specimens removed directly from the conduit provide confirmation of the materials properties and the effect of the cold work and aging. The 4 K fatigue performance is extremely important to the reliability of the CS and is covered both by axial cyclic fatigue tests and the fatigue crack growth rate measurements.

  7. Conceptual design of the tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter for ITER density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zeeland, M. A.; Boivin, R. L.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Chavez, J. A.; O'Neill, R. C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Feder, R.; Johnson, D.; Watts, C.

    2013-04-15

    One of the systems planned for the measurement of electron density in ITER is a multi-channel tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter (TIP). This work discusses the current status of the design, including a preliminary optical table layout, calibration options, error sources, and performance projections based on a CO{sub 2}/CO laser system. In the current design, two-color interferometry is carried out at 10.59 {mu}m and 5.42 {mu}m and a separate polarimetry measurement of the plasma induced Faraday effect, utilizing the rotating wave technique, is made at 10.59 {mu}m. The inclusion of polarimetry provides an independent measure of the electron density and can also be used to correct the conventional two-color interferometer for fringe skips at all densities, up to and beyond the Greenwald limit. The system features five chords with independent first mirrors to reduce risks associated with deposition, erosion, etc., and a common first wall hole to minimize penetration sizes. Simulations of performance for a projected ITER baseline discharge show the diagnostic will function as well as, or better than, comparable existing systems for feedback density control. Calculations also show that finite temperature effects will be significant in ITER even for moderate temperature plasmas and can lead to a significant underestimate of electron density. A secondary role TIP will fulfill is that of a density fluctuation diagnostic; using a toroidal Alfven eigenmode as an example, simulations show TIP will be extremely robust in this capacity and potentially able to resolve coherent mode fluctuations with perturbed densities as low as {delta}n/n Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -5}.

  8. Conceptual design of the tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter for ITER density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zeeland, M. A.; Boivin, R. L.; Brower, D. L.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Chavez, J. A.; Ding, W. X.; Feder, R.; Johnson, D.; Lin, L.; O'Neill, R. C.; Watts, C.

    2013-04-01

    One of the systems planned for the measurement of electron density in ITER is a multi-channel tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter (TIP). This work discusses the current status of the design, including a preliminary optical table layout, calibration options, error sources, and performance projections based on a CO2/CO laser system. In the current design, two-color interferometry is carried out at 10.59 μm and 5.42 μm and a separate polarimetry measurement of the plasma induced Faraday effect, utilizing the rotating wave technique, is made at 10.59 μm. The inclusion of polarimetry provides an independent measure of the electron density and can also be used to correct the conventional two-color interferometer for fringe skips at all densities, up to and beyond the Greenwald limit. The system features five chords with independent first mirrors to reduce risks associated with deposition, erosion, etc., and a common first wall hole to minimize penetration sizes. Simulations of performance for a projected ITER baseline discharge show the diagnostic will function as well as, or better than, comparable existing systems for feedback density control. Calculations also show that finite temperature effects will be significant in ITER even for moderate temperature plasmas and can lead to a significant underestimate of electron density. A secondary role TIP will fulfill is that of a density fluctuation diagnostic; using a toroidal Alfvén eigenmode as an example, simulations show TIP will be extremely robust in this capacity and potentially able to resolve coherent mode fluctuations with perturbed densities as low as δn/n ≈ 10-5.

  9. Conceptual design of the tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter for ITER density measurements.

    PubMed

    Van Zeeland, M A; Boivin, R L; Brower, D L; Carlstrom, T N; Chavez, J A; Ding, W X; Feder, R; Johnson, D; Lin, L; O'Neill, R C; Watts, C

    2013-04-01

    One of the systems planned for the measurement of electron density in ITER is a multi-channel tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter (TIP). This work discusses the current status of the design, including a preliminary optical table layout, calibration options, error sources, and performance projections based on a CO2/CO laser system. In the current design, two-color interferometry is carried out at 10.59 μm and 5.42 μm and a separate polarimetry measurement of the plasma induced Faraday effect, utilizing the rotating wave technique, is made at 10.59 μm. The inclusion of polarimetry provides an independent measure of the electron density and can also be used to correct the conventional two-color interferometer for fringe skips at all densities, up to and beyond the Greenwald limit. The system features five chords with independent first mirrors to reduce risks associated with deposition, erosion, etc., and a common first wall hole to minimize penetration sizes. Simulations of performance for a projected ITER baseline discharge show the diagnostic will function as well as, or better than, comparable existing systems for feedback density control. Calculations also show that finite temperature effects will be significant in ITER even for moderate temperature plasmas and can lead to a significant underestimate of electron density. A secondary role TIP will fulfill is that of a density fluctuation diagnostic; using a toroidal Alfvén eigenmode as an example, simulations show TIP will be extremely robust in this capacity and potentially able to resolve coherent mode fluctuations with perturbed densities as low as δn∕n ≈ 10(-5).

  10. Assessment of the ITER electron cyclotron upper launcher capabilities in view of an optimized design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Henderson, M.; Mariani, A.; Poli, E.; Saibene, G.

    2015-05-01

    The 24 MW ITER electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (H and CD) system, operating at 170 GHz, consists of one equatorial and four upper launchers (UL). The main task of the UL will be the control of magneto-hydrodynamic activity such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) at the q = 3/2 and q = 2 surfaces and sawteeth at q = 1, but it will also be needed for current profile tailoring in advanced scenarios and to assist plasma break-down and L- to H-mode transition. Moreover, it is required to be effective both when ITER will operate at nominal and reduced magnetic field magnitude. Here the performance of the UL has been assessed through the study of the full temporal evolution of different scenarios, including the reference ITER 15 MA H-mode plasma, a half-field case at 2.65 T and a steady state scenario. The ECCD efficiency has been evaluated for a wide range of injection angles, deriving the optimal angles and the power required for NTMs stabilization with simplified criteria. An injected power ranging from 3 MW to 9 MW should be sufficient to control NTMs in the flat-top phase of the scenarios considered here. The result of the analysis shows that the EC system maintains a good performance level even at intermediate values of the magnetic field, between the nominal and the half-field value. The analysis has also allowed to evaluate the adequateness of the available steering range for reaching the rational surfaces during all the phases of the discharge and to quantify the steering sensitivity to shifts of the target or aiming errors. The result is an assessment of the UL design requirements to achieve the desired functionalities, which will be used to drive the optimization and finalization of the UL design.

  11. Automatic Synthesis of UML Designs from Requirements in an Iterative Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Whittle, Jon; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is gaining wide popularity for the design of object-oriented systems. UML combines various object-oriented graphical design notations under one common framework. A major factor for the broad acceptance of UML is that it can be conveniently used in a highly iterative, Use Case (or scenario-based) process (although the process is not a part of UML). Here, the (pre-) requirements for the software are specified rather informally as Use Cases and a set of scenarios. A scenario can be seen as an individual trace of a software artifact. Besides first sketches of a class diagram to illustrate the static system breakdown, scenarios are a favorite way of communication with the customer, because scenarios describe concrete interactions between entities and are thus easy to understand. Scenarios with a high level of detail are often expressed as sequence diagrams. Later in the design and implementation stage (elaboration and implementation phases), a design of the system's behavior is often developed as a set of statecharts. From there (and the full-fledged class diagram), actual code development is started. Current commercial UML tools support this phase by providing code generators for class diagrams and statecharts. In practice, it can be observed that the transition from requirements to design to code is a highly iterative process. In this talk, a set of algorithms is presented which perform reasonable synthesis and transformations between different UML notations (sequence diagrams, Object Constraint Language (OCL) constraints, statecharts). More specifically, we will discuss the following transformations: Statechart synthesis, introduction of hierarchy, consistency of modifications, and "design-debugging".

  12. Modified Visible and Infrared Optical Design for the ITER Upper Ports

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Seppala, L; Morris, K

    2008-04-24

    This document reports the results of a follow-on optical design study of visible-light and infrared optics for the ITER upper ports, performed by LLNL under contract for the US ITER Project Office. The major objectives of this work are to move the viewing aperture closer to the plasma so that the optical path does not cut through any adjacent blanket shield module other than the module designated for the port; move optics forward into the port tube to increase the aperture size and therefore improve the spatial resolution; assess the trade-off between spatial resolution and spatial coverage by reducing the field of view; and create a mechanical model with a neutron labyrinth. Here we show an optical design incorporating all these aspects. The new design fits into a 360 mm ID tube, as did the previous design. The entrance aperture is increased from 10 mm to 21 mm, with a corresponding increase in spatial resolution. The Airy disk diameter for 3.8 {micro}m wavelength IR light is 5.1 mm at the most distant target point in the field of view. The field of view is reduced from 60 toroidal degrees (full toroidal coverage with 6 cameras) to 50 toroidal degrees. The 10 degrees eliminated are those nearest the camera, which have the poorest view of the divertor plate and in fact saw little of the plate. The Cassegrain telescope that was outside the vacuum windows in the previous design is now in vacuum, along with lenses for visible light. The Cassegrain for visible light is eliminated. An additional set of optical relay lenses is added for the visible and for the IR.

  13. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N.; Price, L.L.; Olague, N.E.

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  14. Thermal Dissipation Modelling and Design of ITER PF Converter Alternating Current Busbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Song, Zhiquan; Fu, Peng; Jiang, Li; Li, Jinchao; Wang, Min; Dong, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Because the larger metallic surrounds are heated by the eddy current, which is generated by the AC current flowing through the AC busbar in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) poloidal field (PF) converter system, shielding of the AC busbar is required to decrease the temperature rise of the surrounds to satisfy the design requirement. Three special types of AC busbar with natural cooling, air cooling and water cooling busbar structure have been proposed and investigated in this paper. For each cooling scheme, a 3D finite model based on the proposed structure has been developed to perform the electromagnetic and thermal analysis to predict their operation behavior. Comparing the analysis results of the three different cooling patterns, water cooling has more advantages than the other patterns and it is selected to be the thermal dissipation pattern for the AC busbar of ITER PF converter unit. The approach to qualify the suitable cooling scheme in this paper can be provided as a reference on the thermal dissipation design of AC busbar in the converter system. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51407179)

  15. ITER Core Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer Conceptual Design and Performance Assessment - Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P; Wen, J; Dunn, J; Morris, K

    2011-01-02

    During Phase 2 of our study of the CIXS conceptual design we have tackled additional important issues that are unique to the ITER environment. These include the thermal control of the crystal and detector enclosures located in an environment with a 100-250 C ambient temperature, tritium containment, and the range of crystal and detector movement based on the need for spectral adjustments and the desire to make measurements of colder plasmas. In addressing these issues we have selected a ''Dewar''-type enclosure for the crystals and detectors. Applying realistic view factors for radiant heat and making allowance for conduction we have made engineering studies of this enclosure and showed that the cooling requirements can be solved and the temperature can be kept sufficiently constant without compromising the specification parameters of the CIXS. We have chosen a minimum 3 mm combined thickness of the six beryllium windows needed in a Dewar-type enclosure and showed that a single window of 0.5 mm thickness satisfies tritium containment requirements. For measuring the temperature in cooler ITER plasmas, we have chosen to use the K-shell lines of Fe24+. Iron is the preferred choice because its radiation can be analyzed with the identical CIXS settings used for analyzing the tungsten radiation, i.e., essentially no adjustments besides a simple crystal rotation need to be made. We have, however, included an xy{theta}-drive motor arrangement in our design for fine adjustments and full rotation of the crystal mounts.

  16. Gamma-irradiation tests of IR optical fibres for ITER thermography--a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, R.; Pocheau, C.; Jouve, M.

    2008-03-12

    In the course of the development of a concept for a spectrally resolving infrared thermography diagnostic for the ITER divertor we have tested 3 types of infrared (IR) fibres in Co{sup 60} irradiation facilities under {gamma} irradiation. The fibres were ZrF{sub 4} (and HfF{sub 4}) fibres from different manufacturers, hollow fibres (silica capillaries with internal Ag/AgJ coating) and a sapphire fibre. For the IR range, only the latter fibre type encourages to go further for neutron tests in a reactor. If one restricted the interest onto the near infrared range, high purity core silica fibres could be used. This study might be seen as a typical example of the relation between diagnostic development for a nuclear environment and irradiation experiments.

  17. Library designs for generic C++ sparse matrix computations of iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Pozo, R.

    1996-12-31

    A new library design is presented for generic sparse matrix C++ objects for use in iterative algorithms and preconditioners. This design extends previous work on C++ numerical libraries by providing a framework in which efficient algorithms can be written *independent* of the matrix layout or format. That is, rather than supporting different codes for each (element type) / (matrix format) combination, only one version of the algorithm need be maintained. This not only reduces the effort for library developers, but also simplifies the calling interface seen by library users. Furthermore, the underlying matrix library can be naturally extended to support user-defined objects, such as hierarchical block-structured matrices, or application-specific preconditioners. Utilizing optimized kernels whenever possible, the resulting performance of such framework can be shown to be competitive with optimized Fortran programs.

  18. A robust helium-cooled shield/blanket design for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Bourque, R. F.; Baxi, C. B.; Colleraine, A. P.; Grunloh, H. J.; Letchenberg, T.; Leuer, J. A.; Reis, E. E.; Redler, K.; Will, R.

    1993-11-01

    General Atomics Fusion and Reactor Groups have completed a helium-cooled, conceptual shield/blanket design for ITER. The configuration selected is a pressurized tubes design embedded in radially oriented plates. This plate can be made from ferritic steel or from V-alloy. Helium leakage to the plasma chamber is eliminated by conservative, redundant design and proper quality control and inspection programs. High helium pressure at 18 MPa is used to reduce pressure drop and enhance heat transfer. This high gas pressure is believed practical when confined in small diameter tubes. Ample industrial experience exists for safe high gas pressure operations. Inboard shield design is highlighted in this study since the allowable void fraction is more limited. Lithium is used as the thermal contacting medium and for tritium breeding; its safety concerns are minimized by a modular, low inventory design that requires no circulation of the liquid metal for the purpose of heat removal. This design is robust, conservative, reliable, and meets all design goals and requirements. It can also be built with present-day technology.

  19. The design of ROM-type holographic memory with iterative Fourier transform algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, Hideki; Yamada, Kai; Unno, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Shuhei; Taniguchi, Jun; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2013-03-01

    The research and development of the holographic data storage (HDS) is advanced, as one of the high-speed, mass storage systems of the next generation. Recently, along the development of the write-once system that uses photopolymer media, large capacity ROM type HDS which can replace conventional optical discs becomes important. In this study, we develop the ROM type HDS using a diffractive optical element (DOE), and verify the effectiveness of our approach. In order to design DOE, iterative Fourier transform algorithm was adopted, and DOE is fabricated with electron beam (EB) cutting and nanoimprint lithography. We optimize the phase distribution of the hologram by iterative Fourier transform algorithm known as Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm with the angular spectrum method. In the fabrication process, the phase distribution of the hologram is implicated as the concavity and convexity structure by the EB cutting and transcribed with nanoimprint lithography. At this time, the mold is formed as multiple-stage concavity and convexity. The purpose of multiple-stage concavity and convexity is to obtain high diffraction efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Fabricated trial model DOE is evaluated by the experiment.

  20. Critical Design Issues of Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seokho H; Berry, Jan

    2011-01-01

    U.S. ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). The TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak to cooling water during nominal pulsed operation 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. This water contains radionuclides because impurities (e.g., tritium) diffuse from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200 240 C at up to 4.4MPa, and corrosion products become activated by neutron bombardment. The system is designated as safety important class (SIC) and will be fabricated to comply with the French Order concerning nuclear pressure equipment (December 2005) and the EU Pressure Equipment Directive using ASME Section VIII, Div 2 design codes. The complexity of the TCWS design and fabrication presents unique challenges. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed with several issues that need to be resolved to move to next stage of the design. Those issues include flow balancing between over hundreds of branch pipelines in parallel to supply cooling water to blankets, determination of optimum flow velocity while minimizing the potential for cavitation damage, design for freezing protection for cooling water flowing through cryostat (freezing) environment, requirements for high-energy piping design, and electromagnetic impact to piping and components. Although the TCWS consists of standard commercial components such as piping with valves and fittings, heat exchangers, and pumps, complex requirements present interesting design challenges. This paper presents a brief description of TCWS conceptual design and critical design issues that need to be resolved.

  1. Front-end antenna system design for the ITER low-field-side reflectometer system using GENRAY ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Doyle, E. J.; Peebles, W. A.

    2016-11-01

    A monostatic antenna array arrangement has been designed for the microwave front-end of the ITER low-field-side reflectometer (LFSR) system. This paper presents details of the antenna coupling coefficient analyses performed using GENRAY, a 3-D ray tracing code, to evaluate the plasma height accommodation capability of such an antenna array design. Utilizing modeled data for the plasma equilibrium and profiles for the ITER baseline and half-field scenarios, a design study was performed for measurement locations varying from the plasma edge to inside the top of the pedestal. A front-end antenna configuration is recommended for the ITER LFSR system based on the results of this coupling analysis.

  2. Design Analysis and Manufacturing Studies for ITER In-Vessel Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, M.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Neumeyer, C.; Titus, P.; Zhai, Y.; Zatz, I.; Messineo, M.; Gomez, M.; Hause, C.; Daly, E.; Martin, A.; Wu, Y.; Jin, J.; Long, F.; Song, Y.; Wang, Z.; Yun, Zan; Hsiao, J.; Pillsbury, J. R.; Bohm, T.; Sawan, M.; Jiang, NFN

    2014-07-01

    ITER is incorporating two types of In Vessel Coils (IVCs): ELM Coils to mitigate Edge Localized Modes and VS Coils to provide Vertical Stabilization of the plasma. Strong coupling with the plasma is required so that the ELM and VS Coils can meet their performance requirements. Accordingly, the IVCs are in close proximity to the plasma, mounted just behind the Blanket Shield Modules. This location results in a radiation and temperature environment that is severe necessitating new solutions for material selection as well as challenging analysis and design solutions. Fitting the coil systems in between the blanket shield modules and the vacuum vessel leads to difficult integration with diagnostic cabling and cooling water manifolds.

  3. Materials effects and design implications of disruptions and off-normal events in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Federici, G.; Konkashbaev, I.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Litunovsky, V.

    1997-08-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials during abnormal plasma behavior such as hard disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) is considered a serious life-limiting concern for these components. The PFCs in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), such as the divertor, limiter, and parts of the first wall, will be subjected to high energy deposition during these plasma instabilities. High erosion losses on material surfaces, high temperature rise in structural materials (particularly at the bonding interface), and high heat flux levels and possible burnout of the coolant tubes are critical constraints that severely limit component lifetime and therefore degrade reactor performance, safety, and economics. Recently developed computer models and simulation experiments are being used to evaluate various damage to PFCs during the abnormal events. The design implications of plasma-facing and nearby components are discussed, and recommendations are made to mitigate the effects of these events.

  4. Conceptual design of the collection optics for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER.

    PubMed

    Yatsuka, E; Hatae, T; Suitoh, S; Aida, Y; Kusama, Y

    2010-10-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray irradiation complicates the design of the edge Thomson scattering (TS) system in ITER. The TS light is relayed through the relaying optics with labyrinth and fiber coupling optics. Electron density of 2×10(19) m(-3) is sufficient to measure T(e) and n(e) within a 10% and 5% margin of error, respectively, with a spatial resolution of 5 mm. This system can cover from 0.85 to 1 of the normalized minor radius. The time resolution is 10 ms, which is determined by the repetition rate of the laser device. A super-Gaussian is the ideal laser profile for the laser injection optics to avoid a breakdown of the filling gas used in density calibration through Raman scattering.

  5. Extending Iterative Protein Redesign and Optimization (IPRO) in Protein Library Design for Ligand Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fazelinia, Hossein; Cirino, Patrick C.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we extend the Iterative Protein Redesign and Optimization (IPRO) framework for the design of protein libraries with targeted ligand specificity. Mutations that minimize the binding energy with the desired ligand are identified. At the same time explicit constraints are introduced that maintain the binding energy for all decoy ligands above a threshold necessary for successful binding. The proposed framework is demonstrated by computationally altering the effector binding specificity of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein AraC, belonging to the AraC/XylS family of transcriptional regulators for different unnatural ligands. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of systematically suppressing the binding energy for competing ligands. Pinpointing a small set of mutations within the binding pocket greatly improves the difference in binding energies between targeted and decoy ligands, even when they are very similar. PMID:17208966

  6. Implementation of a Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing and Modification

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A

    2016-01-01

    Background The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. Objective To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. Methods A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Results Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F 3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F 3,1276=25.44, P<.001

  7. High resolution fast wave reflectometry: JET design and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Cupido, L.; Igreja, R.; Serra, F.; Manso, M. E.; Cardinali, A.; Murari, A.

    2008-10-15

    The measurement of the fuel mixture remains a very difficult task in thermonuclear plasmas, where the hydrogen isotopes are fully stripped and do not emit line radiation. On the other hand, direct determination of the ion species mix will be essential in the reactor to keep the mixture close to 50/50 and maximize the fusion output. In this paper, the design of fast wave reflectometry for JET is reviewed to show the potential of such a method in the perspective of ITER. The main design elements of the antenna and the detection system, based on vectorial measurements, are reported. The main challenges to such a diagnostic, mainly the intrinsic ion cyclotron emission from the plasma and the extensive use of ion cyclotron radiofrequencies as additional heating, are addressed in detail. The overall design indicates that the proposed system would be able to provide a measurement of the fuel ratio with spatial resolution in the range of few centimeters and temporal resolution in the range of 1 ms in the vast majority of JET scenarios.

  8. The Enhanced Performance Launcher Design For The ITER Upper Port ECH Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M. A.; Chavan, R.; Bertizzolo, R.; Duron, J.; Landis, J.-D.; Sauter, O.; Sanchez, F.; Shidara, H.; Udintsev, V. S.; Zucca, C.; Bruschi, A.; Criant, S.; Farina, D.; Ramponi, G.; Heidinger, R.; Poli, E.; Zohm, H.; Saibene, G.

    2007-09-28

    The ITER ECH heating and current drive system delivers 24 MW (170 GHz), which can be directed to either the equatorial (EL) or upper (UL) port launching antennas depending on the desired physics application. The UL design uses two front steering (FS) mirrors that sweep eight beams in a poloidal plane providing co-ECCD over the outer half of the plasma cross section. A novel frictionless, backlash-free steering mechanism has been developed for an increased reliability and providing a steering mirror rotation of up to {+-}7 deg. ({+-}14 deg. for RF beam). The principle aim of the UL is to stabilize the neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) and (by extending the steering range) access the q = 1 flux surface for control of the sawtooth oscillation. Increasing the range of the UL can relax the EL steering range, and optimize the EL for enhanced performance with an optimized central deposition and potential for counter ECCD. This paper will summarize the present UL design status along with the proposed design modifications to the UL for enhanced performance and increased reliability.

  9. European cryogenic material testing program for ITER coils and intercoil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyilas, A.; Portone, A.; Kiesel, H.

    2002-05-01

    The following materials were characterized for the use in the magnet structures of ITER: 1) Type 316LN cast materials having a modified chemistry used for a Model of the TF (Toroidal Field) outer intercoil structure were investigated with respect to tensile, fracture, fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR), and fatigue life behavior between 7 and 4 K. 2) For Type 316LN 80 mm thick plate used for the TFMC (T_oroidal F_ield M_odel C_oil) structure a complete cryogenic mechanical materials characterization was established. 3) For full size coil case mockups, repair weld properties of 240 mm thick narrow-gap welds were investigated to determine their tensile and fracture behavior. 4) For CSMC (C_enter S_olenoid M_odel C_oil) superconductor jackets, the fatigue lives of orbital butt welds made of Incoloy 908 and Type 316LN (aged and unaged) materials were determined up to one million cycles at 7 K. The results reveal to date that the FCGR of aged Type 316LN is inferior to Incoloy 908 material, whilst the fatigue life properties are comparable. However, for Type 316LN jacket structure considerable improvement of FCGR could be achieved by a solution heat treatment process. In addition, tensile and fatigue life tests performed with a new cryogenic mechanical test facility (630 kN capacity) are presented.

  10. Iterative experiment design guides the characterization of a light-inducible gene expression circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ruess, Jakob; Parise, Francesca; Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Khammash, Mustafa; Lygeros, John

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology rests on the idea that biological complexity can be better unraveled through the interplay of modeling and experimentation. However, the success of this approach depends critically on the informativeness of the chosen experiments, which is usually unknown a priori. Here, we propose a systematic scheme based on iterations of optimal experiment design, flow cytometry experiments, and Bayesian parameter inference to guide the discovery process in the case of stochastic biochemical reaction networks. To illustrate the benefit of our methodology, we apply it to the characterization of an engineered light-inducible gene expression circuit in yeast and compare the performance of the resulting model with models identified from nonoptimal experiments. In particular, we compare the parameter posterior distributions and the precision to which the outcome of future experiments can be predicted. Moreover, we illustrate how the identified stochastic model can be used to determine light induction patterns that make either the average amount of protein or the variability in a population of cells follow a desired profile. Our results show that optimal experiment design allows one to derive models that are accurate enough to precisely predict and regulate the protein expression in heterogeneous cell populations over extended periods of time. PMID:26085136

  11. Iterative experiment design guides the characterization of a light-inducible gene expression circuit.

    PubMed

    Ruess, Jakob; Parise, Francesca; Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Khammash, Mustafa; Lygeros, John

    2015-06-30

    Systems biology rests on the idea that biological complexity can be better unraveled through the interplay of modeling and experimentation. However, the success of this approach depends critically on the informativeness of the chosen experiments, which is usually unknown a priori. Here, we propose a systematic scheme based on iterations of optimal experiment design, flow cytometry experiments, and Bayesian parameter inference to guide the discovery process in the case of stochastic biochemical reaction networks. To illustrate the benefit of our methodology, we apply it to the characterization of an engineered light-inducible gene expression circuit in yeast and compare the performance of the resulting model with models identified from nonoptimal experiments. In particular, we compare the parameter posterior distributions and the precision to which the outcome of future experiments can be predicted. Moreover, we illustrate how the identified stochastic model can be used to determine light induction patterns that make either the average amount of protein or the variability in a population of cells follow a desired profile. Our results show that optimal experiment design allows one to derive models that are accurate enough to precisely predict and regulate the protein expression in heterogeneous cell populations over extended periods of time.

  12. Rural eHealth Nutrition Education for Limited-Income Families: An Iterative and User-Centered Design Approach

    PubMed Central

    Saperstein, Sandra L; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Billing, Amy S; Tian, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Background Adult women living in rural areas have high rates of obesity. Although rural populations have been deemed hard to reach, Internet-based programming is becoming a viable strategy as rural Internet access increases. However, when people are able to get online, they may not find information designed for them and their needs, especially harder to reach populations. This results in a “content gap” for many users. Objective User-centered design is a methodology that can be used to create appropriate online materials. This research was conducted to apply a user-centered approach to the design and development of a health promotion website for low-income mothers living in rural Maryland. Methods Three iterative rounds of concept testing were conducted to (1) identify the name and content needs of the site and assess concerns about registering on a health-related website; (2) determine the tone and look of the website and confirm content and functionality; and (3) determine usability and acceptability. The first two rounds involved focus group and small group discussions, and the third round involved usability testing with individual women as they used the prototype system. Results The formative research revealed that women with limited incomes were enthusiastic about a website providing nutrition and physical activity information targeted to their incomes and tailored to their personal goals and needs. Other priority content areas identified were budgeting, local resources and information, and content that could be used with their children. Women were able to use the prototype system effectively. Conclusions This research demonstrated that user-centered design strategies can help close the “content gap” for at-risk audiences. PMID:19632974

  13. Failure analysis of beryllium tile assembles following high heat flux testing for the ITER program

    SciTech Connect

    B. C. Odegard, Jr.; C. H. Cadden; N. Y. C. Yang

    2000-05-01

    The following document describes the processing, testing and post-test analysis of two Be-Cu assemblies that have successfully met the heat load requirements for the first wall and dome sections for the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) fusion reactor. Several different joint assemblies were evaluated in support of a manufacturing technology investigation aimed at diffusion bonding or brazing a beryllium armor tile to a copper alloy heat sink for fusion reactor applications. Judicious selection of materials and coatings for these assemblies was essential to eliminate or minimize interactions with the highly reactive beryllium armor material. A thin titanium layer was used as a diffusion barrier to isolate the copper heat sink from the beryllium armor. To reduce residual stresses produced by differences in the expansion coefficients between the beryllium and copper, a compliant layer of aluminum or aluminum-beryllium (AlBeMet-150) was used. Aluminum was chosen because it does not chemically react with, and exhibits limited volubility in, beryllium. Two bonding processes were used to produce the assemblies. The primary process was a diffusion bonding technique. In this case, undesirable metallurgical reactions were minimized by keeping the materials in a solid state throughout the fabrication cycle. The other process employed an aluminum-silicon layer as a brazing filler material. In both cases, a hot isostatic press (HIP) furnace was used in conjunction with vacuum-canned assemblies in order to minimize oxidation and provide sufficient pressure on the assemblies for full metal-to-metal contact and subsequent bonding. The two final assemblies were subjected to a suite of tests including: tensile tests and electron and optical metallography. Finally, high heat flux testing was conducted at the electron beam testing system (EBTS) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. Here, test mockups were fabricated and subjected to normal heat loads to

  14. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  15. Designing Accelerated Tests Of Electromigration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Method for design of accelerated tests of electromigration (as in microscopic conductors in integrated circuits) based partly on simplified mathematical model of electromigration and partly on error analysis. Objective to determine quickly operating life of tested components under normal operating conditions by extrapolation from lifetime measurements at operating stresses greater than normal. Involves compromise between reducing testing time by increasing stresses and reducing uncertainty in extrapolated lifetime by decreasing stresses.

  16. Sequential optimal monitoring network design and iterative spatial estimation of pollutant concentration for identification of unknown groundwater pollution source locations.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2013-07-01

    One of the difficulties in accurate characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is the uncertainty regarding the number and the location of such sources. Only when the number of source locations is estimated with some degree of certainty that the characterization of the sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration can be meaningful. A fairly good knowledge of source locations can substantially decrease the degree of nonuniqueness in the set of possible aquifer responses to subjected geochemical stresses. A methodology is developed to use a sequence of dedicated monitoring network design and implementation and to screen and identify the possible source locations. The proposed methodology utilizes a combination of spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and simulated annealing as optimization algorithm for optimal design of the monitoring network. These monitoring networks are to be designed and implemented sequentially. The sequential design is based on iterative pollutant concentration measurement information from the sequentially designed monitoring networks. The optimal monitoring network design utilizes concentration gradient information from the monitoring network at previous iteration to define the objective function. The capability of the feedback information based iterative methodology is shown to be effective in estimating the source locations when no such information is initially available. This unknown pollution source locations identification methodology should be very useful as a screening model for subsequent accurate estimation of the unknown pollution sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration.

  17. An Overview Of The Motional Stark Effect Diagnostic On DIII-D And Design Work For An ITER MSE

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, C T; Allen, S L; Makowski, M A; Jayakumar, R J; Gu, M F; Lerner, S; Morris, K L; Latkowski, J; Moller, J M; Meyer, W; Ellis, R; Geer, R; Behne, D; Chipman, R; Smith, P; McClain, S

    2007-09-20

    The advanced tokamak research program at DIII-D relies critically on the measurement of the current density profile. This was made possible by the development of a Motional Stark Effect (MSE) polarimeter that was first installed in 1992. Three major upgrades have since occurred, and improvements in our understanding of critical performance issues and calibration techniques are ongoing. In parallel with these improvements, we have drawn on our DIII-D experience to begin studies and design work for MSE on burning plasmas and ITER. This paper first reviews how Motional Stark Effect polarimetry (MSE) is used to determine the tokamak current profile. It uses the DIII-D MSE system as an example, and shows results from the latest upgrade that incorporates an array of channels from a new counter-Ip injected neutral beam. The various calibration techniques presently used are reviewed. High-leverage or unresolved issues affecting MSE performance and reliability in ITER are discussed. Next, we show a four-mirror collection optics design for the two ITER MSE views. Finally, we discuss measurements of the polarization properties of a few candidate mirrors for the ITER MSE.

  18. High Dielectric Dummy Loads for ITER ICRH Antenna Laboratory Testing: Numerical Simulation of One Triplet Loading by Ferroelectric Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Champeaux, S.; Gouard, Ph.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Kyrytsya, V.; Messiaen, A.

    2011-12-23

    Up to now, classical 'water' loads have been used for low power testing of ITER ICRH prototype or mock-up antennas . A fair description of the antenna frequency response is obtained excepted for the phasing (0 {pi} 0 {pi}). High dielectric loads are requested to improve the antenna response in the low frequency band. In view of laboratory testing, dummy loads are also required to have efficient wave spatial attenuation to avoid standing waves and to minimize load volume. In this paper, barium titanate ceramic powders mixed with water are shown to exhibit very attractive electromagnetic properties. Coupling performance of one triplet of the ITER ICRH antenna to such kind of loads is numerically investigated. The radiated wave attenuation into the load is also characterized. In spite of its frequency dispersion, 'barium titanate' loads are shown to allow the characterization of the full scale triplet frequency response on a scaled-down mock-up.

  19. The ITER project construction status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, O.

    2015-10-01

    The pace of the ITER project in St Paul-lez-Durance, France is accelerating rapidly into its peak construction phase. With the completion of the B2 slab in August 2014, which will support about 400 000 metric tons of the tokamak complex structures and components, the construction is advancing on a daily basis. Magnet, vacuum vessel, cryostat, thermal shield, first wall and divertor structures are under construction or in prototype phase in the ITER member states of China, Europe, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, and the United States. Each of these member states has its own domestic agency (DA) to manage their procurements of components for ITER. Plant systems engineering is being transformed to fully integrate the tokamak and its auxiliary systems in preparation for the assembly and operations phase. CODAC, diagnostics, and the three main heating and current drive systems are also progressing, including the construction of the neutral beam test facility building in Padua, Italy. The conceptual design of the Chinese test blanket module system for ITER has been completed and those of the EU are well under way. Significant progress has been made addressing several outstanding physics issues including disruption load characterization, prediction, avoidance, and mitigation, first wall and divertor shaping, edge pedestal and SOL plasma stability, fuelling and plasma behaviour during confinement transients and W impurity transport. Further development of the ITER Research Plan has included a definition of the required plant configuration for 1st plasma and subsequent phases of ITER operation as well as the major plasma commissioning activities and the needs of the accompanying R&D program to ITER construction by the ITER parties.

  20. Ares I Static Tests Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, William; Lindemuth, Kathleen; Mich, John; White, K. Preston; Parker, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic engineering design enhances safety and reduces costs by incorporating risk assessment directly into the design process. In this paper, we assess the format of the quantitative metrics for the vehicle which will replace the Space Shuttle, the Ares I rocket. Specifically, we address the metrics for in-flight measurement error in the vector position of the motor nozzle, dictated by limits on guidance, navigation, and control systems. Analyses include the propagation of error from measured to derived parameters, the time-series of dwell points for the duty cycle during static tests, and commanded versus achieved yaw angle during tests. Based on these analyses, we recommend a probabilistic template for specifying the maximum error in angular displacement and radial offset for the nozzle-position vector. Criteria for evaluating individual tests and risky decisions also are developed.

  1. FENIX (Fusion ENgineering International eXperimental): A test facility for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and other new superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, D.S.; Patrick, R.E.; Miller, J.R.

    1990-09-21

    The Fusion ENgineering International eXperimental (FENIX) Test Facility which is nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a 76-t set of superconducting magnets housed in a 4-m-diameter cryostat. It represents a significant step toward meeting the testing needs for the development of superconductors appropriate for large-scale magnet applications such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The magnet set is configured to allow radial access to the 0.4-m-diameter high-field region where maximum fields up to 14 T will be provided. The facility is fitted with a thermally isolated test well with a port to the high-field region that allows insertion and removal of test conductors without disturbing the cryogenic environment of the magnets. It is expected that the facility will be made available to magnet developers internationally, and this paper discusses its general design features, its construction, and its capabilities.

  2. Optimization applications in aircraft engine design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, T. K.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with the NASA-sponsored STAEBL program, optimization methods based primarily upon the versatile program COPES/CONMIN were introduced over the past few years to a broad spectrum of engineering problems in structural optimization, engine design, engine test, and more recently, manufacturing processes. By automating design and testing processes, many repetitive and costly trade-off studies have been replaced by optimization procedures. Rather than taking engineers and designers out of the loop, optimization has, in fact, put them more in control by providing sophisticated search techniques. The ultimate decision whether to accept or reject an optimal feasible design still rests with the analyst. Feedback obtained from this decision process has been invaluable since it can be incorporated into the optimization procedure to make it more intelligent. On several occasions, optimization procedures have produced novel designs, such as the nonsymmetric placement of rotor case stiffener rings, not anticipated by engineering designers. In another case, a particularly difficult resonance contraint could not be satisfied using hand iterations for a compressor blade, when the STAEBL program was applied to the problem, a feasible solution was obtained in just two iterations.

  3. ITERATIVE PROCESS OF QSAR BUILDING AND STRATEGIC TESTING: PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basic principles of QSAR model development and application are discussed. The most difficult step in QSAR application for regulatory use may be determining when a model is sufficiently improved to provide predictions for a specified chemical domain of regulatory concern. The iter...

  4. Optical design and testing: introduction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Breault, Robert; Wang, Yongtian; Fang, Yi Chin

    2014-10-10

    Optical design and testing has numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging or nonimage optical system may require the integration of optics, mechatronics, lighting technology, optimization, ray tracing, aberration analysis, image processing, tolerance compensation, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, 3D display, solar energy system, opto-mechatronics to novel imaging or nonimage modalities in visible and infrared spectral imaging, modulation transfer function measurement, and innovative interferometry.

  5. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  6. Design of a dispersion interferometer combined with a polarimeter to increase the electron density measurement reliability on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, T.; Sirinelli, A.; Watts, C.; Shigin, P.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.

    2016-11-01

    A dispersion interferometer is a reliable density measurement system and is being designed as a complementary density diagnostic on ITER. The dispersion interferometer is inherently insensitive to mechanical vibrations, and a combined polarimeter with the same line of sight can correct fringe jump errors. A proof of the principle of the CO2 laser dispersion interferometer combined with the PEM polarimeter was recently conducted, where the phase shift and the polarization angle were successfully measured simultaneously. Standard deviations of the line-average density and the polarization angle measurements over 1 s are 9 × 1016 m-2 and 0.19°, respectively, with a time constant of 100 μs. Drifts of the zero point, which determine the resolution in steady-state operation, correspond to 0.25% and 1% of the phase shift and the Faraday rotation angle expected on ITER.

  7. Neutron activation for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Loughlin, M.J.; Nishitani, Takeo

    1996-04-29

    There are three primary goals for the Neutron Activation system for ITER: maintain a robust relative measure of fusion power with stability and high dynamic range (7 orders of magnitude); allow an absolute calibration of fusion power (energy); and provide a flexible and reliable system for materials testing. The nature of the activation technique is such that stability and high dynamic range can be intrinsic properties of the system. It has also been the technique that demonstrated (on JET and TFTR) the highest accuracy neutron measurements in DT operation. Since the gamma-ray detectors are not located on the tokamak and are therefore amenable to accurate characterization, and if material foils are placed very close to the ITER plasma with minimum scattering or attenuation, high overall accuracy in the fusion energy production (7--10%) should be achievable on ITER. In the paper, a conceptual design is presented. A system is shown to be capable of meeting these three goals, also detailed design issues remain to be solved.

  8. Modelling of 3D fields due to ferritic inserts and test blanket modules in toroidal geometry at ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueqiang; Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Cavinato, Mario; Koechl, Florian; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Li, Li; Parail, Vassili; Saibene, Gabriella; Särkimäki, Konsta; Sipilä, Seppo; Varje, Jari

    2016-06-01

    Computations in toroidal geometry are systematically performed for the plasma response to 3D magnetic perturbations produced by ferritic inserts (FIs) and test blanket modules (TBMs) for four ITER plasma scenarios: the 15 MA baseline, the 12.5 MA hybrid, the 9 MA steady state, and the 7.5 MA half-field helium plasma. Due to the broad toroidal spectrum of the FI and TBM fields, the plasma response for all the n  =  1-6 field components are computed and compared. The plasma response is found to be weak for the high-n (n  >  4) components. The response is not globally sensitive to the toroidal plasma flow speed, as long as the latter is not reduced by an order of magnitude. This is essentially due to the strong screening effect occurring at a finite flow, as predicted for ITER plasmas. The ITER error field correction coils (EFCC) are used to compensate the n  =  1 field errors produced by FIs and TBMs for the baseline scenario for the purpose of avoiding mode locking. It is found that the middle row of the EFCC, with a suitable toroidal phase for the coil current, can provide the best correction of these field errors, according to various optimisation criteria. On the other hand, even without correction, it is predicted that these n  =  1 field errors will not cause substantial flow damping for the 15 MA baseline scenario.

  9. Physics design of the in-vessel collection optics for the ITER electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, W. L.; Houshmandyar, S.; Phillips, P. E.; Austin, M. E.; Beno, J. H.; Hubbard, A. E.; Khodak, A.; Ouroua, A.; Taylor, G.

    2016-11-01

    Measurement of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is one of the primary diagnostics for electron temperature in ITER. In-vessel, in-vacuum, and quasi-optical antennas capture sufficient ECE to achieve large signal to noise with microsecond temporal resolution and high spatial resolution while maintaining polarization fidelity. Two similar systems are required. One views the plasma radially. The other is an oblique view. Both views can be used to measure the electron temperature, while the oblique is also sensitive to non-thermal distortion in the bulk electron distribution. The in-vacuum optics for both systems are subject to degradation as they have a direct view of the ITER plasma and will not be accessible for cleaning or replacement for extended periods. Blackbody radiation sources are provided for in situ calibration.

  10. Engineering test facility design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, R. W.; Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is the major focus of the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Program to facilitate commercialization and to demonstrate the commercial operability of MHD/steam electric power. The ETF will be a fully integrated commercial prototype MHD power plant with a nominal output of 200 MW sub e. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations. The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.

  11. On the safety of ITER accelerators.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Three 1 MV/40A accelerators in heating neutral beams (HNB) are on track to be implemented in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). ITER may produce 500 MWt of power by 2026 and may serve as a green energy roadmap for the world. They will generate -1 MV 1 h long-pulse ion beams to be neutralised for plasma heating. Due to frequently occurring vacuum sparking in the accelerators, the snubbers are used to limit the fault arc current to improve ITER safety. However, recent analyses of its reference design have raised concerns. General nonlinear transformer theory is developed for the snubber to unify the former snubbers' different design models with a clear mechanism. Satisfactory agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling up to a 1 MV voltage may be possible. These results confirm the nonlinear process behind transformer theory and map out a reliable snubber design for a safer ITER.

  12. Measurement of RF Mode Purity in EC Transmission Test Line for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2009-11-26

    The transmission mode purity was measured at the ITER relevant transmission line for 170 GHz ECH and CD system. The measured purity of HE{sub 11} in transmission power was 73% and the other was higher order modes. The dominant higher order mode was LP{sub 11} mode (HE{sub 21}+TE{sub 01}). To improve the mode purity, the RF beam coupling in MOU was aligned because LP{sub 11} mode is generated the offset and the tilt angle of RF beam at the waveguide inlet. After the alignment, HE{sub 11} mode purity was increased to 87%.

  13. Analysis of Thermal-Hydraulic Gravity/ Buoyancy Effects in the Testing of the ITER Poloidal Field Full Size Joint Sample (PF-FSJS)

    SciTech Connect

    Zanino, R.; Savoldi Richard, L.; Bruzzone, P.; Ciazynski, D.; Nicollet, S.

    2004-06-23

    The PF-FSJS is a full-size joint sample, based on the NbTi dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design currently foreseen for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Poloidal Field coil system. It was tested during the summer of 2002 in the Sultan facility of CRPP at a background peak magnetic field of typically 6 T. It includes about 3 m of two jointed conductor sections, using different strands but with identical layout. The sample was cooled by supercritical helium at nominal 4.5-5.0 K and 0.9-1.0 MPa, in forced convection from the top to the bottom of the vertical configuration. A pulsed coil was used to test AC losses in the two legs resulting, above a certain input power threshold, in bundle helium backflow from the heated region. Here we study the thermal-hydraulics of the phenomenon with the M and M code, with particular emphasis on the effects of buoyancy on the helium dynamics, as well as on the thermal-hydraulic coupling between the wrapped bundles of strands in the annular cable region and the central cooling channel. Both issues are ITER relevant, as they affect the more general question of the heat removal capability of the helium in this type of conductors.

  14. Direct design of freeform surfaces and freeform imaging systems with a point-by-point three-dimensional construction-iteration method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Jin, Guofan

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, we proposed a general direct design method for three-dimensional freeform surfaces and freeform imaging systems based on a construction-iteration process. In the preliminary surfaces-construction process, the coordinates as well as the surface normals of the data points on the multiple freeform surfaces can be calculated directly considering the rays of multiple fields and different pupil coordinates. Then, an iterative process is employed to significantly improve the image quality or achieve a better mapping relationship of the light rays. Three iteration types which are normal iteration, negative feedback and successive approximation are given. The proposed construction-iteration method is applied in the design of an easy aligned, low F-number off-axis three-mirror system. The primary and tertiary mirrors can be fabricated on a single substrate and form a single element in the final system. The secondary mirror is simply a plane mirror. With this configuration, the alignment difficulty of a freeform system can be greatly reduced. After the preliminary surfaces-construction stage, the freeform surfaces in the optical system can be generated directly from an initial planar system. Then, with the iterative process, the average RMS spot diameter decreased by 75.4% compared with the system before iterations, and the maximum absolute distortion decreased by 94.2%. After further optimization with optical design software, good image quality which is closed to diffraction-limited is achieved. PMID:25969065

  15. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full testing in SULTAN: 1. The mechanical role of copper strands in a CICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Blum, Timothy; Devred, Arnaud; Jewell, Matthew C.; Pong, Ian; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-08-01

    Cables made with Nb3Sn-based superconductor strands will provide the 13 T maximum peak magnetic field of the ITER central solenoid (CS) coils and they must survive up to 60 000 electromagnetic cycles. Accordingly, prototype designs of CS cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICC) were electromagnetically tested over multiple magnetic field cycles and warm-up-cool-down scenarios in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. We report here a post-mortem metallographic analysis of two CS CICC prototypes which exhibited some rate of irreversible performance degradation during cycling. The standard ITER CS CICC cable design uses a combination of superconducting and Cu strands, and because the Lorentz force on the strand is proportional to the transport current in the strand, removing the copper strands (while increasing the Cu:SC ratio of the superconducting strands) was proposed as one way of reducing the strand load. In this study we compare the two alternative CICCs, with and without Cu strands, keeping in mind that the degradation after the SULTAN test was lower for the CICC without Cu strands. The post-mortem metallographic evaluation revealed that the overall strand transverse movement was 20% lower in the CICC without Cu strands and that the tensile filament fractures found were less, both indications of an overall reduction in high tensile strain regions. It was interesting to see that the Cu strands in the mixed cable design (with higher degradation) helped reduce the contact stresses on the high pressure side of the CICC, but in either case, the strain reduction mechanisms were not enough to suppress cyclic degradation. Advantages and disadvantages of each conductor design are discussed here aimed to understand the sources of the degradation.

  16. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full testing in SULTAN: 1. The mechanical role of copper strands in a CICC

    DOE PAGES

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Blum, Timothy; Devred, Arnaud; Jewell, Matthew C.; Pong, Ian; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-06-22

    Cables made with Nb3Sn-based superconductor strands will provide the 13 T maximum peak magnetic field of the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils and they must survive up to 60,000 electromagnetic cycles. Accordingly, prototype designs of CS cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICC) were electromagnetically tested over multiple magnetic field cycles and warm-up-cool-down scenarios in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. We report here a post mortem metallographic analysis of two CS CICC prototypes which exhibited some rate of irreversible performance degradation during cycling. The standard ITER CS CICC cable design uses a combination of superconducting and Cu strands, and because the Lorentz force on themore » strand is proportional to the transport current in the strand, removing the copper strands (while increasing the Cu:SC ratio of the superconducting strands) was proposed as one way of reducing the strand load. In this study we compare the two alternative CICCs, with and without Cu strands, keeping in mind that the degradation after SULTAN test was lower for the CICC without Cu strands. The post mortem metallographic evaluation revealed that the overall strand transverse movement was 20% lower in the CICC without Cu strands and that the tensile filament fractures found were less, both indications of an overall reduction in high tensile strain regions. Furthermore, it was interesting to see that the Cu strands in the mixed cable design (with higher degradation) helped reduce the contact stresses on the high pressure side of the CICC, but in either case, the strain reduction mechanisms were not enough to suppress cyclic degradation. Advantages and disadvantages of each conductor design are discussed here aimed to understand the sources of the degradation.« less

  17. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full testing in SULTAN: 1. The mechanical role of copper strands in a CICC

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Blum, Timothy; Devred, Arnaud; Jewell, Matthew C.; Pong, Ian; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-06-22

    Cables made with Nb3Sn-based superconductor strands will provide the 13 T maximum peak magnetic field of the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils and they must survive up to 60,000 electromagnetic cycles. Accordingly, prototype designs of CS cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICC) were electromagnetically tested over multiple magnetic field cycles and warm-up-cool-down scenarios in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. We report here a post mortem metallographic analysis of two CS CICC prototypes which exhibited some rate of irreversible performance degradation during cycling. The standard ITER CS CICC cable design uses a combination of superconducting and Cu strands, and because the Lorentz force on the strand is proportional to the transport current in the strand, removing the copper strands (while increasing the Cu:SC ratio of the superconducting strands) was proposed as one way of reducing the strand load. In this study we compare the two alternative CICCs, with and without Cu strands, keeping in mind that the degradation after SULTAN test was lower for the CICC without Cu strands. The post mortem metallographic evaluation revealed that the overall strand transverse movement was 20% lower in the CICC without Cu strands and that the tensile filament fractures found were less, both indications of an overall reduction in high tensile strain regions. Furthermore, it was interesting to see that the Cu strands in the mixed cable design (with higher degradation) helped reduce the contact stresses on the high pressure side of the CICC, but in either case, the strain reduction mechanisms were not enough to suppress cyclic degradation. Advantages and disadvantages of each conductor design are discussed here aimed to understand the sources of the degradation.

  18. Nanoelectronic circuit design and test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simsir, Muzaffer Orkun

    Controlling power consumption in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs) during normal mode of operation is becoming one of the limiting factors to further scaling. In addition, it is a well known fact that during testing of a complex IC, power consumption can far exceed the values reached during its normal operation. High power consumption, combined with limited cooling support, leads to overheating of ICs. This can cause permanent damage to the chip or can invalidate test results due to the fact that extreme temperature variations lead to changes in path delays. Therefore, even good chips can fail the test. For these reasons, thermal problems during test need to be identified to prevent the loss of yield in CMOS ICs. In this thesis, we propose a methodology for thermally characterizing circuits under test. Using this methodology, it is possible to simulate the thermal profiles of the chips during test and prevent possible yield loss because of thermal problems. In addition to the problems associated with power and temperature, a more important barrier is the scaling limitations of the CMOS technology. It has been predicted that in next decade, it will not be possible to scale it further. In the near future, rather than a transition to a completely new technology, extensions to CMOS seem to be more realistic. Double-gate CMOS technology is one of the most promising alternatives that offers a simple extension to CMOS. The transistors of this technology are formed by adding a second gate across the conventional CMOS transistor gate. Designing circuits using this technology has attracted a lot of attention. However, as circuit design methods mature, there is a need to identify how these circuits can be tested. From a circuit testing viewpoint, it is unclear if CMOS fault models are comprehensive enough to model all defects in double-gate CMOS circuits. Therefore, fault models of this technology need to be defined to enable manufacturing-time testing. In this thesis, we

  19. Development and irradiation test of lost alpha detection system for ITER.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, M; Nagasaka, T; Fujioka, K; Fujimoto, Y; Tanaka, T; Ido, T; Yamamoto, S; Kashiwa, S; Sasao, M

    2010-10-01

    We developed a lost alpha detection system to use in burning plasma experiments. The scintillators of Ag:ZnS and polycrystalline Ce:YAG were designed for a high-temperature environment, and the optical transmission line was designed to transmit from the scintillator to the port plug. The required optical components of lenses and mirrors were irradiated using the fission reactor with the initial result that there was no clear change after the irradiation with a neutron flux of 9.6×10(17) nm(-2)  s(-1) for 48 h. We propose a diagnostic of alpha particle loss, so-called alpha particle induced gamma ray spectroscopy. The initial laboratory test has been carried out by the use of the Ce doped Lu(2)SiO(5) scintillator detector and an Am-Be source to detect the 4.44 MeV high energy gamma ray due to the (9)Be(α,nγ)(12)C reaction.

  20. On the criteria guiding the design of the upper electron-cyclotron launcher for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, E.; Angioni, C.; Casson, F. J.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Goodman, T. P.; Maj, O.; Sauter, O.; Weber, H.; Zohm, H.; Saibene, G.; Henderson, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Electron cyclotron waves injected from an antenna located in the upper part of the vessel will be employed in ITER to controlMHD instabilities, particularly neoclassical tearingmodes (NTMs). The derivation of the NTM stabilization criteria used up to now to guide the optimization of the launcher is reviewed in this paper and their range of validity elucidated. Possible effects leading to a deterioration of the predicted performance through a broadening of the EC deposition profile are discussed. The most detrimental effect will likely be the scattering of the EC beams from density fluctuations, resulting in a beam broadening in the 100% range. The combined impact of these effects with that of beam misalignment (with respect to the targeted surface) is discussed for a time slice of the standard Q = 10 H-mode scenario.

  1. An overview of dual coolant Pb-17Li breeder first wall and blanket concept development for the US ITER-TBM design

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C C; Malang, S; Sawan, M; Dagher, M; Smolentsev, S; Merrill, B; Youssef, M; Reyes, S; Sze, D D; Morley, N B; Sharafat, S; Calderoni, P; Sviatoslavsky, G; Kurtz, R; Fogarty, P; Zinkle, S; Abdou, M

    2005-05-13

    An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17Li is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiCf/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Pb-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure. For the reference tokamak power reactor design, this blanket concept has the potential of satisfying the design limits of RAFS while allowing the feasibility of having a high Pb-17Li outlet temperature of 700 C. We have identified critical issues for the concept, some of which include the first wall design, the assessment of MHD effects with the SiC-composite flow coolant insert, and the extraction and control of the bred tritium from the Pb-17Li breeder. R&D programs have been proposed to address these issues. At the same time we have proposed a test plan for the DCLL ITER-Test Blanket Module program.

  2. ITER convertible blanket evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.

    1995-09-01

    Proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) convertible blankets were reviewed. Key design difficulties were identified. A new particle filter concept is introduced and key performance parameters estimated. Results show that this particle filter concept can satisfy all of the convertible blanket design requirements except the generic issue of Be blanket lifetime. If the convertible blanket is an acceptable approach for ITER operation, this particle filter option should be a strong candidate.

  3. Program Helps Design Tests Of Developmental Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Computer program called "A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs" (TRL) provides automatic software tool and formal language used to implement category-partition method and produce specification of test cases in testing phase of development of software. Category-partition method useful in defining input, outputs, and purpose of test-design phase of development and combines benefits of choosing normal cases having error-exposing properties. Traceability maintained quite easily by creating test design for each objective in test plan. Effort to transform test cases into procedures simplified by use of automatic software tool to create cases based on test design. Method enables rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration and facilitates review of test designs by peer groups. Written in C language.

  4. Artificial Neural Networks: a viable tool to design heat load smoothing strategies for the ITER Toroidal Field coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froio, A.; Bonifetto, R.; Carli, S.; Quartararo, A.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2015-12-01

    In superconducting tokamaks, cryoplants provide the helium needed to cool the superconducting magnet systems. The evaluation of the heat load from the magnets to the cryoplant is fundamental for the design of the latter and the assessment of suitable strategies to smooth the heat load pulses induced by the pulsed plasma scenarios is crucial for the operation. Here, a simplified thermal-hydraulic model of an ITER Toroidal Field (TF) magnet, based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), is developed and inserted into a detailed model of the ITER TF winding and casing cooling circuits based on the state-of-the-art 4C code, which also includes active controls. The low computational effort requested by such a model allows performing a fast parametric study, to identify the best smoothing strategy during standard plasma operation. The ANNs are trained using 4C simulations, and the predictive capabilities of the simplified model are assessed against 4C simulations, both with and without active smoothing, in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  5. The ITER in-vessel system

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    The overall programmatic objective, as defined in the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) Agreement, is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. The ITER EDA Phase, due to last until July 1998, will encompass the design of the device and its auxiliary systems and facilities, including the preparation of engineering drawings. The EDA also incorporates validating research and development (R&D) work, including the development and testing of key components. The purpose of this paper is to review the status of the design, as it has been developed so far, emphasizing the design and integration of those components contained within the vacuum vessel of the ITER device. The components included in the in-vessel systems are divertor and first wall; blanket and shield; plasma heating, fueling, and vacuum pumping equipment; and remote handling equipment.

  6. A Tale of Two Chambers: Iterative Approaches and Lessons Learned from Life Support Systems Testing in Altitude Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The drive for the journey to Mars is in a higher gear than ever before. We are developing new spacecraft and life support systems to take humans to the Red Planet. The journey that development hardware takes before its final incarnation in a fully integrated spacecraft can take years, as is the case for the Orion environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Through the Pressure Integrated Suit Test (PIST) series, NASA personnel at Johnson Space Center have been characterizing the behavior of a closed loop ECLSS in the event of cabin depressurization. This kind of testing - one of the most hazardous activities performed at JSC - requires an iterative approach, increasing in complexity and hazards). The PIST series, conducted in the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) 11-ft Chamber, started with unmanned test precursors before moving to a human-in-the-loop phase, and continues to evolve with the eventual goal of a qualification test for the final system that will be installed on Orion. Meanwhile, the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program is an effort to research and develop technologies that will work in concert to support habitation on Mars. September 2015 marked the first unmanned HESTIA test, with the goal of characterizing how ECLSS technologies work together in a closed environment. HESTIA will culminate in crewed testing, but it can benefit from the lessons learned from another test that is farther ahead in its development and life cycle. Discussing PIST and HESTIA, this paper illustrates how we approach testing, the kind of information that facility teams need to ensure efficient collaborations and successful testing, and how we can apply what we learn to execute future tests.

  7. Designing special test instruments for preventive maintenance.

    PubMed

    McCullough, C E; Baker, L S

    1979-01-01

    Periodic performance testing of biomedical equipment can be made considerably more efficient by careful design of test procedures and by fabrication of special test instruments which are designed for those procedures. The design philosophy behind such procedures and instruments and its applicability to a wide variety of biomedical devices is discussed. As a practical example, an ECG machine/patient monitor test system is described and construction details are given. PMID:10241383

  8. Mechanical tests of the conduit tubes of a conductor for the Toroidal winding of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivykh, A. V.; Anashkin, O. P.; Keilin, V. E.; Diev, D. N.; Dinisilov, A. S.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Tronza, V. I.

    2012-11-01

    Extremely stringent requirements, which include the impact toughness at the liquid-helium temperature, are imposed on the material of the conduit tubes for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field (TF) conductors. Modified 316LN-IG stainless steel is recommended as the conduit tube material. Steel 316LN-IG tube samples (both full-size samples and sub-sized samples) are subjected to mechanical tests at various stages of the process of conductor production: in the as-recieved state and after compacting, preliminary elongation by 2.5% at room temperature, and annealing at 650°C for 200 h in a pure helium gas atmosphere. The tests are carried out at room, liquid nitrogen, and liquid helium temperatures and satisfy the standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME and ASTM). The results of sub-size and full-size samples testing show that the last one gives more representative results to qualify the weld joints in liquid nitrogen. When the temperature decreases or the strain increases, the magnetization of the samples increases, especially in the weld area. Strain measurements with an extensometer demonstrate that the intracrystal processes occurring at the liquid-helium temperature can lead to a significant change in the local load, up to complete unloading in a deformation zone. Unusual local serrated deformation is observed with an extensometer installed in the weld area during tests in liquid helium: this deformation is the result of compressive jumps opposite to the loading direction.

  9. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  10. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early or... design, such as, for example, borehole and shaft seals, backfill, and drip shields, as well as...

  11. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early or... design, such as, for example, borehole and shaft seals, backfill, and drip shields, as well as...

  12. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design testing. 60.142 Section 60.142 Energy NUCLEAR... Performance Confirmation Program § 60.142 Design testing. (a) During the early or developmental stages of construction, a program for in situ testing of such features as borehole and shaft seals, backfill, and...

  13. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design testing. 60.142 Section 60.142 Energy NUCLEAR... Performance Confirmation Program § 60.142 Design testing. (a) During the early or developmental stages of... constructed to test the effectiveness of backfill placement and compaction procedures against...

  14. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design testing. 60.142 Section 60.142 Energy NUCLEAR... Performance Confirmation Program § 60.142 Design testing. (a) During the early or developmental stages of... constructed to test the effectiveness of backfill placement and compaction procedures against...

  15. Potential of combining iterative reconstruction with noise efficient detector design: aggressive dose reduction in head CT

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B; Schabel, C; Fenchel, M; Ernemann, U; Korn, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: With further increase of CT numbers and their dominant contribution to medical exposure, there is a recent quest for more effective dose control. While reintroduction of iterative reconstruction (IR) has proved its potential in many applications, a novel focus is placed on more noise efficient detectors. Our purpose was to assess the potential of IR in combination with an integrated circuit detector (ICD) for aggressive dose reduction in head CT. Methods: Non-contrast low-dose head CT [190 mAs; weighted volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), 33.2 mGy] was performed in 50 consecutive patients, using a new noise efficient detector and IR. Images were assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality and compared with standard dose acquisitions (320 mAs; CTDIvol, 59.7 mGy) using a conventional detector and filtered back projection. Results: By combining ICD and IR in low-dose examinations, the signal to noise was improved by about 13% above the baseline level in the standard-dose control group. Both, contrast-to-noise ratio (2.02 ± 0.6 vs 1.88 ± 0.4; p = 0.18) and objective measurements of image sharpness (695 ± 84 vs 705 ± 151 change in Hounsfield units per pixel; p = 0.79) were fully preserved in the low-dose group. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the grading of several subjective image quality parameters when both noise-reducing strategies were used in low-dose examinations. Conclusion: Combination of noise efficient detector with IR allows for meaningful dose reduction in head CT without compromise of standard image quality. Advances in knowledge: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of almost 50% dose reduction in head CT dose (1.1 mSv per scan) through combination of novel dose-reducing strategies. PMID:25827204

  16. Contrast class cues and performance facilitation in a hypothesis-testing task: evidence for an iterative counterfactual model.

    PubMed

    Gale, Maggie; Ball, Linden J

    2012-04-01

    Hypothesis-testing performance on Wason's (Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 12:129-140, 1960) 2-4-6 task is typically poor, with only around 20% of participants announcing the to-be-discovered "ascending numbers" rule on their first attempt. Enhanced solution rates can, however, readily be observed with dual-goal (DG) task variants requiring the discovery of two complementary rules, one labeled "DAX" (the standard "ascending numbers" rule) and the other labeled "MED" ("any other number triples"). Two DG experiments are reported in which we manipulated the usefulness of a presented MED exemplar, where usefulness denotes cues that can establish a helpful "contrast class" that can stand in opposition to the presented 2-4-6 DAX exemplar. The usefulness of MED exemplars had a striking facilitatory effect on DAX rule discovery, which supports the importance of contrast-class information in hypothesis testing. A third experiment ruled out the possibility that the useful MED triple seeded the correct rule from the outset and obviated any need for hypothesis testing. We propose that an extension of Oaksford and Chater's (European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 6:149-169, 1994) iterative counterfactual model can neatly capture the mechanisms by which DG facilitation arises.

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL DESIGN ASSOCIATES (FORMERLY GEOKINETICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.) LEAD RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents performance and economic data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluation of Electrochemical Design Associates (EDA), formerly known as Geokinetics International Inc., Lead Recovery Tech...

  18. An Iterative and Targeted Sampling Design Informed by Habitat Suitability Models for Detecting Focal Plant Species over Extensive Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ophelia; Zachmann, Luke J.; Sesnie, Steven E.; Olsson, Aaryn D.; Dickson, Brett G.

    2014-01-01

    Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scale sampling design that used species occurrence data, habitat suitability models, and iterative and targeted sampling efforts to sample five species and satisfy two key management objectives: 1) detecting non-native invasive plants across previously unsampled gradients, and 2) characterizing the distribution of non-native invasive plants at landscape to regional scales. Habitat suitability models of five species were based on occurrence records and predictor variables derived from topography, precipitation, and remotely sensed data. We stratified and established field sampling locations according to predicted habitat suitability and phenological, substrate, and logistical constraints. Across previously unvisited areas, we detected at least one of our focal species on 77% of plots. In turn, we used detections from 2011 to improve habitat suitability models and sampling efforts in 2012, as well as additional spatial constraints to increase detections. These modifications resulted in a 96% detection rate at plots. The range of habitat suitability values that identified highly and less suitable habitats and their environmental conditions corresponded to field detections with mixed levels of agreement. Our study demonstrated that an iterative and targeted sampling framework can address sampling bias, reduce time costs, and increase detections. Other studies can extend the sampling framework to develop methods in other ecosystems to provide detection data. The sampling methods

  19. An iterative and targeted sampling design informed by habitat suitability models for detecting focal plant species over extensive areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ophelia; Zachmann, Luke J; Sesnie, Steven E; Olsson, Aaryn D; Dickson, Brett G

    2014-01-01

    Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scale sampling design that used species occurrence data, habitat suitability models, and iterative and targeted sampling efforts to sample five species and satisfy two key management objectives: 1) detecting non-native invasive plants across previously unsampled gradients, and 2) characterizing the distribution of non-native invasive plants at landscape to regional scales. Habitat suitability models of five species were based on occurrence records and predictor variables derived from topography, precipitation, and remotely sensed data. We stratified and established field sampling locations according to predicted habitat suitability and phenological, substrate, and logistical constraints. Across previously unvisited areas, we detected at least one of our focal species on 77% of plots. In turn, we used detections from 2011 to improve habitat suitability models and sampling efforts in 2012, as well as additional spatial constraints to increase detections. These modifications resulted in a 96% detection rate at plots. The range of habitat suitability values that identified highly and less suitable habitats and their environmental conditions corresponded to field detections with mixed levels of agreement. Our study demonstrated that an iterative and targeted sampling framework can address sampling bias, reduce time costs, and increase detections. Other studies can extend the sampling framework to develop methods in other ecosystems to provide detection data. The sampling methods

  20. SIRTF primary mirror design, analysis, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L., III; Maa, Scott; Chang, LI

    1990-01-01

    The primary mirror assembly (PMA) requirements and concepts for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program are discussed. The PMA studies at NASA/ARC resulted in the design of two engineering test articles, the development of a mirror mount cryogenic static load testing system, and the procurement and partial testing of a full scale spherical mirror mounting system. Preliminary analysis and testing of the single arch mirror with conical mount design and the structured mirror with the spherical mount design indicate that the designs will meet all figure and environmental requirements of the SIRTF program.

  1. Radiation effects on optical components of a laser radar sensor designed for remote metrology in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Grann, E.B.; Slotwinski, A.

    1997-09-01

    A frequency modulated laser radar is being developed for in-vessel metrology and viewing of plasma-facing surfaces. Some optical components of this sensor must withstand intense gamma radiation (3 {times} 10{sup 6} rad/h) during operation. The authors have tested the effect of radiation on a silica core polarization maintaining optical fiber and on TeO{sub 2} crystals at doses up to {approximately} 10{sup 9} rad. Additional tests are planned for evaluating the performance of a complete acousto-optic (AO) scanning device. The progress made in these tests is also described.

  2. Designing the Fitness Testing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petray, Clayre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article provides teachers with strategies for planning and organizing a positive, efficient physical fitness testing environment for K-12 students, including students with special needs. Methods of class organization and scheduling suggestions are presented. Sample record and score sheets are included. (IAH)

  3. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y.; Aiello, A.; Utili, M.; Demange, D.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  4. Test Information Targeting Strategies for Adaptive Multistage Testing Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard M.; Burgin, William

    Adaptive multistage testlet (MST) designs appear to be gaining popularity for many large-scale computer-based testing programs. These adaptive MST designs use a modularized configuration of preconstructed testlets and embedded score-routing schemes to prepackage different forms of an adaptive test. The conditional information targeting (CIT)…

  5. Inventing and improving ribozyme function: rational design versus iterative selection methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    Two major strategies for generating novel biological catalysts exist. One relies on our knowledge of biopolymer structure and function to aid in the 'rational design' of new enzymes. The other, often called 'irrational design', aims to generate new catalysts, in the absence of detailed physicochemical knowledge, by using selection methods to search a library of molecules for functional variants. Both strategies have been applied, with considerable success, to the remodeling of existing ribozymes and the development of ribozymes with novel catalytic function. The two strategies are by no means mutually exclusive, and are best applied in a complementary fashion to obtain ribozymes with the desired catalytic properties.

  6. Design tool for multiprocessor scheduling and evaluation of iterative dataflow algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1995-01-01

    A graph-theoretic design process and software tool is defined for selecting a multiprocessing scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described with a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on a set of identical processors. Typical applications include signal processing and control law problems. Graph-search algorithms and analysis techniques are introduced and shown to effectively determine performance bounds, scheduling constraints, and resource requirements. The software tool applies the design process to a given problem and includes performance optimization through the inclusion of additional precedence constraints among the schedulable tasks.

  7. ECRH System For ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Darbos, C.; Henderson, M.; Gandini, F.; Albajar, F.; Bomcelli, T.; Heidinger, R.; Saibene, G.; Chavan, R.; Goodman, T.; Hogge, J. P.; Sauter, O.; Denisov, G.; Farina, D.; Kajiwara, K.; Kasugai, A.; Kobayashi, N.; Oda, Y.; Ramponi, G.

    2009-11-26

    A 26 MW Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) system is to be installed for ITER. The main objectives are to provide, start-up assist, central H and CD and control of MHD activity. These are achieved by a combination of two types of launchers, one located in an equatorial port and the second type in four upper ports. The physics applications are partitioned between the two launchers, based on the deposition location and driven current profiles. The equatorial launcher (EL) will access from the plasma axis to mid radius with a relatively broad profile useful for central heating and current drive applications, while the upper launchers (ULs) will access roughly the outer half of the plasma radius with a very narrow peaked profile for the control of the Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM) and sawtooth oscillations. The EC power can be switched between launchers on a time scale as needed by the immediate physics requirements. A revision of all injection angles of all launchers is under consideration for increased EC physics capabilities while relaxing the engineering constraints of both the EL and ULs. A series of design reviews are being planned with the five parties (EU, IN, JA, RF, US) procuring the EC system, the EC community and ITER Organization (IO). The review meetings qualify the design and provide an environment for enhancing performances while reducing costs, simplifying interfaces, predicting technology upgrades and commercial availability. In parallel, the test programs for critical components are being supported by IO and performed by the Domestic Agencies (DAs) for minimizing risks. The wide participation of the DAs provides a broad representation from the EC community, with the aim of collecting all expertise in guiding the EC system optimization. Still a strong relationship between IO and the DA is essential for optimizing the design of the EC system and for the installation and commissioning of all ex-vessel components when several

  8. Design, test, and evaluation of three active flutter suppression controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, William M., Jr.; Christhilf, David M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    Three control law design techniques for flutter suppression are presented. Each technique uses multiple control surfaces and/or sensors. The first method uses traditional tools (such as pole/zero loci and Nyquist diagrams) for producing a controller that has minimal complexity and which is sufficiently robust to handle plant uncertainty. The second procedure uses linear combinations of several accelerometer signals and dynamic compensation to synthesize the model rate of the critical mode for feedback to the distributed control surfaces. The third technique starts with a minimum-energy linear quadratic Gaussian controller, iteratively modifies intensity matrices corresponding to input and output noise, and applies controller order reduction to achieve a low-order, robust controller. The resulting designs were implemented digitally and tested subsonically on the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Only the traditional pole/zero loci design was sufficiently robust to errors in the nominal plant to successfully suppress flutter during the test. The traditional pole/zero loci design provided simultaneous suppression of symmetric and antisymmetric flutter with a 24-percent increase in attainable dynamic pressure. Posttest analyses are shown which illustrate the problems encountered with the other laws.

  9. Low cycle thermal fatigue testing of beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-02-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium, which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 kW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ``spike`` of 750{degree}C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stresses in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m{sup 2}. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S- 65H, S-200F, S-200F-H, SR-200, I-400, extruded high purity, HIP`d spherical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe{sub 12}. Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be (SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis.

  10. Formal functional test designs with a test representation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

  11. Training Vegetable Parenting Practices Through a Mobile Game: Iterative Qualitative Alpha Test

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Buday, Richard; Hughes, Sheryl; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Dadabhoy, Hafza R; Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Vegetable consumption protects against chronic diseases, but many young children do not eat vegetables. One quest within the mobile application Mommio was developed to train mothers of preschoolers in effective vegetable parenting practices, or ways to approach getting their child to eat and enjoy vegetables. A much earlier version of the game, then called Kiddio, was alpha tested previously, but the game has since evolved in key ways. Objective The purpose of this research was to alpha test the first quest, substantiate earlier findings and obtain feedback on new game features to develop an effective, compelling parenting game. Methods Mothers of preschool children (n=20) played a single quest of Mommio 2 to 4 times, immediately after which a semi-structured interview about their experience was completed. Interviews were transcribed and double coded using thematic analysis methods. Results Mothers generally liked the game, finding it realistic and engaging. Some participants had difficulties with mechanics for moving around the 3-D environment. Tips and hints were well received, and further expansion and customization were desired. Conclusions Earlier findings were supported, though Mommio players reported more enjoyment than Kiddio players. Continued development will include more user-friendly mechanics, customization, opportunities for environment interaction, and food parenting scenarios. PMID:26208899

  12. Participatory Design With Seniors: Design of Future Services and Iterative Refinements of Interactive eHealth Services for Old Citizens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing social isolation among the elderly today. This will be an even larger issue in the future with growing numbers of elderly and less resources, for example, in terms of economy and staff. Loneliness and social isolation can, however, be addressed in several ways using different interactive eHealth services. Objective This case study investigated novel eHealth services for the elderly, and their usage of a social interactive device designed especially for them. Methods In this work, we used an innovative mobile communication device connected to the television (TV), which worked as a remotely controlled large interactive screen. The device was tested by 8 volunteers who visited a senior center. They were between 65 and 80 years of age and lived in their own homes. Throughout the 1.5 year-long project, 7 design workshops were held with the seniors and the staff at the center. During these workshops, demands and preferences regarding existing and new services were gathered. At the end of the project the participants’ experience of the device and of the services was elaborated in 3 workshops to get ideas for improved or new meaningful services. During the data analyses and development process, what seniors thought would be useful in relation to what was feasible was prioritized by the development company. Results Regarding daily usage, the seniors reported that they mainly used the service for receiving information from the senior center and for communication with other participants in the group or with younger relatives. They also read information about events at the senior center and they liked to perform a weekly sent out workout exercise. Further, they played games such as Memory and Sudoku using the device. The service development focused on three categories of services: cognitive activities, social activities, and physical activities. A cognitive activity service that would be meaningful to develop was a game for practicing

  13. Formal Functional Test Designs: Bridging the Gap Between Test Requirements and Test Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the testing life cycle, the purpose of the test design phase, and test design methods and gives an example application. Also included is a description of Test Representation Language (TRL), a summary of the language, and an example of an application of TRL. A sample test requirement and sample test design are included.

  14. Conceptual Design and Analysis of Cold Mass Support of the CS3U Feeder for the ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yinfeng; Song, Yuntao; Zhang, Yuanbin; Wang, Zhongwei

    2013-06-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, the feeders are one of the most important and critical systems. To convey the power supply and the coolant for the central solenoid (CS) magnet, 6 sets of CS feeders are employed, which consist mainly of an in-cryostat feeder (ICF), a cryostat feed-through (CFT), an S-bend box (SBB), and a coil terminal box (CTB). To compensate the displacements of the internal components of the CS feeders during operation, sliding cold mass supports consisting of a sled plate, a cylindrical support, a thermal shield, and an external ring are developed. To check the strength of the developed cold mass supports of the CS3U feeder, electromagnetic analysis of the two superconducting busbars is performed by using the CATIA V5 and ANSYS codes based on parametric technology. Furthermore, the thermal-structural coupling analysis is performed based on the obtained results, except for the stress concentration, and the max. stress intensity is lower than the allowable stress of the selected material. It is found that the conceptual design of the cold mass support can satisfy the required functions under the worst case of normal working conditions. All these performed activities will provide a firm technical basis for the engineering design and development of cold mass supports.

  15. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design testing. 60.142 Section 60.142 Energy NUCLEAR... Performance Confirmation Program § 60.142 Design testing. (a) During the early or developmental stages of... thermal interaction effects of the waste packages, backfill, rock, and groundwater shall be conducted....

  16. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design testing. 60.142 Section 60.142 Energy NUCLEAR... Performance Confirmation Program § 60.142 Design testing. (a) During the early or developmental stages of... thermal interaction effects of the waste packages, backfill, rock, and groundwater shall be conducted....

  17. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early...

  18. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early...

  19. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early...

  20. Normal operation and maintenance safety lessons from the ITER US PbLi test blanket module program for a US FNSF and DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; C. P. C. Wong; M. Abdou; B. B. Morely; B.J Merrill

    2014-10-01

    A leading power reactor breeding blanket candidate for a fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO) being pursued by the US Fusion Community is the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) concept. The safety hazards associated with the DCLL concept as a reactor blanket have been examined in several US design studies. These studies identify the largest radiological hazards as those associated with the dust generation by plasma erosion of plasma blanket module first walls, oxidation of blanket structures at high temperature in air or steam, inventories of tritium bred in or permeating through the ferritic steel structures of the blanket module and blanket support systems, and the 210Po and 203Hg produced in the PbLi breeder/coolant. What these studies lack is the scrutiny associated with a licensing review of the DCLL concept. An insight into this process was gained during the US participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Test Blanket Module (TBM) Program. In this paper we discuss the lessons learned during this activity and make safety proposals for the design of a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) or a DEMO that employs a lead lithium breeding blanket.

  1. SP-100 liquid metal test loop design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallas, T. Ted; Kruger, Gordon B.; Wiltshire, Frank R.; Jensen, Grant C.; Clay, Harold; Upton, Hugh A.; Gamble, Robert E.; Kjaer-Olsen, Christian; Lee, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 Power System Qualification (PSO) program validates the technology readiness of the SP-100 Generic Flight System (GFS). As part of the PSQ, the GFS reactor, heat transport and power generation systems are being validated, by test, in high temperature liquid metal test loops. The liquid metal test loop program consists of two test loops. The first, a natural circulation material test loop (MTL), has been successfully operating for the last year at GE's test facility in San Jose. The second, a forced circulation Component Test Loop (CTL) is in the preliminary design phase. Fabrication of the CTL and modifications to the Test Facility will be completed in FY94 with component testing scheduled to begin in FY95. The CTL is a Nb-1Zr test loop with an Electromagnetic (EM) pump providing forced circulation for the liquid lithium coolant. The CTL test program is comprised of a series of individual component tests. Test components containing thermoelectric cells will have their cold side ducts piped to an existing heat rejection loop external to the CTL vacuum vessel. The test assembly and test components are being designed by GE. The detail design of several loop components is being performed by Westinghouse Atomic Energy Systems (WAES). The CTL will be assembled and the test performed at GE's facilties in San Jose, California.

  2. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  3. A Novel System for Supporting Autism Diagnosis Using Home Videos: Iterative Development and Evaluation of System Design

    PubMed Central

    Rozga, Agata; Smith, Christopher J; Oberleitner, Ron; Abowd, Gregory D; Arriaga, Rosa I

    2015-01-01

    Background Observing behavior in the natural environment is valuable to obtain an accurate and comprehensive assessment of a child’s behavior, but in practice it is limited to in-clinic observation. Research shows significant time lag between when parents first become concerned and when the child is finally diagnosed with autism. This lag can delay early interventions that have been shown to improve developmental outcomes. Objective To develop and evaluate the design of an asynchronous system that allows parents to easily collect clinically valid in-home videos of their child’s behavior and supports diagnosticians in completing diagnostic assessment of autism. Methods First, interviews were conducted with 11 clinicians and 6 families to solicit feedback from stakeholders about the system concept. Next, the system was iteratively designed, informed by experiences of families using it in a controlled home-like experimental setting and a participatory design process involving domain experts. Finally, in-field evaluation of the system design was conducted with 5 families of children (4 with previous autism diagnosis and 1 child typically developing) and 3 diagnosticians. For each family, 2 diagnosticians, blind to the child’s previous diagnostic status, independently completed an autism diagnosis via our system. We compared the outcome of the assessment between the 2 diagnosticians, and between each diagnostician and the child’s previous diagnostic status. Results The system that resulted through the iterative design process includes (1) NODA smartCapture, a mobile phone-based application for parents to record prescribed video evidence at home; and (2) NODA Connect, a Web portal for diagnosticians to direct in-home video collection, access developmental history, and conduct an assessment by linking evidence of behaviors tagged in the videos to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Applying clinical judgment, the diagnostician

  4. A powerful test for Balaam's design.

    PubMed

    Mori, Joji; Kano, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The crossover trial design (AB/BA design) is often used to compare the effects of two treatments in medical science because it performs within-subject comparisons, which increase the precision of a treatment effect (i.e., a between-treatment difference). However, the AB/BA design cannot be applied in the presence of carryover effects and/or treatments-by-period interaction. In such cases, Balaam's design is a more suitable choice. Unlike the AB/BA design, Balaam's design inflates the variance of an estimate of the treatment effect, thereby reducing the statistical power of tests. This is a serious drawback of the design. Although the variance of parameter estimators in Balaam's design has been extensively studied, the estimators of the treatment effect to improve the inference have received little attention. If the estimate of the treatment effect is obtained by solving the mixed model equations, the AA and BB sequences are excluded from the estimation process. In this study, we develop a new estimator of the treatment effect and a new test statistic using the estimator. The aim is to improve the statistical inference in Balaam's design. Simulation studies indicate that the type I error of the proposed test is well controlled, and that the test is more powerful and has more suitable characteristics than other existing tests when interactions are substantial. The proposed test is also applied to analyze a real dataset.

  5. Robust design of feedback feed-forward iterative learning control based on 2D system theory for linear uncertain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifu; Hu, Yueming; Li, Di

    2016-08-01

    For a class of linear discrete-time uncertain systems, a feedback feed-forward iterative learning control (ILC) scheme is proposed, which is comprised of an iterative learning controller and two current iteration feedback controllers. The iterative learning controller is used to improve the performance along the iteration direction and the feedback controllers are used to improve the performance along the time direction. First of all, the uncertain feedback feed-forward ILC system is presented by an uncertain two-dimensional Roesser model system. Then, two robust control schemes are proposed. One can ensure that the feedback feed-forward ILC system is bounded-input bounded-output stable along time direction, and the other can ensure that the feedback feed-forward ILC system is asymptotically stable along time direction. Both schemes can guarantee the system is robust monotonically convergent along the iteration direction. Third, the robust convergent sufficient conditions are given, which contains a linear matrix inequality (LMI). Moreover, the LMI can be used to determine the gain matrix of the feedback feed-forward iterative learning controller. Finally, the simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  6. TESLA test facility alternate cryostat design

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    Collaborators on the design of a Tevatron Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA) are working toward construction of a test cell consisting of four full length cryostats, 12 meters long, each consisting of eight, 9-cell superconducting RF cavities. The purpose of this facility is to test all aspects of the accelerator system design; vacuum, cryogenics, RF, and electron source, prior to initiating construction of the full linac. The design for these cryostats pose many interesting challenges to cryostat designers. The systems must be capable of supporting all eight cavity structures within tight alignment tolerances, impose very low thermal heat loads on the 1.8K cryogenic system, provide strength and stiffness to resist structural loads during fabrication, shipping, and installation, and be manufactured at low cost. Several design options are being explored, each of which attempt to address requirements imposed by the reference design guidelines. This paper describes the design and analysis of one design alternative.

  7. Design and Preliminary Testing Plan of Electronegative Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schloeder, Natalie R.; Liu, Thomas M.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Dankanich, John W.; Aanesland, Ane

    2014-01-01

    Electronegative ion thrusters are a new iteration of existing gridded ion thruster technology differentiated by their ability to produce and accelerate both positive and negative ions. The primary motivations for electronegative ion thruster development include the elimination of lifetime-limiting cathodes from a thruster system and the ability to generate appreciable thrust through the acceleration of both positive or negative-charged ions. Proof-of-concept testing of the PEGASES (Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative GASES) thruster demonstrated the production of positively and negatively-charged ions (argon and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively) in an RF discharge and the subsequent acceleration of each charge species through the application of a time-varying electric field to a pair of metallic grids similar to those found in gridded ion thrusters. Leveraging the knowledge gained through experiments with the PEGASES I and II prototypes, the MINT (Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster) is being developed to provide a platform for additional electronegative thruster proof-of-concept validation testing including direct thrust measurements. The design criteria used in designing the MINT are outlined and the planned tests that will be used to characterize the performance of the prototype are described.

  8. Design of an iterative auto-tuning algorithm for a fuzzy PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Bakhtiar I.; Mehrdadi, B.

    2012-05-01

    Since the first application of fuzzy logic in the field of control engineering, it has been extensively employed in controlling a wide range of applications. The human knowledge on controlling complex and non-linear processes can be incorporated into a controller in the form of linguistic terms. However, with the lack of analytical design study it is becoming more difficult to auto-tune controller parameters. Fuzzy logic controller has several parameters that can be adjusted, such as: membership functions, rule-base and scaling gains. Furthermore, it is not always easy to find the relation between the type of membership functions or rule-base and the controller performance. This study proposes a new systematic auto-tuning algorithm to fine tune fuzzy logic controller gains. A fuzzy PID controller is proposed and applied to several second order systems. The relationship between the closed-loop response and the controller parameters is analysed to devise an auto-tuning method. The results show that the proposed method is highly effective and produces zero overshoot with enhanced transient response. In addition, the robustness of the controller is investigated in the case of parameter changes and the results show a satisfactory performance.

  9. Flow field study comparing design iterations of a 50 cc left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Nanna, Jason C.; Wivholm, Jennifer A.; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B.

    2011-01-01

    The REMATCH study shows that implanted ventricular assist devices improve survival time and quality of life when used as a permanent therapy in patients who do not qualify for heart transplant. The success of the pulsatile 70 cc stroke volume left ventricular assist device (LVAD) developed by Penn State has led to the development of a 50 cc stroke volume pump for use in patients with smaller chest cavities to benefit a larger patient population. The initial 50 cc pump shows regions of in vivo thrombus formation which correlate to low wall shear rates within the device. In an in vitro evaluation of three new designs (V-2, V-3, V-4) of the 50 cc LVAD, identical except for the location and orientation of their outlet ports, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to capture planar flow field data within the pumps. V-2 has an outlet port which is located parallel to the inlet. In V-3, the outlet port is rotated away from the inlet port, with the intention of minimizing the amount of fluid turning needed to exit the device. With V-4 the outlet port is moved to the center of the pump in order to prolong the desirable rotational flow. PIV data were taken at 6 planar locations within the pump. While the modifications to the outlet port locations serve their intended purpose, they also introduce unwanted changes in the flow. Poorer wall washing and weaker rotational flow are observed with V-3 and V-4. While the differences between the devices are subtle, the device that has the most desirable flow characteristics is V-2. PMID:21734560

  10. Iterative method for generating correlated binary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usatenko, O. V.; Melnik, S. S.; Apostolov, S. S.; Makarov, N. M.; Krokhin, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    We propose an efficient iterative method for generating random correlated binary sequences with a prescribed correlation function. The method is based on consecutive linear modulations of an initially uncorrelated sequence into a correlated one. Each step of modulation increases the correlations until the desired level has been reached. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are tested by generating sequences with inverse power-law correlations. The substantial increase in the strength of correlation in the iterative method with respect to single-step filtering generation is shown for all studied correlation functions. Our results can be used for design of disordered superlattices, waveguides, and surfaces with selective transport properties.

  11. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. S.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. M.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, E. H.; Liu, Y. K.; Yang, W. J.; Li, G. Q.; Hu, Q. S.; Gao, X.

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  12. A Web-Based Program for Informal Caregivers of Persons With Alzheimer’s Disease: An Iterative User-Centered Design

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, Florence; Wrobel, Jérémy; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Plichart, Matthieu; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based programs have been developed for informal caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s disease (PWAD). However, these programs can prove difficult to adopt, especially for older people, who are less familiar with the Internet than other populations. Despite the fundamental role of usability testing in promoting caregivers’ correct use and adoption of these programs, to our knowledge, this is the first study describing this process before evaluating a program for caregivers of PWAD in a randomized clinical trial. Objective The objective of the study was to describe the development process of a fully automated Web-based program for caregivers of PWAD, aiming to reduce caregivers’ stress, and based on the user-centered design approach. Methods There were 49 participants (12 health care professionals, 6 caregivers, and 31 healthy older adults) that were involved in a double iterative design allowing for the adaptation of program content and for the enhancement of website usability. This process included three component parts: (1) project team workshops, (2) a proof of concept, and (3) two usability tests. The usability tests were based on a mixed methodology using behavioral analysis, semistructured interviews, and a usability questionnaire. Results The user-centered design approach provided valuable guidelines to adapt the content and design of the program, and to improve website usability. The professionals, caregivers (mainly spouses), and older adults considered that our project met the needs of isolated caregivers. Participants underlined that contact between caregivers would be desirable. During usability observations, the mistakes of users were also due to ergonomics issues from Internet browsers and computer interfaces. Moreover, negative self-stereotyping was evidenced, when comparing interviews and results of behavioral analysis. Conclusions Face-to-face psycho-educational programs may be used as a basis for Web-based programs

  13. Designing a Gas Test Loop for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Parry

    2005-11-01

    The Generation IV Reactor Program and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are investigating some new reactor concepts which require extensive materials and fuels testing in a fast neutron spectrum. The capability to test materials and fuels in a fast neutron flux in the United States is very limited to non-existent. It has been proposed to install a gas test loop (GTL) in one of the lobes of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory and harden the spectrum to provide some fast neutron flux testing capabilities in the United States. This paper describes the neutronics investigation into the design of the GTL for the ATR.

  14. Design and testing of an OX/CH4 swirl torch ignition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Gabriel Ricardo

    NASA has renewed its interest in oxygen and methane as propellants for propulsion. Some of the reasons that drive this interest are the ease of storage of liquid methane when compared to hydrogen, the handling safety when compared to hypergols, in-situ resource utilization and its relative clean burning process. This project is part of the larger goal of the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) to better understand the aspects of using this propellants to create future hardware that are specifically optimized for their use. This paper discusses the testing of a previous iteration of the swirl torch igniter with liquid oxygen and liquid methane. The data and conclusions that led to the design of a new iteration of the swirl torch igniter will be discussed. The purpose of the new design is to replace the previous methane manifold used in the two previous iterations, add a new sparking system, and test the Characteristic Chamber Length (L*). The L* was to be analyzed by comparing the performance of two igniters, each with a different chamber length. The data obtained and design changes needed for further testing will be discussed in this document.

  15. Computerized Adaptive Testing System Design: Preliminary Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul R.

    A functional design model for a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system was developed and presented through a series of hierarchy plus input-process-output (HIPO) diagrams. System functions were translated into system structure: specifically, into 34 software components. Implementation of the design in a physical system was addressed through…

  16. Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, Bryce

    2014-10-23

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

  17. Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested

    ScienceCinema

    Tappan, Bryce

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

  18. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  19. Overview of the IFMIF test cell design

    SciTech Connect

    Moeslang, A.; Daum, E.; Haines, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Jitsukawa, S.; Noda, K.; Viola, R.

    1996-10-01

    The Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has entered its second and final year, and an outline design has been developed. Initial evaluations of the potential of this high flux, high intensity D-Li source have shown that the main materials testing needs can be fulfilled. According to these needs, Vertical Test Assemblies will accommodate test modules for the high flux (0.5 liter, 20 dpa/a, 250-1000 C), the medium flux (6 liter, 1-20 dpa/a, 250-1000 C), the low flux (7.5 liter, 0.1-1 dpa/a), and the very low flux (> 100 liter, 0.01-0.1 dpa/a) regions. Detailed test matrices have been defined for the high and medium flux regions, showing that on the basis of small specimen test technologies, a database for an engineering design of an advanced fusion reactor (DEMO) can be established for a variety of structural materials and ceramic breeders. The design concepts for the Test Cell, including test assemblies, remote handling equipment and Hot Cell Facilities with capacity for investigating all irradiation specimens at the IFMIF site are described.

  20. ITER global stability limits

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Uckan, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The MHD stability limits to the ITER operational space have been examined with the PEST ideal stability code. Constraints on ITER operation have been examined for the nominal operational scenarios and for possible design variants. Rather than rely on evaluation of a relatively small number of sample cases, the approach has been to construct an approximation to the overall operational space, and to compare this with the observed limits in high-{beta} tokamaks. An extensive database with {approximately}20,000 stability results has been compiled for use by the ITER design team. Results from these studies show that the design values of the Troyon factor (g {approximately} 2.5 for ignition studies, and g {approximately} 3 for the technology phase) which are based on present experiments, are also expected to be attainable for ITER conditions, for which the configuration and wall-stabilisation environment differ from those in present experiments. Strongly peaked pressure profiles lead to degraded high-{beta} performance. Values of g {approximately} 4 are found for higher safety factor (q {sub {Psi}} {le} 4) than that of the present design (q{sub {Psi}} {approximately} 3). Profiles with q(0) < 1 are shown to give g {approximately} 2.5, if the current density profile provides optimum shear. The overall operational spaces are presented for g-q{sub {Psi}}, q{sub {Psi}}-1{sub i}, q-{alpha}{sub p} and l{sub i}-q{sub {psi}}.

  1. A Control Systems Concept Inventory Test Design and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, M.; Erkorkmaz, K.; Huissoon, J. P.; Jeon, Soo; Owen, W. S.; Waslander, S. L.; Stubley, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Any meaningful initiative to improve the teaching and learning in introductory control systems courses needs a clear test of student conceptual understanding to determine the effectiveness of proposed methods and activities. The authors propose a control systems concept inventory. Development of the inventory was collaborative and iterative. The…

  2. Investigation of the influence of grain boundary chemistry, test temperatures, and strain rate on the fracture behavior of ITER copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Leedy, K.; Stubbins, J.F.; Krus, D.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to understand the mechanical behavior at elevated temperatures (>200{degrees}C) of the various copper alloys being considered for use in the ITER first wall, divertor, and limiter, a collaborative study has been initiated by the University of Illinois and PNNL with two industrial producers of copper alloys, Brush Wellman and OMG Americas. Details of the experimental matrix and test plans have been finalized and the appropriate specimens have already been fabricated and delivered to the University of Illinois and PNNL for testing and analysis. The experimental matrix and testing details are described in this report.

  3. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper will discuss the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  4. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  5. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-20

    The Early Flight Fission -- Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  6. Designing, engineering, and testing wood structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce basic structural engineering concepts in a clear, simple manner while actively involving students. This project emphasizes the fact that a good design uses materials efficiently. The test structure in this experiment can easily be built and has various design options. Even when the structure is loaded to collapsing, only one or two pieces usually break, leaving the remaining pieces intact and reusable.

  7. On the safety of ITER accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Three 1 MV/40A accelerators in heating neutral beams (HNB) are on track to be implemented in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). ITER may produce 500 MWt of power by 2026 and may serve as a green energy roadmap for the world. They will generate −1 MV 1 h long-pulse ion beams to be neutralised for plasma heating. Due to frequently occurring vacuum sparking in the accelerators, the snubbers are used to limit the fault arc current to improve ITER safety. However, recent analyses of its reference design have raised concerns. General nonlinear transformer theory is developed for the snubber to unify the former snubbers' different design models with a clear mechanism. Satisfactory agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling up to a 1 MV voltage may be possible. These results confirm the nonlinear process behind transformer theory and map out a reliable snubber design for a safer ITER. PMID:24008267

  8. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Hopper Spacecraft Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucasey, Evan Phillip Krell

    A robust test bed is needed to facilitate future development of guidance, navigation, and control software for future vehicles capable of vertical takeoff and landings. Specifically, this work aims to develop both a hardware and software simulator that can be used for future flight software development for extra-planetary vehicles. To achieve the program requirements of a high thrust to weight ratio with large payload capability, the vehicle is designed to have a novel combination of electric motors and a micro jet engine is used to act as the propulsion elements. The spacecraft simulator underwent several iterations of hardware development using different materials and fabrication methods. The final design used a combination of carbon fiber and fiberglass that was cured under vacuum to serve as the frame of the vehicle which provided a strong, lightweight platform for all flight components and future payloads. The vehicle also uses an open source software development platform, Arduino, to serve as the initial flight computer and has onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers to sense the vehicles attitude. To prevent instability due to noise, a polynomial kalman filter was designed and this fed the sensed angles and rates into a robust attitude controller which autonomously control the vehicle' s yaw, pitch, and roll angles. In addition to the hardware development of the vehicle itself, both a software simulation and a real time data acquisition interface was written in MATLAB/SIMULINK so that real flight data could be taken and then correlated to the simulation to prove the accuracy of the analytical model. In result, the full scale vehicle was designed and own outside of the lab environment and data showed that the software model accurately predicted the flight dynamics of the vehicle.

  10. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  11. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  12. Design of a fusion engineering test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The fusion Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is being designed to provide for engineering testing capability in a program leading to the demonstration of fusion as a viable energy option. It will combine power-reactor-type components and subsystems into an integrated tokamak system and provide a test bed to test blanket modules in a fusion environment. Because of the uncertainties in impurity control two basic designs are being developed: a design with a bundle divertor (Design 1) and one with a poloidal divertor (Design 2). The two designs are similar where possible, the latter having somewhat larger toroidal field (TF) coils to accommodate removal of the larger torus sectors required for the single-null poloidal divertor. Both designs have a major radius of 5.4 m, a minor radius of 1.3 m, and a D-shaped plasma with an elongation of 1.6. Ten TF coils are incorporated in both designs, producing a toroidal field of 5.5 T on-axis. The ohmic heating and equilibrium field (EF) coils supply sufficient volt-seconds to produce a flat-top burn of 100 s and a duty cycle of 135 s, including a start of 12 s, a burn termination of 10 s, and a pumpdown of 13 s. The total fusion power during burn is 750 MW, giving a neutron wall loading of 1.5 MW/m/sup 2/. In Design 1 of the poloidal field (PF) coils except the fast-response EF coils are located outside the FT coils and are superconducting. The fast-response coils are located inside the TF coil bore near the torus and are normal conducting so that they can be easily replaced.In Design 2 all of the PF coils are located outside the TF coils and are superconducting. Ignition is achieved with 60 MW of neutral beam injection at 150 keV. Five megawatts of radio frequency heating (electron cyclotron resonance heating) is used to assist in the startup and limit the breakdown requirement to 25 V.

  13. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant’s ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  14. Design and Test of an Electrometer Test Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, C.

    2010-12-01

    I worked on a experiment that would help on testing the parts of the MSRG satellite of Stanford. The goal of my experiment is to figure out how far a probe can be moved from a piece of mass to still be able to measure the potential (voltage) between the two.A model designed in Solidworks will be used; this model is put in a vacuum chamber for precise results.

  15. Severe Accident Test Station Design Document

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Mary A.; Yan, Yong; Howell, Michael; Keiser, James R.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the ORNL severe accident test station (SATS) is to provide a platform for evaluation of advanced fuels under projected beyond design basis accident (BDBA) conditions. The SATS delivers the capability to map the behavior of advanced fuels concepts under accident scenarios across various temperature and pressure profiles, steam and steam-hydrogen gas mixtures, and thermal shock. The overall facility will include parallel capabilities for examination of fuels and irradiated materials (in-cell) and non-irradiated materials (out-of-cell) at BDBA conditions as well as design basis accident (DBA) or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Also, a supporting analytical infrastructure to provide the data-needs for the fuel-modeling components of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program will be put in place in a parallel manner. This design report contains the information for the first, second and third phases of design and construction of the SATS. The first phase consisted of the design and construction of an out-of-cell BDBA module intended for examination of non-irradiated materials. The second phase of this work was to construct the BDBA in-cell module to test irradiated fuels and materials as well as the module for DBA (i.e. LOCA) testing out-of-cell, The third phase was to build the in-cell DBA module. The details of the design constraints and requirements for the in-cell facility have been closely captured during the deployment of the out-of-cell SATS modules to ensure effective future implementation of the in-cell modules.

  16. Spacecraft load, design and test philosophies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    The development of spacecraft loads, design and test philosophies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) during the past 25 years is presented. Examples from the JPL's Viking, Voyager and Galileo spacecraft are used to explain the changes in philosophy necessary to meet the program requirements with a reduction in cost and schedule. Approaches to validate mathematical models of large structures which can't be ground tested as an overall system because of size and/or adverse effects of terrestrial conditions such as gravity are presented.

  17. Crashworthy airframe design concepts: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

    1982-01-01

    Crashworthy floor concepts applicable to general aviation aircraft metal airframe structures were investigated. Initially several energy absorbing lower fuselage structure concepts were evaluated. Full scale floor sections representative of a twin engine, general aviation airplane lower fuselage structure were designed and fabricated. The floors featured an upper high strength platform with an energy absorbing, crushable structure underneath. Eighteen floors were fabricated that incorporated five different crushable subfloor concepts. The floors were then evaluated through static and dynamic testing. Computer programs NASTRAN and KRASH were used for the static and dynamic analysis of the floor section designs. Two twin engine airplane fuselages were modified to incorporate the most promising crashworthy floor sections for test evaluation.

  18. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2016-07-12

    ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  19. Ceramic high temperature receiver design and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The High Temperature Solar Thermal Receiver, which was tested a Edwards AFB, CA during the winter of 1980-1981, evolved from technologies developed over a five year period of work. This receiver was tested at the Army Solar Furnace at White Sands, NM in 1976. The receiver, was tested successfully at 1768 deg F and showed thermal efficiencies of 85%. The results were sufficiently promising to lead ERDA to fund our development and test of a 250 kW receiver to measure the efficiency of an open cavity receiver atop a central tower of a heliostat field. This receiver was required to be design scalable to 10, 50, and 100 MW-electric sizes to show applicability to central power tower receivers. That receiver employed rectagular silicon carbide panels and vertical stanchions to achieve scalability. The construction was shown to be fully scalable; and the receiver was operated at temperatures up to 2000 deg F to achieve the performance goals of the experiment during tests at the GIT advanced components test facility during the fall of 1978.

  20. Ceramic high temperature receiver design and tests

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.B.

    1982-07-01

    The High Temperature Solar Thermal Receiver, which was tested a Edwards AFB, CA during the winter of 1980-1981, evolved from technologies developed over a five year period of work. This receiver was tested at the Army Solar Furnace at White Sands, NM in 1976. The receiver, was tested successfully at 1768 deg F and showed thermal efficiencies of 85%. The results were sufficiently promising to lead ERDA to fund our development and test of a 250 kW receiver to measure the efficiency of an open cavity receiver atop a central tower of a heliostat field. This receiver was required to be design scalable to 10, 50, and 100 MW-electric sizes to show applicability to central power tower receivers. That receiver employed rectangular silicon carbide panels and vertical stanchions to achieve scalability. The construction was shown to be fully scalable, and the receiver was operated at temperatures up to 2000 deg F to achieve the performance goals of the experiment during tests at the GIT advanced components test facility during the fall of 1978.

  1. Wrapped multilayer insulation design and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, S. A.; Tyler, P. N.; Mills, G. L.; Kopelove, A. B.

    2014-11-01

    New vehicles need improved cryogenic propellant storage and transfer capabilities for long duration missions. Multilayer insulation (MLI) for cryogenic propellant feedlines is much less effective than MLI tank insulation, with heat leak into spiral wrapped MLI on pipes 3-10 times higher than conventional tank MLI. Better insulation for cryogenic feed lines is an important enabling technology that could help NASA reach cryogenic propellant storage and transfer requirements. Improved insulation for Ground Support Equipment could reduce cryogen losses during launch vehicle loading. Wrapped-MLI (WMLI) is a high performance multilayer insulation using innovative discrete spacer technology specifically designed for cryogenic transfer lines and Vacuum Jacketed Pipe (VJP) to reduce heat flux. The poor performance of traditional MLI wrapped on feed lines is due in part to compression of the MLI layers, with increased interlayer contact and heat conduction. WMLI uses discrete spacers that maintain precise layer spacing, with a unique design to reduce heat leak. A Triple Orthogonal Disk spacer was engineered to minimize contact area/length ratio and reduce solid heat conduction for use in concentric MLI configurations. A new insulation, WMLI, was developed and tested. Novel polymer spacers were designed, analyzed and fabricated; different installation techniques were examined; and rapid prototype nested shell components to speed installation on real world piping were designed and tested. Prototypes were installed on tubing set test fixtures and heat flux measured via calorimetry. WMLI offered superior performance to traditional MLI installed on cryogenic pipe, with 2.2 W/m2 heat flux compared to 26.6 W/m2 for traditional spiral wrapped MLI (5 layers, 77-295 K). WMLI as inner insulation in VJP can offer heat leaks as low as 0.09 W/m, compared to industry standard products with 0.31 W/m. WMLI could enable improved spacecraft cryogenic feedlines and industrial hot/cold transfer

  2. OPSAID Initial Design and Testing Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Steven A.; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2007-11-01

    Process Control System (PCS) security is critical to our national security. Yet, there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability, aims to address this issue through developing and testing an open source architecture for PCS security. Sandia National Laboratories, along with a team of PCS vendors and owners, have developed and tested this PCS security architecture. This report describes their progress to date.2 AcknowledgementsThe authors acknowledge and thank their colleagues for their assistance with the OPSAID project.Sandia National Laboratories: Alex Berry, Charles Perine, Regis Cassidy, Bryan Richardson, Laurence PhillipsTeumim Technical, LLC: Dave TeumimIn addition, the authors are greatly indebted to the invaluable help of the members of the OPSAID Core Team. Their assistance has been critical to the success and industry acceptance of the OPSAID project.Schweitzer Engineering Laboratory: Rhett Smith, Ryan Bradetich, Dennis GammelTelTone: Ori Artman Entergy: Dave Norton, Leonard Chamberlin, Mark AllenThe authors would like to acknowledge that the work that produced the results presented in this paper was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE) as part of the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program. Executive SummaryProcess control systems (PCS) are very important for critical infrastructure and manufacturing operations, yet cyber security technology in PCS is generally poor. The OPSAID (Open PCS (Process Control System) Security Architecture for Interoperable Design) program is intended to address these security shortcomings by accelerating the availability and deployment of comprehensive security technology for PCS, both for existing PCS and

  3. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  4. Matched filter based iterative adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Ramesh; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Blake, William

    2016-05-01

    Matched Filter sidelobes from diversified LPI waveform design and sensor resolution are two important considerations in radars and active sensors in general. Matched Filter sidelobes can potentially mask weaker targets, and low sensor resolution not only causes a high margin of error but also limits sensing in target-rich environment/ sector. The improvement in those factors, in part, concern with the transmitted waveform and consequently pulse compression techniques. An adaptive pulse compression algorithm is hence desired that can mitigate the aforementioned limitations. A new Matched Filter based Iterative Adaptive Approach, MF-IAA, as an extension to traditional Iterative Adaptive Approach, IAA, has been developed. MF-IAA takes its input as the Matched Filter output. The motivation here is to facilitate implementation of Iterative Adaptive Approach without disrupting the processing chain of traditional Matched Filter. Similar to IAA, MF-IAA is a user parameter free, iterative, weighted least square based spectral identification algorithm. This work focuses on the implementation of MF-IAA. The feasibility of MF-IAA is studied using a realistic airborne radar simulator as well as actual measured airborne radar data. The performance of MF-IAA is measured with different test waveforms, and different Signal-to-Noise (SNR) levels. In addition, Range-Doppler super-resolution using MF-IAA is investigated. Sidelobe reduction as well as super-resolution enhancement is validated. The robustness of MF-IAA with respect to different LPI waveforms and SNR levels is also demonstrated.

  5. ACCESS: Design, Strategy, and Test Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, M. J.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Pelton, R. S.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Foltz, R.; Gardner, J. P.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in the astrophysical flux scale are needed to answer fundamental scientific questions ranging from cosmology to stellar physics. In particular, the precise calibration of the flux scale across the visible-NIR bandpass is fundamental to the precise determination of dark energy parameters based on SNeIa photometry. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass. The telescope is a Dall-Kirkham Cassegrain with a 15.5-inch primary. The spectrograph is a Rowland circle design, with the grating operating as a low order (m=1-4) echelle, a Fery prism provides cross dispersion, and a HST/WFC3 heritage HAWAII-1R HgCdTe detector is used across the full spectral bandpass. The telescope mirrors have received their flight coatings. The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. Detector characterization testing is in progress (Morris et al.). Fabrication, integration, and automation of the ground-based calibration subsystems are also in progress. The ACCESS design, calibration strategy, and ground-based integration and test results will be presented. Launch is expected this year. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G and DOE DE-FG02-07ER41506 support this work.

  6. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests.

    PubMed

    Brombin, M; Spolaore, M; Serianni, G; Barzon, A; Franchin, L; Pasqualotto, R; Pomaro, N; Schiesko, L; Taliercio, C; Trevisan, L

    2014-02-01

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values. PMID:24593449

  7. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: Design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brombin, M. Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Barzon, A.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Trevisan, L.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-02-15

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values.

  8. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: Design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Barzon, A.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Schiesko, L.; Taliercio, C.; Trevisan, L.

    2014-02-01

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values.

  9. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-08-21

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  10. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ-ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  11. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits,'' but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. We need much research and development (R D) and design analysis to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. We have a further opportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, we need to overcome three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges. The first programmatic challenge is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of the three key technical challenges is plasma engineering -- burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost. Some design requirements are now too strict; some are too lax. Fuel cycle design requirements are presently too strict, mandating inappropriate T separation from H and D. Heat sink requirements are presently too lax; they should be strengthened to ensure that maximum loss of coolant accident temperatures drop.

  12. Degradation mechanisms and accelerated aging test design

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R L; Gillen, K T

    1985-01-01

    The fundamental mechanisms underlying the chemical degradation of polymers can change as a function of environmental stress level. When this occurs, it greatly complicates any attempt to use accelerated tests for predicting long-term material degradation behaviors. Understanding how degradation mechanisms can change at different stress levels facilitates both the design and the interpretation of aging tests. Oxidative degradation is a predominant mechanism for many polymers exposed to a variety of different environments in the presence of air, and there are two mechanistic considerations which are widely applicable to material oxidation. One involves a physical process, oxygen diffusion, as a rate-limiting step. This mechanism can predominate at high stress levels. The second is a chemical process, the time-dependent decomposition of peroxide species. This leads to chain branching and can become a rate-controlling factor at lower stress levels involving time-scales applicable to use environments. The authors describe methods for identifying the operation of these mechanisms and illustrate the dramatic influence they can have on the degradation behaviors of a number of polymer types. Several commonly used approaches to accelerated aging tests are discussed in light of the behaviors which result from changes in degradation mechanisms. 9 references, 4 figures.

  13. OMEGA timing receiver, design and system test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. J.; Britt, J. E.; Chi, A.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a two frequency OMEGA Timing Receiver is discussed. The receiver tracks the arrival time of the signals by precise phase matching at the receiving antenna. Provision is made for inserting a propagation delay correction for each signal path. Time is measured as the difference between the zero crossing coincidence of the corrected signals and the local time. This number is displayed on the front panel in microseconds. The receiver can also function as a precise phase tracking receiver for collection of propagation data essential to augmenting the propagation corrections. All phase and time information is made available in a BCD format for flexibility in interfacing with other equipment. Results of preliminary tests using experimental transmissions are given. Preliminary results indicate time may be transferred by this technique to an accuracy of a few microseconds.

  14. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

  15. Negative Ion Based Heating and Diagnostic Neutral Beams for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunke, B.; Bora, D.; Antoni, V.; Bonicelli, T.; Chakraborty, A.; Cordier, J.-J.; Hemsworth, R.; Inoue, T.; Tanga, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2008-04-01

    To meet the requirements of the four operating and one start-up scenarios foreseen in the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) a flexible heating mix will be required, which has to include a reliable contribution from neutral beams. The current baseline of ITER foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beam (HNB) systems based on negative ion technology, each operating at 1 MeV 40 A D- ions, and each capable of delivering up to 16.7 MW of D ° to the ITER plasma. A 3rd HNB injector is foreseen as an upgrade option. In addition a dedicated Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injecting 100 keV 60 A of negative hydrogen ions will be available for charge exchange resonant spectroscopy (CXRS). The significant R&D effort necessary to meet the design requirements will be provided in the Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF), which is to be constructed in Padua, Italy. This paper gives an overview of the current status of the neutral beam (NB) systems and the chosen configuration. The ongoing integration effort into the ITER plant is highlighted and open interface issues are identified. It is shown how installation and maintenance logistics has influenced the design. ITER operating scenarios are briefly discussed, including start-up and commissioning. For example it is now envisaged to have a low current hydrogen phase of ITER operations, essentially for commissioning of the many auxiliary systems used on ITER. The low current limits the achievable plasma density, and hence the NB energy due to shine through limitations. Therefore a possible reconfiguration of the auxiliary heating systems is now being discussed. Other NB related issues identified by the ongoing design review process are emphasized and possible impact on the implementations of the HNB and DNB systems is indicated.

  16. Experiment of low resistance joints for the ITER correction coil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huajun; Wu, Yu; Wu, Weiyue; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yi; Guo, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    A test method was designed and performed to measure joint resistance of the ITER correction coil (CC) in liquid helium (LHe) temperature. A 10 kA superconducting transformer was manufactured to provide the joints current. The transformer consisted of two concentric layer-wound superconducting solenoids. NbTi superconducting wire was wound in the primary coil and the ITER CC conductor was wound in the secondary coil. The primary and the secondary coils were both immersed in liquid helium of a 300 mm useful bore diameter cryostat. Two ITER CC joints were assembled in the secondary loop and tested. The current of the secondary loop was ramped to 9 kA in several steps. The two joint resistances were measured to be 1.2 nΩ and 1.65 nΩ, respectively.

  17. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  18. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly Versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We present a mechanism for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  19. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  20. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  1. Quantum iterated function systems.

    PubMed

    Łoziński, Artur; Zyczkowski, Karol; Słomczyński, Wojciech

    2003-10-01

    An iterated function system (IFS) is defined by specifying a set of functions in a classical phase space, which act randomly on an initial point. In an analogous way, we define a quantum IFS (QIFS), where functions act randomly with prescribed probabilities in the Hilbert space. In a more general setting, a QIFS consists of completely positive maps acting in the space of density operators. This formalism is designed to describe certain problems of nonunitary quantum dynamics. We present exemplary classical IFSs, the invariant measure of which exhibits fractal structure, and study properties of the corresponding QIFSs and their invariant states.

  2. MLP iterative construction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbun, Thomas F.; Rogers, Steven K.; DeSimio, Martin P.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1997-04-01

    The MLP Iterative Construction Algorithm (MICA) designs a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network as it trains. MICA adds Hidden Layer Nodes one at a time, separating classes on a pair-wise basis, until the data is projected into a linear separable space by class. Then MICA trains the Output Layer Nodes, which results in an MLP that achieves 100% accuracy on the training data. MICA, like Backprop, produces an MLP that is a minimum mean squared error approximation of the Bayes optimal discriminant function. Moreover, MICA's training technique yields novel feature selection technique and hidden node pruning technique

  3. Test Design Project: Studies in Test Bias. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David

    Item bias in a multiple-choice test can be detected by appropriate analyses of the persons x items scoring matrix. This permits comparison of groups of examinees tested with the same instrument. The test may be biased if it is not measuring the same thing in comparable groups, if groups are responding to different aspects of the test items, or if…

  4. ITER CENTRAL SOLENOID COIL INSULATION QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N; Mann, T L; Miller, J R; Freudenberg, K D; Reed, R P; Walsh, R P; McColskey, J D; Evans, D

    2009-06-11

    An insulation system for ITER Central Solenoid must have sufficiently high electrical and structural strength. Design efforts to bring stresses in the turn and layer insulation within allowables failed. It turned out to be impossible to eliminate high local tensile stresses in the winding pack. When high local stresses can not be designed out, the qualification procedure requires verification of the acceptable structural and electrical strength by testing. We built two 4 x 4 arrays of the conductor jacket with two options of the CS insulation and subjected the arrays to 1.2 million compressive cycles at 60 MPa and at 76 K. Such conditions simulated stresses in the CS insulation. We performed voltage withstand tests and after end of cycling we measured the breakdown voltages between in the arrays. After that we dissectioned the arrays and studied micro cracks in the insulation. We report details of the specimens preparation, test procedures and test results.

  5. A Tale of Two Chambers: Iterative Approaches and Lessons Learned from Life Support Systems Testing in Altitude Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    With a brand new fire set ablaze by a serendipitous convergence of events ranging from a science fiction novel and movie ("The Martian"), to ground-breaking recent discoveries of flowing water on its surface, the drive for the journey to Mars seems to be in a higher gear than ever before. We are developing new spacecraft and support systems to take humans to the Red Planet, while scientists on Earth continue using the International Space Station as a laboratory to evaluate the effects of long duration space flight on the human body. Written from the perspective of a facility test director rather than a researcher, and using past and current life support systems tests as examples, this paper seeks to provide an overview on how facility teams approach testing, the kind of information they need to ensure efficient collaborations and successful tests, and how, together with researchers and principal investigators, we can collectively apply what we learn to execute future tests.

  6. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  7. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  8. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  9. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  10. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  11. Progress report on the influence of test temperature and grain boundary chemistry on the fracture behavior of ITER copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Stubbins, J.F.; Edwards, D.J.

    1998-09-01

    This collaborative study was initiated to determine mechanical properties at elevated temperatures of various copper alloys by University of Illinois and Pacific Northwestern National Lab (PNNL) with support of OMG Americas, Inc. and Brush Wellman, Inc. This report includes current experimental results on notch tensile tests and pre-cracked bend bar tests on these materials at room temperature, 200 and 300 C. The elevated temperature tests were performed in vacuum and indicate that a decrease in fracture resistance with increasing temperature, as seen in previous investigations. While the causes for the decreases in fracture resistance are still not clear, the current results indicate that environmental effects are likely less important in the process than formerly assumed.

  12. A general design for energy test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan

    2000-06-15

    Appliances are increasingly controlled by microprocessors. Unfortunately, energy test procedures have not been modified to capture the positive and negative contributions of the microprocessor to the appliance's energy use. A new test procedure is described which captures both the mechanical and logical features present in many new appliances. We developed an energy test procedure for refrigerators that incorporates most aspects of the proposed new approach. Some of the strengths and weaknesses of the new test are described.

  13. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Chitarin, G; Agostinetti, P; Marconato, N; Marcuzzi, D; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Sonato, P

    2012-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  14. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2012-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  15. Teal Ruby - Design, manufacture and test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepi, J. W.; Kahan, M. A.; Barnes, W. H.; Zielinski, R. J.

    The Teal Ruby infrared telescope, designed to passively operate in a cryogenic and orbital environment, and capable of maintaining integrity under a severe set of design criteria, is presented. The infrared telescope unit, a curved-field centered design, is described; a woven graphite epoxy composite structure encloses the lightweight fused silica mirrors. The completed telescope design satisfies the necessary criteria, including spacecraft payload capabilities, good stiffness characteristics, low heat loss, and low thermal expansion. To meet performance in terms of optical resolution, the overall design error is held to one-tenth of one wavelength or less of near infrared light. To ascertain the design validity, a detailed mathematical model was constructed using the NASTRAN digital routine. The instrument is scheduled for Space Shuttle orbital launch, one of its purposes being the verification of the capabilities of an infrared sensor and a mosaic focal plane.

  16. US ITER Moving Forward

    ScienceCinema

    US ITER / ORNL

    2016-07-12

    US ITER Project Manager Ned Sauthoff, joined by Wayne Reiersen, Team Leader Magnet Systems, and Jan Berry, Team Leader Tokamak Cooling System, discuss the U.S.'s role in the ITER international collaboration.

  17. Design and performance test of spacecraft test and operation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Cui, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2011-06-01

    Main test processor (MTP) software is the key element of Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for spacecraft test and operation used in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) for years without innovation. With the increasing demand for a more efficient and agile MTP software, the new MTP software was developed. It adopts layered and plug-in based software architecture, whose core runtime server provides message queue management, share memory management and process management services and forms the framework for a configurable and open architecture system. To investigate the MTP software's performance, the test case of network response time, test sequence management capability and data-processing capability was introduced in detail. Test results show that the MTP software is common and has higher performance than the legacy one.

  18. Experimental Evidence on Iterated Reasoning in Games

    PubMed Central

    Grehl, Sascha; Tutić, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence on two forms of iterated reasoning in games, i.e. backward induction and interactive knowledge. Besides reliable estimates of the cognitive skills of the subjects, our design allows us to disentangle two possible explanations for the observed limits in performed iterated reasoning: Restrictions in subjects’ cognitive abilities and their beliefs concerning the rationality of co-players. In comparison to previous literature, our estimates regarding subjects’ skills in iterated reasoning are quite pessimistic. Also, we find that beliefs concerning the rationality of co-players are completely irrelevant in explaining the observed limited amount of iterated reasoning in the dirty faces game. In addition, it is demonstrated that skills in backward induction are a solid predictor for skills in iterated knowledge, which points to some generalized ability of the subjects in iterated reasoning. PMID:26312486

  19. Development of the Teachers Supporting Teachers in Urban Schools Program: What Iterative Research Designs Can Teach Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, Elisa S.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Marinez-Lora, Ane; Atkins, Marc S.; Keel, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The "Teachers Supporting Teachers in Urban Schools Project" is a 3-year study funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (Development and Innovation Study) and designed to enhance new teachers' effectiveness around the two strongest empirical predictors of attrition--classroom management and engaging learners--and connectedness to colleagues…

  20. Analysis of Nb3Sn Strand Microstructure After Full-size SULTAN Test of ITER TF Conductor Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaverin, D.; Potanina, L.; Shutov, K.; Vysotsky, V.; Tronza, V.; Mitin, A.; Abdyukhanov, I.; Alekseev, M.

    The study of defects generated in superconducting filaments of Nb3Sn strands under electromagnetic and thermal cycling was carried out for the TFRF3 cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) sample that passed final testing inthe SULTAN test facility. The TFRF3 sample was manufactured forthe qualification of the RF Toroidal Field (TF) CICC. The strand samples were taken from different locations in the cross-section of TFRF3 and different positions along its axis in relation to background magnetic field. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of defects were carried out using metallographic analysis of images obtained by Laser Scanning Microscope. We analyzed number, type, and distribution of defects in filaments of the Nb3Sn strand samples extracted from different petals of TFRF3 in dependence on thestrand location in the cross-section (the center of petal, nearby the spiral, nearby the outer jacket) in the high field zone (HFZ). The results about the defects amount and their distribution are presented and discussed.

  1. Ferritic-Martensitic steel Test Blanket Modules: Status and future needs for design criteria requirements and fabrication validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavy, J.-F.; Aiello, G.; Aubert, P.; Boccaccini, L. V.; Daichendt, M.; De Dinechin, G.; Diegele, E.; Giancarli, L. M.; Lässer, R.; Neuberger, H.; Poitevin, Y.; Stephan, Y.; Rampal, G.; Rigal, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead and the Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed are the two breeding blankets concepts for the DEMO reactor which have been selected by EU to be tested in ITER in the framework of the Test Blanket Module projects. They both use a 9%CrWVTa Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steel, called EUROFER, as structural material and helium as coolant. This paper gives an overview of the status of the EUROFER qualification program and discusses the future needs for design criteria requirements and fabrication validation.

  2. Modeling the inflammatory response in the hypothalamus ensuing heat stroke: iterative cycle of model calibration, identifiability analysis, experimental design and data collection.

    PubMed

    Klett, Hagen; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Maria; Dineen, Shauna; Leon, Lisa R; Timmer, Jens; Doyle, Francis J

    2015-02-01

    Heat Stroke (HS) is a life-threatening illness caused by prolonged exposure to heat that causes severe hyperthermia and nervous system abnormalities. The long term consequences of HS are poorly understood and deeper insight is required to find possible treatment strategies. Elevated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during HS recovery suggest to play a major role in the immune response. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to understand the interactions and dynamics of cytokines in the hypothalamus, the main thermoregulatory center in the brain. Uncertainty and identifiability analysis of the calibrated model parameters revealed non-identifiable parameters due to the limited amount of data. To overcome the lack of identifiability of the parameters, an iterative cycle of optimal experimental design, data collection, re-calibration and model reduction was applied and further informative experiments were suggested. Additionally, a new method of approximating the prior distribution of the parameters for Bayesian optimal experimental design based on the profile likelihood is presented.

  3. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Norman W. Schaeffler, a NASA aerospace research engineer, describes how wind tunnels work and how aircraft designers use them to understand aerodynamic forces at low speeds. Learn the advantage...

  4. Dynamic (Vibration) Testing: Design-Certification of Aerospace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin K.

    2010-01-01

    Various types of dynamic testing of structures for certification purposes are described, including vibration, shock and acoustic testing. Modal testing is discussed as it frequently complements dynamic testing and is part of the structural verification/validation process leading up to design certification. Examples of dynamic and modal testing are presented as well as the common practices, procedures and standards employed.

  5. US--ITER activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Attaya, H.; Gohar, Y.; Smith, D.

    1990-09-01

    Activation analysis has been made for the US ITER design. The radioactivity and the decay heat have been calculated, during operation and after shutdown for the two ITER phases, the Physics Phase and the Technology Phase. The Physics Phase operates about 24 full power days (FPDs) at fusion power level of 1100 MW and the Technology Phase has 860 MW fusion power and operates for about 1360 FPDs. The point-wise gamma sources have been calculated everywhere in the reactor at several times after shutdown of the two phases and are then used to calculate the biological dose everywhere in the reactor. Activation calculations have been made also for ITER divertor. The results are presented for different continuous operation times and for only one pulse. The effect of the pulsed operation on the radioactivity is analyzed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Cost effective dynamic design and test requirements for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Bangs, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study examining current spacecraft dynamic design and test requirements for the cost effective design and development of Shuttle payloads are presented. Dynamic environments, payload configurations, design/test requirements, test levels, assembly level of testing, simulation methods, prototype role, load limiting, test facilities, and flight measurements are discussed as they relate to the development of a cost effective design and test philosophy for Shuttle Spacelab payloads. It is concluded that changes to current design/test practices will minimize long range payload costs. However, changes to current practices need be quantitatively evaluated before an orderly progression to more cost effective methods can be achieved without undue risk of mission failures. Of major importance is optimization of test levels and plans for payloads and payload subsystems which will result in minimum project costs.

  7. A Psychological Measurement of Student Testing Design Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, P. K.; Bruno, James

    An analytical technique from the field of market research called conjoint analysis was applied to a psychological measurement of student testing design preferences. Past concerns with testing design are reviewed, and a newer approach to testing is identified--the modified confidence weighted-admissible probability measurement (MCW-APM) test…

  8. 49 CFR 178.33b-7 - Design qualification test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design qualification test. 178.33b-7 Section 178... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-7 Design qualification test. (a) Drop testing. (1) To ensure that creep does not affect the ability of the container to retain the contents, each new...

  9. Test Design Project: Studies in Test Adequacy. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    These studies in test adequacy focus on two problems: procedures for estimating reliability, and techniques for identifying ineffective distractors. Fourteen papers are presented on recent advances in measuring achievement (a response to Molenaar); "an extension of the Dirichlet-multinomial model that allows true score and guessing to be…

  10. ITER project and fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, H.

    2011-09-01

    In the sessions of ITR, FTP and SEE of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, 159 papers were presented in total, highlighted by the remarkable progress of the ITER project: ITER baseline has been established and procurement activities have been started as planned with a target of realizing the first plasma in 2019; ITER physics basis is sound and operation scenarios and operational issues have been extensively studied in close collaboration with the worldwide physics community; the test blanket module programme has been incorporated into the ITER programme and extensive R&D works are ongoing in the member countries with a view to delivering their own modules in a timely manner according to the ITER master schedule. Good progress was also reported in the areas of a variety of complementary activities to DEMO, including Broader Approach activities and long-term technology. This paper summarizes the highlights of the papers presented in the ITR, FTP and SEE sessions with a minimum set of background information.

  11. Design manual: Oxygen Thermal Test Article (OTTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronic, W. L.; Baese, C. L.; Conder, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a cryogenic tank for storing liquid hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, methane, or helium for an extended period of time with minimum losses are discussed. A description of the tank and control module, assembly drawings and details of major subassemblies, specific requirements controlling development of the system, thermal concept considerations, thermal analysis methods, and a record of test results are provided. The oxygen thermal test article thermal protection system has proven that the insulation system for cryogenic vessels is effective.

  12. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Bartlett, A.H.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented.

  13. APEX 3D Propeller Test Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    A low Reynolds number, high subsonic mach number flight regime is fairly uncommon in aeronautics. Most flight vehicles do not fly under these aerodynamic conditions. However, recently there have been a number of proposed aircraft applications (such as high altitude observation platforms and Mars aircraft) that require flight within this regime. One of the main obstacles to flight under these conditions is the ability to reliably generate sufficient thrust for the aircraft. For a conventional propulsion system, the operation and design of the propeller is the key aspect to its operation. Due to the difficulty in experimentally modeling the flight conditions in ground-based facilities, it has been proposed to conduct propeller experiments from a high altitude gliding platform (APEX). A preliminary design of a propeller experiment under the low Reynolds number, high mach number flight conditions has been devised. The details of the design are described as well as the potential data that will be collected.

  14. The R.M.C. Design-Build-Test Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Four projects were assigned to final year civil engineering undergraduates in a course on structural steel design. The projects involved the design, construction, and testing of two columns and two trusses. (TS)

  15. Design of a backscatter 14-MeV neutron time-of-flight spectrometer for experiments at ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Dzysiuk, N.; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Skiba, M.

    2014-08-21

    Neutron energy spectrometry diagnostics play an important role in present-day experiments related to fusion energy research. Measurements and thorough analysis of the neutron emission from the fusion plasma give information on a number of basic fusion performance quantities, on the condition of the neutron source and plasma behavior. Here we discuss the backscatter Time-of-Flight (bTOF) spectrometer concept as a possible instrument for performing high resolution measurements of 14 MeV neutrons. The instrument is based on two sets of scintillators, a first scatterer exposed to a collimated neutron beam and a second detector set placed in the backward direction. The scintillators of the first set are enriched in deuterium to achieve neutron backscattering. The energy resolution and efficiency of a bTOF instrument have been determined for various geometrical configurations. A preliminary design of optimal geometry for the two scintillator sets has been obtained by Monte Carlo simulations based on the MCNPX code.

  16. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  17. Test Designers Tap Students for Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Pondering a math problem while she swings her sneakered feet from a chair, 12-year-old Andrea Guevara is helping researchers design an assessment that will shape the learning of 19 million students. The 8th grader, who came to the United States from Ecuador three years ago, is trying out two ways of providing English-language support on a…

  18. A Case Study of Modern PLC and LabVIEW Controls: Power Supply Controls for the ORNL ITER ECH Test Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Alan M; Killough, Stephen M; Bigelow, Tim S; White, John A; Munro Jr, John K

    2011-01-01

    Power Supply Controls are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test transmission line components of the Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system, with a focus on gyrotrons and waveguides, in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The control is performed by several Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC s) located near the different equipment. A technique of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is presented to monitor, control, and log actions of the PLC s on a PC through use of Allen Bradley s Remote I/O communication interface coupled with an Open Process Control/Object Linking and Embedding [OLE] for Process Control (OPC) Server/Client architecture. The OPC data is then linked to a National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW system for monitoring and control. Details of the architecture and insight into applicability to other systems are presented in the rest of this paper. Future integration with an EPICS (Experimental Physics Industrial Control System) based mini-CODAC (Control, Data Access and Communication) SCADA system is under consideration, and integration considerations will be briefly introduced.

  19. Design development tests for composite crashworthy helicopter fuselage

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, J.K.; Dremann, C.C.

    1985-10-01

    Design development tests were conducted to investigate the crashworthy characteristics of composite helicopter fuselage subcomponents, and to design helicopter center beam/bulkhead specimens lighter than structural elements of honeycomb sandwich construction. Skinstringer designs of center beams - made of carbon, and hybrids of carbon and Kevlar - were fabricated and tested in axial compression. Crashworthy design parameters of specific energy, operating load and stroke efficiency were investigated. 8 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Space power distribution system technology. Volume 3: Test facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.; Cannady, M. D.; Cassinelli, J. E.; Farber, B. F.; Lurie, C.; Fleck, G. W.; Lepisto, J. W.; Messner, A.; Ritterman, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The AMPS test facility is a major tool in the attainment of more economical space power. The ultimate goals of the test facility, its primary functional requirements and conceptual design, and the major equipment it contains are discussed.

  1. Panel Design Variations in the Multistage Test Using the Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Park, Ryoungsun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared various panel designs of the multistage test (MST) using mixed-format tests in the context of classification testing. Simulations varied the design of the first-stage module. The first stage was constructed according to three levels of test information functions (TIFs) with three different TIF centers. Additional computerized…

  2. Students' Initial Knowledge State and Test Design: Towards a Valid and Reliable Test Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CoPo, Antonio Roland I.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a good test instrument involves specifications, test construction, validation, try-out, analysis and revision. The initial knowledge state of forty (40) tertiary students enrolled in Business Statistics course was determined and the same test instrument undergoes validation. The designed test instrument did not only reveal the baseline…

  3. Test fixture design for boron-aluminum and beryllium test panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaux, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed description of the test fixture design and the backup analysis of the fixture assembly and its components are presented. The test fixture is required for the separate testing of two boron-aluminum and two beryllium compression panels. This report is presented in conjunction with a complete set of design drawings on the test fixture system.

  4. Designing the Board's New Literature Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1968-01-01

    This article describes the problems that the College Entrance Examination Board's Committee of Review for the Examinations in English encountered in creating a fair, objective, hour-long literature achievement test which would meet four objectives--to measure the breadth of a student's reading, his understanding of that reading, his response to…

  5. Designing surveys for tests of gravity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2011-12-28

    Modified gravity theories may provide an alternative to dark energy to explain cosmic acceleration. We argue that the observational programme developed to test dark energy needs to be augmented to capture new tests of gravity on astrophysical scales. Several distinct signatures of gravity theories exist outside the 'linear' regime, especially owing to the screening mechanism that operates inside halos such as the Milky Way to ensure that gravity tests in the solar system are satisfied. This opens up several decades in length scale and classes of galaxies at low redshift that can be exploited by surveys. While theoretical work on models of gravity is in the early stages, we can already identify new regimes that cosmological surveys could target to test gravity. These include: (i) a small-scale component that focuses on the interior and vicinity of galaxy and cluster halos, (ii) spectroscopy of low-redshift galaxies, especially galaxies smaller than the Milky Way, in environments that range from voids to clusters, and (iii) a programme of combining lensing and dynamical information, from imaging and spectroscopic surveys, respectively, on the same (or statistically identical) sample of galaxies.

  6. Designing surveys for tests of gravity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2011-12-28

    Modified gravity theories may provide an alternative to dark energy to explain cosmic acceleration. We argue that the observational programme developed to test dark energy needs to be augmented to capture new tests of gravity on astrophysical scales. Several distinct signatures of gravity theories exist outside the 'linear' regime, especially owing to the screening mechanism that operates inside halos such as the Milky Way to ensure that gravity tests in the solar system are satisfied. This opens up several decades in length scale and classes of galaxies at low redshift that can be exploited by surveys. While theoretical work on models of gravity is in the early stages, we can already identify new regimes that cosmological surveys could target to test gravity. These include: (i) a small-scale component that focuses on the interior and vicinity of galaxy and cluster halos, (ii) spectroscopy of low-redshift galaxies, especially galaxies smaller than the Milky Way, in environments that range from voids to clusters, and (iii) a programme of combining lensing and dynamical information, from imaging and spectroscopic surveys, respectively, on the same (or statistically identical) sample of galaxies. PMID:22084295

  7. Deformable Surface Accommodating Intraocular Lens: Second Generation Prototype Design Methodology and Testing

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, Sean J.; Schwiegerling, Jim T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Present an analysis methodology for developing and evaluating accommodating intraocular lenses incorporating a deformable interface. Methods: The next generation design of extruded gel interface intraocular lens is presented. A prototype based upon similar previously in vivo proven design was tested with measurements of actuation force, lens power, interface contour, optical transfer function, and visual Strehl ratio. Prototype verified mathematical models were used to optimize optical and mechanical design parameters to maximize the image quality and minimize the required force to accommodate. Results: The prototype lens produced adequate image quality with the available physiologic accommodating force. The iterative mathematical modeling based upon the prototype yielded maximized optical and mechanical performance through maximum allowable gel thickness to extrusion diameter ratio, maximum feasible refractive index change at the interface, and minimum gel material properties in Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus. Conclusions: The design prototype performed well. It operated within the physiologic constraints of the human eye including the force available for full accommodative amplitude using the eye's natural focusing feedback, while maintaining image quality in the space available. The parameters that optimized optical and mechanical performance were delineated as those, which minimize both asphericity and actuation pressure. The design parameters outlined herein can be used as a template to maximize the performance of a deformable interface intraocular lens. Translational Relevance: The article combines a multidisciplinary basic science approach from biomechanics, optical science, and ophthalmology to optimize an intraocular lens design suitable for preliminary animal trials. PMID:25938005

  8. ITER Plasma Control System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snipes, Joseph; ITER PCS Design Team

    2015-11-01

    The development of the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) continues with the preliminary design phase for 1st plasma and early plasma operation in H/He up to Ip = 15 MA in L-mode. The design is being developed through a contract between the ITER Organization and a consortium of plasma control experts from EU and US fusion laboratories, which is expected to be completed in time for a design review at the end of 2016. This design phase concentrates on breakdown including early ECH power and magnetic control of the poloidal field null, plasma current, shape, and position. Basic kinetic control of the heating (ECH, ICH, NBI) and fueling systems is also included. Disruption prediction, mitigation, and maintaining stable operation are also included because of the high magnetic and kinetic stored energy present already for early plasma operation. Support functions for error field topology and equilibrium reconstruction are also required. All of the control functions also must be integrated into an architecture that will be capable of the required complexity of all ITER scenarios. A database is also being developed to collect and manage PCS functional requirements from operational scenarios that were defined in the Conceptual Design with links to proposed event handling strategies and control algorithms for initial basic control functions. A brief status of the PCS development will be presented together with a proposed schedule for design phases up to DT operation.

  9. Inhibited Shaped Charge Launcher Testing of Spacecraft Shield Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, Donald J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a test program in which several orbital debris shield designs were impact tested using the inhibited shaped charge launcher facility at Southwest Research Institute. This facility enables researchers to study the impact of one-gram aluminum projectiles on various shielding designs at velocities above 11 km/s. A total of twenty tests were conducted on targets provided by NASA-MSFC. This report discusses in detail the shield design, the projectile parameters and the test configuration used for each test. A brief discussion of the target damage is provided, as the detailed analysis of the target response will be done by NASA-MSFC.

  10. A Testlet Assembly Design for Adaptive Multistage Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard; Brumfield, Terry; Breithaupt, Krista

    2006-01-01

    This article describes multistage tests and some practical test development considerations related to the design and implementation of a multistage test, using the Uniform CPA (certified public accountant) Examination as a case study. The article further discusses the use of automated test assembly procedures in an operational context to produce…

  11. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  12. Design of an impact abrasion testing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Beeley, P. R.; Baker, A. J.

    1994-04-01

    By using a cam-flat follower-impact shaft with a crank-flat rotating anvil system, the machine to be described can create various impact abrasion conditions to simulate a large range of industrial situations encountered in this field. The main features of the machine are the long working life of the flat rotating anvil, which works in the same way as that of the disk in a pin-on-disk wear tester, and the accurate control of both the impact energy delivered to the specimen and the total sliding distance of the specimen on the anvil. Statistical analysis of test results on the machine with EN24 steel and cast high manganese steel shows that the uncertainty of the population mean is within +/- 4.7% of the sample mean under a 95% confidence level of student distribution, which indicates a very good accuracy of test.

  13. Development of NASA's Sample Cartridge Assembly: Design, Thermal Analysis, and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Brian; Hernandez, Deborah; Duffy, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Sample Cartridge Assembly (SCA) project is responsible for designing and validating a payload that contains a materials research sample in a sealed environment. The SCA will be heated in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) that is housed inside the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) located in the International Space Station (ISS). Sintered metals and crystal growth experiments in microgravity are examples of some of the types of materials research that may be performed with a SCA. The project's approach has been to use thermal models to guide the SCA through several design iterations. Various layouts of the SCA components were explored to meet the science and engineering requirements, and testing has been done to help prove the design. This paper will give an overview of the SCA design. It will show how thermal analysis is used to support the project. Also some testing that has been completed will also be discussed, including changes that were made to the thermal profile used during brazing.

  14. Designing an Active Target Test Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, James; Tan Ahn Collaboration, Dr.; Nicolas Dixneuf Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The development of instrumentation in nuclear physics is crucial for advancing our ability to measure the properties of exotic nuclei. One limitation of the use of exotic nuclei in experiment is their very low production intensities. Recently, detectors, called active-target dectectors, have been developed to address this issue. Active-target detectors use a gas medium to image charged-particle tracks that are emitted in nuclear reactions. Last semester, I designed a vacuum chamber to be used in developing Micro-Pattern Gas detectors that will upgrade the capabilities of an active-target detector called the Prototype AT-TPC. With the exterior of the chamber complete, I have now been using an electric field modeling program, Garfield, developed by CERN to design a field cage to be placed within the vacuum chamber. The field cage will be a box-like apparatus consisting of two parallel metal plates connected with a resistor chain and attached to wires wrapped between them. The cage will provide a uniform electric field within the chamber to drift electrons from nuclear reactions down to the detector in the bottom of the chamber. These signals are then amplified by a proportional counter, and the data is sent to a computer. For the long term, we would like to incorporate a Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors in the interior of the chamber and eventually use the AT-TPC to examine various nuclei. Dr. Ahn is my advising professor.

  15. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  16. Development and testing of new upper-limb prosthetic devices: research designs for usability testing.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.

  17. Progress on US ITER Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ

    2010-11-01

    There have been significant advances in the design concepts for the 8 ITER diagnostic systems being provided by the US. Concepts for integration of the diagnostics into the port plugs have also evolved. A prerequisite for the signoff of the procurement arrangements for these each diagnostic is a Conceptual Design Review organized by the ITER Organization. US experts under contract with the USIPO have been assisting the IO to prepare for these Reviews. In addition, a design team at PPPL has been working with these experts and designers from other ITER parties to package diagnostic front-ends into the 5 US plugs. Modular diagnostic shield modules are now being considered in order to simplify the interfaces between the diagnostics within each plug. Diagnostic first wall elements are envisioned to be integral with these shield modules. This simplifies the remote handling of the diagnostics and provides flexibility for future removal of one diagnostic minimally affecting others. Front-end configurations will be presented, along with lists of issues needing resolution prior to the start of preliminary design.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1433 - Design, construction and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Design, construction and testing. 1926.1433 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1433 Design, construction and testing. The following requirements apply to equipment...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1433 - Design, construction and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Design, construction and testing. 1926.1433 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1433 Design, construction and testing. The following requirements apply to equipment...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1433 - Design, construction and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Design, construction and testing. 1926.1433 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1433 Design, construction and testing. The following requirements apply to equipment...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1433 - Design, construction and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Design, construction and testing. 1926.1433 Section 1926..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1433 Design, construction and testing. The following requirements apply to equipment...

  2. Design and testing of a superfluid liquid helium cooling loop

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, L.M.; Green, M.A.; Levin, S.M.; Smoot, G.F.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a cryogenic cooling loop that uses a thermomechanical pump to circulate superfluid liquid helium. The cooling loop test apparatus is designed to prove forced liquid helium flow concepts that will be used on the Astromag superconducting magnet facility. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    The analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs for the development of photovoltaic modules is presented. Analytical models are developed to test optical, thermal, electrical and structural properties of the various encapsulation systems. Model data is compared to relevant test data to improve model accuracy and develop general principles for the design of photovoltaic modules.

  4. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  5. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Butterfield, C

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  6. Model coil for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) magnet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, K.

    1994-07-01

    The model coil program for the ITER EDA includes the manufacture and testing of one Central Solenoid (CS) model coil and one Toroidal Field (TF) model coil, and test facility preparations. The CS model coil has an inner diameter of 1.6 m and produces a full field of 13 T. The TF model coil is race-track shaped with an outer dimension of 3 m x 4 m. It will be tested in conjunction with an LCT coil to simulate mechanical load conditions. Different kinds of conductors can be tested as inserts to be placed in the bore of the CS model coil. Two facilities at JAERI and KfK can provide ITER-relevant conditions for testing the model coils and inserts. The model coil program will validate the ITER magnet design and the manufacturing feasibility.

  7. Modified ACES Portable Life Support Integration, Design, and Testing for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Cody

    2014-01-01

    NASA's next generation of exploration missions provide a unique challenge to designers of EVA life support equipment, especially in a fiscally-constrained environment. In order to take the next steps of manned space exploration, NASA is currently evaluating the use of the Modified ACES (MACES) suit in conjunction with the Advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development. This paper will detail the analysis and integration of the PLSS thermal and ventilation subsystems into the MACES pressure garment, design of prototype hardware, and hardware-in-the-loop testing during the spring 2014 timeframe. Prototype hardware was designed with a minimal impact philosophy in order to mitigate design constraints becoming levied on either the advanced PLSS or MACES subsystems. Among challenges faced by engineers were incorporation of life support thermal water systems into the pressure garment cavity, operational concept definition between vehicle/portable life support system hardware, and structural attachment mechanisms while still enabling maximum EVA efficiency from a crew member's perspective. Analysis was completed in late summer 2013 to 'bound' hardware development, with iterative analysis cycles throughout the hardware development process. The design effort will cumulate in the first ever manned integration of NASA's advanced PLSS system with a pressure garment originally intended primarily for use in a contingency survival scenario.

  8. The Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Composite Heat Exchange Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, Derek J.; Meador, Michael A.; Shin, Euy-Sik; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Several heat exchanger (HX) test panels were designed, fabricated and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center to explore the fabrication and performance of several designs for composite heat exchangers. The development of these light weight, high efficiency air-liquid test panels was attempted using polymer composites and carbon foam materials. The fundamental goal of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of the composite HX for various space exploration and thermal management applications including Orion CEV and Altair. The specific objectives of this work were to select optimum materials, designs, and to optimize fabrication procedures. After fabrication, the individual design concept prototypes were tested to determine their thermal performance and to guide the future development of full-size engineering development units (EDU). The overall test results suggested that the panel bonded with pre-cured composite laminates to KFOAM Grade L1 scored above the other designs in terms of ease of manufacture and performance.

  9. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG&G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided.

  10. Solid deposition in the ITER cryogenic viscous compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Miller, Franklin K.; Pfotenhauer, John M.

    2016-09-01

    A transient model for the ITER cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is presented. The CVC is designed to separate hydrogen isotopes from helium in the gas-mixture exhaust from the ITER torus. During their residence in the CVC, hydrogen isotopes are captured along the pump wall while helium flows through. The CVC thereby provides the first stage of helium compression. The transient model characterizes the transport phenomena (species, momentum, and energy) that occur in the CVC. The numerical results are compared with experimental data from a scaled down test of the ITER CVC using pure hydrogen. Although the model has been developed for a hydrogen-helium mixture, it is simplified here in order to compare with the experimental data. The transient model, along with other numerical models we have developed, provide guidance for the design and optimization of the ITER CVC. The model can also be a useful tool or a reference for similar analyses, such as those for cryogenic carbon capture and air ingress in vacuum isolated cryogenic vessels.

  11. Space station prototype Sabatier reactor design verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A six-man, flight prototype carbon dioxide reduction subsystem for the SSP ETC/LSS (Space Station Prototype Environmental/Thermal Control and Life Support System) was developed and fabricated for the NASA-Johnson Space Center between February 1971 and October 1973. Component design verification testing was conducted on the Sabatier reactor covering design and off-design conditions as part of this development program. The reactor was designed to convert a minimum of 98 per cent hydrogen to water and methane for both six-man and two-man reactant flow conditions. Important design features of the reactor and test conditions are described. Reactor test results are presented that show design goals were achieved and off-design performance was stable.

  12. ITER Diagnostic First Wal

    SciTech Connect

    G. Douglas Loesser, et. al.

    2012-09-21

    The ITER Diagnostic Division is responsible for designing and procuring the First Wall Blankets that are mounted on the vacuum vessel port plugs at both the upper and equatorial levels This paper will discuss the effects of the diagnostic aperture shape and configuration on the coolant circuit design. The DFW design is driven in large part by the need to conform the coolant arrangement to a wide variety of diagnostic apertures combined with the more severe heating conditions at the surface facing the plasma, the first wall. At the first wall, a radiant heat flux of 35W/cm2 combines with approximate peak volumetric heating rates of 8W/cm3 (equatorial ports) and 5W/cm3 (upper ports). Here at the FW, a fast thermal response is desirable and leads to a thin element between the heat flux and coolant. This requirement is opposed by the wish for a thicker FW element to accommodate surface erosion and other off-normal plasma events.

  13. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Ballheim, R. W.; Bartley, S. M.; Smith, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A two phase program encompassing the redesign and fabrication of a solar collector which is low in cost and aesthetically appealing is described. Phase one work reviewed the current collector design and developed a low-cost design based on specific design/performance/cost requirements. Throughout this phase selected collector component materials were evaluated by testing and by considering cost, installation, maintainability and durability. The resultant collector design was composed of an absorber plate, insulation, frame, cover, desiccant and sealant. In Phase two, three collector prototypes were fabricated and evaluated for both nonthermal and thermal characteristics. Tests included static load tests of covers, burst pressure tests of absorber plates, and tests for optical characteristics of selective absorber plate coatings. The three prototype collectors were shipped to Marshall Space Flight Center for use in their solar heating and cooling test facility.

  14. Mechanical design and vibro-acoustic testing of ultrathin carbon foils for a spacecraft instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, John D; Baca, Allen G

    2009-01-01

    IBEX-Hi is an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument designed to measure the energy and flux distribution of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) emanating from the interaction zone between the Earth's solar system and the Milky Way galaxy. A key element to this electro-optic instrument is an array of fourteen carbon foils that are used to ionize the ENAs. The foils are comprised of an ultrathin (50-100 {angstrom} thick) layer of carbon suspended across the surface of an electroformed Nickel wire screen, which in turn is held taught by a metal frame holder. The electro formed orthogonal screen has square wire elements, 12.7 {micro}m thick, with a pitch of 131.1 wires/cm. Each foil holder has an open aperture approximately 5 cm by 2.5 cm. Designing and implementing foil holders with such a large surface area has not been attempted for spaceflight in the past and has proven to be extremely challenging. The delicate carbon foils are subject to fatigue failure from the large acoustic and vibration loads that they will be exposed to during launch of the spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution of the foil holder design from previous space instrument applications to a flight-like IBEX-Hi prototype. Vibro-acoustic qualification tests of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument and the resulting failure of several foils are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of iterative foil holder design modifications and laser vibrometer modal testing to support future fatigue failure analyses, along with additional acoustic testing of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument. The results of these design and testing activities are merged and the resulting flight-like foil holder assembly is proposed.

  15. Designing a respirator fit testing program.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D C

    1992-11-01

    The requirements for adequate respiratory protection for the employees of this agency vary. Therefore, accurate, updated job descriptions are a critical piece of information. Although the agency has made an effort to establish a respiratory protection program, a number of limitations exist when compared to the program components defined in ANSI, NIOSH, and OSHA guidance documents. In response to a request from the agency, the nurse consultant evaluated the existing respiratory protection program and made specific recommendations for improvement. At this time, the agency has signed a formal agreement with the Division of Federal Occupational Health to request continued assistance with "overhauling" their program. Top management has begun assigning responsibilities for the program to specific individuals, and a centralized database is being set up. The agency has implemented two new DFOH developed forms to improve the testing process, and the nurse consultant has revised the educational/training session to more adequately meet the needs of the work force. The Agency and DFOH are collaborating on reassessment of employees to correctly assign them to appropriate respiratory risk categories. This will, in turn, affect the medical monitoring needs as well as the educational needs of each individual.

  16. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  17. Reliability based design including future tests and multiagent approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Diane

    The initial stages of reliability-based design optimization involve the formulation of objective functions and constraints, and building a model to estimate the reliability of the design with quantified uncertainties. However, even experienced hands often overlook important objective functions and constraints that affect the design. In addition, uncertainty reduction measures, such as tests and redesign, are often not considered in reliability calculations during the initial stages. This research considers two areas that concern the design of engineering systems: 1) the trade-off of the effect of a test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost and 2) the search for multiple candidate designs as insurance against unforeseen faults in some designs. In this research, a methodology was developed to estimate the effect of a single future test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost. The methodology uses assumed distributions of computational and experimental errors with re-design rules to simulate alternative future test and redesign outcomes to form a probabilistic estimate of the reliability and cost for a given design. Further, it was explored how modeling a future test and redesign provides a company an opportunity to balance development costs versus performance by simultaneously designing the design and the post-test redesign rules during the initial design stage. The second area of this research considers the use of dynamic local surrogates, or surrogate-based agents, to locate multiple candidate designs. Surrogate-based global optimization algorithms often require search in multiple candidate regions of design space, expending most of the computation needed to define multiple alternate designs. Thus, focusing on solely locating the best design may be wasteful. We extended adaptive sampling surrogate techniques to locate multiple optima by building local surrogates in sub-regions of the design space to identify optima. The efficiency of this method

  18. Test methods and design allowables for fibrous composites. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed include extreme/hostile environment testing, establishing design allowables, and property/behavior specific testing. Papers are presented on environmental effects on the high strain rate properties of graphite/epoxy composite, the low-temperature performance of short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, the abrasive wear behavior of unidirectional and woven graphite fiber/PEEK, test methods for determining design allowables for fiber reinforced composites, and statistical methods for calculating material allowables for MIL-HDBK-17. Attention is also given to a test method to measure the response of composite materials under reversed cyclic loads, a through-the-thickness strength specimen for composites, the use of torsion tubes to measure in-plane shear properties of filament-wound composites, the influlence of test fixture design on the Iosipescu shear test for fiber composite materials, and a method for monitoring in-plane shear modulus in fatigue testing of composites.

  19. DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY TEST OF THE 1500 MHZ NSLS-II PASSIVE SUPERCONDUCTING RF CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Kosciuk, B.; Ravindranath, V.; Sikora, B.; Sharma, S.; Towne, N.; Grimm, T.L.; Boulware, C.H.; Krizmanich, C.; Kuhlman, B.; Miller, N.; Siegel, B.; Winowski, M.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third harmonic cavity in order to increase the Touschek limited lifetime. Earlier work described the design alternatives and the geometry selected for a copper prototype. We subsequently have iterated the design to lower the R/Q of the cavity and to increase the diameter of the beam pipe ferrite HOM dampers to reduce the wakefield heating. A niobium cavity and full cryomodule including LN2 shield, magnetic shield and insulating vacuum vessel have been fabricated and installed. A passive SRF 3rd harmonic cavity consisting of two tightly coupled cells has been designed and fabricated for NSLS-II. Initial cold tests of this cavity are very promising. These tests have verified that the cavity frequency and mode separation between the 0 and {pi}-modes can be set at manufacture. Further, the frequency separation can be maintained over wide tuning ranges necessary for operation. Future work includes HOM damper and motorized tuner development.

  20. Design and field test of collaborative tools in the service of an innovative organization

    SciTech Connect

    De Beler, N.; Parfouru, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the design process of collaborative tools, based on ICT, aiming at supporting the tasks of the team that manages an outage of an energy production plant for maintenance activities. The design process follows an iterative and multidisciplinary approach, based on a collective tasks modeling of the outage management team in the light of Socio Organizational and Human (SOH) field studies, and on the state of the art of ICT. Field test of the collaborative tools designed plays a great place in this approach, allowing taking into account the operational world but involves also some risks which must be managed. To implement tools on all the production plants, we build an 'operational concept' with a level of description which authorizes the evolution of tools and allows some local adaptations. The field tests provide lessons on the ICT topics. For examples: the status of the remote access tools, the potential of use of a given information input by an actor for several individual and collective purposes, the actors perception of the tools meaning, and the requirements for supporting the implementation of change. (authors)

  1. Designing an Affordable Usability Test for E-Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Johnson, Donald M.; Shores-Ellis, Katrina D.; Crandall, Philip G.; Marcy, John A.; Seideman, Steve C.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides background and an introduction to a user-centered design and usability test in an inexpensive format that allows content experts who are novices in e-learning development to perform testing on newly developed technical training modules prior to their release. The use of a small number of test participants, avoidance of…

  2. Optical design for the Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is a Michelson-Morley-type experiment designed to test the pure tensor metric nature of gravitation the fundamental postulate of Einstein's theory of general relativity. With its focus on gravity's action on light propagation it complements other tests which rely on the gravitational dynamics of bodies.

  3. Optimal Testlet Pool Assembly for Multistage Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Breithaupt, Krista

    2006-01-01

    Computerized multistage testing (MST) designs require sets of test questions (testlets) to be assembled to meet strict, often competing criteria. Rules that govern testlet assembly may dictate the number of questions on a particular subject or may describe desirable statistical properties for the test, such as measurement precision. In an MST…

  4. A flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on a flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer. Information is given on aircraft/ground exchange, data link research activities, data link display format, a data link flight test, and the flight test setup.

  5. Multidimensional Adaptive Testing with Optimal Design Criteria for Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Joris; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2009-01-01

    Several criteria from the optimal design literature are examined for use with item selection in multidimensional adaptive testing. In particular, it is examined what criteria are appropriate for adaptive testing in which all abilities are intentional, some should be considered as a nuisance, or the interest is in the testing of a composite of the…

  6. Robust tooth surface reconstruction by iterative deformation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaotong; Dai, Ning; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Wang, Jun; Peng, Qingjin; Liu, Hao; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Digital design technologies have been applied extensively in dental medicine, especially in the field of dental restoration. The all-ceramic crown is an important restoration type of dental CAD systems. This paper presents a robust tooth surface reconstruction algorithm for all-ceramic crown design. The algorithm involves three necessary steps: standard tooth initial positioning and division; salient feature point extraction using Morse theory; and standard tooth deformation using iterative Laplacian Surface Editing and mesh stitching. This algorithm can retain the morphological features of the tooth surface well. It is robust and suitable for almost all types of teeth, including incisor, canine, premolar, and molar. Moreover, it allows dental technicians to use their own preferred library teeth for reconstruction. The algorithm has been successfully integrated in our Dental CAD system, more than 1000 clinical cases have been tested to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Progress and present status of ITER cryoline system

    SciTech Connect

    Badgujar, S.; Bonneton, M.; Chalifour, M.; Forgeas, A.; Serio, L.; Sarkar, B.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    The cryoline system at ITER forms a very complex network localized inside the Tokamak building, on a dedicated plant bridge and in cryoplant areas. The cooling power produced in the cryoplant is distributed via these lines with a total length of about 3.7 km and interconnecting all the cold boxes of the cryogenic system as well as the cold boxes of various clients (magnets, cryopumps and thermal shield). Distinct layouts and polygonal geometry, nuclear safety and confinement requirements, difficult installation and in-service inspection/repair demand very high reliability and availability for the cryolines. The finalization of the building-embedded plates for supporting the lines, before the detailed design, has made this project technologically more challenging. The conceptual design phase has been completed and procurement arrangements have been signed with India, responsible for providing the system of cryolines and warm lines to ITER, as in kind contribution. The prototype test for the design and performance validation has been planned on a representative cryoline section. After describing the basic features and general layout of the ITER cryolines, the paper presents key design requirements, conceptual design approach, progress and status of the cryolines project as well as challenges to build such a complex cryoline system.

  8. Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shiyu; Lin, Haiyan; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST) have become two of the most popular modes in large-scale computer-based sequential testing. Though most designs of CAT and MST exhibit strength and weakness in recent large-scale implementations, there is no simple answer to the question of which design is better because different…

  9. Communications systems design for testability: Grey-box testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probert, Robert L.; Geldrez, Cecilia

    Large systems such as telecommunications systems may involve several million lines of executable code and tend to evolve incrementally, thus rendering testing and maintainability a very complex task. For this reason, testing and verification requirements must be defined and incorporated into the development process early in the software development cycle. Thus, design becomes a key component of these systems. An approach to assist in enhancing the testability of software designs is proposed, termed grey-box testing. One particular grey-box testing paradigm named semantic instrumentation is illustrated. Designs are represented as design machines, an extension of finite-state machines. A design-level plan for verification/test is then derived to guarantee branch coverage of the design machine for both normal behaviors and for processing of exceptions. Finally, semantic probes are defined to provide a mapping from the design machine to implemented code. These probes are used to document design decisions, implementation decisions, and execution traces during code verification and test. The process of semantic instrumentation is illustrated on communications services, more precisely, on the service of the alternating bit protocol.

  10. Energetic ions in ITER plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinches, S. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Lauber, Ph. W.; Oliver, H. J. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the behaviour and consequences of the expected populations of energetic ions in ITER plasmas. It begins with a careful analytic and numerical consideration of the stability of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario. The stability threshold is determined by balancing the energetic ion drive against the dominant damping mechanisms and it is found that only in the outer half of the plasma ( r / a > 0.5 ) can the fast ions overcome the thermal ion Landau damping. This is in spite of the reduced numbers of alpha-particles and beam ions in this region but means that any Alfvén Eigenmode-induced redistribution is not expected to influence the fusion burn process. The influence of energetic ions upon the main global MHD phenomena expected in ITER's primary operating scenarios, including sawteeth, neoclassical tearing modes and Resistive Wall Modes, is also reviewed. Fast ion losses due to the non-axisymmetric fields arising from the finite number of toroidal field coils, the inclusion of ferromagnetic inserts, the presence of test blanket modules containing ferromagnetic material, and the fields created by the Edge Localised Mode (ELM) control coils in ITER are discussed. The greatest losses and associated heat loads onto the plasma facing components arise due to the use of the ELM control coils and come from neutral beam ions that are ionised in the plasma edge.

  11. The J-2X Fuel Turbopump - Design, Development, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellier, James G.; Hawkins, Lakiesha V.; Shinguchi, Brian H.; Marsh, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR), a NASA subcontractor, is executing the design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) of a liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen two hundred ninety four thousand pound thrust rocket engine initially intended for the Upper Stage (US) and Earth Departure Stage (EDS) of the Constellation Program Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A key element of the design approach was to base the new J-2X engine on the heritage J-2S engine with the intent of uprating the engine and incorporating SSME and RS-68 lessons learned. The J-2S engine was a design upgrade of the flight proven J-2 configuration used to put American astronauts on the moon. The J-2S Fuel Turbopump (FTP) was the first Rocketdyne-designed liquid hydrogen centrifugal pump and provided many of the early lessons learned for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbopumps. This paper will discuss the design trades and analyses performed for the current J-2X FTP to increase turbine life; increase structural margins, facilitate component fabrication; expedite turbopump assembly; and increase rotordynamic stability margins. Risk mitigation tests including inducer water tests, whirligig turbine blade tests, turbine air rig tests, and workhorse gas generator tests characterized operating environments, drove design modifications, or identified performance impact. Engineering design, fabrication, analysis, and assembly activities support FTP readiness for the first J-2X engine test scheduled for July 2011.

  12. Design and Construction of a Hydroturbine Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayli, Ece; Kavurmaci, Berat; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Kaplan, Alper; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; Tascioglu, Yigit; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydropower is one of the clean, renewable, flexible and efficient energy resources. Most of the developing countries invest on this cost-effective energy source. Hydroturbines for hydroelectric power plants are tailor-made. Each turbine is designed and constructed according to the properties, namely the head and flow rate values of the specific water source. Therefore, a center (ETU Hydro-Center for Hydro Energy Research) for the design, manufacturing and performance tests of hydraulic turbines is established at TOBB University of Economics and Technology to promote research in this area. CFD aided hydraulic and structural design, geometry optimization, manufacturing and performance tests of hydraulic turbines are the areas of expertise of this center. In this paper, technical details of the design and construction of this one of a kind test facility in Turkey, is explained. All the necessary standards of IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) are met since the test facility will act as a certificated test center for hydraulic turbines.

  13. Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, Weston A.

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

  14. Iteration, Not Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this note is to present and justify proof via iteration as an intuitive, creative and empowering method that is often available and preferable as an alternative to proofs via either mathematical induction or the well-ordering principle. The method of iteration depends only on the fact that any strictly decreasing sequence of…

  15. On the design and test of a low noise propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of noise and performance of general aviation propellers was performed. Research was done in three areas: The acoustic and aerodynamic theory of general aviation propellers, wind tunnel tests of three one-quarter scale models of general aviation propellers, and flight test of two low noise propellers. The design and testing of the second propeller is reviewed. The general aerodynamic considerations needed to design a new propeller are described. The design point analysis of low noise propellers is reviewed. The predicted and measured noise levels are compared.

  16. Iterative adaption of the bidimensional wall of the French T2 wind tunnel around a C5 axisymmetrical model: Infinite variation of the Mach number at zero incidence and a test at increased incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archambaud, J. P.; Dor, J. B.; Payry, M. J.; Lamarche, L.

    1986-01-01

    The top and bottom two-dimensional walls of the T2 wind tunnel are adapted through an iterative process. The adaptation calculation takes into account the flow three-dimensionally. This method makes it possible to start with any shape of walls. The tests were performed with a C5 axisymmetric model at ambient temperature. Comparisons are made with the results of a true three-dimensional adaptation.

  17. Design Authority in the Test Programme Definition: The Alenia Spazio Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messidoro, P.; Sacchi, E.; Beruto, E.; Fleming, P.; Marucchi Chierro, P.-P.

    2004-08-01

    In addition, being the Verification and Test Programme a significant part of the spacecraft development life cycle in terms of cost and time, very often the subject of the mentioned discussion has the objective to optimize the verification campaign by possible deletion or limitation of some testing activities. The increased market pressure to reduce the project's schedule and cost is originating a dialecting process inside the project teams, involving program management and design authorities, in order to optimize the verification and testing programme. The paper introduces the Alenia Spazio experience in this context, coming from the real project life on different products and missions (science, TLC, EO, manned, transportation, military, commercial, recurrent and one-of-a-kind). Usually the applicable verification and testing standards (e.g. ECSS-E-10 part 2 "Verification" and ECSS-E-10 part 3 "Testing" [1]) are tailored to the specific project on the basis of its peculiar mission constraints. The Model Philosophy and the associated verification and test programme are defined following an iterative process which suitably combines several aspects (including for examples test requirements and facilities) as shown in Fig. 1 (from ECSS-E-10). The considered cases are mainly oriented to the thermal and mechanical verification, where the benefits of possible test programme optimizations are more significant. Considering the thermal qualification and acceptance testing (i.e. Thermal Balance and Thermal Vacuum) the lessons learned originated by the development of several satellites are presented together with the corresponding recommended approaches. In particular the cases are indicated in which a proper Thermal Balance Test is mandatory and others, in presence of more recurrent design, where a qualification by analysis could be envisaged. The importance of a proper Thermal Vacuum exposure for workmanship verification is also highlighted. Similar considerations are

  18. Vanguard/PLACE experiment system design and test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and testing of the NASA-GFSC Position Location and Aircraft Communications Equipment (PLACE) at C band frequency are discussed. The equipment was installed on the USNS Vanguard. The tests involved a sea test to evalute the position-location, 2-way voice, and 2-way data communications capability of PLACE and a trilateration test to position-fix the ATS-5 satellite using the PLACE system.

  19. Design, testing and evaluation of latching end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B.; Vandersluis, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Latching End Effector (LEE) forms part of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) for which Spar Aerospace Ltd, Space Systems Division is the prime contractor. The design, testing and performance evaluation of the Latching End Effector mechanisms is the subject of this paper focusing on: (1) ambient, thermal and vibration testing; (2) snare/rigidize performance testing and interaction during payload acquisition; and (3) latch/umbilical test results and performance.

  20. Progress and achievements of R&D activities for the ITER vacuum vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahira, M.; Takahashi, H.; Koizumi, K.; Onozuka, M.; Ioki, K.

    2001-04-01

    The Full Scale Sector Model Project, which was initiated in 1995 as one of the Seven Large Projects for ITER R&D, has been continued with the joint effort of the ITER Joint Central Team and the Japanese, Russian Federation and United States Home Teams. The fabrication of a full scale 18° toroidal sector, which is composed of two 9° sectors spliced at the port centre, was successfully completed in September 1997 with a dimensional accuracy of +/-3 mm for the total height and total width. Both sectors were shipped to the test site at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the integration test of the sectors was begun in October 1997. The integration test involves the adjustment of field joints, automatic narrow gap tungsten inert gas welding of field joints with splice plates and inspection of the joints by ultrasonic testing, as required for the initial assembly of the ITER vacuum vessel. This first demonstration of field joint welding and the performance test of the mechanical characteristics were completed in May 1998, and all the results obtained have satisfied the ITER design. In addition to these tests, integration with the midplane port extension fabricated by the Russian Home Team by using a fully remotized welding and cutting system developed by the US Home Team was completed in March 2000. The article describes the progress, achievements and latest status of the R&D activities for the ITER vacuum vessel.

  1. Development of the Butt Joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2006-08-23

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) requires compact and reliable joints for its Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC). The baseline design is a diffusion bonded butt joint. In such a joint the mating cables are compacted to a very low void fraction in a copper sleeve and then heat treated. After the heat treatment the ends are cut, polished and aligned against each other and then diffusion bonded under high compression in a vacuum chamber at 750 C. The jacket is then welded on the conductor to complete the joint, which remarkably does not require more room than a regular conductor. This joint design is based on a proven concept developed for the ITER CS Model Coil that was successfully tested in the previous R&D phase.

  2. Active beam spectroscopy for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hellermann, M. G.; Barnsley, R.; Biel, W.; Delabie, E.; Hawkes, N.; Jaspers, R.; Johnson, D.; Klinkhamer, F.; Lischtschenko, O.; Marchuk, O.; Schunke, B.; Singh, M. J.; Snijders, B.; Summers, H. P.; Thomas, D.; Tugarinov, S.; Vasu, P.

    2010-11-01

    Since the first feasibility studies of active beam spectroscopy on ITER in 1995 the proposed diagnostic has developed into a well advanced and mature system. Substantial progress has been achieved on the physics side including comprehensive performance studies based on an advanced predictive code, which simulates active and passive features of the expected spectral ranges. The simulation has enabled detailed specifications for an optimized instrumentation and has helped to specify suitable diagnostic neutral beam parameters. Four ITER partners share presently the task of developing a suite of ITER active beam diagnostics, which make use of the two 0.5 MeV/amu 18 MW heating neutral beams and a dedicated 0.1 MeV/amu, 3.6 MW diagnostic neutral beam. The IN ITER team is responsible for the DNB development and also for beam physics related aspects of the diagnostic. The RF will be responsible for edge CXRS system covering the outer region of the plasma (1> r/ a>0.4) using an equatorial observation port, and the EU will develop the core CXRS system for the very core (0< r/ a<0.7) using a top observation port. Thus optimum radial resolution is ensured for each system with better than a/30 resolution. Finally, the US will develop a dedicated MSE system making use of the HNBs and two equatorial ports. With appropriate modification, these systems could also potentially provide information on alpha particle slowing-down features. . On the engineering side, comprehensive preparations were made involving the development of an observation periscope, a neutron labyrinth optical system and design studies for remote maintenance including the exchange of the first mirror assembly, a critical issue for the operation of the CXRS diagnostic in the harsh ITER environment. Additionally, an essential change of the orientation of the DNB injection angle and specification of suitable blanket aperture has been made to avoid trapped particle damage to the first wall.

  3. Qualification of the Joints for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N; Berryhill, A; Kenney, S

    2011-09-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid has 36 interpancake joints, 12 bus joints, and 12 feeder joints in the magnet. The joints are required to have resistance below 4 nOhm at 45 kA at 4.5 K. The US ITER Project Office developed two different types of interpancake joints with some variations in details in order to find a better design, qualify the joints, and establish a fabrication process. We built and tested four samples of the sintered joints and two samples with butt-bonded joints (a total of eight joints). Both designs met the specifications. Results of the joint development, test results, and selection of the baseline design are presented and discussed in the paper. The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) consists of six modules. Each module is composed of six wound hexapancakes and one quadrapancake. The multipancakes are connected electrically and hydraulically by in-line interpancake joints. The joints are located at the outside diameter (OD) of the module. Cable in conduit conductor (CICC) high-current joints are critical elements in the CICC magnets. In addition to low resistivity, the CS joints must fit a space envelope equivalent to the regular conductor cross section and must have low hydraulic impedance and enough structural strength to withstand the hoop and compressive forces during operation, including cycling. This paper is the continuation of the work reported on the intermodule joints.

  4. Teaching beyond the Test: A Method for Designing Test-Preparation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    Test-preparation classes that focus on skills will benefit students beyond the test by developing skills they can use at university. This article discusses the purposes of various tests and outlines how to design effective test-prep classes. Several practical activities are included, and an appendix provides information on common standardized…

  5. Heat pipe design for sheath insulator reactor test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskolczy, Gabor; Lee, Celia C. M.

    1991-01-01

    A reactor experiment was designed to test the sheath insulator component of the thermionic fuel element (TFE) of a space power reactor. In this fully instrumented reactor test, two gas-controlled sodium heat pipes will be used to control the temperature of the sheath insulator specimens to which an external voltage will be applied. The heat pipes were designed with the aid of a computer program, which predicted performance. A demonstrator heat pipe was built and electrically tested. The test results agreed with the prediction as modeled by the computer program.

  6. Heat pipe design for sheath insulator reactor test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskolczy, Gabor; Lee, Celia C. M.

    A reactor experiment was designed to test the sheath insulator component of the thermionic fuel element (TFE) of a space power reactor. In this fully instrumented reactor test, two gas-controlled sodium heat pipes will be used to control the temperature of the sheath insulator specimens to which an external voltage will be applied. The heat pipes were designed with the aid of a computer program, which predicted performance. A demonstrator heat pipe was built and electrically tested. The test results agreed with the prediction as modeled by the computer program.

  7. Heat pipe design for sheath insulator reactor test

    SciTech Connect

    Miskolczy, G.; Lee, C.C.M. )

    1991-01-05

    A reactor experiment was designed to test the sheath insulator component of the thermionic fuel element (TFE) of a space power reactor. In this fully instrumented reactor test, two gas-controlled sodium heat pipes will be used to control the temperature of the sheath insulator specimens to which an external voltage will be applied. The heat pipes were designed with the aid of a computer program, which predicted performance. A demonstrator heat pipe was built and electrically tested. The test results agreed with the prediction as modeled by the computer program.

  8. Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test /SMEAT/ facility design and operation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinners, A. H., Jr.; Correale, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the design approaches and test facility operation methods used to successfully accomplish a 56-day test for Skylab to permit evaluation of selected Skylab medical experiments in a ground test simulation of the Skylab environment with an astronaut crew. The systems designed for this test include the two-gas environmental control system, the fire suppression and detection system, equipment transfer lock, ground support equipment, safety systems, potable water system, waste management system, lighting and power system, television monitoring, communications and recreation systems, and food freezer.

  9. Three Dimensional Iterative Reconstruction Techniques in Positron Tomography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloka, Scott

    The acquisition of positron tomographic data in three dimensions is an improvement over the two dimensional acquisition of data because the greater the number of measurements taken of a stochastic process, the more accurately determined the desired parameter may be. This research pursues the goal of three dimensional image reconstruction in Positron Tomography using an iterative approach. This thesis has followed a systematic approach to the exploration of a system for three dimensional iterative reconstruction. System design parameters were discussed such as the advantages and disadvantages of iterative vs analytic methods, the implementation of two, three dimensional iterative algorithms, the selection of a ray passing method, and the choice of an analytic method for comparison to the iterative methods. Several qualitative and quantitative tests were used/developed and performed to analyse and compare the results. Three dimensional reconstruction in Positron Tomography using two iterative techniques (ART and ML-EM) was demonstrated. The ML-EM algorithm was adapted to satisfy the objective of equalizing the estimates with the measurements via division of the sampling density. A new multi-objective function methodology was developed for two dimensions and its extension to three dimensions discussed. A smoothly-varying Gaussian phantom was created for comparing artifacts from different ray passing methods. The analysis of voxel trends over many iterations was used. The use of the output from a two dimensional filtered backprojection algorithm as the seed for three dimensional algorithms to accelerate the reconstruction the was explored. The importance of the selection of a good ray ordering in ART and its effects on the total squared error were explored. For the phantoms studied in this thesis, the ML -EM algorithm tended to perform better under most conditions. This algorithm is slower than ART to achieve both a low total squared error and good contrast, but the

  10. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  11. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, Charlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-10-14

    Prototype cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3 7% void fraction increase on the Low Pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb3Sn filament fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand to cable analysis of short and longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of Internal Tin strands in the longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of Bronze Process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the Internal Tin strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Furthermore, the short twist pitch CICC made from Bronze Process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity.

  12. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    DOE PAGES

    Sanabria, Charlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-10-14

    Prototype cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3 7% void fraction increase on the Low Pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb3Sn filamentmore » fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand to cable analysis of short and longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of Internal Tin strands in the longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of Bronze Process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the Internal Tin strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Furthermore, the short twist pitch CICC made from Bronze Process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity.« less

  13. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-12-01

    Prototype cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the toroidal field and central solenoid coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3%-7% void fraction increase on the low pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb3Sn filament fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand-to-cable analysis of short and longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of internal tin (IT) strands in the longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of bronze process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the IT strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Conversely, the short twist pitch CICC made from bronze process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity.

  14. Execution of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Approaches on Common Test Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balling, R. J.; Wilkinson, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    A class of synthetic problems for testing multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) approaches is presented. These test problems are easy to reproduce because all functions are given as closed-form mathematical expressions. They are constructed in such a way that the optimal value of all variables and the objective is unity. The test problems involve three disciplines and allow the user to specify the number of design variables, state variables, coupling functions, design constraints, controlling design constraints, and the strength of coupling. Several MDO approaches were executed on two sample synthetic test problems. These approaches included single-level optimization approaches, collaborative optimization approaches, and concurrent subspace optimization approaches. Execution results are presented, and the robustness and efficiency of these approaches an evaluated for these sample problems.

  15. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Resor, Brian R.; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  16. Conceptual Design Report for the Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    C. Barnes; J. Beller; K. Caldwell; K. Croft; R. Cherry; W. Landman

    1998-12-01

    This conceptual design supports the creation of Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers, which will replicate deep subsurface and subocean environments characterized by high pressure (2,000 psi) and subfreezing to high temperature (-4 to 300 degrees F) with differing chemical and saturation conditions. The design provides a system to support research and development that includes heat transfer, phase change issues in porous media, microbiology in extreme environments, and carbon sequestration and extraction. The initial system design is based on the research needs to support the commercial production of methane hydrates from subsurface sediments. The design provides for three pressure vessels: a Down Hole Test Vessel, a Vertical Multi-phase Test Vessel, and a Horizontal Multi-phase Test Vessel.

  17. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.

    1990-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Design of PF-1 Coil Helium Inlet and Dummy Joint Samples for Fatigue Tests at 77K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasluzov, S. N.; Sukhanova, M. V.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Stepanov, D. B.; Lantsetov, A. A.; Khitruk, A. A.

    A helium inlet and dummy joint between conductors are one of the most important elements of the winding pack of the ITER PF -1 coil double pancakes. A helium inlet is used for letting liquid helium into the PF-1 coil conductor. A full-scale helium inlet sample for fatigue tests and the respective tooling were designed and manufactured. Fatigue tests of the full-scale helium inlet sample were conducted in accordance with ITER requirements testing parameters in order to check the fatigue strength of the structure. Before the fatigue tests thermo-cycling of the helium inlet in the temperature range of 77 to 293 K was conducted. Before and after the fatigue tests the leak tightness of the full-scale helium inlet sample was validated by the vacuum chamber method. A low ohm electrical joint is used to connect two NbTi «CICC» conductors of PF-1 coil into a single electrical loop. To qualify the design and technology of manufacturing of the electrical joint, a full-scale dummy joint sample was developed for fatigue tests at 77 K. The main design feature of the full-scale dummy joint sample for fatigue tests is a symmetrical model of two dummy joint samples with simultaneous loading to compensate the bending moment. Fatigue tests of the full-scale helium inlet sample at 77 K have been successfully conducted in 2013. Fatigue tests of the full-scale dummy joint sample will be conducted in 2014. This paper represents the results of calculating the stress-strain state of the symmetrical model of the full-scale dummy joint sample for fatigue tests with the prescribed loading and strain, the work on designing the symmetrical model of the dummy joint sample for fatigue tests and the test facility for conducting fatigue tests at 77 K. Also the results of the leak tightness tests and thermo-cycling of the full-scale helium inlet and the results of it fatigue tests at 77 K, are presented.

  19. Thermal design, analysis and testing of the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, Richard A.; Smith, Dewey M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and describes the thermal requirements in some detail. The thermal design of the HALOE is described, together with the design process and the analytical techniques used to arrive at this design. The flight hardware has undergone environmental testing in a thermal vacuum chamber to validate the thermal design. The HALOE is a unique problem in thermal control due to its variable solar loading, its extremely sensitive optical components and the high degree of pointing accuracy required. This paper describes the flight hardware, the design process and its verification.

  20. Design and test of a magnetic thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Mikula, A.; Banerjee, B.; Lewis, D. W.; Imlach, J.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic thrust bearing can be employed to take thrust loads in rotating machinery. The design and construction of a prototype magnetic thrust bearing for a high load per weight application is described. The theory for the bearing is developed. Fixtures were designed and the bearing was tested for load capacity using a universal testing machine. Various shims were employed to have known gap thicknesses. A comparison of the theory and measured results is presented.

  1. Design and test of the 172K fluidic rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of concepts for control of aircraft without moving parts or a separate source of power is described. The design and wind tunnel tests of a full scale fluidic rudder for a Cessna 172K aircraft, intended for subsequent flight tests were documented. The 172K fluidic rudder was designed to provide a control force equivalent to 3.3 degrees of deflection of the conventional rudder. In spite of an extremely thin airfoil, cascaded fluidic amplifiers were built to fit, with the capacity for generating the required level of control force. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that the principles of lift control using ram air power are sound and reliable under all flight conditions. The tests also demonstrated that the performance of the 172K fluidic rudder is not acceptable for flight tests until the design of the scoop is modified to prevent interference with the lift control phenomenon.

  2. Designs and test results for three new rotational sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jedlicka, P.; Kozak, J.T.; Evans, J.R.; Hutt, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the designs and testing of three rotational seismometer prototypes developed at the Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences (Prague, Czech Republic). Two of these designs consist of a liquid-filled toroidal tube with the liquid as the proof mass and providing damping; we tested the piezoelectric and pressure transduction versions of this torus. The third design is a wheel-shaped solid metal inertial sensor with capacitive sensing and magnetic damping. Our results from testing in Prague and at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory of the US Geological Survey of transfer function and cross-axis sensitivities are good enough to justify the refinement and subsequent testing of advanced prototypes. These refinements and new testing are well along.

  3. Performance analysis of the Nb-Ti conductor qualification samples for the ITER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breschi, M.; Carati, D.; Bessette, D.; Devred, A.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.; Zhou, C.

    2015-11-01

    The ITER machine will require approximately 275 tons of Nb-Ti strands that will be used in poloidal field (PF) coils, correction coils (CC) and feeder busbars. The performance of all these conductors for the ITER machine is qualified by a short full-size sample (4 m) current sharing temperature (T cs) test in the SULTAN facility at CRPP in Villigen, Switzerland, at the design operating current and peak field. Three ITER domestic agencies participated in PF conductor fabrication (China, the European Union, Russia) while the conductors for feeder busbars and correction coils are entirely produced by the Chinese domestic agency. Each conductor type was qualified by the ITER International Organization after reaching T cs values in excess of ITER specifications. This qualification enabled the launch of procurement and industrial production of the Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductors in each domestic agency. In this paper, we summarize the performance of the qualified Nb-Ti samples of the ITER Project, comparing strand performance with conductor performance. The details of the test results will be discussed in terms of dc performance, ac losses and minimum quench energies of each conductor type.

  4. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  5. The application test system: Technical approach and system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J. L.; Mcclelland, D. R.; Tarbet, J. D.; Purnell, R. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    An insight is provided of the technical approach which was applied to the system design of the USDA Applications Test Program. Included are: identification of requirements, assessment of remote sensing contributions, evaluations of existing techniques, and cost effective development of a system design which utilizes techniques and procedures consistent with requirements.

  6. Conceptual design of the MHD Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Rigo, H. S.; Pearson, C. V.; Warinner, D. K.; Hatch, A. M.; Borden, M.; Giza, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the MHD engineering test facility, a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commerical feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are included and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified.

  7. Spacecraft System Integration and Test: SSTI Lewis critical design audit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. P.; Cha, K. K.

    1995-01-01

    The Critical Design Audit package is the final detailed design package which provides a comprehensive description of the SSTI mission. This package includes the program overview, the system requirements, the science and applications activities, the ground segment development, the assembly, integration and test description, the payload and technology demonstrations, and the spacecraft bus subsystems. Publication and presentation of this document marks the final requirements and design freeze for SSTI.

  8. Development of in-vessel components of the microfission chamber for ITER.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M; Kondoh, T; Ookawa, K; Fujita, K; Yamauchi, M; Hayakawa, A; Nishitani, T; Kusama, Y

    2010-10-01

    Microfission chambers (MFCs) will measure the total neutron source strength in ITER. The MFCs will be installed behind blanket modules in the vacuum vessel (VV). Triaxial mineral insulated (MI) cables will carry signals from the MFCs. The joint connecting triaxial MI cables in the VV must be considered because the MFCs and the MI cables will be installed separately at different times. Vacuum tight triaxial connector of the MI cable has been designed and a prototype has been constructed. Performance tests indicate that the connector can be applied to the ITER environment. A small bending-radius test of the MI cable indicates no observed damage at a curvature radius of 100 mm.

  9. Energy Efficient Engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Combustor Development effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent was to evolve a design which meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3 as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this development effort will be incorporated into the engine combustion system hardware design. This advanced engine combustion system will then be evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What is evolving from this development effort is an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3. Fuel nozzle, diffuser, starting, and emissions design studies are discussed.

  10. Boundary plasma modelling for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Braams, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    Computer programs were developed to model the effect of nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbations upon divertor heat load, and have explored what kind of externally applied perturbations are the most effective for heat load reduction without destroying core plasma confinement. We find that a carefully tuned set of coils located about 0.3 m outside the separatrix can be used to spread the heat load over about 0.1 m perpendicular to flux surfaces at the ITER divertor plate, even at a very low level of anomalous cross-field heat transport. As such a spreading would significantly extend the permissible regime of operation for ITER, we recommend that this study be pursued at the level of detail required for engineering design. In other work under this grant we are in the process of modifying the B2 code to handle correctly a non-orthogonal geometry.

  11. Multivariate Tests for Correlated Data in Completely Randomized Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Paul W., Jr.; Berry, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Provides power comparisons for three permutation tests and the Bartlett-Nanda-Pillai trace test (BNP) (M. Bartlett, 1939; D. Nanda, 1950; K. Pillai, 1955) in completely randomized experimental designs with correlated multivariate-dependent variables. The power of the BNP was generally found to be less than that of at least one of the permutation…

  12. Error Rates of Multiple F Tests in Factorial ANOVA Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderson, Judith S.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate empirically the effect of multiple hypothesis testing on error rates in factorial ANOVA designs under a variety of controlled conditions. The per comparison, per experiment, and experimentwise error rates were investigated for three hypothesis testing procedures. The specific conditions…

  13. NASA reliability preferred practices for design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Given here is a manual that was produced to communicate within the aerospace community design practices that have contributed to NASA mission success. The information represents the best technical advice that NASA has to offer on reliability design and test practices. Topics covered include reliability practices, including design criteria, test procedures, and analytical techniques that have been applied to previous space flight programs; and reliability guidelines, including techniques currently applied to space flight projects, where sufficient information exists to certify that the technique will contribute to mission success.

  14. Design and testing of wood containers for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.; Barry, P.E.

    1981-03-25

    A wood container for shipping and storing radioactive waste was designed to eliminate the problems caused by the weight, cost, and shape of the steel containers previously used. Tests specified by federal regulations (compression, free-drop, penetration, and vibration) were conducted on two of the containers, one loaded to 2500 lb and one loaded to 5000 lb. The 5000-lb container failed the free-drop test, but the 2500-lb container easily passed the tests and therefore qualifies as a Type A container. Its simplicity of design, low weight, and ease in handling have proved to be time-saving and cost-effective.

  15. Invited Commentary: Beware the Test-Negative Design.

    PubMed

    Westreich, Daniel; Hudgens, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    In this issue of the Journal, Sullivan et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;184(5):345-353) carefully examine the theoretical justification for use of the test-negative design, a common observational study design, in assessing the effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Using modern causal inference methods (in particular, directed acyclic graphs), they describe different threats to the validity of inferences drawn about the effect of vaccination from test-negative design studies. These threats include confounding, selection bias, and measurement error in either the exposure or the outcome. While confounding and measurement error are common in observational studies, the potential for selection bias inherent in the test-negative design brings into question the validity of inferences drawn from such studies. PMID:27587722

  16. A modal test design strategy for model correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1994-12-01

    When a modal test is to be performed for purposes of correlation with a finite element model, one needs to design the test so that the resulting measurements will provide the data needed for the correlation. There are numerous issues to consider in the design of a modal test; two important ones are the number and location of response sensors, and the number, location, and orientation of input excitation. From a model correlation perspective, one would like to select the response locations to allow a definitive, one-to-one correspondence between the measured modes and the predicted modes. Further, the excitation must be designed to excite all the modes of interest at a sufficiently high level so that the modal estimation algorithms can accurately extract the modal parameters. In this paper these two issues are examined in the context of model correlation with methodologies presented for obtaining an experiment design.

  17. Preliminary design of a 1-MWe OTEC test plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, T.

    1982-02-01

    An ocean-based, 1-MWe (gross) test plant has been planned to establish the feasibility of OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) power generation in the revised Sunshine Project. The preliminary design of the proposed test plant employs a closed-cycle power system using ammonia as the working fluid on a barge-type platform with a rigid-arm-type, detachable, single-buoy mooring system. Two types each of titanium evaporators and condensers are to be included. The steel, cold-water pipe is suspended from the buoy. The design value of the ocean temperature difference is 20 K. The paper presents an overview of the preliminary design of the test plant and the tests to be conducted.

  18. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  19. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D.; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, P.; Felici, F.; Kim, S. H.; Jackson, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Moreau, D.; Pironti, A.; Raupp, G.; Sauter, O.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-02-01

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  20. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D.; Jackson, G.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.; Felici, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Sauter, O.; Moreau, D.; Schuster, E.

    2015-02-15

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  1. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Manly, W.D.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  2. Diagnostics for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A. J. H.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Barnsley, R.

    2008-10-22

    After an introduction into the specific challenges in the field of diagnostics for ITER (specifically high level of nuclear radiation, long pulses, high fluxes of particles to plasma facing components, need for reliability and robustness), an overview will be given of the spectroscopic diagnostics foreseen for ITER. The paper will describe both active neutral-beam based diagnostics as well as passive spectroscopic diagnostics operating in the visible, ultra-violet and x-ray spectral regions.

  3. Aptitude and Reading Tests for Consideration in Designing a Screening and Diagnostic Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Dorothy A.

    Aptitude and reading tests to be administered to technical college students are discussed in considering the design of a screening and diagnostic test battery. Diagnosis is condidered as a series of sequential steps: screening; testing; individualized program planning; program implementation; and investigation of the causes of reading difficulty.…

  4. Fusion Physics Toward ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. D.

    2006-04-01

    Stars are powered by fusion, the energy released by fusing together light nuclei, using gravitational confinement of plasma. Fusion on earth will be done in a 100 million degree plasma made of deuterium and tritium and confined by magnetic fields or inertia. The worldwide fusion research community will construct ITER, the first experiment that will burn a DT plasma by copious fusion reactions. ITER's nominal goal is to create 500 MW of fusion power. An energy gain of 10 will mean the plasma is dominantly self-heated by the fusion-produced alpha particles. ITER's all superconducting magnet technology and steady-state heat removal technology will enable nominal 400 s pulses to allow the study of burning plasmas on the longest intrinsic timescale of the confined plasma - diffusive redistribution of the electrical currents in the plasma. The advances in magnetic confinement physics that have led to this opportunity will be described, as well as the research opportunities afforded by ITER. The physics of confining stable plasmas and heating them will produce the high gain state in ITER. Sustained burn will come from the physics of controlling currents in plasmas and how the hot plasma is interfaced to its room temperature surroundings. ITER will provide our first experience with how fusion plasma self-heating will profoundly affect the complex, interlinked physical processes that occur in confined plasmas.

  5. Toward Construction of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Yasuo

    The ITER Project has been significantly developed in the past years in preparation for its construction. The ITER Negotiators have developed a draft Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA), ready for completion following the nomination of the Project’s Director General (DG). The ITER International Team and Participant Teams have continued technical and organizational preparations. The actual construction will be able to start immediately after the international ITER organization will be established, following signature of the JIA. The Project is now strongly supported by all the participants as well as by the scientific community with the final high-level negotiations, focused on siting and the concluding details of cost sharing, started in December 2003. The EU, with Cadarache, and Japan, with Rokkasho, have both promised large contributions to the project to strongly support their construction site proposals. The extent to which they both wish to host the ITER facility is such that large contributions to a broader collaboration among the Parties are also proposed by them. This covers complementary activities to help accelerate fusion development towards a viable power source, as well as may allow the Participants to reach a conclusion on ITER siting.

  6. Design, analysis, and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Minning, C.

    1982-01-01

    Design sensitivities are established for the development of photovoltaic module criteria and the definition of needed research tasks. The program consists of three phases. In Phase I, analytical models were developed to perform optical, thermal, electrical, and structural analyses on candidate encapsulation systems. From these analyses several candidate systems will be selected for qualification testing during Phase II. Additionally, during Phase II, test specimens of various types will be constructed and tested to determine the validity of the analysis methodology developed in Phase I. In Phse III, a finalized optimum design based on knowledge gained in Phase I and II will be developed. All verification testing was completed during this period. Preliminary results and observations are discussed. Descriptions of the thermal, thermal structural, and structural deflection test setups are included.

  7. Current status of the ITER MSE diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuh, Howard; Levinton, F.; La Fleur, H.; Foley, E.; Feder, R.; Zakharov, L.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. is providing ITER with a Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic to provide a measurement to guide reconstructions of the plasma q-profile. The diagnostic design has gone through many iterations, driven primarily by the evolution of the ITER port plug design and the steering of the heating beams. The present two port, three view design viewing both heating beams and the DNB has recently passed a conceptual design review at the IO. The traditional line polarization (MSE-LP) technique employed on many devices around the world faces many challenges in ITER, including strong background light and mirror degradation. To mitigate these effects, a multi-wavelength polarimeter and high resolution spectrometer will be used to subtract polarized background, while retroreflecting polarizers will provide mirror calibration concurrent with MSE-LP measurements. However, without a proven plasma-facing mirror cleaning technique, inherent risks to MSE-LP remain. The high field and high beam energy on ITER offers optimal conditions for a spectroscopic measurement of the electric field using line splitting (MSE-LS), a technique which does not depend on mirror polarization properties. The current design is presented with a roadmap of the R&D needed to address remaining challenges. This work is supported by DOE contracts S009627-R and S012380-F.

  8. ITER Cryoplant Status and Economics of the LHe plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monneret, E.; Chalifour, M.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Voigt, T.; Badgujar, S.; Chang, H.-S.; Vincent, G.

    The ITER cryoplant is composed of helium and nitrogen refrigerators and generator combined with 80 K helium loop plants and external purification systems. Storage and recovery of the helium inventory is provided in warm and cold (80 K and 4.5 K) helium tanks.The conceptual design of the ITER cryoplant has been completed, the technical requirements defined for industrial procurement and contracts signed with industry. Each contract covers the design, manufacturing, installation and commissioning. Design is under finalization and manufacturing has started. First deliveries are scheduled by end of 2015.The various cryoplant systems are designed based on recognized codes and international standards to meet the availability, the reliability and the time between maintenance imposed by the long-term uninterrupted operation of the ITER Tokamak. In addition, ITER has to consider the constraint of a nuclear installation.ITER Organization (IO) is responsible for the liquid helium (LHe) Plants contract signed end of 2012 with industry. It is composed of three LHe Plants, working in parallel and able to provide a total average cooling capacity of 75 kW at 4.5 K. Based on concept designed developed with industries and the procurement phase, ITER has accumulated data to broaden the scaling laws for costing such systems.After describing the status of ITER cryoplant part of the cryogenic system, we shall present the economics of the ITER LHe Plants based on key design requirements, choice and challenges of this ITER Organization procurement.

  9. Design and Test of an Improved Crashworthiness Small Composite Airframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terry, James E.; Hooper, Steven J.; Nicholson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this small business innovative research (SBIR) program was to evaluate the feasibility of developing small composite airplanes with improved crashworthiness. A combination of analysis and half scale component tests were used to develop an energy absorbing airframe. Four full scale crash tests were conducted at the NASA Impact Dynamics Research Facility, two on a hard surface and two onto soft soil, replicating earlier NASA tests of production general aviation airplanes. Several seat designs and restraint systems including both an air bag and load limiting shoulder harnesses were tested. Tests showed that occupant loads were within survivable limits with the improved structural design and the proper combination of seats and restraint systems. There was no loss of cabin volume during the events. The analysis method developed provided design guidance but time did not allow extending the analysis to soft soil impact. This project demonstrated that survivability improvements are possible with modest weight penalties. The design methods can be readily applied by airplane designers using the examples in this report.

  10. Optimal design of multiple stress constant accelerated life test plan on non-rectangle test region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenhua; Gao, Liang; Liu, Juan; Qian, Ping; Pan, Jun

    2012-11-01

    For optimal design of constant stress accelerated life test(CSALT) with two-stress, if the stresses could not reach the highest levels simultaneously, the test region becomes non-rectangular. For optimal CSALT design on non-rectangle test region, the present method is only focused on non-rectangle test region with simple boundary, and the optimization algorithm is based on experience which can not ensure to obtain the optimal plan. In this paper, considering the linear-extreme value model and the optimization goal to minimize the variance of lifetime estimate under normal stress, the optimal design method of two-stress type-I censored CSALT plan on general non-rectangular test region is proposed. First, two properties of optimal test plans are proved and the relationship of all the optimal test plans is determined analytically. Then, on the basis of the two properties, the optimal problem is simplified and the optimal design method of two-stress CSALT plan on general non-rectangular test region is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. The result shows that the proposed method could obtain the optimal test plan on non-rectangular test regions with arbitrary boundaries. This research provides the theory and method for two-stress optimal CSALT planning on non-rectangular test regions.

  11. Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallav, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a DOE Building America New Construction Test House (NCTH). This single family, detached house, located in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD, was completed in June 2011. The primary goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark by developing and implementing an optimized energy solutions package design that could be cost effectively and reliably constructed on a production basis using quality management practices. The intent of this report is to outline the features of this house, discuss the implementation of the energy efficient design, and report on short-term testing results. During the interactive design process of this project, numerous iterations of the framing, air sealing, insulation, and space conditioning systems were evaluated for energy performance, cost, and practical implementation. The final design featured numerous advanced framing techniques, high levels of insulation, and the HVAC system entirely within conditioned space. Short-term testing confirmed a very tight thermal envelope and efficient and effective heating and cooling. In addition, relevant heating, cooling, humidity, energy, and wall cavity moisture data will be collected and presented in a future long-term report.

  12. Electro-impulse de-icing testing analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Schrag, R. L.; Bernhart, W. D.; Friedberg, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Electro-Impulse De-Icing (EIDI) is a method of ice removal by sharp blows delivered by a transient electromagnetic field. Detailed results are given for studies of the electrodynamic phenomena. Structural dynamic tests and computations are described. Also reported are ten sets of tests at NASA's Icing Research Tunnel and flight tests by NASA and Cessna Aircraft Company. Fabrication of system components are described and illustrated. Fatigue and electromagnetic interference tests are reported. Here, the necessary information for the design of an EIDI system for aircraft is provided.

  13. Flight control system design factors for applying automated testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.; Vernon, Todd H.

    1990-01-01

    Automated validation of flight-critical embedded systems is being done at ARC Dryden Flight Research Facility. The automated testing techniques are being used to perform closed-loop validation of man-rated flight control systems. The principal design features and operational experiences of the X-29 forward-swept-wing aircraft and F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) automated test systems are discussed. Operationally applying automated testing techniques has accentuated flight control system features that either help or hinder the application of these techniques. The paper also discusses flight control system features which foster the use of automated testing techniques.

  14. Design, construction and testing of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small animals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M J; Preache, M M

    1980-11-01

    This final report describes both the engineering development of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small laboratory animals, and the biological protocol for the use of such enclosures in the testing of animals to determine possible biological effects of the environment associated with HVDC transmission lines. The test enclosure which has been designed is a modular unit, which will house up to eight rat-sized animals in individual compartments. Multiple test enclosures can be used to test larger numbers of animals. A prototype test enclosure has been fabricated and tested to characterize its electrical performance characteristics. The test enclosure provides a simulation of the dominant environment associated with HVDC transmission lines; namely, a static electric field and an ion current density. A biological experimental design has been developed for assessing the effects of the dominant components of the HVDC transmission line environment.

  15. Thermal Analysis and Testing of Fastrac Gas Generator Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Fastrac Engine is being developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help meet the goal of substantially reducing the cost of access to space. This engine relies on a simple gas-generator cycle, which burns a small amount of RP-1 and oxygen to provide gas to drive the turbine and then exhausts the spent fuel. The Fastrac program envisions a combination of analysis, design and hot-fire evaluation testing. This paper provides the supporting thermal analysis of the gas generator design. In order to ensure that the design objectives were met, the evaluation tests have started on a component level and a total of 15 tests of different durations were completed to date at MSFC. The correlated thermal model results will also be compared against hot-fire thermocouple data gathered.

  16. Italsat in-orbit test transponder design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, R.; Estep, G.; Kelly, W.; Yogev, I.; di Fiore, L.; Talcott, J.; Williams, A.; Assal, F.

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and test of the Italsat in-orbit test (IOT) RF bypass transponder mounted on board the Italsat multibeam spacecraft, which was launched in January 1991. It is believed that the in-orbit test transponder (IOTT) contains the first monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) ever launched into space on a communications satellite. The IOTT bypasses the demodulator, basebands switchboard, and modulator of the multibeam package of the Italsat spacecraft payload, enabling full characterization of the satellite's transponders using well-established IOT techniques. This space-qualified design incorporates custom-designed gallium arsenide MMIC Ku-band amplifiers, lightweight waveguide Ku-band channel filters, electronic power conditioner, and combined IOTT telemetry and command circuitry.

  17. Design and testing of a tandem row pump inducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The design and testing of a tandem row pump inducer having a supercavitating first stage with a 0.60 hub ratio is presented. The second stage tested was a helical impeller with a 0.70 hub ratio. A cubic arc transition was utilized to accomplish the hub change. The first stage had two blades and the free-vortex design approach was empirically modified based on previous experience. The recommended second stage design having four blades and using cambered blade section is presented but the model was not built or tested. The more simple helix was built instead to reduce cost. Data taken included head generation, cavitation observations and unsteady head fluctuations over the 0-100Hz range.

  18. Optimal Bayesian Adaptive Design for Test-Item Calibration.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wim J; Ren, Hao

    2015-06-01

    An optimal adaptive design for test-item calibration based on Bayesian optimality criteria is presented. The design adapts the choice of field-test items to the examinees taking an operational adaptive test using both the information in the posterior distributions of their ability parameters and the current posterior distributions of the field-test parameters. Different criteria of optimality based on the two types of posterior distributions are possible. The design can be implemented using an MCMC scheme with alternating stages of sampling from the posterior distributions of the test takers' ability parameters and the parameters of the field-test items while reusing samples from earlier posterior distributions of the other parameters. Results from a simulation study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed MCMC implementation for operational item calibration. A comparison of performances for different optimality criteria showed faster calibration of substantial numbers of items for the criterion of D-optimality relative to A-optimality, a special case of c-optimality, and random assignment of items to the test takers.

  19. Status of the Development of the SINGAP Accelerator for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hemsworth, R. S.; Esch, H. P. L. de; Svensson, L.; Villecroze, F.

    2007-08-10

    The development of the Single Aperture, Single Gap 1 MV accelerator (SINGAP) is being carried out on the 1 MV test bed at the DRFC, CEA Cadarache, France. This paper reports on the latest performance achieved with the prototype, 'ITER-like' accelerator, 730 keV, 120 A/m2 D-, and of on-going measurements of the beam 'halo' fraction, {approx_equal}10%. It reviews the status and plans for future studies on D- production, and the observed 'dark current', and presents the basic physics design of a system that should cope with the {approx_equal}3 MW of electrons that would be co-accelerated out of the 1 MeV, 40 A, D- SINGAP accelerator proposed for the ITER neutral beam injectors.

  20. Advanced radial inflow turbine rotor program: Design and dynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The advancement of small, cooled, radial inflow turbine technology in the area of operation at higher turbine inlet temperature is discussed. The first step was accomplished by designing, fabricating, and subjecting to limited mechanical testing an advanced gas generator rotating assembly comprising a radial inflow turbine and two-stage centrifugal compressor. The radial inflow turbine and second-stage compressor were designed as an integrally machined monorotor with turbine cooling taking place basically by conduction to the compressor. Design turbine inlet rotor gas temperature, rotational speed, and overall gas generator compressor pressure ratio were 1422 K (2560 R), 71,222 rpm, and 10/1 respectively. Mechanical testing on a fabricated rotating assembly and bearing system covered 1,000 cold start/stop cycles and three spins to 120 percent design speed (85,466 rpm).

  1. Design, analysis and testing of small, affordable HAWT rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricop, Mihai V.; Niculescu, Mihai L.; Cojocaru, Marius G.; Barsan, Dorin

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents affordable technologies dedicated to design, CAD modelling and manufacturing of the small-medium HAWT rotors. Three numerical tools are developed: blade/rotor design, blade modelling for industry CATIA(CATScript) and blade modelling for small scale developers. Numerical analysis of the rotors is accomplished for both performance and noise level estimation using XFLOW (LES) and an in-house code (URANS). Results are presented for a 5KW rotor at the design point only, since computations are expensive. Developement examples are included as two rotors are designed, manufactured and tested for 1.5 and 5KW. A third one, rated for 20KW is under developement. Basic testing results are also included.

  2. Design characteristics of a heat pipe test chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W.; Jang, J. Hoon; Yu, Juin S.

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has designed a heat pipe test facility which will be used to provide data for validating heat pipe computer codes. A heat pipe test chamber that uses helium gas for enhancing heat transfer was investigated. The conceptual design employs the technique of guarded heating and guarded cooling to facilitate accurate measurements of heat transfer rates to the evaporator and from the condenser. The design parameters are selected for a baseline heat pipe made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 38.10 mm and a wall thickness of 1.016 mm. The heat pipe operates at a design temperature of 1000 K with an evaporator radial heat flux of 53 W/sq. cm.

  3. Lanczos iterated time-reversal.

    PubMed

    Oberai, Assad A; Feijóo, Gonzalo R; Barbone, Paul E

    2009-02-01

    A new iterative time-reversal algorithm capable of identifying and focusing on multiple scatterers in a relatively small number of iterations is developed. It is recognized that the traditional iterated time-reversal method is based on utilizing power iterations to determine the dominant eigenpairs of the time-reversal operator. The convergence properties of these iterations are known to be suboptimal. Motivated by this, a new method based on Lanczos iterations is developed. In several illustrative examples it is demonstrated that for the same number of transmitted and received signals, the Lanczos iterations based approach is substantially more accurate. PMID:19206835

  4. NREL Next Generation Drivetrain: Mechanical Design and Test Plan (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Halse, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy and industry partners are sponsoring a $3m project for design and testing of a 'Next Generation' wind turbine drivetrain at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This poster focuses on innovative aspects of the gearbox design, completed as part of an end-to-end systems engineering approach incorporating innovations that increase drivetrain reliability, efficiency, torque density and minimize capital cost.

  5. Design, fabrication and testing of an optical temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, W. W.; Glenn, W. H.; Decker, R. O.; Mcclurg, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory breadboard optical temperature sensor based on the temperature dependent absorptive characteristics of a rare earth (europium) doped optical fiber. The principles of operation, materials characterization, fiber and optical component design, design and fabrication of an electrooptic interface unit, signal processing, and initial test results are discussed. Initial tests indicated that, after a brief warmup period, the output of the sensor was stable to approximately 1 C at room temperature or approximately + or - 0.3 percent of point (K). This exceeds the goal of 1 percent of point. Recommendations are presented for further performance improvement.

  6. Design verification and cold-flow modeling test report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of the following three test reports prepared by TRW for Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) as part of the Healy Clean Coal Project, Phase 1 Design of the TRW Combustor and Auxiliary Systems, which is co-sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Clean Coal Technology 3 Program: (1) Design Verification Test Report, dated April 1993, (2) Combustor Cold Flow Model Report, dated August 28, 1992, (3) Coal Feed System Cold Flow Model Report, October 28, 1992. In this compilation, these three reports are included in one volume consisting of three parts, and TRW proprietary information has been excluded.

  7. Disturbance Rejection Based Test Rocket Control System Design and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and validation for the three-channel attitude controller of a STT test rocket based on the extended state observer approach. The uniform second order integral-chain state space model is firstly established for the control variable of the angle of attack, angle of sideslip and roll angle. Combined with the pole placement, the extended state observer is applied to the disturbance rejection design of the attitude controller. Through numerical and hardware-in-the-loop simulation with uncertainties considered, the effectiveness and robustness of the controller are illustrated and verified. Finally, the performance of the controller is validated by flight-test with satisfactory results.

  8. Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation test reactor design report

    SciTech Connect

    Haroldsen, B.L.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Mills, B.E.; Brown, B.G.; Rousar, D.C.

    1996-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is working with GenCorp, Aerojet and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation to develop a transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor. The transpiring wall reactor promises to mitigate problems of salt deposition and corrosion by forming a protective boundary layer of pure supercritical water. A laboratory scale test reactor has been assembled to demonstrate the concept. A 1/4 scale transpiring wall reactor was designed and fabricated by Aerojet using their platelet technology. Sandia`s Engineering Evaluation Reactor serves as a test bed to supply, pressurize and heat the waste; collect, measure and analyze the effluent; and control operation of the system. This report describes the design, test capabilities, and operation of this versatile and unique test system with the transpiring wall reactor.

  9. Viking '75 spacecraft design and test summary. Volume 3: Engineering test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmberg, N. A.; Faust, R. P.; Holt, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering test program for the lander and the orbiter are presented. The engineering program was developed to achieve confidence that the design was adequate to survive the expected mission environments and to accomplish the mission objective.

  10. Design and Status of RERTR Irradiation Tests in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2006-10-01

    Irradiation testing of U-Mo based fuels is the central component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program fuel qualification plan. Several RERTR tests have recently been completed or are planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, ID. Four mini-plate experiments in various stages of completion are described in detail, including the irradiation test design, objectives, and irradiation conditions. Observations made during and after the in-reactor RERTR-7A experiment breach are summarized. The irradiation experiment design and planned irradiation conditions for full-size plate test are described. Progress toward element testing will be reviewed.

  11. HyRAM Testing Strategy and Quality Design Elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, John Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Strategy document and tentative schedule for testing of HyRAM, a software toolkit that integrates data and methods relevant to assessing the safety of hydrogen fueling and storage infrastructure. Because proposed and existing features in HyRAM that support testing are important factors in this discussion, relevant design considerations of HyRAM are also discussed. However, t his document does not cover all of HyRAM desig n, nor is the full HyRAM software development schedule included.

  12. Design and testing of ultralite fabric reflux tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, K.A.; Antoniak, Z.I.; King, L.L.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of Ultralite Fabric Reflux Tubes intended to provide thermal control for a Lunar Colony. The Ultralite Fabric Reflux Tubes, under this phase of development, are constructed of thin-walled copper liners overwrapped with aluminoborosilicate fabric. These devices were constructed and tested in air at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and subsequently taken to the NASA Johnson Space Center for thermal vacuum experimentation.

  13. Design and testing of high-pressure railguns and projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.; Cummings, C.E.; Kerrisk, J.F.; Parker, J.V.; Marsh, S.P.; Adams, D.F.

    1983-01-01

    The results of high-pressure tests of four railgun designs and four projectile types are presented. All tests were conducted at the Los Alamos explosive magnetic-flux compression facility in Ancho Canyon. The data suggest that the high-strength projectiles have lower resistance to acceleration than the low-strength projectiles, which expand against the bore during acceleration. The railguns were powered by explosive magnetic-flux compression generators. Calculations to predict railgun and power supply performance were performed.

  14. Injector Cavities Fabrication, Vertical Test Performance and Primary Cryomodule Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haipeng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Clemens, William; Davis, G; Macha, Kurt; Overton, Roland; Spell, D.

    2015-09-01

    After the electromagnetic design and the mechanical design of a β=0.6, 2-cell elliptical SRF cavity, the cavity has been fabricated. Then both 2-cell and 7-cell cavities have been bench tuned to the target values of frequency, coupling external Q and field flatness. After buffer chemistry polishing (BCP) and high pressure rinses (HPR), Vertical 2K cavity test results have been satisfied the specifications and ready for the string assembly. We will report the cavity performance including Lorenz Force Detuning (LFD) and Higher Order Modes (HOM) damping data. Its integration with cavity tuners to the cryomodule design will be reported.

  15. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  16. Design driven test patterns for OPC models calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Imam, Mohamed

    2009-03-01

    In the modern photolithography process for manufacturing integrated circuits, geometry dimensions need to be realized on silicon which are much smaller than the exposure wavelength. Thus Resolution Enhancement Techniques have an indispensable role towards the implementation of a successful technology process node. Finding an appropriate RET recipe, that answers the needs of a certain fabrication process, usually involves intensive computational simulations. These simulations have to reflect how different elements in the lithography process under study will behave. In order to achieve this, accurate models are needed that truly represent the transmission of patterns from mask to silicon. A common practice in calibrating lithography models is to collect data for the dimensions of some test structures created on the exposure mask along with the corresponding dimensions of these test structures on silicon after exposure. This data is used to tune the models for good predictions. The models will be guaranteed to accurately predict the test structures that has been used in its tuning. However, real designs might have a much greater variety of structures that might not have been included in the test structures. This paper explores a method for compiling the test structures to be used in the model calibration process using design layouts as an input. The method relies on reducing structures in the design layout to the essential unique structure from the lithography models point of view, and thus ensuring that the test structures represent what the model would actually have to predict during the simulations.

  17. Design, fabrication, and test of lightweight shell structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cylindrical shell skirt structure 4.57 m (180 in.) in diameter and 3.66 m (144 in.) high was subjected to a design and analysis study using a wide variety of structural materials and concepts. The design loading of 1225.8 N/cm (700 lb/in.) axial compression and 245.2 N/cm (140 lb/in.) torsion is representative of that expected on a typical space tug skirt section. Structural concepts evaluated included honeycomb sandwich, truss, isogrid, and skin/stringer/frame. The materials considered included a wide variety of structural metals as well as glass, graphite, and boron-reinforced composites. The most unique characteristic of the candidate designs is that they involve the use of very thin-gage material. Fabrication and structural test of small panels and components representative of many of the candidate designs served to demonstrate proposed fabrication techniques and to verify design and analysis methods.

  18. Results of the TF conductor performance qualification samples for the ITER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breschi, M.; Devred, A.; Casali, M.; Bessette, D.; Jewell, M. C.; Mitchell, N.; Pong, I.; Vostner, A.; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Boutboul, T.; Martovetsky, N.; Kim, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Tronza, V.; Yu, Wu

    2012-09-01

    The performance of the toroidal field (TF) magnet conductors for the ITER machine are qualified by a short full-size sample (4 m) current sharing temperature (Tcs) test in the SULTAN facility at CRPP in Villigen, Switzerland, using the operating current of 68 kA and the design peak field of 11.8 T. Several samples, including at least one from each of the six ITER Domestic Agencies participating in TF conductor fabrication (China, European Union, Japan, Russia, South Korea and the United States), have been qualified by the ITER Organization after achieving Tcs values of 6.0-6.9 K, after 700-1000 electromagnetic cycles. These Tcs values exceed the ITER specification and enabled the industrial production of these long-lead items for the ITER tokamak to begin in each Domestic Agency. Some of these samples did not pass the qualification test. In this paper, we summarize the performance of the qualified samples, analyze the effect of strand performance on conductor performance, and discuss the details of the test results.

  19. Design, fabrication, test, qualification, and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cell modules is detailed with emphasis upon laminating and interconnecting the panels that hold the simicrystalline silicon cells. Design problems and enviromental tests are described as well as performance characteristics.

  20. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.; Ferl, J.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; DeAngelis, G.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.J.

    2002-05-08

    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs.

  1. Hardware synthesis from DDL. [Digital Design Language for computer aided design and test of LSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. M.; Shiva, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The details of the digital systems can be conveniently input into the design automation system by means of Hardware Description Languages (HDL). The Computer Aided Design and Test (CADAT) system at NASA MSFC is used for the LSI design. The Digital Design Language (DDL) has been selected as HDL for the CADAT System. DDL translator output can be used for the hardware implementation of the digital design. This paper addresses problems of selecting the standard cells from the CADAT standard cell library to realize the logic implied by the DDL description of the system.

  2. Robust iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saadd, Y.

    1994-12-31

    In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.

  3. The Design and Use of a Practical Tests Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Following a discussion of the role and importance of practical laboratory tests, describes an instrument designed for inquiry-oriented practical examinations. The instrument consists of 21 categories representing different inquiry skills. Examples and illustrative data based on results in biology matriculation examination in Israel are reported.…

  4. Survey of electrical submersible systems design, application, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.O.; Lea, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The electrical submersible pump industry has numerous recommended practices and procedures addressing various facets of the operation. Ascertaining the appropriate technique is tedious. Seldom are all the documents available at one location. This synopsis of all the industry practices provides a ready reference for testing, design, and application of electrical submersible pumping systems. An extensive bibliography identifies significant documents for further reference.

  5. Some Current Problems in Simulator Design, Testing and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Concerned with the general problem of the effectiveness of simulator training, this report reflects information developed during the conduct of aircraft simulator training research projects sponsored by the Air Force, Army, Navy, and Coast Guard. Problems are identified related to simulator design, testing, and use, all of which impact upon…

  6. PX series AMTEC cell design, testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, C.A.; Sievers, R.K.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    PX (Pluto Express) cell testing and analysis has shown that AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion) cells can reach the power levels required by proposed RPS (Radioisotope Power Supply) system designs. A major PX cell design challenge was to optimize the power and efficiency of the cell while allowing a broad operational power range. These design optimization issues are greatly dependent on the placement of the evaporation zone. Before the PX-2 and PX-4 cells were built, the results from the PX-1, ATC-2 (artery test cell) and design analysis indicated the need for a thermal bridge between the heat input surface of the cell and the structure supporting the evaporation zone. Test and analytic results are presented illustrating the magnitude of the power transfer to the evaporation zone and the effect of this power transfer on the performance of the cell. Comparisons are also made between the cell test data and analytic results of cell performance to validate the analytic models.

  7. Design and testing of the LITE Variable Field Stop mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The Variable Field Stop (VFS) is a rotary mechanism that reliably positions any of four aperture plates in the optical path of a spaceflight experiment, limiting the amount of light reaching the detectors. This paper discusses the design, operation, and testing of the VFS.

  8. Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderton, David L.

    This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

  9. Design, Development and Testing of Airplanes for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The opportunity for a piggyback mission to Mars aboard an Ariane 5 rocket in the early spring of 1999 set off feverish design activity at several NASA centers. This report describes the contract work done by faculty, students, and consultants at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo California (Cal poly/SLO) to support the NASA/Ames design, construction and test efforts to develop a simple and robust Mars Flyer configuration capable of performing a practical science mission on Mars. The first sections will address the conceptual design of a workable Mars Flyer configuration which started in the spring and summer of 1999. The following sections will focus on construction and flight test of two full-scale vehicles. The final section will reflect on the overall effort and make recommendations for future work.

  10. Design, synthesis, and testing toward a 57-codon genome.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Nili; Landon, Matthieu; Guell, Marc; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Teramoto, Jun; Cervantes, Natalie; Zhou, Minerva; Singh, Kerry; Napolitano, Michael G; Moosburner, Mark; Shrock, Ellen; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Conway, Nicholas; Goodman, Daniel B; Gardner, Cameron L; Tyree, Gary; Gonzales, Alexandra; Wanner, Barry L; Norville, Julie E; Lajoie, Marc J; Church, George M

    2016-08-19

    Recoding--the repurposing of genetic codons--is a powerful strategy for enhancing genomes with functions not commonly found in nature. Here, we report computational design, synthesis, and progress toward assembly of a 3.97-megabase, 57-codon Escherichia coli genome in which all 62,214 instances of seven codons were replaced with synonymous alternatives across all protein-coding genes. We have validated 63% of recoded genes by individually testing 55 segments of 50 kilobases each. We observed that 91% of tested essential genes retained functionality with limited fitness effect. We demonstrate identification and correction of lethal design exceptions, only 13 of which were found in 2229 genes. This work underscores the feasibility of rewriting genomes and establishes a framework for large-scale design, assembly, troubleshooting, and phenotypic analysis of synthetic organisms. PMID:27540174

  11. Design, fabrication and testing of single spoke resonators at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Ristori, L.; Apollinari, G.; Borissov, E.; Gonin, I.V.; Khabiboulline, T.N.; Mukherjee, A.; Nicol, T.H.; Ozelis, J.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sergatskov, D.A.; Wagner, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    The Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) linac R&D program is building a pulsed 30 MeV superconducting H- linac. The linac incorporates superconducting solenoids, high power RF vector modulators and superconducting spoke-type accelerating cavities starting at 10 MeV. This will be the first application and demonstration of any of these technologies in a low-energy, high-intensity proton/H- linac. The HINS effort is relevant to a high intensity, superconducting H- linac that might serve the next generation of neutrino physics and muon storage ring/collider experiments. In this paper we present the RF design, the mechanical design, the fabrication, the chemistry and testing of the first two SSR1 (Single Spoke Resonator type-1) prototype cavities that were built. These cavities operate at 325 MHz with {beta} = 0.21. The design and testing of the input coupler and the tuning mechanism are also discussed.

  12. Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baca, Thomas J.; Bell, R. Glenn; Robbins, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications that have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments is discussed. Shock test conservation is qualified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ranked peak acceleration data in terms of an Index of Conservation (IOC) and an Overtest Factor (OTF). The multi-environment conservation analysis addresses the issue of both absolute and average conservation. The method is demonstrated in a case where four laboratory tests have been specified to qualify a component which must survive seven different field environments. Final judgment of the tailored test specification is shown to require an understanding of the predominant failure modes of the test item.

  13. Characterization of the ITER model negative ion source during long pulse operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemsworth, R.S.; Boilson, D.; Crowley, B.; Homfray, D.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Krylov, A.; Svensson, L.

    2006-03-15

    It is foreseen to operate the neutral beam system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) for pulse lengths extending up to 1 h. The performance of the KAMABOKO III negative ion source, which is a model of the source designed for ITER, is being studied on the MANTIS test bed at Cadarache. This article reports the latest results from the characterization of the ion source, in particular electron energy distribution measurements and the comparison between positive ion and negative ion extraction from the source.

  14. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  15. Design, installation, commissioning and operation of a beamlet monitor in the negative ion beam test stand at NIFS

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G. Tollin, M.; Veltri, P.; De Muri, M.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Muraro, A.

    2015-04-08

    In the framework of the accompanying activity for the development of the two neutral beam injectors for the ITER fusion experiment, an instrumented beam calorimeter is being designed at Consorzio RFX, to be used in the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A), with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The main components of the instrumented calorimeter are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been used as a small-scale version of the entire calorimeter in the test stand of the neutral beam injectors of the LHD experiment, with the aim of characterising the beam features in various operating conditions. The extraction system of the NIFS test stand source was modified, by applying a mask to the first gridded electrode, in order to isolate only a subset of the beamlets, arranged in two 3×5 matrices, resembling the beamlet groups of the ITER beam sources. The present contribution gives a description of the design of the diagnostic system, including the numerical simulations of the expected thermal pattern. Moreover the dedicated thermocouple measurement system is presented. The beamlet monitor was successfully used for a full experimental campaign, during which the main parameters of the source, mainly the arc power and the grid voltages, were varied. This contribution describes the methods of fitting and data analysis applied to the infrared images of the camera to recover the beamlet optics characteristics, in order to quantify the response of the system to different operational conditions. Some results concerning the beamlet features are presented as a function of the source parameters.

  16. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  17. Documentation of Stainless Steel Lithium Circuit Test Section Design. Suppl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas J. (Compiler); Martin, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team was tasked by Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped lithium (Li) flow circuit. This Li circuit takes advantage of work in progress at the EFF TF on a stainless steel sodium/potassium (NaK) circuit. The effort involved modifying the original stainless steel NaK circuit such that it could be operated with Li in place of NaK. This new design considered freeze/thaw issues and required the addition of an expansion tank and expansion/extrusion volumes in the circuit plumbing. Instrumentation has been specified for Li and circuit heaters have been placed throughout the design to ensure adequate operational temperatures and no uncontrolled freezing of the Li. All major components have been designed and fabricated prior to circuit redesign for Li and were not modified. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, Li to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. The reactor segment, based on a Los Alamos National Laboratory 100-kW design study with 120 fuel pins, is the only prototypic component in the circuit. However, due to earlier funding constraints, a 37-pin partial-array of the core, including the central three rings of fuel pins (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in the full design), was selected for fabrication and test. This Technical Publication summarizes the design and integration of the pumped liquid metal Li flow circuit as of May 1, 2005. This supplement contains drawings, analysis, and calculations

  18. Documentation of Stainless Steel Lithium Circuit Test Section Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, T. J.; Martin, J. J.; Stewart, E. T.; Rhys, N. O.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team was tasked by Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped lithium (Li) flow circuit. This Li circuit takes advantage of work in progress at the EFF TF on a stainless steel sodium/potassium (NaK) circuit. The effort involved modifying the original stainless steel NaK circuit such that it could be operated with Li in place of NaK. This new design considered freeze/thaw issues and required the addition of an expansion tank and expansion/extrusion volumes in the circuit plumbing. Instrumentation has been specified for Li and circuit heaters have been placed throughout the design to ensure adequate operational temperatures and no uncontrolled freezing of the Li. All major components have been designed and fabricated prior to circuit redesign for Li and were not modified. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, Li to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. The reactor segment, based on a Los Alamos National Laboratory 100-kW design study with 120 fuel pins, is the only prototypic component in the circuit. However, due to earlier funding constraints, a 37-pin partial-array of the core, including the central three rings of fuel pins (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in the full design), was selected for fabrication and test. This Technical Publication summarizes the design and integration of the pumped liquid metal Li flow circuit as of May 1, 2005.

  19. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  20. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Easterly, C.E.; Lunsford, R.V.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.; White, J.A.; Williamson, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper.