Science.gov

Sample records for design simulation fabrication

  1. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Hopper Spacecraft Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucasey, Evan Phillip Krell

    A robust test bed is needed to facilitate future development of guidance, navigation, and control software for future vehicles capable of vertical takeoff and landings. Specifically, this work aims to develop both a hardware and software simulator that can be used for future flight software development for extra-planetary vehicles. To achieve the program requirements of a high thrust to weight ratio with large payload capability, the vehicle is designed to have a novel combination of electric motors and a micro jet engine is used to act as the propulsion elements. The spacecraft simulator underwent several iterations of hardware development using different materials and fabrication methods. The final design used a combination of carbon fiber and fiberglass that was cured under vacuum to serve as the frame of the vehicle which provided a strong, lightweight platform for all flight components and future payloads. The vehicle also uses an open source software development platform, Arduino, to serve as the initial flight computer and has onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers to sense the vehicles attitude. To prevent instability due to noise, a polynomial kalman filter was designed and this fed the sensed angles and rates into a robust attitude controller which autonomously control the vehicle' s yaw, pitch, and roll angles. In addition to the hardware development of the vehicle itself, both a software simulation and a real time data acquisition interface was written in MATLAB/SIMULINK so that real flight data could be taken and then correlated to the simulation to prove the accuracy of the analytical model. In result, the full scale vehicle was designed and own outside of the lab environment and data showed that the software model accurately predicted the flight dynamics of the vehicle.

  2. Simulation, design and fabrication of a planar micro thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelegrini, S.; Adami, A.; Collini, C.; Conci, P.; Lorenzelli, L.; Pasa, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study describes the design, simulation, and micro fabrication of a micro thermoelectric generator (μTEG) based on planar technology using constantan (CuNi) and copper (Cu) thermocouples deposited electrochemically (ECD) on silicon substrate. The present thin film technology can be manufactured into large area and also on flexible substrate with low cost of production and can be used to exploit waste heat from equipments or hot surfaces in general. In the current implementation, the silicon structure has been designed and optimized with analytical models and FE simulations in order to exploit the different thermal conductivity of silicon and air gaps to produce the maximum temperature difference on a planar surface. The results showed that a temperature difference of 10K across the structure creates a temperature difference of 5.3K on the thermocouples, thus providing an efficiency of thermal distribution up to 55%, depending on the heat convection at the surface. Efficiency of module has been experimentally tested under different working condition, showing the dependence of module output on the external heat exchange (natural and forced convection). Maximum generated potential at 6m/s airflow is 5.7V/m2 K and thermoelectric efficiency is 1.9μW K-2 m-2.

  3. Design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of MEMS vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxaal, John

    Energy harvesting from ambient sources has been a longtime goal for microsystem engineers. The energy available from ambient sources is substantial and could be used to power wireless micro devices, making them fully autonomous. Self-powered wireless sensors could have many applications in for autonomous monitoring of residential, commercial, industrial, geological, or biological environments. Ambient vibrations are of particular interest for energy harvesting as they are ubiquitous and have ample kinetic energy. In this work a MEMS device for vibration energy harvesting using a variable capacitor structure is presented. The nonlinear electromechanical dynamics of a gap-closing type structure is experimentally studied. Important experimental considerations such as the importance of reducing off-axis vibration during testing, characterization methods, dust contamination, and the effect of grounding on parasitic capacitance are discussed. A comprehensive physics based model is developed and validated with two different microfabricated devices. To achieve maximal power, devices with high aspect ratio electrodes and a novel two-level stopper system are designed and fabricated. The maximum achieved power from the MEMS device when driven by sinusoidal vibrations was 3.38 muW. Vibrations from HVAC air ducts, which have a primary frequency of 65 Hz and amplitude of 155 mgrms, are targeted as the vibration source and devices are designed for maximal power harvesting potential at those conditions. Harvesting from the air ducts, the devices reached 118 nW of power. When normalized to the operating conditions, the best figure of merit of the devices tested was an order of magnitude above state-of-the-art of the devices (1.24E-6).

  4. Design, Simulation and Fabrication of Triaxial MEMS High Shock Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhai; Shi, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhan; Xie, Zhihong; Zhang, Donghong; Cai, De; Li, Kejie; Shen, Yajing

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of analyzing the disadvantage of other structural accelerometer, three-axis high g MEMS piezoresistive accelerometer was put forward in order to apply to the high-shock test field. The accelerometer's structure and working principle were discussed in details. The simulation results show that three-axis high shock MEMS accelerometer can bear high shock. After bearing high shock impact in high-shock shooting test, three-axis high shock MEMS accelerometer can obtain the intact metrical information of the penetration process and still guarantee the accurate precision of measurement in high shock load range, so we can not only analyze the law of stress wave spreading and the penetration rule of the penetration process of the body of the missile, but also furnish the testing technology of the burst point controlling. The accelerometer has far-ranging application in recording the typical data that projectile penetrating hard target and furnish both technology guarantees for penetration rule and defend engineering.

  5. Design and fabrication of a full-scale actively controlled satellite appendage simulator unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Jack H.; Quenon, Dan; Hadden, Steve; Self, Rick

    1999-07-01

    Modern satellites require the ability to slew and settle quickly in order to acquire or transmit data efficiently. Solar arrays and communication antennas cause low frequency disturbances to the satellite bus during these maneuvers causing undesirable induced vibration of the payload. The ability to develop and experimentally demonstrate attitude control laws which compensate for these flexible body disturbances is of prime importance to modern day satellite manufacturers. Honeywell has designed and fabricated an actively controlled Appendage Simulator Unit (ASU) which can physically induce the modal characteristics of satellite appendages on to a ground based satellite test bed installed on an air bearing. The ASU consists of two orthogonal fulcrum beams weighting over 800 pounds each utilizing two electrodynamic shakers to induce active torques onto the bus. The ASU is programmed with the state space characteristics of the desired appendage and responds in real time to the bus motion to generate realistic disturbances back onto the satellite. Two LVDT's are used on each fulcrum beam to close the loop and insure the system responds in real time the same way a real solar array would on-orbit. Each axis is independently programmable in order to simulate various orientations or modal contributions from an appendage. The design process for the ASU involved the optimization of sensors, actuators, control authority, weight, power and functionality. The smart structure system design process and experimental results are described in detail.

  6. Occulting focal plane masks for Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: design, fabrication, simulations and test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Halverson, Peter G.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Echternach, Pierre M.; Shi, Fang; Lowman, Andrew E.; Niessner, Albert F.; Trauger, John T.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2005-01-01

    Occulting focal plane masks for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C) could be designed with continuous gray scale profile of the occulting pattern such as 1-sinc2 on a suitable material or with micron-scale binary transparent and opaque structures of metallic pattern on glass. We have designed, fabricated and tested both kinds of masks. The fundamental characteristics of such masks and initial test results from the High Contrast Imaging Test bed (HCIT) at JPL are presented.

  7. Integrated Design and Simulation of Tunable, Multi-State Structures Fabricated Monolithically with Multi-Material 3D Printing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tian; Mueller, Jochen; Shea, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Multi-material 3D printing has created new opportunities for fabricating deployable structures. We design reversible, deployable structures that are fabricated flat, have defined load bearing capacity, and multiple, predictable activated geometries. These structures are designed with a hierarchical framework where the proposed bistable actuator serves as the base building block. The actuator is designed to maximise its stroke length, with the expansion ratio approaching one when serially connected. The activation force of the actuator is parameterised through its joint material and joint length. Simulation and experimental results show that the bistability triggering force can be tuned between 0.5 and 5.0 N. Incorporating this bistable actuator, the first group of hierarchical designs demonstrate the deployment of space frame structures with a tetrahedron module consisting of three active edges, each containing four serially connected actuators. The second group shows the design of flat structures that assume either positive or negative Gaussian curvature once activated. By flipping the initial configuration of the unit actuators, structures such as a dome and an enclosure are demonstrated. A modified Dynamic Relaxation method is used to simulate all possible geometries of the hierarchical structures. Measured geometries differ by less than 5% compared to simulation results. PMID:28361891

  8. Integrated Design and Simulation of Tunable, Multi-State Structures Fabricated Monolithically with Multi-Material 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Mueller, Jochen; Shea, Kristina

    2017-03-31

    Multi-material 3D printing has created new opportunities for fabricating deployable structures. We design reversible, deployable structures that are fabricated flat, have defined load bearing capacity, and multiple, predictable activated geometries. These structures are designed with a hierarchical framework where the proposed bistable actuator serves as the base building block. The actuator is designed to maximise its stroke length, with the expansion ratio approaching one when serially connected. The activation force of the actuator is parameterised through its joint material and joint length. Simulation and experimental results show that the bistability triggering force can be tuned between 0.5 and 5.0 N. Incorporating this bistable actuator, the first group of hierarchical designs demonstrate the deployment of space frame structures with a tetrahedron module consisting of three active edges, each containing four serially connected actuators. The second group shows the design of flat structures that assume either positive or negative Gaussian curvature once activated. By flipping the initial configuration of the unit actuators, structures such as a dome and an enclosure are demonstrated. A modified Dynamic Relaxation method is used to simulate all possible geometries of the hierarchical structures. Measured geometries differ by less than 5% compared to simulation results.

  9. Towards the hand-held mass spectrometer: design considerations, simulation, and fabrication of micrometer-scaled cylindrical ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Riter, Leah S.; Cruz, Dolores; Austin, Daniel E.; Wu, Guangxiang; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2004-08-01

    Breakthrough improvements in simplicity and reductions in the size of mass spectrometers are needed for high-consequence fieldable applications, including error-free detection of chemical/biological warfare agents, medical diagnoses, and explosives and contraband discovery. These improvements are most likely to be realized with the reconceptualization of the mass spectrometer, rather than by incremental steps towards miniaturization. Microfabricated arrays of mass analyzers represent such a conceptual advance. A massively parallel array of micrometer-scaled mass analyzers on a chip has the potential to set the performance standard for hand-held sensors due to the inherit selectivity, sensitivity, and universal applicability of mass spectrometry as an analytical method. While the effort to develop a complete micro-MS system must include innovations in ultra-small-scale sample introduction, ion sources, mass analyzers, detectors, and vacuum and power subsystems, the first step towards radical miniaturization lies in the design, fabrication, and characterization of the mass analyzer itself. In this paper we discuss design considerations and results from simulations of ion trapping behavior for a micrometer scale cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer (internal radius r0 = 1 [mu]m). We also present a description of the design and microfabrication of a 0.25 cm2 array of 106 one-micrometer CITs, including integrated ion detectors, constructed in tungsten on a silicon substrate.

  10. DRAPING SIMULATION OF WOVEN FABRICS

    SciT

    Rodgers, William; Jin, Xiaoshi; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-09-07

    Woven fabric composites are extensively used in molding complex geometrical shapes due to their high conformability compared to other fabrics. Preforming is an important step in the overall process, where the two-dimensional fabric is draped to become the three-dimensional shape of the part prior to resin injection. During preforming, the orientation of the yarns may change significantly compared to the initial orientations. Accurate prediction of the yarn orientations after molding is important for evaluating the structural performance of the final part. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the angle changes during the preform operation for carbon fiber twill andmore » satin weave fabrics. Preforming experiments were conducted using a truncated pyramid mold geometry designed and fabricated at the General Motors Research Laboratories. Predicted results for the yarn orientations were compared with experimental results and good agreement was observed« less

  11. Mesoscale fabrication and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gregory R.

    A strong link between mechanical engineering design and materials science and engineering fabrication can facilitate an effective and adaptable prototyping process. In this dissertation, new developments in the lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF) process is presented which demonstrates the relationship between these two fields of engineering in the context of two device applications. Within the LM-RIF process, changes in materials processing and mechanical design are updated iteratively, often aided by statistical design of experiments (DOE). The LM-RIF process was originally developed by Antolino and Hayes et al to fabricate mesoscale components. In this dissertation the focus is on advancements in the process and underlying science. The presented advancements to the LM-RIF process include an augmented lithography procedure, the incorporation of engineered aqueous and non-aqueous colloidal suspensions, an assessment of constrained drying forces during LM-RIF processing, mechanical property evaluation, and finally prototype testing and validation. Specifically, the molding procedure within the LM-RIF process is capable of producing molds with thickness upwards of 1mm, as well as multi-layering to create three dimensional structures. Increasing the mold thickness leads to an increase in the smallest feature resolvable; however, the increase in mold thickness and three dimensional capability has expanded the mechanical design space. Tetragonally stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) is an ideal material for mesoscale instruments, as it is biocompatible, exhibits high strength, and is chemically stable. In this work, aqueous colloidal suspensions were formulated with two new gel-binder systems, increasing final natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) instrument yield from 0% to upwards of 40% in the best case scenario. The effects of the gel-binder system on the rheological behavior of the suspension along with the thermal characteristics of the gel

  12. Fabrication of An Inexpensive but Effective Colonoscopic Simulator.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark W; Deere, Matthew J; Harris, Justin R; Chen, Anthony J; Henning, Werner H

    2017-01-01

    Because of increasing requirements for simulator training before actual clinical endoscopies, the demand for realistic, inexpensive endoscopic simulators is increasing. We describe the steps involved in the design and fabrication of an effective and realistic mechanical colonoscopic simulator.

  13. Fabrication of simulated DUPIC fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Song, Ki Chan; Park, Hee Sung; Moon, Je Sun; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-12-01

    Simulated DUPIC fuel provides a convenient way to investigate the DUPIC fuel properties and behavior such as thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, fission gas release, leaching, and so on without the complications of handling radioactive materials. Several pellets simulating the composition and microstructure of DUPIC fuel are fabricated by resintering the powder, which was treated through OREOX process of simulated spent PWR fuel pellets, which had been prepared from a mixture of UO2 and stable forms of constituent nuclides. The key issues for producing simulated pellets that replicate the phases and microstructure of irradiated fuel are to achieve a submicrometre dispersion during mixing and diffusional homogeneity during sintering. This study describes the powder treatment, OREOX, compaction and sintering to fabricate simulated DUPIC fuel using the simulated spent PWR fuel. The homogeneity of additives in the powder was observed after attrition milling. The microstructure of the simulated spent PWR fuel agrees well with the other studies. The leading structural features observed are as follows: rare earth and other oxides dissolved in the UO2 matrix, small metallic precipitates distributed throughout the matrix, and a perovskite phase finely dispersed on grain boundaries.

  14. Fabricating optical phantoms to simulate skin tissue properties and microvasculatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Shuwei; Wu, Qiang; Han, Yilin; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces novel methods to fabricate optical phantoms that simulate the morphologic, optical, and microvascular characteristics of skin tissue. The multi-layer skin-simulating phantom was fabricated by a light-cured 3D printer that mixed and printed the colorless light-curable ink with the absorption and the scattering ingredients for the designated optical properties. The simulated microvascular network was fabricated by a soft lithography process to embed microchannels in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantoms. The phantoms also simulated vascular anomalies and hypoxia commonly observed in cancer. A dual-modal multispectral and laser speckle imaging system was used for oxygen and perfusion imaging of the tissue-simulating phantoms. The light-cured 3D printing technique and the soft lithography process may enable freeform fabrication of skin-simulating phantoms that embed microvessels for image and drug delivery applications.

  15. Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)

    SciT

    Lindstrom, Jason

    2010-01-31

    Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers anmore » economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.« less

  16. Architecture for distributed design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlrath, Michael B.; Boning, Duane S.; Troxel, Donald E.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a flexible, distributed system architecture capable of supporting collaborative design and fabrication of semi-conductor devices and integrated circuits. Such capabilities are of particular importance in the development of new technologies, where both equipment and expertise are limited. Distributed fabrication enables direct, remote, physical experimentation in the development of leading edge technology, where the necessary manufacturing resources are new, expensive, and scarce. Computational resources, software, processing equipment, and people may all be widely distributed; their effective integration is essential in order to achieve the realization of new technologies for specific product requirements. Our architecture leverages is essential in order to achieve the realization of new technologies for specific product requirements. Our architecture leverages current vendor and consortia developments to define software interfaces and infrastructure based on existing and merging networking, CIM, and CAD standards. Process engineers and product designers access processing and simulation results through a common interface and collaborate across the distributed manufacturing environment.

  17. Advances in helical stent design and fabrication thermal treatment and structural interaction studies of the simulated plaque-laden artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Tre Raymond

    Advancements in processing biomaterials have lead to the development of bioresorbable PLLA drug-loaded stents with different geometric configurations. To further advance the technology, systematic studies have been carried out. This dissertation consists of five specific aims: (1) To characterize the effects of thermal annealing on the mechanical characteristics of PLLA helical stent, (2) To characterize the mechanical characteristics of a PLLA double helix stent, (3) To characterize the physical and chemical properties of PLLA films impregnated with niacin and curcumin, (4) To characterize the mechanical interaction of expanded stent and vascular wall with both model simulation and experimental studies using PDMS phantom arteries, (5) To simulate the stent-plaque-artery interactions using computer models. Results and their significances in bioresorbable PLLA drug-loaded stents technology as well as clinical prospects will be presented. For Aim1, thermal annealing is shown to improve mechanical characteristics of the helical stent, including pressure-diameter response curves, incremental stiffness, and collapse pressure. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of stent fiber reveals that thermal annealing contribute to increased percent crystallinity, thus enhanced mechanical characteristics of the stent. For Aim 2, the new double helix design was shown to leads to improved mechanical characteristics of stent, including pressure-diameter response curves, incremental stiffness, and collapse pressure. Further, it was found to lead to an increased percent crystallinity and reduced degradation rate. For Aim 3, the changes in mechanical properties, crystallinity in PLLA polymer loaded with curcumin, or niacin, or both from that of control are clearly delineated. Results from Aim 4 shed lights on the mechanical disturbance in the vicinity of deployed stent and vascular wall as well as the abnormal shear stresses on the vascular endothelium. Their implications in

  18. Design, Simulation, Fabrication and Testing of a Bio-Inspired Amphibious Robot with Multiple Modes of Mobility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    performance. Ob- stacle climbing using the tail is compared to results from a previous robot with a posterior body segment and body flexion joint. Actual...3. Mechanisms of Locomotion for Multi-Modal Mobility 3.1. Gate and Tail Design Demands of multi-modal locomotion motivated a quadruped design for...tail instead of a rear body segment simplifies waterproofing design requirements and adds stability both on land and in water. This new morphology is

  19. The design, fabrication and delivery of a spacelab neutral buoyancy Instrument Pointing System (IPS) mockup. [underwater training simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvalkenburgh, C. N.

    1984-01-01

    Underwater simulations of EVA contingency operations such as manual jettison, payload disconnect, and payload clamp actuation were used to define crew aid needs and mockup pecularities and characteristics to verify the validity of simulation using the trainer. A set of mockup instrument pointing system tests was conducted and minor modifications and refinements were made. Flight configuration struts were tested and verified to be operable by the flight crew. Tasks involved in developing the following end items are described: IPS gimbal system, payload, and payload clamp assembly; the igloos (volumetric); spacelab pallets, experiments, and hardware; experiment, and hardware; experiment 7; and EVA hand tools, support hardware (handrails and foot restraints). The test plan preparation and test support are also covered.

  20. Design and fabrication of microstrip antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A microstrip array project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of designing and fabricating simple, low cost, low sidelobe phased arrays with circular disk microstrip radiating elements. Design data were presented for microstrip elements and arrays including the effects of the protective covers, the mutual interaction between elements, and stripline feed network design. Low cost multilayer laminate fabrication techniques were also investigated. Utilizing this design data two C-band low sidelobe arrays were fabricated and tested: an eight-element linear and a sixty-four element planar array. These arrays incorporated stripline Butler matrix feed networks to produce a low sidelobe broadside beam.

  1. Design and fabrication of solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically competitive design based upon utilization of ion implanted solar cells and a glass encapsulation system. The modules fabricated, tested and delivered were of nominal 2 X 2 foot dimensions and 20 watt minimum rating. Basic design, design rationale, performance and results of environmental testing are described.

  2. Design, fabrication and control of origami robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T.

    2018-06-01

    Origami robots are created using folding processes, which provide a simple approach to fabricating a wide range of robot morphologies. Inspired by biological systems, engineers have started to explore origami folding in combination with smart material actuators to enable intrinsic actuation as a means to decouple design from fabrication complexity. The built-in crease structure of origami bodies has the potential to yield compliance and exhibit many soft body properties. Conventional fabrication of robots is generally a bottom-up assembly process with multiple low-level steps for creating subsystems that include manual operations and often multiple iterations. By contrast, natural systems achieve elegant designs and complex functionalities using top-down parallel transformation approaches such as folding. Folding in nature creates a wide spectrum of complex morpho-functional structures such as proteins and intestines and enables the development of structures such as flowers, leaves and insect wings. Inspired by nature, engineers have started to explore folding powered by embedded smart material actuators to create origami robots. The design and fabrication of origami robots exploits top-down, parallel transformation approaches to achieve elegant designs and complex functionalities. In this Review, we first introduce the concept of origami robotics and then highlight advances in design principles, fabrication methods, actuation, smart materials and control algorithms. Applications of origami robots for a variety of devices are investigated, and future directions of the field are discussed, examining both challenges and opportunities.

  3. Design and Fabrication of Orthotropic Deck Details

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of the research were to verify the design and fabrication of the orthotropic deck details proposed for the lift bridge, for infinite fatigue life. Multi-level 3D finite element analyses (FEA) of the proposed deck were performed to dete...

  4. Simulation and fabrication of thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xixi, Han; Yi, Ou; Zhigang, Li; Wen, Ou; Dapeng, Chen; Tianchun, Ye

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the simulation and fabrication of a thin film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR). In order to improve the accuracy of simulation, an improved Mason model was introduced to design the resonator by taking the coupling effect between electrode and substrate into consideration. The resonators were fabricated by the eight inch CMOS process, and the measurements show that the improved Mason model is more accurate than a simple Mason model. The Q s (Q at series resonance), Q p (Q at parallel resonance), Q max and k t 2 of the FBAR were measured to be 695, 814, 1049, and 7.01% respectively, showing better performance than previous reports. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274119, 61306141, 61335008) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20131099).

  5. CCD research. [design, fabrication, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gassaway, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental problems encountered in designing, fabricating, and applying CCD's are reviewed. Investigations are described and results and conclusions are given for the following: (1) the development of design analyses employing computer aided techniques and their application to the design of a grapped structure; (2) the role of CCD's in applications to electronic functions, in particular, signal processing; (3) extending the CCD to silicon films on sapphire (SOS); and (4) all aluminum transfer structure with low noise input-output circuits. Related work on CCD imaging devices is summarized.

  6. Design and fabrication of micro-hotplates made on a polyimide foil: electrothermal simulation and characterization to achieve power consumption in the low mW range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbat, J.; Canonica, M.; Teyssieux, D.; Briand, D.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    The design of ultra-low power micro-hotplates on a polyimide (PI) substrate supported by thermal simulations and characterization is presented. By establishing a method for the thermal simulation of very small scale heating elements, the goal of this study was to decrease the power consumption of PI micro-hotplates to a few milliwatts to make them suitable for very low power applications. To this end, the mean heat transfer coefficients in air of the devices were extracted by finite element analysis combined with very precise thermographic measurements. A simulation model was implemented for these hotplates to investigate both the influence of their downscaling and the bulk micromachining of the polyimide substrate to lower their power consumptions. Simulations were in very good agreement with the experimental results. The main parameters influencing significantly the power consumption at such dimensions were identified and guidelines were defined allowing the design of very small (15 × 15 µm) and ultra-low power heating elements (6 mW at 300 °C). These very low power heating structures enable the realization of flexible sensors, such as gas, flow or wind sensors, for applications in autonomous wireless sensors networks or RFID applications and make them compatible with large-scale production on foil such as roll-to-roll or printing processes.

  7. Crashworthy airframe design concepts: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

    1982-01-01

    Crashworthy floor concepts applicable to general aviation aircraft metal airframe structures were investigated. Initially several energy absorbing lower fuselage structure concepts were evaluated. Full scale floor sections representative of a twin engine, general aviation airplane lower fuselage structure were designed and fabricated. The floors featured an upper high strength platform with an energy absorbing, crushable structure underneath. Eighteen floors were fabricated that incorporated five different crushable subfloor concepts. The floors were then evaluated through static and dynamic testing. Computer programs NASTRAN and KRASH were used for the static and dynamic analysis of the floor section designs. Two twin engine airplane fuselages were modified to incorporate the most promising crashworthy floor sections for test evaluation.

  8. Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Models. Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, C. P., Jr. (Compiler); Gloss, B. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The principal motivating factor was the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Since the NTF can achieve significantly higher Reynolds numbers at transonic speeds than other wind tunnels in the world, and will therefore occupy a unique position among ground test facilities, every effort is being made to ensure that model design and fabrication technology exists to allow researchers to take advantage of this high Reynolds number capability. Since a great deal of experience in designing and fabricating cryogenic wind tunnel models does not exist, and since the experience that does exist is scattered over a number of organizations, there is a need to bring existing experience in these areas together and share it among all interested parties. Representatives from government, the airframe industry, and universities are included.

  9. Evolving MEMS Resonator Designs for Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Kraus, William F.; Lohn, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    Because of their small size and high reliability, microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices have the potential to revolution many areas of engineering. As with conventionally-sized engineering design, there is likely to be a demand for the automated design of MEMS devices. This paper describes our current status as we progress toward our ultimate goal of using an evolutionary algorithm and a generative representation to produce designs of a MEMS device and successfully demonstrate its transfer to an actual chip. To produce designs that are likely to transfer to reality, we present two ways to modify evaluation of designs. The first is to add location noise, differences between the actual dimensions of the design and the design blueprint, which is a technique we have used for our work in evolving antennas and robots. The second method is to add prestress to model the warping that occurs during the extreme heat of fabrication. In future we expect to fabricate and test some MEMS resonators that are evolved in this way.

  10. IR GRIN optics: design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Daniel; Bayya, Shyam; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jas; Kotov, Mikhail; McClain, Collin; Deegan, John; Lindberg, George; Unger, Blair; Vizgaitis, Jay

    2017-06-01

    Infrared (IR) transmitting gradient index (GRIN) materials have been developed for broad-band IR imaging. This material is derived from the diffusion of homogeneous chalcogenide glasses has good transmission for all IR wavebands. The optical properties of the IR-GRIN materials are presented and the fabrication and design methodologies are discussed. Modeling and optimization of the diffusion process is exploited to minimize the deviation of the index profile from the design profile. Fully diffused IR-GRIN blanks with Δn of 0.2 are demonstrated with deviation errors of +/-0.01 refractive index units.

  11. 49 CFR 193.2703 - Design and fabrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design and fabrication. 193.2703 Section 193.2703...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2703 Design and fabrication. For the design and fabrication of components, each operator shall use— (a) With respect to design, persons who...

  12. Fabrication and design of vanadium oxide microbolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Rahman, M.; Al-Khalli, N.; Zia, M. F.; Alduraibi, M.; Ilahi, B.; Awad, E.; Debbar, N.

    2017-02-01

    Vanadium oxide (VxOy) multilayer sandwich structures previously studied by our group were found to yield a sensitive thermometer thin film material suitable for microbolometer applications. In this work, we aim to estimate the performance of a proposed air-bridge microbolometer configuration based on VxOy multilayer sandwich structure thermometer thin films. For this purpose, a microbolometer was fabricated on silicon (Si) substrate covered with a silicon nitride (Si3N4) insulating layer using VxOy thermometer thin film material. The fabricated microbolometer was patterned using electron-beam lithography and liftoff techniques and it was characterized in terms of its voltage repsonsivity (Rv), signal to noise ratio (SNR), noise equivalent power (NEP) and detectivity D*. A model was then developed by the aid of numerical optical/thermal simulations and experimentally measured parameters to estimate the performance of the microbolometer when fabricated in an air-bridge configuration. The estimated D* was found to be 1.55×107 cm.√Hz/ W.

  13. Kirigami design and fabrication for biomimetic robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Sareh, Sina

    2014-03-01

    Biomimetics faces a continual challenge of how to bridge the gap between what Nature has so effectively evolved and the current tools and materials that engineers and scientists can exploit. Kirigami, from the Japanese `cut' and `paper', is a method of design where laminar materials are cut and then forced out-of-plane to yield 3D structures. Kirimimetic design provides a convenient and relatively closed design space within which to replicate some of the most interesting niche biological mechanisms. These include complex flexing organelles such as cilia in algae, energy storage and buckled structures in plants, and organic appendages that actuate out-of-plane such as the myoneme of the Vorticella protozoa. Where traditional kirigami employs passive materials which must be forced to transition to higher dimensions, we can exploit planar smart actuators and artificial muscles to create self-actuating kirigami structures. Here we review biomimetics with respect to the kirigami design and fabrication methods and examine how smart materials, including electroactive polymers and shape memory polymers, can be used to realise effective biomimetic components for robotic, deployable structures and engineering systems. One-way actuation, for example using shape memory polymers, can yield complete self-deploying structures. Bi-directional actuation, in contrast, can be exploited to mimic fundamental biological mechanisms such as thrust generation and fluid control. We present recent examples of kirigami robotic mechanisms and actuators and discuss planar fabrication methods, including rapid prototyping and 3D printing, and how current technologies, and their limitations, affect Kirigami robotics.

  14. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots.

    PubMed

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T

    2015-05-28

    Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics.

  15. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Fuel Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Broadway, Jeramie; Mireles, Omar; Webb, Jon; Qualls, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) is a game changing technology for space exploration. Goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS includes these overall tasks: (1) Pre-conceptual design of the NCPS and architecture integration (2) NCPS Fuel Design and Testing (3) Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) (4) Affordable NCPS Development and Qualification Strategy (5) Second Generation NCPS Concepts. There is a critical need for fuels development. Fuel task objectives are to demonstrate capabilities and critical technologies using full scale element fabrication and testing.

  16. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Fuel Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Broadway, Jeramie; Mireles, Omar; Webb, Jon; Qualls, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) is a game changing technology for space exploration. Goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS includes thses overall tasks: (1) Pre-conceptual design of the NCPS and architecture integration (2) NCPS Fuel Design and Testing (3) Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) (4) Affordable NCPS Development and Qualification Strategy (5) Second Generation NCPS Concepts. There is a critical need for fuels development. Fuel task objectives are to demonstrate capabilities and critical technologies using full scale element fabrication and testing.

  17. Propulsion Design With Freeform Fabrication (PDFF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Daudi; McKinnon, James; Priem, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The nation is challenged to decrease the cost and schedule to develop new space transportation propulsion systems for commercial, scientific, and military purposes. Better design criteria and manufacturing techniques for small thrusters are needed to meet current applications in missile defense, space, and satellite propulsion. The requirements of these systems present size, performance, and environmental demands on these thrusters that have posed significant challenges to the current designers and manufacturers. Designers are limited by manufacturing processes, which are complex, costly, and time consuming, and ultimately limited in their capabilities. The PDFF innovation vastly extends the design opportunities of rocket engine components and systems by making use of the unique manufacturing freedom of solid freeform rapid prototype manufacturing technology combined with the benefits of ceramic materials. The unique features of PDFF are developing and implementing a design methodology that uses solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques to make propulsion components with significantly improved performance, thermal management, power density, and stability, while reducing development and production costs. PDFF extends the design process envelope beyond conventional constraints by leveraging the key feature of the SFF technique with the capability to form objects with nearly any geometric complexity without the need for elaborate machine setup. The marriage of SFF technology to propulsion components allows an evolution of design practice to harmonize material properties with functional design efficiency. Reduced density of materials when coupled with the capability to honeycomb structure used in the injector will have significant impact on overall mass reduction. Typical thrusters in use for attitude control have 60 90 percent of its mass in the valve and injector, which is typically made from titanium. The combination of material and structure envisioned for use in

  18. Plasma Chamber Design and Fabrication Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, B.; Bianchi, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Coletti, A.; Frosi, P.; Mazzone, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G.; Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    A fabrication procedure for a typical Plasma Chamber (PC) sector has been developed to cover all the manufacturing phases, from the raw materials specification (including metallurgical processes) to the machining operations, acceptance procedures and vacuum tests. Basically, the sector is made of shaped elements (forged or rolled) welded together using special fixtures and then machined to achieve the final dimensional accuracy. An upgraded design of the plasma chamber's vertical support that can withstand the estimated electromagnetic loads (Eddy and Halo current plus horizontal net force resulting from the worst plasma disruption scenario VDE, Vertical Displacement Event) has been completed. The maintenance of the radial support can take place hands-on with a direct access from outside the cryostat. With the present design, vacuum tightness is achieved by welding conducted with automatic welding heads. On the outer surface of the PC a dedicated duct system, filled by helium gas, is included to cool down the PC to room temperature when needed.

  19. Design and fabrication of the progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Linling; Qian, Lin; Yu, Jingchi

    2011-11-01

    The use of progressive addition lenses (PALs) for the correction of presbyopia has increased dramatically in recent years. These lenses are now being used as the preferred alternative to bifocal and trifocal lenses in many parts of the world. Progressive addition lenses are a kind of opthalmic lenses with freeform surface. The surface curvature of the Progressive addition lenses varies gradually from a minimum value in the upper area, to a maximum value in the lower area. Thus a PAL has a surface with three zones which have very small astigmatism: far-view zone, near-view zone, and intermediate zone. The far view zone and near view zone have relatively constant powers and connected by the intermediate zone with power varies progressively. The design and fabrication technologies of progressive addition lenses have fast progresses because of the massive development of the optical simulation software, multi-axis ultraprecision machining technologies and CNC machining technologies. The design principles of progressive addition lenses are discussed in a historic review. Several kinds of design methods are illustrated, and their advantages and disadvantages are also represented. In the current study, it is shown that the optical characteristics of the different progressive addition lenses designs are significantly different from one another. The different fabrication technologies of Progressive addition lenses are also discussed in the paper. Plastic injection molding and precision-machine turning are the common fabrication technologies for exterior PALs and Interior PALs respectively.

  20. Computer Simulation For Design Of TWT's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, Karen F.; Fite, E. Brian; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Sharp, G. Richard

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element analytical technique facilitates design and fabrication of traveling-wave-tube (TWT) slow-wave structures. Used to perform thermal and mechanical analyses of TWT designed with variety of configurations, geometries, and materials. Using three-dimensional computer analysis, designer able to simulate building and testing of TWT, with consequent substantial saving of time and money. Technique enables detailed look into operation of traveling-wave tubes to help improve performance for future communications systems.

  1. Fabrication and Design of Optical Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, Mark D.

    Over the past several decades, advances in nanometer scale fabrication has sparked interes in applications that take advantage of materials that are structured at these small length scales. Specifically, metallic optical nanomaterials have emerged as a new way to control light at length scales that are smaller than the wavelength of light and have optical properties that are distinctly different from their macroscale counterparts. Although there have been may advances in nanofabrication, the performance and widespread use of optical nanomaterials is still limited by fabrication and design challenges. This dissertation describes advances in the fabrication, characterization, and design of optical nanomaterials. First we demonstrate how a portable and compact photolithography system can be made using a light source composed of UV LEDs. Our solid-state photolithography (SSP) system brings the capabilities of one of the most important yet workhorse tools of micro- and nanotechnology--the mask aligner--to the benchtop. The two main highlights of chapter 2 include: (i) portable, low-cost photolithography and (ii) high quality patterning. We replace the mask aligner with a system composed of UV LEDs and a diffuser that can be built for as little as $30. The design of the SSP system alleviates the need for dedicated power supplies, vacuum lines and cooling systems, which makes it a true benchtop photolithography system. We further show that sub-wavelength features can be fabricated across 4-in wafers and that these patterns are of high quality such that they can be easily transferred into functional materials. Chapter 3 describes a parallel method to create nanometer scale textures over large areas with unprecedented control over wrinkle wavelength. The main points of this chapter include: (i) a new material system for nanowrinkles, (ii) wrinkles with tunable wavelengths, and (iii) a method for measuring the skin thickness. First, we show that RIE treatment of PS with

  2. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper will discuss the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  3. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  4. Design and Fabrication of Graphene Reinforced Polymer Conductive Patch-Based Inset Fed Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepak, A.; Kannan, P. Muthu; Shankar, P.

    This work explores the design and fabrication of graphene reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) patch-based microstrip antenna. Primarily, antenna was designed at 6GHz frequency and simulation results were obtained using Ansoft HFSS tool. Later fabrication of antenna was carried out with graphene-PVDF films as conducting patch deposited on bakelite substrate and copper as ground plane. Graphene-PVDF films were prepared using solvent casting process. The radiation efficiency of fabricated microstrip patch antenna was 48% entailing it to be adapted as a practically functional antenna. Both simulated and the practical results were compared and analyzed.

  5. Design and fabrication of the Brayton rotating unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Brayton rotating unit (BRU), operating on a gas bearing system, has been designed, fabricated, and demonstrated for use in a closed Brayton cycle space power conversion system. The BRU uses a binary mixture of xenon and helium (molecular weight, 83.8) as the cycle working fluid and bearing lubricating medium and was designed to produce from 2.25 to 10.5 kw sub e of 1200 Hz three-phase electrical power. The single-shaft rotating assembly operates at a design speed of 36,000 rpm and comprises a radial single-stage compressor, a four-pole Rice alternator rotor, and a radial inflow turbine. Four units, a dynamic simulator and three component research packages, were supplied to the NASA Lewis Research Center for performance testing and further development.

  6. Design and prototype fabrication of a 30 tesla cryogenic magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, G. M.; Swanson, M. C.; Brown, G. V.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid neon cooled magnet was designed to produce 30 teslas in steady operation. To ensure the correctness of the heat transfer relationships used, supercritical neon heat transfer tests were made. Other tests made before the final design included tests on the effect of the magnetic field on pump motors, tensile shear tests on the cryogenic adhesives, and simulated flow studies for the coolant. The magnet will consist of two pairs of coils, cooled by forced convection of supercritical neon. Heat from the supercritical neon will be rejected through heat exchangers which are made of roll bonded copper panels and are submerged in a pool of saturated liquid neon. A partial mock up coil was wound to identify the tooling required to wind the magnet. This was followed by winding a prototype pair of coils. The prototype winding established procedures for fabricating the final magnet and revealed slight changes needed in the final design.

  7. Design and fabrication of an E-shaped wearable textile antenna on PVB-coated hydrophobic polyester fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu Roshni, Satheesh; Jayakrishnan, M. P.; Mohanan, P.; Peethambharan Surendran, Kuzhichalil

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated the simulation and fabrication of an E-shaped microstrip patch antenna realized on multilayered polyester fabric suitable for WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) applications. The main challenges while designing a textile antenna were to provide adequate thickness, surface uniformity and water wettability to the textile substrate. Here, three layers of polyester fabric were stacked together in order to obtain sufficient thickness, and were subsequently dip coated with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) solution. The PVB-coated polyester fabric showed a hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 91°. The RMS roughness of the uncoated and PVB-coated polyester fabric was about 341 nm and 15 nm respectively. The promising properties, such as their flexibility, light weight and cost effectiveness, enable effortless integration of the proposed antenna into clothes like polyester jackets. Simulated and measured results in terms of return loss as well as gain were showcased to confirm the usefulness of the fabricated prototype. The fabricated antenna successfully operates at 3.37 GHz with a return loss of 21 dB and a maximum measured gain of 3.6 dB.

  8. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  9. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-05-09

    A simulator is disclosed which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  10. 3D Printed Surgical Instruments: The Design and Fabrication Process.

    PubMed

    George, Mitchell; Aroom, Kevin R; Hawes, Harvey G; Gill, Brijesh S; Love, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    3D printing is an additive manufacturing process allowing the creation of solid objects directly from a digital file. We believe recent advances in additive manufacturing may be applicable to surgical instrument design. This study investigates the feasibility, design and fabrication process of usable 3D printed surgical instruments. The computer-aided design package SolidWorks (Dassault Systemes SolidWorks Corp., Waltham MA) was used to design a surgical set including hemostats, needle driver, scalpel handle, retractors and forceps. These designs were then printed on a selective laser sintering (SLS) Sinterstation HiQ (3D Systems, Rock Hill SC) using DuraForm EX plastic. The final printed products were evaluated by practicing general surgeons for ergonomic functionality and performance, this included simulated surgery and inguinal hernia repairs on human cadavers. Improvements were identified and addressed by adjusting design and build metrics. Repeated manufacturing processes and redesigns led to the creation of multiple functional and fully reproducible surgical sets utilizing the user feedback of surgeons. Iterative cycles including design, production and testing took an average of 3 days. Each surgical set was built using the SLS Sinterstation HiQ with an average build time of 6 h per set. Functional 3D printed surgical instruments are feasible. Advantages compared to traditional manufacturing methods include no increase in cost for increased complexity, accelerated design to production times and surgeon specific modifications.

  11. Design and fabrication of a differential scanning nanocalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Lei; Chen, Xiaoming; Yu, Shifeng; Lu, Ming

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a differential scanning nanocalorimeter that significantly reduces the sample volume to microliters and can potentially improve the temperature sensitivity to 10 µK. The nanocalorimeter consists of a polymeric freestanding membrane, four high-sensitive low-noise thermistors based on silicon carbide (SiC), and a platinum heater and temperature sensor. With the integrated heater and sensors, temperature scanning and power compensation can be achieved for calorimetric measurement. Temperature sensing SiC film was prepared by using sintered SiC target and DC magnetron sputtering under different gas pressures and sputtering power. The SiC sensing material is characterized through the measurement of current-voltage curves and noise levels. The thermal performance of a fabricated nanocalorimeter is studied in simulation and experiment. The experiment results show the device has excellent thermal isolation to hold thermal energy. The noise test together with the simulation show the device is promising for micro 10 µK temperature sensitivity and nanowatt resolution which will lead to low-volume ultra-sensitive nanocalorimetry for biological processes, such as protein folding and ligand binding.

  12. Design and fabrication of a differential scanning nanocalorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Zuo, Lei; Chen, Xiaoming; Yu, Shifeng; ...

    2016-12-19

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a differential scanning nanocalorimeter that significantly reduces the sample volume to microliters and can potentially improve the temperature sensitivity to 10 µK. The nanocalorimeter consists of a polymeric freestanding membrane, four high-sensitive low-noise thermistors based on silicon carbide (SiC), and a platinum heater and temperature sensor. With the integrated heater and sensors, temperature scanning and power compensation can be achieved for calorimetric measurement. Temperature sensing SiC film was prepared by using sintered SiC target and DC magnetron sputtering under different gas pressures and sputtering power. The SiC sensing material is characterizedmore » through the measurement of current–voltage curves and noise levels. The thermal performance of a fabricated nanocalorimeter is studied in simulation and experiment. The experiment results show the device has excellent thermal isolation to hold thermal energy. As a result, the noise test together with the simulation show the device is promising for micro 10 µK temperature sensitivity and nanowatt resolution which will lead to low-volume ultra-sensitive nanocalorimetry for biological processes, such as protein folding and ligand binding.« less

  13. Design, Simulation and Fabrication of A MEMS-based Double-layer Spiral Planar Inductor with Patterned Permalloy as Magnetic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaomin; Cheng, Ping; Chen, Mingming; Ding, Guifu

    2018-03-01

    There have been significant efforts to boost the inductance value by adopting the sandwich structures using permalloy magnetic shielding layers. However, this structure will introduce high ac conductor losses and high eddy currents. In order to solve these problems, patterned permalloy can solve this problem effectively. According to the simulation results based on the application of finite element method in the frequency domain, the optimum permalloy pattern is which the blank of the permalloy are perpendicular to the coil inside. The double-layer planar inductor has a size of l5×1.5×0.1mm consisted of 13-turn spiral Cu coil for each layer and a 20μm-thick patterned permalloy magnetic shielding layer. The inductor shows a higher inductance than the traditional planar inductor. The patterned permalloy made the inductor more stable in high frequency than the none-patterned. And the inductor has an inductance of 1.3μH and quality factor of 2.8 at 1.5MHz, with an inductance per unit of 578nH/mm2, which is much higher than that in the reported literatures.

  14. The Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Composite Heat Exchange Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, Derek J.; Meador, Michael A.; Shin, Euy-Sik; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Several heat exchanger (HX) test panels were designed, fabricated and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center to explore the fabrication and performance of several designs for composite heat exchangers. The development of these light weight, high efficiency air-liquid test panels was attempted using polymer composites and carbon foam materials. The fundamental goal of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of the composite HX for various space exploration and thermal management applications including Orion CEV and Altair. The specific objectives of this work were to select optimum materials, designs, and to optimize fabrication procedures. After fabrication, the individual design concept prototypes were tested to determine their thermal performance and to guide the future development of full-size engineering development units (EDU). The overall test results suggested that the panel bonded with pre-cured composite laminates to KFOAM Grade L1 scored above the other designs in terms of ease of manufacture and performance.

  15. Design, Modeling, Fabrication & Characterization of Industrial Si Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ahrar Ahmed

    Photovoltaic is a viable solution towards meeting the energy demand in an ecofriendly environment. To ensure the mass access in photovoltaic electricity, cost effective approach needs to be adapted. This thesis aims towards substrate independent fabrication process in order to achieve high efficiency cost effective industrial Silicon (Si) solar cells. Most cost-effective structures, such as, Al-BSF (Aluminum Back Surface Field), FSF (Front Surface Field) and bifacial cells are investigated in detail to exploit the efficiency potentials. First off, we introduced two-dimensional simulation model to design and modeling of most commonly used Si solar cells in today's PV arena. Best modelled results of high efficiency Al-BSF, FSF and bifacial cells are 20.50%, 22% and 21.68% respectively. Special attentions are given on the metallization design on all the structures in order to reduce the Ag cost. Furthermore, detail design and modeling were performed on FSF and bifacial cells. The FSF cells has potentials to gain 0.42%abs efficiency by combining the emitter design and front surface passivation. The prospects of bifacial cells can be revealed with the optimization of gridline widths and gridline numbers. Since, bifacial cells have metallization on both sides, a double fold cost saving is possible via innovative metallization design. Following modeling an effort is undertaken to reach the modelled result in fabrication the process. We proposed substrate independent fabrication process aiming towards establishing simultaneous processing sequences for both monofacial and bifacial cells. Subsequently, for the contact formation cost effective screen-printed technology is utilized throughout this thesis. The best Al-BSF cell attained efficiency ˜19.40%. Detail characterization was carried out to find a roadmap of achieving >20.50% efficiency Al-BSF cell. Since, n-type cell is free from Light Induced degradation (LID), recently there is a growing interest on FSF cell. Our

  16. Design and fabrication of bismith-silicate photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tomoharu

    2012-09-01

    The process of design and fabrication of bismuth-silicate photonic crystal fiber (Bi-PCF) is reported. The Bi-PCF was fabricated by stack and draw method. This is the first trial of the fabrication of photonic crystal fiber made of bismuth-based glass with stack and draw method. The Bi-PCF structure was designed to reduce group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) in a plausible process. Thermal properties of the glass are investigated to establish the fabrication process. The applying pressure and pumping in fiber preform preparation were effectively utilized to control the air-hole diameter and arrangement. The fabricated Bi-PCF shows the well reduced GVD as the numerical calculation predicted. Fusion splicing between Bi-PCF and SMF-28 was also demonstrated.

  17. Iodine Beam Dump Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Bradley, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    During the testing of electric thrusters, high-energy ions impacting the walls of a vacuum chamber can cause corrosion and/or sputtering of the wall materials, which can damage the chamber walls. The sputtering can also introduce the constituent materials of the chamber walls into an experiment, with those materials potentially migrating back to the test article and coating it with contaminants over time. The typical method employed in this situation is to install a beam dump fabricated from materials that have a lower sputter yield, thus reducing the amount of foreign material that could migrate towards the test article or deposit on anything else present in the vacuum facility.

  18. Curtain Fabric Detail and Designed Furniture including Dining Table, Dining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curtain Fabric Detail and Designed Furniture including Dining Table, Dining Chair, Coffee Table, End Table, and Ottoman - Cedric & Patricia Boulter House, 1 Rawson Woods Circle, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH

  19. Recommended design and fabrication sequence of AMTEC test assembly

    SciT

    Schock, A.; Kumar, V.; Noravian, H.

    1998-01-01

    A series of previous OSC papers described: 1) a novel methodology for the coupled thermal, fluid flow, and electrical analysis of multitube AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cells; 2) the application of that methodology to determine the effect of numerous design variations on the cell{close_quote}s performance, leading to selection and performance characterization of an OSC-recommended cell design; and 3) the design, analysis, and characterization of an OSC-generated power system design combining sixteen of the above AMTEC cells with two or three GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) radioisotope heat source modules, and the applicability of those power systems to future spacemore » missions ({ital e.g.} Pluto Express and Europa Orbiter) under consideration by NASA. The OSC system design studies demonstrated the critical importance of the thermal insulation subsystem, and culminated in a design in which the eight AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack are embedded in Min-K fibrous insulation, and the Min-K and the GPHS modules are surrounded by graded-length Mo multifoil insulation. The present paper depicts the OSC-recommended AMTEC cell and generator designs, and identifies the need for an electrically heated (scaled-down but otherwise prototypic) test assembly for the experimental validation of the generator{close_quote}s system performance predictions. It then describes the design of an OSC-recommended test assembly consisting of an electrical heater enclosed in a graphite box to simulate the radioisotope heat source, four series-connected prototypic AMTEC cells of the OSC-recommended configuration, and a prototypic hybrid insulation package consisting of Min-K and graded-length Mo multifoils. Finally, the paper describes and illustrates an OSC-recommended detailed fabrication sequence and procedure for the above cell and test assembly. That fabrication procedure is being implemented by AMPS, Inc. with the support of DOE

  20. Design and fabrication of brayton cycle solar heat receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendelson, I.

    1971-01-01

    A detail design and fabrication of a solar heat receiver using lithium fluoride as the heat storage material was completed. A gas flow analysis was performed to achieve uniform flow distribution within overall pressure drop limitations. Structural analyses and allowable design criteria were developed for anticipated environments such as launch, pressure containment, and thermal cycling. A complete heat receiver assembly was fabricated almost entirely from the refractory alloy, niobium-1% zirconium.

  1. Design and prototype fabrication of a 30 tesla cryogenic magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, G. M.; Swanson, M. C.; Brown, G. V.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-neon-cooled magnet has been designed to produce 30 teslas in steady operation. Its feasibility was established by a previously reported parametric study. To ensure the correctness of the heat transfer relationships used, supercritical neon heat transfer tests were made. Other tests made before the final design included tests on the effect of the magnetic field on pump motors; tensile-shear tests on the cryogenic adhesives; and simulated flow studies for the coolant. The magnet will be made of two pairs of coils, cooled by forced convection of supercritical neon. Heat from the supercritical neon will be rejected through heat exchangers which are made of roll-bonded copper panels and are submerged in a pool of saturated liquid neon. A partial mock-up coil was wound to identify the tooling required to wind the magnet. This was followed by winding a prototype pair of coils. The prototype winding established procedures for fabricating the final magnet and revealed slight changes needed in the final design.

  2. Design and Fabrication of Flying Saucer Utilizing Coanda Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aabid, Abdul; Khan, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Coanda effect is used in several engineering applications with distinctive designs and structures. It is also applied in aircrafts flying at low speeds for a comfortable ride. In this paper, we have designed and modelled Coanda effect in terms of a flying saucer. The fabrication was done by means of structural and electronic components. Electrical motor was used as a propeller to take off and land vertically (VTOL) along with hovering capability. The rotor disc diameter is smaller than the bulbous body unlike a helicopter which makes to fly very stable. Control flaps were used to regulate the path by altering the flow over the streamlined body. The model was then tested with a remote control. Numerical Simulation of the tesla turbine was done using ANSYS 14.5 software and displacements were obtained by applying different forces on designed model. CATIA V5 was used to analyse the shaft of the model to get minimum value of torque at which the shaft starts to deform.

  3. Design, fabrication & performance analysis of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Salam, M. A.; Afsar, M. R.; Huda, M. N.; Mahmud, T.

    2016-07-01

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was designed, analyzed and fabricated to meet design requirements and perform the entire mission for an international aircraft design competition. The goal was to have a balanced design possessing, good demonstrated flight handling qualities, practical and affordable manufacturing requirements while providing a high vehicle performance. The UAV had to complete total three missions named ferry flight (1st mission), maximum load mission (2nd mission) and emergency medical mission (3rd mission). The requirement of ferry flight mission was to fly as many as laps as possible within 4 minutes. The maximum load mission consists of flying 3 laps while carrying two wooden blocks which simulate cargo. The requirement of emergency medical mission was complete 3 laps as soon as possible while carrying two attendances and two patients. A careful analysis revealed lowest rated aircraft cost (RAC) as the primary design objective. So, the challenge was to build an aircraft with minimum RAC that can fly fast, fly with maximum payload, and fly fast with all the possible configurations. The aircraft design was reached by first generating numerous design concepts capable of completing the mission requirements. In conceptual design phase, Figure of Merit (FOM) analysis was carried out to select initial aircraft configuration, propulsion, empennage and landing gear. After completion of the conceptual design, preliminary design was carried out. The preliminary design iterations had a low wing loading, high lift coefficient, and a high thrust to weight ratio. To make the aircraft capable of Rough Field Taxi; springs were added in the landing gears for absorbing shock. An airfoil shaped fuselage was designed to allowed sufficient space for payload and generate less drag to make the aircraft fly fast. The final design was a high wing monoplane with conventional tail, single tractor propulsion system and a tail dragger landing gear. Payload was stored in

  4. EDITORIAL: Designer fabrication: nanotemplates get in shape Designer fabrication: nanotemplates get in shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-02-01

    People working in device design rarely see something that works without thinking how it could be made to work better. The work on anodic aluminum oxide materials in this issue provides a case in point [1]. Over the past century researchers have observed, manipulated and exploited the porous structures that result when anodizing aluminum in for example oxalic, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid solutions [1, 2]. The self-organized pore arrays have demonstrated the potential to facilitate high through-put, low-cost fabrication of nanocomposites as well as other nanostructures. The straight self-aligned nanochannels in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) have long been accepted as an inherent property of these films and for many applications they are an attractive attribute. However, researchers in Taiwan have considered a novel manifestation of AAO materials which may enhance their natural attributes by generating arrays that bend [3]. Their work is an example of how even well studied systems continue to harbour surprises and scope for creative innovation. As the authors point out, 'This novel fan-out platform facilitates probing and handling many signals from different areas on a sample's surface and is therefore promising for applications in detection and manipulation at the nanoscale level'. It has long been recognized that the inter-pore distance, pore diameter and pore depth in AAO can be controlled by changing the anodization conditions. These accommodating features have motivated researchers to seek a better understanding of how to optimize fabrication conditions. A collaboration of researchers in Sweden, Chile and Uruguay studied the structural and optical properties of silver nanowires electrodeposited in commercially available nanoporous alumina templates, with a nominal pore diameter of 20 nm [4]. Their results revealed a decrease in the uniformity of pore filling with increasing deposition overpotential and suggested that overpotentials were preferred for the

  5. A channel simulator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.; Goutmann, M. M.; Harper, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    A propagation path simulator was designed for the channel between a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite in geostationary orbit and a user spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude between 200 and 4000 kilometers. The simulator is required to duplicate the time varying parameters of the propagation channel.

  6. Stitch modeling of non crimp fabric in forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Q.; Colmars, J.; Boisse, P.

    2018-05-01

    The use of Non Crimp Fabric composite has increased during the last years due to cheaper cost of manufacturing and high mechanicals properties suitable for applications such as aeronautic, automotive and wind turbines. The main difference between Non Crimp Fabric (NCF) and textile reinforcement is the mean of manufacturing: where in textile fibers are woven, in NCF layers of unidirectional oriented fibers are assembled with a stitch. As a consequence, the stitch especially its geometry (stitch pattern) will have a major influence on the deformation of this type of reinforcement during forming process. Experimental campaigns on NCF samples compared to textile with the same fibers orientation have showed that the stitch affects the shear behavior of the reinforcement which is the main mode of deformation in the forming process. A description of the stitch has been implemented in a shell element for macro scale forming simulation as a first approach based on simple hypothesis. Further works are focus on the specific behavior of the stitch along the fabric and interaction with the fibers layers during shear deformation of the reinforcement and a method to implement the stitch in a more refined model of the fabric.

  7. 3-D Printing as an Effective Educational Tool for MEMS Design and Fabrication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahle, Reena; Rasel, Rafiul

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a series of course modules developed as a high-impact and cost-effective learning tool for modeling and simulating the microfabrication process and design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices using three-dimensional (3-D) printing. Microfabrication technology is an established fabrication technique for small and…

  8. Design, fabrication and test of block 4 design solar cell modules. Part 2: Residential module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of the Block IV residential load module are reported. Design changes from the proposed module design through three iterations to the discontinuance of testing are outlined.

  9. Design, analysis, and fabrication of a piezoelectric force plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoummadi, Elias; Safaei, Mohsen; Anton, Steven R.

    2017-04-01

    Force plates are used to detect static and dynamic reaction forces due to presence of stationary or moving objects as well as the location of applied forces. The application of force plates in various biomechanical fields, such as gait analysis, has been widely suggested and investigated in the past. Several sensor technologies like piezoelectrics, capacitance gauges, and piezoresistive sensors are utilized to develop force plates with special characteristics. Among the technologies employed in force plate designs, piezoelectrics present the ability of providing a self-powered sensory system. Recently, it has been suggested to implement piezoelectric transducers as sensors in the tibial bearing of total knee replacement (TKR) implants in order to transform the knee bearing into a force plate with the ability to detect force and contact point location for in vivo knee load analysis. Considering this application, a simplified design of a force plate instrumented with six piezoelectric transducers is presented in this study. The force plate is modeled using a finite element (FE) model to investigate the sensing performance of the system. In order to validate the simulation, a prototype force plate is fabricated and tested under the same loading condition applied on the FE model. The results are presented in terms of measured location and amplitude of applied force measured by the piezoelectric transducers. For the FE simulation, the deviation of the measured location of the applied force from the actual location is obtained as 0.62 mm in the x-direction and 0.13 mm in the y-direction, and the error in the amplitude of the measured force is 0.03% of the applied force. On the other hand, the deviation in the measured location of the force from the experimental test is 0.53 mm in the x-direction and 0.1 mm in the y-direction, while the error in force is 3.6% of the applied force. The small quantities of error in both sensed location and amplitude of applied force

  10. Two-dimensional designed fabrication of subwavelength grating HCG mirror on silicon-on-insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shen-Che; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Lu, Tien-Chang; He, Sailing

    2016-03-01

    We designed and fabricated a two dimensional high contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirrors. The computer-aided software was employed to verify the structural parameters including grating periods and filling factors. From the optimized simulation results, the designed HCG structure has a wide reflection stopband (reflectivity (R) >90%) of over 200 nm, which centered at telecommunication wavelength. The optimized HCG mirrors were fabricated by electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma process technique. The experimental result was almost consistent with calculated data. This achievement should have an impact on numerous photonic devices helpful attribution to the integrated HCG VCSELs in the future.

  11. Design and fabrication of a magnetic propulsion system for self-propelled capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingyuan; Hu, Chengzhi; Chen, Zhenzhi; Zhang, Honghai; Liu, Sheng

    2010-12-01

    This paper investigates design, modeling, simulation, and control issues related to self-propelled endoscopic capsule navigated inside the human body through external magnetic fields. A novel magnetic propulsion system is proposed and fabricated, which has great potential of being used in the field of noninvasive gastrointestinal endoscopy. Magnetic-analysis model is established and finite-element simulations as well as orthogonal design are performed for obtaining optimized mechanical and control parameters for generating appropriate external magnetic field. Simulated intestinal tract experiments are conducted, demonstrating controllable movement of the capsule under the developed magnetic propulsion system.

  12. Design, fabrication, and testing of energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Velimir; Ghamaty, Saeid

    2006-03-01

    An energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG) is being developed to provide power for wireless sensors used in health monitoring of Navy machinery. TEGs are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity without any moving parts. In this application, the TEGs utilize the heat transfer between shipboard waste heat sources and the ambient air to generate electricity. In order to satisfy the required small design volume of less than one cubic inch, Hi-Z is using its innovative thin-film Quantum Well (QW) thermoelectric technology that will provide a factor of four increase in efficiency and a large reduction in the device volume over the currently used bulk Bi IITe 3 based thermoelectics. QWs are nanostructured multi-layer films. These wireless sensors can be used to detect cracks, corrosion, impact damage, and temperature and vibration excursions as part of the Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of the Navy ship machinery. The CBM of the ship machinery can be significantly improved by automating the process with the use of self-powered wireless sensors. These power-harvesting TEGs can be used to replace batteries as electrical power sources and to eliminate power cables and data lines. The first QW TEG module was fabricated and initial tests were successful. It is planned to conduct performance tests the entire prototype QW TEG device (consisting of the TEG module, housing, thermal insulation and the heat sink) in a simulated thermal environment of a Navy ship.

  13. Design and Fabrication of a Stirling Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2004-01-01

    A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) is being developed for potential use on future NASA space science missions. The development effort is being conducted by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The Stirling Technology Company supplies the free-piston Stirling power convertors, and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) provides support to the effort in a range of technologies. This generator features higher efficiency and specific power compared to the currently used alternatives. One potential application for the generator would entail significant cruise time in the vacuum of deep space. A test has been conceived at GRC to demonstrate functionality of the Stirling convertors in a thermal vacuum environment. The test article resembles the configuration of the SRG, however the requirement for low mass was not considered. This test will demonstrate the operation of the Stirling convertors in the thermal vacuum environment, simulating deep space, over an extended period of operation. The analysis, design, and fabrication of the test article will be described in this paper.

  14. Numerical Simulation with Experimental Validation of the Draping Behavior of Woven Fabrics

    SciT

    Rodgers, William; Pasupuleti, Praveen; Zhao, Selina

    Woven fabric composites are extensively used in molding complex geometrical shapes due to their high conformability compared to other fabrics. Preforming is an important step in the overall process. In this step, the two-dimensional fabric is draped to become the three-dimensional shape of the part prior to resin injection. During preforming, the orientation of the tows may change significantly compared to the initial orientations. Accurate prediction of the tow orientations after molding is important for evaluating the structural performance of the final part. This paper investigates the fiber angle changes for carbon fiber woven fabrics during draping over a truncatedmore » pyramid tool designed and fabricated at the General Motors Research Labs. This aspect of study is a subset of the broad study conducted under the purview of a Department of Energy project funded to GM in developing state of the art computational tools for integrated manufacturing and structural performance prediction of carbon fiber composites. Fabric bending, picture frame testing, and bias-extension evaluations were carried out to determine the material parameters for these fabrics. The PAM-FORM computer program was used to model the draping behavior of these fabrics. Following deformation, fiber angle changes at different locations on the truncated pyramid were measured experimentally. The predicted angles matched the experimental results well as measured along the centerline and at several different locations on the deformed fabric. Details of the test methods used as well as the numerical results with various simulation parameters will be provided.« less

  15. Base Camp Design Simulation Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    States Military Academy undertook a project to bring base camp design and development simulation support into the classrooms of the US Army Engineer...endeavor was to bring simulation support to Army classrooms . Initial discussions between the ORCEN and the Manuever Support Center of Excellence... classrooms . MSCoE acts as TRADOC’s proponent for base camps, subsequently delegated to the Engineer School (one of three branch schools overseen by

  16. Wireless implantable passive strain sensor: design, fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbrecht, F.; Wägli, P.; Dechand, S.; Gattiker, F.; Neuenschwander, J.; Sennhauser, U.; Hierold, Ch

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a new passive sensor concept for monitoring the deformation of orthopedic implants. The novel sensing principle of the WIPSS (wireless implantable passive strain sensor) is based on a hydro-mechanical amplification effect. The WIPSS is entirely made from biocompatible PMMA and consists of a microchannel attached to a reservoir, which is filled with an incompressible fluid. As the reservoir is exposed to strain, its volume changes and consequently the fill level inside the microchannel varies. The wireless detection of the microchannel's strain-dependent fill level is based on ultrasound. The WIPSS' sensing principle is proved by finite-element simulations and the reservoir's design is optimized toward maximum volume change, in order to achieve high sensitivity. A fabrication process for WIPSS sensor devices entirely made from PMMA is presented. The obtained measurement results confirmed the sensor's functionality and showed very good agreement with the obtained results of the conducted FE simulations regarding the sensor's sensitivity. A strain resolution of 1.7 ± 0.2 × 10-5 was achieved. Further, the determination of the cross-sensitivity to temperature and strains applied out of the sensing direction is presented. The response to dynamic inputs (0.1-5 Hz) has been measured and showed decreasing sensor output with increasing frequency. Test structures of the sensor device allow the application of a signal bandwidth up to 1 Hz. Therefore, the proposed sensor concept of the WIPSS presents a promising new sensor system for static in vivo strain monitoring of orthopedic implants. In combination with the developed ultrasound-based read-out method, this new sensor system offers the potential of wireless sensor read-out with medical ultrasound scanners, which are commercially available.

  17. Design, fabrication, and test of lightweight shell structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cylindrical shell skirt structure 4.57 m (180 in.) in diameter and 3.66 m (144 in.) high was subjected to a design and analysis study using a wide variety of structural materials and concepts. The design loading of 1225.8 N/cm (700 lb/in.) axial compression and 245.2 N/cm (140 lb/in.) torsion is representative of that expected on a typical space tug skirt section. Structural concepts evaluated included honeycomb sandwich, truss, isogrid, and skin/stringer/frame. The materials considered included a wide variety of structural metals as well as glass, graphite, and boron-reinforced composites. The most unique characteristic of the candidate designs is that they involve the use of very thin-gage material. Fabrication and structural test of small panels and components representative of many of the candidate designs served to demonstrate proposed fabrication techniques and to verify design and analysis methods.

  18. Design and fabrication of silver-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication of silver-hydrogen secondary cells capable of delivering higher energy densities than comparable nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells and relatively high cycle life is presented. An experimental task utilizing single electrode pairs for the optimization of the individual electrode components, the preparation of a design for lightweight 20Ahr cells, and the fabrication of four 20Ahr cells in heavy wall test housing containing electrode stacks of the lightweight design are described. The design approach is based on the use of a single cylindrical self-contained cell with a stacked disc sequence of electrodes. The electrode stack design is based on the use of NASA- Astropower Separator Material, PPF fuel cell anodes, an intercell electrolyte reservoir concept and sintered silver electrodes. Results of performance tests are given.

  19. Design for producing fiberglass fabric in a lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Rafer M.; Causby, Dana R.; Johnson, Michael C.; Storey, Mark A.; Tran, Dal T.; Zahr, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design a method of producing a fabric material on the lunar surface from readily available glass fibers. Various methods for forming fabrics were analyzed to determine which methods were appropriate for the lunar conditions. A nonwoven process was determined to be the most suitable process for making a fabric material out of fiberglass under these conditions. Various resins were considered for adhering the fibers. A single thermoplastic resin (AURUM) was found to be the only applicable resin. The end product of the process was determined to be suitable for use as a roadway surfacing material, canopy material, reflective material, or packaging material. A cost analysis of the lunar process versus shipping the end-product from the Earth suggests that the lunar formation is highly feasible. A design for a lunar, nonwoven process was determined and is included.

  20. Design for producing fiberglass fabric in a lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrity, J. Lewis; Patel, Suneer; Benson, Rafer M.; Johnson, Michael C.; Storey, Mark A.; Tran, Dai T.; Zahr, Thomas A.; Causby, Dana R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design a method of producing a fabric material on the lunar surface from readily available glass fibers. Various methods for forming fabrics were analyzed to determine which methods were appropriate for the lunar conditions. A nonwoven process was determined to be the most suitable process for making a fabric material out of fiberglass under these conditions. Various resins were considered for adhering the fibers. A single thermoplastic resin (AURUM) was found to be the only applicable resin. The end product of the process was determined to be suitable for use as a roadway surfacing material, canopy materials, reflective material, or packaging material. A cost analysis of the lunar process versus shipping the end-product from the earth suggests that the lunar formation is highly feasible. A design for a lunar, nonwoven process was determined and included in the following document.

  1. Design and fabrication of magnetic coolant filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashanth, B. N.

    2017-07-01

    Now a day's use of coolants in industry has become dominant because of high production demands. Coolants not only help in speeding up the production but also provide many advantages in the metal working operation. As the consumption of coolants is very high a system is badly in need, so as to recirculate the used coolant. Also the amount of hazardous waste generated by industrial plants has become an increasingly costly problem for the manufactures and an additional stress on the environment. Since the purchase and disposal of the spent cutting fluids is becoming increasingly expensive, fluid recycling is a viable option for minimizing the cost. Separation of metallic chips from the coolants by using magnetic coolant separation has proven a good management and maintenance of the cutting fluid. By removing the metallic chips, the coolant life is greatly extended, increases the machining quality and reduces downtime. Above being the case, a magnetic coolant filter is developed which utilizes high energy permanent magnets to develop a dense magnetic field along a narrow flow path into which the contaminated coolant is directed. The ferromagnetic particles captured and aligned by the dense magnetic field, from the efficient filter medium. This enables the unit to remove ferromagnetic particles from the coolant. Magnetic coolant filters use the principle of magnetic separation to purify the used coolant. The developed magnetic coolant separation has the capability of purifying 40 litres per minute of coolant with the size of the contaminants ranging from 1 µm to 30 µm. The filter will be helpful in saving the production cost as the cost associated with the proposed design is well justified by the cost savings in production. The magnetic field produced by permanent magnets will be throughout the area underneath the reservoir. This produces magnetic field 30mm above the coolant reservoir. Very fine particles are arrested without slip. The magnetic material used will not

  2. Simulation and experimental study of resin flow in fibre fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Yan, Shilin; Li, Yongjing

    2017-06-01

    Liquid Composite Moulding (LCM) is gradually becoming the most competitive manufacturing technology for producing large composite parts with complex geometry with high quality and low cost. These parts include those for airplanes, wind turbine blades and automobile components. Fibre fabrics in liquid composite moulding can be considered as dual-scale porous media. In different gap scales, an unsaturated flow is produced during the mould filling process. This particular flow behaviour deviates from the traditional Darcy’s law, which is used to calculate the filling pressure and will cause errors. According to sink theory, the unsaturated flow characteristics of this dual-scale porous media were studied in this paper, and a FEM solution program was developed. The results showed that the pressure curves against the position which simulated by sink functions were departure from the position of traditional theory. In addition, the simulation results of partially-saturated region were consistent with the experimental data.

  3. Design of fabric preforms for double diaphragm forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luby, Steven; Bernardon, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) has the potential of becoming one of the most cost effective ways of producing composite structures since the raw materials used, resin and dry fabric, are less costly than prepregs. Unfortunately these low material costs are offset by the high labor costs incurred to layup the dry fabric into 3D shapes. To reduce the layup costs, double diaphragm forming is being investigated as a potential technique for creating a complex 3D preform from a simple flat layup. As part of our effort to develop double diaphragm forming into a production capable process, we have undertaken a series of experiments to investigate the interactions between process parameters, mold geometry, fabric weave, tow size, and the quality of the formed part. The results of these tests will be used to determine the forming geometry limitations of double diaphragm forming and to characterize the formability of fabric configurations. An important part of this work was the development of methods to measure and analyze fiber orientations, deformation angles, tow spreading, and shape conformation of the formed parts. This paper will describe the methods used to mark plies, the double diaphragm forming process, the techniques used to measure the formed parts, and the calculation of the parameters of interest. The results can be displayed as 3D contour plots. These experimental results have also been used to verify and improve a computer model which simulates the draping of fabrics over 3D mold shapes.

  4. Design and fabrication of planar structures with graded electromagnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Brandon Lowell

    Successfully integrating electromagnetic properties in planar structures offers numerous benefits to the microwave and optical communities. This work aims at formulating new analytic and optimized design methods, creating new fabrication techniques for achieving those methods, and matching appropriate implementation of methods to fabrication techniques. The analytic method consists of modifying an approach that realizes perfect antireflective properties from graded profiles. This method is shown for all-dielectric and magneto-dielectric grading profiles. The optimized design methods are applied to transformer (discrete) or taper (continuous) designs. From these methods, a subtractive and an additive manufacturing technique were established and are described. The additive method, dry powder dot deposition, enables three dimensional varying electromagnetic properties in a structural composite. Combining the methods and fabrication is shown in two applied methodologies. The first uses dry powder dot deposition to design one dimensionally graded electromagnetic profiles in a planar fiberglass composite. The second method simultaneously applies antireflective properties and adjusts directivity through a slab through the use of subwavelength structures to achieve a flat antireflective lens. The end result of this work is a complete set of methods, formulations, and fabrication techniques to achieve integrated electromagnetic properties in planar structures.

  5. 49 CFR 193.2703 - Design and fabrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design and fabrication. 193.2703 Section 193.2703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS...

  6. Percutaneous multiple electrode connector, design parameters and fabrication (biomedical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    A percutaneous multielectrode connector was designed which utilizes an ultrapure carbon collar to provide an infection free biocompatible passage through the skin. The device provides reliable electrical continuity, mates and demates readily with the implant, and is fabricated with processes and materials oriented to commercial production.

  7. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Ballheim, R. W.; Bartley, S. M.; Smith, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A two phase program encompassing the redesign and fabrication of a solar collector which is low in cost and aesthetically appealing is described. Phase one work reviewed the current collector design and developed a low-cost design based on specific design/performance/cost requirements. Throughout this phase selected collector component materials were evaluated by testing and by considering cost, installation, maintainability and durability. The resultant collector design was composed of an absorber plate, insulation, frame, cover, desiccant and sealant. In Phase two, three collector prototypes were fabricated and evaluated for both nonthermal and thermal characteristics. Tests included static load tests of covers, burst pressure tests of absorber plates, and tests for optical characteristics of selective absorber plate coatings. The three prototype collectors were shipped to Marshall Space Flight Center for use in their solar heating and cooling test facility.

  8. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Tunable RF Meta-atoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    Simple cantilever beam with actuation pad covered with a thin dielectric layer for short circuit protection...Cantilever actuation simulated with CoventorWare ® to determine the biasing voltage necessary to draw the cantilevers to the actuation pads ...Capacitive tunable meta-atom fabricated on quartz substrate. The meta-atom had to be cut at the metal trace leading to the cantilever actuation pads

  9. Design and fabrication of brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich structural panels for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of two large brazed Rene 41 honeycomb panels, the establishment of a test plan, the design and fabrication of a test fixture to subject the panels to cyclic thermal gradients and mechanical loads equivalent to those imposed on an advanced space transportation vehicle during its boost and entry trajectories are discussed. The panels will be supported at four points, creating three spans. The outer spans are 45.7 cm (18 in.) and the center span 76.2 cm (30 in). Specimen width is 30.5 cm (12 in.). The panels were primarily designed by boost conditions simulated by subjecting the panels to liquid nitrogen, 77K (-320 F) on one side and 455K (360 F) on the other side and by mechanically imposing loads representing vehicle fuel pressure loads. Entry conditions were simulated by radiant heating to 1034K (1400 F). The test program subjected the panels to 500 boost thermal conditions. Results are presented.

  10. LSST: Cadence Design and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kem H.; Pinto, P. A.; Delgado, F.; Miller, M.; Petry, C.; Saha, A.; Gee, P. A.; Tyson, J. A.; Ivezic, Z.; Jones, L.; LSST Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The LSST Project has developed an operations simulator to investigate how best to observe the sky to achieve its multiple science goals. The simulator has a sophisticated model of the telescope and dome to properly constrain potential observing cadences. This model has also proven useful for investigating various engineering issues ranging from sizing of slew motors, to design of cryogen lines to the camera. The simulator is capable of balancing cadence goals from multiple science programs, and attempts to minimize time spent slewing as it carries out these goals. The operations simulator has been used to demonstrate a 'universal' cadence which delivers the science requirements for a deep cosmology survey, a Near Earth Object Survey and good sampling in the time domain. We will present the results of simulating 10 years of LSST operations using realistic seeing distributions, historical weather data, scheduled engineering downtime and current telescope and camera parameters. These simulations demonstrate the capability of the LSST to deliver a 25,000 square degree survey probing the time domain including 20,000 square degrees for a uniform deep, wide, fast survey, while effectively surveying for NEOs over the same area. We will also present our plans for future development of the simulator--better global minimization of slew time and eventual transition to a scheduler for the real LSST.

  11. Design, Static Analysis And Fabrication Of Composite Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiselvan, G.; Gobinath, R.; Yuvaraja, S.; Raja, T.

    2017-05-01

    The Bonded joints will be having one of the important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of aging in aircraft applications. In these applications and also for joining various composite material parts together, the composite materials fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. In this paper, we have carried out design, static analysis of 3-D models and fabrication of the composite joints (bonded, riveted and hybrid). The 3-D model of the composite structure will be fabricated by using the materials such as epoxy resin, glass fibre material and aluminium rivet for preparing the joints. The static analysis was carried out with different joint by using ANSYS software. After fabrication, parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent width, adhesive thickness and overlap length. Different joint and its materials tensile test result have compared.

  12. Design and fabrication of wraparound contact silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodelle, G.

    1972-01-01

    Work is reported on the development and production of 1,000 N+/P wraparound solar cells of two different design configurations: Design 1, a bar configuration wraparound and Design 2, a corner pad configuration wraparound. The project goal consisted of determining which of the two designs was better with regard to production cost where the typical cost of a conventional solar cell was considered as the norm. Emphasis was also placed on obtaining the highest possible output efficiency, although a minumum efficiency of 10.5% was required. Five hundred cells of Design 1 and 500 cells of Design 2 were fabricated. Design 1 which used similar procedures to those used in the fabrication of conventional cells, was the less expensive with a cost very close to that of a conventional cell. Design 2 was more expensive mainly because the more exotic process procedures used were less developed than those used for Design 1. However, Design 2 processing technology demonstrated a feasibility that should warrant future investigation toward improvement and refinement.

  13. Stochastic simulation and robust design optimization of integrated photonic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Tsui-Wei; Melati, Daniele; Melloni, Andrea; Daniel, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturing variations are becoming an unavoidable issue in modern fabrication processes; therefore, it is crucial to be able to include stochastic uncertainties in the design phase. In this paper, integrated photonic coupled ring resonator filters are considered as an example of significant interest. The sparsity structure in photonic circuits is exploited to construct a sparse combined generalized polynomial chaos model, which is then used to analyze related statistics and perform robust design optimization. Simulation results show that the optimized circuits are more robust to fabrication process variations and achieve a reduction of 11%-35% in the mean square errors of the 3 dB bandwidth compared to unoptimized nominal designs.

  14. Design and fabrication of conventional and unconventional superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, E. W.

    1983-01-01

    The design and fabrication of conventional and unconventionally processed Ti-Nb base and Al5-compound-base, respectively, composite superconductors is discussed in a nine section review. The first two sections introduce the general properties of alloy and compound superconductors, and the design and processing requirements for the production of long lengths of stable low loss conductor. All aspects of flux jump stability, and the general requirements of cryogenic stabilization are addressed. Conductor design from an a.c.-loss standpoint; some basic formulae describing hysteretic and eddy current losses and the influences on a.c. loss of filament diameter, strand (conductor) diameter, twist pitch, and matrix resistivity are discussed. The basic techniques used in the fabrication of conventional multifilamentary conductors are described.

  15. Design, fabrication and test of a trace contaminant control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A trace contaminant control system was designed, fabricated, and evaluated to determine suitability of the system concept to future manned spacecraft. Two different models were considered. The load model initially required by the contract was based on the Space Station Prototype (SSP) general specifications SVSK HS4655, reflecting a change from a 9 man crew to a 6 man crew of the model developed in previous phases of this effort. Trade studies and a system preliminary design were accomplished based on this contaminant load, including computer analyses to define the optimum system configuration in terms of component arrangements, flow rates and component sizing. At the completion of the preliminary design effort a revised contaminant load model was developed for the SSP. Additional analyses were then conducted to define the impact of this new contaminant load model on the system configuration. A full scale foam-core mock-up with the appropriate SSP system interfaces was also fabricated.

  16. The Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Transparent Atom Chip

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Huang, Chia-Shiuan; Chen, Hung-Pin; Huang, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the design and fabrication of transparent atom chips for atomic physics experiments. A fabrication process was developed to define the wire patterns on a transparent glass substrate to create the desired magnetic field for atom trapping experiments. An area on the chip was reserved for the optical access, so that the laser light can penetrate directly through the glass substrate for the laser cooling process. Furthermore, since the thermal conductivity of the glass substrate is poorer than other common materials for atom chip substrate, for example silicon, silicon carbide, aluminum nitride. Thus, heat dissipation copper blocks are designed on the front and back of the glass substrate to improve the electrical current conduction. The testing results showed that a maximum burnout current of 2 A was measured from the wire pattern (with a width of 100 μm and a height of 20 μm) without any heat dissipation design and it can increase to 2.5 A with a heat dissipation design on the front side of the atom chips. Therefore, heat dissipation copper blocks were designed and fabricated on the back of the glass substrate just under the wire patterns which increases the maximum burnout current to 4.5 A. Moreover, a maximum burnout current of 6 A was achieved when the entire backside glass substrate was recessed and a thicker copper block was electroplated, which meets most requirements of atomic physics experiments. PMID:24922456

  17. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  18. Design, fabrication and characterization of LTCC-based electromagnetic microgenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierczak, M.; Markowski, P.; Dziedzic, A.

    2016-02-01

    Design, manufacturing process and properties of electromagnetic microgenerators fabricated in LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) technology are presented in this paper. Electromagnetic microgenerators consist of planar coils spatially arranged on several layers of LTCC and of a multipole permanent magnet. Two different patterns of coils with 2-, 8-,10- and 12-layers and outer diameter of 50 mm were designed and fabricated. Silver-based pastes ESL 903-A or DuPont 6145 were used. In order to estimate the inductance of a single spatial coil the Greenhouse (self-inductance) and Hoer (mutual inductance) calculation methods were used. To verify the calculation results a single-layer coil was fabricated for each pattern and its inductance was measured using the precision RLC Meter. Fabricated LTCC microgenerators with embedded coils allow to generate voltage higher than ten volts and the electrical output power of approximately 600 mW at the rotor rotation speed of 12 thousands rpm. The self-made system was used for characterization of LTCC-based electromagnetic microgenerators.

  19. Injector Cavities Fabrication, Vertical Test Performance and Primary Cryomodule Design

    SciT

    Wang, Haipeng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Clemens, William

    2015-09-01

    After the electromagnetic design and the mechanical design of a β=0.6, 2-cell elliptical SRF cavity, the cavity has been fabricated. Then both 2-cell and 7-cell cavities have been bench tuned to the target values of frequency, coupling external Q and field flatness. After buffer chemistry polishing (BCP) and high pressure rinses (HPR), Vertical 2K cavity test results have been satisfied the specifications and ready for the string assembly. We will report the cavity performance including Lorenz Force Detuning (LFD) and Higher Order Modes (HOM) damping data. Its integration with cavity tuners to the cryomodule design will be reported.

  20. Design and Test of Advanced Thermal Simulators for an Alkali Metal-Cooled Reactor Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne E.; Dickens, Ricky E.

    2011-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has as one of its primary missions the development and testing of fission reactor simulators for space applications. A key component in these simulated reactors is the thermal simulator, designed to closely mimic the form and function of a nuclear fuel pin using electric heating. Continuing effort has been made to design simple, robust, inexpensive thermal simulators that closely match the steady-state and transient performance of a nuclear fuel pin. A series of these simulators have been designed, developed, fabricated and tested individually and in a number of simulated reactor systems at the EFF-TF. The purpose of the thermal simulators developed under the Fission Surface Power (FSP) task is to ensure that non-nuclear testing can be performed at sufficiently high fidelity to allow a cost-effective qualification and acceptance strategy to be used. Prototype thermal simulator design is founded on the baseline Fission Surface Power reactor design. Recent efforts have been focused on the design, fabrication and test of a prototype thermal simulator appropriate for use in the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). While designing the thermal simulators described in this paper, effort were made to improve the axial power profile matching of the thermal simulators. Simultaneously, a search was conducted for graphite materials with higher resistivities than had been employed in the past. The combination of these two efforts resulted in the creation of thermal simulators with power capacities of 2300-3300 W per unit. Six of these elements were installed in a simulated core and tested in the alkali metal-cooled Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC) at a variety of liquid metal flow rates and temperatures. This paper documents the design of the thermal simulators, test program, and test results.

  1. Novel Materials Design and Fabrication for Army Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Footwear (Dog Booties ). Each sub-project represented an Army need for improved materials and fabrication design. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE...barrier seams, IOTV, patterns, stitchless seams, dog booties Dr. Christine W. Cole, Dr. Deborah K. Lickfield Clemson University Office of Sponsored...Improved OTV patterns, Textile-based options for Reduced Helmet Weight, and Canine Footwear (Dog Booties ). Each sub-project represented an Army need for

  2. Design and fabrication of vertically-integrated CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors.

  3. Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

  4. Design and Fabrication of Interdigital Nanocapacitors Coated with HfO2

    PubMed Central

    González, Gabriel; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; López-Luna, Edgar; Hernández-Arriaga, Heber; González, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    In this article nickel interdigital capacitors were fabricated on top of silicon substrates. The capacitance of the interdigital capacitor was optimized by coating the electrodes with a 60 nm layer of HfO2. An analytical solution of the capacitance was compared to electromagnetic simulations using COMSOL and with experimental measurements. Results show that modeling interdigital capacitors using Finite Element Method software such as COMSOL is effective in the design and electrical characterization of these transducers. PMID:25602271

  5. Design, fabrication and test of a 4750 Newton-meter-second double Gimbal control moment gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Lewis; Golley, Paul; Krome, Henning; Blondin, Joseph; Gurrisi, Charles; Kolvek, John

    1989-01-01

    The development of a prototype Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) is discussed. Physical characteristics and the results of functional testing are presented to demonstrate the level of system performance obtained. Particular attention is given to how the man-rated mission requirement influenced the choice of the materials, fabrication, and design details employed. Comparisons are made of the measured system responses against the prediction generated by computer simulation.

  6. Spinning Rocket Simulator Turntable Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    Contained herein is the research and data acquired from the Turntable Design portion of the Spinning Rocket Simulator (SRS) project. The SRS Project studies and eliminates the effect of coning on thrust-propelled spacecraft. This design and construction of the turntable adds a structural support for the SRS model and two degrees of freedom. The two degrees of freedom, radial and circumferential, will help develop a simulated thrust force perpendicular to the plane of the spacecraft model while undergoing an unstable coning motion. The Turntable consists of a ten-foot linear track mounted to a sprocket and press-fit to a thrust bearing. A two-inch high column grounded by a Triangular Baseplate supports this bearing and houses the slip rings and pressurized, air-line swivel. The thrust bearing allows the entire system to rotate under the moment applied through the chain-driven sprocket producing a circumferential degree of freedom. The radial degree of freedom is given to the model through the helically threaded linear track. This track allows the Model Support and Counter Balance to simultaneously reposition according to the coning motion of the Model. Two design factors that hinder the linear track are bending and twist due to torsion. A Standard Aluminum "C" channel significantly reduces these two deflections. Safety considerations dictate the design of all the components involved in this project.

  7. Design, fabrication, test, qualification, and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cell modules is detailed with emphasis upon laminating and interconnecting the panels that hold the simicrystalline silicon cells. Design problems and enviromental tests are described as well as performance characteristics.

  8. Design, fabrication and analysis of integrated optical waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Yuri

    Throughout the present dissertation, the main effort has been to develop the set of design rules for optical integrated circuits (OIC). At the present time, when planar optical integrated circuits seem to be the leading technology, and industry is heading towards much higher levels of integration, such design rules become necessary. It is known that analysis of light propagation in rectangular waveguides can not be carried out exactly. Various approximations become necessary, and their validity is discussed in this text. Various methods are used in the text for calculating the same problems, and results are compared. A few new concepts have been suggested to avoid approximations used elsewhere. The second part of this dissertation is directed to the development of a new technique for the fabrication of optical integrated circuits inside optical glass. This technique is based on the use of ultrafast laser pulses to alter the properties of glasses. Using this method we demonstrated the possibility of changing the refractive index of various passive and active optical glasses as well as ablating the material on the surface in a controlled fashion. A number of optical waveguide devices (e.g. waveguides, directional couplers, diffraction gratings, fiber Bragg gratings, V-grooves in dual-clad optical fibers, optical waveguide amplifiers) were fabricated and tested. Testing included measurements of loss/throughput, near-field mode profiles, efficiency and thermal stability. All of the experimental setup and test results are reported in the dissertation. We also demonstrated the possibility of using this technique to fabricate future bio-optical devices that will incorporate an OIC and a microfluidic circuit on a single substrate. Our results are expected to serve as a guide for the design and fabrication of a new generation of integrated optical and bio-optical devices.

  9. Design, fabrication and testing of an optical temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, W. W.; Glenn, W. H.; Decker, R. O.; Mcclurg, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory breadboard optical temperature sensor based on the temperature dependent absorptive characteristics of a rare earth (europium) doped optical fiber. The principles of operation, materials characterization, fiber and optical component design, design and fabrication of an electrooptic interface unit, signal processing, and initial test results are discussed. Initial tests indicated that, after a brief warmup period, the output of the sensor was stable to approximately 1 C at room temperature or approximately + or - 0.3 percent of point (K). This exceeds the goal of 1 percent of point. Recommendations are presented for further performance improvement.

  10. Xyce parallel electronic simulator design.

    SciT

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Mei, Ting

    2010-09-01

    This document is the Xyce Circuit Simulator developer guide. Xyce has been designed from the 'ground up' to be a SPICE-compatible, distributed memory parallel circuit simulator. While it is in many respects a research code, Xyce is intended to be a production simulator. As such, having software quality engineering (SQE) procedures in place to insure a high level of code quality and robustness are essential. Version control, issue tracking customer support, C++ style guildlines and the Xyce release process are all described. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been under development at Sandia since 1999. Historically, Xyce has mostly beenmore » funded by ASC, the original focus of Xyce development has primarily been related to circuits for nuclear weapons. However, this has not been the only focus and it is expected that the project will diversify. Like many ASC projects, Xyce is a group development effort, which involves a number of researchers, engineers, scientists, mathmaticians and computer scientists. In addition to diversity of background, it is to be expected on long term projects for there to be a certain amount of staff turnover, as people move on to different projects. As a result, it is very important that the project maintain high software quality standards. The point of this document is to formally document a number of the software quality practices followed by the Xyce team in one place. Also, it is hoped that this document will be a good source of information for new developers.« less

  11. Design and fabrication of giant micromirrors using electroplating-based technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilias, Samir; Topart, Patrice A.; Larouche, Carl; Leclair, Sebastien; Jerominek, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Giant micromirrors with large scanning deflection and good flatness are required for many space and terrestrial applications. A novel approach to manufacturing this category of micromirrors is proposed. The approach combines selective electroplating and flip-chip based technologies. It allows for large air gaps, flat and smooth active micromirror surfaces and permits independent fabrication of the micromirrors and control electronics, avoiding temperature and sacrificial layer incompatibilities between them. In this work, electrostatically actuated piston and torsion micromirrors were designed and simulated. The simulated structures were designed to allow large deflection, i.e. piston displacement larger than 10 um and torsional deflection up to 35°. To achieve large micromirror deflections, up to seventy micron-thick resists were used as a micromold for nickel and solder electroplating. Smooth micromirror surfaces (roughness lower than 5 nm rms) and large radius of curvature (R as large as 23 cm for a typical 1000x1000 um2 micromirror fabricated without address circuits) were achieved. A detailed fabrication process is presented. First piston mirror prototypes were fabricated and a preliminary evaluation of static deflection of a piston mirror is presented.

  12. LBNF 1.2 MW Target: Conceptual Design & Fabrication

    SciT

    Crowley, C.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.

    2015-06-01

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield.more » Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.« less

  13. LBNF 1.2 MW TARGET: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN & FABRICATION

    SciT

    Crowley, Cory F.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.

    2015-06-29

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield.more » Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.« less

  14. Design and fabrication of self-assembled thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topasna, Daniela M.; Topasna, Gregory A.

    2015-10-01

    Students experience the entire process of designing, fabricating and testing thin films during their capstone course. The films are fabricated by the ionic-self assembled monolayer (ISAM) technique, which is suited to a short class and is relatively rapid, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. The materials used are polymers, nanoparticles, and small organic molecules that, in various combinations, can create films with nanometer thickness and with specific properties. These films have various potential applications such as pH optical sensors or antibacterial coatings. This type of project offers students an opportunity to go beyond the standard lecture and labs and to experience firsthand the design and fabrication processes. They learn new techniques and procedures, as well as familiarize themselves with new instruments and optical equipment. For example, students learn how to characterize the films by using UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry and in the process learn how the instruments operate. This work compliments a previous exercise that we introduced where students use MATHCAD to numerically model the transmission and reflection of light from thin films.

  15. Micro solar concentrators: Design and fabrication for microcells arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutteau, Sébastien; Paire, Myriam; Proise, Florian; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    In this work we look at a micro-concentrating system adapted to a new type of concentrator photovoltaic material, well known for flate-plate applications, Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells are polycrystalline thin film devices that can be deposited by a variety of techniques. We proposed to use a microcell architecture [1], [2], with lateral dimensions varying from a few μm to hundreds of μm, to adapt the film cell to concentration conditions. A 5% absolute efficiency increase on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 microcells at 475 suns has been observed for a final efficiency of 21.3%[3]. We study micro-concentrating systems adapted to the low and middle concentration range, where thin film concentrator cells will lean to substrate fabrication simplification and cost savings. Our study includes optical design, fabrication and experimental tests of prototypes.

  16. Design and fabrication of a flexible tunnel for Sortie Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to update a prototype design and to fabricate a flexible tunnel for a space shuttle/spacelab interface structure. The significant changes in the prototype are as follows: (1) elimination of foam from bladder laminate to increase bladder flexibility, (2) heat treat pulley brackets, bolts, and hinge pin to 160,000 psi minimum tensile strength, and (3) reduction of the meteoroid barrier from 0.5 inch to 0.375 inch. The thermal blanket installation study resulted in developing a method of installation by properly folding the various layers so that a uniform thickness could be maintained under the clamps. A single-lobe mockup was fabricated and cycled open and closed several times with no apparent damage to the blanket.

  17. Design and fabrication of engineering model fiber-optics detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsweeney, A.

    1972-01-01

    The design and fabrication of an annular ring detector consisting of optical fibers terminated with photodetectors is described. The maximum width of each concentric ring has to be small enough to permit the resolution of a Ronchi ruling transform with a dot spacing of 150 microns. A minimum of 100 concentric rings covering a circular area of 2.54 cm diameter also is necessary. A fiber-optic array consisting of approximately 89,000 fibers of 76 microns diameter was fabricated to meet the above requirements. The fibers within a circular area of 2.5 cm diameter were sorted into 168 adjacent rings concentric with the center fiber. The response characteristics of several photodetectors were measured, and the data used to compare their linearity of response and dynamic range. Also, coupling loss measurements were made for three different methods of terminating the optical fibers with a photodetector.

  18. Metal-wool heat shields for space shuttle. [design, fabrication, and attachment to structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. C.; Clure, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The packaging of metal wool for reusable thermal heat shields applied to aerodynamic and other surfaces for the space shuttle was analyzed and designed, and samples were fabricated and experimentally studied. Parametric trends were prepared for selected configurations. An all-metal thermally efficient, reliable, reusable and producible heat shield system was designed and structurally tested for use on spacecraft aerodynamic surfaces where temperatures do not exceed 810 K. Stainless steel sheet, primarily for structure and secondarily in the transverse plane for thermal expansion, was shown to accommodate thermal expansion in all directions when restrained at the edges and heated to 1360 K. Aerodynamic loads of 0.35 x 1000,000 newtons/sq meter, and higher, may be easily accepted by structures of this design. Seven all-metal thermal protection specimens, 12.7 cm square and 2.5 cm thick were fabricated and are being experimentally evaluated at simulated shuttle entry conditions in an arc jet facility.

  19. Design and fabrication of the Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killackey, J. J.; Graves, R.; Mosinskis, G.

    1978-01-01

    Development of a recuperator for a 2.0 kW closed Brayton space power system is described. The plate-fin heat exchanger is fabricated entirely from Hastelloy X and is designed for 10 years continuous operation at 1000 K (1300 F) with a Xenon-helium working fluid. Special design provisions assure uniform flow distribution, crucial for meeting 0.975 temperature effectiveness. Low-cycle fatigue, resulting from repeated startup and shutdown cycles, was identified as the most critical structural design problem. It is predicted that the unit has a minimum fatigue life of 220 cycles. This is in excess of the BIPS requirement of 100 cycles. Heat transfer performance and thermal cycle testing with air, using a prototype unit, verified that all design objectives can be met.

  20. Design and fabrication of a super alloy thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Wolter, W.; Bell, P.

    1978-01-01

    A lightweight metallic TPS was designed, and two test articles were fabricated, one from Haynes 188 and one from Rene 41. A baseline TPS concept, selected at the beginning of the program, consisted of a Haynes 25 corrugation-stiffened beaded skin surface panel, a specially designed support system, and an insulation system. By optimizing the structure for the design loads and by chem-milling to remove material not needed, the mass of the baseline surface panel was reduced 25%, and the mass of the support structure was reduced 50%. The insulation system mass was reduced 40% by using two types of insulation, each suited to its temperature range, and by eliminating a foul bag which encapsulated the baseline insulation system. These reductions resulted in an overall 35% reduction in mass of the Haynes 188 panel from the baseline Haynes 25 design. Similar reductions were achieved with the Rene 41 system.

  1. Preliminary Solar Sail Design and Fabrication Assessment: Spinning Sail Blade, Square Sail Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, J. B.; Dowdle, D. M.; Hahn, D. W.; Hildreth, E. N.; Lagerquist, D. R.; Mahagnoul, E. J.; Munson, J. B.; Origer, T. F.

    1977-01-01

    The designs and fabrication methods, equipment, facilities, economics, and schedules, for the square sail sheet alternate are evaluated. The baseline for the spinning sail blade design and related fabrication issues are assessed.

  2. Design and grayscale fabrication of beamfanners in a silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Arthur Cecil

    2001-11-01

    This dissertation addresses important first steps in the development of a grayscale fabrication process for multiple phase diffractive optical elements (DOS's) in silicon. Specifically, this process was developed through the design, fabrication, and testing of 1-2 and 1-4 beamfanner arrays for 5-micron illumination. The 1-2 beamfanner arrays serve as a test-of- concept and basic developmental step toward the construction of the 1-4 beamfanners. The beamfanners are 50 microns wide, and have features with dimensions of between 2 and 10 microns. The Iterative Annular Spectrum Approach (IASA) method, developed by Steve Mellin of UAH, and the Boundary Element Method (BEM) are the design and testing tools used to create the beamfanner profiles and predict their performance. Fabrication of the beamfanners required the techniques of grayscale photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). A 2-3micron feature size 1-4 silicon beamfanner array was fabricated, but the small features and contact photolithographic techniques available prevented its construction to specifications. A second and more successful attempt was made in which both 1-4 and 1-2 beamfanner arrays were fabricated with a 5-micron minimum feature size. Photolithography for the UAH array was contracted to MEMS-Optical of Huntsville, Alabama. A repeatability study was performed, using statistical techniques, of 14 photoresist arrays and the subsequent RIE process used to etch the arrays in silicon. The variance in selectivity between the 14 processes was far greater than the variance between the individual etched features within each process. Specifically, the ratio of the variance of the selectivities averaged over each of the 14 etch processes to the variance of individual feature selectivities within the processes yielded a significance level below 0.1% by F-test, indicating that good etch-to-etch process repeatability was not attained. One of the 14 arrays had feature etch-depths close enough to design

  3. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Fabrication Process that Revolutionizes Aircraft Structural Designs and Spacecraft Supportability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The technological inception and challenges, as well as current applications of the electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process are outlined. The process was motivated by the need for a new metals technology that would be cost-effective, enable the production of new alloys and that would could be used for efficient, lightweight structures. EBF3 is a rapid metal fabrication, layer-additive process that uses no molds or tools and which yields properties equivalent to wrought. The benefits of EBF3 include it near-net shape which minimizes scrap and reduces part count; efficiency in design which allows for lighter weight and enhanced performance; and, its "green" manufacturing process which yields minimal waste products. EBF3 also has a high tensile strength, while a structural test comparison found that EBF3 panels performed 5% lower than machined panels. Technical challenges in the EBF3 process include a need for process control monitoring and an improvement in localized heat response. Currently, the EBF3 process can be used to add details onto forgings and to construct and form complex shapes. However, it has potential uses in a variety of industries including aerospace, automotive, sporting goods and medical implant devices. The novel structural design capabilities of EBF3 have the ability to yield curved stiffeners which may be optimized for performance, low weight, low noise and damage tolerance applications. EBF3 has also demonstrated its usefulness in 0-gravity environments for supportability in space applications.

  4. Design and fabrication of Ni nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2014-10-07

    We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag 'barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 ± 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni(2+) for the interior surfaces of AAO. The Ni shell layer allows the Ni segments to remain even after dissolution of the Ag segments. Because the electroplating conditions can be easily controlled, we could carefully adjust the size and pitch of the periodically hollow nanospaces. We also describe a method for the fabrication of Ni nanorods by forming an Ag shell instead of a Ni shell on the Ni-Ag barcode nanowire, in which the interior of the AAO surfaces was modified with a compound bearing a thiol group prior to electroplating.

  5. Design of biped hip simulator using SolidWorks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainudin, M. R.; Yahya, A.; Fazli, M. I. M.; Syahrom, A.; Harun, F. K. C.; Nazarudin, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The increasing number of people who underwent both hip implant surgery based on World Health Organization (WHO) has received massive attention from researchers lately to develop various types of hip simulators in order to test the hip implant. Various number of hip simulator have been developed with different functions and capabilities. This paper presents the design development of biped hip simulator using SolidWorks software by taking into consideration some improvement and modifications. The finite element method is used to test the design whether it is safe to be used or not. The biped hip simulator has been successfully designed and ready to be fabricated as the endurance testing shown a positive results. The von Mises stress induced in the material is an alloy steel which is 2,975,862.3 N/m2 lower than the yield strength. Thus, the design is safe to be used as it obey the safety criterion.

  6. Design and fabrication of realistic adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyprykevich, P.

    1983-01-01

    Eighteen bonded joint test specimens representing three different designs of a composite wing chordwise bonded splice were designed and fabricated using current aircraft industry practices. Three types of joints (full wing laminate penetration, two side stepped; midthickness penetration, one side stepped; and partial penetration, scarfed) were analyzed using state of the art elastic joint analysis modified for plastic behavior of the adhesive. The static tensile fail load at room temperature was predicted to be: (1) 1026 kN/m (5860 1b/in) for the two side stepped joint; (2) 925 kN/m (5287 1b/in) for the one side stepped joint; and (3) 1330 kN/m (7600 1b/in) for the scarfed joint. All joints were designed to fail in the adhesive.

  7. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

  8. Design and fabrication of a composite wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.; Haley, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design considerations are described which led to the combination of materials used for the MOD-I wind turbine generator rotor and to the fabrication processes which were required to accomplish it. It is noted that the design problem was to create a rotor for a 2500 kW wind turbine generator. The rotor was to consist of two blades, each with a length of 97.5 feet and a weight of less than 21,000 pounds. The spanwise frequency is 1.17-1.45 Hz, and the chordwise frequency 2.80-2.98 Hz. The design life of the blade is 30 years, or 4.35 x 10 to the 8th cycles. The structures of the spars and trailing edges are described, and the adhesive bonding system is discussed.

  9. Solid Propellant Microthruster Design, Fabrication, and Testing for Nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyanathan, Kartheephan

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a solid propellant microthruster (SPM), which is a two-dimensional matrix of millimeter-sized rockets each capable of delivering millinewtons of thrust and millinewton-seconds of impulse to perform fine orbit and attitude corrections. The SPM is a potential payload for nanosatellites to increase spacecraft maneuverability and is constrained by strict mass, volume, and power requirements. The dimensions of the SPM in the millimeter-scale result in a number of scaling issues that need consideration such as a low Reynolds number, high heat loss, thermal and radical quenching, and incomplete combustion. The design of the SPM, engineered to address these issues, is outlined. The SPM fabrication using low-cost commercial off-the-shelf materials and standard micromachining is presented. The selection of a suitable propellant and its customization are described. Experimental results of SPM firing to demonstrate successful ignition and sustained combustion are presented for three configurations: nozzleless, sonic nozzle, and supersonic nozzle. The SPM is tested using a ballistic pendulum thrust stand. Impulse and thrust values are calculated and presented. The performance values of the SPM are found to be consistent with existing designs.

  10. Fast electrochemical membrane actuator: Design, fabrication and preliminary testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Postnikov, A. V.; Shlepakov, P. S.; Naumov, V. V.; Koroleva, O. M.; Izyumov, M. O.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    An actuator based on water electrolysis with a fast change of voltage polarity is presented. It demonstrates a new actuation principle allowing significant increase the operation frequency of the device due to fast termination of the produced gas. The actuator consists of a working chamber with metallic electrodes and supplying channels filled with an electrolyte. The chamber is formed in a layer of SU-8 and covered by a flexible polydimethylsiloxane membrane, which deforms as the pressure in the chamber increases. Design, fabrication procedure, and first tests of the actuator are described.

  11. Design, fabrication and testing of a thermal diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swerdling, B.; Kosson, R.

    1972-01-01

    Heat pipe diode types are discussed. The design, fabrication and test of a flight qualified diode for the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment (ATFE) are described. The review covers the use of non-condensable gas, freezing, liquid trap, and liquid blockage techniques. Test data and parametric performance are presented for the liquid trap and liquid blockage techniques. The liquid blockage technique was selected for the ATFE diode on the basis of small reservoir size, low reverse mode heat transfer, and apparent rapid shut-off.

  12. Design and fabrication of a MEMS chevron-type thermal actuator

    SciT

    Baracu, Angela, E-mail: angela.baracu@imt.ro; Voicu, Rodica; Müller, Raluca

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a MEMS chevron-type thermal actuator. The device was designed for fabrication in the standard MEMS technology, where the topography of the upper layers depends on the patterns of structural and sacrificial layers underneath. The proposed actuator presents some advantages over usual thermal vertical chevron actuators by means of low operating voltages, high output force and linear movement without deformation of the shaft. The device simulations were done using COVENTOR software. The movement obtained by simulation was 12 μm, for a voltage of 0.2 V and the current intensity of 257 mA. Themore » design optimizes the in-plane displacement by fixed anchors and beam inclination angle. Heating is provided by Joule dissipation. The material used for manufacture of chevron-based actuator was aluminum due to its thermal and mechanical properties. The release of the movable part was performed using isotropic dry etching by Reactive Ion Etching (RIE). A first inspection was achieved using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to obtain the in-plane displacement we carried out electrical measurements. The thermal actuator can be used for a variety of optical and microassembling applications. This kind of thermal actuator could be integrated easily with other micro devices since its fabrication is compatible with the general semiconductor processes.« less

  13. Design and fabrication of spectrally selective emitter for thermophotovoltaic system by using nano-imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Moo; Park, Keum-Hwan; Kim, Da-Som; Hwang, Bo-yeon; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Chae, Hee-Man; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Young-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have attracted attention as promising power generation systems that can directly convert the radiant energy produced by the combustion of fuel into electrical energy. However, there is a fundamental limit of their conversion efficiency due to the broadband distribution of the radiant spectrum. To overcome this problem, several spectrally selective thermal emitter technologies have been investigated, including the fabrication of photonic crystal (PhC) structures. In this paper, we present some design rules based on finite-a difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results for tungsten (W) PhC emitter. The W 2D PhC was fabricated by a simple nano-imprint lithography (NIL) process, and inductive coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) with an isotropic etching process, the benefits and parameters of which are presented. The fabricated W PhC emitter showed spectrally selective emission near the infrared wavelength range, and the optical properties varied depending on the size of the nano-patterns. The measured results of the fabricated prototype structure correspond well to the simulated values. Finally, compared with the performance of a flat W emitter, the total thermal emitter efficiency was almost 3.25 times better with the 2D W PhC structure.

  14. Design and fabrication of a prototype system for a photovoltaic residence in the Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-08-01

    This project consisted of the design, fabrication, and testing of a photovoltaic residence which is suitable for construction in the Northeast. A full size residence was designed which included energy conserving and passive features, and the energy performance of the residence was completed for a 5 kW PV array in a standoff configuration. Actual construction consisted of the roof structure and a building enclosure large enough to contain the PCU, test equipment, and load simulation equipment. The PV array consists of 78 modules along with a line tie inverter.

  15. Small, low-cost, expendable turbojet engine. 1: Design, fabrication, and preliminary testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Macioce, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A small experimental axial-flow turbojet engine in the 2,669-Newton (600-lbf) thrust class was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of several low-cost concepts. Design simplicity was stressed in order to reduce the number of components and machining operations. Four engines were built and tested for a total of 157 hours. Engine testing was conducted at both sea-level static and simulated flight conditions for engine speeds as high as 38,000 rpm and turbine-inlet temperatures as high as 1,255 K (1,800 F).

  16. On the design and fabrication of nanostructures and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei

    Nanotechnology is emerging into a new frontier in science and technology with potential impact on every aspect of human life. One of the major breakthroughs in today's nanotechnology is the discovery and preparation of new classes of nanomaterials and nanostructures. A large number of nanomaterials and nanostructures are synthesized and characterized with either new or profoundly enhanced properties or phenomena. However, there are several major challenges ahead need to be overcome before any substantial benefits can be brought to the market. One of the challenges that we need to address today is how to effectively integrate useful nanomaterials and nanostrucrures into functional devices and systems. Our mother nature gives us a classic example of how living organisms are built. Starting from a single cell, through its division and growth, it can self-assemble and become functional tissues and organs. Similar self-assemble approach has been adopted as a nano-fabrication technique to assemble nanomaterials and nanostructures into functional nanodevices. This technique has advantages of high precision and nanometer scale resolution. However, it requires a lot of effort to construct a single device and since the properties of individual nanostructures can be different, the fabricated devices may have different properties. In this dissertation, we design and fabricate nanostructures and devices using novel microfabrication techniques. In the first part of the dissertation, the design and fabrication of a variety of nanostructures, such as metal nanowires array, polymer nanowells, and nanostructured surfaces are discussed. In the second part, carbon nanotubes as a novel material has been explored as an example to demonstrate the integration of nanomaterials with novel microfabrication techniques to form a functional device. First, a resistive heating technique is developed to grow carbon nanotubes in localized regions, such as a nichrome heating coil. Then, MEMS micro

  17. Design and fabrication of uniquely shaped thiol-ene microfibers using a two-stage hydrodynamic focusing design.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Darryl A; Shields, Adam R; Howell, Peter B; Ligler, Frances S

    2013-08-07

    Microfluidic systems have advantages that are just starting to be realized for materials fabrication. In addition to the more common use for fabrication of particles, hydrodynamic focusing has been used to fabricate continuous polymer fibers. We have previously described such a microfluidics system which has the ability to generate fibers with controlled cross-sectional shapes locked in place by in situ photopolymerization. The previous fiber fabrication studies produced relatively simple round or ribbon shapes, demonstrated the use of a variety of polymers, and described the interaction between sheath-core flow-rate ratios used to control the fiber diameter and the impact on possible shapes. These papers documented the fact that no matter what the intended shape, higher flow-rate ratios produced rounder fibers, even in the absence of interfacial tension between the core and sheath fluids. This work describes how to fabricate the next generation of fibers predesigned to have a much more complex geometry, as exemplified by the "double anchor" shape. Critical to production of the pre-specified fibers with complex features was independent control over both the shape and the size of the fabricated microfibers using a two-stage hydrodynamic focusing system. Design and optimization of the channels was performed using finite element simulations and confocal imaging to characterize each of the two stages theoretically and experimentally. The resulting device design was then used to generate thiol-ene fibers with a unique double anchor shape. Finally, proof-of-principle functional experiments demonstrated the ability of the fibers to transport fluids and to interlock laterally.

  18. Design and Analysis of Solar Smartflower Simulation by Solidwork Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyana, Tatang; Sebayang, Darwin; Fajrina, Fildzah; Raihan; Faizal, M.

    2018-03-01

    The potential of solar energy that is so large in Indonesia can be a driving force for the use of renewable energy as a solution for energy needs. Government with the community can utilize and optimize this technology to increase the electrification ratio up to 100% in all corners of Indonesia. Because of its modular and practical nature, making this technology easy to apply. One of the latest imported products that have started to be offered and sold in Indonesia but not yet widely used for solar power generation is the kind of smartflower. Before using the product, it is of course very important and immediately to undertake an in-depth study of the utilization, use, maintenance, repair, component supply and fabrication. The best way to know the above is through a review of the design and simulation. To meet this need, this paper presents a solar-smartflower design and then simulated using the facilities available in the solidwork program. Solid simulation express is a tool that serves to create power simulation of a design part modelling. With the simulation is very helpful at all to reduce errors in making design. Accurate or not a design created is also influenced by several other factors such as material objects, the silent part of the part, and the load given. The simulation is static simulation and body battery drop test, and based on the results of this simulation is known that the design results have been very satisfactory.

  19. Design and fabrication of metal briquette machine for shop floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod, R.; Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Prashanth B., N.

    2017-07-01

    Efforts have to be taken to ensure efficient waste management system in shop floors, with minimum utilization of space and energy when it comes to disposing metal chips formed during machining processes. The salvaging of junk metallic chips and the us e of scrap are important for the economic production of a steelworks. For this purpose, we have fabricated a metal chip compaction machine, which can compact the metal chips into small briquettes. The project started with the survey of chips formed in shop floors and the practices involved in waste management. Study was done on the requirements for a better compaction. The heating chamber was designed taking into consideration the temperature required for an easy compaction of the metal chips. The power source for compaction and the pneumatic design for mechanism was done following the appropriate calculations regarding the air pressure provided and thrust required. The processes were tested under different conditions and found effective. The fabrication of the machine has been explained in detail and the results have been discussed.

  20. Design and Fabrication of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, Thomas; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Priniski, Craig; Zakharov, Leonid

    2006-10-01

    The design objective of the lithium tokamak experiment (LTX) is to investigate the equilibrium and stability of tokamak discharges with near-zero recycling. The construction of LTX incorporates the conversion of the existing current drive experiment (CDX) vessel into one with a nearly complete plasma facing surface of liquid lithium This paper will describe the design, fabrication, and installation activities required to convert CDX into LTX. The most significant new feature is the addition of a plasma facing liner on a shell that will be operated at 300 C to 400 C and covered with an evaporated layer of liquid lithium. The shell has been fabricated in-house from explosively bonded stainless steel on copper to a rather unique geometry to match the outer flux surface. Other significant device modifications include the construction of a new ohmic heating power system, rebuilding of the vacuum vessel, new lithium evaporators, additional diagnostics, modifications to the poloidal field coil geometry and their associated power supplies. Details on the progress of this conversion will be reported.

  1. Single Pass Stripline Beam Position Monitor Design, Fabrication and Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.-R. E.; Wang, D.; Van Garderen, E.; McKinlay, J.

    2012-10-01

    To monitor the position of the electron beam during transport from the Booster Synchrotron to the Storage Ring at the Australian Synchrotron, a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) has been designed, fabricated and installed in-house. The design was based on an existing stripline in the Booster and modified for the transfer line with a particular emphasis on ensuring the line impedance is properly matched to the detector system. The initial bench tests of a prototype stripline showed that the fabrication of the four individual striplines in the BPM was made precisely, each with a measured standing wave ratio (SWR) of 1.8 at 500 MHz. Further optimization for impedance matching will be done for new stripline BPMs. The linearity and gain factor was measured with the detector system. The detector system that digitizes the signals is an Instrumentation Technologies Brilliance Single Pass [1]. The results show an error of 1 mm at an offset (from the electrical centre) of 10 mm when a linear gain factor is assumed and an RMS noise of ~150 um that decreases to < 10 um with increasing signal intensity. The results were under our requirements for the transport line. The commissioning results of the stripline will also be presented showing a strong signal for an electron beam with an estimated integrated charge of ~50 nC with a position stability of 28 um (horizontal) and 75 um (vertical).

  2. Compact silicon diffractive sensor: design, fabrication, and prototype.

    PubMed

    Maikisch, Jonathan S; Gaylord, Thomas K

    2012-07-01

    An in-plane constant-efficiency variable-diffraction-angle grating and an in-plane high-angular-selectivity grating are combined to enable a new compact silicon diffractive sensor. This sensor is fabricated in silicon-on-insulator and uses telecommunications wavelengths. A single sensor element has a micron-scale device size and uses intensity-based (as opposed to spectral-based) detection for increased integrability. In-plane diffraction gratings provide an intrinsic splitting mechanism to enable a two-dimensional sensor array. Detection of the relative values of diffracted and transmitted intensities is independent of attenuation and is thus robust. The sensor prototype measures refractive index changes of 10(-4). Simulations indicate that this sensor configuration may be capable of measuring refractive index changes three or four orders of magnitude smaller. The characteristics of this sensor type make it promising for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  3. Hand-held spectrophotometer design for textile fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böcekçi, Veysel Gökhan; Yıldız, Kazım

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a hand-held spectrophotometer was designed by taking advantage of the developments in modern optoelectronic technology. Spectrophotometer devices are used to determine the color information from the optic properties of the materials. As an alternative to a desktop spectrophotometer device we have implemented, it is the first prototype, low cost and portable. The prototype model designed for the textile industry can detect the color tone of any fabric. The prototype model consists of optic sensor, processor, display floors. According to the color applied on the optic sensor, it produces special frequency information on its output at that color value. In Arduino type processor, the frequency information is evaluated by the program we have written and the color tone information between 0-255 ton is decided and displayed on the screen.

  4. Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay

    SciT

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close amore » 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.« less

  5. Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Gibson, Daniel; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kotov, Mikhail; Drake, Gryphon; Deegan, John; Lindberg, George

    2015-06-01

    As the desire to have compact multispectral imagers in various DoD platforms is growing, the dearth of multispectral optics is widely felt. With the limited number of material choices for optics, these multispectral imagers are often very bulky and impractical on several weight sensitive platforms. To address this issue, NRL has developed a large set of unique infrared glasses that transmit from 0.9 to > 14 μm in wavelength and expand the glass map for multispectral optics with refractive indices from 2.38 to 3.17. They show a large spread in dispersion (Abbe number) and offer some unique solutions for multispectral optics designs. The new NRL glasses can be easily molded and also fused together to make bonded doublets. A Zemax compatible glass file has been created and is available upon request. In this paper we present some designs, optics fabrication and imaging, all using NRL materials.

  6. Design, fabrication, and characterization of 4H-silicon carbide rectifiers for power switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, David Charles

    Silicon Carbide has received a substantial increase in research interest over the past few years as a base material system for high-frequency and high-power semiconductor devices. Of the over 1200 polytypes, 4H-SiC is the most attractive polytype for power devices due to its wide band gap (3.2eV), excellent thermal conductivity (4.9 W/cm·K), and high critical field strength (˜2 x 106 V/cm). Important for power devices, the 10x increase in critical field strength of SiC allows high voltage blocking layers to be fabricated significantly thinner than for comparable Si devices. For power rectifiers, this reduces device on-resistance, while maintaining the same high voltage blocking capability. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky, pn, and junction barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers for use in high voltage switching applications have been designed, fabricated, and extensively characterized. First, a detailed review of 4H-SiC material parameters was performed and SiC models were implemented into a standard Si drift-diffusion numerical simulator. Using these models, a SiC simulation methodology was developed in order to enable predictive SiC device design. A wide variety of rectifier and edge termination designs were investigated and optimized with respect to breakdown efficiency, area consumption, resistance to interface charge, and fabrication practicality. Simulated termination methods include: field plates, floating guard rings, and a variety of junction termination extensions (JTE). Using the device simulation results, both Schottky and JBS rectifiers were fabricated with a novel self-aligned edge termination design, and fabricated with process elements developed at the Alabama Microelectronics Science and Technology Center facility. These rectifiers exhibited near-ideal forward characteristics and had blocking voltages in excess of 2.5kV. The SiC diodes were subjected to inductive switching tests, and were found to have superior reverse recovery characteristics compared

  7. Optimal fabrication processes for unidirectional metal-matrix composites: A computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Morel, M.

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for optimizing the fabrication process of unidirectional metal matrix composites. The temperature and pressure histories are optimized such that the residual microstresses of the composite at the end of the fabrication process are minimized and the material integrity throughout the process is ensured. The response of the composite during the fabrication is simulated based on a nonlinear micromechanics theory. The optimal fabrication problem is formulated and solved with non-linear programming. Application cases regarding the optimization of the fabrication cool-down phases of unidirectional ultra-high modulus graphite/copper and silicon carbide/titanium composites are presented.

  8. Optimal fabrication processes for unidirectional metal-matrix composites - A computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Morel, M.

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for optimizing the fabrication process of unidirectional metal matrix composites. The temperature and pressure histories are optimized such that the residual microstresses of the composite at the end of the fabrication process are minimized and the material integrity throughout the process is ensured. The response of the composite during the fabrication is simulated based on a nonlinear micromechanics theory. The optimal fabrication problem is formulated and solved with nonlinear programming. Application cases regarding the optimization of the fabrication cool-down phases of unidirectional ultra-high modulus graphite/copper and silicon carbide/titanium composites are presented.

  9. Fabric-based active electrode design and fabrication for health monitoring clothing.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Carey R; Nagle, H Troy; Grant, Edward

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, two versions of fabric-based active electrodes are presented to provide a wearable solution for ECG monitoring clothing. The first version of active electrode involved direct attachment of surface-mountable components to a textile screen-printed circuit using polymer thick film techniques. The second version involved attaching a much smaller, thinner, and less obtrusive interposer containing the active electrode circuitry to a simplified textile circuit. These designs explored techniques for electronic textile interconnection, chip attachment to textiles, and packaging of circuits on textiles for durability. The results from ECG tests indicate that the performance of each active electrode is comparable to commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes. The interposer-based active electrodes survived a five-cycle washing test while maintaining good signal integrity.

  10. Optical Simulation and Fabrication of Pancharatnam (Geometric) Phase Devices from Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kun

    Pancharatnam made clear the concept of a phase-only device based on changes in the polarization state of light. A device of this type is sometimes called a circular polarization grating because of the polarization states of interfering light beams used to fabricate it by polarization holography. Here, we will call it a Pancharatnam (geometric) phase device to emphasize the fact that the phase of diffracted light does not have a discontinuous periodic profile but changes continuously. In this dissertation, using simulations and experiments, we have successfully demonstrated a 90% diffraction efficiency based on the Pancharatnam phase deflector (PPD) with the dual-twist structure. Unlike the conventional Pancharatnam phase deflector (c-PPD) limited to small diffraction angles, our work demonstrates that a device with a structural periodicity near the wavelength of light is highly efficient at deflecting light to large angles. Also, from a similar fabrication procedure, we have made an ultra-compact non-mechanical zoom lens system based on the Pancharatnam phase lens (PPL) with a low f-number and high efficiency. The wavelength dependence on the image quality is evaluated and shown to be satisfactory from red light to near-infrared machine vision systems. A demonstration device is shown with a 4x zoom ratio at a 633 nm wavelength. The unique characteristic of these devices is made possible through the use of azo-dye photoalignment materials to align a liquid crystal polymer (reactive mesogens). Furthermore, the proposed dual-twist design and fabrication opens the possibility for making a high-efficiency beam-steering device, a lens with an f-number less than 1.0, as well as a wide range of other potential applications in the optical and display industry. The details of simulation, fabrication, and characterization of these devices are shown in this dissertation.

  11. Multi Length Scale Finite Element Design Framework for Advanced Woven Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Galip Ozan

    Woven fabrics are integral parts of many engineering applications spanning from personal protective garments to surgical scaffolds. They provide a wide range of opportunities in designing advanced structures because of their high tenacity, flexibility, high strength-to-weight ratios and versatility. These advantages result from their inherent multi scale nature where the filaments are bundled together to create yarns while the yarns are arranged into different weave architectures. Their highly versatile nature opens up potential for a wide range of mechanical properties which can be adjusted based on the application. While woven fabrics are viable options for design of various engineering systems, being able to understand the underlying mechanisms of the deformation and associated highly nonlinear mechanical response is important and necessary. However, the multiscale nature and relationships between these scales make the design process involving woven fabrics a challenging task. The objective of this work is to develop a multiscale numerical design framework using experimentally validated mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale approaches by identifying important deformation mechanisms and recognizing the nonlinear mechanical response of woven fabrics. This framework is exercised by developing mesoscopic length scale constitutive models to investigate plain weave fabric response under a wide range of loading conditions. A hyperelastic transversely isotropic yarn material model with transverse material nonlinearity is developed for woven yarns (commonly used in personal protection garments). The material properties/parameters are determined through an inverse method where unit cell finite element simulations are coupled with experiments. The developed yarn material model is validated by simulating full scale uniaxial tensile, bias extension and indentation experiments, and comparing to experimentally observed mechanical response and deformation mechanisms. Moreover

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized GMI Magnetic Sensor Based on Amorphous Wire by MEMS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiawen; Li, Jianhua; Li, Yiyuan; Chen, Yulong

    2018-01-01

    A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance) magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based amorphous wire was fabricated by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology, which was used to extract the electrical signal. The three-dimensional micro pick-up coil was designed and simulated with HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) software to determine the key parameters. Surface micro machining MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology was employed to fabricate the three-dimensional coil. The size of the developed amorphous wire magnetic sensor is 5.6 × 1.5 × 1.1 mm3. Helmholtz coil was used to characterize the performance of the device. The test results of the sensor sample show that the voltage change is 130 mV/Oe and the linearity error is 4.83% in the range of 0~45,000 nT. The results indicate that the developed miniaturized magnetic sensor has high sensitivity. By testing the electrical resistance of the samples, the results also showed high uniformity of each device. PMID:29494477

  13. Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long; Shi, Guangming; Zhu, Cheng; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Yan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a reflective metasurface is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate an orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex wave in radio frequency domain. Theoretical formula of phase-shift distribution is deduced and used to design the metasurface producing vortex radio waves. The prototype of a practical configuration is designed, fabricated, and measured to validate the theoretical analysis at 5.8 GHz. The simulated and experimental results verify that the vortex waves with different OAM mode numbers can be flexibly generated by using sub-wavelength reflective metasurfaces. The proposed method and metasurface pave a way to generate the OAM vortex waves for radio and microwave wireless communication applications.

  14. Design and fabrication of Ni nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2014-09-01

    We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag `barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 +/- 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni2+ for the interior surfaces of AAO. The Ni shell layer allows the Ni segments to remain even after dissolution of the Ag segments. Because the electroplating conditions can be easily controlled, we could carefully adjust the size and pitch of the periodically hollow nanospaces. We also describe a method for the fabrication of Ni nanorods by forming an Ag shell instead of a Ni shell on the Ni-Ag barcode nanowire, in which the interior of the AAO surfaces was modified with a compound bearing a thiol group prior to electroplating.We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag `barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 +/- 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni2+ for the

  15. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers - Design, growth, fabrication, characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, Jack L.; Lee, Y. H.; Harbison, J. P.; Scherer, A.; Florez, L. T.

    1991-06-01

    The authors have designed, fabricated, and tested vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) with diameters ranging from 0.5 microns to above 50 microns. Design issues, molecular beam epitaxial growth, fabrication, and lasing characteristics are discussed. The topics considered in fabrication of VCSELs are microlaser geometries; ion implementation and masks; ion beam etching; packaging and arrays; and ultrasmall devices.

  16. Design and fabrication of optical homogenizer with micro structure by injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C. A.; Chang, S.-W.; Weng, C.-J.

    2008-08-01

    This paper is to design and fabricate an optical homogenizer with hybrid design of collimator, toroidal lens array, and projection lens for beam shaping of Gaussian beam into uniform cylindrical beam. TracePro software was used to design the geometry of homogenizer and simulation of injection molding was preceded by Moldflow MPI to evaluate the mold design for injection molding process. The optical homogenizer is a cylindrical part with thickness 8.03 mm and diameter 5 mm. The micro structure of toroidal array has groove height designed from 12 μm to 99 μm. An electrical injection molding machine and PMMA (n= 1.4747) were selected to perform the experiment. Experimental results show that the optics homogenizer has achieved the transfer ratio of grooves (TRG) as 88.98% and also the optical uniformity as 68% with optical efficiency as 91.88%. Future study focuses on development of an optical homogenizer for LED light source.

  17. Design and fabrication of GaAs OMIST photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xuejun; Lin, ShiMing; Liao, Qiwei; Gao, Junhua; Liu, Shi'an; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hongjie; Zhang, Chunhui; Wang, Qiming

    1998-08-01

    We designed and fabricated GaAs OMIST (Optical-controlled Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Thyristor) device. Using oxidation of AlAs layer that is grown by MBE forms the Ultra- Thin semi-Insulating layer (UTI) of the GAAS OMIST. The accurate control and formation of high quality semi-insulating layer (AlxOy) are the key processes for fabricating GaAs OMIST. The device exhibits a current-controlled negative resistance region in its I-V characteristics. When illuminated, the major effect of optical excitation is the reduction of the switching voltage. If the GaAs OMIST device is biased at a voltage below its dark switching voltage Vs, sufficient incident light can switch OMIST from high impedance low current 'off' state to low impedance high current 'on' state. The absorbing material of OMIST is GaAS, so if the wavelength of incident light within 600 to approximately 850 nm can be detected effectively. It is suitable to be used as photodetector for digital optical data process. The other attractive features of GaAs OMIST device include suitable conducted current, switching voltage and power levels for OEIC, high switch speed and high sensitivity to light or current injection.

  18. Automated Simulation For Analysis And Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E.; Shenk, Tim; Robinson, Peter; Upadhye, R.

    1992-01-01

    Design Assistant Workstation (DAWN) software being developed to facilitate simulation of qualitative and quantitative aspects of behavior of life-support system in spacecraft, chemical-processing plant, heating and cooling system of large building, or any of variety of systems including interacting process streams and processes. Used to analyze alternative design scenarios or specific designs of such systems. Expert system will automate part of design analysis: reason independently by simulating design scenarios and return to designer with overall evaluations and recommendations.

  19. Techniques for the design and simulation of interdigitated MSM photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Laurence W.

    1997-04-01

    The metal-semiconductor (MSM) photodetector attracts a great deal of interest as a result of its high bandwidth and low fabrication costs. In this paper a broad-band circuit model for the interdigitated MSM photodetector is presented. The circuit model can be used for both design and simulation purposes. The circuit model can also take into account nonlinear effects so that the practical behavior of the photodetector can be more faithfully represented.

  20. Design and fabrication of a boron reinforced intertank skirt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.; Roy, P. A.; Pylypetz, P.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to evaluate the structural efficiency of a boron reinforced shell, where the medium of reinforcement consists of hollow aluminum extrusions infiltrated with boron epoxy. Studies were completed for the design of a one-half scale minimum weight shell using boron reinforced stringers and boron reinforced rings. Parametric and iterative studies were completed for the design of minimum weight stringers, rings, shells without rings and shells with rings. Computer studies were completed for the final evaluation of a minimum weight shell using highly buckled minimum gage skin. The detail design is described of a practical minimum weight test shell which demonstrates a weight savings of 30% as compared to an all aluminum longitudinal stiffened shell. Sub-element tests were conducted on representative segments of the compression surface at maximum stress and also on segments of the load transfer joint. A 10 foot long, 77 inch diameter shell was fabricated from the design and delivered for further testing.

  1. Comparison of fabric skins for the simulation of sweating on thermal manikins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelblen, Barbara; Psikuta, Agnes; Bogdan, Anna; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2017-09-01

    Sweating is an important thermoregulatory process helping to dissipate heat and, thus, to prevent overheating of the human body. Simulations of human thermo-physiological responses in hot conditions or during exercising are helpful for assessing heat stress; however, realistic sweating simulation and evaporative cooling is needed. To this end, thermal manikins dressed with a tight fabric skin can be used, and the properties of this skin should help human-like sweat evaporation simulation. Four fabrics, i.e., cotton with elastane, polyester, polyamide with elastane, and a skin provided by a manikin manufacturer (Thermetrics) were compared in this study. The moisture management properties of the fabrics have been investigated in basic tests with regard to all phases of sweating relevant for simulating human thermo-physiological responses, namely, onset of sweating, fully developed sweating, and drying. The suitability of the fabrics for standard tests, such as clothing evaporative resistance measurements, was evaluated based on tests corresponding to the middle phase of sweating. Simulations with a head manikin coupled to a thermo-physiological model were performed to evaluate the overall performance of the skins. The results of the study showed that three out of four evaluated fabrics have adequate moisture management properties with regard to the simulation of sweating, which was confirmed in the coupled simulation with the head manikin. The presented tests are helpful for comparing the efficiency of different fabrics to simulate sweat-induced evaporative cooling on thermal manikins.

  2. Material property for designing, analyzing, and fabricating space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolkailah, Faysal A.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical study was made of plasma assisted bullet projectile. The finite element analysis and the micro-macromechanic analysis was applied to an optimum design technique for the multilayered graphite-epoxy composite projectile that will achieve hypervelocity of 6 to 10 Km/s. The feasibility was determined of dialectics to monitor cure of graphite-epoxies. Several panels were fabricated, cured, and tested with encouraging results of monitoring the cure of graphite-epoxies. The optimum cure process for large structures was determined. Different orientation were used and three different curing cycles were employed. A uniaxial tensile test was performed on all specimens. The optimum orientation with the optimum cure cycle were concluded.

  3. Design and fabrication of 55-gallon drum shuffler standards

    SciT

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, F.; Hoth, C.

    1994-08-01

    To analyze waste with varying levels of nuclear material, suitable standards are needed to calibrate analytical instrumentation. At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, the authors have designed and fabricated a single drum standard for a passive-active neutron counter (shuffler). The standard is modified simply by adding or subtracting plutonium of uranium cylinders to adapt to a range of nuclear material. The plutonium or uranium oxide was placed into small cylindrical containers (1-in. diameter by 5-in. long) and diluted with diatomaceous earth. The cylinders were welded closed and removed from the glove box environment without any external contamination. The containers weremore » leak tested and then placed on a segmented gamma scanner to assure homogeneous distribution of the nuclear material. The cylinders are now placed into the drum to achieve the needed ranges for calibration of the instruments.« less

  4. Design, fabrication, and testing of nanostructured carbons and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyong

    Many applications, such as catalysis, sensing, separation and energy storage and conversion, will benefit from the miniaturization of materials to nanometer length scales. This dissertation details my study of nanocomposites based on three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbons and zirconia, and three-dimensionally ordered macroporous/mesoporous (3DOM/m) carbons. The macropores of these materials were produced using colloidal crystal templates while the mesopores were generated using surfactant templates. These solids are composed of close-packed and three-dimensionally interconnected spherical macropores surrounded by nanoscale solid or mesoporous wall skeletons. This unique architecture offers large surface areas, pore volumes, and good access into the bulk via a macroporous network. 3DOM carbons have been demonstrated as promising electrode materials for lithium ion batteries and sensors, but their electrochemical performance still needs to be improved. As a model system for the modification of the electrode, 3DOM C/TiO2 was synthesized by fabricating a conformal coating of TiO2 nanoparticles on the macropore walls of 3DOM C. My research further extended the micro-structural design of monolithic carbon from 3DOM to 3DOM/m. 3DOM/m C monoliths with high surface areas, controllable mesopore sizes, and mesopore ordering, were synthesized by three methods. One of the methods is simpler and more environment benign than previously reported methods. The mesopores in 3DOM/m C-based electrode provide room to accommodate secondary phases, such as graphitic carbon, SnO2 and Si which can improve the conductivity or lithium capacity of the electrode. Owing to this advantage, 3DOM/m C/C and 3DOM/m C/SnO2 exhibited significantly improved rate performance, lithium capacity and cycleability, compared with 3DOM C. To meet the demands of nano-sized functional materials in applications such as nano-device fabrication and drug delivery, mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with

  5. Engineering design and integration simulation utilization manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Engineering Design Integration (EDIN) Simulation System as it exists at Johnson Space Center is provided. A discussion of the EDIN Simulation System capabilities and applications is presented.

  6. Research on ion implantation in MEMS device fabrication by theory, simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Minyu; Zhao, Yulong; Jiao, Binbin; Zhu, Lingjian; Zhang, Guodong; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Ion implantation is widely utilized in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), applied for embedded lead, resistors, conductivity modifications and so forth. In order to achieve an expected device, the principle of ion implantation must be carefully examined. The elementary theory of ion implantation including implantation mechanism, projectile range and implantation-caused damage in the target were studied, which can be regarded as the guidance of ion implantation in MEMS device design and fabrication. Critical factors including implantations dose, energy and annealing conditions are examined by simulations and experiments. The implantation dose mainly determines the dopant concentration in the target substrate. The implantation energy is the key factor of the depth of the dopant elements. The annealing time mainly affects the repair degree of lattice damage and thus the activated elements’ ratio. These factors all together contribute to ions’ behavior in the substrates and characters of the devices. The results can be referred to in the MEMS design, especially piezoresistive devices.

  7. Finite Element Simulation of Compression Molding of Woven Fabric Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites: Part I Material Model Development

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Qiangsheng; Mirdamadi, Mansour; ...

    2016-01-06

    Woven fabric carbon fiber/epoxy composites made through compression molding are one of the promising choices of material for the vehicle light-weighting strategy. Previous studies have shown that the processing conditions can have substantial influence on the performance of this type of the material. Therefore the optimization of the compression molding process is of great importance to the manufacturing practice. An efficient way to achieve the optimized design of this process would be through conducting finite element (FE) simulations of compression molding for woven fabric carbon fiber/epoxy composites. However, performing such simulation remains a challenging task for FE as multiple typesmore » of physics are involved during the compression molding process, including the epoxy resin curing and the complex mechanical behavior of woven fabric structure. In the present study, the FE simulation of the compression molding process of resin based woven fabric composites at continuum level is conducted, which is enabled by the implementation of an integrated material modeling methodology in LS-Dyna. Specifically, the chemo-thermo-mechanical problem of compression molding is solved through the coupling of three material models, i.e., one thermal model for temperature history in the resin, one mechanical model to update the curing-dependent properties of the resin and another mechanical model to simulate the behavior of the woven fabric composites. Preliminary simulations of the carbon fiber/epoxy woven fabric composites in LS-Dyna are presented as a demonstration, while validations and models with real part geometry are planned in the future work.« less

  8. Design and fabrication of a PZT cantilever for low frequency vibration energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonkeun; Hwang, Beomseok; Min, Nam Ki; Jeong, Jaehwa; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Park, Kang-Bak

    2011-07-01

    In this study, a PZT cantilever with a Si proof mass is designed and fabricated for a low frequency energy harvesting application. A mathematical model of a multi-layer composite beam was derived and applied in a parametric analysis of the piezoelectric cantilever. Finally, the dimensions of the cantilever were determined for the resonant frequency of the cantilever. Our cantilever design was based on MATLAB and ANSYS simulations. For this simulation, the proof mass volumes were varied from 0 to 0.5 mm3 and resonant frequencies were calculated from 833.5 Hz to 125.5 Hz, respectively. Based on simulation, we fabricated a device with beam dimensions of about 4.10 mm x 0.48 mm x 0.012 mm, and an integrated Si proof mass with dimensions of about 0.481 mm x 0.48 mm x 0.45 mm. The resonant frequency, maximum peak voltage, and highest average power of the cantilever device were 224.8 Hz, 4.8 mV, and 2.24 nW, respectively.

  9. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A recommendation and a specification for the visual simulation system design for the space shuttle mission simulator are presented. A recommended visual system is described which most nearly meets the visual design requirements. The cost analysis of the recommended system covering design, development, manufacturing, and installation is reported. Four alternate systems are analyzed.

  10. Salt pill design and fabrication for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; McCammon, Dan

    2014-07-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of “salt pills” for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single- or poly-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low- and mid-temperature applications.

  11. Variable curvature mirror having variable thickness: design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Xie, Xiaopeng; Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiaoteng; Shen, Le; Gong, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Variable curvature mirror (VCM) can change its curvature radius dynamically and is usually used to correct the defocus and spherical aberration caused by thermal lens effect to improve the output beam quality of high power solid-state laser. Recently, the probable application of VCM in realizing non-moving element optical zoom imaging in visible band has been paid much attention. The basic requirement for VCM lies in that it should provide a large enough saggitus variation and still maintains a high enough surface figure at the same time. Therefore in this manuscript, by combing the pressurization based actuation with a variable thickness mirror design, the purpose of obtaining large saggitus variation and maintaining quite good surface figure accuracy at the same time could be achieved. A prototype zoom mirror with diameter of 120mm and central thickness of 8mm is designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results demonstrate that the zoom mirror having an initial surface figure accuracy superior to 1/80λ could provide bigger than 36um saggitus variation and after finishing the curvature variation its surface figure accuracy could still be superior to 1/40λ with the spherical aberration removed, which proves that the effectiveness of the theoretical design.

  12. LANSCE harp upgrade: analysis, design, fabrication and installation

    SciT

    Gilpatrick, John D; Chacon, Phillip; Martinez, Derwin

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this newly installed beam profile measurement is to provide the facility operators and physicists with a reliable horizontal and vertical projected beam distribution and location with respect to the proton beam target and beam aperture. During a 3000-hour annual run cycle, 5 {mu}C of charge is delivered every 50 milliseconds through this harp to the downstream TRMS Mark III target. The resulting radioactive annual dose near this harp is at least 6 MGy. Because of this harsh environment, the new harp design has been further optimized for robustness. For example, compared to an earlier design, thismore » harp has half of the sensing wires and utilizes only a single bias plane. The sensing fibers are 0.079-mm diameter SiC fibers. To hold these fibers to a rigid ceramic structure, a collet fiber-clamping device accomplishes the three goals of maintaining a mechanical fiber clamp, holding the sense fibers under a slight tensile force, and providing a sense-fiber electrical connection. This paper describes the harp analysis and design, and provides fabrication, assembly, and some installation information, and discusses wiring alterations.« less

  13. Design and Fabrication of Automatic Glass Cutting Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veena, T. R.; Kadadevaramath, R. S.; Nagaraj, P. M.; Madhusudhan, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the automatic glass or mirror cutting machine. In order to increase the accuracy of cut and production rate; and decrease the production time and accidents caused due to manual cutting of mirror or glass, this project aims at development of an automatic machine which uses a programmable logic controller (PLC) for controlling the movement of the conveyer and also to control the pneumatic circuit. In this machine, the work of the operator is to load and unload the mirror. The cutter used in this machine is carbide wheel with its cutting edge ground to a V-shaped profile. The PLC controls the pneumatic cylinder and intern actuates the cutter along the glass, a fracture layer is formed causing a mark to be formed below the fracture layer and a crack to be formed below the rib mark. The machine elements are designed using CATIA V5R20 and pneumatic circuit are designed using FESTO FLUID SIM software.

  14. Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-­- or poly-­-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-­- and mid-­-temperature applications.

  15. Modeling, design, fabrication and experimentation of a GaN-based, 63Ni betavoltaic battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Munson, C., IV; Gaimard, Q.; Merghem, K.; Sundaram, S.; Rogers, D. J.; de Sanoit, J.; Voss, P. L.; Ramdane, A.; Salvestrini, J. P.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2018-01-01

    GaN is a durable, radiation hard and wide-bandgap semiconductor material, making it ideal for usage with betavoltaic batteries. This paper describes the design, fabrication and experimental testing of 1 cm2 GaN-based betavoltaic batteries (that achieve an output power of 2.23 nW) along with a full model that accurately simulates the device performance which is the highest to date (to the best of our knowledge) for GaN-based devices with a 63Ni source.

  16. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Two Different Laboratory Prototypes of CSI-based Induction Heating Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Sengupta, M.

    2012-09-01

    Induction heating is a non-contact heating process which became popular due to its energy efficiency. Current source inverter (CSI) based induction heating units are commonly used in the industry. Most of these CSIs are thyristor based, since thyristors of higher ratings are easily available. These being load commutated apparatus a start-up circuit is needed to initiate commutation. In this paper the design and fabrication of two laboratory prototypes have been presented. The first one, a SCR-based CSI fed controlled induction heating unit (IHU), has been tested with two different types of start-up procedures. Thereafter the fabrication and performance of another IGBT-based CSI is compared with the thyristor-based CSI for a 2 kW, 10 kHz application. These two types of CSIs are fully fabricated in laboratory along with the IHU. Performance analysis and simulation of two different CSIs has been done by using SequelGUI2. The triggering pulses for the inverter devices (for both CSI devices as well as auxilliary thyristor of start-up circuit) have been generated and closed-loop control has been done in FPGA platform built around an Altera make cyclone EPIC12Q240C processor which can be programmed using Quartus II software. Close agreement between simulated and experimental results highlight the accuracy of the experimental work.

  17. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  18. Structural design and fabrication techniques of composite unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Daniel Stephen

    Popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles has grown substantially in recent years both in the private sector, as well as for government functions. This growth can be attributed largely to the increased performance of the technology that controls these vehicles, as well as decreasing cost and size of this technology. What is sometimes forgotten though, is that the research and advancement of the airframes themselves are equally as important as what is done with them. With current computer-aided design programs, the limits of design optimization can be pushed further than ever before, resulting in lighter and faster airframes that can achieve longer endurances, higher altitudes, and more complex missions. However, realization of a paper design is still limited by the physical restrictions of the real world and the structural constraints associated with it. The purpose of this paper is to not only step through current design and manufacturing processes of composite UAVs at Oklahoma State University, but to also focus on composite spars, utilizing and relating both calculated and empirical data. Most of the experience gained for this thesis was from the Cessna Longitude project. The Longitude is a 1/8 scale, flying demonstrator Oklahoma State University constructed for Cessna. For the project, Cessna required dynamic flight data for their design process in order to make their 2017 release date. Oklahoma State University was privileged enough to assist Cessna with the mission of supporting the validation of design of their largest business jet to date. This paper will detail the steps of the fabrication process used in construction of the Longitude, as well as several other projects, beginning with structural design, machining, molding, skin layup, and ending with final assembly. Also, attention will be paid specifically towards spar design and testing in effort to ease the design phase. This document is intended to act not only as a further development of current

  19. Results of Simulated Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) on Spectra Restraint Fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Benjamin; Hussain, Sarosh; Waller, Jess

    2017-01-01

    Spectra or similar Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric is the likely choice for future structural space suit restraint materials due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, abrasion resistance, and dimensional stability. During long duration space missions, space suits will be subjected to significant amounts of high-energy radiation from several different sources. To insure that pressure garment designs properly account for effects of radiation, it is important to characterize the mechanical changes to structural materials after they have been irradiated. White Sands Test Facility (WSFTF) collaborated with the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to irradiate and test various space suit materials by examining their tensile properties through blunt probe puncture testing and single fiber tensile testing after the materials had been dosed at various levels of simulated GCR and SPE Iron and Proton beams at Brookhaven National Laboratories. The dosages were chosen based on a simulation developed by the Structural Engineering Division at JSC for the expected radiation dosages seen by space suit softgoods seen on a Mars reference mission. Spectra fabric tested in the effort saw equivalent dosages at 2x, 10x, and 20x the predicted dose as well as a simulated 50 year exposure to examine the range of effects on the material and examine whether any degradation due to GCR would be present if the suit softgoods were stored in deep space for a long period of time. This paper presents the results of this work and outlines the impact on space suit pressure garment design for long duration deep space missions.

  20. Design, fabrication, and operation of hybrid bionanodevices for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Robert Matthew

    Cells are the fundamental building blocks of life. Despite their simplicity, cells are extremely versatile, performing a variety of functions including detection, signaling, and repair. While current biomedical devices operate at the organ level, the next generation will operate at the cellular level, combining the nanoscale machinery of cells with the mechanical robustness of synthetic materials in the form of new hybrid devices. This thesis presents advances in four topics concerning the development of nanomedical devices: fabrication, stabilization, control, and operation. First, as feature sizes decrease from the milli- and microscale towards the nanoscale, new fabrication methods must be developed. A new rapid prototyping technique using confocal microscopy was used to produce freely-programmable high-resolution protein patterns of functional motor proteins on thermo-responsive polymer surfaces. Second, hybrid device operation should be temperature-independent, but most biological components have strong responses to temperature fluctuations. To counter operational fluctuations, the temperature-dependent enzymatic activity was characterized for two types of molecular motors with the goal of developing a bionanosystem which is stabilized against temperature fluctuations. Third, replacing electromechanical systems consisting of pumps and batteries with proteins that directly convert chemical potential into mechanical energy increases the efficiency and decreases the size of the bionanodevice, but requires new control methods. An enzymatic network was developed in which fuel was photolytically released to activate molecular shuttles, excess fuel was sequestered using an enzyme, and spatial and temporal control of the system was achieved. Finally, chemically powered bionanodevices will require high-precision nano- and microscale actuators. A two-part hybrid actuator was designed, which consists of a molecular motor-coated synthetic macroscale forcer and a

  1. Design, fabrication, and characterization of high density silicon photonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adam Michael

    Our burgeoning appetite for data relentlessly demands exponential scaling of computing and communications resources leading to an overbearing and ever-present drive to improve eciency while reducing on-chip area even as photonic components expand to ll application spaces no longer satised by their electronic counterparts. With a high index contrast, low optical loss, and compatibility with the CMOS fabrication infrastructure, silicon-on-insulator technology delivers a mechanism by which ecient, sub-micron waveguides can be fabricated while enabling monolithic integration of photonic components and their associated electronic infrastructure. The result is a solution leveraging the superior bandwidth of optical signaling on a platform capable of delivering the optical analogue to Moore's Law scaling of transistor density. Device size is expected to end Moore's Law scaling in photonics as Maxwell's equations limit the extent to which this parameter may be reduced. The focus of the work presented here surrounds photonic device miniaturization and the development of 3D optical interconnects as approaches to optimize performance in densely integrated optical interconnects. In this dissertation, several technological barriers inhibiting widespread adoption of photonics in data communications and telecommunications are explored. First, examination of loss and crosstalk performance in silicon nitride over SOI waveguide crossings yields insight into the feasibility of 3D optical interconnects with the rst experimental analysis of such a structure presented herein. A novel measurement platform utilizing a modied racetrack resonator is then presented enabling extraction of insertion loss data for highly ecient structures while requiring minimal on-chip area. Finally, pioneering work in understanding the statistical nature of doublet formation in microphotonic resonators is delivered with the resulting impact on resonant device design detailed.

  2. Design Fabrication and Characterization of High Density Silicon Photonic Components

    SciT

    Jones, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Our burgeoning appetite for data relentlessly demands exponential scaling of computing and communications resources leading to an overbearing and ever-present drive to improve e ciency while reducing on-chip area even as photonic components expand to ll application spaces no longer satis ed by their electronic counterparts. With a high index contrast, low optical loss, and compatibility with the CMOS fabrication infrastructure, silicon-on-insulator technology delivers a mechanism by which e cient, sub-micron waveguides can be fabricated while enabling monolithic integration of photonic components and their associated electronic infrastructure. The result is a solution leveraging the superior bandwidth of optical signaling onmore » a platform capable of delivering the optical analogue to Moore's Law scaling of transistor density. Device size is expected to end Moore's Law scaling in photonics as Maxwell's equations limit the extent to which this parameter may be reduced. The focus of the work presented here surrounds photonic device miniaturization and the development of 3D optical interconnects as approaches to optimize performance in densely integrated optical interconnects. In this dissertation, several technological barriers inhibiting widespread adoption of photonics in data communications and telecommunications are explored. First, examination of loss and crosstalk performance in silicon nitride over SOI waveguide crossings yields insight into the feasibility of 3D optical interconnects with the rst experimental analysis of such a structure presented herein. A novel measurement platform utilizing a modi ed racetrack resonator is then presented enabling extraction of insertion loss data for highly e cient structures while requiring minimal on-chip area. Finally, pioneering work in understanding the statistical nature of doublet formation in microphotonic resonators is delivered with the resulting impact on resonant device design detailed.« less

  3. BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans

    SciT

    Burrill, Andrew; Anders, W; Frahm, A.

    2014-12-01

    The bERLinPro project, a 100 mA, 50 MeV superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for the purpose of studying the technical challenges and physics of operating a high current, c.w., 1.3 GHz ERL. This machine will utilize three unique SRF cryomodules for the injector, booster and linac module respectively. The booster cryomodule will contain three 2-cell SRF cavities, based on the original design by Cornell University, and will be equipped with twin 115 kW RF power couplers in order to provide the appropriate acceleration to the high current electron beam. This paper willmore » review the status of the fabrication of the 4 booster cavities that have been built for this project by Jefferson Laboratory and look at the challenges presented by the incorporation of fundamental power couplers capable of delivering 115 kW. The test plan for the cavities and couplers will be given along with a brief overview of the cryomodule design.« less

  4. Fabrication and Optimal Design of Biodegradable Polymeric Stents for Aneurysms Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xue; Wu, Xia; Kelly, Michael; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2017-01-01

    An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge in the wall of blood vessels, occurring in major arteries of the heart and brain. Biodegradable polymeric stent-assisted coiling is expected to be the ideal treatment of wide-neck complex aneurysms. This paper presents the development of methods to fabricate and optimally design biodegradable polymeric stents for aneurysms treatment. Firstly, a dispensing-based rapid prototyping (DBRP) system was developed to fabricate coil and zigzag structures of biodegradable polymeric stents. Then, compression testing was carried out to characterize the radial deformation of the stents fabricated with the coil or zigzag structure. The results illustrated the stent with a zigzag structure has a stronger radial stiffness than the one with a coil structure. On this basis, the stent with a zigzag structure was chosen for the development of a finite element model for simulating the real compression tests. The result showed the finite element model of biodegradable polymeric stents is acceptable within a range of radial deformation around 20%. Furthermore, the optimization of the zigzag structure was performed with ANSYS DesignXplorer, and the results indicated that the total deformation could be decreased by 35.7% by optimizing the structure parameters, which would represent a significant advance of the radial stiffness of biodegradable polymeric stents. PMID:28264515

  5. Reliable before-fabrication forecasting of normal and touch mode MEMS capacitive pressure sensor: modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Sumit Kumar; Mahajan, Ankush; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-10-01

    An analytical model and numerical simulation for the performance of MEMS capacitive pressure sensors in both normal and touch modes is required for expected behavior of the sensor prior to their fabrication. Obtaining such information should be based on a complete analysis of performance parameters such as deflection of diaphragm, change of capacitance when the diaphragm deflects, and sensitivity of the sensor. In the literature, limited work has been carried out on the above-stated issue; moreover, due to approximation factors of polynomials, a tolerance error cannot be overseen. Reliable before-fabrication forecasting requires exact mathematical calculation of the parameters involved. A second-order polynomial equation is calculated mathematically for key performance parameters of both modes. This eliminates the approximation factor, and an exact result can be studied, maintaining high accuracy. The elimination of approximation factors and an approach of exact results are based on a new design parameter (δ) that we propose. The design parameter gives an initial hint to the designers on how the sensor will behave once it is fabricated. The complete work is aided by extensive mathematical detailing of all the parameters involved. Next, we verified our claims using MATLAB® simulation. Since MATLAB® effectively provides the simulation theory for the design approach, more complicated finite element method is not used.

  6. Design and Fabrication of Tunable Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Leming

    In this dissertation, we first reviewed the naturally occurring nanoparticles and their limitations (Chapter 1). We then discussed the need and the parameters to design and fabricate bio-inspired tunable nanoparticles for wound healing, Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis and progression monitoring. Tunable nanoparticles enhanced adhesive was inspired from the self-assembly processes, nanocomposite and chemical structures. Fluorescent peptide nanoparticles were inspired from the biological peptide self-assembly and naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. Then we reported the development of an in situ synthesis approach for fabricating tunable nanoparticle enhanced adhesives inspired from the strong adhesive produced by English ivy in Chapter 2. Special attention was given to tunable features of the adhesive produced by the biological process. Parameters that may be used to tune properties of the adhesive were proposed. To illustrate and validate the proposed approach, an experimental platform was presented for fabricating tunable chitosan adhesive enhanced by Au nanoparticles synthesized in situ. This study contributes to a bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable nanocomposite adhesives by mimicking the natural biological processes of ivy adhesive synthesis. Using a bio-inspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels in Chapter 3. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing; when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites; which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), and compared to other therapeutic

  7. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11

  8. The design, fabrication and installation of cable routing mockups in support of Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    From flight and mockup drawings of Spacelab 2 (SL 2) experiments and hardware, shop ready mockup drawings were produced. Floor panels were the first items considered for fabrication. Cold plate and orthogrid mockups were designed and fabricated. Experiment and other hardware mockups were fabricated of aluminum or plywood, depending on size and configuration. Eighty-three cable routing bracket mockups were fabricated of aluminum and delivered for painting.

  9. Meso-macro simulation of the woven fabric local deformation in draping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Akira; Inoue, Takuya; Naouar, Naim; Boisse, Philippe; Lomov, Stepan V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper reports results of such combined meso-macro modelling for a plain weave carbon fabric with spread yarns. The boundary conditions for a local meso-model are taken from the macro draping simulation. The fabric geometry is modelled with WiseTex and transferred to the finite element package. A hyperelastic constitutive model for the yarns (Charmetant - Boisse) is used in the meso-modelling; the model parameters are identified and validated in independent tension, shear, compaction and bending tests of the yarn and the fabric. The simulation reproduces local yarn slippage and buckling, for example, the yarn distortion on the 3D mould corner (see the figure). The simulations are compared with the local fabric distortions observed during draping experiments.

  10. Simulation and Spacecraft Design: Engineering Mars Landings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Erik M

    2015-10-01

    A key issue in history of technology that has received little attention is the use of simulation in engineering design. This article explores the use of both mechanical and numerical simulation in the design of the Mars atmospheric entry phases of the Viking and Mars Pathfinder missions to argue that engineers used both kinds of simulation to develop knowledge of their designs' likely behavior in the poorly known environment of Mars. Each kind of simulation could be used as a warrant of the other's fidelity, in an iterative process of knowledge construction.

  11. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  12. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Composite Energy-Absorbing Keel Beams for General Aviation Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A lightweight energy-absorbing keel-beam concept was developed and retrofitted in a general aviation type aircraft to improve crashworthiness performance. The energy-absorbing beam consisted of a foam-filled cellular structure with glass fiber and hybrid glass/kevlar cell walls. Design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the keel beams prior to installation and subsequent full-scale crash testing of the aircraft are described. Factors such as material and fabrication constraints, damage tolerance, crush stress/strain response, seat-rail loading, and post crush integrity, which influenced the course of the design process are also presented. A theory similar to the one often used for ductile metal box structures was employed with appropriate modifications to estimate the sustained crush loads for the beams. This, analytical tool, coupled with dynamic finite element simulation using MSC.Dytran were the prime design and analysis tools. The validity of the theory as a reliable design tool was examined against test data from static crush tests of beam sections while the overall performance of the energy-absorbing subfloor was assessed through dynamic testing of 24 in long subfloor assemblies.

  13. The optical design and simulation of the collimated solar simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ma, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The solar simulator is a lighting device that can simulate the solar radiation. It has been widely used in the testing of solar cells, satellite space environment simulation and ground experiment, test and calibration precision of solar sensor. The solar simulator mainly consisted of short—arc xenon lamp, ellipsoidal reflectors, a group of optical integrator, field stop, aspheric folding mirror and collimating reflector. In this paper, the solar simulator's optical system basic size are given by calculation. Then the system is optically modeled with the Lighttools software, and the simulation analysis on solar simulator using the Monte Carlo ray -tracing technique is conducted. Finally, the simulation results are given quantitatively by diagrammatic form. The rationality of the design is verified on the basis of theory.

  14. Design, fabrication and delivery of a prototype saturator for ACPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, G.; Rogers, C. F.; Squires, P.

    1979-01-01

    The design configuration and performance characteristics of a saturator developed to provide ground-based simulation for some of the experiments for ACPL-1 first flights of Spacelab are described, some difficulties encountered with the apparatus are discussed, and recommendations concerning testing of this type of instrument are presented. The saturators provide a means of accurately fixing the water vapor mixing ratio of an aerosol sample. Dew point temperatures from almost freezing to ambient room temperatures can be attained with high precision. The instruments can accommodate aerosol flow rates approaching 1000 cc/s. Provisions were made to inject aerosols upstream of these saturators, although downstream injection can be accomplished as well. A device of this type will be used in the ACPL-1 to condition various aerosols delivered concurrently to a CFD, expansion chamber, and static diffusion chamber used in zero gravity cloud-forming experiments. The saturator was designed to meet the requirements projected for the flight instrument.

  15. Design, fabrication, and verification of a three-dimensional autocollimator.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanhe; Cai, Sheng; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2016-12-10

    The autocollimator is an optical instrument for noncontact angle measurement with high resolution and a long detection range. It measures two-dimensional angles, i.e., pitch and yaw, but not roll. In this paper, we present a novelly structured autocollimator capable of measuring three-dimensional (3D) angles simultaneously. In this setup, two collimated beams of different wavelengths are projected onto a right-angle prism. One beam is reflected by the hypotenuse of the prism and received by an autocollimation unit for detecting pitch and yaw. The other is reflected by the two legs of the right-angle prism and received by a moiré fringe imaging unit for detecting roll. Furthermore, a prototype is designed and fabricated. Experiments are carried out to evaluate its basic performance. Calibration results show that this prototype has angular RMS errors of less than 5 arcsec in all 3Ds over a range of 1000 arcsec at a working distance of 2 m.

  16. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balpande, Suresh S.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2016-04-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of harvester and

  17. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    SciT

    Balpande, Suresh S., E-mail: balpandes@rknec.edu; Pande, Rajesh S.

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition tomore » this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of

  18. Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Roger; Helms, Richard; Bilbro, Jim; Brown, Norman; Eng, Sverre; Hinman, Steve; Hull-Allen, Greg; Jacobs, Stephen; Keim, Robert; Ulmer, Melville

    1992-01-01

    What aspects of optical fabrication technology need to be developed so as to facilitate existing planned missions, or enable new ones? Throughout the submillimeter to UV wavelengths, the common goal is to push technology to the limits to make the largest possible apertures that are diffraction limited. At any one wavelength, the accuracy of the surface must be better than lambda/30 (rms error). The wavelength range is huge, covering four orders of magnitude from 1 mm to 100 nm. At the longer wavelengths, diffraction limited surfaces can be shaped with relatively crude techniques. The challenge in their fabrication is to make as large as possible a reflector, given the weight and volume constraints of the launch vehicle. The limited cargo diameter of the shuttle has led in the past to emphasis on deployable or erectable concepts such as the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), which was studied by NASA for a submillimeter astrophysics mission. Replication techniques that can be used to produce light, low-cost reflecting panels are of great interest for this class of mission. At shorter wavelengths, in the optical and ultraviolet, optical fabrication will tax to the limit the most refined polishing methods. Methods of mechanical and thermal stabilization of the substrate will be severely stressed. In the thermal infrared, the need for large aperture is tempered by the even stronger need to control the telescope's thermal emission by cooled or cryogenic operation. Thus, the SIRTF mirror at 1 meter is not large and does not require unusually high accuracy, but the fabrication process must produce a mirror that is the right shape at a temperature of 4 K. Future large cooled mirrors will present more severe problems, especially if they must also be accurate enough to work at optical wavelengths. At the very shortest wavelengths accessible to reflecting optics, in the x-ray domain, the very low count fluxes of high energy photons place a premium on the collecting area. It is

  19. Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Helms, Richard; Bilbro, Jim; Brown, Norman; Eng, Sverre; Hinman, Steve; Hull-Allen, Greg; Jacobs, Stephen; Keim, Robert; Ulmer, Melville

    1992-08-01

    What aspects of optical fabrication technology need to be developed so as to facilitate existing planned missions, or enable new ones? Throughout the submillimeter to UV wavelengths, the common goal is to push technology to the limits to make the largest possible apertures that are diffraction limited. At any one wavelength, the accuracy of the surface must be better than lambda/30 (rms error). The wavelength range is huge, covering four orders of magnitude from 1 mm to 100 nm. At the longer wavelengths, diffraction limited surfaces can be shaped with relatively crude techniques. The challenge in their fabrication is to make as large as possible a reflector, given the weight and volume constraints of the launch vehicle. The limited cargo diameter of the shuttle has led in the past to emphasis on deployable or erectable concepts such as the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), which was studied by NASA for a submillimeter astrophysics mission. Replication techniques that can be used to produce light, low-cost reflecting panels are of great interest for this class of mission. At shorter wavelengths, in the optical and ultraviolet, optical fabrication will tax to the limit the most refined polishing methods. Methods of mechanical and thermal stabilization of the substrate will be severely stressed. In the thermal infrared, the need for large aperture is tempered by the even stronger need to control the telescope's thermal emission by cooled or cryogenic operation. Thus, the SIRTF mirror at 1 meter is not large and does not require unusually high accuracy, but the fabrication process must produce a mirror that is the right shape at a temperature of 4 K. Future large cooled mirrors will present more severe problems, especially if they must also be accurate enough to work at optical wavelengths. At the very shortest wavelengths accessible to reflecting optics, in the x-ray domain, the very low count fluxes of high energy photons place a premium on the collecting area. It is

  20. Design and fabrication of a magnetically actuated non-invasive reusable drug delivery device.

    PubMed

    Dsa, Joyline; Goswami, Manish; Singh, B R; Bhatt, Nidhi; Sharma, Pankaj; Chauhan, Meenakshi K

    2018-07-01

    We present a novel approach of designing and fabricating a noninvasive drug delivery device which is capable of delivering the drug to the target site in a controlled manner. The device utilizes a reservoir which can be reused once the drug has completely diffused from it. This micro-reservoir based fabricated device has been successfully tested using niosomes of insulin drug filled in, which was then sealed with a magnetic membrane of 20 µm thick and was actuated by applying magnetic field. The deflection of the membrane on application of magnetic field results in the drug release from the reservoir. The discharge of the drug solution and the release rates was controlled by external magnetic field. The simulation of the membrane deflection using COMSOL software was carried out to optimize the concentration of the ferrous nanopowder in PDMS matrix. The characterization of the devices was implemented in-vitro on water and in-vivo on Wistar rats. It was also validated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by observing characteristic peak of insulin. The blood samples showed the retention time of 2.79 min at λ max of 280 nm which further authenticated the effectiveness of the proposed work. This noninvasive fabricated device provides reusability, precise control and can enable the patient or a physician to actively administrate the drug when required.

  1. Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of a prototype 150-foot long composite wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gewehr, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of a prototype 150 foot long composite wind turbine blade is described. The design approach and material selection, compatible with low cost fabrication methods and objectives, are highlighted. The operating characteristics of the blade during rotating and nonrotating conditions are presented. The tensile, compression, and shear properties of the blade are reported. The blade fabrication, tooling, and quality assurance are discussed.

  2. Mixed logic style adder circuit designed and fabricated using SOI substrate for irradiation-hardened experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shoucai; Liu, Yamei

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposed a rail to rail swing, mixed logic style 28-transistor 1-bit full adder circuit which is designed and fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate with 90 nm gate length technology. The main goal of our design is space application where circuits may be damaged by outer space radiation; so the irradiation-hardened technique such as SOI structure should be used. The circuit's delay, power and power-delay product (PDP) of our proposed gate diffusion input (GDI)-based adder are HSPICE simulated and compared with other reported high-performance 1-bit adder. The GDI-based 1-bit adder has 21.61% improvement in delay and 18.85% improvement in PDP, over the reported 1-bit adder. However, its power dissipation is larger than that reported with 3.56% increased but is still comparable. The worst case performance of proposed 1-bit adder circuit is also seen to be less sensitive to variations in power supply voltage (VDD) and capacitance load (CL), over a wide range from 0.6 to 1.8 V and 0 to 200 fF, respectively. The proposed and reported 1-bit full adders are all layout designed and wafer fabricated with other circuits/systems together on one chip. The chip measurement and analysis has been done at VDD = 1.2 V, CL = 20 fF, and 200 MHz maximum input signal frequency with temperature of 300 K.

  3. Simulator design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    This simulation design task completion report documents the simulation techniques associated with the network models of both the Interim Service ISDN (integrated services digital network) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures. The ISIS network model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communication satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete events simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  4. Design and fabrication of asymmetric nanopores using pulsed PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, Sanket S.

    demonstrate the capability of pulsed PECVD for precise pore size reduction of model supports. The efficacy of pulsed PECVD for nanopore fabrication was compared to both ALD and PVD. Flux and solute rejection measurements demonstrate that the pulsed PECVD-modified TE membranes exhibit higher selectivity without compromising on the flux due to their asymmetric structure. For example, the TiO2 modified supports were demonstrated to deliver high retention (˜ 75%) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein while maintaining 70% of their initial pure water flux. PVD also forms asymmetric membranes that enable high flux. But due to morphological instabilities, reproducibility and control were poor in the PVD-modified membranes, and it was not possible to optimize the flux and the selectivity of the membranes simultaneously. Excellent agreement between measured flux and model predictions based on feature scale simulations provided further validation of the tool's fidelity. Since surface energetics can often dominate hindered transport, the kinetics and thermodynamics of the octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) attachment was investigated in-depth as an approach to convert hydrophilic metal oxides into hydrophobic surfaces. It was shown that a simple ozone treatment was a satisfactory alternative to hazardous acids to create the highly hydroxylated surface required for OTS attachment, and that using heptane as the solvent enabled the process to be conducted under ambient conditions without the need of a glovebox. The kinetics of OTS self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation and the saturation contact angle (˜100°) on alumina are comparable to what has been observed for OTS attachment on silicon. The OTS SAMs also demonstrated excellent thermal stability, and the modified surface showed a critical surface tension of 21.4 dyne/cm.

  5. The role of simulation in the design of a neural network chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Utpal; Roppel, Thaddeus A.; Padgett, Mary L.

    1993-01-01

    An iterative, simulation-based design procedure for a neural network chip is introduced. For this design procedure, the goal is to produce a chip layout for a neural network in which the weights are determined by transistor gate width-to-length ratios. In a given iteration, the current layout is simulated using the circuit simulator SPICE, and layout adjustments are made based on conventional gradient-decent methods. After the iteration converges, the chip is fabricated. Monte Carlo analysis is used to predict the effect of statistical fabrication process variations on the overall performance of the neural network chip.

  6. High-Flow Jet Exit Rig Designed and Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Robert J.; Trimarchi, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to test single flow jet nozzles and to measure the appropriate thrust and noise levels. The rig has been designed for the maximum hot condition of 16 lbm/sec of combustion air at 1960 R (maximum) and to produce a maximum thrust of 2000 lb. It was designed for cold flow of 29.1 lbm/sec of air at 530 R. In addition, it can test dual-flow nozzles (nozzles with bypass flow in addition to core flow) with independent control of each flow. The High- Flow Jet Exit Rig was successfully fabricated in late 2001 and is being readied for checkout tests. The rig will be installed in Glenn's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig consists of the following major components: a single component force balance, the natural-gas-fueled J-79 combustor assembly, the plenum and manifold assembly, an acoustic/instrumentation/seeding (A/I/S) section, a table, and the research nozzles. The rig will be unique in that it is designed to operate uncooled. The structure survives the 1960 R test condition because it uses carefully selected high temperature alloy materials such as Hastelloy-X. The lower plenum assembly was designed to operate at pressures to 450 psig at 1960 R, in accordance with the ASME B31.3 piping code. The natural gas-fueled combustor fires directly into the lower manifold. The hot air is directed through eight 1-1/2-in. supply pipes that supply the upper plenum. The flow is conditioned in the upper plenum prior to flowing to the research nozzle. The 1-1/2-in. supply lines are arranged in a U-shaped design to provide for a flexible piping system. The combustor assembly checkout was successfully conducted in Glenn's Engine Component Research Laboratory in the spring of 2001. The combustor is a low-smoke version of the J79 combustor used to power the F4 Phantom military aircraft. The natural gas-fueled combustor demonstrated high-efficiency combustion over a wide range of operating

  7. Prosthetic knee design by simulation

    SciT

    Hollerbach, K; Hollister, A

    1999-07-30

    Although 150,000 total knee replacement surgeries are performed annually in North America, current designs of knee prostheses have mechanical problems that include a limited range of motion, abnormal gait patterns, patellofemoral joint dysfunction, implant loosening or subsidence, and excessive wear. These problems fall into three categories: failure to reproduce normal joint kinematics, which results in altered limb function; bone-implant interface failure; and material failure. Modern computer technology can be used to design, prototype, and test new total knee implants. The design team uses the full range of CAD-CAM to design and produce implant prototypes for mechanical and clinical testing. Closermore » approximation of natural knee kinematics and kinetics is essential for improved patient function and diminished implant loads. Current knee replacement designs are based on 19th Century theories that the knee moves about a variable axis of rotation. Recent research has shown, however, that knee motion occurs about two fixed, offset axes of rotation. These aces are not perpendicular to the long axes of the bones or to each other, and the axes do not intersect. Bearing surfaces of mechanisms that move about axes of rotation are surfaces of revolution of those axes which advanced CAD technology can produce. Solids with surfaces of revolution for the two axes of rotation for the knee have been made using an HP9000 workstation and Structural Ideas Master Series CAD software at ArthroMotion. The implant's CAD model should closely replicate movements of the normal knee. The knee model will have a range of flexion-extension (FE) from -5 to 120 degrees. Movements include varus, valgus, internal and external rotation, as well as flexion and extension. The patellofemoral joint is aligned perpendicular to the FE axis and replicates the natural joint more closely than those of existing prostheses. The bearing surfaces will be more congruent than current designs and should

  8. Design, fabrication and characterization of a poly-silicon PN junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tower, Jason D.

    This thesis details the design, fabrication, and characterization of a PN junction formed from p-type mono-crystalline silicon and n-type poly-crystalline silicon. The primary product of this project was a library of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the fabrication of such devices, laying the foundations for future work and the development of a class in fabrication processes. The fabricated PN junction was characterized; in particular its current-voltage relationship was measured and fit to models. This characterization was to determine whether or not the fabrication process could produce working PN junctions with acceptable operational parameters.

  9. Abrasion of Candidate Spacesuit Fabrics by Simulated Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rogers, Kerry J.; Sheehy, Brennan H.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol has been developed that produced the type of lunar soil abrasion damage observed on Apollo spacesuits. This protocol was then applied to four materials (Kevlar (DuPont), Vectran (Kuraray Co., Ltd.), Orthofabric, and Tyvek (DuPont)) that are candidates for advanced spacesuits. Three of the four new candidate fabrics (all but Vectran) were effective at keeping the dust from penetrating to layers beneath. In the cases of Kevlar and Orthofabric this was accomplished by the addition of a silicone layer. In the case of Tyvek, the paper structure was dense enough to block dust transport. The least abrasive damage was suffered by the Tyvek. This was thought to be due in large part to its non-woven paper structure. The woven structures were all abraded where the top of the weave was struck by the abrasive. Of these, the Orthofabric suffered the least wear, with both Vectran and Kevlar suffering considerably more extensive filament breakage.

  10. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2017-10-31

    Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the "open loop sensitivity" of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  11. Dental implant customization using numerical optimization design and 3-dimensional printing fabrication of zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lin, Deng-Huei; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Lin, Yuan-Min

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes a new methodology for dental implant customization consisting of numerical geometric optimization and 3-dimensional printing fabrication of zirconia ceramic. In the numerical modeling, exogenous factors for implant shape include the thread pitch, thread depth, maximal diameter of implant neck, and body size. Endogenous factors are bone density, cortical bone thickness, and non-osseointegration. An integration procedure, including uniform design method, Kriging interpolation and genetic algorithm, is applied to optimize the geometry of dental implants. The threshold of minimal micromotion for optimization evaluation was 100 μm. The optimized model is imported to the 3-dimensional slurry printer to fabricate the zirconia green body (powder is bonded by polymer weakly) of the implant. The sintered implant is obtained using a 2-stage sintering process. Twelve models are constructed according to uniform design method and simulated the micromotion behavior using finite element modeling. The result of uniform design models yields a set of exogenous factors that can provide the minimal micromotion (30.61 μm), as a suitable model. Kriging interpolation and genetic algorithm modified the exogenous factor of the suitable model, resulting in 27.11 μm as an optimization model. Experimental results show that the 3-dimensional slurry printer successfully fabricated the green body of the optimization model, but the accuracy of sintered part still needs to be improved. In addition, the scanning electron microscopy morphology is a stabilized t-phase microstructure, and the average compressive strength of the sintered part is 632.1 MPa. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Heat-load simulator for heat sink design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunleavy, A. M.; Vaughn, T. J.

    1968-01-01

    Heat-load simulator is fabricated from 1/4-inch aluminum plate with a contact surface equal in dimensions and configuration to those of the electronic installation. The method controls thermal output to simulate actual electronic component thermal output.

  13. KAPAO Prime: Design and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, Lorcan

    2012-11-01

    KAPAO (KAPAO A Pomona Adaptive Optics instrument) is a dual-band natural guide star adaptive optics system designed to measure and remove atmospheric aberration from Pomona College's telescope atop Table Mountain. We present here, the final optical system, referred to as Prime, designed in Zemax Optical Design Software. Prime is characterized by diffraction limited imaging over the full 73'' field of view of our Andor Camera at f/33 as well as for our NIR Xenics camera at f/50. In Zemax, tolerances of 1% on OAP focal length and off-axis distance were shown to contribute an additional 4 nm of wavefront error (98% confidence) over the field of view of the Andor camera; the contribution from surface irregularity was determined analytically to be 40nm for OAPs specified to l/10 surface irregularity. Modeling of the temperature deformation of the breadboard in SolidWorks revealed 70 micron contractions along the edges of the board for a decrease of 75 F; when applied to OAP positions such displacements from the optimal layout are predicted to contribute an additional 20 nanometers of wavefront error. Flexure modeling of the breadboard due to gravity is on-going. We hope to begin alignment and testing of ``Prime'' in Q1 2013.

  14. KAPAO Prime: Design and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, Lorcan; Choi, P. I.; Severson, S. A.; Spjut, E.

    2013-01-01

    KAPAO (KAPAO A Pomona Adaptive Optics instrument) is a dual-band natural guide star adaptive optics system designed to measure and remove atmospheric aberration over UV-NIR wavelengths from Pomona College’s telescope atop Table Mountain. We present here, the final optical system, KAPAO Prime, designed in Zemax Optical Design Software that uses custom off-axis paraboloid mirrors (OAPs) to manipulate light appropriately for a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, deformable mirror, and science cameras. KAPAO Prime is characterized by diffraction limited imaging over the full 81” field of view of our optical camera at f/33 as well as over the smaller field of view of our NIR camera at f/50. In Zemax, tolerances of 1% on OAP focal length and off-axis distance were shown to contribute an additional 4 nm of wavefront error (98% confidence) over the field of view of our optical camera; the contribution from surface irregularity was determined analytically to be 40nm for OAPs specified to λ/10 surface irregularity (632.8nm). Modeling of the temperature deformation of the breadboard in SolidWorks revealed 70 micron contractions along the edges of the board for a decrease of 75°F when applied to OAP positions such displacements from the optimal layout are predicted to contribute an additional 20 nanometers of wavefront error. Flexure modeling of the breadboard due to gravity is on-going. We hope to begin alignment and testing of KAPAO Prime in Q1 2013.

  15. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.

  16. Design, fabrication and metrological evaluation of wearable pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Goy, C B; Menichetti, V; Yanicelli, L M; Lucero, J B; López, M A Gómez; Parodi, N F; Herrera, M C

    2015-04-01

    Pressure sensors are valuable transducers that are necessary in a huge number of medical application. However, the state of the art of compact and lightweight pressure sensors with the capability of measuring the contact pressure between two surfaces (contact pressure sensors) is very poor. In this work, several types of wearable contact pressure sensors are fabricated using different conductive textile materials and piezo-resistive films. The fabricated sensors differ in size, the textile conductor used and/or the number of layers of the sandwiched piezo-resistive film. The intention is to study, through the obtaining of their calibration curves, their metrological properties (repeatability, sensitivity and range) and determine which physical characteristics improve their ability for measuring contact pressures. It has been found that it is possible to obtain wearable contact pressure sensors through the proposed fabrication process with satisfactory repeatability, range and sensitivity; and that some of these properties can be improved by the physical characteristics of the sensors.

  17. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis for restoring sight to the blind: implant design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lele; Mathieson, Keith; Kamins, Theodore I.; Loudin, James; Galambos, Ludwig; Harris, James S.; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    We have designed and fabricated a silicon photodiode array for use as a subretinal prosthesis aimed at restoring sight to patients who lost photoreceptors due to retinal degeneration. The device operates in photovoltaic mode. Each pixel in the two-dimensional array independently converts pulsed infrared light into biphasic electric current to stimulate remaining retinal neurons without a wired power connection. To enhance the maximum voltage and charge injection levels, each pixel contains three photodiodes connected in series. An active and return electrode in each pixel ensure localized current flow and are sputter coated with iridium oxide to provide high charge injection. The fabrication process consists of eight mask layers and includes deep reactive ion etching, oxidation, and a polysilicon trench refill for in-pixel photodiode separation and isolation of adjacent pixels. Simulation of design parameters included TSUPREM4 computation of doping profiles for n+ and p+ doped regions and MATLAB computation of the anti-reflection coating layers thicknesses. The main process steps are illustrated in detail, and problems encountered are discussed. The IV characterization of the device shows that the dark reverse current is on the order of 10-100 pA-negligible compared to the stimulation current; the reverse breakdown voltage is higher than 20 V. The measured photo-responsivity per photodiode is about 0.33A/W at 880 nm.

  18. Design, fabrication and performance evaluation of an integrated reformed methanol fuel cell for portable use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shubin; Zhang, Yufeng; Chen, Junyu; Yin, Congwen; Liu, Xiaowei

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, an integrated reformed methanol fuel cell (RMFC) as a portable power source is designed, fabricated and tested. The RMFC consists of a methanol steam reformer (MSR), a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) stack, a microcontroller unit (MCU) and other auxiliaries. First, a system model based on Matlab/Simulink is established to investigate the mass and energy transport characteristics within the whole system. The simulation results suggest a hydrogen flow rate of at least 670 sccm is needed for the system to output 30 W and simultaneously maintain thermal equilibrium. Second, a metallic MSR and an HT-PEMFC stack with 12 cells are fabricated and tested. The tests show that the RMFC system is able to function normally when the performances of all the components meet the minimum requirements. At last, in the experiment of successfully powering a laptop, the RMFC system exhibits a stable performance during the complete work flow of all the phases, namely start-up, output and shutdown. Moreover, with a conservative design of 20 W power rating, maximum energy conversion efficiency of the RMFC system can be achieved (36%), and good stability in long-term operation is shown.

  19. Instructor-Simulator Interface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    AIR FORCE P I X - H I NSTI{ t(21"()1{-. 1 I NI IA THiFACE D)ESIGN M M (A E leh’i’rois 1.1d. V.(). Mix\\ 1110). Saiiit-iauremn ii il \\l.’l Qtliv’e A...C> E p S LABORATORY C. AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND / BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE,TEXAS 78235gl 5i3 02 NOIC N()°I’I( :1’:t; ¢ ’’ : When I .5. (;S.q ernmet dra...erniment Iliere.h inrs. v resion.,ililit ior ill. obligation ,iat.o eer. and liwi’ fai that the (,ovi rn t mian hl e firmulate. furnished. iir in an% %a

  20. Design and technical support for development of a molded fabric space suit joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. Howard

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has under design a new joint or element for use in a space suit. The design concept involves molding a fabric to a geometry developed at Ames. Unusual characteristics of this design include the need to produce a fabric molding draw ratio on the order of thirty percent circumferentially on the surface. Previous work done at NASA on molded fabric joints has shown that standard, NASA qualified polyester fabrics as are currently available in the textile industry for use in suits have a maximum of about fifteen percent draw ratio. NASA has done the fundamental design for a prototype joint and of a mold which would impart the correct shape to the fabric support layer of the joint. NASA also has the capability to test a finished product for suitability and reliability. Responsibilities resting with Georgia Tech in the design effort for this project are textile related, namely fiber selection, fabric design to achieve the properties of the objective design, and determining production means and sources for the fabrics. The project goals are to produce a prototype joint using the NASA design for evaluation of effectiveness by NASA, and to establish the sources and specifications which would allow reliable and repeatable production of the joint.

  1. Design and fabrication of vibration based energy harvester using microelectromechanical system piezoelectric cantilever for low power applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonkeun; Lee, Sang-Kyun; Yang, Yil Suk; Jeong, Jaehwa; Min, Nam Ki; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2013-12-01

    We fabricated dual-beam cantilevers on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scale with an integrated Si proof mass. A Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) cantilever was designed as a mechanical vibration energy-harvesting system for low power applications. The resonant frequency of the multilayer composition cantilevers were simulated using the finite element method (FEM) with parametric analysis carried out in the design process. According to simulations, the resonant frequency, voltage, and average power of a dual-beam cantilever was 69.1 Hz, 113.9 mV, and 0.303 microW, respectively, at optimal resistance and 0.5 g (gravitational acceleration, m/s2). Based on these data, we subsequently fabricated cantilever devices using dual-beam cantilevers. The harvested power density of the dual-beam cantilever compared favorably with the simulation. Experiments revealed the resonant frequency, voltage, and average power density to be 78.7 Hz, 118.5 mV, and 0.34 microW, respectively. The error between the measured and simulated results was about 10%. The maximum average power and power density of the fabricated dual-beam cantilever at 1 g were 0.803 microW and 1322.80 microW cm(-3), respectively. Furthermore, the possibility of a MEMS-scale power source for energy conversion experiments was also tested.

  2. Design, fabrication, test qualification and price analysis of a third generation solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The design, fabrication, test, and qualification of a third generation intermediate load solar cell module are presented. A technical discussion of the detailed module design, preliminary design review, design modifications, and environmental testing are included. A standardized pricing system is utilized to establish the cost competitiveness of this module design.

  3. Design, modeling and simulation of MEMS-based silicon Microneedles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-06-01

    The advancement in semiconductor process engineering and nano-scale fabrication technology has made it convenient to transport specific biological fluid into or out of human skin with minimum discomfort. Fluid transdermal delivery systems such as Microneedle arrays are one such emerging and exciting Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) application which could lead to a total painless fluid delivery into skin with controllability and desirable yield. In this study, we aimed to revisit the problem with modeling, design and simulations carried out for MEMS based silicon hollow out of plane microneedle arrays for biomedical applications particularly for transdermal drug delivery. An approximate 200 μm length of microneedle with 40 μm diameter of lumen has been successfully shown formed by isotropic and anisotropic etching techniques using MEMS Pro design tool. These microneedles are arranged in size of 2 × 4 matrix array with center to center spacing of 750 μm. Furthermore, comparisons for fluid flow characteristics through these microneedle channels have been modeled with and without the contribution of the gravitational forces using mathematical models derived from Bernoulli Equation. Physical Process simulations have also been performed on TCAD SILVACO to optimize the design of these microneedles aligned with the standard Si-Fabrication lines.

  4. Design and fabrication of a novel self-powered solid-state neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LiCausi, Nicholas

    key advantages of the novel devices are theoretical neutron detection efficiency of ˜48%, a self-passivating structure that reduces leakage current and detector operation with no bias resulting in extremely low device noise. Processes required to fabricate the 3D type detector were explored and developed in this thesis. The detector capacitance and processing steps have been simulated with MEDICI and TSuprem-4, respectively. Lithography masks were then designed using Cadence. The fabrication process development was conducted in line with standard CMOS grade integrated circuit processing to allow for simple integration with existing fabrication facilities. A number of new processes were developed including the low pressure chemical vapor deposition of conformal boron films using diborane on very high aspect-ratio trenches and holes. Development also included methods for "wet" chemical etching and "dry" reactive ion etching of the deposited boron films. Fabricated detectors were characterized with the transmission line method, 4-point probe, I-V measurements and C-V measurements. Finally the detector response to thermal neutrons was studied. Characterization has shown significant reduction in reverse leakage current density to ˜8x10-8 A/cm2 (nearly 4 orders of magnitude over the previously published data). Results show that the fabrication process developed is capable of producing efficient (˜22.5%) solid-state thermal neutron detectors.

  5. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  6. Design and fabrication of a diffractive beam splitter for dual-wavelength and concurrent irradiation of process points.

    PubMed

    Amako, Jun; Shinozaki, Yu

    2016-07-11

    We report on a dual-wavelength diffractive beam splitter designed for use in parallel laser processing. This novel optical element generates two beam arrays of different wavelengths and allows their overlap at the process points on a workpiece. To design the deep surface-relief profile of a splitter using a simulated annealing algorithm, we introduce a heuristic but practical scheme to determine the maximum depth and the number of quantization levels. The designed corrugations were fabricated in a photoresist by maskless grayscale exposure using a high-resolution spatial light modulator. We characterized the photoresist splitter, thereby validating the proposed beam-splitting concept.

  7. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koumal, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The design and evaluation of built-up attachments and bonded joint concepts for use at elevated temperatures is documented. Joint concept screening, verification of GR/PI material, fabrication of design allowables panels, definition of test matrices, and analysis of bonded and bolted joints are among the tasks completed. The results provide data for the design and fabrication of lightly loaded components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft.

  8. Design and fabrication of titanium multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TPS) test panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E., Jr.; Rosenthal, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    A titanium multiwall thermal protection system panel was designed. The panel is a nine sheet sandwich structure consisting of an upper and lower face sheet; four dimpled sheets, three septum sheets, and clips for attachment to a vehicle structure. An acceptable fabrication process was developed, and the panel design was verified through mechanical and thermal testing of component specimens. A design was completed which takes into consideration fabrication techniques, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and materials availability.

  9. Design, fabrication, and test of a composite material wind turbine rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gustafson, R. E.; More, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic design, structural design, fabrication, and structural testing is described for a 60 foot long filament wound, fiberglass/epoxy resin matrix wind turbine rotor blade for a 125 foot diameter, 100 kW wind energy conversion system. One blade was fabricated which met all aerodynamic shape requirements and was structurally capable of operating under all specified design conditions. The feasibility of filament winding large rotor blades was demonstrated.

  10. MEMS 3-DoF gyroscope design, modeling and simulation through equivalent circuit lumped parameter model

    SciT

    Mian, Muhammad Umer, E-mail: umermian@gmail.com; Khir, M. H. Md.; Tang, T. B.

    Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for themore » proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.« less

  11. Reynolds Shear Stress for Textile Prosthetic Heart Valves in Relation to Fabric Design

    PubMed Central

    Bark, David L.; Koupei, Atieh Yousefi; Forleo, Marcio; Vaesken, Antoine; Heim, Frederic; Dasi, Lakshmi P.

    2016-01-01

    The most widely implanted prosthetic heart valves are either mechanical or bioprosthetic. While the former suffers from thrombotic risks, the latter suffers from a lack of durability. Textile valves, alternatively, can be designed with durability and to exhibit hemodynamics similar to the native valve, lowering the risk for thrombosis. Deviations from native valve hemodynamics can result in an increased Reynolds Shear Stress (RSS), which has the potential to instigate hemolysis or shear-induced thrombosis. This study is aimed at characterizing flow in multiple textile valve designs with an aim of developing a low profile valve. Valves were created using a shaping process based on heating a textile membrane and placed within a left heart simulator. Turbulence and bulk hemodynamics were assessed through particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), along with flow and pressure measurements. Overall, RSS was reduced for low profile valves relative to high profile valves, but was otherwise similar among low profile valves. However, leakage was found in 3 of the 4 low profile valve designs driving the fabric design for low profile valves. Through textile design, low profile valves can be created with favorable hemodynamics. PMID:26919564

  12. Nanorobotic end-effectors: Design, fabrication, and in situ characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zheng

    Nano-robotic end-effectors have promising applications for nano-fabrication, nano-manufacturing, nano-optics, nano-medical, and nano-sensing; however, low performances of the conventional end-effectors have prevented the widespread utilization of them in various fields. There are two major difficulties in developing the end-effectors: their nano-fabrication and their advanced characterization in the nanoscale. Here we introduce six types of end-effectors: the nanotube fountain pen (NFP), the super-fine nanoprobe, the metal-filled carbon nanotube (m CNT)-based sphere-on-pillar (SOP) nanoantennas, the tunneling nanosensor, and the nanowire-based memristor. The investigations on the NFP are focused on nano-fluidics and nano-fabrications. The NFP could direct write metallic "inks" and fabricating complex metal nanostructures from 0D to 3D with a position servo control, which is critically important to future large-scale, high-throughput nanodevice production. With the help of NFP, we could fabricate the end-effectors such as super-fine nanoprobe and m CNT-based SOP nanoantennas. Those end-effectors are able to detect local flaws or characterize the electrical/mechanical properties of the nanostructure. Moreover, using electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy (EELS) technique during the operation of the SOP optical antenna opens a new basis for the application of nano-robotic end-effectors. The technique allows advanced characterization of the physical changes, such as carrier diffusion, that are directly responsible for the device's properties. As the device was coupled with characterization techniques of scanning-trasmission-electron-microscopy (STEM), the development of tunneling nanosensor advances this field of science into quantum world. Furthermore, the combined STEM-EELS technique plays an important role in our understanding of the memristive switching performance in the nanowire-based memristor. The developments of those nano-robotic end-effectors expend the study

  13. Design and Fabrication of Electrostatically Actuated Silicon Microshutters Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, L.; Li, M.; Kim, K.; Kelly, D.; Kutyrev, A.; Moseley, S.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new fabrication process to actuate microshutter arrays (MSA) electrostatically at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The microshutters are fabricated on silicon with thin silicon nitride membranes. A pixel size of each microshutter is 100 x 200 micrometers 2. The microshutters rotate 90 degrees on torsion bars. The selected microshutters are actuated, held, and addressed electrostatically by applying voltages on the electrodes the front and back sides of the microshutters. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide was used to insulate electrodes on the back side of walls; the insulation can withstand over 100 V. The ALD aluminum oxide is dry etched, and then the microshutters are released in vapor HF.

  14. Design and fabrication of hybrid SPP waveguides for ultrahigh-bandwidth low-penalty terabit-scale data transmission.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Wang, Jian

    2017-11-27

    Here we design and fabricate a hybrid surface plasmon polarities (SPP) waveguide on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonics platform. The designed hybrid SPP waveguide is composed of a metal ridge, an air gap, and a silicon ridge. We simulate the mode characteristics in the structure and design the waveguide with a wide air gap that can simplify the fabrication process and maintain the advantages of the hybrid SPP mode. The performance of ultrahigh-bandwidth data transmission through the proposed waveguide is then investigated using 161 wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) channels, each carrying a 11.2-Gbit/s orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal. The bit-error rates (BERs) of all 161 channels are less than 1e-3. The favorable results show the prospect of on-chip optical interconnection using the proposed hybrid SPP waveguide.

  15. Design, fabrication and test of prototype furnace for continuous growth of wide silicon ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported during the apparatus design, fabrication, and assembly phases of a program to grow wide, thin silicon dendritic web. The growth facility was essentially completed with any significant problems arising. A complete set of detailed fabrication drawings is included as an appendix.

  16. Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Satellite Electron Beam System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-16

    Oide , ft necessar and fdernuhv b blockr ... mber) Desiqn, Development, Fabrication and Test of Electron Beam System for use in a Satellite Vehicle. DD...1.6 Dscription oF SP:BS The SPIBS instrument was a two centimeter diameter ion source using Xenon gas as the expellant, having a hollow cathode with an...fully tested using dummy guns. Special gun opening tests using real guns were employed in vacuum tests to determine that there was no cathode poison

  17. Design and fabrication of zeolite macro- and micromembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Lik Hang Joseph

    2001-07-01

    The chemical nature of the support surface influences zeolite nucleation, crystal growth and elm adhesion. It had been demonstrated that chemical modification of support surface can significantly alter the zeolite film and has a good potential for large-scale applications for zeolite membrane production. The incorporation of titanium and vanadium metal ions into the structural framework of MFI zeolite imparts the material with catalytic properties. The effects of silica and metal (i.e., Ti and V) content, template concentration and temperature on the zeolite membrane growth and morphology were investigated. Single-gas permeation experiments were conducted for noble gases (He and Ar), inorganic gases (H2, N2, SF6) and hydrocarbons (methane, n-C4, i-C4) to determine the separation performance of these membranes. Using a new fabrication method based on microelectronic fabrication and zeolite thin film technologies, complex microchannel geometry and network (<5 mum), as well as zeolite arrays (<10 mum) were successfully fabricated onto highly orientated supported zeolite films. The zeolite micropatterns were stable even after repeated thermal cycling between 303 K and 873 K for prolonged periods of time. This work also demonstrates that zeolites (i.e., Sil-1, ZSM-5 and TS-1) can be employed as catalyst, membrane or structural materials in miniature chemical devices. Traditional semiconductor fabrication technology was employed in micromachining the device architecture. Four strategies for the manufacture of zeolite catalytic microreactors were discussed: zeolite powder coating, uniform zeolite film growth, localized zeolite growth, and etching of zeolite-silicon composite film growth inhibitors. Silicalite-1 was also prepared as free-standing membrane for zeolite membrane microseparators.

  18. Design, Fabrication, Characterization and Modeling of Integrated Functional Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    oxide ( AAO ) membranes were fabricated from high purity aluminum foil (99.999%) by electrochemical route using a controlled two-step anodization ...deposition of Fe and Co in anodized alumina templates. We used commercially prepared AAO templates which had pore diameters of 100 nm (300 nm), an...a thermal decomposition method. The final product was suspended in high-purity hexane to create a ferrofluid. Custom highly ordered anodic aluminum

  19. Design, Fabrication, Characterization and Modeling of Integrated Functional Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles dispersed in a low-loss commercial polymer matrix obtained from Rogers Corporation. 2 mmol of Cobalt (II...oleylamine and 20 ml benzyl ether were added to the Iron (III) acetylacetonate and Cobalt (II) acetylacetonate mixture. The mixture was stirred...microwave applications Multiferroic bilayers of Cobalt Ferrite and PZT: The objective of this project is to fabricate bilayers of ferroelectric

  20. Design and simulation of a gyroklystron amplifier

    SciT

    Chauhan, M. S., E-mail: mschauhan.rs.ece@iitbhu.ac.in; Swati, M. V.; Jain, P. K.

    2015-03-15

    In the present paper, a design methodology of the gyroklystron amplifier has been described and subsequently used for the design of a typically selected 200 kW, Ka-band, four-cavity gyroklystron amplifier. This conceptual device design has been validated through the 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and nonlinear analysis. Commercially available PIC simulation code “MAGIC” has been used for the electromagnetic study at the different location of the device RF interaction structure for the beam-absent case, i.e., eigenmode study as well as for the electron beam and RF wave interaction behaviour study in the beam present case of the gyroklystron. In addition, a practicalmore » problem of misalignment of the RF cavities with drift tubes within the tube has been also investigated and its effect on device performance studied. The analytical and simulation results confirmed the validity of the gyroklystron device design. The PIC simulation results of the present gyroklystron produced a stable RF output power of ∼218 kW for 0% velocity spread at 35 GHz, with ∼45 dB gain, 37% efficiency, and a bandwidth of 0.3% for a 70 kV, 8.2 A gyrating electron beam. The simulated values of RF output power have been found in agreement with the nonlinear analysis results within ∼5%. Further, the PIC simulation has been extended to study a practical problem of misalignment of the cavities axis and drift tube axis of the gyroklystron amplifier and found that the RF output power is more sensitive to misalignments in comparison to the device bandwidth. The present paper, gyroklystron device design, nonlinear analysis, and 3D PIC simulation using commercially available code had been systematically described would be of use to the high-power gyro-amplifier tube designers and research scientists.« less

  1. Design, fabrication and characterization of a very low frequency piezoelectric energy harvester designed for heart beat vibration scavenging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, M.; Basrour, S.; Rufer, L.

    2013-05-01

    Current version of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and pacemakers consists of a battery-powered pulse generator connected onto the heart through electrical leads inserted through the veins. However, it is known that long-term lead failure may occur and cause a dysfunction of the device. When required, the removal of the failed leads is a complex procedure associated with a potential risk of mortality. As a consequence, the main players in the field of intracardiac implants prepare a next generation of devices: miniaturized and autonomous leadless implants, which could be directly placed inside the heart. In this paper, we discuss the frequency content of a heart vibration spectrum, and the dimensional restrictions in the case of a leadless pacemaker. In combination with the requirements in terms of useable energy, we will present a design study of a resonant piezoelectric scavenger aimed at powering such a device. In particular, we will show how the frequency-volume-energy requirement leads to new challenges in terms of power densities, which are to be addressed through implementation of innovative piezoelectric thick films fabrication processes. This paper also presents the simulation, fabrication and the testing of an ultralow frequency (15Hz) resonant piezoelectric energy harvester prototype. Using both harmonic (50mg) and real heart-induced vibrations, we obtained an output power of 60μW and 10μW respectively. Finally, we will place emphasis on the new constraint represented by the gravitational (orientation) sensitivity inherent to these ultra low frequency resonant energy harvesters.

  2. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  3. Design Optimization and Fabrication of a Novel Structural SOI Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with High Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuang; Cordovilla, Francisco; Jagdheesh, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel structural piezoresistive pressure sensor with four-grooved membrane combined with rood beam to measure low pressure. In this investigation, the design, optimization, fabrication, and measurements of the sensor are involved. By analyzing the stress distribution and deflection of sensitive elements using finite element method, a novel structure featuring high concentrated stress profile (HCSP) and locally stiffened membrane (LSM) is built. Curve fittings of the mechanical stress and deflection based on FEM simulation results are performed to establish the relationship between mechanical performance and structure dimension. A combination of FEM and curve fitting method is carried out to determine the structural dimensions. The optimized sensor chip is fabricated on a SOI wafer by traditional MEMS bulk-micromachining and anodic bonding technology. When the applied pressure is 1 psi, the sensor achieves a sensitivity of 30.9 mV/V/psi, a pressure nonlinearity of 0.21% FSS and an accuracy of 0.30%, and thereby the contradiction between sensitivity and linearity is alleviated. In terms of size, accuracy and high temperature characteristic, the proposed sensor is a proper choice for measuring pressure of less than 1 psi. PMID:29393916

  4. Design, fabrication and performance of a mixed-reactant membraneless micro direct methanol fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrego-Martínez, J. C.; Moreno-Zuria, A.; Cuevas-Muñiz, F. M.; Arriaga, L. G.; Sun, Shuhui; Mohamedi, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, we report the design, fabrication and evaluation of a membraneless mixed-reactant and air-breathing microfluidic direct methanol fuel cell (ML-μDMFC) stack operated in passive mode. The operation under mixed-reactant conditions was achieved by using a highly methanol-tolerant Ag/Pt/CP cathode with ultra-low Pt loading in alkaline medium. Prior to the fabrication of the stack, a flow simulation was made in order to study the behavior of the reactants stream in the microchannel through the 2 cells. Subsequently, the device was tested in passive mode using a mixture of 5 M MeOH +0.5 M KOH. The results showed that by connecting the 2 cells in series, it is possible to effectively double the voltage of a single ML-μDMFC, as well as increasing the absolute power by 75% with practically no cost increase. The stack was capable of operate continuously for more than 2 h with a single charge of 40 μL, producing an OCV of 0.89 V and a maximum power density of 3.33 mW mgPt-1. Additionally, the device exhibited good stability throughout a 10 h test.

  5. Fabrication tolerant chalcogenide mid-infrared multimode interference coupler design with applications for Bracewell nulling interferometry.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Harry-Dean Kenchington; Cvetojevic, Nick; Ireland, Michael; Madden, Stephen

    2017-02-20

    Understanding exoplanet formation and finding potentially habitable exoplanets is vital to an enhanced understanding of the universe. The use of nulling interferometry to strongly attenuate the central star's light provides the opportunity to see objects closer to the star than ever before. Given that exoplanets are usually warm, the 4 µm Mid-Infrared region is advantageous for such observations. The key performance parameters for a nulling interferometer are the extinction ratio it can attain and how well that is maintained across the operational bandwidth. Both parameters depend on the design and fabrication accuracy of the subcomponents and their wavelength dependence. Via detailed simulation it is shown in this paper that a planar chalcogenide photonic chip, consisting of three highly fabrication tolerant multimode interference couplers, can exceed an extinction ratio of 60 dB in double nulling operation and up to 40 dB for a single nulling operation across a wavelength window of 3.9 to 4.2 µm. This provides a beam combiner with sufficient performance, in theory, to image exoplanets.

  6. Design and fabrication of a 1-DOF drive mode and 2-DOF sense mode micro-gyroscope using SU-8 based UV-LIGA process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Payal; Juneja, Sucheta; Savelyev, Dmitry A.; Khonina, Svetlana N.; Gopal, Ram

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents design and fabrication of a 1-DOF (degree-of-freedom) drive mode and 2-DOF sense mode micro-gyroscope. It is an inherently robust structure and offers a high sense frequency bandwidth. The proposed design utilizes resonance of the1-DOF drive mode oscillator and employs dynamic amplification concept in sense modes to increase the sensitivity while maintaining robustness. The 2-DOF in the sense direction renders the device immune to process imperfections and environmental effects. The design is simulated using FEA software (CoventorWare®). The device is designed considering process compatibility with SU-8 based UV-LIGA process, which is an economical fabrication technique. The complete fabrication process is presented along with SEM images of the fabricated device. The device has 9 µm thick Nickel as the key structural layer with an overall reduced key structure size of 2.2 mm by 2.1 mm.

  7. Maintenance Training Simulator Design and Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    7 ADA69 149 APPLIED SCIENCE ASSOCIATES INC VALENCIA PA F/6 5/9 MAINTENANCE TRAINING SIMULATOR DESIG AND ACOUISITION.(U) AUG 8O R J HRITZ. 6 R...TRAINING SIMULATOR DESIGN H AND ACQUISIIONII By Rohn J. Htz George R. Purifoy, Jr. M Applied Science Associates, Inc. Box 158A Valencia , Pennsylvania...related thereto. This report was submitted by Applied Science Associates, Inc., Box 158. Valencia . Pennsyvania 10059. under Contract F33015-78-C-409

  8. Planar microlens with front-face angle: design, fabrication, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hafiz, Md. Abdullah; Michael, Aron; Kwok, Chee-Yee

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the effect of microlens front-face angle on the performance of an optical system consisting of a planar-graded refractive index (GRIN) lens pair facing each other separated by a free-space region. The planar silica microlens pairs are designed to facilitate low-loss optical signal propagation in the free-space region between the opposing optical waveguides. The planar lens is fabricated from a 38-μm-thick fluorine-doped silica layer on a silicon substrate. It has a parabolic refractive index profile in the vertical direction, which is achieved by controlled fluorine incorporation in the silica film to collimate the optical beam in the vertical direction. Horizontal beam collimation is achieved by incorporating a horizontal curvature at the front face of the lens defined by deep oxide etch. A generalized 3×3 ABCDGH transformation matrix method has been derived to compute the coupling efficiency of such microlens pairs to take front-face angles that may be present due to fabrication variations or limitations and possible input/output optical fiber offset/tilt into considerations. Pairs of such planar GRIN lens with various free-space propagation distances between them ranging from 75 to 2500 μm and with front-face angles of 1.5 deg, 2 deg, and 4 deg have been fabricated and characterized. Beam propagation method simulations have been carried out to substantiate the theoretical and experimental results. The results indicate that the optical loss is reasonably low up to 1.5 deg of front-face angles and increases significantly with further increase in the front-face angle. Analysis shows that for a given system with specific microlens front-face angle, the optical loss can be significantly reduced by properly compensating the vertical position of the input and output fibers.

  9. Design and fabrication of thin microvascularised polymer matrices inspired from secondary lamellae of fish gills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prasoon; Gandhi, Prasanna S.; Majumder, Mainak

    2016-04-01

    Gills are one of the most primitive gas, solute exchange organs available in fishes. They facilitate exchange of gases, solutes and ions with a surrounding water medium through their functional unit called secondary lamella. These lamellae through their extraordinary morphometric features and peculiar arrangement in gills, achieve remarkable mass transport properties. Therefore, in the current study, modeling and simulation of convection-diffusion transport through a two dimensional model of secondary lamella and theoretical analysis of morphometric features of fish gills were carried out. Such study suggested an evolutionary conservation of parametric ratios across fishes of different weights. Further, we have also fabricated a thin microvascularised PDMS matrices mimicking secondary lamella by use of micro-technologies like electrospinning. In addition, we have also demonstrated the fluid flow by capillary action through these thin microvascularised PDMS matrices. Eventually, we also illustrated the application of these thin microvascularied PDMS matrices in solute exchange process under capillary flow conditions. Thus, our study suggested that fish gills have optimized parameteric ratios, at multiple length scale, throughout an evolution to achieve an organ with enhanced mass transport capabilities. Thus, these defined parametric ratios could be exploited to design and develop efficient, scaled-up gas/solute exchange microdevices. We also proposed an inexpensive and scalable method of fabrication of thin microvascularised polymer matrices and demonstrated its solute exchange capabilities under capillary flow conditions. Thus, mimicking the microstructures of secondary lamella will enable fabrication of microvascularised thin polymer systems through micro manufacturing technologies for potential applications in filtration, self-healing/cooling materials and bioengineering.

  10. Silicon photonics: Design, fabrication, and characterization of on-chip optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, I.-Wei

    In recent years, the research field of silicon photonics has been developing rapidly from a concept to a demonstrated technology, and has gathered much attention from both academia and industry communities. Its many potential applications in long-haul telecommunication, mid-range data-communication, on-chip optical interconnection networks, and nano-scale sensing as well as its compatibility with electronic integrated circuits have driven much effort in realizing silicon photonics both as a disruptive technology for existing markets and as an enabling technology for new ones. Despite the promising future of silicon photonics, many fundamental issues still remain to be understood---both in the linear- and nonlinear-optical regimes. There are also many engineering challenges to make silicon photonics the gold standard in photonic integrated circuits. In this thesis, we focus on the design, fabrication, and characterization of active and passive silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic devices. The SOI material system differs from most conventional optical material platforms because of its high-refractive-index-contrast, which enables engineers to design very compact integrated photonic networks with sub-micron transverse waveguide dimensions and sharp bends. On the other hand, because most analytical formulas for designing waveguide devices are valid only in low-index-contrast cases, SOI photonic devices need to be analyzed numerically for accurate results. The second chapter of this thesis describes some common numerical methods such as Beam Propagation Method (BPM) and Finite Element Method (FEM) for waveguide-design simulations, and presents two design studies based on these methods. The compatibility of silicon photonic integrated circuits with conventional CMOS fabrication technology is another important aspect that distinguishes silicon photonics from others such as III-V materials and lithium niobate. However, the requirements for fabricating silicon photonic

  11. Novel design and fabrication of a microcentrifuge for biomedical and biochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dong; Xu, Bai; Castracane, James

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, modeling and simulation of a novel micro-centrifuge for biomedical and biochemical applications is described. The micro-centrifuge that we designed can work not only as a shaker but also as a detector of cell growth, which has great potential applications in bioanalysis. The initial design contains four channels for mixing or collecting of samples by centrifugal force. The rotor, the key component of this device, is actuated using electrostatic force. There are four electrodes on the substrate to actuate the micro-centrifuge rotation around the X-axis (lateral in plane) and the Y-axis (vertical in plane) respectively, and eight pairs of comb drives are used to actuate the micro-centrifuge rotation around the Z-axis (perpendicular to the XY plane). The multiple axis actuation design makes it very flexible to control the micro-centrifuge. Because of its small feature size, the cost of the reagent used for the micro-centrifuge will be greatly reduced. An array of micro-centrifuges will be designed to achieve a fast cycling time. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been completed to analyze the static and dynamic performance of the micro-centrifuge, such as the natural frequencies, tilt angle, and driving voltage. A novel fabrication process using SOI technology has been proposed which is now being developed.

  12. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  13. A novel design for a wearable thermoelectric generator based on 3D fabric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qian; Hu, Jinlian

    2017-04-01

    A flexible and wearable thermoelectric generator (TEG) could enable the conversion of human body heat into electrical power, which would help to realize a self-powered wearable electronic system. To overcome the difficulty of wearing existing flexible film TEGs, a novel 3D fabric TEG structure is designed in this study. By using a 3D fabric as the substrate and yarns coated with thermoelectric materials as legs, a wearable and flexible TEG can be realized. The designed generator has a sandwich structure, similar to the classical inorganic generator, which allows the generation of a temperature difference in the fabric thickness direction, thus making it wearable and showing promising application in body heat conversion. To verify the effectiveness of the designed generator structure, a prototype was fabricated, using a locknit spacer fabric as the substrate and yarns coated with waterborne polyurethane/carbon nanotube thermoelectric composites as legs. The results suggest that the fabricated spacer fabric TEG prototype could work successfully, although the performance of this prototype is of a low level. To further improve the efficiency of the 3D fabric generator and apply it in wearable electronics in the future, highly efficient inorganic thermoelectric materials can be applied, and modifications on the conductive connections can be made.

  14. Memory interface simulator: A computer design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. S.; Williams, T.; Weatherbee, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a study conducted with a digital simulation model being used in the design of the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System (ARMMS), a candidate computer system for future manned and unmanned space missions. The model simulates the activity involved as instructions are fetched from random access memory for execution in one of the system central processing units. A series of model runs measured instruction execution time under various assumptions pertaining to the CPU's and the interface between the CPU's and RAM. Design tradeoffs are presented in the following areas: Bus widths, CPU microprogram read only memory cycle time, multiple instruction fetch, and instruction mix.

  15. Design and fabrication of inverted rib waveguide Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2009-03-01

    A polymeric SU8 rib waveguide Bragg grating filterfabricated using reactive ion etching (RIE) and solvent assisted microcontact molding (SAMIM) is presented. SAMIM is one kind of soft lithography. The technique is unique in which that a composite hPDMS/PDMS stamp was used to transfer the grating pattern onto an inverted SU8 rib waveguide system. The composite grating stamp can be used repeatedly several times with degradation. Using this stamp and inverter rib waveguide structure, the Bragg grating filter fabrication can be significantly simplified.

  16. Design, fabrication, delivery, operation and maintenance of a geothermal power conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, delivery, operation and maintenance of an Hydrothermal Power Company 1250 KVA geothermal power conversion system using a helical screw expander as the prime mover is described. Hydrostatic and acceptance testing are discussed.

  17. Design and Fabrication of a Radio Frequency GRIN Lens Using 3D Printing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    simulation of a homogenized 3D lens ..................... 6 Figure 4: GRIN lens fabricated using 3D printer ...properties of the dielectric used by the 3D printer are ε=2.86 in the frequency regime of interest. We begin with a structure where the dimensions are...CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LENS We used a 3D rapid prototyping printer to fabricate the GRIN lens shown in Figure 4. 3D printers can be used to print a diverse

  18. Design and fabrication of a 40-MHz annular array transducer

    PubMed Central

    Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Lizzi, Frederic L.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of fabricating a 5-ring, focused annular array transducer operating at 40 MHz. The active piezoelectric material of the transducer was a 9-μm thick polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. One side of the PVDF was metallized with gold and forms the ground plane of the transducer. The array pattern of the transducer and electrical traces to each annulus were formed on a copper-clad polyimide film. The PVDF and polyimide were bonded with a thin layer of epoxy, pressed into a spherically curved shape, and then back filled with epoxy. A 5-ring transducer with equal area elements and 100 μm kerfs between annuli was fabricated and tested. The transducer had a total aperture of 6 mm and a geometric focus of 12 mm. The pulse/echo response from a quartz plate located at the geometric focus, two-way insertion loss (IL), complex impedance, electrical cross-talk, and lateral beamwidth were all measured for each annulus. The complex impedance data from each element were used to perform electrical matching and the measurements were repeated. After impedance matching, fc ≈ 36 MHz and BWs ranged from 31 to 39%. The ILs for the matched annuli ranged from −28 to −38 dB. PMID:16060516

  19. Design, Fabrication and Evaluation of Prototype Wayside Brake Inspection Sensors

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-06-01

    Prototype Wayside instrumentation has been designed, developed, and tested that proves the feasibility of measuring braking system effectiveness on moving rail cars. The instrumentation system includes a specially designed short section of instrument...

  20. Design, fabrication, testing, and delivery of improved beam steering devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The development, manufacture, and testing of an optical steerer intended for use in spaceborne optical radar systems are described. Included are design principles and design modifications made to harden the device against launch and space environments, the quality program and procedures developed to insure consistent product quality throughout the manufacturing phase, and engineering qualification model testing and evaluation. The delivered hardware design is considered conditionally qualified pending action on further recommended design modifications.

  1. Flight service evaluation of composite components on the Bell Helicopter model 206L: Design, fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinberg, H.

    1982-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing phases of a program to obtain long term flight service experience on representative helicopter airframe structural components operating in typical commercial environments are described. The aircraft chosen is the Bell Helicopter Model 206L. The structural components are the forward fairing, litter door, baggage door, and vertical fin. The advanced composite components were designed to replace the production parts in the field and were certified by the FAA to be operable through the full flight envelope of the 206L. A description of the fabrication process that was used for each of the components is given. Static failing load tests on all components were done. In addition fatigue tests were run on four specimens that simulated the attachment of the vertical fin to the helicopter's tail boom.

  2. Design and fabrication of prototype 6×6 cm 2 microchannel plate photodetector with bialkali photocathode for fast timing applications

    SciT

    Xie, Junqi; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel

    Planar microchannel plate-based photodetector with bialkali photocathode is capable of fast and accurate time and position resolutions. A new 6 cm x 6 cm photodetector production facility was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. Small form-factor MCP-based photodetectors completely constructed of glass were designed and prototypes were successfully fabricated. Knudsen effusion cells were incorporated in the photocathode growth chamber to achieve uniform and high quantum efficiency hotocathodes. The thin film uniformity distribution was simulated and measured for an antimony film deposition, showing uniformity of better than 10%. Several prototype devices with bialkali photocathodes have been fabricated with the describedmore » system and their characteristics were evaluated in the large signal (multi-PE) limit. A typical prototype device exhibits time-of-flight resolution of ~ 27 psec and differential time resolution of ~ 9 psec, corresponding to spatial resolution of ~ 0.65 mm.« less

  3. Designing Online Scaffolds for Interactive Computer Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Wu, I-Chia; Jen, Fen-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of online scaffolds in computer simulation to facilitate students' science learning. We first introduced online scaffolds to assist and model students' science learning and to demonstrate how a system embedded with online scaffolds can be designed and implemented to help high school…

  4. Thin-film designs by simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudet, T.; Chaton, P.; Herault, L.; Gonon, G.; Jouanet, L.; Keller, P.

    1996-11-01

    With the increasing power of computers, new methods in synthesis of optical multilayer systems have appeared. Among these, the simulated-annealing algorithm has proved its efficiency in several fields of physics. We propose to show its performances in the field of optical multilayer systems through different filter designs.

  5. Design and fabrication of a low-cost Darrieus vertical-axis wind-turbine system, phase 2. Volume 3: Design, fabrication, and site drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and site drawings associated with fabrication, installation, and check out of 100 kW 17 meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) were reported. The turbines are Darrieus type VAWTs with rotors 17 meters in diameter and 25.15 meters in height. They can produce 100 kW of electric power at a cost of energy as low as 3 cents per kWh, in an 18 mph wind regime using 12% annualized costs. Four turbines are produced, three are installed and operable.

  6. Novel design and fabrication of a geometrical obstacle-embedded micromixer with notched wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shih-Jeh; Hsu, Hsiang-Chen; Feng, Wen-Jui

    2014-09-01

    A microfluidic embedded MEMS mixer with a Y-junction type channel and cylindrical obstructions was designed and fabricated for improving the fluid mixing mechanism under low Reynolds number (\\mathit{Re}) condition. The flow field was simulated numerically by software (COMSOL multiphysics®) first. The design was then realized through casting the device in PDMS by lithographed SU-8 photo-resistive mold on silicon wafer. Parametric experimental studies were conducted for optimal design. Two different fluids were pumped into the two legs of the Y-junction channel, and the fluids were broken-up by an embedded cylindrical obstacle in the middle of the tapered micro-channel. The chaotic convection took place in the mixing channel behind the embedded cylindrical obstacles. The flow motion was observed under CCD camera and analyzed by grey level. The developed micromixer in this study can enhance the fluid mixing by the interaction of diffusion and convection for wide range of Reynolds numbers (0.01 < \\mathit{Re} < 100). Experimental results showed that the mixing index reached the required value at 0.1 within 0.024 seconds when the inlet fluid velocity is 0.499 m/s (i.e., at 1200 µl/min flow rate) for merely four cylindrical obstacles. A shorter mixing distance can be accomplished compared to the current devices reported due to faster mixing and shorter mixing time.

  7. Design, fabrication, and bench testing of a solar chemical receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, W. A.; Pierre, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Solar thermal energy can be effectively collected, transported, stored, and utilized by means of a chemical storage and transport system employing the reversible SO2 oxidation reaction. A solar chemical receiver for SO3 thermal decomposition to SO2 and oxygen was analyzed. Bench tests of a ten foot section of a receiver module were conducted with dissociated sulfuric acid (SO3 and H2O) in an electrical furnace. Measured percent conversion of SO3 was 85% of the equilibrium value. Methods were developed to fabricate and assemble a complete receiver module. These methods included applying an aluminide coating to certain exposed surfaces, assembling concentric tubes with a wire spacer, applying a platinum catalyst to the tubing wall, and coiling the entire assembly into the desired configuration.

  8. Analysis, design, fabrication, and performance of three-dimensional braided composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostar, Timothy D.

    1998-11-01

    Cartesian 3-D (track and column) braiding as a method of composite preforming has been investigated. A complete analysis of the process was conducted to understand the limitations and potentials of the process. Knowledge of the process was enhanced through development of a computer simulation, and it was discovered that individual control of each track and column and multiple-step braid cycles greatly increases possible braid architectures. Derived geometric constraints coupled with the fundamental principles of Cartesian braiding resulted in an algorithm to optimize preform geometry in relation to processing parameters. The design of complex and unusual 3-D braids was investigated in three parts: grouping of yarns to form hybrid composites via an iterative simulation; design of composite cross-sectional shape through implementation of the Universal Method; and a computer algorithm developed to determine the braid plan based on specified cross-sectional shape. Several 3-D braids, which are the result of variations or extensions to Cartesian braiding, are presented. An automated four-step braiding machine with axial yarn insertion has been constructed and used to fabricate two-step, double two-step, four-step, and four-step with axial and transverse yarn insertion braids. A working prototype of a multi-step braiding machine was used to fabricate four-step braids with surrogate material insertion, unique hybrid structures from multiple track and column displacement and multi-step cycles, and complex-shaped structures with constant or varying cross-sections. Braid materials include colored polyester yarn to study the yarn grouping phenomena, Kevlar, glass, and graphite for structural reinforcement, and polystyrene, silicone rubber, and fasteners for surrogate material insertion. A verification study for predicted yarn orientation and volume fraction was conducted, and a topological model of 3-D braids was developed. The solid model utilizes architectural parameters

  9. Design, fracture control, fabrication, and testing of pressurized space-vehicle structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, H. W.; Christensen, R. H.; Dixon, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    The relationship between analysis, design, fabrication, and testing of thin shells is illustrated by Saturn S-IVB, Thor, Delta, and other single-use and reusable large-size cryogenic aluminum tankage. The analyses and design to meet the design requirements are reviewed and include consideration of fracture control, general instability, and other failure modes. The effect of research and development testing on the structure is indicated. It is shown how fabrication and nondestructive and acceptance testing constrain the design. Finally, qualification testing is reviewed to illustrate the extent of testing used to develop the Saturn S-IVB.

  10. Design and Simulation of an Electrothermal Actuator Based Rotational Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeson, Sterling; Dallas, Tim

    2008-10-01

    As a participant in the Micro and Nano Device Engineering (MANDE) Research Experience for Undergraduates program at Texas Tech University, I learned how MEMS devices operate and the limits of their operation. Using specialized AutoCAD-based design software and the ANSYS simulation program, I learned the MEMS fabrication process used at Sandia National Labs, the design limitations of this process, the abilities and drawbacks of micro devices, and finally, I redesigned a MEMS device called the Chevron Torsional Ratcheting Actuator (CTRA). Motion is achieved through electrothermal actuation. The chevron (bent-beam) actuators cause a ratcheting motion on top of a hub-less gear so that as voltage is applied the CTRA spins. The voltage applied needs to be pulsed and the frequency of the pulses determine the angular frequency of the device. The main objective was to design electromechanical structures capable of transforming the electrical signals into mechanical motion without overheating. The design was optimized using finite element analysis in ANSYS allowing multi-physics simulations of our model system.

  11. Design and fabrication of graphite-epoxy bolted wing skin splice specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy bolted joint specimens were designed and fabricated. These specimens were to be representative of a side-of-body wing skin splice with a 20-year life expectancy in a commercial transport environment. Preliminary tests were performed to determine design values of bearing and net tension stresses. Based upon the information developed, a three-fastener-wide representative wing skin splice was designed for a load of 2627 KN/m (15,000 lbf/in.). One joint specimen was fabricated and tested at NASA. The wing skin splice failed at 106 percent of design ultimate load. This joint design achieved all static load objectives. Fabrication of six specimens, together with their loading fixtures, was completed, and the specimens were delivered to NASA-LRC.

  12. Multiscale Simulation Platform Linking Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Fabrication Process with Performance at the Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Ngandjong, Alain C; Rucci, Alexis; Maiza, Mariem; Shukla, Garima; Vazquez-Arenas, Jorge; Franco, Alejandro A

    2017-12-07

    A novel multiscale modeling platform is proposed to demonstrate the importance of particle assembly during battery electrode fabrication by showing its effect on battery performance. For the first time, a discretized three-dimensional (3D) electrode resulting from the simulation of its fabrication has been incorporated within a 3D continuum performance model. The study used LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 as active material, and the effect of changes of electrode formulation is explored for three cases, namely 85:15, 90:10, and 95:5 ratios between active material and carbon-binder domains. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics is used to simulate the electrode fabrication. The resulting electrode mesostructure is characterized in terms of active material surface coverage by the carbon-binder domains and porosity. The trends observed are nonintuitive, indicating a high degree of complexity of the system. These structures are subsequently implemented into a 3D continuum model which displays distinct discharge behaviors for the three cases. The study offers a method for developing a coherent theoretical understanding of electrode fabrication that can help optimize battery performance.

  13. Damage-Tolerant, Affordable Composite Engine Cases Designed and Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.; Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    An integrated team of NASA personnel, Government contractors, industry partners, and university staff have developed an innovative new technology for commercial fan cases that will substantially influence the safety and efficiency of future turbine engines. This effective team, under the direction of the NASA Glenn Research Center and with the support of the Federal Aviation Administration, has matured a new class of carbon/polymer composites and demonstrated a 30- to 50-percent improvement in specific containment capacity (blade fragment kinetic energy/containment system weight). As the heaviest engine component, the engine case/containment system greatly affects both the safety and efficiency of aircraft engines. The ballistic impact research team has developed unique test facilities and methods for screening numerous candidate material systems to replace the traditional heavy, metallic engine cases. This research has culminated in the selection of a polymer matrix composite reinforced with triaxially braided carbon fibers and technology demonstration through the fabrication of prototype engine cases for three major commercial engine manufacturing companies.

  14. The design and fabrication of an inverted IR optical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianchun; Feng, Xiuzhou; Fang, Jianxing

    2005-02-01

    Optical tweezers offer the unique ability to manipulate particles dispersed in a liquid medium without any mechanical contact. It can trap, move and position a wide variety of living cells and sub-cellular particles. The nature of the technique has led to its predominant use in the fields of medicine and microbiology. On the other hand, different biomedical experiments require the traps with different structures and characteristics. Commercial optical tweezers are very expensive and they can"t meet the demands of some special experiments. In this paper, the authors describe a detailed recipe for fabrication of an inverted optical trap. The system uses a single mode laser with the wavelength of 1064 nm so as not to damage the living organisms. The system has a platform whose temperature is tunable at a range of 20-40°C and can be stabilized by a controller. The system is also has a video device. The significant advantage of the system is low cost and easy to be operated. It especially fits the labs that are short of fund but interested in the application of optical trap in research of living cells. By means of the system, the authors do the experiments on control over the neuronal growth successfully.

  15. Workstation Table Engineering Model Design, Development, Fabrication, and Testing

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    This research effort is focused on providing a workstation table design that will reduce the risk of occupant injuries due to secondary impacts and to compartmentalize the occupants to prevent impacts with other objects and/or passengers seated acros...

  16. Workstation table engineering model design, development, fabrication, and testing

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    This research effort is focused on providing a workstation table design that will reduce the risk of occupant injuries due to secondary impacts and to compartmentalize the occupants to prevent impacts with other objects and/or passengers seated acros...

  17. Process simulation during the design process makes the difference: process simulations applied to a traditional design.

    PubMed

    Traversari, Roberto; Goedhart, Rien; Schraagen, Jan Maarten

    2013-01-01

    The objective is evaluation of a traditionally designed operating room using simulation of various surgical workflows. A literature search showed that there is no evidence for an optimal operating room layout regarding the position and size of an ultraclean ventilation (UCV) canopy with a separate preparation room for laying out instruments and in which patients are induced in the operating room itself. Neither was literature found reporting on process simulation being used for this application. Many technical guidelines and designs have mainly evolved over time, and there is no evidence on whether the proposed measures are also effective for the optimization of the layout for workflows. The study was conducted by applying observational techniques to simulated typical surgical procedures. Process simulations which included complete surgical teams and equipment required for the intervention were carried out for four typical interventions. Four observers used a form to record conflicts with the clean area boundaries and the height of the supply bridge. Preferences for particular layouts were discussed with the surgical team after each simulated procedure. We established that a clean area measuring 3 × 3 m and a supply bridge height of 2.05 m was satisfactory for most situations, provided a movable operation table is used. The only cases in which conflicts with the supply bridge were observed were during the use of a surgical robot (Da Vinci) and a surgical microscope. During multiple trauma interventions, bottlenecks regarding the dimensions of the clean area will probably arise. The process simulation of four typical interventions has led to significantly different operating room layouts than were arrived at through the traditional design process. Evidence-based design, human factors, work environment, operating room, traditional design, process simulation, surgical workflowsPreferred Citation: Traversari, R., Goedhart, R., & Schraagen, J. M. (2013). Process

  18. The design and fabrication of two portal vein flow phantoms by different methods

    SciT

    Yunker, Bryan E., E-mail: bryan.yunker@ucdenver.edu; Lanning, Craig J.; Shandas, Robin

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This study outlines the design and fabrication techniques for two portal vein flow phantoms. Methods: A materials study was performed as a precursor to this phantom fabrication effort and the desired material properties are restated for continuity. A three-dimensional portal vein pattern was created from the Visual Human database. The portal vein pattern was used to fabricate two flow phantoms by different methods with identical interior surface geometry using computer aided design software tools and rapid prototyping techniques. One portal flow phantom was fabricated within a solid block of clear silicone for use on a table with Ultrasound ormore » within medical imaging systems such as MRI, CT, PET, or SPECT. The other portal flow phantom was fabricated as a thin walled tubular latex structure for use in water tanks with Ultrasound imaging. Both phantoms were evaluated for usability and durability. Results: Both phantoms were fabricated successfully and passed durability criteria for flow testing in the next project phase. Conclusions: The fabrication methods and materials employed for the study yielded durable portal vein phantoms.« less

  19. Design and fabrication of Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel lenses for infrared imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Manaf, Ahmad Rosli Abdul; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Yan, Jiwang

    2017-01-23

    In this work, novel hybrid Fresnel lenses for infrared (IR) optical applications were designed and fabricated. The Fresnel structures were replicated from an ultraprecision diamond-turned aluminum mold to an extremely thin layer (tens of microns) of high-density polyethylene polymer, which was directly bonded onto a flat single-crystal silicon wafer by press molding without using adhesives. Night mode imaging results showed that the fabricated lenses were able to visualize objects in dark fields with acceptable image quality. The capability of the lenses for thermography imaging was also demonstrated. This research provides a cost-effective method for fabricating ultrathin IR optical components.

  20. Design and fabrication of reflective spatial light modulator for high-dynamic-range wavefront control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hao; Bierden, Paul; Cornelissen, Steven; Bifano, Thomas; Kim, Jin-Hong

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes design and fabrication of a microelectromechanical metal spatial light modulator (SLM) integrated with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics, for high-dynamic-range wavefront control. The metal SLM consists of a large array of piston-motion MEMS mirror segments (pixels) which can deflect up to 0.78 µm each. Both 32x32 and 150x150 arrays of the actuators (1024 and 22500 elements respectively) were fabricated onto the CMOS driver electronics and individual pixels were addressed. A new process has been developed to reduce the topography during the metal MEMS processing to fabricate mirror pixels with improved optical quality.

  1. Design, fabrication, and characterization of laminated hydroxyapatite-polysulfone composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Clifford Adams, II

    There exists a need to develop devices that can be used to replace hard tissues, such as bone, in load-bearing areas of the body. An ideal hard tissue replacement device is one that stimulates growth of natural tissues, and is slowly resorbed by the body. The implant is also required to have elastic modulus, strength, and toughness values similar to the tissues being replaced. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the primary mineral phase of bone and has the potential for use in biomedical applications because it stimulates cell growth and is resorbable. Unfortunately, HA is a relatively low strength, low toughness material, which limits its application to only low load-bearing regions of the body. In order to apply HA to greater load-bearing areas of the body, strength and toughness must be improved through the formation of a composite structure. The goal of this study to show that a composite structure formed from HA and a biocompatible polymer can be fabricated with strength and toughness values that are within the range necessary for load-bearing biomedical applications. Therefore, Polysulfone-HA composites were developed and tested. Polysulfone (PSu) is a hard, glassy polymer that has been shown to be biocompatible. Composites were fabricated through a combination of tape casting, solvent casting, and lamination. Monolithic HA and laminate specimens were tested in biaxial flexure. A unique laminate theory solution was developed to characterize stress distributions for laminates. Failure loads, failure stress, work of fracture, and apparent toughness were compared for the laminates against monolithic HA specimens. Initial testing results showed that laminates had a failure stress of 60 +/- 10, which is a 170% improvement over the 22 +/- 2 MPa failure stress for monolithic HA. The work of fracture was improved by 5500% from 11 +/- 2 for the monolithic HA to 612 +/- 240 for the laminates. Work of fracture values gave the laminates an apparent fracture toughness of 7.2 MPa•m1

  2. Design of a smart hemodynamic monitoring simulator.

    PubMed

    Kilty, Brennan G; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Calkins, Jerry M; Drzewiecki, Tadeusz M

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design of a medical patient status simulator developed as a proof of concept for the United States Air Force. The simulator is the precursor to a system that analyzes hemodynamic information in order to act as an intelligent assistant to a Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) monitoring a critically injured casualty. The simulator displays hemodynamic information, alerts to abnormal values, offers likely diagnoses, and allows the team to review recommended therapies. The focus has been to develop a user interface and modular system architecture that allows individual modules to easily be evaluated and altered as needed. While initiated by the military, this work could also be used to aid civilian first responders.

  3. Performance and Fabrication Status of TREAT LEU Conversion Conceptual Design Concepts

    SciT

    IJ van Rooyen; SR Morrell; AE Wright

    2014-10-01

    Resumption of transient testing at the TREAT facility was approved in February 2014 to meet U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) objectives. The National Nuclear Security Administration’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative Convert Program is evaluating conversion of TREAT from its existing highly enriched uranium (HEU) core to a new core containing low enriched uranium (LEU). This paper describes briefly the initial pre-conceptual designs screening decisions with more detailed discussions on current feasibility, qualification and fabrication approaches. Feasible fabrication will be shown for a LEU fuel element assembly that can meet TREAT design, performance, and safety requirements. The statement of feasibility recognizesmore » that further development, analysis, and testing must be completed to refine the conceptual design. Engineering challenges such as cladding oxidation, high temperature material properties, and fuel block fabrication along with neutronics performance, will be highlighted. Preliminary engineering and supply chain evaluation provided confidence that the conceptual designs can be achieved.« less

  4. Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Evaluation of the Air Amplifier for Improved Detection of Biomolecules by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Robichaud, Guillaume; Dixon, R. Brent; Potturi, Amarnatha S.; Cassidy, Dan; Edwards, Jack R.; Sohn, Alex; Dow, Thomas A.; Muddiman, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Through a multi-disciplinary approach, the air amplifier is being evolved as a highly engineered device to improve detection limits of biomolecules when using electrospray ionization. Several key aspects have driven the modifications to the device through experimentation and simulations. We have developed a computer simulation that accurately portrays actual conditions and the results from these simulations are corroborated by the experimental data. These computer simulations can be used to predict outcomes from future designs resulting in a design process that is efficient in terms of financial cost and time. We have fabricated a new device with annular gap control over a range of 50 to 70 μm using piezoelectric actuators. This has enabled us to obtain better aerodynamic performance when compared to the previous design (2× more vacuum) and also more reproducible results. This is allowing us to study a broader experimental space than the previous design which is critical in guiding future directions. This work also presents and explains the principles behind a fractional factorial design of experiments methodology for testing a large number of experimental parameters in an orderly and efficient manner to understand and optimize the critical parameters that lead to obtain improved detection limits while minimizing the number of experiments performed. Preliminary results showed that several folds of improvements could be obtained for certain condition of operations (up to 34 folds). PMID:21499524

  5. CAGE IIIA Distributed Simulation Design Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    2 VHF Very High Frequency VLC Video LAN Codec – an Open-source cross-platform multimedia player and framework VM Virtual Machine VOIP Voice Over...Implementing Defence Experimentation (GUIDEx). The key challenges for this methodology are with understanding how to: • design it o define the...operation and to be available in the other nation’s simulations. The challenge for the CAGE campaign of experiments is to continue to build upon this

  6. Design and fabrication of the NASA HL-20 support cradle and interior mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exum, Thurman

    1991-01-01

    An extensive test program involving analysis in both the horizontal and vertical attitudes of the HL-20 will be conducted by NASA-Langley. This necessitated the fabrication of a steel support cradle for the composite Personnel Launch System (PLS) model and an internal mockup to simulate the pilot and passenger compartments.

  7. Orbital transfer vehicle engine technology: Baffled injector design, fabrication, and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    New technologies for space-based, reusable, throttleable, cryogenic orbit transfer propulsion are being evaluated. Supporting tasks for the design of a dual expander cycle engine thrust chamber design are documented. The purpose of the studies was to research the materials used in the thrust chamber design, the supporting fabrication methods necessary to complete the design, and the modification of the injector element for optimum injector/chamber compatibility.

  8. The design and fabrication of microstrip omnidirectional array antennas for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G.; Appleton, M. W.; Lusby, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    A microstrip antenna design concept was developed that will provide quasi-omnidirectional radiation pattern characteristics about cylindrical and conical aerospace structures. L-band and S-band antenna arrays were designed, fabricated, and, in some cases, flight tested for rocket, satellite, and aircraft drone applications. Each type of array design is discussed along with a thermal cover design that was required for the sounding rocket applications.

  9. Design of a TEM cell EMP simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevat, Pete

    1991-06-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) simulators are designed to simulate the EMP generated by a nuclear weapon and are used to harden equipment against the effects of EMP. A transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell is a square or rectangular coaxial transmission line tapered at each end to form a closed cell. The cell is fed at one end with a signal generator, a continuous wave or pulse generator, and terminated at the other end with a resistor equal to the characteristic impedance of the line. An advantage of the TEM cell is that the field is well characterized and reasonably uniform. A small, symmetric, TEM cell EMP simulator is described which is intended for applications such as susceptibility testing of small equipment, calibration of sensors, design and testing of countermeasures, measurement of transfer functions, and research and development. A detailed design is presented for a 50 ohm and 100 ohm TEM cell with an inner volume of 4 m(exp 3) and a test volume of 0.24 m(exp 3). The pulse generator and terminating network are integrated into the cell to form a completely shielded structure. In this way no interference from the inside of the cell to the outside, or vice versa, will occur.

  10. A wearable fabric-based speech-generating device: system design and case demonstration.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Amanda; Wu, Gloria; Chau, Tom

    2018-05-26

    Existing speech generating devices (SGD) often require caregiver intervention for setup and positioning, and thus limit opportunities for spontaneous social interaction. The advent of conductive fabrics presents an opportunity to render SGDs wearable, thus persistently available. Our goal was to design and test a wearable SGD incorporating resistive textile-based switches for a nonverbal pediatric participant with vision impairment. Quad-key fabric keypads were designed using two conductive fabrics in combination with felt and mesh insulators. The keypad with the most repeatable low force activations and the least cross-talk among keys was chosen for implementation in a wrist-worn, four-message textile SGD. The fabric-based SGD was used by a nonverbal pediatric participant for two one-week analysis periods, alternating with the user's current device for usage reference. Data were derived from usage logs, parent questionnaires and an end-of-study participant interview. The best performing keypad consisted of two layers of woven conductive fabrics and one layer of insulating felt with 10 mm apertures. Communicative interactions were higher with the fabric-based SGD, particularly at school. Unprompted initiation of communication was observed only with the fabric-based SGD. The persistent availability of the textile solution, along with esthetic appeal likely contributed to its utilization. While the participant preferred the fabric-based SGD, the parent opted for the iPod alternative, citing enhanced message intelligibility. Fabric-based SGDs are a new alternative to conventional SGD designs using rigid electronics. As such, tactile differentiability of keys, device wearability and esthetic personalization may be promising advantages for pediatric users. Implications for rehabilitation Fabric-based switches may be a promising alternative to conventional electro-mechanical switches for the control of speech-generating devices, offering functional (e.g., comfort and

  11. Design and simulation on the morphing composite propeller (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fanlong; Li, Qinyu; Liu, Liwu; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most crucial part of the unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV), the composite propeller plays an important role on the UUV's performance. As the composite propeller behaves excellent properties in hydroelastic facet and acoustic suppression, it attracts increasing attentions all over the globe. This paper goes a step further based on this idea, and comes up with a novel concept of "morphing composite propeller" (MCP) to improve the performance of the conventional composite propeller (CCP) to anticipate the improved propeller can perform better to propel the UUV. Based on the new concept, a novel MCP is designed. Each blade of the propeller is assembled with an active rotatable flap (ARF) to change the blade's local camber with flap rotation. Then the transmission mechanism (TM) has been designed and housed in the propeller blade to push the ARF. With the ARF rotating, the UUV can be propelled by different thrusts under certain rotation velocities of the propeller. Based on the design, the Fluent is exploited to analyze the fluid dynamics around the propeller. Finally, based on the design and hydrodynamic analysis, the structural response for the novel morphing composite propeller is calculated. The propeller blade is simplified and layered with composite materials. And the structure response of an MCP is obtained with various rotation angle under the hydrodynamic pressure. This simulation can instruct the design and fabrication techniques of the MCP.

  12. Design and fabrication of complete dentures using CAD/CAM technology

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weili; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Yue; lv, Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Ping; Liu, Huanyue; Ma, Zheng; Shen, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using commercially available computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology including 3Shape Dental System 2013 trial version, WIELAND V2.0.049 and WIELAND ZENOTEC T1 milling machine to design and fabricate complete dentures. The modeling process of full denture available in the trial version of 3Shape Dental System 2013 was used to design virtual complete dentures on the basis of 3-dimensional (3D) digital edentulous models generated from the physical models. The virtual complete dentures designed were exported to CAM software of WIELAND V2.0.049. A WIELAND ZENOTEC T1 milling machine controlled by the CAM software was used to fabricate physical dentitions and baseplates by milling acrylic resin composite plates. The physical dentitions were bonded to the corresponding baseplates to form the maxillary and mandibular complete dentures. Virtual complete dentures were successfully designed using the software through several steps including generation of 3D digital edentulous models, model analysis, arrangement of artificial teeth, trimming relief area, and occlusal adjustment. Physical dentitions and baseplates were successfully fabricated according to the designed virtual complete dentures using milling machine controlled by a CAM software. Bonding physical dentitions to the corresponding baseplates generated the final physical complete dentures. Our study demonstrated that complete dentures could be successfully designed and fabricated by using CAD/CAM. PMID:28072686

  13. Design and Fabrication of Ta filled microcavites in the delay paths of SAW devices for improved power transfer

    SciT

    Richardson, Mandek; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.

    2015-03-01

    The authors report the design and fabrication of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with improved power transfer due to modification of its delay path. Typically, SAW delay-line devices suffer from relatively high insertion loss (IL) (similar to 10-30 dB). Our approach is to incorporate an array of microcavities, having square cross-sectional area (lambda/2 x lambda/2) and filled with tantalum, within the delay path to maximize acoustic confinement to the surface and reduce IL. To determine the effectiveness of the cavities without expending too many resources and to explain trends found in actual devices, a finite element model of amore » SAW device with tantalum filled cavities having various depths was utilized. For each depth simulated, IL was decreased compared to a standard SAW device. Microcavities 2.5 mu m deep filled with tantalum showed the best performance (Delta IL = 17.93 dB). To validate simulated results, the authors fabricated a SAW device on ST 90 degrees-X quartz with microcavities etched into its delay path using deep reactive ion etching and filled with tantalum. Measurement of fabricated devices showed inclusion of tantalum filled microcavities increased power transfer compared to a device without cavities. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.« less

  14. Design and fabrication of a 900-1700 nm hyper-spectral imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hyoung; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jae Sung

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a 900-1700 nm hyper-spectral imaging spectrometer which offers low distortions, a low F-number, a compact size, an easily-fabricated design and a low cost (is presented in this paper). The starting point for its optical design is discussed according to the geometrical aberration theory and Rowland circle condition. It is shown that these methods are useful in designing a push-broom hyper-spectral imaging spectrometer that has an aperture of f/2.4, modulation transfer functions of less than 0.8 at 25 cycles/mm, and spot sizes less than 10 μm. A prototype of the optimized hyper-spectral imaging spectrometer has been fabricated using a high precision machine and the experimental demonstration with the fabricated hyper-spectral imaging spectrometer is presented.

  15. Strategic design and fabrication of acrylic shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ju Hyuk; Kim, Hansu; Ryoun Youn, Jae; Song, Young Seok

    2017-08-01

    Modulation of thermomechanics nature is a critical issue for an optimized use of shape memory polymers (SMPs). In this study, a strategic approach was proposed to control the transition temperature of SMPs. Free radical vinyl polymerization was employed for tailoring and preparing acrylic SMPs. Transition temperatures of the shape memory tri-copolymers were tuned by changing the composition of monomers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out to evaluate the chemical structures and compositions of the synthesized SMPs. The thermomechanical properties and shape memory performance of the SMPs were also examined by performing dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Numerical simulation based on a finite element method provided consistent results with experimental cyclic shape memory tests of the specimens. Transient shape recovery tests were conducted and optical transparence of the samples was identified. We envision that the materials proposed in this study can help develop a new type of shape-memory devices in biomedical and aerospace engineering applications.

  16. Optical Fiber Design And Fabrication: Discussion On Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Philippe; Devautour, Mathieu; Lavoute, Laure; Gaponov, Dmitry; Brasse, Gurvan; Hautreux, Stéphanie; Février, Sébastien; Restoin, Christine; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Gérôme, Frédéric; Humbert, Georges; Blondy, Jean-Marc

    2008-10-01

    Level of emitted power and beam quality of singlemode fiber lasers have been drastically increased at the expense of loss due to bend sensitivity, simplicity of manufacturing and packaging. Furthermore, the extension of the spectral coverage was primarily explored by exploiting non-linear effects, neglecting numerous possible transitions of rare earths. Through different research areas, we demonstrate the possibilities offered by new fiber designs and alternative methods of manufacturing. Photonic Band Gap fibers reconcile diffraction limited beam and large mode area with low bending loss. 80% slope efficiency is demonstrated together with a robust propagation allowing the fiber to be tightly bent until wounding radii as small as 6 cm. Highly ytterbium doped multimode core surrounded by high refractive index rods fiber exhibits a transverse singlemode behavior under continuous wave laser regime. A robust LP01 mode is observed and filtering effect is clearly observed. A non CVD process based on silica sand vitrification allows the synthesis of large and highly doped core with high index homogeneity, opening the way to design of efficient large mode area fiber lasers. 74% slope efficiency is measured, demonstrating the good quality of the core material. Finally, the use of rare earth (Er3+) doped zirconia nanocrystals in silica matrix offers a large panel of ignored energy transitions for visible or off-usual band of emission.

  17. Design and characterization of a cough simulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Chao; Ji, Zhiming; Lin, Chao-Hsin

    2017-02-23

    Expiratory droplets from human coughing have always been considered as potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory infectious disease transmission. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing, a transient repeatable cough simulator has been designed and built. Cough droplets are generated by different mechanisms, such as the breaking of mucus, condensation and high-speed atomization from different depths of the respiratory tract. These mechanisms in coughing produce droplets of different sizes, represented by a bimodal distribution of 'fine' and 'coarse' droplets. A cough simulator is hence designed to generate transient sprays with such bimodal characteristics. It consists of a pressurized gas tank, a nebulizer and an ejector, connected in series, which are controlled by computerized solenoid valves. The bimodal droplet size distribution is characterized for the coarse droplets and fine droplets, by fibrous collection and laser diffraction, respectively. The measured size distributions of coarse and fine droplets are reasonably represented by the Rosin-Rammler and log-normal distributions in probability density function, which leads to a bimodal distribution. To assess the hydrodynamic consequences of coughing including droplet vaporization and polydispersion, a Lagrangian model of droplet trajectories is established, with its ambient flow field predetermined from a computational fluid dynamics simulation.

  18. Design and Fabrication of Porous Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramics for Hot Gas Filtration Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahini, Shayan

    Hot gas filtration has received growing attention in a variety of applications over the past few years. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a promising candidate for such an application. In this study, we fabricated disk-type porous YSZ filters using the pore forming procedure, in which poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as the pore-forming agent. After fabricating the pellets, we characterized them to determine their potential for application as gas filters. We investigated the effect of sintering temperature, polymer particle size, and polymer-to-ceramic ratio on the porosity, pore size, gas permeability, and Vickers hardness of the sintered pellets. Furthermore, we designed two sets of experiments to investigate the robustness of the fabricated pellets--i.e., cyclic heating/cooling and high temperature exposure. This study ushers in a robust technique to fabricate such porous ceramics, which have the potential to be utilized in hot gas filtration.

  19. Design and Fabrication of Soft Morphing Ray Propulsor: Undulator and Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Soo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2017-03-01

    A soft morphing ray propulsor capable of generating an undulating motion in its pectoral fins was designed and fabricated. The propulsor used shape memory alloy for actuation, and the body was made with soft polymers. To determine the effects of undulation in the fins, two models that differed in terms of the presence of undulation were fabricated using different polymer materials. The experimental models were tested with a dynamometer to measure and compare thrust tendencies. Thrust measurements were conducted with various fin beat frequencies. Using the experimental data, the concept of an optimized standalone version of the ray robot was suggested and its prototype was fabricated. The fabricated robot was able to swim as fast as 0.26 body length per second and 38% more efficient than other smart material-based ray-like underwater robots.

  20. Design, Fabrication and Levitation Experiments of a Micromachined Electrostatically Suspended Six-Axis Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Feng; Liu, Wu; Chen, Wenyuan; Zhang, Weiping; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2011-01-01

    A micromachined electrostatically suspended six-axis accelerometer, with a square plate as proof mass housed by a top stator and bottom stator, is presented. The device structure and related techniques concerning its operating principles, such as calculation of capacitances and electrostatic forces/moments, detection and levitation control of the proof mass, acceleration measurement, and structural parameters design, are described. Hybrid MEMS manufacturing techniques, including surface micromachining fabrication of thin film electrodes and interconnections, integration fabrication of thick nickel structures about 500 μm using UV-LIGA by successful removal of SU-8 photoresist mold, DRIE of silicon proof mass in thickness of 450 μm, microassembly and solder bonding, were employed to fabricate this prototype microdevice. A levitation experiment system for the fabricated microaccelerometer chip is introduced, and levitation results show that fast initial levitation within 10 ms and stable full suspension of the proof mass have been successfully demonstrated. PMID:22247662

  1. Tapered microelectrode array system for dielectrophoretically filtration: fabrication, characterization, and simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyong, Muhamad Ramdzan; Larki, Farhad; Takamura, Yuzuru; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the fabrication, characterization, and simulation of microelectrode arrays system with tapered profile having an aluminum surface for dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based manipulation of particles. The proposed structure demonstrates more effective electric field gradient compared with its counterpart with untapered profile. Therefore, according to the asymmetric distribution of the electric field in the active region of microelectrode, it produces more effective particle manipulation. The tapered aluminum microelectrode array (TAMA) fabrication process uses a state-of-the-art technique in the formation of the resist's taper profile. The performance of TAMA with various sidewall profile angles (5 deg to 90 deg) was analyzed through finite-element method numerical simulations to offer a better understanding of the origin of the sidewall profile effect. The ability of capturing and manipulating of the device was examined through modification of the Clausius-Mossotti factor and cross-over frequency (f). The fabricated system has been particularly implemented for filtration of particles with a desired diameter from a mixture of particles with three different diameters in an aqueous medium. The microelectrode system with tapered side wall profile offers a more efficient platform for particle manipulation and sensing applications compared with the conventional microelectrode systems.

  2. Characterization, modeling and simulation of fused deposition modeling fabricated part surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Mohammad; Jain, Prashant K.

    2017-12-01

    Surface roughness is generally used for characterization, modeling and simulation of fused deposition modeling (FDM) fabricated part surfaces. But the average surface roughness is not able to provide the insight of surface characteristics with sharp peaks and deep valleys. It deals in the average sense for all types of surfaces, including FDM fabricated surfaces with distinct surface profile features. The present research work shows that kurtosis and skewness can be used for characterization, modeling and simulation of FDM surfaces because these roughness parameters have the ability to characterize a surface with sharp peaks and deep valleys. It can be critical in certain application areas in tribology and biomedicine, where the surface profile plays an important role. Thus, in this study along with surface roughness, skewness and kurtosis are considered to show a novel strategy to provide new transferable knowledge about FDM fabricated part surfaces. The results suggest that the surface roughness, skewness and kurtosis are significantly different at 0° and in the range (0°, 30°], [30°, 90°] of build orientation.

  3. Simulation and Fabrication of Wagon-Wheel-Shaped Piezoelectric Transducer for Raindrop Energy Harvesting Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chin Hong; Dahari, Zuraini; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin; Mohamed, Khairudin; Mohamed, Julie Juliewatty

    2017-03-01

    Harvesting vibrational energy from impacting raindrops using piezoelectric material has been proven to be a promising approach for future outdoor applications, providing a good alternative resource that can be applied in outdoor rainy environments. We present herein an optimum novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric transducer specifically developed to harvest raindrop energy. The finite-element method was applied for simulation and optimization of the piezoelectric raindrop energy harvester (PREH) using COMSOL Multiphysics software, investigating the electrical potential, surface charge density, and total displacement for different transducer dimensions. According to the simulation results, the structure that generated the highest electrical potential and surface charge density was a wagon-wheel-shaped structure consisting of six spokes with wheel diameter of 30 mm, spoke width of 2 mm, center pad diameter of 6 mm, and thickness of 25 μm. This optimum wagon-wheel-shaped device was then fabricated by spin coating of PVDF, sputtering of aluminum, a poling process, and computer numerical control machining of a polytetrafluoroethylene stand. The fabricated PREH was characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Finally, the fabricated PREH was tested under actual rain conditions with an alternating current to direct current converter connected in parallel, revealing that a single cell could generate average peak voltage of 22.5 mV and produce electrical energy of 3.4 nJ from ten impacts in 20 s.

  4. High-performance green semiconductor devices: materials, designs, and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yei Hwan; Zhang, Huilong; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2017-06-01

    From large industrial computers to non-portable home appliances and finally to light-weight portable gadgets, the rapid evolution of electronics has facilitated our daily pursuits and increased our life comforts. However, these rapid advances have led to a significant decrease in the lifetime of consumer electronics. The serious environmental threat that comes from electronic waste not only involves materials like plastics and heavy metals, but also includes toxic materials like mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and lead, which can leak into the ground and contaminate the water we drink, the food we eat, and the animals that live around us. Furthermore, most electronics are comprised of non-renewable, non-biodegradable, and potentially toxic materials. Difficulties in recycling the increasing amount of electronic waste could eventually lead to permanent environmental pollution. As such, discarded electronics that can naturally degrade over time would reduce recycling challenges and minimize their threat to the environment. This review provides a snapshot of the current developments and challenges of green electronics at the semiconductor device level. It looks at the developments that have been made in an effort to help reduce the accumulation of electronic waste by utilizing unconventional, biodegradable materials as components. While many semiconductors are classified as non-biodegradable, a few biodegradable semiconducting materials exist and are used as electrical components. This review begins with a discussion of biodegradable materials for electronics, followed by designs and processes for the manufacturing of green electronics using different techniques and designs. In the later sections of the review, various examples of biodegradable electrical components, such as sensors, circuits, and batteries, that together can form a functional electronic device, are discussed and new applications using green electronics are reviewed.

  5. Bent channel design in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide fabricated by field-assisted annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruitu; Wang, Mu; Chen, Baojie; Liu, Ke; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Lin, Hai

    2011-04-01

    Bent waveguide structures (S-, U-, and F-bend) based on buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide channel fabricated by field-assisted annealing have been designed to achieve high-gain C-band integrated amplification. Using a simulated-bend method, the optimal radius for the curved structure is derived to be 0.90 cm with loss coefficient of 0.02 dB/cm, as the substrate size is schemed to be 4×3 cm2. In the wavelength range of 1520 to 1575 nm, obvious gain enhancement for the bent structure waveguides is anticipated, and for the F-bend waveguide, the internal gain at 1534-nm wavelength is derived to be 41.61 dB, which is much higher than the value of 26.22 and 13.81 dB in the U- and S-bend waveguides, respectively, and over three times higher than that of the straight one. The simulation results indicate that the bent structure design is beneficial in obtaining high signal gain in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguides, which lays the foundation for further design and fabrication of integrated devices.

  6. Design and fabrication of composite wing panels containing a production splice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Bolted specimens representative of both upper and lower wing surface splices of a transport aircraft were designed and manufactured for static and random load tension and compression fatigue testing including ground-air-ground load reversals. The specimens were fabricated with graphite-epoxy composite material. Multiple tests were conducted at various load levels and the results were used as input to a statistical wearout model. The statically designed specimens performed very well under highly magnified fatigue loadings. Two large panels, one tension and compression, were fabricated for testing by NASA-LRC.

  7. Design, fabrication and performance of two grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Cash, W.; Malina, R. F.; Bowyer, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and performance of grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy are described. The telescopes basically consist of a star tracker, collimator, grazing incidence mirror, vacuum box lid, vacuum housing, filters, a ranicon detector, an electronics box, and an aspect camera. For the survey mirror a Wolter-Schwarzschild type II configuration was selected. Diamond-turning was used for mirror fabrication, a technique which machines surfaces to the order of 10 microns over the required dimensions. The design of the EUV spectrometer is discussed with particular reference to the optics for a primarily spectroscopic application and the fabrication of the f/10 optics.

  8. Simulated Data for High Temperature Composite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes an effective formal method that can be used to simulate design properties for composites that is inclusive of all the effects that influence those properties. This effective simulation method is integrated computer codes that include composite micromechanics, composite macromechanics, laminate theory, structural analysis, and multi-factor interaction model. Demonstration of the method includes sample examples for static, thermal, and fracture reliability for a unidirectional metal matrix composite as well as rupture strength and fatigue strength for a high temperature super alloy. Typical results obtained for a unidirectional composite show that the thermal properties are more sensitive to internal local damage, the longitudinal properties degrade slowly with temperature, the transverse and shear properties degrade rapidly with temperature as do rupture strength and fatigue strength for super alloys.

  9. Digital autopilots: Design considerations and simulator evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osder, S.; Neuman, F.; Foster, J.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a digital autopilot program for a transport aircraft and the evaluation of that system's performance on a transport aircraft simulator is discussed. The digital autopilot includes three axis attitude stabilization, automatic throttle control and flight path guidance functions with emphasis on the mode progression from descent into the terminal area through automatic landing. The study effort involved a sequence of tasks starting with the definition of detailed system block diagrams of control laws followed by a flow charting and programming phase and concluding with performance verification using the transport aircraft simulation. The autopilot control laws were programmed in FORTRAN 4 in order to isolate the design process from requirements peculiar to an individual computer.

  10. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Principal program activities dealt with the literature survey, design of joint concepts, assessment of GR/PI material quality, fabrication of test panels and specimens, and small specimen testing. Bonded and bolted designs are presented for each of the four major attachment types. Quality control data are presented for prepreg Lots 2W4651 and 3W2020. Preliminary design allowables test results for tension tests and compression tests of laminates are also presented.

  11. Design and fabrication of a high temperature leading edge heating array, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Progress during a Phase 1 program to design a high temperature heating array is reported for environmentally testing full-scale shuttle leading edges (30 inch span, 6 to 15 inch radius) at flight heating rates and pressures. Heat transfer analyses of the heating array, individual modules, and the shuttle leading edge were performed, which influenced the array design, and the design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype heater module.

  12. Design and fabrication of a metamaterial gradient index diffraction grating at infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Ju; Larouche, Stéphane; Tyler, Talmage; Lipworth, Guy; Jokerst, Nan M; Smith, David R

    2011-11-21

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication and characterization of an artificially structured, gradient index metamaterial with a linear index variation of Δn ~ 3.0. The linear gradient profile is repeated periodically to form the equivalent of a blazed grating, with the gradient occurring across a spatial distance of 61 μm. The grating, which operates at a wavelength of 10.6 μm, is composed of non-resonant, progressively modified "I-beam" metamaterial elements and approximates a linear phase shift gradient using 61 distinguishable phase levels. The grating structure consists of four layers of lithographically patterned metallic I-beam elements separated by dielectric layers of SiO(2). The index gradient is confirmed by comparing the measured magnitudes of the -1, 0 and +1 diffracted orders to those obtained from full wave simulations incorporating all material properties of the metals and dielectrics of the structures. The large index gradient has the potential to enable compact infrared diffractive and gradient index optics, as well as more exotic transformation optical media. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Design and fabrication of an elliptical micro-lens array with grating for laser safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. H.; Wu, B. Q.; Chan, C. Y.; Lee, W. B.; Dong, L. H.

    2015-10-01

    With the enormous expansion of laser usage in medicine, industry and research, all facilities must formulate and adhere to specific safety methods that appropriately address user protection. The protective ellipticalal microstructure with grating is a novel technology which can provide the principal means of ensuring against ocular injury, and must be worn at all times during laser operation. On the basis of Fresnel's law and the diffractive law, Solidworks and Lighttools software are applied to design the elliptical micro-lens array and correspondent grating. The height of the microstructure is 100um and its period is 3mm. The period of grating is 5um. It is shown that the amount of emergent light of a specific wavelength (1064nm) can reflect more than 40° from the incident light through simulation, while the incident light is perpendicular to the microstructure. The fabrication adopts the ultra-precision single point diamond method and injection molding method. However, it is found in the test that the surface roughness has a serious effect on the angle between the emergent and incident light. As a result, the element can reflect the vertical incidence beam into a tilted emergent beam with a certain angular degree , as well as protecting users from laser damage injures.

  14. Static tool influence function for fabrication simulation of hexagonal mirror segments for extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Wook; Kim, Sug-Whan

    2005-02-07

    We present a novel simulation technique that offers efficient mass fabrication strategies for 2m class hexagonal mirror segments of extremely large telescopes. As the first of two studies in series, we establish the theoretical basis of the tool influence function (TIF) for precessing tool polishing simulation for non-rotating workpieces. These theoretical TIFs were then used to confirm the reproducibility of the material removal foot-prints (measured TIFs) of the bulged precessing tooling reported elsewhere. This is followed by the reverse-computation technique that traces, employing the simplex search method, the real polishing pressure from the empirical TIF. The technical details, together with the results and implications described here, provide the theoretical tool for material removal essential to the successful polishing simulation which will be reported in the second study.

  15. Fabrication of cerebral aneurysm simulator with a desktop 3D printer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Gao, Qing; Du, Song; Chen, ZiChen; Fu, JianZhong; Chen, Bing; Liu, ZhenJie; He, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Now, more and more patients are suffering cerebral aneurysm. However, long training time limits the rapid growth of cerebrovascular neurosurgeons. Here we developed a novel cerebral aneurysm simulator which can be better represented the dynamic bulging process of cerebral aneurysm The proposed simulator features the integration of a hollow elastic vascular model, a skull model and a brain model, which can be affordably fabricated at the clinic (Fab@Clinic), under $25.00 each with the help of a low-cost desktop 3D printer. Moreover, the clinical blood flow and pulsation pressure similar to the human can be well simulated, which can be used to train the neurosurgical residents how to clip aneurysms more effectively. PMID:28513626

  16. Fabrication of cerebral aneurysm simulator with a desktop 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Gao, Qing; Du, Song; Chen, Zichen; Fu, Jianzhong; Chen, Bing; Liu, Zhenjie; He, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Now, more and more patients are suffering cerebral aneurysm. However, long training time limits the rapid growth of cerebrovascular neurosurgeons. Here we developed a novel cerebral aneurysm simulator which can be better represented the dynamic bulging process of cerebral aneurysm The proposed simulator features the integration of a hollow elastic vascular model, a skull model and a brain model, which can be affordably fabricated at the clinic (Fab@Clinic), under $25.00 each with the help of a low-cost desktop 3D printer. Moreover, the clinical blood flow and pulsation pressure similar to the human can be well simulated, which can be used to train the neurosurgical residents how to clip aneurysms more effectively.

  17. Design and Fabrication of DebriSat - A Representative LEO Satellite for Improvements to Standard Satellite Breakup Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Weremeyer, M.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of DebriSat, a 50 kg satellite developed to be representative of a modern low Earth orbit satellite in terms of its components, materials used, and fabrication procedures. DebriSat will be the target of a future hypervelocity impact experiment to determine the physical characteristics of debris generated after an on-orbit collision of a modern LEO satellite. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was SOCIT, conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960's. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques than those built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. To ensure that DebriSat is truly representative of typical LEO missions, a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 1 kg to 5000 kg was conducted. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions. Although DebriSat is an engineering model, specific attention is placed on the quality, type, and quantity of the materials used in its fabrication to ensure the integrity of the outcome. With the exception of software, all other aspects of the satellite s design, fabrication, and assembly integration and testing will be as rigorous as that of an actual flight vehicle. For example, to simulate survivability of launch loads, DebriSat will be subjected to a vibration test. As well, the satellite will undergo thermal vacuum tests to verify that the components and overall systems meet typical environmental standards. Proper assembly and integration techniques will involve comprehensive joint analysis, including the precise

  18. Lightning Simulation and Design Program (LSDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.

    This computer program simulates a user-defined lighting configuration. It has been developed as a tool to aid in the design of exterior lighting systems. Although this program is used primarily for perimeter security lighting design, it has potential use for any application where the light can be approximated by a point source. A data base of luminaire photometric information is maintained for use with this program. The user defines the surface area to be illuminated with a rectangular grid and specifies luminaire positions. Illumination values are calculated for regularly spaced points in that area and isolux contour plots are generated. The numerical and graphical output for a particular site mode are then available for analysis. The amount of time spent on point-to-point illumination computation with this progress is much less than that required for tedious hand calculations. The ease with which various parameters can be interactively modified with the progress also reduces the time and labor expended. Consequently, the feasibility of design ideas can be examined, modified, and retested more thoroughly, and overall design costs can be substantially lessened by using this progress as an adjunct to the design process.

  19. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    capabilities, and average lifetimes of over 320 hours when operated in constant emission mode under elevated pressures, without sacrificing performance. Additionally, a novel packaged ion source for miniature mass spectrometer applications using CNT emitters, a MEMS based Nier-type geometry, and a Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) 3D scaffold with integrated ion optics were developed and characterized. While previous research has shown other devices capable of collecting ion currents on chip, this LTCC packaged MEMS micro-ion source demonstrated improvements in energy and angular dispersion as well as the ability to direct the ions out of the packaged source and towards a mass analyzer. Simulations and experimental design, fabrication, and characterization were used to make these improvements. Finally, novel CNT-FE devices were developed to investigate their potential to perform as active circuit elements in VMD circuits. Difficulty integrating devices at micron-scales has hindered the use of vacuum electronic devices in integrated circuits, despite the unique advantages they offer in select applications. Using a combination of particle trajectory simulation and experimental characterization, device performance in an integrated platform was investigated. Solutions to the difficulties in operating multiple devices in close proximity and enhancing electron transmission (i.e., reducing grid loss) are explored in detail. A systematic and iterative process was used to develop isolation structures that reduced crosstalk between neighboring devices from 15% on average, to nearly zero. Innovative geometries and a new operational mode reduced grid loss by nearly threefold, thereby improving transmission of the emitted cathode current to the anode from 25% in initial designs to 70% on average. These performance enhancements are important enablers for larger scale integration and for the realization of complex vacuum microelectronic circuits.

  20. Design and fabrication of chemically robust three-dimensional microfluidic valves.

    PubMed

    Maltezos, George; Garcia, Erika; Hanrahan, Grady; Gomez, Frank A; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Vyawhare, Saurabh; van Dam, R Michael; Chen, Yan; Scherer, Axel

    2007-09-01

    A current problem in microfluidics is that poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), used to fabricate many microfluidic devices, is not compatible with most organic solvents. Fluorinated compounds are more chemically robust than PDMS but, historically, it has been nearly impossible to construct valves out of them by multilayer soft lithography (MSL) due to the difficulty of bonding layers made of "non-stick" fluoropolymers necessary to create traditional microfluidic valves. With our new three-dimensional (3D) valve design we can fabricate microfluidic devices from fluorinated compounds in a single monolithic layer that is resistant to most organic solvents with minimal swelling. This paper describes the design and development of 3D microfluidic valves by molding of a perfluoropolyether, termed Sifel, onto printed wax molds. The fabrication of Sifel-based microfluidic devices using this technique has great potential in chemical synthesis and analysis.

  1. Whole Wafer Design and Fabrication for the Alignment of Nanostructures for Chemical Sensor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    A major objective in aerospace sensor development is to produce sensors that are small in size, easy to batch fabricate and low in cost, and have low power consumption The fabrication of chemical sensors involving nanostructured materials can provide these properties as well as the potential for the development of sensor systems with unique properties and improved performance. However, the fabrication and processing of nanostructures for sensor applications currently is limited in the ability to control their location on the sensor. Currently, our group at NASA Glenn Research Center has demonstrated the controlled placement of nanostructures in sensors using a sawtooth patterned electrode design. With this design the nanostructures are aligned between opposing sawtooth electrodes by applying an alternating current.

  2. VOCs monitoring system simulation and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldararu, Florin; Vasile, Alexandru; Vatra, Cosmin

    2010-11-01

    The designed and simulated system will be used in the tanning industry, for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) measurements. In this industry, about 90% of the solvent contained in the emulsions evaporates during its application, giving rise to VOC, which are at the same time hazardous atmospheric pollutants and one of the sources of ground level photochemical ozone formation. It results that a monitoring system is necessary in a leather finishing process, in order to detect hazardous VOC concentration and conducting process in order of VOC concentration diminishing. The paper presents the design of a VOC monitoring system, which includes sensors for VOCs and temperature, the conditioning circuitry for these sensors, the suction system of the gas in the hood, the data acquisition and the computing system and graphic interface. The used sensor in the detection system is a semiconductor sensor, produced by Figaro Engineering Inc., characterized by a short response time, high sensitivity at almost all VOC substances. The design of the conditioning circuitry and data acquisition is done in order to compensate the sensor response variation with temperature and to maintain the low response time of the sensor. The temperature compensation is obtained by using a thermistor circuitry, and the compensation is done within the software design. A Mitsubishi PLC is used to receive the output signals of the circuits including the sensor and of the thermistor, respectively. The acquisition and computing system is done using Mitsubishi ALPHA 2 controller and a graphical terminal, GOT 1000.

  3. Simulation and Micro-Fabrication of Optically Switchable Split Ring Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Simulation and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators T.F. Gundogdu a,*, Mutlu Gökkavas b, Kaan Güven b, M. Kafesaki a...mail address: tamara@iesl.forth.gr (T.F. Gundogdu ). 1569-4410/$ – see front matter # 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/j.photonics...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 T.F. Gundogdu et al. / Photonics and

  4. An integrated optical CO2 sensor. Phase 0: Design and fabrication of critical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Michael C.; Kelly, Kevin W.; Li, B. Q.; Ma, EN; Wang, Wanjun; Vladimirsky, Yuli; Vladimirsky, Olga

    1994-01-01

    Significant progress has been made toward all of the goals for the first phase of the project short of actual fabrication of a light path. Two alternative approaches to fabricating gold mirrors using the basic LIGA process were developed, one using electroplated solid gold mirrors and the second using gold plated over a nickel base. A new method of fabrication, the transfer mask process, was developed and demonstrated. Analysis of the projected surface roughness and beam divergence effects was completed. With gold surface with low surface roughness scattering losses are expected to be insignificant. Beam divergence due to diffraction will require a modification of the original design, but should be eliminated by fabricating mirrors 1000 mu m in height by 1000 mu m in width and using a source with an initial beam radius greater than 300 mu m. This may eliminate any need for focusing optics. Since the modified design does not affect the mask layout, ordering of the mask and fabrication of the test structures can begin immediately at the start of Phase 1.

  5. Design of Tailored Non-Crimp Fabrics Based on Stitching Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Helga; Gries, Thomas; Stapleton, Scott E.

    2018-02-01

    Automation of the preforming process brings up two opposing requirements for the used engineering fabric. On the one hand, the fabric requires a sufficient drapeability, or low shear stiffness, for forming into double-curved geometries; but on the other hand, the fabric requires a high form stability, or high shear stiffness, for automated handling. To meet both requirements tailored non-crimp fabrics (TNCFs) are proposed. While the stitching has little structural influence on the final part, it virtually dictates the TNCFs local capability to shear and drape over a mold during preforming. The shear stiffness of TNCFs is designed by defining the local stitching geometry. NCFs with chain stitch have a comparatively high shear stiffness and NCFs with a stitch angle close to the symmetry stitch angle have a very low shear stiffness. A method to design the component specific local stitching parameters of TNCFs is discussed. For validation of the method, NCFs with designed tailored stitching parameters were manufactured and compared to benchmark NCFs with uniform stitching parameters. The designed TNCFs showed both, generally a high form stability and in locally required zones a good drapeability, in drape experiments over an elongated hemisphere.

  6. Man-computer Inactive Data Access System (McIDAS). [design, development, fabrication, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A technical description is given of the effort to design, develop, fabricate, and test the two dimensional data processing system, McIDAS. The system has three basic sections: an access and data archive section, a control section, and a display section. Areas reported include hardware, system software, and applications software.

  7. Design, fabrication and testing of a 5-Hz acoustic exciter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundy, D. H.; Robinson, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    A 5-Hz acoustic excitation system was designed, fabricated and checked out for use in the modulation of a stagnant gas volume contained in an absorption cell. A detailed system description of the test equipment, both mechanical and electronic, and an operating procedure are included. Conclusions are also presented.

  8. New paradigms in internal architecture design and freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dongjin

    2012-07-01

    Advanced additive manufacture (AM) techniques are now being developed to fabricate scaffolds with controlled internal pore architectures in the field of tissue engineering. In general, these techniques use a hybrid method which combines computer-aided design (CAD) with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools to design and fabricate complicated three-dimensional (3D) scaffold models. The mathematical descriptions of micro-architectures along with the macro-structures of the 3D scaffold models are limited by current CAD technologies as well as by the difficulty of transferring the designed digital models to standard formats for fabrication. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an efficient internal pore architecture design system based on triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) unit cell libraries and associated computational methods to assemble TPMS unit cells into an entire scaffold model. In addition, we have developed a process planning technique based on TPMS internal architecture pattern of unit cells to generate tool paths for freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Benzocyclobutene-based electric micromachines supported on microball bearings: Design, fabrication, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modafe, Alireza

    This dissertation summarizes the research activities that led to the development of the first microball-bearing-supported linear electrostatic micromotor with benzocyclobutene (BCB) low-k polymer insulating layers. The primary application of this device is long-range, high-speed linear micropositioning. The future generations of this device include rotary electrostatic micromotors and microgenerators. The development of the first generation of microball-bearing-supported micromachines, including device theory, design, and modeling, material characterization, process development, device fabrication, and device test and characterization is presented. The first generation of these devices is based on a 6-phase, bottom-drive, linear, variable-capacitance micromotor (B-LVCM). The design of the electrical and mechanical components of the micromotor, lumped-circuit modeling of the device and electromechanical characteristics, including variable capacitance, force, power, and speed are presented. Electrical characterization of BCB polymers, characterization of BCB chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), development of embedded BCB in silicon (EBiS) process, and integration of device components using microfabrication techniques are also presented. The micromotor consists of a silicon stator, a silicon slider, and four stainless-steel microballs. The aligning force profile of the micromotor was extracted from simulated and measured capacitances of all phases. An average total aligning force of 0.27 mN with a maximum of 0.41 mN, assuming a 100 V peak-to-peak square-wave voltage, was measured. The operation of the micromotor was verified by applying square-wave voltages and characterizing the slider motion. An average slider speed of 7.32 mm/s when excited by a 40 Hz, 120 V square-wave voltage was reached without losing the synchronization. This research has a pivotal impact in the field of power microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). It establishes the foundation for the

  10. Axiomatic Design and Fabrication of Composite Structures - Applications in Robots, Machine Tools, and Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dai Gil; Suh, Nam Pyo

    2005-11-01

    The idea that materials can be designed to satisfy specific performance requirements is relatively new. With high-performance composites, however, the entire process of designing and fabricating a part can be worked out before manufacturing. The purpose of this book is to present an integrated approach to the design and manufacturing of products from advanced composites. It shows how the basic behavior of composites and their constitutive relationships can be used during the design stage, which minimizes the complexity of manufacturing composite parts and reduces the repetitive "design-build-test" cycle. Designing it right the first time is going to determine the competitiveness of a company, the reliability of the part, the robustness of fabrication processes, and ultimately, the cost and development time of composite parts. Most of all, it should expand the use of advanced composite parts in fields that use composites only to a limited extent at this time. To achieve these goals, this book presents the design and fabrication of novel composite parts made for machine tools and other applications like robots and automobiles. This book is suitable as a textbook for graduate courses in the design and fabrication of composites. It will also be of interest to practicing engineers learning about composites and axiomatic design. A CD-ROM is included in every copy of the book, containing Axiomatic CLPT software. This program, developed by the authors, will assist readers in calculating material properties from the microstructure of the composite. This book is part of the Oxford Series on Advanced Manufacturing.

  11. Design, fabrication and test of the RL10 derivative II chamber/primary nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marable, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    The design, fabrication and test of the RL10-II chamber/primary nozzle was accomplished as part of the RL10 Product Improvement Program (PIP). The overall goal of the RL10 PIP was to gain the knowledge and experience necessary to develop new cryogenic upper stage engines to fulfill future NASA requirements. The goal would be reached by producing an RL10 engine designed to be reusable, operate at several thrust levels, and have increased performance. The goals for the chamber/primary nozzle task were: (1) to design a reusable assembly capable of operation at increased mixture ratio and low thrust; (2) to fabricate three assemblies using new or updated techniques where possible; and (3) to test one assembly to verify the design and construction. The design and fabrication phases produced an assembly having improved features such as single piece reinforcing band segments (i.e., Mae West segments) and relocated tube exit braze joints (i.e., hooked tube exit). In addition, a computer program was developed to design the chamber tubes to meet both performance and heat transfer requirements. The test phase showed the specific impulse of the test bed engine system to be as predicted. These results, along with the heat transfer data obtained, sufficiently proved the overall design of the RL10-II recontoured and shortened chamber/primary nozzle assembly.

  12. Design and Fabrication of the NASA Decoupler Pylon for the F-16 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. D.; Haller, R. L.; Hassler, J. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Decoupler Pylon is a passive means of suppressing wing-store flutter. The feasibility of demonstrating this concept on the F-16 aircraft was established through model wind tunnel tests and analyses. As a result of these tests and studies a ship set of Decoupler Pylons was designed and fabricated for a flight test demonstration on the F-16 aircraft. Basic design criteria were developed during the analysis study pertaining to pylon pitch stiffness, alignment system requirements, and damping requirements. A design was developed which utilized an electrical motor for the pylon alignment system. The design uses a four pin, two link pivot design which results in a remote pivot located at the center of gravity of the store when the store is in the aligned position. The pitch spring was fabricated from a tapered constant stress cantilevered beam. The pylon has the same external lines as the existing production pylon and is designed to use a MAU-12 ejection rack which is the same as the one used with the production pylon. The detailed design and fabrication was supported with a complete ground test of the pylon prior to shipment to NASA.

  13. Design and Analysis of Windmill Simulation and Pole by Solidwork Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyana, Tatang; Sebayang, Darwin; R, Akmal Muamar. D.; A, Jauharah H. D.; Yahya Shomit, M.

    2018-03-01

    The Indonesian state of archipelago has great wind energy potential. For micro-scale power generation, the energy obtained from the windmill can be connected directly to the electrical load and can be used without problems. However, for macro-scale power generation, problems will arise such as the design of vane shapes, there should be a simulation and an accurate experiment to produce blades with a special shape that can capture wind energy. In addition, daily and yearly wind and wind rate calculations are also required to ensure the best latitude and longitude positions for building windmills. This paper presents a solution to solve the problem of how to produce a windmill which in the builder is very practical and very mobile can be moved its location. Before a windmill prototype is built it should have obtained the best windmill design result. Therefore, the simulation of the designed windmill is of crucial importance. Solid simulation express is a tool that serves to generate simulation of a design. Some factors that can affect a design result include the power part and the rest part of the part, material selection, the load is given, the security of the design power made, and changes in shape due to treat the load given to the design made. In this paper, static and thermal simulations of windmills have been designed. Based on the simulation result on the designed windmill, it shows that the design has been made very satisfactory so that it can be done prototyping fabrication process.

  14. Design and simulation analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on graphene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, M.; Xia, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.

    2018-02-01

    A novel pressure sensor structure based on graphene film as the sensitive membrane was proposed in this paper, which solved the problem to measure low and minor pressure with high sensitivity. Moreover, the fabrication process was designed which can be compatible with CMOS IC fabrication technology. Finite element analysis has been used to simulate the displacement distribution of the thin movable graphene film of the designed pressure sensor under the different pressures with different dimensions. From the simulation results, the optimized structure has been obtained which can be applied in the low measurement range from 10hPa to 60hPa. The length and thickness of the graphene film could be designed as 100μm and 0.2μm, respectively. The maximum mechanical stress on the edge of the sensitive membrane was 1.84kPa, which was far below the breaking strength of the silicon nitride and graphene film.

  15. The design and fabrication of a prototype trash compacting unit. [for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A prototype trash compactor, that is compatible with the anticipated requirements of future long-term space missions, is described. Preliminary problem definition studies were conducted to identify typical types and quantities of waste materials to be expected from a typical mission. Bench-scale compaction tests were then conducted on typical waste materials to determine force/compaction curves. These data were used to design a boilerplate compactor that was fabricated to prove the feasibility of the basic design concept. A final design was then prepared from which the deliverable unit was fabricated. Design concepts are presented for suggested further development of the compactor, including a version that is capable of handling wet biodegradable wastes.

  16. Design and fabrication of multimode interference couplers based on digital micro-mirror system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sumei; He, Xingdao; Shen, Chenbo

    2008-03-01

    Multimode interference (MMI) couplers, based on the self-imaging effect (SIE), are accepted popularly in integrated optics. According to the importance of MMI devices, in this paper, we present a novel method to design and fabricate MMI couplers. A technology of maskless lithography to make MMI couplers based on a smart digital micro-mirror device (DMD) system is proposed. A 1×4 MMI device is designed as an example, which shows the present method is efficient and cost-effective.

  17. Design, fabrication, and test of a steel spar wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Viterna, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and fabrication of wind turbine blades based on 60 foot steel spars are discussed. Performance and blade load information is given and compared to analytical prediction. In addition, performance is compared to that of the original MOD-O aluminum blades. Costs for building the two blades are given, and a projection is made for the cost in mass production. Design improvements to reduce weight and improve fatigue life are suggested.

  18. Re-design and fabrication of titanium multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TPS) test panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E., Jr.; Rosenthal, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Titanium Multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TIPS) panel was re-designed to incorporate Ti-6-2-4-2 outer sheets for the hot surface, ninety degree side closures for ease of construction and through panel fastness for ease of panel removal. Thermal and structural tests were performed to verify the design. Twenty-five panels were fabricated and delivered to NASA for evaluation at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center.

  19. F-4 Beryllium Rudders; A Precis of the Design, Fabrication, Ground and Flight Test Demonstrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio 45433. AIR FORCE FLIGHT DYNAMICS LABORATORY AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE , OHIO 45433...rudder. These sequential ground tests include: - A 50,000 cycle fatigue test of upper balance weight support structure. A static test to...Design Details 6. Design Analysis 7. Rudder Mass Balance 8, Rudder Moment of Inertia 9, Rudder Weight RUDDER FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY 1. 2

  20. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Lumped Element Kinetic inductance Detectors for 3 mm CMB Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowitz, Amy E.; Brown, Ari David; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Timbie, Peter T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) are a promising technology for low-noise, highly-multiplexible mm- and submm-wave detection. KIDs have a number of advantages over other detector technologies, which make them an appealing option in the cosmic microwave background B-mode anisotropy search, including passive frequency domain multiplexing and relatively simple fabrication, but have suffered from challenges associated with noise control. Here we describe design and fabrication of a 20-pixel prototype array of lumped element molybdenum KIDs. We show Q, frequency and temperature measurements from the array under dark conditions. We also present evidence for a double superconducting gap in molybdenum.

  1. Design, fabricate, and provide engineering support for radiosotope thermoelectric generators for NASA'S CRHF and CASSINI missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The technical progress achieved during the period 11 January through 31 March 1991 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852.000 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and ancillary activities is described. The system contract consists of the following tasks: (1) Spacecraft Integration and Liaison; (2) Engineering Support; (3) Safety; (4) Qualify Unicouple Fabrication; (5) ETG Fabrication, Assembly and Test; (6) GSE; (7) RTG Shipping and Launch Support; (8) Designs, Reviews, and Mission Applications; (9) Project Management, Quality Assurance and Reliability; and (10) CAGO Acquisition (Capital Funds). The progress achieved is broken down into these tasks.

  2. Improved Design of Optical MEMS Using the SUMMiT Fabrication Process

    SciT

    Michalicek, M.A.; Comtois, J.H.; Barron, C.C.

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of optical Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices using the Sandia Ultra planar Multilevel MEMS Technology (SUMMiT) fabrication process. This state of the art process, offered by Sandia National Laboratories, provides unique and very advantageous features which make it ideal for optical devices. This enabling process permits the development of micromirror devices with near ideal characteristics which have previously been unrealizable in standard polysilicon processes. This paper describes such characteristics as elevated address electrodes, individual address wiring beneath the device, planarized mirror surfaces, unique post-process metallization, and the best active surface area to date.

  3. NREL: News - Solar Decathlon Design Presentation and Simulation Results

    Announced Design Presentation and Simulation Results Announced Monday, September 30, 2002 took first place in the Design Presentation and Simulation Contest at the Solar Village on the National Tech in third. Design Presentation and Simulation is one of ten contests in the Solar Decathlon, which

  4. Design and fabricate multi channel microfluidic mold on top of glass slide using SU-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, N. A. N.; Rajapaksha, R. D. A. A.; Uda, M. N. A.; Hashim, U.

    2017-09-01

    Microfluidic is the study of fluid in microscale. Microfluidics provides miniaturized fluidic networks for processing and analyzing liquids in the nanoliter to milliliter range. Microfluidic device comprises of some essential segments or structure that are micromixer, microchannel and microchamber. The SU-8 mold is known as the most used technique in microfluidic fabrication due to the characteristic of very gooey polymer that can be spread over a thickness. In this study, in order to reduce the fabrication cost, the development and fabrication of SU-8 mold is replace by using a glass plate instead of silicon wafer which is used in the previous research. We designed a microfluidic chip for use with an IDE sensors to conduct multiplex detection of multiple channels. The microfluidic chip was designed to include multiplex detection for pathogen that consists of multiple channels of simultaneous results. The multi-channel microfluidic chip was designed, including the fluid outlet and inlet. A multi-channel microfluidic chip was used for pathogen detection. This paper sum up the fabrication of lab SU-8 mold using glass slide.

  5. Design, fabrication and testing of porous tungsten vaporizers for mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavesky, R.; Kroeger, E.; Kami, S.

    1983-01-01

    The dispersions in the characteristics, performance and reliability of vaporizers for early model 30-cm thrusters were investigated. The purpose of the paper is to explore the findings and to discuss the approaches that were taken to reduce the observed dispersion and present the results of a program which validated those approaches. The information that is presented includes porous tungsten materials specifications, a discussion of assembly procedures, and a description of a test program which screens both material and fabrication processes. There are five appendices providing additional detail in the areas of vaporizer contamination, nitrogen flow testing, bubble testing, porosimeter testing, and mercury purity. Four neutralizers, seven cathodes and five main vaporizers were successfully fabricated, tested, and operated on thrusters. Performance data from those devices is presented and indicates extremely repeatable results from using the design and fabrication procedures.

  6. Design and fabrication of high-performance diamond triple-gate field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangwei; Ohsato, Hirotaka; Wang, Xi; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of large-area single-crystal diamond wafers has led us to downscale diamond electronic devices. Here, we design and fabricate a hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) triple-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to extend device downscaling and increase device output current. The device’s electrical properties are compared with those of planar-type MOSFETs, which are fabricated simultaneously on the same substrate. The triple-gate MOSFET’s output current (174.2 mA mm−1) is much higher than that of the planar-type device (45.2 mA mm−1), and the on/off ratio and subthreshold swing are more than 108 and as low as 110 mV dec−1, respectively. The fabrication of these H-diamond triple-gate MOSFETs will drive diamond electronic device development forward towards practical applications. PMID:27708372

  7. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems, Phase II. Part 3; Material Model Development and Simulation of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, J.; Erlich, D.; Shockey, D.

    2009-01-01

    A team consisting of Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center, and SRI International collaborated to develop computational models and verification testing for designing and evaluating turbine engine fan blade fabric containment structures. This research was conducted under the Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and was sponsored by the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program. The research was directed toward improving the modeling of a turbine engine fabric containment structure for an engine blade-out containment demonstration test required for certification of aircraft engines. The research conducted in Phase II began a new level of capability to design and develop fan blade containment systems for turbine engines. Significant progress was made in three areas: (1) further development of the ballistic fabric model to increase confidence and robustness in the material models for the Kevlar(TradeName) and Zylon(TradeName) material models developed in Phase I, (2) the capability was improved for finite element modeling of multiple layers of fabric using multiple layers of shell elements, and (3) large-scale simulations were performed. This report concentrates on the material model development and simulations of the impact tests.

  8. Design and fabrication considerations for stainless steel liquid helium jackets surrounding SCRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, E. C.; Cunningham, E. K.; Rumel, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Energy requires its subcontractors to meet 10 CFR 851 Appendix A Part 4 for all new pressure vessels and pressure piping. The stainless steel pressure vessel boundaries surrounding SCRF cavities fall under this requirement. Methods for meeting this requirement include design and fabrication of the pressure vessels to meet the requirements of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Division 1 or Division 2. Design considerations include determining whether the configuration of the SCRF cavity can be accommodated under the rules of Division 1 or must be analyzed under Division 2 Part 4 Design by Rule Requirements or Part 5 Design by Analysis Requirements. Regardless of the Division or Part choice, designers will find the rules of the ASME Code require thicker pressure boundary members, larger welds, and additional non-destructive testing and quality assurance requirements. These challenges must be met and overcome by the fabricator through the development of robust, detailed, and repeatable manufacturing processes. In this paper we discuss the considerations for stainless steel pressure vessels that must meet the ASME Code and illustrate the discussion with examples from direct experience fabricating such vessels.

  9. Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Izadifar, Zohreh; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kulyk, William

    2012-01-01

    Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE). Over the past two decades, different designs and fabrication techniques have been investigated for developing TE scaffolds suitable for the construction of transplantable artificial cartilage tissue substitutes. Advances in fabrication technologies now enable the strategic design of scaffolds with complex, biomimetic structures and properties. In particular, scaffolds with hybrid and/or biomimetic zonal designs have recently been developed for cartilage tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews critical aspects of the design of engineered scaffolds for articular cartilage repair as well as the available advanced fabrication techniques. In addition, recent studies on the design of hybrid and zonal scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue repair are highlighted. PMID:24955748

  10. A high precision dual feedback discrete control system designed for satellite trajectory simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ximin; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Xu, Nan

    2005-08-01

    Cooperating with the free-space laser communication terminals, the satellite trajectory simulator is used to test the acquisition, pointing, tracking and communicating performances of the terminals. So the satellite trajectory simulator plays an important role in terminal ground test and verification. Using the double-prism, Sun etc in our group designed a satellite trajectory simulator. In this paper, a high precision dual feedback discrete control system designed for the simulator is given and a digital fabrication of the simulator is made correspondingly. In the dual feedback discrete control system, Proportional- Integral controller is used in velocity feedback loop and Proportional- Integral- Derivative controller is used in position feedback loop. In the controller design, simplex method is introduced and an improvement to the method is made. According to the transfer function of the control system in Z domain, the digital fabrication of the simulator is given when it is exposed to mechanism error and moment disturbance. Typically, when the mechanism error is 100urad, the residual standard error of pitching angle, azimuth angle, x-coordinate position and y-coordinate position are 0.49urad, 6.12urad, 4.56urad, 4.09urad respectively. When the moment disturbance is 0.1rad, the residual standard error of pitching angle, azimuth angle, x-coordinate position and y-coordinate position are 0.26urad, 0.22urad, 0.16urad, 0.15urad respectively. The digital fabrication results demonstrate that the dual feedback discrete control system designed for the simulator can achieve the anticipated high precision performance.

  11. Design and fabrication of advanced fiber alignment structures for field-installable fiber connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Sánchez Martínez, Alberto; Beri, Stefano; Debaes, Christof; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-06-01

    Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks have been adopted as a potential replacement of traditional electrical connections for the 'last mile' transmission of information at bandwidths over 1Gb/s. However, the success and adoption of optical access networks critically depend on the quality and reliability of connections between optical fibers. In particular a further reduction of insertion loss of field-installable connectors must be achieved without a significant increase in component cost. This requires precise alignment of fibers that can differ in terms of ellipticity, eccentricity or diameter and seems hardly achievable using today's widespread ferrule-based alignment systems. Novel low-cost structures for bare fiber alignment with outstanding positioning accuracies are strongly desired as they would allow reducing loss beyond the level achievable with ferrule-bore systems. However, the realization of such alignment system is challenging as it should provide sufficient force to position the fiber with sub-micron accuracy required in positioning the fiber. In this contribution we propose, design and prototype a bare-fiber alignment system which makes use of deflectable/compressible micro-cantilevers. Such cantilevers behave as springs and provide self-centering functionality to the structure. Simulations of the mechanical properties of the cantilevers are carried out in order to get an analytical approximation and a mathematical model of the spring constant and stress in the structure. Elastic constants of the order of 104 to 105N/m are found out to be compatible with a proof stress of 70 MPa. Finally a first self-centering structure is prototyped in PMMA using our Deep Proton Writing technology. The spring constants of the fabricated cantilevers are in the range of 4 to 6 × 104N/m and the stress is in the range 10 to 20 MPa. These self-centering structures have the potential to become the basic building blocks for a new generation of field-installable connectors.

  12. Flexible Multi-Body Spacecraft Simulator: Design, Construction, and Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    BODY SPACECRAFT SIMULATOR: DESIGN , CONSTRUCTION, AND EXPERIMENTS by Adam L. Atwood December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mark Karpenko Second...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FLEXIBLE MULTI-BODY SPACECRAFT SIMULATOR: DESIGN , CONSTRUCTION, AND EXPERIMENTS 5...spacecraft simulator for use in testing optimal control-based slew and maneuver designs . The simulator is modified from an earlier prototype, which

  13. Laser surface modification of electrically conductive fabrics: Material performance improvement and design effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunakova, Veronika; Hrubosova, Zuzana; Tunak, Maros; Kasparova, Marie; Mullerova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Development of lightweight flexible materials for electromagnetic interference shielding has obtained increased attention in recent years particularly for clothing, textiles in-house use and technical applications especially in areas of aircraft, aerospace, automobiles and flexible electronics such as portable electronics and wearable devices. There are many references in the literature concerning development and investigation of electromagnetic shielding lightweight flexible materials especially textile based with different electrically conductive additives. However, only little attention is paid to designing and enhancing the properties of these special fabrics by textile finishing processes. Laser technology applied as a physical treatment method is becoming very popular and can be used in different applications to make improvement and even overcome drawbacks of some of the traditional processes. The main purpose of this study is firstly to analyze the possibilities of transferring design onto the surface of electrically conductive fabrics by laser beam and secondly to study of effect of surface modification degree on performance of conductive fabric including electromagnetic shielding ability and mechanical properties. Woven fabric made of yarns containing 10% of extremely thin stainless steel fiber was used as a conductive substrate.

  14. Design, fabrication and testing of hierarchical micro-optical structures and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannistra, Aaron Thomas

    Micro-optical systems are becoming essential components in imaging, sensing, communications, computing, and other applications. Optically based designs are replacing electronic, chemical and mechanical systems for a variety of reasons, including low power consumption, reduced maintenance, and faster operation. However, as the number and variety of applications increases, micro-optical system designs are becoming smaller, more integrated, and more complicated. Micro and nano-optical systems found in nature, such as the imaging systems found in many insects and crustaceans, can have highly integrated optical structures that vary in size by orders of magnitude. These systems incorporate components such as compound lenses, anti-reflective lens surface structuring, spectral filters, and polarization selective elements. For animals, these hybrid optical systems capable of many optical functions in a compact package have been repeatedly selected during the evolutionary process. Understanding the advantages of these designs gives motivation for synthetic optical systems with comparable functionality. However, alternative fabrication methods that deviate from conventional processes are needed to create such systems. Further complicating the issue, the resulting device geometry may not be readily compatible with existing measurement techniques. This dissertation explores several nontraditional fabrication techniques for optical components with hierarchical geometries and measurement techniques to evaluate performance of such components. A micro-transfer molding process is found to produce high-fidelity micro-optical structures and is used to fabricate a spectral filter on a curved surface. By using a custom measurement setup we demonstrate that the spectral filter retains functionality despite the nontraditional geometry. A compound lens is fabricated using similar fabrication techniques and the imaging performance is analyzed. A spray coating technique for photoresist

  15. Design and fabrication hazard stakes golf course polymeric foam material empty bunch (EFB) fiber reinforced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfahmi; Syam, B.; Wirjosentono, B.

    2018-02-01

    A golf course with obstacles in the forms of water obstacle and lateral water obstacle marked with the stakes which are called golf course obstacle stake in this study. This study focused on the design and fabrication of the golf course obstacle stake with a solid cylindrical geometry using EFB fiber-reinforced polimeric foam composite materials. To obtain the EFB fiber which is free from fat content and other elements, EFB is soaked in the water with 1% (of the watre total volume) NaOH. The model of the mould designed is permanent mould that can be used for the further refabrication process. The mould was designed based on resin-compound paste materials with talc powder plus E-glass fiber to make the mould strong. The composition of polimeric foam materials comprised unsaturated resin Bqtn-Ex 157 (70%), blowing agent (10%), fiber (10%), and catalyst (10%). The process of casting the polimeric foam composit materials into the mould cavity should be at vertical casting position, accurate interval time of material stirring, and periodical casting. To find out the strength value of the golf course obstacle stake product, a model was made and simulated by using the software of Ansys workbench 14.0, an impact loading was given at the height of 400 mm and 460 mm with the variation of golf ball speed (USGA standard) v = 18 m/s, v = 35 m/s, v = 66.2 m/s, v = 70 m/s, and v = 78.2 m/s. The clarification showed that the biggest dynamic explicit loading impact of Fmax = 142.5 N at the height of 460 mm with the maximum golf ball speed of 78.2 m/s did not experience the hysteresis effect and inertia effect. The largest deformation area occurred at the golf ball speed v = 66.2 mm/s, that is 18.029 mm (time: 2.5514e-004) was only concentrated around the sectional area of contact point of impact, meaning that the golf course obstacle stakes made of EFB fiber-reinforced polymeric foam materials have the geometric functional strength that are able to absorb the energy of golf ball

  16. Design, development and fabrication of a deployable/retractable truss beam model for large space structures application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Louis R.

    1987-01-01

    The design requirements for a truss beam model are reviewed. The concept behind the beam is described. Pertinent analysis and studies concerning beam definition, deployment loading, joint compliance, etc. are given. Design, fabrication and assembly procedures are discussed.

  17. Analysis, design, fabrication and testing of an optical tip clearance sensor. [turbocompressor blade tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Marple, D. T. F.; Kingsley, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses and the design, fabrication, and testing of an optical tip clearance sensor with intended application in aircraft propulsion control systems are reported. The design of a sensor test rig, evaluation of optical sensor components at elevated temperatures, sensor design principles, sensor test results at room temperature, and estimations of sensor accuracy at temperatures of an aircraft engine environment are discussed. Room temperature testing indicated possible measurement accuracies of less than 12.7 microns (0.5 mils). Ways to improve performance at engine operating temperatures are recommended. The potential of this tip clearance sensor is assessed.

  18. Orbital transfer vehicle oxygen turbopump technology. Volume 1: Design, fabrication, and hydrostatic bearing testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmann, P. S.; Hayden, W. R.; Lorenc, S. A.; Sabiers, R. L.; Shimp, N. R.

    1990-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial testing of a rocket engine turbopump (TPA) for the delivery of high pressure liquid oxygen using hot oxygen for the turbine drive fluid are described. This TPA is basic to the dual expander engine which uses both oxygen and hydrogen as working fluids. Separate tasks addressed the key issue of materials for this TPA. All materials selections emphasized compatibility with hot oxygen. The OX TPA design uses a two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a single-stage axial turbine on a common shaft. The design includes ports for three shaft displacement/speed sensors, various temperature measurements, and accelerometers.

  19. Design and fabrication of continuous-profile diffractive micro-optical elements as a beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Feng, Di; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Fan, Shoushan

    2004-10-10

    An optimization algorithm that combines a rigorous electromagnetic computation model with an effective iterative method is utilized to design diffractive micro-optical elements that exhibit fast convergence and better design quality. The design example is a two-dimensional 1-to-2 beam splitter that can symmetrically generate two focal lines separated by 80 microm at the observation plane with a small angle separation of +/- 16 degrees. Experimental results are presented for an element with continuous profiles fabricated into a monocrystalline silicon substrate that has a width of 160 microm and a focal length of 140 microm at a free-space wavelength of 10.6 microm.

  20. Design, fabrication, testing, and delivery of a solar energy collector system for residential heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, T. H.; Borzoni, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    A low cost flat plate solar energy collector was designed for the heating and cooling of residential buildings. The system meets specified performance requirements, at the desired system operating levels, for a useful life of 15 to 20 years, at minimum cost and uses state-of-the-art materials and technology. The rationale for the design method was based on identifying possible material candidates for various collector components and then selecting the components which best meet the solar collector design requirements. The criteria used to eliminate certain materials were: performance and durability test results, cost analysis, and prior solar collector fabrication experience.

  1. Design, analysis, fabrication and test of the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster motor case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapp, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The motor case used in the solid propellant booster for the Space Shuttle is unique in many respects, most of which are indigenous to size and special design requirements. The evolution of the case design from initial requirements to finished product is discussed, with increased emphasis of reuse capability, special design features, fracture mechanics and corrosion control. Case fabrication history and the resulting procedure are briefly reviewed with respect to material development, processing techniques and special problem areas. Case assembly, behavior and performance during the DM-1 static firing are reviewed, with appropriate comments and conclusions.

  2. Band-to-band tunneling field effect transistor for low power logic and memory applications: Design, fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookerjea, Saurabh A.

    studied through mixed-mode numerical simulations. The significance of correct benchmarking methodology to estimate the effective drive current and capacitance in TFET is highlighted and compared with MOSFET. This is followed by the fabrication details of homo-junction TFET. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of homo-junction TFET gives key insight into its device operation and identifies the critical factors that impact its performance. In order to boost the ON current, the design and fabrication of hetero-junction TFET is also presented.

  3. Design, fabrication, and characterization of metallic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and plasmonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Qingzhen

    Metal/dielectric nanostructures have the ability to sustain coherent electron oscillations known as surface plasmons. Due to their capability of localizing and guiding light in sub-wavelength metal nanostructures beyond diffraction limits, surface plasmon-based photonics, or “plasmonics” has opened new physical phenomena and lead to novel applications in metamaterials, optoelectronics, surface enhanced spectroscopy and biological sensing. This dissertation centers on design, fabrication, characterization of metallic nanostructures and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and actively tunable plasmonics. Metal-dielectric nanostructures are the building blocks for photonic metamaterials. One valuable design guideline for metamaterials is the Babinet’s principle, which governs the optical properties of complementary nanostructures. However, most complementary metamaterials are designed for the far infrared region or beyond, where the optical absorption of metal is small. We have developed a novel dual fabrication method, capable of simultaneously producing optically thin complementary structures. From experimental measurements and theoretical simulations, we showed that Babinet’s principle qualitatively holds in the visible region for the optically thin complements. The complementary structure is also a good platform to study subtle differences between nanoparticles and nanoholes in SERS (a surface sensitive technique, which can enhance the conventional Raman cross-section by 106˜108 fold, thus very useful for highly sensitive biochemical sensing). Through experimental measurement and theoretical analysis, we showed that the SERS enhancement spectrum (plot of SERS enhancement versus excitation wavelengths), dominated by local near-field, for nanoholes closely follows their far-field optical transmission spectrum. However, the enhancement spectrum for nanoparticles red-shifts significantly from their far-field optical extinction

  4. Fabrication and characterisation of nanocrystalline graphite MEMS resonators using a geometric design to control buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishlock, S. J.; O'Shea, S. J.; McBride, J. W.; Chong, H. M. H.; Pu, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    The simulation, fabrication and characterisation of nanographite MEMS resonators is reported in this paper. The deposition of nanographite is achieved using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition directly onto numerous substrates such as commercial silicon wafers. As a result, many of the reliability issues of devices based on transferred graphene are avoided. The fabrication of the resonators is presented along with a simple undercutting method to overcome buckling, by changing the effective stress of the structure from ~436 MPa compressive, to ~13 MPa tensile. The characterisation of the resonators using electrostatic actuation and laser Doppler vibrometry is reported, demonstrating resonator frequencies from 5-640 kHz and quality factor above 1819 in vacuum obtained.

  5. A computer simulator for development of engineering system design methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1987-01-01

    A computer program designed to simulate and improve engineering system design methodology is described. The simulator mimics the qualitative behavior and data couplings occurring among the subsystems of a complex engineering system. It eliminates the engineering analyses in the subsystems by replacing them with judiciously chosen analytical functions. With the cost of analysis eliminated, the simulator is used for experimentation with a large variety of candidate algorithms for multilevel design optimization to choose the best ones for the actual application. Thus, the simulator serves as a development tool for multilevel design optimization strategy. The simulator concept, implementation, and status are described and illustrated with examples.

  6. Economic analysis of the design and fabrication of a space qualified power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruselowski, G.

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis was performed to determine the cost of the design and fabrication of a low Earth orbit, 2 kW photovoltaic/battery, space qualified power system. A commercially available computer program called PRICE (programmed review of information for costing and evaluation) was used to conduct the analysis. The sensitivity of the various cost factors to the assumptions used is discussed. Total cost of the power system was found to be $2.46 million with the solar array accounting for 70.5%. Using the assumption that the prototype becomes the flight system, 77.3% of the total cost is associated with manufacturing. Results will be used to establish whether the cost of space qualified hardware can be reduced by the incorporation of commercial design, fabrication, and quality assurance methods.

  7. Design, Fabrication, and Performance of Foil Gas Thrust Bearings for Microturbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykas, Brian; Bruckner, Robert; DellaCorte, Christopher; Edmonds, Brian; Prahl, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A methodology for the design and construction of simple foil thrust bearings intended for parametric performance testing and low marginal costs is presented. Features drawn from a review of the open literature are discussed as they relate to bearing performance. The design of fixtures and tooling required to fabricate foil thrust bearings is presented, using conventional machining processes where possible. A prototype bearing with dimensions drawn from the literature is constructed, with all fabrication steps described. A load-deflection curve for the bearing is presented to illustrate structural stiffness characteristics. Start-top cycles are performed on the bearing at a temperature of 425 C to demonstrate early-life wear patterns. A test of bearing load capacity demonstrates useful performance when compared with data obtained from the open literature.

  8. Hygrothermal Simulation: A Tool for Building Envelope Design Analysis

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to gauge the risk of moisture problems while designing the building envelope? This article provides a brief introduction to computer-based hygrothermal (heat and moisture) simulation, shows how simulation can be useful as a design tool, and points out a number of im-portant considerations regarding model inputs and limita-tions. Hygrothermal simulation...

  9. Design and fabrication of forward-swept counterrotation blade configuration for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, G. H.

    1994-01-01

    Work performed by GE Aircraft on advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop system is described. Primary emphasis was placed on theoretically and experimentally evaluating the aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance of GE-defined counterrotating blade concepts. Several blade design concepts were considered. Feasibility studies were conducted to evaluate a forward-swept versus an aft-swept blade application and how the given blade design would affect interaction between rotors. Two blade designs were initially selected. Both designs involved in-depth aerodynamic, aeromechanical, mechanical, and acoustic analyses followed by the fabrication of forward-swept, forward rotor blade sets to be wind tunnel tested with an aft-swept, aft rotor blade set. A third blade set was later produced from a NASA design that was based on wind tunnel test results from the first two blade sets. This blade set had a stiffer outer ply material added to the original blade design, in order to reach the design point operating line. Detailed analyses, feasibility studies, and fabrication procedures for all blade sets are presented.

  10. Design and fabrication of composite blades for the Mod-1 wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batesole, W. R.; Gunsallus, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    The design, tooling, fabrication, quality control, and testing phases carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes are discussed as well as the lightning protection system installed in the blades. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production.

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology program, phase 1/1A. [design and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell was studied for the purpose of improving the characteristics of the technology. Several facets were evaluated, namely: (1) reduced fuel cell costs; (2) reduced fuel cell weight; (3) improved fuel cell efficiency; and (4) increased systems compatibility. Demonstrated advances were incorporated into a full scale hardware design. A single cell unit was fabricated. A substantial degree of success was demonstrated.

  12. Quantitative Analysis, Design, and Fabrication of Biosensing and Bioprocessing Devices in Living Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-10

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0080 Biosensing and Bioprocessing Devices in Living Cells Domitilla Del Vecchio MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final...Of Biosensing And Bioprocessing Devices In Living Cells FA9550-12-1-0129 D. Del Vecchio Massachusetts Institute of Technology -- 77 Massachusetts...research is to develop quantitative techniques for the de novo design and fabrication of biosensing devices in living cells . Such devices will be entirely

  13. Simulation Tools Model Icing for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Here s a simple science experiment to try: Place an unopened bottle of distilled water in your freezer. After 2-3 hours, if the water is pure enough, you will notice that it has not frozen. Carefully pour the water into a bowl with a piece of ice in it. When it strikes the ice, the water will instantly freeze. One of the most basic and commonly known scientific facts is that water freezes at around 32 F. But this is not always the case. Water lacking any impurities for ice crystals to form around can be supercooled to even lower temperatures without freezing. High in the atmosphere, water droplets can achieve this delicate, supercooled state. When a plane flies through clouds containing these droplets, the water can strike the airframe and, like the supercooled water hitting the ice in the experiment above, freeze instantly. The ice buildup alters the aerodynamics of the plane - reducing lift and increasing drag - affecting its performance and presenting a safety issue if the plane can no longer fly effectively. In certain circumstances, ice can form inside aircraft engines, another potential hazard. NASA has long studied ways of detecting and countering atmospheric icing conditions as part of the Agency s efforts to enhance aviation safety. To do this, the Icing Branch at Glenn Research Center utilizes a number of world-class tools, including the Center s Icing Research Tunnel and the NASA 607 icing research aircraft, a "flying laboratory" for studying icing conditions. The branch has also developed a suite of software programs to help aircraft and icing protection system designers understand the behavior of ice accumulation on various surfaces and in various conditions. One of these innovations is the LEWICE ice accretion simulation software. Initially developed in the 1980s (when Glenn was known as Lewis Research Center), LEWICE has become one of the most widely used tools in icing research and aircraft design and certification. LEWICE has been transformed over

  14. Damage Simulation in Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Plates Subjected to Impact Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Progressive failure analysis (PFA) of non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact loads was performed using the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage model implemented through VUMAT and UMAT41 user subroutines in the frame works of the commercial finite element programs ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA, respectively. To validate the model, low velocity experiments were conducted and detailed correlations between the predictions and measurements for both intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures were made. The developed material and damage model predicts the peak impact load and duration very close with the experimental results. Also, the simulation results of delamination damage between the ply interfaces, in-plane matrix damages and fiber damages were all in good agreement with the measurements from the non-destructive evaluation data.

  15. Design and Fabrication of a Ring-Stiffened Graphite-Epoxy Corrugated Cylindrical Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Design and fabrication of supplement test panels that represent key portions of the cylinder are described, as are supporting tests of coupons, sample joints, and stiffening ring elements. The cylindrical shell is a ring-stiffened, open corrugation design that uses T300/5208 graphite-epoxy tape as the basic material for the shell wall and stiffening rings. The test cylinder is designed to withstand bending loads producing the relatively low maximum load intensity in the shell wall of 1,576 N/cm. The resulting shell wall weight, including stiffening rings and fasteners, is 0.0156 kg/m. The shell weight achieved in the graphite-epoxy cylinder represents a weight saving of approximately 23 percent, compared to a comparable aluminum shell. A unique fabrication approach was used in which the cylinder wall was built in three flat segments, which were then wrapped to the cylindrical shape. Such an approach, made possible by the flexibility of the thin corrugated wall in a radial direction, proved to be a simple approach to building the test cylinder. Based on tooling and fabrication methods in this program, the projected costs of a production run of 100 units are reported.

  16. Glutathione-facilitated design and fabrication of gold nanoparticle-based logic gates and keypad lock.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Haonan; Yang, Wensheng

    2014-07-21

    In this paper, we describe how we developed a simple design and fabrication method for logic gates and a device by using a commercially available tripeptide, namely glutathione (GSH), together with metal ions and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) to control the dispersion and aggregation of gold nanoparticles (NPs). With the fast adsorption of GSH on gold NPs and the strong coordination of GSH with metal ions, the addition of GSH and Pb(2+) ions immediately resulted in the aggregation of gold NPs, giving rise to an AND function. Either Pb(2+) or Ba(2+) ions induced the aggregation of gold NPs in the presence of GSH, supporting an OR gate. Based on the fact that EDTA has a strong capacity to bind metal ions, thus preventing the aggregation of gold NPs, an INHIBIT gate was also fabricated. More interestingly, we found that the addition sequence of GSH and Hg(2+) ions influenced the aggregation of gold NPs in a controlled manner, which was used to design a sequential logic gate and a three-input keypad lock for potential use in information security. The GSH strategy addresses concerns of low cost, simple fabrication, versatile design and easy operation, and offers a promising platform for the development of functional logic systems.

  17. Fabrication of tissue engineered tympanic membrane patches using computer-aided design and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Hott, Morgan E; Megerian, Cliff A; Beane, Rich; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2004-07-01

    The goal of the current study was to use computer-aided design and injection molding technologies to tissue engineer precisely shaped cartilage in the shape of butterfly tympanic membrane patches out of chondrocyte-seeded calcium alginate gels. Molds were designed on SolidWorks 2000 and built out of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) using fused deposition modeling (FDM). Tympanic membrane patches were fabricated using bovine articular chondrocytes seeded at 50 x 10 cells/mL in 2% calcium alginate gels. Molded patches were cultured in vitro for up to 10 weeks and assessed biochemically, morphologically, and histologically. Unmolded patches demonstrated outstanding dimensional fidelity, with a volumetric precision of at least 3 microL, and maintained their shape well for up to 10 weeks of in vitro culture. Glycosaminoglycan and collagen content increased steadily over 10 weeks in culture, demonstrating continual deposition of new extracellular matrix consistent with new tissue development. The use of computer-aided design and injection molding technologies allows for the fabrication of very small, precisely shaped chondrocyte-seeded calcium alginate structures that faithfully maintain their shape during in vitro culture. In vitro fabrication of tympanic membrane patches with a precisely controlled geometry may have the potential to provide a minimally invasive alternative to traditional methods for the repair of chronic tympanic membrane perforations.

  18. Design and fabrication of metal-insulator-metal diode for high frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Ibrahim; Ram, Manoj K.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes play significant role in high speed electronics where high frequency rectification is needed. Quantum based tunneling mechanism helps MIM diodes to rectify at high frequency signals. Rectenna, antenna coupled MIM diodes are becoming popular due to their potential use as IR detectors and energy harvesters. Because of small active area, MIM diodes could easily be incorporated into integrated circuits (IC's). The objective of the work is to design and develop MIM diodes for high frequency rectification. In this work, thin insulating layer of ZnO was fabricated using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique which facilitates ultrathin thin, uniform and pinhole free fabrication of insulating layer. The ZnO layer was synthesized from organic precursor of zinc acetate layer. The optimization in the LB technique of fabrication process led to fabricate MIM diodes with high non-linearity and sensitivity. Moreover, the top and bottom electrodes as well as active area of the diodes were patterned using UV-tunneling conduction mechanism. The highest sensitivity of the diode was measured around 37 (A/W), and the rectification ratio was found around 36 under low applied bias at +/-100 mV.

  19. Design and fabrication of plasmonic cavities for magneto-optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, T. H. J.; Roth, J.; Keatley, P. S.; Hendry, E.; Barnes, W. L.; Hicken, R. J.; Einsle, J. F.; Amy, A.; Hendren, W.; Bowman, R. M.; Dawson, P.

    2018-05-01

    The design and fabrication of a novel plasmonic cavity, intended to allow far-field recovery of signals arising from near field magneto-optical interactions, is presented. Finite element modeling is used to describe the interaction between a gold film, containing cross-shaped cavities, with a nearby magnetic under-layer. The modeling revealed strong electric field confinement near the center of the cross structure for certain optical wavelengths, which may be tuned by varying the length of the cross through a range that is compatible with available fabrication techniques. Furthermore, the magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) response of the composite structure can be enhanced with respect to that of the bare magnetic film. To confirm these findings, cavities were milled within gold films deposited upon a soluble film, allowing relocation to a ferromagnetic film using a float transfer technique. Cross cavity arrays were fabricated and characterized by optical transmission spectroscopy prior to floating, revealing resonances at optical wavelengths in good agreement with the finite element modeling. Following transfer to the magnetic film, circular test apertures within the gold film yielded clear magneto-optical signals even for diameters within the sub-wavelength regime. However, no magneto-optical signal was observed for the cross cavity arrays, since the FIB milling process was found to produce nanotube structures within the soluble under-layer that adhered to the gold. Further optimization of the fabrication process should allow recovery of magneto-optical signal from cross cavity structures.

  20. Telecom Link--A Competitive Simulated Design Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, J.; Allen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Telecom link is a structured design exercise concerned with building a telecommunications link between London and Amsterdam. Designed for A-level physics, the simulation requires a minimum of 10 hours. Aims of the exercise, design specifications and technical aspects, and summaries of four possible technologies used in the simulation are…

  1. Fabrication and testing of a newly designed slit system for depth-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Sinsheimer, John; Bouet, Nathalie; Ghose, Sanjit; ...

    2016-10-06

    A new system of slits called `spiderweb slits' have been developed for depth-resolved powder or polycrystalline X-ray diffraction measurements. The slits act on diffracted X-rays to select a particular gauge volume of sample, while absorbing diffracted X-rays from outside of this volume. Although the slit geometry is to some extent similar to that of previously developed conical slits or spiral slits, this new design has advantages over the previous ones in use for complex heterogeneous materials and in situ and operando diffraction measurements. For example, the slits can measure a majority of any diffraction cone for any polycrystalline material, overmore » a continuous range of diffraction angles, and work for X-ray energies of tens to hundreds of kiloelectronvolts. In addition, the design is generated and optimized using ray-tracing simulations, and fabricated through laser micromachining. The first prototype was successfully tested at the X17A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, and shows similar performance to simulations, demonstrating gauge volume selection for standard powders, for all diffraction peaks over angles of 2–10°. A similar, but improved, design will be implemented at the X-ray Powder Diffraction beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II.« less

  2. Fabrication and testing of a newly designed slit system for depth-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements

    SciT

    Sinsheimer, John; Bouet, Nathalie; Ghose, Sanjit

    2016-10-06

    A new system of slits called `spiderweb slits' have been developed for depth-resolved powder or polycrystalline X-ray diffraction measurements. The slits act on diffracted X-rays to select a particular gauge volume of sample, while absorbing diffracted X-rays from outside of this volume. Although the slit geometry is to some extent similar to that of previously developed conical slits or spiral slits, this new design has advantages over the previous ones in use for complex heterogeneous materials andin situandoperandodiffraction measurements. For example, the slits can measure a majority of any diffraction cone for any polycrystalline material, over a continuous range ofmore » diffraction angles, and work for X-ray energies of tens to hundreds of kiloelectronvolts. The design is generated and optimized using ray-tracing simulations, and fabricated through laser micromachining. The first prototype was successfully tested at the X17A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, and shows similar performance to simulations, demonstrating gauge volume selection for standard powders, for all diffraction peaks over angles of 2–10°. A similar, but improved, design will be implemented at the X-ray Powder Diffraction beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II.« less

  3. Design and fabrication of a reflection far ultraviolet polarizer and retarder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jongmin; Zukic, Muamer; Wilson, Michele M.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    New methods have been developed for the design of a far ultraviolet multilayer reflection polarizer and retarder. A MgF2/Al/MgF2 three-layer structure deposited on a thick opaque Al film (substrate) is used for the design of polarizers and retarders. The induced transmission and absorption method is used for the design of a polarizer and layer-by-layer electric field calculation method is used for the design of a quarterwave retarder. In order to fabricate these designs in a conventional high vacuum chamber, we have to minimize the oxidation of the Al layers and somehow characterize the oxidized layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the amount and profile of oxidation. Depth profiling results and a seven layer oxidation model are presented.

  4. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints is reported. The program consists of two concurrent tasks: (1) design and test of specific built up attachments; and (2) evaluation of standard advanced bonded joint concepts. A data base for the design and analysis of advanced composite joints for use at elevated temperatures (561K (550 deg F)) to design concepts for specific joining applications, and the fundamental parameters controlling the static strength characteristics of such joints are evaluated. Data for design and build GR/PI of lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Results for compression and interlaminar shear strengths of Celion 6000/PMR-15 laminates are given. Static discriminator test results for type 3 and type 4 bonded and bolted joints and final joint designs for TASK 1.4 scale up fabrication and testing are presented.

  5. Design and fabrication of a flexible substrate microelectrode array for brain machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Erin; Ordonez, Matthew; Alba, Nicolas; Sanchez, Justin C; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We report a neural microelectrode array design that leverages the recording properties of conventional microwire electrode arrays with the additional features of precise control of the electrode geometries. Using microfabrication techniques, a neural probe array is fabricated that possesses a flexible polyimide-based cable. The performance of the design was tested with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and in vivo studies. The gold-plated electrode site has an impedance value of 0.9 M Omega at 1 kHz. Acute neural recording provided high neuronal yields, peak-to-peak amplitudes (as high as 100 microV), and signal-to-noise ratios (27 dB).

  6. Laminated turbine vane design and fabrication. [utilizing film cooling as a cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    A turbine vane and associated endwalls designed for advanced gas turbine engine conditions are described. The vane design combines the methods of convection cooling and selective areas of full coverage film cooling. The film cooling technique is utilized on the leading edge, pressure side, and endwall regions. The turbine vane involves the fabrication of airfoils from a stack of laminates with cooling passages photoetched on the surface. Cold flow calibration tests, a thermal analysis, and a stress analysis were performed on the turbine vanes.

  7. Design, fabrication and spin testing of ceramic blade metal disk attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, G.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic turbine blade-metal disk attachment was designed for small, non man-rated turbine engine applications. The selected design consisted of a hot pressed silicon nitride blade having a skewed dovetail attachment with a compliant interlayer between the disk and the blade. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses predicted that life goals could be achieved, considering both NDE limitations and crack growth rates for the ceramic material. Twenty ceramic blades were fabricated to closely-held manufacturing tolerances. New fracture mechanics data at elevated temperature are presented.

  8. Preliminary Solar Sail Design and Fabrication Assessment: Spinning Sail Blade, Square Sail Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, J. B.; Dowdle, D. M.; Hahn, D. W.; Hildreth, E. N.; Lagerquist, D. R.; Mahaonoul, E. J.; Munson, J. B.; Origer, T. F.

    1977-01-01

    Blade design aspects most affecting producibility and means of measurement and control of length, scallop, fullness and straightness requirements and tolerances were extensively considered. Alternate designs of the panel seams and edge reinforcing members are believed to offer advantages of seam integrity, producibility, reliability, cost and weight. Approaches to and requirements for highly specialized metalizing methods, processes and equipment were studied and identified. Alternate methods of sail blade fabrication and related special machinery, tooling, fixtures and trade offs were examined. A preferred and recommended approach is also described. Quality control plans, inspection procedures, flow charts and special test equipment associated with the preferred manufacturing method were analyzed and are discussed.

  9. Design of a bounded wave EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevat, P. A. A.

    1989-06-01

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) simulators are used to simulate the EMP generated by a nuclear weapon and to harden equipment against the effects of EMP. At present, DREO has a 1 m EMP simulator for testing computer terminal size equipment. To develop the R and D capability for testing larger objects, such as a helicopter, a much bigger threat level facility is required. This report concerns the design of a bounded wave EMP simulator suitable for testing large size equipment. Different types of simulators are described and their pros and cons are discussed. A bounded wave parallel plate type simulator is chosen for it's efficiency and the least environmental impact. Detailed designs are given for 6 m and 10 m parallel plate type wire grid simulators. Electromagnetic fields inside and outside the simulators are computed. Preliminary specifications for a pulse generator required for the simulator are also given. Finally, the electromagnetic fields radiated from the simulator are computed and discussed.

  10. Simulation of sparse matrix array designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Rainer; Heckel, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Matrix phased array probes are becoming more prominently used in industrial applications. The main drawbacks, using probes incorporating a very large number of transducer elements, are needed for an appropriate cabling and an ultrasonic device offering many parallel channels. Matrix arrays designed for extended functionality feature at least 64 or more elements. Typical arrangements are square matrices, e.g., 8 by 8 or 11 by 11 or rectangular matrixes, e.g., 8 by 16 or 10 by 12 to fit a 128-channel phased array system. In some phased array systems, the number of simultaneous active elements is limited to a certain number, e.g., 32 or 64. Those setups do not allow running the probe with all elements active, which may cause a significant change in the directivity pattern of the resulting sound beam. When only a subset of elements can be used during a single acquisition, different strategies may be applied to collect enough data for rebuilding the missing information from the echo signal. Omission of certain elements may be one approach, overlay of subsequent shots with different active areas may be another one. This paper presents the influence of a decreased number of active elements on the sound field and their distribution on the array. Solutions using subsets with different element activity patterns on matrix arrays and their advantages and disadvantages concerning the sound field are evaluated using semi-analytical simulation tools. Sound field criteria are discussed, which are significant for non-destructive testing results and for the system setup.

  11. Design and Fabrication of High Gain Multi-element Multi-segment Quarter-sector Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Pinku; Gangwar, Ravi Kumar

    2017-12-01

    A novel design and analysis of quarter cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (q-CDRA) with multi-element and multi-segment (MEMS) approach has been presented. The MEMS q-CDRA has been designed by splitting four identical quarters from a solid cylinder and then multi-segmentation approach has been utilized to design q-CDRA. The proposed antenna has been designed for enhancement in bandwidth as well as for high gain. For bandwidth enhancement, multi-segmentation method has been explained for the selection of dielectric constant of materials. The performance of the proposed MEMS q-CDRA has been demonstrated with design guideline of MEMS approach. To validate the antenna performance, three segments q-CDRA has been fabricated and analyzed practically. The simulated results have been in good agreement with measured one. The MEMS q-CDRA has wide impedance bandwidth (|S11|≤-10 dB) of 133.8 % with monopole-like radiation pattern. The proposed MEMS q-CDRA has been operating at TM01δ mode with the measured gain of 6.65 dBi and minimum gain of 4.5 dBi in entire operating frequency band (5.1-13.7 GHz). The proposed MEMS q-CDRA may find appropriate applications in WiMAX and WLAN band.

  12. Design and fabrication of facial prostheses for cancer patient applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Jamayet, Nafij; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad; Luddin, Norhayati; Abdullah, Johari Yap; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Yahya, Suzana

    2016-12-01

    Facial defects are either congenital or caused by trauma or cancer where most of them affect the person appearance. The emotional pressure and low self-esteem are problems commonly related to patient with facial defect. To overcome this problem, silicone prosthesis was designed to cover the defect part. This study describes the techniques in designing and fabrication for facial prosthesis applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM). The steps of fabricating the facial prosthesis were based on a patient case. The patient was diagnosed for Gorlin Gotz syndrome and came to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for prosthesis. The 3D image of the patient was reconstructed from CT data using MIMICS software. Based on the 3D image, the intercanthal and zygomatic measurements of the patient were compared with available data in the database to find the suitable nose shape. The normal nose shape for the patient was retrieved from the nasal digital library. Mirror imaging technique was used to mirror the facial part. The final design of facial prosthesis including eye, nose and cheek was superimposed to see the result virtually. After the final design was confirmed, the mould design was created. The mould of nasal prosthesis was printed using Objet 3D printer. Silicone casting was done using the 3D print mould. The final prosthesis produced from the computer aided method was acceptable to be used for facial rehabilitation to provide better quality of life.

  13. Preliminary results for the design, fabrication, and performance of a backside-illuminated avalanche drift detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yun; Liang, Kun; Chen, Wen-Fei; Han, De-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The detection of low-level light is a key technology in various experimental scientific studies. As a photon detector, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) has gradually become an alternative to the photomultiplier tube (PMT) in many applications in high-energy physics, astroparticle physics, and medical imaging because of its high photon detection efficiency (PDE), good resolution for single-photon detection, insensitivity to magnetic field, low operating voltage, compactness, and low cost. However, primarily because of the geometric fill factor, the PDE of most SiPMs is not very high; in particular, for those SiPMs with a high density of micro cells, the effective area is small, and the bandwidth of the light response is narrow. As a building block of the SiPM, the concept of the backside-illuminated avalanche drift detector (ADD) was first proposed by the Max Planck Institute of Germany eight years ago; the ADD is promising to have high PDE over the full energy range of optical photons, even ultraviolet light and X-ray light, and because the avalanche multiplication region is very small, the ADD is beneficial for the fabrication of large-area SiPMs. However, because of difficulties in design and fabrication, no significant progress had been made, and the concept had not yet been verified. In this paper, preliminary results in the design, fabrication, and performance of a backside-illuminated ADD are reported; the difficulties in and limitations to the backside-illuminated ADD are analyzed.

  14. Design and testing of RFID sensor tag fabricated using inkjet-printing and electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien Dang, Mau; Son Nguyen, Dat; Dung Dang, Thi My; Tedjini, Smail; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric

    2014-06-01

    The passive RFID tag with an added sensing function is of interest to many applications. In particular, applications where RFID tagging is already considered to be the next step, such as food items, are a specific target. This paper demonstrates a flexible RFID tag sensor fabricated using a low cost technique with an added zero-cost sensing function. It is more specifically applied to the sensing of degradable food, in particular beef meat in our demonstrated example. To reach this, the antenna is designed in such a way to be sensitive to the variation of the dielectric permittivity of the meat over time. The design of the sensing tag as well as its fabrication process are described. The fabrication involves inkjet printing of a silver nanoparticle based ink on a commercial low cost PET film to create a seed layer. It is followed by a copper electrodeposition step on top of the silver pattern to complete the tag to obtain the desired thickness and conductivity of the tag antenna. The results of the electrical tests showed that with the inkjet printing-electrodeposition combination it is possible to produce flexible electrically conductive patterns for practical RFID applications. The tag was then tested in close-to-real-world conditions and it is demonstrated that it can provide a sensing function to detect the consumption limit of the packaged beef.

  15. Design and fabrication of a variable optical attenuator based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun; Xu, Su; Tao, Tao; Wang, Qian

    2005-02-01

    In order to obtain a low polarization dependent loss (PDL) and a large attenuation range simultaneously, an optimal design and fabrication of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) based variable optical attenuator (VOA) is presented. First, an optimal diameter of the liquid crystal droplets is determined by the anomalous diffraction approach (ADA). This optimal diameter gives maximal scattering and thus a large attenuation range is achieved with a relatively thin liquid crystal cell. Secondly, the fabrication of PDLC cell is carried out. The influence of the ultraviolet (UV) curing condition on the morphology of the LC droplets is investigated. For a given liquid crystal concentration, the optimal UV curing power is obtained after a series of statistically designed experiments. Finally, an optical configuration of the PDLC based VOA is presented. Measurements of the attenuation and the PDL are carried out with this configuration. The measured results show that the device has a typical attenuation range of 25dB. The corresponding PDL is nearly 1dB and the insertion loss is 1.8dB. The threshold voltage is 8Vrms and the saturation voltage is 40Vrms. From these measured results, one can see that the fabricated VOA based on PDLC is much more practical for optical communications as compared to the existing ones.

  16. Design, fabrication, and test of a graphite/epoxy metering truss. [as applied to the LST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oken, S.; Skoumal, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A graphite/epoxy metering truss as applied to the large space telescope was investigated. A full-scale truss was designed, fabricated and tested. Tests included static limit loadings, a modal survey and thermal-vacuum distortion evaluation. The most critical requirement was the demonstration of the dimensional stability provided by the graphite/epoxy truss concept. Crucial to the attainment of this objective was the ability to make very sophisticated thermal growth measurements which was provided by a seven beam laser interferometer. The design of the basic truss elements were tuned to provide the high degree of dimensional stability and stiffness required by the truss. The struts and spider assembly were fabricated with Fiberite's AS/934 and HMS/934 broadgoods. The rings utilized T300 graphite fabricate with the same materials. The predicted performance of the truss was developed using the NASTRAN program. These results showed conformance with the critical stiffness and thermal distortion requirements and correlated well with the test results.

  17. Design, evaluation, and fabrication of low-cost composite blades for intermediate-size wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1981-01-01

    Low cost approaches for production of 60 ft long glass fiber/resin composite rotor blades for the MOD-OA wind turbine were identified and evaluated. The most cost-effective configuration was selected for detailed design. Subelement and subscale specimens were fabricated for testing to confirm physical and mechanical properties of the composite blade materials, to develop and evaluate blade fabrication techniques and processes, and to confirm the structural adequacy of the root end joint. Full-scale blade tooling was constructed and a partial blade for tool and process tryout was built. Then two full scale blades were fabricated and delivered to NASA-LeRC for installation on a MOD-OA wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico for operational testing. Each blade was 60 ft. long with 4.5 ft. chord at root end and 2575 lbs weight including metal hub adapter. The selected blade configuration was a three cell design constructed using a resin impregnated glass fiber tape winding process that allows rapid wrapping of primarily axially oriented fibers onto a tapered mandrel, with tapered wall thickness. The ring winder/transverse filament tape process combination was used for the first time on this program to produce entire rotor blade structures. This approach permitted the complete blade to be wound on stationary mandrels, an improvement which alleviated some of the tooling and process problems encountered on previous composite blade programs.

  18. Design and Fabrication Highlights Enabling a 2 mm, 128 Element Bolometer Array for GISMO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christine; Benford, Dominic; Miller, Timothy; Staguhn, Johannes; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Harvey

    2007-01-01

    The Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) superconducting bolometer array architecture is intended to be highly versatile, operating in a large range of wavelengths and background conditions. We have undertaken a three-year program to develop key technologies and processes required to build kilopixel arrays. To validate the basic array design and to demonstrate its applicability for future kilopixel arrays, we have chosen to demonstrate a 128 element bolometer array optimized for 2 mm wavelength using a newly built Goddard instrument, GISMO (Goddard /RAM Superconducting 2-millimeter Observer). The arrays are fabricated using batch wafer processing developed and optimized for high pixel yield, low noise, and high uniformity. The molybdenum-gold superconducting transition edge sensors are fabricated using batch sputter deposition and are patterned using dry etch techniques developed at Goddard. With a detector pitch of 2 mm 8x16 array for GISMO occupies nearly one half of the processing area of a 100 mm silicon-on-insulator starting wafer. Two such arrays are produced from a single wafer along with witness samples for process characterization. To provide thermal isolation for the detector elements, at the end of the process over 90% of the silicon must be removed using deep reactive ion etching techniques. The electrical connections for each bolometer element are patterned on the top edge of the square grid supporting the array. The design considerations unique to GISMO, key fabrication challenges, and laboratory experimental results will be presented.

  19. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Design, Fabrication and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geels, Randall Scott

    The theory, design, fabrication, and testing of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is explored in depth. The design of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors is thoroughly treated and both analytic and numerical approaches for computing the reflectivity are covered. The electrical properties of the DBR mirrors are also considered and graded interfaces are found to be critical in reducing the series voltage drop in the mirrors. Thickness variations due to growth rate uncertainties are considered and the permissible thickness inaccuracies are discussed. Layer thickness variations of several percent can be tolerated without large changes in the threshold current. The growth of VCSELs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is described in detail as is the device processing technology for broad area as well as small area devices. Results from numerous devices are reported. Broad area in-plane lasers were used to characterize the material and determine the internal parameters. Broad area VCSELs were fabricated to determine the characteristics of the VCSEL cavity. Small area VCSELs were fabricated and extensively tested. Measured and derived parameters from small area devices include: threshold current (~0.7 mA), peak output power (>3 mW), maximum operation temperature (>110^ circC), output power at 100^ circC (~0.4 mW), and linewidth (85 MHz). The near field, far field, and polarization characteristics were also measured.

  20. AVCS Simulator Test Plan and Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelden, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Internal document for communication of AVCS direction and documentation of simulator functionality. Discusses methods for AVCS simulation evaluation of pilot functions, implementation strategy of varying functional representation of pilot tasks (by instantiations of a base AVCS to reasonably approximate the interface of various vehicles -- e.g. Altair, GlobalHawk, etc.).

  1. Phobos: Simulation-Driven Design for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crues, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Edwin "Zack" Crues presented an overview of the current use of modeling and simulation technologies by the NASA Exploration Systems Simulations (NExSyS) team in investigating the spacecraft and missions for the human exploration of Mars' moon Phobos.

  2. Fabrication of nano-scale Cu bond pads with seal design in 3D integration applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, K N; Tsang, C K; Wu, W W; Lee, S H; Lu, J Q

    2011-04-01

    A method to fabricate nano-scale Cu bond pads for improving bonding quality in 3D integration applications is reported. The effect of Cu bonding quality on inter-level via structural reliability for 3D integration applications is investigated. We developed a Cu nano-scale-height bond pad structure and fabrication process for improved bonding quality by recessing oxides using a combination of SiO2 CMP process and dilute HF wet etching. In addition, in order to achieve improved wafer-level bonding, we introduced a seal design concept that prevents corrosion and provides extra mechanical support. Demonstrations of these concepts and processes provide the feasibility of reliable nano-scale 3D integration applications.

  3. Design, fabrication and test of prototype furnace for continuous growth of wide silicon ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    A program having the overall objective of growing wide, thin silicon dendritic web crystals quasi-continuously from a semi-automated facility is discussed. The design considerations and fabrication of the facility as well as the test and operation phase are covered; detailed engineering drawings are included as an appendix. During the test and operation phase of the program, more than eighty growth runs and numerous thermal test runs were performed. At the conclusion of the program, 2.4 cm wide web was being grown at thicknesses of 100 to 300 micrometers. As expected, the thickness and growth rate are closely related. Solar cells made from this material were tested at NASA-Lewis and found to have conversion efficiencies comparable to devices fabricated from Czochralski material.

  4. Fabrication and performance analysis of a DEA cuff designed for dry-suit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, S.; Camacho Mattos, A.; Barbazza, A.; Soleimani, M.; Boscariol, P.; Menon, C.

    2013-03-01

    A method for manufacturing a cylindrical dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented. The cylindrical DEA can be used in fabricating the cuff area of dry-suits where the garment is very tight and wearing the suit is difficult. When electrically actuated, the DEA expands radially and the suit can be worn more comfortably. In order to study the performance of the DEA, a customized testing setup was designed, and silicone-made cuff samples with different material stiffnesses were tested. Analytical and FEM modeling were considered to evaluate the experimental output. The results revealed that although the stiffness of the DEA material has a direct relationship with the radial constrictive pressure caused by mechanically stretching the DEA, it has a minor effect on the actuation pressure. It was also found that stacking multiple layers of the DEA to fabricate a laminated structure enabled the attainment of a desired variation of pressure required for the implementation of an electrically tunable cuff.

  5. Design and fabrication of a large area freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Sangu, Suguru; Ono, Takahito

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the design and fabrication of a 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window without buckling. An application of the SiO2 optical window with and without liquid penetration has been demonstrated for an optical modulator and its optical characteristic is evaluated by using an image sensor. Two methods for SiO2 optical window fabrication have been presented. The first method is a combination of silicon etching and a thermal oxidation process. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (deep RIE) are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. The large compressive stress of the oxide causes buckling of the optical window, which is reduced by optimizing the design of the device structure. A magnetron-type RIE, which is investigated for deep SiO2 etching, is the second method. This method achieves deep SiO2 etching together with smooth surfaces, vertical shapes and a high aspect ratio. Additionally, in order to avoid a wrinkling optical window, the idea of a Peano curve structure has been proposed to achieve a freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window. A 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm optical window area without buckling integrated with an image sensor for an optical modulator has been successfully fabricated. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations have been performed in cases with and without liquid penetration.

  6. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now.

  7. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  8. Design, modeling, and fabrication of crab-shape capacitive microphone using silicon-on-isolator wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, Bahram Azizollah; Sedaghat, Sedighe Babaei; Roncaglia, Alberto; Belsito, Luca; Ansari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents design, modeling, and fabrication of a crab-shape microphone using silicon-on-isolator (SOI) wafer. SOI wafer is used to prevent the additional deposition of sacrificial and diaphragm layers. The holes have been made on diaphragm to prevent back plate etching. Dry etching is used for removing the sacrificial layer, because wet etching causes adhesion between the diaphragm and the back plate. Crab legs around the perforated diaphragm allow for improving the microphone performance and reducing the mechanical stiffness and air damping of the microphone. In this structure, the supply voltage is decreased due to the uniform deflection of the diaphragm due to the designed low-K (spring constant) structure. An analytical model of the structure for description of microphone behavior is presented. The proposed method for estimating the basic parameters of the microphone is based on the calculation of the spring constant using the energy method. The microphone is fabricated using only one mask to pattern the crab-shape diaphragm, resulting in a low-cost and easy fabrication process. The diaphragm size is 0.3 mm×0.3 mm, which is smaller than the conventional microelectromechanical systems capacitive microphone. The results show that the analytical equations have a good agreement with measurement results. The device has the pull-in voltage of 14.3 V, a resonant frequency of 90 kHz, an open-circuit sensitivity of 1.33 mV/Pa under bias voltage of 5 V. Comparing with previous works, this microphone has several advantages: SOI wafer decreases the fabrication process steps, the microphone is smaller than the previous works, and crab-shape diaphragm improves the microphone performances.

  9. 100-kW hingeless metal wind turbine blade design, analysis and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donham, R. E.; Schmidt, J.; Linscott, B. S.

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication and analysis of aluminum wind turbine rotor blades is discussed. The blades are designed to meet criteria established for a 100-kilowatt wind turbine generator operating between 8 and 60-mile-per-hour speeds at 40 revolutions per minute. The design wind speed is 18 miles per hour. Two rotor blades are used on a new facility which includes a hingeless hub and its shaft, gearbox, generator and tower. Experience shows that, for stopped rotors, safe wind speeds are strongly dependent on blade torsional and bending rigidities which the basic D spar structural blade design provides. The 0.25-inch-thick nose skin is brake/bump formed to provide the basic 'D' spar structure for the tapered, twisted blades. Adequate margins for flutter and divergence are predicted from the use of existing, correlated stopped rotor and helicopter rotor analysis programs.

  10. Simulation and fabrication of 0-3 composite PZT films for ultrahigh frequency (100-300 MHz) ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Fei, Chunlong; Chen, Zeyu; Chen, Ruimin; Yu, Ping; Chen, Zhongping; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents simulation, fabrication, and characterization of single-element ultrahigh frequency (100-300-MHz) needle ultrasonic transducers based on 0-3 composite Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films prepared by using composite ceramic sol-gel film and sol-infiltration technique. The center frequency of the developed transducer at 300-MHz was the highest frequency of PbTiO3 ceramic-based ultrasonic transducers ever reported. Furthermore, a brief description of the composite model was followed by the development of a new expression for predicting the longitudinal velocity, the clamped dielectric constant, and the complex electromechanical coupling coefficient kt of these films, which is very important in ultrasonic transducer design. Moreover, these parameters are difficult to obtain by measuring the frequency dependence of impedance and phase angle because of the weak signal of the previous 0-3 composite films transducer (>100 MHz). The modeling results show that the Cubes model with a geometric factor n = 0.05 fits well with the measured data. This model will be helpful for developing the 0-3 composite systems for ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer design.

  11. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Thin Film Structures through Oxidation Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Leon, Juan Jose

    Materials science and engineering is devoted to the understanding of the physics and chemistry of materials at the mesoscale and to applying that knowledge into real-life applications. In this work, different oxide materials and different oxidation methods are studied from a materials science point of view and for specific applications. First, the deposition of complex metal oxides is explored for solar energy concentration. This requires a number of multi-cation oxide structures such as thin-film dielectric barriers, low loss waveguides or the use of continuously graded composition oxides for antireflection coatings and light concentration. Then, oxidation via Joule heating is used for the self-alignment of a selector on top of a memristor structure on a nanovia. Simulations are used to explore the necessary voltage for the insulator-to-metal transition temperature of NbO2 using finite element analysis, followed by the fabrication and the characterization of such a device. Finally, long-term copper oxidation at room temperature and pressure is studied using optical techniques. Alternative characterization techniques are used to confirm the growth rate and phase change, and an application of copper oxide as a volatile conductive bridge is shown. All these examples show how the combination of novel simulation, fabrication and characterization techniques can be used to understand physical mechanisms and enable disruptive technologies in fields such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors or memory devices.

  12. Overview of the Design, Fabrication and Performance Requirements of Micro-Spec, an Integrated Submillimeter Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrentine, Emily M.; Noroozian, Omid; Brown, Ari D.; Cataldo, Giuseppe; Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Micro-Spec is a compact submillimeter (350-700 GHz) spectrometer which uses low loss superconducting niobium microstrip transmission lines and a single-crystal silicon dielectric to integrate all of the components of a grating-analog spectrometer onto a single chip. Here we present details of the fabrication and design of a prototype Micro-Spec spectrometer with resolution, R64, where we use a high-yield single-flip wafer bonding process to realize instrument components on a 0.45 m single-crystal silicon dielectric. We discuss some of the electromagnetic design concerns (such as loss, stray-light, cross-talk, and fabrication tolerances) for each of the spectrometer components and their integration into the instrument as a whole. These components include a slot antenna with a silicon lens for optical coupling, a phase delay transmission line network, parallel plate waveguide interference region, and aluminum microstrip transmission line kinetic inductance detectors with extremely low cross-talk and immunity to stray light. We have demonstrated this prototype spectrometer with design resolution of R64. Given the optical performance of this prototype, we will also discuss the extension of this design to higher resolutions suitable for balloon-flight.

  13. Design, Fabrication, and Shakeout Testing of ATALANTE Dissolver Off-Gas Sorbent-Based Capture System

    SciT

    Walker, Jr, Joseph Franklin; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Jordan, Jacob A.

    A sorbent-based capture system designed for integration into the existing dissolver off-gas (DOG) treatment system at the ATelier Alpha et Laboratoires pour ANalyses, Transuraniens et Etudes de retraitement (ATALANTE) facility has been successfully designed and fabricated and has undergone shakeout testing. Discussions with personnel from the ATALANTE facility provided guidance that was used for the design. All components for this system were specified, procured, and received on site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system was then fabricated and tested at ORNL to verify operation. Shakeout testing resulted in a simplified system. This system should be easily installed intomore » the existing facility and should be straightforward to operate during future experimental testing. All parts were selected to be compatible with ATALANTE power supplies, space requirements, and the existing DOG treatment system. Additionally, the system was demonstrated to meet all of four design requirements. These include (1) a dissolver off-gas flow rate of ≤100 L/h (1.67 L/min), (2) an external temperature of ≤50°C for all system components placed in the hot cell, (3) a sorbent bed temperature of ~150°C, and (4) a gas temperature of ~150°C upon entry into the sorbent bed. The system will be ready for shipment and installation in the existing DOG treatment system at ATALANTE in FY 2016.« less

  14. Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luwen; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhao, Youran; An, Zijiang; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2011-10-01

    An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) with a compound anode flow field structure (composed of the parallel flow field and the perforated flow field) is designed, fabricated and tested. To better analyze the effect of the compound anode flow field on the mass transfer of methanol, the compound flow field with different open ratios (ratio of exposure area to total area) and thicknesses of current collectors is modeled and simulated. Micro process technologies are employed to fabricate the end plates and current collectors. The performances of the μDMFC with a compound anode flow field are measured under various operating parameters. Both the modeled and the experimental results show that, comparing the conventional parallel flow field, the compound one can enhance the mass transfer resistance of methanol from the flow field to the anode diffusion layer. The results also indicate that the μDMFC with an anode open ratio of 40% and a thickness of 300 µm has the optimal performance under the 7 M methanol which is three to four times higher than conventional flow fields. Finally, a 2 h stability test of the μDMFC is performed with a methanol concentration of 7 M and a flow velocity of 0.1 ml min-1. The results indicate that the μDMFC can work steadily with high methanol concentration.

  15. Design, Fabrication, and Packaging of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers for Biological Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Joseph

    Optical biological sensors are widely used in the fields of medical testing, water treatment and safety, gene identification, and many others due to advances in nanofabrication technology. This work focuses on the design of fiber-coupled Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) based biosensors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Silicon waveguide sensors are designed with multimode and single-mode dimensions. Input coupling efficiency is investigated by design of various taper structures. Integration processing and packaging is performed for fiber attachment and enhancement of input coupling efficiency. Optical guided-wave sensors rely on single-mode operation to extract an induced phase-shift from the output signal. A silicon waveguide MZI sensor designed and fabricated for both multimode and single-mode dimensions. Sensitivity of the sensors is analyzed for waveguide dimensions and materials. An s-bend structure is designed for the multimode waveguide to eliminate higher-order mode power as an alternative to single-mode confinement. Single-mode confinement is experimentally demonstrated through near field imaging of waveguide output. Y-junctions are designed for 3dB power splitting to the MZI arms and for power recombination after sensing to utilize the interferometric function of the MZI. Ultra-short 10microm taper structures with curved geometries are designed to improve insertion loss from fiber-to-chip without significantly increasing device area and show potential for applications requiring misalignment tolerance. An novel v-groove process is developed for self-aligned integration of fiber grooves for attachment to sensor chips. Thermal oxidation at temperatures from 1050-1150°C during groove processing creates an SiO2 layer on the waveguide end facet to protect the waveguide facet during integration etch processing without additional e-beam lithography processing. Experimental results show improvement of insertion loss compared to dicing preparation

  16. Some Current Problems in Simulator Design, Testing and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Concerned with the general problem of the effectiveness of simulator training, this report reflects information developed during the conduct of aircraft simulator training research projects sponsored by the Air Force, Army, Navy, and Coast Guard. Problems are identified related to simulator design, testing, and use, all of which impact upon…

  17. Design, fabrication, and testing of a low frequency MEMS piezoelectromagnetic energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Egon; Martin, Blake; Rua, Isabel; Zarabi, Sid; Debéda, Hélène; Nairn, David; Wei, Lan; Salehian, Armaghan

    2018-03-01

    This paper details a power solution for smart grid applications to replace batteries by harvesting the electromagnetic energy from a current-carrying wire. A MEMS piezoelectromagnetic energy harvester has been fabricated using PZT screen-printing technology with a centrally-supported meandering geometry. The energy harvesting device employs a symmetric geometry to increase its power output by reducing the effects of the torsional modes and the resultant overall strain nodes in the system subsequently reduce the complexities for the electrode fabrication. The unit is modelled using COMSOL to determine mode shapes and frequency response functions. A 12.7 mm by 14.7 mm unit is fabricated by screen-printing 75 μm-thick PZT on a stainless steel substrate and then experimentally tested to validate the FEA results. Experimentally, the harvester is shown to produce 9 μW from a wire carrying 7 A while operating at a distance of 6.5 mm from the wire. The design of the current work results in a greater normalized power density than other MEMS based piezoelectromagnetic devices and shows great potential relative to larger devices that use bulk or thin film piezoelectrics.

  18. Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics: design, manufacture and performance.

    PubMed

    Barletta, M; Vesco, S; Tagliaferri, V

    2014-08-01

    Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings are of utmost interest in several manufacturing domains. In particular, fabrics and textile materials are often pre-treated by impregnation or incorporation with antimicrobial pesticides for protection purposes against bacteria and fungi that are pathogenic for man or other animals. In this respect, the present investigation deals with the design and manufacture of self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics. The functionalization of the coatings was yield by incorporating active inorganic matter alone (i.e., photo-catalytic TiO2 anatase and Ag(+) ions) inside an organic inorganic hybrid binder. The achieved formulations were deposited on coextruded polyvinylchloride-polyester fabrics by air-mix spraying and left to dry at ambient temperature. The performance of the resulting coatings were characterized for their self-cleaning and self-sanitizing ability according to standardized testing procedure and/or applicable international regulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High Reynolds Number Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) Flight Experiment. 3; Leading Edge Design, Fabrication, and Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the suction panel and the required support structure, ducting, valving, and high-lift system (Krueger flaps) for flight demonstration of hybrid laminar flow control on the Boeing 757 airplane.

  20. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Changhui; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zimian; Lin, Hui; Zhen, Yongqiang; Liao, Suixiang

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM) technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient’s body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient’s surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness) were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units) in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians. PMID:28773730

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM).

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Changhui; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zimian; Lin, Hui; Zhen, Yongqiang; Liao, Suixiang

    2016-07-22

    In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM) technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient's body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient's surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness) were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units) in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  2. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Elizabeth; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems (called the DAWN Project, for Design Assistant Workstation), incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulation such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components are discussed.

  3. Using IMPRINT to Guide Experimental Design with Simulated Task Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    USING IMPRINT TO GUIDE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF SIMULATED TASK ENVIRONMENTS THESIS Gregory...ENG-MS-15-J-052 USING IMPRINT TO GUIDE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN WITH SIMULATED TASK ENVIRONMENTS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department...Civilian, USAF June 2015 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-J-052 USING IMPRINT

  4. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

  5. Design and Fabrication of Aspheric Microlens Array for Optical Read-Only-Memory Card System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hongmin; Jeong, Gibong; Kim, Young‑Joo; Kang, Shinill

    2006-08-01

    An optical head based on the Talbot effect with an aspheric microlens array for an optical read-only-memory (ROM) card system was designed and fabricated. The mathematical expression for the wavefield diffracted by a periodic microlens array showed that the amplitude distribution at the Talbot plane from the focal plane of the microlens array was identically equal to that at the focal plane. To use a reflow microlens array as a master pattern of an ultraviolet-imprinted (UV-imprinted) microlens array, the reflow microlens was defined as having an aspheric shape. To obtain optical probes with good optical qualities, a microlens array with the minimum spherical aberration was designed by ray tracing. The reflow condition was optimized to realize the master pattern of a microlens with a designed aspheric shape. The intensity distribution of the optical probes at the Talbot plane from the focal plane showed a diffraction-limited shape.

  6. Understanding the significance variables for fabrication of fish gelatin nanoparticles by Plackett-Burman design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subara, Deni; Jaswir, Irwandi; Alkhatib, Maan Fahmi Rashid; Noorbatcha, Ibrahim Ali

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to screen and to understand the process variables on the fabrication of fish gelatin nanoparticles by using quality-design approach. The most influencing process variables were screened by using Plackett-Burman design. Mean particles size, size distribution, and zeta potential were found in the range 240±9.76 nm, 0.3, and -9 mV, respectively. Statistical results explained that concentration of acetone, pH of solution during precipitation step and volume of cross linker had a most significant effect on particles size of fish gelatin nanoparticles. It was found that, time and chemical consuming is lower than previous research. This study revealed the potential of quality-by design in understanding the effects of process variables on the fish gelatin nanoparticles production.

  7. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of an Auxiliary Cooling System for Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leamy, Kevin; Griffiths, Jim; Andersen, Paul; Joco, Fidel; Laski, Mark; Balser, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical effort of the Active Cooling for Enhanced Performance (ACEP) program sponsored by NASA. It covers the design, fabrication, and integrated systems testing of a jet engine auxiliary cooling system, or turbocooler, that significantly extends the use of conventional jet fuel as a heat sink. The turbocooler is designed to provide subcooled cooling air to the engine exhaust nozzle system or engine hot section. The turbocooler consists of three primary components: (1) a high-temperature air cycle machine driven by engine compressor discharge air, (2) a fuel/ air heat exchanger that transfers energy from the hot air to the fuel and uses a coating to mitigate fuel deposits, and (3) a high-temperature fuel injection system. The details of the turbocooler component designs and results of the integrated systems testing are documented. Industry Version-Data and information deemed subject to Limited Rights restrictions are omitted from this document.

  8. Design and Fabrication of Opacity Targets for the National Ignition Facility

    SciT

    Cardenas, Tana; Schmidt, Derek William; Dodd, Evan S.

    Accurate models for opacity of partially ionized atoms are important for modeling and understanding stellar interiors and other high-energy-density phenomena such as inertial confinement fusion. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is leading a multilaboratory effort to conduct experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to try to reproduce recent opacity tests at the Sandia National Laboratory Z-facility. Since 2015, the NIF effort has evolved several hohlraum designs that consist of multiple pieces joined together. The target also has three components attached to the main stalk over a long distance with high tolerances that have resulted in several design iterations. The targetmore » has made use of rapid prototyped features to attach a capsule and collimator under the hohlraum while avoiding interference with the beams. Furthermore, this paper discusses the evolution of the hohlraum and overall target design and the challenges involved with fabricating and assembling these targets.« less

  9. Design and Fabrication of Opacity Targets for the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Cardenas, Tana; Schmidt, Derek William; Dodd, Evan S.; ...

    2017-12-22

    Accurate models for opacity of partially ionized atoms are important for modeling and understanding stellar interiors and other high-energy-density phenomena such as inertial confinement fusion. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is leading a multilaboratory effort to conduct experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to try to reproduce recent opacity tests at the Sandia National Laboratory Z-facility. Since 2015, the NIF effort has evolved several hohlraum designs that consist of multiple pieces joined together. The target also has three components attached to the main stalk over a long distance with high tolerances that have resulted in several design iterations. The targetmore » has made use of rapid prototyped features to attach a capsule and collimator under the hohlraum while avoiding interference with the beams. Furthermore, this paper discusses the evolution of the hohlraum and overall target design and the challenges involved with fabricating and assembling these targets.« less

  10. Design of a micro-Wankel rotary engine for MEMS fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kyle C.; Prewett, Philip D.; Ward, M. C. L.; Tian, Y.; Yang, H.

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the design of a micro Wankel engine for deep etching micro fabrication. The micro engine design is part of a research program in progress to develop a micro actuator to supply torque for driving micro machines. To begin with, the research work concentrates on the micro Wankel engine powered by liquid CO2. Then, a Wankel internal combustion engines will be investigated. The Wankel engine is a planetary rotation engine. It is selected because of its largely 2D structure which is suitable for lithographic processes. The engine has been simplified and redesigned to suit the fabrication processes. In particular, the fuel inlet has been moved to the top cover of the housing from the side, and the outlet is made as a groove on the housing, so that the both parts can be etched. A synchronization valve is mounted on the engine to control the supply of CO2. One of advantages of the micro engines is their high energy density compared with batteries. A research study has been conducted in comparing energy densities of commonly used fuels. It shows that the energy densities of fuels for combustion engines are 10 - 30 times higher than that of batteries. The deigns of the micro Wankel engines have been tested for verification by finite element analysis, CAD assembly, and construction of a prototype, which proves the design is valid.

  11. Design, Fabrication and Integration of a NaK-Cooled Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has been tasked by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Nuclear Systems Office to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit. The system, which was originally designed for use with a eutectic mixture of sodium potassium (NaK), was redesigned to for use with lithium. Due to a shi$ in focus, it is once again being prepared for use with NaK. Changes made to the actively pumped, high temperature circuit include the replacement of the expansion reservoir, addition of remotely operated valves, and modification of the support table. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and a spill reservoir. A 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a fill design) was selected for fabrication and test. This paper summarizes the integration and preparations for the fill of the pumped liquid metal NaK flow circuit.

  12. Design and Fabrication of a 5-kWe Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Peter A.; Walter, Thomas J.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in the design and fabrication of a 5-kWe free-piston Stirling power conversion system is described. A scaled-down version of the successful 12.5-kWe Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) developed under NAS3-25463, this single cylinder prototype incorporates cost effective and readily available materials (steel versus beryllium) and components (a commercial linear alternator). The design consists of a displacer suspended on internally pumped gas bearings and a power piston/alternator supported on flexures. Non-contacting clearance seals are used between internal volumes. Heat to and from the prototype is supplied via pumped liquid loops passing through shell and tube heat exchangers. The control system incorporates several novel ideas such as a pulse start capability and a piston stroke set point control strategy that provides the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power. It also ensures stable response to various disturbances such as electrical load variations while providing useful data regarding the position of both power piston and displacer. All design and analysis activities are complete and fabrication is underway. Prototype test is planned for summer 2008 at Foster-Miller to characterize the dynamics and steady-state operation of the prototype and determine maximum power output and system efficiency. Further tests will then be performed at Auburn University to determine start-up and shutdown characteristics and assess transient response to temperature and load variations.

  13. Off-Line Quality Control In Integrated Circuit Fabrication Using Experimental Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadke, M. S.; Kackar, R. N.; Speeney, D. V.; Grieco, M. J.

    1987-04-01

    Off-line quality control is a systematic method of optimizing production processes and product designs. It is widely used in Japan to produce high quality products at low cost. The method was introduced to us by Professor Genichi Taguchi who is a Deming-award winner and a former Director of the Japanese Academy of Quality. In this paper we will i) describe the off-line quality control method, and ii) document our efforts to optimize the process for forming contact windows in 3.5 Aim CMOS circuits fabricated in the Murray Hill Integrated Circuit Design Capability Laboratory. In the fabrication of integrated circuits it is critically important to produce contact windows of size very near the target dimension. Windows which are too small or too large lead to loss of yield. The off-line quality control method has improved both the process quality and productivity. The variance of the window size has been reduced by a factor of four. Also, processing time for window photolithography has been substantially reduced. The key steps of off-line quality control are: i) Identify important manipulatable process factors and their potential working levels. ii) Perform fractional factorial experiments on the process using orthogonal array designs. iii) Analyze the resulting data to determine the optimum operating levels of the factors. Both the process mean and the process variance are considered in this analysis. iv) Conduct an additional experiment to verify that the new factor levels indeed give an improvement.

  14. Design and Fabrication of the All-Reflecting H-Lyman alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Johnson, R. Barry; Fineschi, Silvano; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Baker, Phillip C.; Zukic , Muamer; Kim, Jongmin

    1993-01-01

    We have designed, analyzed, and are now fabricating an All-Reflecting H-Lyman alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter for solar research. This new instrument operates in a narrow bandpass centered at lambda 1215.7 A-the neutral hydrogen Lyman alpha (Ly-alpha) line. It is shorter and faster than the telescope which produced solar Ly-alpha images as a part of the MSSTA payload that was launched on May 13, 1991. The Ly-alpha line is produced and linearly polarized in the solar corona by resonance scattering, and the presence of a magnetic field modifies this polarization according to the Hanle effect. The Lyman alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter instrument has been designed to measure coronal magnetic fields by interpreting, via the Hanle effect, the measured linear polarization of the coronal Ly-alpha line. Ultrasmooth mirrors, polarizers, and filters are being flow-polished for this instrument from CVD silicon carbide substrates. These optical components will be coated using advanced induced transmission and absorption thin film multilayer coatings, to optimize the reflectivity and polarization properties at 1215.7 A. We describe some of the solar imaging results obtained with the MSSTA Lyman alpha coronagraph. We also discuss the optical design parameters and fabrication plans for the All-Reflecting H-Lyman alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter.

  15. Infrastructure for the design and fabrication of MEMS for RF/microwave and millimeter wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerguizian, Vahe; Rafaf, Mustapha

    2004-08-01

    This article describes and provides valuable information for companies and universities with strategies to start fabricating MEMS for RF/Microwave and millimeter wave applications. The present work shows the infrastructure developed for RF/Microwave and millimeter wave MEMS platforms, which helps the identification, evaluation and selection of design tools and fabrication foundries taking into account packaging and testing. The selected and implemented simple infrastructure models, based on surface and bulk micromachining, yield inexpensive and innovative approaches for distributed choices of MEMS operating tools. With different educational or industrial institution needs, these models may be modified for specific resource changes using a careful analyzed iteration process. The inputs of the project are evaluation selection criteria and information sources such as financial, technical, availability, accessibility, simplicity, versatility and practical considerations. The outputs of the project are the selection of different MEMS design tools or software (solid modeling, electrostatic/electromagnetic and others, compatible with existing standard RF/Microwave design tools) and different MEMS manufacturing foundries. Typical RF/Microwave and millimeter wave MEMS solutions are introduced on the platform during the evaluation and development phases of the project for the validation of realistic results and operational decision making choices. The encountered challenges during the investigation and the development steps are identified and the dynamic behavior of the infrastructure is emphasized. The inputs (resources) and the outputs (demonstrated solutions) are presented in tables and flow chart mode diagrams.

  16. Optimal design and fabrication of ring resonator composed of Ge02-doped silica waveguides for IOG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lijun; Shi, Bangren; Chen, Chen; Lv, Hao; Zhao, Zhenming; Zhao, Meng

    2009-07-01

    The ring resonator is the core sensing element in the resonant integration optical gyroscope (IOG) . Its performances influence the minimum resolution and the error items of gyroscope directly and it is the key of the design and manufacturing. This paper presents optimal design of ring resonator composed of Ge02 -doped silica waveguides fabricated on silicon substrates using wide angle beam propagation method (WA-BPM). The characteristic of the light propagating across the ring resonator is analyzed. According to the design results, we succeed in fabricating the ring resonator by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) method and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) technology. In order to characterize the ring resonator, an optical measurement setup is built, fiber laser line-width is 50 kHz, detector responsibility is 0.95A/W and integral time is 10s. By testing, propagation loss and total loss of ring resonator are 0.02dB/cm and 0.1dB/circuit respectively. Observed from the resonance curve, a finesse of 12.5.

  17. Design, development, fabrication and delivery of register and multiplexer units. [CMOS monolithic chip development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.; Lombardi, T.

    1978-01-01

    Several approaches for implementing the register and multiplexer unit into two CMOS monolithic chip types were evaluated. The CMOS standard cell array technique was selected and implemented. Using this design automation technology, two LSI CMOS arrays were designed, fabricated, packaged, and tested for proper static, functional, and dynamic operation. One of the chip types, multiplexer register type 1, is fabricated on a 0.143 x 0.123 inch chip. It uses nine standard cell types for a total of 54 standard cells. This involves more than 350 transistors and has the functional equivalent of 111 gates. The second chip, multiplexer register type 2, is housed on a 0.12 x 0.12 inch die. It uses 13 standard cell types, for a total of 42 standard cells. It contains more than 300 transistors, the functional equivalent of 112 gates. All of the hermetically sealed units were initially screened for proper functional operation. The static leakage and the dynamic leakage were measured. Dynamic measurements were made and recorded. At 10 V, 14 megabit shifting rates were measured on multiplexer register type 1. At 5 V these units shifted data at a 6.6 MHz rate. The units were designed to operate over the 3 to 15 V operating range and over a temperature range of -55 to 125 C.

  18. Design and Fabrication of High-Performance LWIR Photodetectors Based on Type-II Superlattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-11

    SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 NUMBER(S) AFRL -RV-PS-TR-2017-0090 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public...unlimited. 13 DISTRIBUTION LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2017-0090 TR-2017-0090 DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF HIGH- PERFORMANCE LWIR PHOTODETECTORS BASED ON TYPE-II SUPERLATTICES

  19. Design, fabrication and characterisation of a microfluidic time-temperature indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, P.; Wedrich, K.; Müller, L.; Mehner, H.; Hoffmann, M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes a concept for a passive microfluidic time-temperature indicator (TTI) intended for intelligent food packaging. A microfluidic system is presented that makes use of the temperature-dependent flow of suitable food ingredients in a microcapillary. Based on the creeping distance inside the capillary, the time-temperature integral can be determined. A demonstrator of the microsystem has been designed, fabricated and characterised using liquid sugar alcohols as indicator fluids. To enable a first wireless read-out of the passive TTI, the sensor was read out using a commercial RFID equipment, and capacitive measurements have been carried out.

  20. Design and Fabrication of a Magnetic System to Investigate Magnetized Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Evan M.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2013-10-01

    The interest in researching the dynamics and equilibrium of magnetized dusty plasma crystallization has led to the design and fabrication of a novel experimental setup at UMBC. The proposed magnets will be an important subsystem of this setup, and will produce a uniform magnetic field of several tesla for a duration of several seconds. The magnets will be arranged in the Helmholtz configuration and will have a cooling system for temperature compensation of the coils, as well as the ability to adjust the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to gravity. Planned experiments include propagation of magnetized waves in dusty plasma crystals under various boundary conditions.

  1. Design, fabrication, and structural testing of a lightweight shadow shield for deep-space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miao, D.; Barber, J. R.; Dewitt, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two full-scale, lightweight, double-sheeted shadow shields were developed as the primary element of a deep-space thermal protection system for liquid-hydrogen propellant tankage. The thermal and mechanical considerations used in s, the method of fabrication, and the environmental testing results on a prototype shield are discussed. Testing consisted of a transient cooldown period, a prolonged cold soak, and a transient warmup. The mechanical and thermal analyses used in the shield design are sufficient to produce a lightweight rugged shadow shield assembly that is structurally adequate for its intended application.

  2. Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP): The User Interface for the Fabrication Module of the Rapid Design System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    plan. The Fabrication Planning Module automatically creates a plan using information from the Feature Based Design Environment (FBDE) of the RDS. It...llll By using the user Interface, the final process plan can be modified in many different ways. The translation of a design feature to a more...for the review and modification of a process plan. The Fabrication Planning Module automatically creates a plan using information from the Feature Based

  3. Design, ancillary testing, analysis and fabrication data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parsons, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Results of tests conducted to demonstrate that composite structures save weight, possess long term durability, and can be fabricated at costs competitive with conventional metal structures are presented with focus on the use of graphite-epoxy in the design of a stabilizer for the Boeing 737 aircraft. Component definition, materials evaluation, material design properties, and structural elements tests are discussed. Fabrication development, as well as structural repair and inspection are also examined.

  4. Superconductive ADC Project Fabrication Package. Final Design Review Package (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-07

    Simulation Results Iin 1.45mV 2.5Ω 1pH 4pH 100fF 310uA 1fΩ Ic = 300uA Rn = 0.8Ω Cs = 0.32pF Ic = 300uA Rn = 0.8Ω Cs = 0.32pF Iin Vout Vout Ic = 500uA Rn...0.55Ω Cs = 0.32pF ONR Superconductive ADC CLIN/SLIN 0001AD September 2010, Brad Perranoski Pg. 17 Modulator Design Documentation Comparator Design...Comparator Design - Cadence Schematic & Simulation Comparator Testbench Simulation Results 1.45mV 2.5Ω 1pH 4pH 100fF 310uA 1fΩSine wave 100uApk Iin Ic

  5. Optimum spaceborne computer system design by simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T.; Kerner, H.; Weatherbee, J. E.; Taylor, D. S.; Hodges, B.

    1973-01-01

    A deterministic simulator is described which models the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System (ARMMS), a candidate computer system for future manned and unmanned space missions. Its use as a tool to study and determine the minimum computer system configuration necessary to satisfy the on-board computational requirements of a typical mission is presented. The paper describes how the computer system configuration is determined in order to satisfy the data processing demand of the various shuttle booster subsytems. The configuration which is developed as a result of studies with the simulator is optimal with respect to the efficient use of computer system resources.

  6. Optimum spaceborne computer system design by simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T.; Weatherbee, J. E.; Taylor, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    A deterministic digital simulation model is described which models the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System (ARMMS), a candidate computer system for future manned and unmanned space missions. Use of the model as a tool in configuring a minimum computer system for a typical mission is demonstrated. The configuration which is developed as a result of studies with the simulator is optimal with respect to the efficient use of computer system resources, i.e., the configuration derived is a minimal one. Other considerations such as increased reliability through the use of standby spares would be taken into account in the definition of a practical system for a given mission.

  7. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The current and near-future state-of-the-art in visual simulation equipment technology is related to the requirements of the space shuttle visual system. Image source, image sensing, and displays are analyzed on a subsystem basis, and the principal conclusions are used in the formulation of a recommended baseline visual system. Perceptibility and visibility are also analyzed.

  8. 3D finite element simulation of non-crimp fabric composites ultrasonic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Saffari, N.; Fromme, P.

    2012-05-01

    Composite materials offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. Different types of composites, such as non-crimp fabrics (NCF), are currently being investigated as they offer reduced manufacturing costs and improved damage tolerance as compared to traditional pre-impregnated composite materials. NCF composites are made from stitched fiber bundles (tows), which typically have a width and thickness of less than a millimeter. This results in strongly inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties. Different types of manufacturing imperfections, such as porosity, resin pockets, tow crimp and misalignment can lead to reduced material strength and thus to defects following excessive loads or impact, e.g., fracture and delaminations. The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of NCF composites is difficult, as the tow size is comparable to the wavelength, leading to multiple scattering in this inherently three-dimensional structure. For typical material properties and geometry of an NCF composite, a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed in ABAQUS. The propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been simulated and the effect of multiple scattering at the fiber tows investigated. The influence of porosity in the epoxy matrix as a typical manufacturing defect on the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation has been studied.

  9. USGS Geospatial Fabric and Geo Data Portal for Continental Scale Hydrology Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Viger, R.; Hay, L.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes use of United States Geological Survey (USGS) data products and server-based resources for continental-scale hydrologic simulations. The USGS Modeling of Watershed Systems (MoWS) group provides a consistent national geospatial fabric built on NHDPlus. They have defined more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs) over the continental United States based on points of interest (POIs) and split into left and right bank based on the corresponding stream segment. Geophysical attributes are calculated for each HRU that can be used to define parameters in hydrologic and land-surface models. The Geo Data Portal (GDP) project at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) provides access to downscaled climate datasets and processing services via web-interface and python modules for creating forcing datasets for any polygon (such as an HRU). These resources greatly reduce the labor required for creating model-ready data in-house, contributing to efficient and effective modeling applications. We will present an application of this USGS cyber-infrastructure for assessments of impacts of climate change on hydrology over the continental United States.

  10. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  11. Designing of PLA scaffolds for bone tissue replacement fabricated by ordinary commercial 3D printer.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Aleš; Filová, Eva; Novák, Martin; Kronek, Jakub; Chlup, Hynek; Buzgo, Matěj; Blahnová, Veronika; Lukášová, Věra; Bartoš, Martin; Nečas, Alois; Hošek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of Tissue engineering is a regeneration or replacement of tissues or organs damaged by disease, injury, or congenital anomalies. At present, Tissue engineering repairs damaged tissues and organs with artificial supporting structures called scaffolds. These are used for attachment and subsequent growth of appropriate cells. During the cell growth gradual biodegradation of the scaffold occurs and the final product is a new tissue with the desired shape and properties. In recent years, research workplaces are focused on developing scaffold by bio-fabrication techniques to achieve fast, precise and cheap automatic manufacturing of these structures. Most promising techniques seem to be Rapid prototyping due to its high level of precision and controlling. However, this technique is still to solve various issues before it is easily used for scaffold fabrication. In this article we tested printing of clinically applicable scaffolds with use of commercially available devices and materials. Research presented in this article is in general focused on "scaffolding" on a field of bone tissue replacement. Commercially available 3D printer and Polylactic acid were used to create originally designed and possibly suitable scaffold structures for bone tissue engineering. We tested printing of scaffolds with different geometrical structures. Based on the osteosarcoma cells proliferation experiment and mechanical testing of designed scaffold samples, it will be stated that it is likely not necessary to keep the recommended porosity of the scaffold for bone tissue replacement at about 90%, and it will also be clarified why this fact eliminates mechanical properties issue. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the size of an individual pore could be double the size of the recommended range between 0.2-0.35 mm without affecting the cell proliferation. Rapid prototyping technique based on Fused deposition modelling was used for the fabrication of designed scaffold

  12. Design and fabrication of directional diffractive device on glass substrate for multiview holographic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanfeng; Cai, Zhijian; Liu, Quan; Zou, Wenlong; Guo, Peiliang; Wu, Jianhong

    2018-01-01

    Multiview holographic 3D display based on the nano-grating patterned directional diffractive device can provide 3D images with high resolution and wide viewing angle, which has attracted considerable attention. However, the current directional diffractive device fabricated on the photoresist is vulnerable to damage, which will lead to the short service life of the device. In this paper, we propose a directional diffractive device on glass substrate to increase its service life. In the design process, the period and the orientation of the nano-grating at each pixel are carefully calculated accordingly by the predefined position of the viewing zone, and the groove parameters are designed by analyzing the diffraction efficiency of the nano-grating pixel on glass substrate. In the experiment, a 4-view photoresist directional diffractive device with a full coverage of pixelated nano-grating arrays is efficiently fabricated by using an ultraviolet continuously variable spatial frequency lithography system, and then the nano-grating patterns on the photoresist are transferred to the glass substrate by combining the ion beam etching and the reactive ion beam etching for controlling the groove parameters precisely. The properties of the etched glass device are measured under the illumination of a collimated laser beam with a wavelength of 532nm. The experimental results demonstrate that the light utilization efficiency is improved and optimized in comparison with the photoresist device. Furthermore, the fabricated device on glass substrate is easier to be replicated and of better durability and practicability, which shows great potential in the commercial applications of 3D display terminal.

  13. Design and Fabrication of the Second-Generation KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantoni, I.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cruciani, A.; Bellini, F.; Castellano, M. G.; Cosmelli, C.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the cryogenic wide-area light detectors with excellent resolution project is the development of light detectors with large active area and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS using phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double readout of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work we present the fabrication process, starting from the silicon wafer arriving to the single chip. In the first part of the project, we designed and fabricated KID detectors using aluminum. Detectors are designed by means of state-of-the-art software for electromagnetic analysis (SONNET). The Al thin films (40 nm) are evaporated on high-quality, high-resistivity (> 10 kΩ cm) Si(100) substrates using an electron beam evaporator in a HV chamber. Detectors are patterned in direct-write mode, using electron beam lithography (EBL), positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate and lift-off process. Finally, the chip is diced into 20 × 20 mm2 chips and assembled in a holder OFHC (oxygen-free high conductivity) copper using PTFE support. To increase the energy resolution of our detectors, we are changing the superconductor to sub-stoichiometric TiN (TiN x ) deposited by means of DC magnetron sputtering. We are optimizing its deposition by means of DC magnetron reactive sputtering. For this kind of material, the fabrication process is subtractive and consists of EBL patterning through negative tone resist AR-N 7700 and deep reactive ion etching. Critical temperature of TiN x samples was measured in a dedicated cryostat.

  14. [Design and fabrication of the custom-made titanium condyle by selective laser melting technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianyu; Luo, Chongdai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Gong; Qiu, Weiqian; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-10-01

    To design and fabricate the custom-made titanium mandibular condyle by the reverse engineering technology combined with selective laser melting (SLM) technology and to explore the mechanical properties of the SLM-processed samples and the application of the custom-made condyle in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstruction. The three-dimensional model of the mandibular condyle was obtained from a series of CT databases. The custom-made condyle model was designed by the reverse engineering software. The mandibular condyle was made of titanium powder with a particle size of 20-65 µm as the basic material and the processing was carried out in an argon atmosphere by the SLM machine. The yield strength, ultimate strength, bending strength, hardness, surface morphology and roughness were tested and analyzed. The finite element analysis (FEA) was used to analyze the stress distribution. The complex geometry and the surface of the custom-made condyle can be reproduced precisely by the SLM. The mechanical results showed that the yield strength, ultimate strength, bending strength and hardness were (559±14) MPa, (659±32) MPa, (1 067±42) MPa, and (212±4)HV, respectively. The surface roughness was reduced by sandblast treatment. The custom-made titanium condyle can be fabricated by SLM technology which is time-saving and highly digitized. The mechanical properties of the SLM sample can meet the requirements of surgical implant material in the clinic. The possibility of fabricating custom-made titanium mandibular condyle combined with the FEA opens new interesting perspectives for TMJ reconstruction.

  15. Design and fabrication of Rene 41 advanced structural panels. [their performance under axial compression, shear, and bending loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, B. E.; Northrup, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency was investigated of curved elements in the design of lightweight structural panels under combined loads of axial compression, inplane shear, and bending. The application is described of technology generated in the initial aluminum program to the design and fabrication of Rene 41 panels for subsequent performance tests at elevated temperature. Optimum designs for two panel configurations are presented. The designs are applicable to hypersonic airplane wing structure, and are designed specifically for testing at elevated temperature in the hypersonic wing test structure located at the NASA Flight Research Center. Fabrication methods developed to produce the Rene panels are described, and test results of smaller structural element specimens are presented to verify the design and fabrication methods used. Predicted strengths of the panels under several proposed elevated temperature test load conditions are presented.

  16. MIRAGE: developments in IRSP systems, RIIC design, emitter fabrication, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Paul; Oleson, Jim; James, Jay; McHugh, Steve; Lannon, John; Vellenga, David; Goodwin, Scott; Huffman, Alan; Solomon, Steve; Goldsmith, George C., II

    2005-05-01

    SBIR's family of MIRAGE infrared scene projection systems is undergoing significant growth and expansion. The first two lots of production IR emitters have completed fabrication at Microelectronics Center of North Carolina/Research and Development Institute (MCNC-RDI), and the next round(s) of emitter production has begun. These latest emitter arrays support programs such as Large Format Resistive Array (LFRA), Optimized Array for Space-based Infrared Simulation (OASIS), MIRAGE 1.5, and MIRAGE II. We present the latest performance data on emitters fabricated at MCNC-RDI, plus integrated system performance on recently completed IRSP systems. Teamed with FLIR Systems/Indigo Operations, SBIR and the Tri-Services IRSP Working Group have completed development of the CMOS Read-In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) portion of the Wide Format Resistive Array (WFRA) program-to extend LFRA performance to a 768 x 1536 "wide screen" projection configuration. WFRA RIIC architecture and performance is presented. Finally, we summarize development of the LFRA Digital Emitter Engine (DEE) and OASIS cryogenic package assemblies, the next-generation Command & Control Electronics (C&CE).

  17. Design and fabrication of sub-wavelength annular apertures on fiber tip for femtosecond laser machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Yen-Chun; Chung, Ming-Han; Sung, I.-Hui; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Adopting optical technique to pursue micromachining must make a compromise between the focal spot sizes the depth of focus. The focal spot size determines the minimum features can be fabricated. On the other hand, the depth of focus influences the ease of alignment in positioning the fabrication light beam. A typical approach to bypass the diffraction limit is to adopt the near-field approach, which has spot size in the range of the optical fiber tip. However, the depth of focus of the emitted light beam will be limited to tens of nanometers in most cases, which posts a difficult challenge to control the distance between the optical fiber tip and the sample to be machined optically. More specifically, problems remained in this machining approach, which include issues such as residue induced by laser ablation tends to deposit near the optical fiber tip and leads to loss of coupling efficiency. We proposed a method based on illuminating femtosecond laser through a sub-wavelength annular aperture on metallic film so as to produce Bessel light beam of sub-wavelength while maintaining large depth of focus first. To further advance the ease of use in one such system, producing sub-wavelength annular aperture on a single mode optical fiber head with sub-wavelength focusing ability is detailed. It is shown that this method can be applied in material machining with an emphasis to produce high aspect ratio structure. Simulations and experimental results are presented in this paper.

  18. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    SciT

    Peterson, Reid A.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. Themore » simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.« less

  19. Design and Fabrication of an Elastomeric Unit for Soft Modular Robots in Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    PubMed

    De Falco, Iris; Gerboni, Giada; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-11-14

    In recent years, soft robotics technologies have aroused increasing interest in the medical field due to their intrinsically safe interaction in unstructured environments. At the same time, new procedures and techniques have been developed to reduce the invasiveness of surgical operations. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been successfully employed for abdominal interventions, however standard MIS procedures are mainly based on rigid or semi-rigid tools that limit the dexterity of the clinician. This paper presents a soft and high dexterous manipulator for MIS. The manipulator was inspired by the biological capabilities of the octopus arm, and is designed with a modular approach. Each module presents the same functional characteristics, thus achieving high dexterity and versatility when more modules are integrated. The paper details the design, fabrication process and the materials necessary for the development of a single unit, which is fabricated by casting silicone inside specific molds. The result consists in an elastomeric cylinder including three flexible pneumatic actuators that enable elongation and omni-directional bending of the unit. An external braided sheath improves the motion of the module. In the center of each module a granular jamming-based mechanism varies the stiffness of the structure during the tasks. Tests demonstrate that the module is able to bend up to 120° and to elongate up to 66% of the initial length. The module generates a maximum force of 47 N, and its stiffness can increase up to 36%.

  20. Recent Advances in Designing and Fabricating Self‐Supported Nanoelectrodes for Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaping; Liu, Long; Vellacheri, Ranjith

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Owing to the outstanding advantages as electrical energy storage system, supercapacitors have attracted tremendous research interests over the past decade. Current research efforts are being devoted to improve the energy storage capabilities of supercapacitors through either discovering novel electroactive materials or nanostructuring existing electroactive materials. From the device point of view, the energy storage performance of supercapacitor not only depends on the electroactive materials themselves, but importantly, relies on the structure of electrode whether it allows the electroactive materials to reach their full potentials for energy storage. With respect to utilizing nanostructured electroactive materials, the key issue is to retain all advantages of the nanoscale features for supercapacitors when being assembled into electrodes and the following devices. Rational design and fabrication of self‐supported nanoelectrodes is therefore considered as the most promising strategy to address this challenge. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in designing and fabricating self‐supported nanoelectrodes for supercapacitors towards high energy storage capability. Self‐supported homogeneous and heterogeneous nanoelectrodes in the forms of one‐dimensional (1D) nanoarrays, two‐dimensional (2D) nanoarrays, and three‐dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures are introduced with their representative results presented. The challenges and perspectives in this field are also discussed. PMID:29051862

  1. Design and fabrication of a multilayered polymer microfluidic chip with nanofluidic interconnects via adhesive contact printing.

    PubMed

    Flachsbart, Bruce R; Wong, Kachuen; Iannacone, Jamie M; Abante, Edward N; Vlach, Robert L; Rauchfuss, Peter A; Bohn, Paul W; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Shannon, Mark A

    2006-05-01

    The design and fabrication of a multilayered polymer micro-nanofluidic chip is described that consists of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layers that contain microfluidic channels separated in the vertical direction by polycarbonate (PC) membranes that incorporate an array of nanometre diameter cylindrical pores. The materials are optically transparent to allow inspection of the fluids within the channels in the near UV and visible spectrum. The design architecture enables nanofluidic interconnections to be placed in the vertical direction between microfluidic channels. Such an architecture allows microchannel separations within the chip, as well as allowing unique operations that utilize nanocapillary interconnects: the separation of analytes based on molecular size, channel isolation, enhanced mixing, and sample concentration. Device fabrication is made possible by a transfer process of labile membranes and the development of a contact printing method for a thermally curable epoxy based adhesive. This adhesive is shown to have bond strengths that prevent leakage and delamination and channel rupture tests exceed 6 atm (0.6 MPa) under applied pressure. Channels 100 microm in width and 20 microm in depth are contact printed without the adhesive entering the microchannel. The chip is characterized in terms of resistivity measurements along the microfluidic channels, electroosmotic flow (EOF) measurements at different pH values and laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) detection of green-fluorescent protein (GFP) plugs injected across the nanocapillary membrane and into a microfluidic channel. The results indicate that the mixed polymer micro-nanofluidic multilayer chip has electrical characteristics needed for use in microanalytical systems.

  2. Design and fabrication of cascaded dichromate gelatin holographic filters for spectrum-splitting PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2018-01-01

    The technique of designing, optimizing, and fabricating broadband volume transmission holograms using dichromate gelatin (DCG) is summarized for solar spectrum-splitting applications. The spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (PV) system uses a series of single-bandgap PV cells that have different spectral conversion efficiency properties to more fully utilize the solar spectrum. In such a system, one or more high-performance optical filters are usually required to split the solar spectrum and efficiently send them to the corresponding PV cells. An ideal spectral filter should have a rectangular shape with sharp transition wavelengths. A methodology of designing and modeling a transmission DCG hologram using coupled wave analysis for different PV bandgap combinations is described. To achieve a broad diffraction bandwidth and sharp cutoff wavelength, a cascaded structure of multiple thick holograms is described. A search algorithm is then developed to optimize both single- and two-layer cascaded holographic spectrum-splitting elements for the best bandgap combinations of two- and three-junction spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (SSPV) systems illuminated under the AM1.5 solar spectrum. The power conversion efficiencies of the optimized systems are found to be 42.56% and 48.41%, respectively, using the detailed balance method, and show an improvement compared with a tandem multijunction system. A fabrication method for cascaded DCG holographic filters is also described and used to prototype the optimized filter for the three-junction SSPV system.

  3. Design, fabrication and actuation of a MEMS-based image stabilizer for photographic cell phone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hung, Chen-Chun; Lin, Chun-Ying

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a MEMS-based image stabilizer applied for anti-shaking function in photographic cell phones. The proposed stabilizer is designed as a two-axis decoupling XY stage 1.4 × 1.4 × 0.1 mm3 in size, and adequately strong to suspend an image sensor for anti-shaking photographic function. This stabilizer is fabricated by complex fabrication processes, including inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processes and flip-chip bonding technique. Based on the special designs of a hollow handle layer and a corresponding wire-bonding assisted holder, electrical signals of the suspended image sensor can be successfully sent out with 32 signal springs without incurring damage during wire-bonding packaging. The longest calculated traveling distance of the stabilizer is 25 µm which is sufficient to resolve the anti-shaking problem in a three-megapixel image sensor. Accordingly, the applied voltage for the 25 µm moving distance is 38 V. Moreover, the resonant frequency of the actuating device with the image sensor is 1.123 kHz.

  4. Design and Fabrication of an Elastomeric Unit for Soft Modular Robots in Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Iris; Gerboni, Giada; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, soft robotics technologies have aroused increasing interest in the medical field due to their intrinsically safe interaction in unstructured environments. At the same time, new procedures and techniques have been developed to reduce the invasiveness of surgical operations. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been successfully employed for abdominal interventions, however standard MIS procedures are mainly based on rigid or semi-rigid tools that limit the dexterity of the clinician. This paper presents a soft and high dexterous manipulator for MIS. The manipulator was inspired by the biological capabilities of the octopus arm, and is designed with a modular approach. Each module presents the same functional characteristics, thus achieving high dexterity and versatility when more modules are integrated. The paper details the design, fabrication process and the materials necessary for the development of a single unit, which is fabricated by casting silicone inside specific molds. The result consists in an elastomeric cylinder including three flexible pneumatic actuators that enable elongation and omni-directional bending of the unit. An external braided sheath improves the motion of the module. In the center of each module a granular jamming-based mechanism varies the stiffness of the structure during the tasks. Tests demonstrate that the module is able to bend up to 120° and to elongate up to 66% of the initial length. The module generates a maximum force of 47 N, and its stiffness can increase up to 36%. PMID:26650236

  5. Design, Fabrication, and Calibration of an Embedded Piezoceramic Actuator for Active Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopmann, Gary H.; Lesieutre, George A.; Yoshikawa, Shoko; Chen, Weicheng; Fahnline, John B.; Pai, Suresh; Dershem, Brian

    1996-01-01

    In this presentation, the authors describe the design and fabrication processes for a PZT strain actuator that evolved during the initial stages of a research effort to synthesize and process intelligent, cost effective structures (SPICES). The actuator performance requirements were similar to those of conventional actuators, e.g., it had to be robust, highly efficient with adequate force and stroke, as lightweight as possible, and most importantly, affordable. Further, since the actuator was to be integrated within a composite structure, it had to be compatible with the host material and easily embeddable during the fabrication process. In control applications employing strain devices as actuators, a good bond between this actuator and host material is critical to their successful operation. This criterion is often difficult to achieve when attempting to join ceramics with metals or polymers with dissimilar properties such as Young's moduli, thermal expansion coefficients, etc. One unique feature of the actuator design that evolved in this project is that the need for direct bonding between the PZT ceramic and polymers was circumvented, i.e. the strain transfer to the host material was achieved via a frame surrounding the ceramic. Consequently, the frame material could be selected (or coated) for compatibility with the host material. A second feature is that the frame enclosed a co-fired, multilayered, PZT stack that was used to minimize the voltage requirements while maximizing the output strain.

  6. Design and fabrication of N x N optical couplers based on organic polymer optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krchnavek, Robert R.; Rode, Daniel L.

    1994-08-01

    In this report, we examine the design and fabrication of a planar, 10x10 optical coupler utilizing photopolymerizable organic polymers. Background information on the theory of operation of the coupler culminating in a set of design equations is presented. The details of the material processing are described, including the preparation of monomer mixtures that result in single-mode polymer waveguides (lambda = 1300 nm) that have core dimensions approximately equal to those of single-mode fiber. This is necessary to insure high coupling efficiency between the planar device and optical fiber. A unique method of aligning and attaching optical fibers to the coupler is demonstrated. This method relies on patterned alignment ways, a transcision cut, and single-mode D-fiber. A theoretical analysis of the in situ monitoring technique used to fabricate the single-mode D-fiber is presented and compared favorably with the experimental results. Finally, the 10x10 coupler is characterized. We have measured an excess loss of approximately 8 dB.

  7. Design, analyses, fabrication and characterization of Nb3Sn coil in 1 W pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Kumar, Nitish; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory scale Nb3Sn coil is designed, analysed, fabricated and characterized in 1 W pulse tube cryocooler in solid nitrogen cooling mode and in conduction cooling mode. The magnetic field profile in axial and radial direction, Lorentz force component across the winding volume in operational condition are estimated in COMSOL. The coil is designed for 1.5 T at 100 A. It is fabricated in wind and react method. Before winding, the insulated Nb3Sn strand is wound on a copper mandrel which is thermally anchored with the 2nd stage of the cold head unit via a 10 mm thick copper ‘Z’ shaped plate The temperature distribution in 2nd cold stage, copper z plate and coil is monitored in both solid nitrogen cooling and conduction cooling mode. In solid nitrogen cooling mode, the quench of the coil occurs at 150 A for 0.01 A/s current ramp rate. The magnetic field at the centre of the coil bore is measured using transverse Hall sensor. The measured magnetic field value is compared with the analytical field value and they are found to be deviating ∼5% in magnitude. Again the coil is tested in conduction cooling mode maintaining the same current ramp rate and it is observed that the coil gets quenched at 70 A at temperature ∼ 10K.

  8. Recent Advances in Designing and Fabricating Self-Supported Nanoelectrodes for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huaping; Liu, Long; Vellacheri, Ranjith; Lei, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Owing to the outstanding advantages as electrical energy storage system, supercapacitors have attracted tremendous research interests over the past decade. Current research efforts are being devoted to improve the energy storage capabilities of supercapacitors through either discovering novel electroactive materials or nanostructuring existing electroactive materials. From the device point of view, the energy storage performance of supercapacitor not only depends on the electroactive materials themselves, but importantly, relies on the structure of electrode whether it allows the electroactive materials to reach their full potentials for energy storage. With respect to utilizing nanostructured electroactive materials, the key issue is to retain all advantages of the nanoscale features for supercapacitors when being assembled into electrodes and the following devices. Rational design and fabrication of self-supported nanoelectrodes is therefore considered as the most promising strategy to address this challenge. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in designing and fabricating self-supported nanoelectrodes for supercapacitors towards high energy storage capability. Self-supported homogeneous and heterogeneous nanoelectrodes in the forms of one-dimensional (1D) nanoarrays, two-dimensional (2D) nanoarrays, and three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures are introduced with their representative results presented. The challenges and perspectives in this field are also discussed.

  9. Design optimization and fabrication of a novel structural piezoresistive pressure sensor for micro-pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuang; Cordovilla, Francisco; Ocaña, José L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel structural piezoresistive pressure sensor with a four-beams-bossed-membrane (FBBM) structure that consisted of four short beams and a central mass to measure micro-pressure. The proposed structure can alleviate the contradiction between sensitivity and linearity to realize the micro measurement with high accuracy. In this study, the design, fabrication and test of the sensor are involved. By utilizing the finite element analysis (FEA) to analyze the stress distribution of sensitive elements and subsequently deducing the relationships between structural dimensions and mechanical performance, the optimization process makes the sensor achieve a higher sensitivity and a lower pressure nonlinearity. Based on the deduced equations, a series of optimized FBBM structure dimensions are ultimately determined. The designed sensor is fabricated on a silicon wafer by using traditional MEMS bulk-micromachining and anodic bonding technology. Experimental results show that the sensor achieves the sensitivity of 4.65 mV/V/kPa and pressure nonlinearity of 0.25% FSS in the operating range of 0-5 kPa at room temperature, indicating that this novel structure sensor can be applied in measuring the absolute micro pressure lower than 5 kPa.

  10. Design, fabrication, and packaging of an integrated, wirelessly-powered optrode array for optogenetics application

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Weber, Arthur; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED) coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED) chips and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS) system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments. PMID:25999823

  11. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of SMA Enabled Adaptive Chevrons for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Cano, Roberto J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the status and results from an effort to design, fabricate, and test an adaptive jet engine chevron concept based upon embedding shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in a composite laminate, termed a SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC). The approach for fabricating the adaptive SMAHC chevrons involves embedding prestrained Nitinol actuators on one side of the mid-plane of the composite laminate such that thermal excitation generates a thermal moment and deflects the structure. A glass-epoxy pre-preg/Nitinol ribbon material system and a vacuum hot press consolidation approach are employed. A versatile test system for control and measurement of the chevron deflection performance is described. Projection moire interferometry (PMI) is used for global deformation measurement and infrared (IR) thermography is used for 2-D temperature measurement and feedback control. A recently commercialized constitutive model for SMA and SMAHC materials is used in the finite element code ABAQUS to perform nonlinear static analysis of the chevron prototypes. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured chevron deflection performance, thereby validating the design tool. Although the performance results presented in this paper fall short of the requirement, the concept is proven and an approach for achieving the performance objectives is evident.

  12. Design and fabrication of a foldable 3D silicon based package for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskij, R.; Liu, P.; van Zeijl, H. W.; Mimoun, B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Miniaturization of solid state lighting (SSL) luminaires as well as reduction of packaging and assembly costs are of prime interest for the SSL lighting industry. A novel silicon based LED package for lighting applications is presented in this paper. The proposed design consists of 5 rigid Si tiles connected by flexible polyimide hinges with embedded interconnects (ICs). Electrical, optical and thermal characteristics were taken into consideration during design. The fabrication process involved polyimide (PI) application and patterning, aluminium interconnect integration in the flexible hinge, LED reflector cavity formation and metalization followed by through wafer DRIE etching for chip formation and release. A method to connect chip front to backside without TSVs was also integrated into the process. Post-fabrication wafer level assembly included LED mounting and wirebond, phosphor-based colour conversion and silicone encapsulation. The package formation was finalized by vacuum assisted wrapping around an assembly structure to form a 3D geometry, which is beneficial for omnidirectional lighting. Bending tests were performed on the flexible ICs and optical performance at different temperatures was evaluated. It is suggested that 3D packages can be expanded to platforms for miniaturized luminaire applications by combining monolithic silicon integration and system-in-package (SiP) technologies.

  13. Simulation Data Management - Requirements and Design Specification

    SciT

    Clay, Robert L.; Friedman-Hill, Ernest J.; Gibson, Marcus J.

    Simulation Data Management (SDM), the ability to securely organize, archive, and share analysis models and the artifacts used to create them, is a fundamental requirement for modern engineering analysis based on computational simulation. We have worked separately to provide secure, network SDM services to engineers and scientists at our respective laboratories for over a decade. We propose to leverage our experience and lessons learned to help develop and deploy a next-generation SDM service as part of a multi-laboratory team. This service will be portable across multiple sites and platforms, and will be accessible via a range of command-line tools andmore » well-documented APIs. In this document, we’ll review our high-level and low-level requirements for such a system, review one existing system, and briefly discuss our proposed implementation.« less

  14. Design, fabrication, test, qualification and price analysis for third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated program plan is presented showing the task descriptions depicting the work, progress, achievements, and the cause of any deviations from the original plan (SC-1), and how this impacted on the original schedule of the program. In addition there is an update documenting all design alterations made during the pre-production phase and a complete up to date set of engineering and manufacturing documentation (CM-1). The purpose of the work in the original plan was to explore, design, develop, test, and deliver 1000 watts of prototype flat plate, photovoltaic modules appropriate for use in applications in the 20 to 500 kilowatt range and which show potential for meeting the 1986 cost goals.

  15. Applying quality by design (QbD) concept for fabrication of chitosan coated nanoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhijeet P; Karande, Kiran P; Sonawane, Raju O; Deshmukh, Prashant K

    2014-03-01

    In the present investigation, a quality by design (QbD) strategy was successfully applied to the fabrication of chitosan-coated nanoliposomes (CH-NLPs) encapsulating a hydrophilic drug. The effects of the processing variables on the particle size, encapsulation efficiency (%EE) and coating efficiency (%CE) of CH-NLPs (prepared using a modified ethanol injection method) were investigated. The concentrations of lipid, cholesterol, drug and chitosan; stirring speed, sonication time; organic:aqueous phase ratio; and temperature were identified as the key factors after risk analysis for conducting a screening design study. A separate study was designed to investigate the robustness of the predicted design space. The particle size, %EE and %CE of the optimized CH-NLPs were 111.3 nm, 33.4% and 35.2%, respectively. The observed responses were in accordance with the predicted response, which confirms the suitability and robustness of the design space for CH-NLP formulation. In conclusion, optimization of the selected key variables will help minimize the problems related to size, %EE and %CE that are generally encountered when scaling up processes for NLP formulations. The robustness of the design space will help minimize both intra-batch and inter-batch variations, which are quite common in the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments. [spacecraft control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design, analysis, and testing performed to develop four types of graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI) bonded and bolted composite joints for lightly loaded control surfaces on advanced space transportation systems that operate at temperatures up to 561 K (550 F) are summarized. Material properties and small specimen tests were conducted to establish design data and to evaluate specific design details. Static discriminator tests were conducted on preliminary designs to verify structural adequacy. Scaled up specimens of the final joint designs, representative of production size requirements, were subjected to a series of static and fatigue tests to evaluate joint strength. Effects of environmental conditioning were determined by testing aged (125 hours at 589 K (600 F)) and thermal cycled (116 K to 589 K (-250 F to 600 F), 125 times) specimens. It is concluded Gr/PI joints can be designed and fabricated to carry the specified loads. Test results also indicate a possible resin loss or degradation of laminates after exposure to 589 K (600 F) for 125 hours.

  17. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polymide composite joints and attachments: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    The design, analysis and testing performed to develop four types of graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI) bonded and bolted composite joints for lightly loaded control surfaces on advanced space transportation systems that operate at temperatures up to 561K (550 F) are summarized. Material properties and 'small specimen' tests were conducted to establish design data and to evaluate specific design details. 'Static discriminator' tests were conducted on preliminary designs to verify structural adequacy. Scaled up specimens of the final joint designs, representative of production size requirements, were subjected to a series of static and fatigue tests to evaluate joint strength. Effects of environmental conditioning were determined by testing aged (125 hours 589K (600 F)) and thermal cycled (116K to 589K (-250 F to 600 F), 125 times) specimens. It is concluded Gr/PI joints can be designed and fabricated to carry the specified loads. Test results also indicate a possible resin loss or degradation of laminates after exposure to 589K (600 F) for 125 hours.

  18. Low-Cost Approach to the Design and Fabrication of a LOX/RP-1 Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shadoan, Michael D.; Sparks, Dave L.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has designed, built, and is currently testing Fastrac, a liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP-1 fueled 60K-lb thrust class rocket engine. One facet of Fastrac, which makes it unique is that it is the first large-scale engine designed and developed in accordance with the Agency's mandated "faster, better, cheaper" (FBC) program policy. The engine was developed under the auspices of MSFC's Low Cost Boost Technology office. Development work for the main injector actually began in 1993 in subscale form. In 1996, work began on the full-scale unit approximately 1 year prior to initiation of the engine development program. In order to achieve the value goals established by the FBC policy, a review of traditional design practices was necessary. This internal reevaluation would ultimately challenge more conventional methods of material selection. design process, and fabrication techniques. The effort was highly successful. This "new way" of thinking has resulted in an innovative injector design, one with reduced complexity and significantly lower cost. Application of lessons learned during this effort to new or existing designs can have a similar effect on costs and future program successes.

  19. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  20. Particle Dynamics Simulation for Aeroengine Intake Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-10

    Turbo Propulsores. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. ß Particle impingement angle p Fluid...2. March-April 1995. [4] Hamed, A., "Particle Dynamics of Inlet Flowfields with Swirling Vanes ". Journal of Aircraft ., Vol.19, Sep 1982, pp 707-712...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited ISABE 99-7280 PARTICLE DYNAMICS SIMULATION FOR AEROENGINE INTAKE

  1. Numerically design the injection process parameters of parts fabricated with ramie fiber reinforced green composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. P.; He, L. P.; Chen, D. C.; Lu, G.; Li, W. J.; Yuan, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The warpage deformation plays an important role on the performance of automobile interior components fabricated with natural fiber reinforced composites. The present work investigated the influence of process parameters on the warpage behavior of A pillar trim made of ramie fiber (RF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites (RF/PP) via numerical simulation with orthogonal experiment method and range analysis. The results indicated that fiber addition and packing pressure were the most important factors affecting warpage. The A pillar trim can achieved the minimum warpage value as of 2.124 mm under the optimum parameters. The optimal process parameters are: 70% percent of the default value of injection pressure for the packing pressure, 20 wt% for the fiber addition, 185 °C for the melt °C for the mold temperature, 7 s for the filling time and 17 s for the packing time.

  2. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E.; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulations, such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The paper reports on the Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components.

  3. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of MIM Diodes and Frequency Selective Thermal Emitters for Solar Energy Harvesting and Detection Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Saumya

    could be achieved in this case. These long chain polymeric molecules exhibit a two-dimensional molecular assembly thereby reducing the tunneling distance between the metal electrodes on either side of the insulating layer. Rectification ratios as high as 450:1 at +/-200mV were obtained for an MIM diode configuration of Ni-LB films of Arachidic Acid films-(Au/Pd). The bandwidth of the incident radiation that can be used by this rectenna assembly is limited to 9.5% of 30THz or +/-1.5THz from the center frequency based on the antenna designs which were proposed for this research. This bandwidth constraint has led to research in the field of frequency selective emitters capable of providing a narrowband emission around 30THz. Several grating structures were fabricated in the form of Ni-Si periodic arrays, in a cleanroom environment using photolithography, sputtering and deep reactive ion etching. These frequency selective samples were characterized with the help of focusing optics, monochromators and HgCdTe detectors. The results obtained from the emission spectra were utilized to calibrate a simulation model with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) which uses numerous robust solving techniques, such as the finite element method, in order to obtain the optical parameters for the model. Thereafter, a thorough analysis of the different dimensional and material parameters was performed, to understand their dependence on the emissivity of the selective emitter. Further research on the frequency selectivity of the periodic nano-disk or nano-hole array led to the temperature dependence of the simulated spectra, because the material parameters, such as refractive index or drude model collision frequency, vary with temperature. Thus, the design of frequency selective absorbers/emitters was found to be significantly affected with temperature range of operation of these structures.

  4. Recent advances in design and fabrication of on-chip micro-supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidaghi, Majid; Wang, Chunlei

    2012-06-01

    Recent development in miniaturized electronic devices has increased the demand for power sources that are sufficiently compact and can potentially be integrated on a chip with other electronic components. Miniaturized electrochemical capacitors (EC) or micro-supercapacitors have great potential to complement or replace batteries and electrolytic capacitors in a variety of applications. Recently, we have developed several types of micro-supercapacitors with different structural designs and active materials. Carbon-Microelectromechanical Systems (C-MEMS) with three dimensional (3D) interdigital structures are employed both as electrode material for electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) or as three dimensional (3D) current collectors of pseudo-capacitive materials. More recently, we have also developed microsupercapacitor based on hybrid graphene and carbon nanotube interdigital structures. In this paper, the recent advances in design and fabrication of on-chip micro-supercapacitors are reviewed.

  5. Design, Fabrication and Performance of Open Source Generation I and II Compliant Hydrodynamic Gas Foil Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.; Bruckner, Robert J.; Howard, S. Adam

    2007-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost top foil layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while a layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. Foil bearings are used in many lightly loaded, high-speed turbo-machines such as compressors used for aircraft pressurization, and small micro-turbines. Foil gas bearings provide a means to eliminate the oil system leading to reduced weight and enhanced temperature capability. The general lack of familiarity of the foil bearing design and manufacturing process has hindered their widespread dissemination. This paper reviews the publicly available literature to demonstrate the design, fabrication and performance testing of both first and second generation bump style foil bearings. It is anticipated that this paper may serve as an effective starting point for new development activities employing foil bearing technology.

  6. Design and fabrication of a hybrid maglev model employing PML and SML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, R. X.; Zheng, J.; Zhan, L. J.; Huang, S. Y.; Li, H. T.; Deng, Z. G.

    2017-10-01

    A hybrid maglev model combining permanent magnet levitation (PML) and superconducting magnetic levitation (SML) was designed and fabricated to explore a heavy-load levitation system advancing in passive stability and simple structure. In this system, the PML was designed to levitate the load, and the SML was introduced to guarantee the stability. In order to realize different working gaps of the two maglev components, linear bearings were applied to connect the PML layer (for load) and the SML layer (for stability) of the hybrid maglev model. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid maglev model possesses excellent advantages of heavy-load ability and passive stability at the same time. This work presents a possible way to realize a heavy-load passive maglev concept.

  7. Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, E. A.; Lenda, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Recent research and development programs have established the ability of the zero gravity whole body shower to maintain a comfortable environment in which the crewman can safely cleanse and dry the body. The purpose of this program was to further advance the technology of whole body bathing and to demonstrate technological readiness including in-flight maintenance by component replacement for flight applications. Three task efforts of this program are discussed. Conceptual designs and system tradeoffs were accomplished in task 1. Task 2 involved the formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower, while task 3 included the fabrication and test of the shower assembly. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation and correction of test anomalies during the final phase of the program.

  8. Guidelines for the Design, Fabrication, Testing, Installation and Operation of Srf Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilacker, J.; Carter, H.; Foley, M.; Hurh, P.; Klebaner, A.; Krempetz, K.; Nicol, T.; Olis, D.; Page, T.; Peterson, T.; Pfund, P.; Pushka, D.; Schmitt, R.; Wands, R.

    2010-04-01

    Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) cavities containing cryogens under pressure pose a potential rupture hazard to equipment and personnel. Generally, pressure vessels fall within the scope of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code however, the use of niobium as a material for the SRF cavities is beyond the applicability of the Code. Fermilab developed a guideline to ensure sound engineering practices governing the design, fabrication, testing, installation and operation of SRF cavities. The objective of the guideline is to reduce hazards and to achieve an equivalent level of safety afforded by the ASME Code. The guideline addresses concerns specific to SRF cavities in the areas of materials, design and analysis, welding and brazing, pressure relieving requirements, pressure testing and quality control.

  9. Design Evolutuion of Hot Isotatic Press Cans for NTP Cermet Fuel Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, O. R.; Broadway, J.; Hickman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is under consideration for potential use in deep space exploration missions due to desirable performance properties such as a high specific impulse (> 850 seconds). Tungsten (W)-60vol%UO2 cermet fuel elements are under development, with efforts emphasizing fabrication, performance testing and process optimization to meet NTP service life requirements [1]. Fuel elements incorporate design features that provide redundant protection from crack initiation, crack propagation potentially resulting in hot hydrogen (H2) reduction of UO2 kernels. Fuel erosion and fission product retention barriers include W coated UO2 fuel kernels, W clad internal flow channels and fuel element external W clad resulting in a fully encapsulated fuel element design as shown.

  10. Fabrication and Structural Design of Micro Pressure Sensors for Tire Pressure Measurement Systems (TPMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bian; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Zhang, Ling; Liao, Nansheng; Liu, Yuanhao; Meng, Chao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design and testing of a micro piezoresistive pressure sensor for a Tire Pressure Measurement System (TPMS) which has the advantages of a minimized structure, high sensitivity, linearity and accuracy. Through analysis of the stress distribution of the diaphragm using the ANSYS software, a model of the structure was established. The fabrication on a single silicon substrate utilizes the technologies of anisotropic chemical etching and packaging through glass anodic bonding. The performance of this type of piezoresistive sensor, including size, sensitivity, and long-term stability, were investigated. The results indicate that the accuracy is 0.5% FS, therefore this design meets the requirements for a TPMS, and not only has a smaller size and simplicity of preparation, but also has high sensitivity and accuracy. PMID:22573960

  11. Fabrication and Structural Design of Micro Pressure Sensors for Tire Pressure Measurement Systems (TPMS).

    PubMed

    Tian, Bian; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Zhang, Ling; Liao, Nansheng; Liu, Yuanhao; Meng, Chao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design and testing of a micro piezoresistive pressure sensor for a Tire Pressure Measurement System (TPMS) which has the advantages of a minimized structure, high sensitivity, linearity and accuracy. Through analysis of the stress distribution of the diaphragm using the ANSYS software, a model of the structure was established. The fabrication on a single silicon substrate utilizes the technologies of anisotropic chemical etching and packaging through glass anodic bonding. The performance of this type of piezoresistive sensor, including size, sensitivity, and long-term stability, were investigated. The results indicate that the accuracy is 0.5% FS, therefore this design meets the requirements for a TPMS, and not only has a smaller size and simplicity of preparation, but also has high sensitivity and accuracy.

  12. Note: Design and fabrication of a simple versatile microelectrochemical cell and its accessories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Viswanathan; Neelakantan, Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    A microelectrochemical cell housed in an optical microscope and custom-made accessories have been designed and fabricated, which allows performing spatially resolved corrosion measurements. The cell assembly was designed to directly integrate the reference electrode close to the capillary tip to avoid air bubbles. A hard disk along with an old optical microscope was re-engineered into a microgrinder, which made the vertical grinding of glass capillary tips very easy. A stepper motor was customized into a microsyringe pump to dispense a controlled volume of electrolyte through the capillary. A force sensitive resistor was used to achieve constant wetting area. The functionality of the developed instrument is demonstrated by studying μ-electrochemical behavior of worn surface on AA2014-T6 alloy.

  13. Design, fabrication, and testing of duralumin zoom mirror with variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhao; Xie, Xiaopeng; Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiaoteng; Shen, Le; Liu, Meiying; Gong, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Zoom mirror is a kind of active optical component that can change its curvature radius dynamically. Normally, zoom mirror is used to correct the defocus and spherical aberration caused by thermal lens effect to improve the beam quality of high power solid-state laser since that component was invented. Recently, the probable application of zoom mirror in realizing non-moving element optical zoom imaging in visible band has been paid much attention. With the help of optical leveraging effect, the slightly changed local optical power caused by curvature variation of zoom mirror could be amplified to generate a great alteration of system focal length without moving elements involved in, but in this application the shorter working wavelength and higher surface figure accuracy requirement make the design and fabrication of such a zoom mirror more difficult. Therefore, the key to realize non-moving element optical zoom imaging in visible band lies in zoom mirror which could provide a large enough saggitus variation while still maintaining a high enough surface figure. Although the annular force based actuation could deform a super-thin mirror having a constant thickness to generate curvature variation, it is quite difficult to maintain a high enough surface figure accuracy and this phenomenon becomes even worse when the diameter and the radius-thickness ratio become bigger. In this manuscript, by combing the pressurization based actuation with a variable thickness mirror design, the purpose of obtaining large saggitus variation and maintaining quite good surface figure accuracy at the same time could be achieved. A prototype zoom mirror with diameter of 120mm and central thickness of 8mm is designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results demonstrate that the zoom mirror having an initial surface figure accuracy superior to 1/50λ could provide at least 21um saggitus variation and after finishing the curvature variation its surface figure accuracy could still be

  14. Design and fabrication of the New Horizons Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, S. J.; Azad, F.; Boldt, J. D.; Cheng, A.; Cooper, K. A.; Darlington, E. H.; Grey, M. P.; Hayes, J. R.; Hogue, P.; Kosakowski, K. E.; Magee, T.; Morgan, M. F.; Rossano, E.; Sampath, D.; Schlemm, C.; Weaver, H. A.

    2005-09-01

    The LOng-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) is an instrument that was designed, fabricated, and qualified for the New Horizons mission to the outermost planet Pluto, its giant satellite Charon, and the Kuiper Belt, which is the vast belt of icy bodies extending roughly from Neptune's orbit out to 50 astronomical units (AU). New Horizons is being prepared for launch in January 2006 as the inaugural mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. This paper provides an overview of the efforts to produce LORRI. LORRI is a narrow angle (field of view=0.29°), high resolution (instantaneous field of view = 4.94 μrad), Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 20.8 cm diameter primary mirror, a focal length of 263 cm, and a three lens field-flattening assembly. A 1024 x 1024 pixel (optically active region), back-thinned, backside-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) detector (model CCD 47-20 from E2V Technologies) is located at the telescope focal plane and is operated in standard frame-transfer mode. LORRI does not have any color filters; it provides panchromatic imaging over a wide bandpass that extends approximately from 350 nm to 850 nm. A unique aspect of LORRI is the extreme thermal environment, as the instrument is situated inside a near room temperature spacecraft, while pointing primarily at cold space. This environment forced the use of a silicon carbide optical system, which is designed to maintain focus over the operating temperature range without a focus adjustment mechanism. Another challenging aspect of the design is that the spacecraft will be thruster stabilized (no reaction wheels), which places stringent limits on the available exposure time and the optical throughput needed to accomplish the high-resolution observations required. LORRI was designed and fabricated by a combined effort of The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and SSG Precision Optronics Incorporated (SSG).

  15. Design of magnetic Circuit Simulation for Curing Device of Anisotropic MRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapipi, N.; Ubaidillah; Mazlan, S. A.; Widodo, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    The strength of magnetic field during fabrication of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) plays a crucial role in order to form a pre-structured MRE. So far, gaussmeter were used to determine the magnetic intensity subjected to the MRE during curing. However, the magnetic flux reading through that measurement considered less accurate. Therefore, a simulation should be done to figure out the magnetic flux concentration around the sample. This paper investigates the simulation of magnetic field distribution in a curing device used during curing stage of anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). The target in designing the magnetic circuit is to ensure a sufficient and uniform magnetic field to all the MRE surfaces during the curing process. The magnetic circuit design for the curing device was performed using Finite Element Method Magnetic (FEMM) to examine the magnetic flux density distribution in the device. The material selection was first done instantaneously during a magnetic simulation process. Then, the experimental validation of simulation was performed by measuring and comparing the actual flux generated within the specimen type and the one from the FEMM simulation. İt apparent that the data from FEMM simulation shows an agreement with the actual measurement. Furthermore, the FEMM results showed that the magnetic design is able to provide sufficient and uniform magnetic field all over the surfaces of the MRE.

  16. Design, fabrication, and characterization of Fresnel lens array with spatial filtering for passive infrared motion sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirino, Giuseppe A.; Barcellos, Robson; Morato, Spero P.; Bereczki, Allan; Neto, Luiz G.

    2006-09-01

    A cubic-phase distribution is applied in the design, fabrication and characterization of inexpensive Fresnel lens arrays for passive infrared motion sensors. The resulting lens array produces a point spread function (PSF) capable of distinguish the presence of humans from pets by the employment of the so-called wavefront coding method. The cubic phase distribution used in the design can also reduce the optical aberrations present in the system. This aberration control allows a high tolerance in the fabrication of the lenses and in the alignment errors of the sensor. In order to proof the principle, a lens was manufactured on amorphous hydrogenated carbon thin film, by well-known micro fabrication process steps. The optical results demonstrates that the optical power falling onto the detector surface is attenuated for targets that present a mass that is horizontally distributed in space (e.g. pets) while the optical power is enhanced for targets that present a mass vertically distributed in space (e.g. humans). Then a mould on steel was fabricated by laser engraving, allowing large-scale production of the lens array in polymeric material. A polymeric lens was injected and its optical transmittance was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry technique, which has shown an adequate optical transmittance in the 8-14 μm wavelength range. Finally the performance of the sensor was measured in a climate-controlled test laboratory constructed for this purpose. The results show that the sensor operates normally with a human target, with a 12 meter detection zone and within an angle of 100 degrees. On the other hand, when a small pet runs through a total of 22 different trajectories no sensor trips are observed. The novelty of this work is the fact that the so-called pet immunity function was implemented in a purely optical filtering. As a result, this approach allows the reduction of some hardware parts as well as decreasing the software complexity, once the

  17. JEFF: Air transport system design simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Jeff is a remotely piloted vehicle designed by the Blue Team, a division of AE441, Inc., to fulfill the mission proposed by G-Dome Enterprises: to build a cost efficient aircraft to service Aeroworld with overnight cargo delivery. The design of Jeff was most significantly influenced by the need to minimize costs. This objective was pursued by building fewer large planes as opposed to many small planes. Thus, by building an aircraft with a large payload capacity, G-Dome Enterprises will be able to minimize the large costs and the large number of cycles that are associated with a large fleet. Another factor which had a significant influence on our design was the constraint that our design had to fit into a 2'x2'x5' storage container. This constraint meant that unless we wanted to build foldable wings that Jeff's span would be limited to 10 feet. Since this was not enough lifting surface to suit our needs a canard configuration was chosen to get the needed lifting surface and avoid the structural dilemma of foldable wings. The aircraft is constructed mainly of balsa, with spruce wing and canard spars and a monokote covering. It was designed to support a maximum payload weight of 35 oz. (total aircraft weight of 108 oz.) and withstand a maximum load factor of 2.5.

  18. Design, fabrication, test, and qualification and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F.

    1980-03-01

    The Block 4 shingle type module makes it possible to apply a photovoltaic array to the sloping roof of a residential building by simply nailing the overlapping hexagon shaped shingles to the plywood roof sheathing. This third-generation shingle module design consists of nineteen series connected 100 mm diameter solar cells which are arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration to provide in excess of 75 watts/sq m of exposed module area under standard operating conditions. The solar cells are individually bonded to the embossed underside of a 4.4 mm thick thermally tempered piece of glass. An experimental silicone pottant was used as the transparent bonding adhesive between the cells and glass. The semi-flexible portion of each shingle module is a composite laminate construction consisting of an outer layer of FLEXSEAL bonded to an inner core of closed cell polyethylene foam. Silaprene is used as the substrate laminating adhesive. The module design has satisfactorily survived qualification testing program which includes 50 thermal cycles between -40 and +90 C, a seven day temperature-humidity exposure test, and a wind resistance test.

  19. Design, fabrication, test, and qualification and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.

    1980-01-01

    The Block 4 shingle type module makes it possible to apply a photovoltaic array to the sloping roof of a residential building by simply nailing the overlapping hexagon shaped shingles to the plywood roof sheathing. This third-generation shingle module design consists of nineteen series connected 100 mm diameter solar cells which are arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration to provide in excess of 75 watts/sq m of exposed module area under standard operating conditions. The solar cells are individually bonded to the embossed underside of a 4.4 mm thick thermally tempered piece of glass. An experimental silicone pottant was used as the transparent bonding adhesive between the cells and glass. The semi-flexible portion of each shingle module is a composite laminate construction consisting of an outer layer of FLEXSEAL bonded to an inner core of closed cell polyethylene foam. Silaprene is used as the substrate laminating adhesive. The module design has satisfactorily survived qualification testing program which includes 50 thermal cycles between -40 and +90 C, a seven day temperature-humidity exposure test, and a wind resistance test.

  20. Multiple Optical Filter Design Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelsohn, J.; Englund, D. C.

    1986-10-01

    In this paper we continue our investigation of the application of matched filters to robotic vision problems. Specifically, we are concerned with the tray-picking problem. Our principal interest in this paper is the examination of summation affects which arise from attempting to reduce the matched filter memory size by averaging of matched filters. While the implementation of matched filtering theory to applications in pattern recognition or machine vision is ideally through the use of optics and optical correlators, in this paper the results were obtained through a digital simulation of the optical process.