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Sample records for design tobacco-cessation product

  1. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting. PMID:20176315

  2. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit; Ebbert, Jon O; Sood, Richa; Stevens, Susanna R

    2006-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.

  3. SMOKED: a pharmacist-monitored tobacco cessation program.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul Evan

    2002-12-01

    Tobacco users use an array of pharmaceutical aids in their quest to become tobacco free. Tobacco cessation aids are indicated to assist individuals to become tobacco free when used in conjunction with a behavior modification program. For many persons, attending traditional group behavioral modification classes of 1- to 2-hour weekly meetings for 4 to 6 weeks is either undesirable or impractical. This article describes a nontraditional tobacco cessation program offered by a pharmacist at a Coast Guard military treatment facility. The program required persons desiring tobacco cessation aids to see a medical provider who then referred the individual to the pharmacy officer for counseling. Of the 20 persons completing all designated counseling sessions with the pharmacy officer, 4 were tobacco free after 1 year.

  4. An Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Diseases and Health Conditions on Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Dawn E.; Barr, Nikki; Rickert, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of chronic health conditions on tobacco cessation and participation in a follow-up assessment among 13,900 smokers in a telephone-based tobacco cessation programme. Design: This study involved gathering data from individuals during pre- and post-intervention telephonic assessments following their decision…

  5. Tobacco Cessation Interventions for Underserved Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Despite high rates of smoking among some subgroups of women, there is a lack of tailored interventions to address smoking cessation among women. We identify components of a women-centered approach to tobacco cessation by analyzing 3 bodies of literature: sex and gender influences in tobacco use and addiction; evidence-based tobacco cessation guidelines; and best practices in delivery of women-centered care. Programming for underserved women should be tailored, build confidence and increase motivation, integrate social justice issues and address inequities, and be holistic and comprehensive. Addressing the complexity of women’s smoking and tailoring appropriately could help address smoking among subpopulations of women. PMID:27226783

  6. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  7. The biological and clinical effects of smoking by patients with cancer and strategies to implement evidence-based tobacco cessation support.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Sobus, Samantha; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco use is an established risk factor for the development of several cancers; however, far less work has been done to understand the effects of continued smoking on cancer treatment outcomes, and structured tobacco cessation efforts are not well incorporated into the standard care for patients with cancer. In this Review we discuss the known biological effects of smoking on cancer cell biology and emphasise the clinical effects of continued smoking in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Although evidence supports the need for inclusion of dedicated tobacco cessation efforts for patients with cancer, clinicians should consider the methods used to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation support and the available resources to deliver and maintain consistent tobacco cessation support. We also address the variables to consider in the design and implementation of a sustainable tobacco cessation programme. PMID:25439699

  8. The biological and clinical effects of smoking by patients with cancer and strategies to implement evidence-based tobacco cessation support.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Sobus, Samantha; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco use is an established risk factor for the development of several cancers; however, far less work has been done to understand the effects of continued smoking on cancer treatment outcomes, and structured tobacco cessation efforts are not well incorporated into the standard care for patients with cancer. In this Review we discuss the known biological effects of smoking on cancer cell biology and emphasise the clinical effects of continued smoking in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Although evidence supports the need for inclusion of dedicated tobacco cessation efforts for patients with cancer, clinicians should consider the methods used to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation support and the available resources to deliver and maintain consistent tobacco cessation support. We also address the variables to consider in the design and implementation of a sustainable tobacco cessation programme.

  9. Teaching Tobacco Cessation Skills to Uruguayan Physicians Using Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llambi, Laura; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; Garcia, Sofia; Miranda, Natalia; Arredondo, Antonio Lopez; Margolis, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, with the ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Uruguay has implemented a wide range of legal restrictions designed to reduce the devastating impacts of tobacco. This legal process generated an increase in demand for tobacco cessation treatment, which led to the need to train a large number of…

  10. Physician's practices and perspectives regarding tobacco cessation in a teaching hospital in Mysore City, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Saud, Mohammed; Madhu, B; Srinath, K M; Ashok, N C; Renuka, M

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tobacco is a leading cause of disease and premature death. Most of the smokers visit a doctor for various health related ailments and thus such clinic visits provide many opportunities for interventions and professional tobacco cessation advice. Aims: The primary aim of the following study is to assess the physician practices, perspectives, resources, barriers and education relating to tobacco cessation and their perceived need for training for the same. The secondary aim is to compare the physician's cessation practices from patient's perspective. Settings and Design: A descriptive study was conducted in a hospital attached to Medical College in Mysore city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Information about doctor's practices, perspectives and their perceived need for training in tobacco cessation were collected using pre-structured self-administered Questionnaire, which were distributed in person. Patient's practices and perspectives were assessed using a pre-structured Oral Questionnaire. Results: Almost 95% of physicians said that they ask patients about their smoking status and 94% advise them to quit smoking, but only 50% assist the patient to quit smoking and only 28% arrange follow-up visits. Thus, they do not regularly provide assistance to help patients quit, even though 98% of the physicians believed that helping patients to quit was a part of their role. Only 18% and 35% of the physicians said that Undergraduate Medical Education and Post Graduate Medical Education respectively prepared them very well to participate in smoking cessation activities. Conclusions: Tobacco cessation requires repeated and regular assistance. Such assistance is not being provided to patients by attending doctors. Our medical education system is failing to impart the necessary skills to doctors, needed to help patients quit smoking. Reforms in education are needed so as to prepare the physician to effectively address this problem. PMID:24574555

  11. Evaluation of Developmentally Appropriate Programs for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman-Wallace, Debbie; Lee, Jerry W.; Montgomery, Susanne; Blix, Glen; Wang, Dongqing Terry

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated two adolescent tobacco-cessation programs based on stages of change: an educational program for adolescents not yet thinking about quitting and a cessation program for adolescents ready to quit. Participant evaluation indicated that both interventions successfully helped reduce adolescent smoking. The educational program was the most…

  12. Recommendations and Guidance for Practice in Youth Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Micah H.; Maule, Catherine O.; Backinger, Cathy L.; Gregory, Dena M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To summarize recommendations from Youth Tobacco Cessation: A Guide for Making Informed Decisions for careful consideration, selection, implementation, and evaluation of youth cessation interventions. Methods: Recommendations were developed from an evidence review and consensus from a multidisciplinary advisory panel. Results:…

  13. Development of a tobacco cessation intervention for Alaska Native youth

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Fadahunsi, Oluwole; Hanza, Marcelo; Smith, Christina M.; Hughes, Christine A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Boyer, Rahnia; Decker, Paul A.; Luger, Elizabeth; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted cessation intervention developed for AN youth. Intervention components were informed by prior focus groups assessing treatment preferences among AN youth, a social cognitive theoretical framework and feedback obtained from a teen advisory group. The intervention consisted of a weekend program where youth traveled by small airplane from their villages to stay overnight with other adolescents who quit tobacco use together. The program included recreational activities, talking circles, personal stories from elders and teen advisors, and cognitive behavioral counseling. Two intervention pilots were conducted from October 2010 to January 2011 using a non-randomized, uncontrolled study design with assessments at baseline and six-week follow-up. One village in Western Alaska was selected for each pilot with a targeted enrollment of 10 adolescents each. Participants were recruited for each pilot within five days, but recruitment challenges and ‘‘lessons learned’’ are described. The first pilot enrolled nine adolescents (all female) aged 13–16 years; all nine attended the intervention program and 78% (7/9) completed follow-up. The second pilot enrolled 12 adolescents (eight females, four males) aged 12–17 years, of which seven attended the intervention program. Six of these seven participants (86%) completed follow-up. In both pilots, participants rated the intervention as highly acceptable. A targeted cessation intervention was feasible and acceptable to AN youth. The intervention will be tested for efficacy in a subsequent randomized controlled trial. PMID:24058327

  14. Smokeless tobacco cessation guidelines for health professionals in England.

    PubMed

    West, R; McNeill, A; Raw, M

    2004-05-22

    Smokeless tobacco is used in the UK predominantly by members of the Indian, Pakistani and especially Bangladeshi communities. The most commonly used form is tobacco mixed with lime and additional psychoactive compounds, most notably areca nut. The resulting "quid" is chewed or held in the mouth. Studies from Asia indicate that use of this kind of product is linked with an increased risk of oral cancers and possibly low birth-weight infants. There is little high quality research evaluating interventions to promote cessation of smokeless tobacco use, especially of the forms used in the UK. However, what evidence there is suggests that advice to stop coupled with behavioural support and counselling may increase long-term abstinence rates by some 5-10%. It seems appropriate therefore to recommend that dentists, GPs and other relevant health professionals should routinely assess and record smokeless tobacco use in patients belonging to relatively high prevalence groups, that they ensure that smokeless tobacco users know the potential health risks (as well as the health risks of smoking) and that they advise them to stop and keep a record of the outcome. Dental professionals should also examine the oral cavity of smokeless tobacco users for lesions when the opportunity arises. Patients expressing an interest in stopping should be referred to specialist smoking cessation services for behavioural support and specialists in areas of high smokeless tobacco use will need to ensure that they are sufficiently knowledgeable and their services sufficiently accessible to these users. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of nicotine replacement therapy or bupropion to aid smokeless tobacco cessation. Research is needed in the UK to quantify the personal and population health risks from smokeless tobacco, the benefits of stopping, the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting cessation and patterns of use, knowledge and attitudes of users.

  15. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  16. Activating Lay Health Influencers to Promote Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Hall, John R.; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z.; Lando, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay “health influencers,” on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Methods Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. Results In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants’ prior intervention experience, 80–86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71–79% reported ≥1 in the past 30. Conclusions Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation. PMID:24636035

  17. Update on effective interventions to increase tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Husten, Corinne G

    2002-12-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the USA and will soon be the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. The only way to decrease tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in the short term is to help current smokers quit. Fortunately, effective clinical- and population-based interventions that increase tobacco cessation exist. However, these interventions are not being implemented, leaving most smokers to use the least effective approach to cessation (an unassisted quit attempt). This review summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of clinical- and population-based interventions and recommendations from various organizations regarding tobacco use treatment. It also outlines proposed strategies for improving clinical and public health practice to increase tobacco cessation.

  18. The Role of Academic Pharmacy in Tobacco Cessation and Control

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Sarah E.; Corelli, Robin L.; Albano, Christian B.; Conry, John M.; Della Paolera, Mark A.; Kennedy, Amy K.; Jenkins, Antoine T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of public health initiatives, tobacco use remains the leading known preventable cause of death in the United States. Clinicians have a proven, positive effect on patients’ ability to quit, and pharmacists are strategically positioned to assist patients with quitting. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy recognizes health promotion and disease prevention as a key educational outcome; as such, tobacco cessation education should be a required component of pharmacy curricula to ensure that all pharmacy graduates possess the requisite evidence-based knowledge and skills to intervene with patients who use tobacco. Faculty members teaching tobacco cessation-related content must be knowledgeable and proficient in providing comprehensive cessation counseling, and all preceptors and practicing pharmacists providing direct patient care should screen for tobacco use and provide at least minimal counseling as a routine component of care. Pharmacy organizations should establish policies and resolutions addressing the profession’s role in tobacco cessation and control, and the profession should work together to eliminate tobacco sales in all practice settings where pharmacy services are rendered. PMID:23788804

  19. Patient Receptivity to Tobacco Cessation Counseling and Services in a Dental Teaching Institute: A Patient Review

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pavan Uday; Vivek, S; Chandrasekhar, Thatimatla; Parimi, Nalini; Praveen, B H; Lingaraj, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Background: The dentists are in a unique position to render tobacco cessation counseling to their patients. The current study is set to assess the attitudes of tobacco users toward tobacco cessation counseling attending a dental teaching institute and hospital in Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Survey was conducted among 660 patients attending a dental teaching institute. Patients who have completed oral examination in the department of oral medicine and radiology were asked to complete pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed in both English and Telugu (local language). Results: Among the study subjects 88.9% were planning to quit the habit, 72.27% had agreed that they discussed about ill-effects of tobacco, 82% of the subjects said that dentist should routinely offer quit tobacco assistance and services. Conclusion: The present study indicates the majority of patients are receptive towards tobacco counseling and services in the dental setting. In this study, the majority of tobacco users were planning to quit. Majority of patients were unaware of the resources available to help them to quit. Dentists have a significant opportunity to disseminate information to patients who need assistance in quitting the habit of tobacco usage. PMID:25709362

  20. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  1. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits. PMID:25975798

  2. Therapy for Specific Problems: Youth Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. The majority of children smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence, and many older teens have well-established dependence on nicotine. Efforts to promote and support smoking cessation among these youth smokers are critical. The available experimental studies of youth cessation interventions find that behavioral interventions increase the chances of youth smokers achieving successful cessation. Currently there is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with youth smokers. Many innovative studies have been compromised by challenges in recruiting sufficient numbers of youth, obtaining approval for waivers of parental consent, and high attrition in longitudinal studies. Key areas for future work include bridging the fields of adolescent development and treatment design, matching treatments to developmental trajectories of smoking behavior, better understanding treatment processes and treatment moderators, and building demand for evidence-based cessation treatments. PMID:19035825

  3. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. PMID:20176304

  4. Tobacco cessation treatment education for dental students using standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Jacqueline A; Carrico, Ruth M; Myers, John A; Scott, David A; Wilson, Richard W; Worth, Celeste T

    2014-06-01

    The use of standardized patients (SPs) shows promise in tobacco cessation treatment (TCT) training by providing a simulated clinical environment for dental students to practice counseling skills with individuals trained to portray patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge between dental students who received a lecture and practice sessions with SPs and those who received a lecture only. Dental students in an introductory clinical course at one dental school were invited to participate in the study by completing a pre and post questionnaire. The pre questionnaire was administered to all students prior to a tobacco cessation lecture. Students were group-randomized to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group completed the post questionnaire after the lecture and practice sessions with SPs, and the control group completed it after the lecture only. Of ninety-eight students who attended the lecture and were invited to participate in the study, a total of ninety-four from the two groups (96 percent) provided two linkable questionnaires for analysis. In the results, training with lecture and SPs increased the students' understanding of barriers, subjective norms, perceived skills, self-efficacy, and intentions to provide TCT more than those in the lecture only; however, it did not significantly increase their attitudes and knowledge. These findings suggest that using SPs is a valuable educational method to promote the provision of TCT by dental students and graduates. PMID:24882775

  5. Evaluation of Multidisciplinary Tobacco Cessation Training Program in a Large Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Timothy C.; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W.; Watanabe, Jonathan H.; Bounthavong, Mark; Zillich, Alan J.; Christofferson, Dana E.; Myers, Mark G.; Himstreet, Julianne E.; Belperio, Pamela S.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care professionals can have a dramatic impact by assisting patients with tobacco cessation but most have limited training. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 4-hour tobacco cessation training program. Methods: A team of multidisciplinary health care professionals created a veteran-specific tailored version of the Rx for…

  6. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  7. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  8. Climate for innovation, 12-step orientation, and tobacco cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, Jessica L; Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian T

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between (1) three indicators of climate for innovation (clinician skills, absence of program obstacles, policy-related incentives) and adoption extensiveness of both behavioral treatments for tobacco cessation (TC) and system-level support for TC in substance use disorder treatment programs, (2) a program's 12-step treatment orientation and adoption extensiveness, and (3) whether 12-step treatment orientation moderates the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Data were obtained from a random sample of 1006 program administrators. Hierarchical regression results showed that both absence of program obstacles and policy-related incentives are positively related to adoption extensiveness. Twelve-step treatment orientation is neither related to adoption extensiveness nor a moderator of the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Although the adoption of both behavioral treatments for TC and system-level support for TC is not extensive, we conclude that a 12-step treatment orientation neither hampers nor promotes adoption extensiveness.

  9. Rates and correlates of tobacco cessation service use nationally in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Megan M; Sido, Hannah; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use is a substantial problem for veterans using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services, but relatively little is known about the association of specific patient characteristics, patterns of service use, the amount of such services, and the frequency of their use. Analysis of national VHA administrative data (N = 5,531,379) from fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) were used to identify use of tobacco cessation counseling services among veterans with a diagnosed tobacco use disorder, and to examine correlates of such use. Only 3.8% of veterans diagnosed with a tobacco use disorder used VHA tobacco cessation services, and only 0.9% met U.S. Public Health Service clinical practice guidelines for the recommended amount of counseling (i.e., 4 or more sessions). Veterans who used intensive tobacco cessation counseling services were more likely to be homeless, had comorbid mental health and substance use disorders, and used more VHA services overall than veterans who did not use tobacco cessation services. An analysis of the supply of tobacco cessation services (counseling visits provided per 100 veteran users of any services at each facility) showed that increasing the supply by just 1 visit for every 100 veterans would increase the percentage of veterans involved in tobacco cessation counseling by 35%. Veterans diagnosed with tobacco use disorder substantially underuse VHA tobacco cessation counseling services, and use is greatest at facilities that provide more tobacco cessation counseling services. Future efforts should focus on increasing the amount of VHA tobacco cessation services and encouraging veterans' awareness of and motivation to use these services. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148953

  10. Tobacco Cessation Treatment for Alaska Native Adolescents: Group Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and the potential efficacy of a targeted cessation intervention for AN youth using a group randomized design. Methods: Eight villages in western Alaska were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (n = 4 villages) or a delayed treatment control condition (written materials only; n = 4 villages). Ten adolescents aged 12–17 years were targeted from each village with a planned enrollment of 80. The intervention was held over a weekend, and youth traveled from their villages to quit tobacco use with other teens. The intervention comprised 8hr of group-based counseling. Talking circles, personal stories from elders, and recreational activities were included to enhance cultural acceptability and participation. Newsletters were mailed weekly for 5-weeks postprogram. Assessments were conducted at baseline, week 6 (end-of-treatment), and 6 months. Self-reported tobacco abstinence was confirmed with salivary cotinine. Results: Recruitment targets were met in the intervention (41 enrolled) but not in control villages (27 enrolled). All intervention participants attended the weekend program. Retention was high; 98% of intervention and 86% of control participants completed 6-month follow-up. The 7-day point-prevalence self-reported tobacco abstinence rates for intervention and control participants were 10% (4/41) and 0% (0/27) at both week 6 and 6 months (p = .15). Only 1 adolescent in the intervention condition was biochemically confirmed abstinent at week 6 and none at 6 months. Conclusion: The intensive individual-focused intervention used in this study was feasible but not effective for tobacco cessation among AN youth. Alternative approaches are warranted. PMID:24532352

  11. A comparison of pharmacological tobacco cessation relapse rates.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Timothy B

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco use is the nation's leading preventable cause of chronic illness and injury; it takes the lives of 450,000 of our citizens each year. Currently, there are numerous treatment programs and pharmacological aids that may be obtained with a prescription or purchased over the counter at your local drugstore. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in tobacco cessation relapse rates of military personnel at the 1-, 3-, and 6-month intervals among 4 categories of pharmacological and cognitive regimens used at an outpatient naval treatment facility. A nonprobability convenience sampling plan was used to obtain (a) 10 patient-participant Freedom From Smoking (FFS) course records that utilized Zyban and Nicotine Replacement Therapy, (b) 10 patient-participant FFS course records that utilized Zyban only, (c) 10 patient-participant FFS course records that utilized Nicotine Replacement Therapy only, and (d) 10 patient-participant FFS course records that utilized Nicotine Replacement Therapy and nicotine gum (as needed). Findings revealed no significant difference between relapse and associated pharmacological treatment program. There was, however, a moderate increased cessation effort in Program 4 (nicotine replacement patch and nicotine gum). Results also demonstrated no significant difference between demographic variables and relapse cohorts. A significant positive relation between length of smoking and packs smoked per day was revealed, however. PMID:16445361

  12. Cluster-Randomized Trial of Clinical Pharmacist Tobacco Cessation Counseling Among Patients with Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jody; Cymbala, Alicia A; Delate, Thomas; Kurz, Deanna; Olson, Kari L; Youngblood, Morgan; Zadvorny, Emily

    2015-08-01

    Optimal management of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes evaluation of risk factors using a team-based approach. Tobacco use often receives less attention than other CVD risk factors; therefore, utilization of nonphysician health care providers may be valuable in addressing tobacco use. The purpose of this trial was to assess the impact of brief, structured, telephone tobacco cessation counseling (BST) delivered by clinical pharmacists on tobacco cessation attempts compared to usual care. The BST consisted of 1 to 5 minutes discussing 3 key counseling points, including a recommendation to quit and education about cessation aids. This was a cluster-randomized trial of tobacco-using patients with CVD who were enrolled in a clinical pharmacist-managed, physician-directed, CVD disease state management service. Clinical pharmacists were randomized to provide usual care (control) or BST (intervention) to their tobacco-using patients during a 4-month period. Patients were surveyed 3 months later to assess their tobacco cessation attempts, use of tobacco cessation aids, and self-reported cessation. One hundred twenty patients were enrolled. Subjects were predominately white males, aged ≥65 years, with a history of myocardial infarction. One hundred and four subjects completed the follow-up survey. No differences were detected between the 36.2% and 38.6% of control and intervention subjects, respectively, reporting a tobacco cessation attempt (P=0.804) or in the other outcomes (all P>0.05). A BST delivered by clinical pharmacists may not adequately affect patient motivation enough to increase tobacco cessation attempts in tobacco-dependent patients with CVD. Future research is needed to evaluate other team-based strategies that can decrease tobacco use in patients with CVD. PMID:25647441

  13. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  14. Traditional and innovative promotional strategies of tobacco cessation services: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; McCausland, Kristen; Duke, Jennifer; Hansen, Heather; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-08-01

    An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines (QLs). This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for QL services. Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases QL call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to QLs, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion. PMID:24515948

  15. Traditional and innovative promotional strategies of tobacco cessation services: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; McCausland, Kristen; Duke, Jennifer; Hansen, Heather; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-08-01

    An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines (QLs). This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for QL services. Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases QL call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to QLs, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion.

  16. Sharing Collaborative Designs of Tobacco Cessation Performance Improvement CME Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullikin, Elizabeth A.; Ales, Mary W.; Cho, Jane; Nelson, Teena M.; Rodrigues, Shelly B.; Speight, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Performance Improvement Continuing Medical Education (PI CME) provides an important opportunity for CME providers to combine educational and quality health care improvement methodologies. Very few CME providers take on the challenges of planning this type of intervention because it is still a new practice and there are limited…

  17. Accuracy of popular media reporting on tobacco cessation therapy in substance abuse and mental health populations

    PubMed Central

    Krauth, David; Apollonio, Dorie

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco cessation therapy is not consistently provided for alcohol, drug abuse and mental health (ADM) populations, despite the enormous health consequences of tobacco addiction in these groups and research supporting the effectiveness of treatment. Policymakers, however, tend to rely on popular media reports rather than the scientific literature in regulating treatment. Our goal was to determine whether popular reporting accurately reflects findings from the scientific literature on tobacco cessation treatment for ADM populations in treatment. Methods We compared the results of systematic reviews on tobacco cessation therapy published before 2004 with articles published in traditional media and on the internet over the following 8 years. We searched LexisNexis and Google and assessed them using the Index of Scientific Quality (ISQ). Results We found that popular reporting on this topic was consistent with findings reported in contemporaneous scientific literature. Our results suggest that the failure to consistently provide tobacco cessation therapy to ADM populations in treatment is not due to poor research translation. Conclusions Our findings also suggest that in this topic area, scientific research findings have diffused relatively quickly. Further study of journalism in this area may suggest new strategies for effective translation of scientific findings into popular reporting on tobacco control. PMID:25814498

  18. Offering Acupuncture as an Adjunct for Tobacco Cessation: A Community Clinic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Emiley; Fung, Lei-Chun; Li, Chin-Shang; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Tam, Leonard; Tang, Carrie; Tong, Elisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in smoking rates remain prominent within Asian Americans. Medical pluralism and cultural tailoring may enhance Asian Americans engaging with tobacco cessation assistance. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a community clinic’s smoking cessation program targeting a Chinese population that offered acupuncture, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and counseling from 2007 to 2010. Most participants used acupuncture, with about half choosing acupuncture and NRT, followed by more than 40% choosing acupuncture only; few chose NRT only. Tobacco cessation rates at 6 months were relatively high for the acupuncture + NRT group and only acupuncture group (37.7% vs. 28.9%). In comparing tobacco reduction >50% from baseline with an expanded only NRT group, the acupuncture + NRT group had a higher odds ratio than the only acupuncture group, which had a lower odds ratio. Our evaluation of this real-world community program offering acupuncture as a cultural adjunct to a tobacco cessation program suggests that acupuncture might help with engagement by Chinese American male smokers into a tobacco cessation program that offers counseling and NRT. Future larger studies should further evaluate the efficacy of offering acupuncture in combination with NRT on the outcomes of cessation and reduction. PMID:23667059

  19. Psychological Barriers to Tobacco Cessation in Indian Buprenorphine-Naloxone Maintained Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Piyali; Jain, Raka; Jhanjee, Sonali; Sreenivas, V.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of smoking in opioid agonist treatment programmes remains high, leading to significant tobacco related health hazards and mortality. This is the first study from India addressing tobacco cessation and related barriers among recipients of buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment. Aims: The purpose of the study was to investigate Indian buprenorphine-naloxone maintained patients’ willingness to quit tobacco use, to determine its possible association with demographic, agonist maintenance treatment, tobacco use related variables and personal health and risk perceptions related to health hazards associated with tobacco use. Settings and Design: The study was cross-sectional, observational. It was conducted in the out-patient department of a national level de-addiction centre in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five males on buprenorphine-naloxone treatment were assessed using Tobacco Use Characteristics, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND and FTND-ST), Readiness to Change questionnaire (RCQ), Smoker's Perceived Health Risk Evaluation (SPHERE), Importance of Intervention scale and a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis Chi-square test, Spearman rank order correlation, paired-t test, ANOVA (STATA 9.2 statistical package). Results: Around 65.4% of the subjects were smokers, 9% were using smokeless tobacco only whereas 25.6% were using both. Mean duration of tobacco use was 20 ± 1.5 years. Only 20% had past quit attempts. Only 24% were in action phase of change. Personal health and risk perceptions were poor and only 61.62% considered intervention tobacco smoking cessation important. Conclusions: Higher severity of nicotine dependence, low perception of harm from tobacco warrant immediate attention and need for on-site treatment opportunity. PMID:26664077

  20. Tobacco Cessation Services Through Community Health Workers for Spanish-Speaking Populations

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Bristow, Zuzanne; Sias, Jeri J.; Urquidi, Ulysses J.; Feng, Chun

    2006-01-01

    Partnerships were established with the University of Arizona’s Healthcare Partnership to train promotores—Spanish-speaking community health workers—as tobacco cessation counselors. Tobacco Free El Paso certified promotores to help identify tobacco users and offer tobacco cessation counseling services. The project certified 89 participants, of whom 95% were promotores; 88% were Hispanic/Latino, 67% were females, and 62% indicated Spanish as their primary language. Participants who completed Técnicas Básicas, Treatment Specialist, and Déjate de ese Vicio certifications significantly increased self-confidence levels to deliver brief smoking cessation interventions (P < .05). Satisfaction scores (scale = 1–5) were also relatively high for each certification (Técnicas Básicas, mean = 4.8; Treatment Specialist, mean = 4.7; Déjate de ese Vicio, mean = 4.6). The results suggest that promotores understood the concepts and methodologies presented. PMID:16380561

  1. Evolution of a tobacco cessation curriculum for dental hygiene students at Indiana University School of Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Coan, Lorinda L; Christen, Arden; Romito, Laura

    2007-06-01

    Barriers to consistent implementation of tobacco cessation strategies by dental hygiene students in practice may be overcome through mentoring by expert faculty members. This article describes a pilot study using an innovative method to achieve higher levels of student-perceived confidence and skill in delivering cessation messages to patients. Following completion of the didactic course content, each student selected a tobacco user to complete the Indiana University Nicotine Dependence Program Patient Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ). Detailed analysis of the questionnaire and development of specific cessation strategies were accomplished in a one-to-one interchange with expert faculty members. Students provided suggestions to patients, wrote papers summarizing their experiences, and were asked to complete an anonymous survey. Forty-four of forty-six students completed the survey. Eighty percent reported the mentored session was useful in learning specific cessation strategies; 83 percent reported the session helped to boost their confidence levels in approaching patients in tobacco cessation; 83 percent believed they would use learned strategies with other patients; and 86 percent recommended this educational approach for future students. Additional mentoring may overcome barriers to approaching patients in tobacco cessation by increasing levels of confidence and skill when delivering cessation messages. This may translate into continued application of these strategies in private practice, resulting in potential benefits to the health of the public.

  2. Integrating Evidence-Based Tobacco Cessation Interventions in Free Medical Clinics: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Kristie L.; Pockey, Jessica R.; Helme, Donald W.; Song, Eun-Young; Stewart, Kate; Jones, Cindy; Spangler, John G.; Sutfin, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Free medical clinics serve a critical role in health care delivery of America’s uninsured population, who are less likely to receive tobacco cessation counseling and 1½ times more likely than the general population to use tobacco. The authors evaluate the opportunities for and challenges to implementing the U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for tobacco cessation in free clinics. Methods Six free clinics participated in this pilot study. Five objectives were targeted: implementation of a tobacco user identification system, education of all clinic staff and volunteers, dedication of a program champion, use of evidence-based treatment, and creation of a supportive environment that reinforces provider behavior. Key informant interviews and focus group data were used to describe the opportunities and barriers of implementing the Public Health Service Guidelines. Results All clinics adopted a user identification system, dedicated a program champion, adopted evidence-based counseling, and created an environment conducive for cessation. Common challenges included getting volunteers to attend on-site training programs, accessing nicotine replacement therapy, and promoting Quit Line usage, all of which are part of evidence-based treatment. Conclusion With more than 1,200 free clinics nationwide, it is very important to understand the opportunities and barriers of implementing tobacco cessation services and systems in free clinics. PMID:22467664

  3. Evaluating pharmacists' ability to counsel on tobacco cessation using two standardized patient scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Beth A.; Chewning, Betty A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact that role-playing two pre/post standardized patient scenarios within a tobacco cessation training program had on pharmacists' counseling skills. Second, to analyze the validity of the observation coding tool used to evaluate pharmacist's role-play performance. Methods Pharmacists performed two role-playing scenarios which incorporated national guidelines, the 5A's counseling process, and the “preparation” and “action” phases of the transtheoretical model. Pharmacists' performance was evaluated with an observation coding tool. Results Pharmacists' (n=25) counseling performance improved significantly post-training (p<0.02: Action Scenario; p<0.004: Preparation Scenario). More than 50% of pharmacists provided patient-directed tobacco consultation services in the one year following training. The observation tool score for the “action phase” scenario was highly associated with pharmacists' subsequent delivery of tobacco cessation services in community practice. Conclusion Role-playing facilitated pharmacists' skill development. The evaluation tool and Action Scenario may be powerful for predicting pharmacists' delivery of tobacco cessation services. Practice Implications Incorporating role-playing and structured tools for performance evaluation can help enhance pharmacist performance during training and predict service delivery in community practice. Together they could facilitate tailored feedback to help pharmacists struggling with the difficult task of extending cognitive service roles in practice. PMID:21237610

  4. Health‐care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Stead, Lindsay; Aveyard, Paul; Bitton, John; Stapleton, John; McRobbie, Hayden; Pokhrel, Subhash; Lester‐George, Adam; Borland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims This paper provides a concise review of the efficacy, effectiveness and affordability of health‐care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation, in order to inform national guideline development and assist countries in planning their provision of tobacco cessation support. Methods Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of major health‐care tobacco cessation interventions were used to derive efficacy estimates in terms of percentage‐point increases relative to comparison conditions in 6–12‐month continuous abstinence rates. This was combined with analysis and evidence from ‘real world’ studies to form a judgement on the probable effectiveness of each intervention in different settings. The affordability of each intervention was assessed for exemplar countries in each World Bank income category (low, lower middle, upper middle, high). Based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, an intervention was judged as affordable for a given income category if the estimated extra cost of saving a life‐year was less than or equal to the per‐capita gross domestic product for that category of country. Results Brief advice from a health‐care worker given opportunistically to smokers attending health‐care services can promote smoking cessation, and is affordable for countries in all World Bank income categories (i.e. globally). Proactive telephone support, automated text messaging programmes and printed self‐help materials can assist smokers wanting help with a quit attempt and are affordable globally. Multi‐session, face‐to‐face behavioural support can increase quit success for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco and is affordable in middle‐ and high‐income countries. Nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, nortriptyline, varenicline and cytisine can all aid quitting smoking when given with at least some behavioural support; of these, cytisine and nortriptyline are affordable globally. Conclusions Brief

  5. Proactive tobacco cessation outreach to smokers of low socioeconomic status: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jennifer S.; Linder, Jeffrey A.; Park, Elyse R.; Gonzalez, Irina; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Klinger, Elissa V.; Kontos, Emily Z.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Marinacci, Lucas X.; Hubert, Stella St.; Fleegler, Eric W.; Williams, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Widening socioeconomic disparities in mortality in the United States are largely explained by slower declines in tobacco use between low- and high-socioeconomic status (SES) groups, suggesting the need for targeted tobacco cessation interventions. Documentation of smoking status in electronic health records (EHRs), provides health systems with an opportunity to proactively offer tobacco treatment to disadvantaged smokers. Objective To evaluate a proactive strategy to provide tobacco treatment that addresses socio-contextual mediators of tobacco use for low-SES smokers. Design, Setting, Participants Prospective, randomized controlled trial for low-SES adult smokers who described their race/ethnicity as black, Hispanic or white and received primary care at one of 13 practices in greater-Boston (intervention n=399, control n=308). Intervention We used interactive voice response (IVR)-facilitated outreach to eligible individuals using EHR-coded smoking status. Consenting patients were randomized to a control group which received usual care from their health care team or to an intervention group that included a treatment program of: (1) telephone-based motivational counseling, (2) 6-weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), (3) access to community-based referrals to address socio-contextual mediators of tobacco use, and (4) integration of this program with an individual’s care team through the EHR. Main Outcome Self-reported past 7-day tobacco abstinence 9-months after randomization (“quitting”), assessed by automated caller or blinded study staff. Results The intervention group had a higher quit rate than the usual care group (17.8% vs. 8.1%, odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.0, number-needed-to-treat=10). We examined whether use of intervention components was associated with quitting among individuals in the intervention group; individuals who participated in the telephone counseling were more likely to quit compared to those who

  6. Types of Lay Health Influencers in Tobacco Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Wind, Steven; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Castañeda, Heide; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify types of health influencers in tobacco cessation based on the frequency and characteristics of brief intervention activities. Methods Longitudinal qualitative interviews were completed with 28 individuals post-training. Results Four individuals were categorized as Rarely Active, 5 as Active with Family and Friends, 9 as Active in the Workplace, and 10 as Proactive in Multiple Settings. Unique motivators, intervention behaviors, and barriers were documented. Some individuals displayed high levels of self-efficacy necessary for expanding the reach of community-based interventions. Conclusion Training programs need to address the impact of contextual factors on initiating and sustaining intervention activities. PMID:20524890

  7. Tobacco cessation education for pharmacists: Face-to-face presentations versus live webinars.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Hoch, Matthew A; Vitale, Frank M; Wahl, Kimberly R; Corelli, Robin L; de Moor, Carl

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the perceived effectiveness of tobacco cessation continuing education for pharmacists in face-to-face presentation versus live webinar modalities. METHODS A continuing pharmacy education (CPE) activity, Do Ask, Do Tell: A Practical Approach to Smoking Cessation, was offered in face-to-face and live webinar modalities. Following the activity, participants completed a brief questionnaire that assessed the anticipated impact of the activity on their smoking cessation counseling practices. RESULTS Of the 1,088 CPE participants, 819 (75%) attended a face-to-face presentation and 269 (25%) participated in a live webinar. Posttraining self-rated ability to address tobacco use was similar between groups ( P = 0.38), and both the face-to-face and live webinar groups reported a significant difference between pre- and posttraining abilities ( P < 0.05 for both groups). Attendees of the face-to-face presentation reported higher likelihoods of providing each of the individual tasks required to provide an effective, brief tobacco cessation intervention ( P < 0.05 for each task). CONCLUSION These data suggest that more value exists in face-to-face education than live webinars when personal and interactive skills are the focus of the activity.

  8. Patients' attitudes towards the role of dentists in tobacco cessation counselling after a brief and simple intervention.

    PubMed

    Ahmady, A Ebn; Homayoun, A; Lando, H A; Haghpanah, F; Khoshnevisan, M H

    2014-03-13

    Dental professionals are in a unique position to promote smoking cessation among their patients. We evaluated the effects of a brief counselling intervention by a dentist on patients' attitude towards the role of dentists in tobacco cessation programmes. In a semi-experimental study in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 70 eligible smokers were selected and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The initial attitudes of the patients regarding tobacco cessation counselling services provided by the dentist were determined using a validated questionnaire. The intervention group received a brief chair-side counselling by a dentist based on the 5 A's approach, while no intervention was provided for the control group. At 8-weeks follow-up, smokers receiving the intervention showed significantly more positive attitudes towards the role of the dentist in advising patients to quit smoking compared with those in the control group. More responsibility could be transferred to dentists for tobacco prevention.

  9. Tobacco cessation outcomes in a cohort of patients attending a chest medicine outpatient clinic in Bangalore city, southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mony, P.K.; Rose, D.P.; Sreedaran, P.; D’Souza, G.; Srinivasan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Nicotine dependence is a widely prevalent and harmful chronic addictive disorder. Quitting tobacco use is however, uncommon in India. We present long-term treatment outcomes of out-patient, tobacco cessation treatments from a specialty clinic setting in southern India. Methods: Patients seen in a tobacco cessation clinic were characterized for tobacco use, nicotine dependence and motivation for quitting and offered pharmacologic/non-pharmacologic treatment. They were subsequently contacted telephonically at a mean (±standard deviation) of 24 (±9.1) months to assess tobacco cessation outcome defined as ‘point prevalence of 1-month abstinence’ by self-reporting. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.0 ±14.0 yr. Tobacco use distribution was: beedis only (22%), cigarettes only (49%), beedis and cigarettes (18%), chewing only (2%), and smoking and chewing (9%). Two-thirds had high level of nicotine dependence. Of the 189 patients enrolled, only 15 per cent attended follow up clinics. Only 106 (56%) patients were successfully contacted telephonically and 83 (44%) were lost to follow up. Self-reported point prevalence abstinence was 5 per cent by ‘intent-to-treat’ analysis and 10 per cent by ‘responder’ analysis. Two clinical parameters – high level of nicotine dependence [estimated by the heaviness of smoking index (HSI)] and the absence of vascular or other chronic disease were found to be associated with successful quitting; these were however, not significant on multivariate analysis. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study has identified low quit-rates in a cohort of patients attending a hospital-based tobacco cessation clinic. In the absence of clear-cut predictors of cessation with low quit-rates, there should be continued efforts to improve cessation outcomes and identify predictors for action. PMID:24927338

  10. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, George; Rekha, Dorothy P.; Sreedaran, Priya; Srinivasan, K.; Mony, Prem K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ‘walk-in’ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD) age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0) years. Most participants were married (88%), and predominantly urban (69%). About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10). About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79%) of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%), hypertension (23%), diabetes (12%), tuberculosis (9%), myocardial infarction (2%), stroke (1%), sexual dysfunction (1%) and cancer (0.5%). About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients’ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%), contemplation (48%), preparation/action (37%) and maintenance (1%). Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%), nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT) (34%), medication alone (13%), and NRT+medication (12%). Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and

  11. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  12. A spit tobacco cessation intervention for college athletes: three-month results.

    PubMed

    Masouredis, C M; Hilton, J F; Grady, D; Gee, L; Chesney, M; Hengl, L; Ernster, V; Walsh, M M

    1997-09-01

    Sixteen colleges were matched on the baseline prevalence of spit tobacco (ST) use, and college pairs were randomized, one to the intervention and the other to the control group. Baseball and football athletes at each intervention college received: an oral examination by a dental professional who pointed out ST-related problems in the athlete's mouth and advised him to quit ST use; counseling by a dental hygienist on strategies to cope with cravings and triggers for use; and two follow-up telephone calls. At the three-month follow-up, quit rates were 24% and 16% for the intervention (n = 171) and control (n = 189) groups, respectively (p < 0.05). As the reported amount of ST used weekly increased, the percent of individuals who quit at 3 mos decreased (p < 0.05). Dental professionals appear to be effective in promoting spit tobacco cessation at 3 mos post-intervention in male college athletes, especially among those using lesser amounts of ST.

  13. Building Tobacco Cessation Capacity in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    David, Annette M.; Cruz, Peter J.; Mercado, Susan P.; Dan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions (BTI) training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands - Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a post-training knowledge assessment exam, pre- and post-confidence assessments and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the post-training knowledge assessment exam at the 1st attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their 2nd attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre and post confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations like Pacific Islanders. PMID:23632079

  14. A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Tobacco Cessation on Prescription in Swedish Primary Health Care: A Protocol of the Motivation 2 Quit (M2Q) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Peter; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Petzold, Max; Tomson, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sweden, the prevalence of tobacco use is disproportionately high among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Previous research and clinical experience suggest that prescribed lifestyle interventions in the primary health care (PHC) setting such as Physical Activity on Prescription are effective in changing behavior. However, there is a lack of evidence for if and how such a prescription approach could be effectively transferred into the tobacco cessation context. Objective The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Tobacco Cessation on Prescription (TCP) compared to current practice for tobacco cessation targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in the PHC setting in Sweden. Methods The design is a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial. The sample will consist of 928 daily tobacco users with Swedish social security numbers and permanent resident permits, recruited from 14-20 PHC centers located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Stockholm County. The primary outcome will be measured in self-reported 7-day abstinence at 6 and 12 months after the intervention. The secondary outcomes will be measured in daily tobacco consumption, number of quit attempts, and health-related quality of life at 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Data will be collected through questionnaires and review of electronic medical records. Cost-effectiveness will be estimated through decision analytic modeling and measured by the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year. Results In the first set of PHC centers participating in the study, eight centers have been included. Recruitment of individual study participants is currently ongoing. Inclusion of a second set of PHC centers is ongoing with expected study start in September 2016. Conclusions If TCP is found effective and cost-effective compared to standard treatment, the method could be implemented to facilitate tobacco cessation for socioeconomically

  15. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 countries, the role of health professional in the fight against tobacco is still less than ideal. In many Latin American schools of medicine, deficiencies in medical education has led to insecure physicians when they have to motivate their patients to stop smoking or to prevent young people to begin tobacco consumption. If each general practitioner or specialist during their daily medical assistance could talk to their smoker patients about the big benefits of stop smoking and support them to get free of tobacco, we would be winning a battle against smoking. Also if we could achieve generations of young non smoking doctors, who could be a real example for patients, this could also impact the prevalence of smokers. In this article we analyze the neurobiological bases of nicotine addiction, which we think are missing in the medical curriculum and could help doctors to understand tobacco smoking as a disease rather than a risk factor, and discuss the main reasons supporting an urgent change in the medical approach of tobacco cessation in Latin America as well as the need to actualize the medical curriculum in order to give physicians the skills needed to intervene successfully with their smoker patients and to be themselves non smokers.

  16. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 countries, the role of health professional in the fight against tobacco is still less than ideal. In many Latin American schools of medicine, deficiencies in medical education has led to insecure physicians when they have to motivate their patients to stop smoking or to prevent young people to begin tobacco consumption. If each general practitioner or specialist during their daily medical assistance could talk to their smoker patients about the big benefits of stop smoking and support them to get free of tobacco, we would be winning a battle against smoking. Also if we could achieve generations of young non smoking doctors, who could be a real example for patients, this could also impact the prevalence of smokers. In this article we analyze the neurobiological bases of nicotine addiction, which we think are missing in the medical curriculum and could help doctors to understand tobacco smoking as a disease rather than a risk factor, and discuss the main reasons supporting an urgent change in the medical approach of tobacco cessation in Latin America as well as the need to actualize the medical curriculum in order to give physicians the skills needed to intervene successfully with their smoker patients and to be themselves non smokers. PMID:21243210

  17. Assessment of Different Quit Smoking Methods Selected by Patients in Tobacco Cessation Centers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Leischow, Scott J.; Harry, A. Lando; Shadmehr, Mohammad B.; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling) with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8) and the quit and win (n = 17). The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers’ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system. PMID:26442750

  18. Factors Linked to Substance Use Disorder Counselors’ (Non)Implementation Likelihood of Tobacco Cessation 5 A's, Counseling, and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Laschober, Tanja C.; Muilenburg, Jessica L.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Background Despite efforts to promote the use of tobacco cessation services (TCS), implementation extensiveness remains limited. This study investigated three factors (cognitive, behavioral, environmental) identified by social cognitive theory as predictors of substance use disorder counselors’ likelihood of use versus non-use of tobacco cessation (TC) 5 A's (ask patients about tobacco use, advise to quit, assess willingness to quit, assist in quitting, arrange for follow-up contact), counseling, and pharmacotherapy with their patients who smoke cigarettes. Methods Data were collected in 2010 from 942 counselors working in 257 treatment programs that offered TCS. Cognitive factors included perceived job competence and TC attitudes. Behavioral factors encompassed TC-related skills and general training. External factors consisted of TC financial resource availability and coworker TC attitudes. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models with nested data. Results Approximately 86% of counselors used the 5 A's, 76% used counseling, and 53% used pharmacotherapy. When counselors had greater TC-related skills and greater general training they were more likely to implement the 5 A's. Implementation of counseling was more likely when counselors had more positive attitudes toward TC treatment, greater general training, greater financial resource availability, and when coworkers had more positive attitudes toward TC treatment. Implementation of pharmacotherapy was more likely when counselors had more positive attitudes toward TC treatment, greater general training, and greater financial resource availability. Conclusion Findings indicate that interventions to promote TCS implementation should consider all three factors simultaneously as suggested by social cognitive theory. PMID:26005696

  19. How Medicaid and Other Public Policies Affect Use of Tobacco Cessation Therapy, United States, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Erin; Bysshe, Tyler; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction State Medicaid programs can cover tobacco cessation therapies for millions of low-income smokers in the United States, but use of this benefit is low and varies widely by state. This article assesses the effects of changes in Medicaid benefit policies, general tobacco policies, smoking norms, and public health programs on the use of cessation therapy among Medicaid smokers. Methods We used longitudinal panel analysis, using 2-way fixed effects models, to examine the effects of changes in state policies and characteristics on state-level use of Medicaid tobacco cessation medications from 2010 through 2014. Results Medicaid policies that require patients to obtain counseling to get medications reduced the use of cessation medications by approximately one-quarter to one-third; states that cover all types of cessation medications increased usage by approximately one-quarter to one-third. Non-Medicaid policies did not have significant effects on use levels. Conclusions States could increase efforts to quit by developing more comprehensive coverage and reducing barriers to coverage. Reductions in barriers could bolster smoking cessation rates, and the costs would be small compared with the costs of treating smoking-related diseases. Innovative initiatives to help smokers quit could improve health and reduce health care costs. PMID:27788063

  20. Online Tobacco Cessation Training and Competency Assessment for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Practitioners: Protocol for the CAM Reach Web Study

    PubMed Central

    Howerter, Amy; Eaves, Emery R; Hall, John R; Buller, David B; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists, are a growing presence in the US health care landscape and already provide health and wellness care to significant numbers of patients who use tobacco. For decades, conventional biomedical practitioners have received training to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) and referrals to cessation services as part of routine clinical care, whereas CAM practitioners have been largely overlooked for BI training. Web-based training has clear potential to meet large-scale training dissemination needs. However, despite the exploding use of Web-based training for health professionals, Web-based evaluation of clinical skills competency remains underdeveloped. Objective In pursuit of a long-term goal of helping CAM practitioners integrate evidence-based practices from US Public Health Service Tobacco Dependence Treatment Guideline into routine clinical care, this pilot protocol aims to develop and test a Web-based tobacco cessation training program tailored for CAM practitioners. Methods In preparation for a larger trial to examine the effect of training on CAM practitioner clinical practice behaviors around tobacco cessation, this developmental study will (1) adapt an existing in-person tobacco cessation BI training program that is specifically tailored for CAM therapists for delivery via the Internet; (2) develop a novel, Web-based tool to assess CAM practitioner competence in tobacco cessation BI skills, and conduct a pilot validation study comparing the competency assessment tool to live video role plays with a standardized patient; (3) pilot test the Web-based training with 120 CAM practitioners (40 acupuncturists, 40 chiropractors, 40 massage therapists) for usability, accessibility, acceptability, and effects on practitioner knowledge, self-efficacy, and competency with tobacco cessation; and (4) conduct

  1. Is There a Role for Community Health Workers in Tobacco Cessation Programs? Perceptions of Administrators and Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have shown that with appropriate training, Community Health Workers (CHWs) can be actively involved in health promotion and disease prevention (including tobacco cessation). This study examined the perceptions of administrators and health care professionals regarding the actual and potential role(s) of CHWs in a tobacco cessation program (TCP) within a universal health care system. Methods: This study was part of a larger exploratory, cross-sectional comprehensive assessment of the implementation of the TCP through the primary care public health system in 7 towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to 84 administrators at different levels (regional, municipal, and health units) and 80 health care professionals who were directly involved in the TCP. For this study, we assessed the perceptions of administrators and health care professionals on the actual and potential role(s) of CHWs in the TCP. Results: The overall response rate was 56.2%. Although 48.4% of respondents indicated that CHWs already participated in the TCP, there was a wide range in the participants’ responses regarding their involvement (33.3% among regional administrators and 65% among health care professionals). Identification/referral of patients and promotion of the TCP in the community were the most frequent CHWs’ activities reported. Overall, respondents were very receptive about trained CHWs having multiple roles in the TCP, except for delivery of a brief intervention. Conclusion: With appropriate training, health care administrators and health care professionals are very receptive regarding the involvement of CHWs in a TCP delivered through a public health system. PMID:24420327

  2. Quit Smoking Experts’ Opinions toward Quality and Results of Quit Smoking Methods Provided in Tobacco Cessation Services Centers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad B.; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the core responsibilities of health system is to treat tobacco dependence. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess physicians’ opinions towards quality and result of different quit smoking methods provided in tobacco cessation services centers in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, random sampling of all quit centers at country level was used to obtain a representative sample size of 100 physicians. Physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects, and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: Most experts preferred to use combination quit smoking methods and then Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) with 26 and 23, respectively. The least used methods were quit line and some methods without medication with 3 cases. The method which gained the maximum scores were telephone consultation, acupuncture, Willpower, Champix, combined method, and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) with the mean of 23.3, 23, 22.5, 22, 21.7 and 21.3, respectively. The minimum scores were related to e-cigarette, some methods without medication, and non-NRT medication with the mean of 12.3, 15.8 and 16.2, respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean of scores based on different cities (P = 0.256). Analysis of variance in mean scores showed significant differences in the means scores of different methods (P < 0.000). Conclusions: According to physicians acupuncture, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods and these methods could be much more feasible and cost effective than other methods. PMID:26425329

  3. Enabling distributed electronic research data collection for a rural Appalachian tobacco cessation study.

    PubMed

    Borlawsky, Tara B; Lele, Omkar; Jensen, Daniel; Hood, Nancy E; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2011-12-01

    Tobacco use is increasingly prevalent among vulnerable populations, such as people living in rural Appalachian communities. Owing to limited access to a reliable internet service in such settings, there is no widespread adoption of electronic data capture tools for conducting community-based research. By integrating the REDCap data collection application with a custom synchronization tool, the authors have enabled a workflow in which field research staff located throughout the Ohio Appalachian region can electronically collect and share research data. In addition to allowing the study data to be exchanged in near-real-time among the geographically distributed study staff and centralized study coordinator, the system architecture also ensures that the data are stored securely on encrypted laptops in the field and centrally behind the Ohio State University Medical Center enterprise firewall. The authors believe that this approach can be easily applied to other analogous study designs and settings.

  4. Enabling distributed electronic research data collection for a rural Appalachian tobacco cessation study.

    PubMed

    Borlawsky, Tara B; Lele, Omkar; Jensen, Daniel; Hood, Nancy E; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2011-12-01

    Tobacco use is increasingly prevalent among vulnerable populations, such as people living in rural Appalachian communities. Owing to limited access to a reliable internet service in such settings, there is no widespread adoption of electronic data capture tools for conducting community-based research. By integrating the REDCap data collection application with a custom synchronization tool, the authors have enabled a workflow in which field research staff located throughout the Ohio Appalachian region can electronically collect and share research data. In addition to allowing the study data to be exchanged in near-real-time among the geographically distributed study staff and centralized study coordinator, the system architecture also ensures that the data are stored securely on encrypted laptops in the field and centrally behind the Ohio State University Medical Center enterprise firewall. The authors believe that this approach can be easily applied to other analogous study designs and settings. PMID:21849332

  5. Promoting Tobacco Cessation in a Community-Based Women’s Health Centre

    PubMed Central

    Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Eggert, Thomas; Puca, Zachary G; DuPont, Nefertiti; Erwin, Deborah O; Fox, Chester H; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Objective This report assesses the impact of a series of education sessions delivered to office staff on the delivery of smoking cessation services among patients seeking care at a community-based women’s health center. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to examine the delivery of smoking cessation services to patients in a medical office before and after office staff attended a series of 3 educational sessions intended to increase their knowledge and self-efficacy to address cessation. Delivery of smoking cessation services was documented through a systematic review of medical records using a structured abstraction form. Results While nearly all smokers (93%) were asked about smoking status at their last office visit, few smokers at baseline or follow-up were assessed for interest in setting a quit date or offered pharmacotherapy. Referrals to the smokers quit line increased from <1% at baseline to 8% at follow-up (p<0.001) and “any assistance” also showed a modest but significant increase (<1% baseline, 9% follow-up, p<0.001). Conclusion This evaluation failed to identify clinical meaningful changes in the delivery of smoking cessation services in this women’s health office before and after completion of a series of educational interventions for office staff. It is anticipated that the implementation of patient centered medical homes, and EMR systems, will help to enhance the delivery of smoking cessation services to women seeking medical care. PMID:27127729

  6. Feasibility of a tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant Alaska Native women

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Richard A.; Renner, Caroline C.; Enoch, Carrie; Hochreiter, Angela; Nevak, Caroline; Smith, Christina A.; Decker, Paul A.; Bonnema, Sarah; Hughes, Christine A.; Brockman, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta region of Western Alaska, about 79% smoke cigarettes or use smokeless tobacco during pregnancy. Treatment methods developed and evaluated among Alaska Native pregnant tobacco users do not exist. This pilot study used a randomized two-group design to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted cessation intervention for Alaska Native pregnant women. Methods: Recruitment occurred over an 8-month period. Enrolled participants were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 18; brief face-to-face counseling at the first visit and written materials) or to the intervention group (n = 17) consisting of face-to-face counseling at the first visit, four telephone calls, a video highlighting personal stories, and a cessation guide. Interview-based assessments were conducted at baseline and follow-up during pregnancy (≥60 days postrandomization). Feasibility was determined by the recruitment and retention rates. Results: The participation rate was very low with only 12% of eligible women (35/293) enrolled. Among enrolled participants, the study retention rates were high in both the intervention (71%) and control (94%) groups. The biochemically confirmed abstinence rates at follow-up were 0% and 6% for the intervention and control groups, respectively. Discussion: The low enrollment rate suggests that the program was not feasible or acceptable. Alternative approaches are needed to improve the reach and efficacy of cessation interventions for Alaska Native women. PMID:20018946

  7. Pilot Implementation of a Wellness and Tobacco Cessation Curriculum in North Carolina Group Homes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah M; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-05-01

    Despite a steady decline in smoking rates in recent decades, individuals with mental illness continue to smoke at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. Adults with mental illness are motivated to quit and quit with rates similar to the general population when evidence-based cessation interventions are used. To build an evidence base for a wellness and cessation curriculum aimed at individuals with mental illness, the Breathe Easy Live Well (BELW) program was pilot tested in two group homes in North Carolina in the spring of 2014. Evaluators conducted pre- and post-implementation site visits and interviews with program instructors to assess outcomes as well as barriers and facilitators to implementation. Qualitative analysis of the data indicated that implementation was successful in both group homes, and the following themes emerged: (1) Training and technical assistance provided throughout implementation was sufficient; (2) Instructors used prior professional experiences and goal setting to facilitate program success and participant engagement; (3) Fostering positive coping strategies contributed to reports of reduced smoking; (4) Curriculum length may be a barrier to recruitment. Additional results included an increased interest among group home residents in more diligently managing mental illness symptoms and one group home moving the designated smoking area out of the direct path of the entrance/exit. Results of this pilot project suggest that BELW could be a potentially useful tool for group home staff to address health and wellness along with smoking cessation among individuals with mental illness. PMID:26711097

  8. Promoting Tobacco Cessation and Smoke-Free Workplaces Through Community Outreach Partnerships in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Toro, Elba C.; Fernández, Maria E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Mejía, Luz M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. Objectives The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Results Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. Conclusions This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control. PMID:25152097

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Combined Effects of Web and Quitline Interventions for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G.; Severson, Herbert H.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Andrews, Judy A.; Cummins, Sharon E.; Lichtenstein, Edward; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Hudkins, Coleen; Widdop, Chris; Crowley, Ryann; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of smokeless tobacco (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) is a significant public health problem but smokeless tobacco users have few resources to help them quit. Web programs and telephone-based programs (Quitlines) have been shown to be effective for smoking cessation. We evaluate the effectiveness of a Web program, a Quitline, and the combination of the two for smokeless users recruited via the Web. Objectives To test whether offering both a Web and Quitline intervention for smokeless tobacco users results in significantly better long-term tobacco abstinence outcomes than offering either intervention alone; to test whether the offer of Web or Quitline results in better outcome than a self-help manual only Control condition; and to report the usage and satisfaction of the interventions when offered alone or combined. Methods Smokeless tobacco users (N= 1,683) wanting to quit were recruited online and randomly offered one of four treatment conditions in a 2×2 design: Web Only, Quitline Only, Web + Quitline, and Control (printed self-help guide). Point-prevalence all tobacco abstinence was assessed at 3- and 6-months post enrollment. Results 69% of participants completed both the 3- and 6-month assessments. There was no significant additive or synergistic effect of combining the two interventions for Complete Case or the more rigorous Intent To Treat (ITT) analyses. Significant simple effects were detected, individually the interventions were more efficacious than the control in achieving repeated 7-day point prevalence all tobacco abstinence: Web (ITT, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.94, p = .033) and Quitline (ITT: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.13, 2.11, p = .007). Participants were more likely to complete a Quitline call when offered only the Quitline intervention (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = .054, .093, p = .013), the number of website visits and duration did not differ when offered alone or in combination with Quitline. Rates of program helpfulness (p <.05) and

  10. Correlates of the Use of Different Tobacco Cessation Methods by Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users According to Their Socio-Demographic Characteristics: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-10

    PubMed Central

    Ruhil, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco control has two aspects. One involves preventing non-tobacco users from using tobacco and the second involves tobacco cessation (quitting) by existing tobacco users. There are various methods of tobacco cessation. Pharmacotherapy [e.g., nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and medications such as bupropion] and behavioral counselling are some of the internationally approved methods of tobacco cessation. Objective: This paper intends to study how age, gender, residence (rural/urban), education, and occupation influence the use of various tobacco cessation methods by smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010. There were 3725 smokers and 6354 smokeless tobacco users included in the study who made attempts to quit in the 12 months prior to the survey by use of different cessation methods (NRT, drugs such as bupropion, counselling, and other methods). Results: A significant association was demonstrated between increasing educational attainment and use of cessation methods for all the methods among smokers. Being employed (Govt. or non-Govt.) was positively associated with the use of NRT as a cessation method by smokers. Students and homemakers had higher odds of using pharmacotherapy methods among smokers. A significant association was demonstrated for the gender and age of tobacco users with the use of counselling as a cessation method among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusion: The findings of this study have important implications for tobacco cessation service providers in view of supporting their decision of choosing a particular tobacco cessation method for tobacco users according to certain kinds of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:27385871

  11. Meeting the Tobacco Cessation Coverage Requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: State Smoking Cessation Quitlines and Cost Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Linda; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether various key stakeholders considered cost sharing with state telephone-based tobacco cessation quitlines, because including tobacco cessation services as part of the required essential health benefits is a new requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We analyzed qualitative data collected from interviews conducted in April and May of 2014 with representatives of state health departments, quitline service providers, health plans, and insurance brokers in 4 US states. Results. State health departments varied in the strategies they considered the role their state quitline would play in meeting the ACA requirements. Health plans and insurance brokers referred to state quitlines because they were perceived as effective and free, but in 3 of the 4 states, the private stakeholder groups did not consider cost sharing. Conclusions. If state health departments are going to initiate cost-sharing agreements with private insurance providers, then they will need to engage a broad array of stakeholders and will need to overcome the perception that state quitline services are free. PMID:26447918

  12. Improving designer productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  13. Smokeless tobacco: challenges, products and, cessation.

    PubMed

    Rankin, K Vendrell; Jones, Daniel L; Benton, Elain

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco companies continue to develop and aggressively market new products for oral use. Most new products are intended to dissolve in the mouth and swallow rather than spit out the juices. These products effectively circumvent smoke-free policies, decrease tobacco cessation efforts, and create individuals who use both smokeless tobacco (ST) and cigarettes. All ST products contain nicotine, carcinogens, and pose multiple health risks. The cancer and health risks associated with ST use extend well beyond the changes in the oral cavity and the risk of oral cancer. Unlike cigarettes, the contents of ST vary widely by brand and product posing difficulty in the use of the available pharmacotherapy for cessation. Although no uniform guidelines exist for the use of pharmacotherapy for smokeless tobacco cessation, research suggests that use of these drugs is effective. The most important motivator for quitting ST cessation remains in the hands of the dentist. PMID:20629366

  14. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation. PMID:27077338

  15. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation.

  16. Perceived Implementation of the Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) Tobacco-Free Regulation in NY State and Clinical Practice Behaviors to Support Tobacco Cessation: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Tormes Eby, Lillian T.; Laschober, Tanja C.

    2013-01-01

    This study measured substance use disorder clinicians’ perceptions regarding the implementation extensiveness of the Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) tobacco-free regulation, passed in New York State in July of 2008, at three time-points and across organizations with varying characteristics. Repeated cross-sectional data were collected from clinicians approximately 4 months pre-regulation (Time 0, N = 362), 10–12 months postregulation (Time 1, N = 462), and 20–24 months post-regulation (Time 2, N = 509). Clinician perceptions of implementation extensiveness (number of required policies in effect), use of tobacco cessation-related intake procedures, and use of guideline recommended counseling for treating tobacco dependence are significantly greater at Time 1 and Time 2 compared to Time 0. Additionally, differences are found in perceived implementation extensiveness based on hospital-based status, profit status, and level of care offered, although the pattern of effects differed some over the three time-points under investigation. PMID:23375360

  17. Designing for Productive Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu; Bielaczyc, Katerine

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the design principles undergirding "productive failure" (PF; M. Kapur, 2008). We then report findings from an ongoing program of research on PF in mathematical problem solving in 3 Singapore public schools with significantly different mathematical ability profiles, ranging from average to lower ability. In the 1st…

  18. Production Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  19. Development and Testing of a Computerized Decision Support System to Facilitate Brief Tobacco Cessation Treatment in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Proposal and Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dexheimer, Judith W; Khoury, Jane C; Miller, Julie A; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) is unequivocally harmful to children's health, yet up to 48% of children who visit the pediatric emergency department (PED) and urgent care setting are exposed to tobacco smoke. The incorporation of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) into the electronic health records (EHR) of PED patients may improve the rates of screening and brief TSE intervention of caregivers and result in decreased TSE in children. Objective We propose a study that will be the first to develop and evaluate the integration of a CDSS for Registered Nurses (RNs) into the EHR of pediatric patients to facilitate the identification of caregivers who smoke and the delivery of TSE interventions to caregivers in the urgent care setting. Methods We will conduct a two-phase project to develop, refine, and integrate an evidence-based CDSS into the pediatric urgent care setting. RNs will provide input on program content, function, and design. In Phase I, we will develop a CDSS with prompts to: (1) ASK about child TSE and caregiver smoking, (2) use a software program, Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap), to ADVISE caregivers to reduce their child's TSE via total smoking home and car bans and quitting smoking, and (3) ASSESS their interest in quitting and ASSIST caregivers to quit by directly connecting them to their choice of free cessation resources (eg, Quitline, SmokefreeTXT, or SmokefreeGOV) during the urgent care visit. We will create reports to provide feedback to RNs on their TSE counseling behaviors. In Phase II, we will conduct a 3-month feasibility trial to test the results of implementing our CDSS on changes in RNs’ TSE-related behaviors, and child and caregiver outcomes. Results This trial is currently underway with funding support from the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute. We have completed Phase I. The CDSS has been developed with input from our advisory panel and RNs, and pilot tested. We are nearing completion of

  20. Culture-Orientated Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

  1. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  2. Production Facility SCADA Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Baily, Scott A.; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Wheat, Robert Mitchell Jr.

    2015-03-23

    The following report covers FY 14 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production facility. The goal of this effort is to provide Northstar with a baseline system design.

  3. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2011-12-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  4. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  5. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  6. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and construction of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere has been assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer data acquisition and control instrumentation is continuing.

  7. Holistic Design for Total Product Well Being

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Chris W.; Hamilton, George S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent hardware development work at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center creates and argument for the use of a holistic design approach as opposed to a piece part design approach. A piece part design approach being one where individual pieces are developed to their finished state having to meet certain interface and human engineering requirements without much consideration to the final product as a whole. A holistic design approach being one where the final product is evaluated early and frequently during the design process, and individual parts are developed with consideration to how they interact a whole,and how they interact with the user and environment. Examples from the development of the Materials Science Research Rack - 1 will illustrate: a design failure due to piece part design; a design save, due to a failure of piece part design, but saved by evaluating the design holistically; and a design success due to a holistic design approach.

  8. Engineering Changes in Product Design - A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K.; Janardhan Reddy, K., Dr

    2016-09-01

    Changes are fundamental to product development. Engineering changes are unavoidable and can arise at any phase of the product life cycle. The consideration of market requirements, customer/user feedbacks, manufacturing constraints, design innovations etc., turning them into viable products can be accomplished when product change is managed properly. In the early design cycle, informal changes are accepted. However, changes become formal when its complexity and cost increases, and as product matures. To maximize the market shares, manufacturers have to effectively and efficiently manage engineering changes by means of Configuration Control. The paper gives a broad overview about ‘Engineering Change Management’ (ECM) through configuration management and its implications in product design. The aim is to give an idea and understanding about the engineering changes in product design scenario to the new researchers. This paper elaborates the significant aspect of managing the engineering changes and the importance of ECM in a product life cycle.

  9. Designing, Developing, and Marketing Multimedia Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Anna; Randall, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    States that more and more technical writers across the discipline are likely to become involved in designing and developing multimedia products in the future. Finds that this will require retooling current skills used in production of text-based information products. Presents an overview of the process of bringing a multimedia product to the point…

  10. Cost benefits from human productivity design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The degree to which changing definitions of productivity influence the design of space systems is discussed from a sociological point of view. Particular attention is given to the importance of subjective criteria used in judgements about the cost and benefits of designing a Space Station. It is recommended that designers, administrators, and potential private industrial participants recognize the objectives and goals of other groups involved in the Space Station program in order to establish the most cooperative and productive design environment.

  11. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  12. Product design, semantics and emotional response.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Oya; Sener, Bahar

    This paper explores theoretical issues in ergonomics related to semantics and the emotional content of design. The aim is to find answers to the following questions: how to design products triggering "happiness" in one's mind; which product attributes help in the communication of positive emotions; and finally, how to evoke such emotions through a product. In other words, this is an investigation of the "meaning" that could be designed into a product in order to "communicate" with the user at an emotional level. A literature survey of recent design trends, based on selected examples of product designs and semantic applications to design, including the results of recent design awards, was carried out in order to determine the common attributes of their design language. A review of Good Design Award winning products that are said to convey and/or evoke emotions in the users has been done in order to define good design criteria. These criteria have been discussed in relation to user emotional responses and a selection of these has been given as examples.

  13. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    PubMed

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors.

  14. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    PubMed

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities. PMID:17303064

  15. Haptics for Product Design and Manufacturing Simulation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pingjun

    2016-01-01

    Product design and manufacturing simulation is a promising research and application area for haptics. By benefiting from its natural human-computer interaction and realistic force/torque feedback, haptics can change the traditional design and manufacturing approaches which are mainly based on physical mock-ups or CAD (Computer Aided Design) modes. This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive survey of haptics for product design and manufacturing simulation in the past 10 years, mainly from 2004-2014, including haptics for product design and shape modelling, haptics for machining simulation, and haptics for virtual assembly and maintenance simulation. The new haptic devices and rendering algorithms involved in this area are introduced, the major research efforts and the typical systems are discussed, and the new ideas and research progresses are investigated. Then, conclusions and future trends are summarized.

  16. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  17. Designing for Productive Adaptations of Curriculum Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debarger, Angela Haydel; Choppin, Jeffrey; Beauvineau, Yves; Moorthy, Savitha

    2013-01-01

    Productive adaptations at the classroom level are evidence-based curriculum adaptations that are responsive to the demands of a particular classroom context and still consistent with the core design principles and intentions of a curriculum intervention. The model of design-based implementation research (DBIR) offers insights into complexities and…

  18. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  19. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined.

  20. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

  1. Tobacco Cessation for Adolescents: Developing a Group Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolchan, Eric T.; Ruckel, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a cognitive-behavioral therapeutic approach to help teenagers better manage life stressors by using effective and adaptive coping skills, while identifying and addressing specific factors that lead either to smoking or maintaining abstinence from smoking behavior. Discusses specific group exercises that empower teens to take control of…

  2. Factors associated with smokeless tobacco cessation in an Appalachian population.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Ross M; Ferketich, Amy K; Wee, Alvin G; Shultz, Jennifer M; Kuun, Patty; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2008-06-01

    Identifying factors associated with successful tobacco quit attempts may help in the development and targeting of effective cessation strategies. This paper aims to describe factors associated with smokeless tobacco (ST) cessation and compares the results to findings in the smoking cessation literature. Prospective data on 116 men aged 19 to 70 and participating in a ST cessation program were used to examine correlates of successful ST cessation at 1-year post-intervention. Controlling for age, level of education (p=0.002) and daily coffee consumption (p=0.005) had significant independent associations with successful cessation. No ST use variables were significant predictors of cessation success. In a multivariable logistic regression model three factors were significantly associated with cessation: education (p=0.010), coffee consumption (p=0.019), and age (p=0.029). Factors associated with successful ST cessation in this sample are consistent with predictors of smoking cessation reported in the literature. Based on its widespread use and the strength of its association with successful quitting, the role of caffeine consumption in ST cessation merits further study.

  3. Better Practices for Youth Tobacco Cessation: Evidence of Review Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Paul; Colwell, Brian; Backinger, Cathy L.; Husten, Corinne; Maule, Catherine O.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To offer programmers, policy makers, and researchers a scientific basis for developing and selecting smoking cessation treatments for adolescents. Methods: An evidence review panel systematically rated published and unpublished reports of cessation treatments for youth to make recommendations on theoretical foundations, delivery…

  4. Effective Tobacco Cessation via Health Coaching: An Institutional Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sforzo, Gary A; Kaye, Miranda; Ayers, Gale D; Talbert, Betina; Hill, Marilyn

    2014-09-01

    背景:大家公认滥用烟草会造成健 康和医疗费用的祸害。但是,促进 戒烟的意图很少有实效。主要目的:描述一个现有的非常 成功的戒烟计划,其特点是将健 康指导作为主要干预措施。本文 给 出 程 序 设 计 和 数 据 的 核 心 内 容,这两方面内容可用作其他公 共卫生设置的模型。方法:采用健康指导和辅助计划内 容(耳针疗法、阿尔法-电刺激以及 放松技巧)。提供了在3年多时间 161例患者在6个月时的戒烟率,维 持3年多时间,其指标为30天时点不 吸烟和意向性治疗值。 还比较了通 过电话与诊所内指导、自由选择与 要求参与、以及方案费用的情况。结果:时点戒烟率为88.7%,而 较 保 守 的 意 向 性 治 疗 戒 烟 率 为 51.6%。在任何时间点,通过电 话和诊所训练的戒烟效果无显著 差异。在6和12个月的无吸烟率分 别为76.9%和63.2%。结论:提供了两种成本高效、提 供健康指导的戒烟模式。时点戒 烟率(30天)达80%以上,而且 效果持久。如果这样的戒烟项目 大规模实施,将对烟草消费所造 成的个人和社会的负担(健康和 经济方面)产生极大的影响。

  5. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay…

  6. Designing Interoperable Data Products with Community Conventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.; Jelenak, A.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    The HDF Product Designer (HPD) is a cloud-based client-server collaboration tool that can bring existing netCDF-3/4/CF, HDF4/5, and HDF-EOS2/5 products together to create new interoperable data products that serve the needs of the Earth Science community. The tool is designed to reduce the burden of creating and storing data in standards-compliant, interoperable HDF5 files and lower the technical and programming skill threshold needed to design such products by providing a user interface that combines the netCDF-4/HDF5 interoperable feature set with applicable metadata conventions. Users can collaborate quickly to devise new HDF5 products while at the same time seamlessly incorporating the latest best practices and conventions in their community by importing existing data products. The tool also incorporates some expert system features through CLIPS, allowing custom approaches in the file design, as well as easy transfer of preferred conventions as they are being developed. The current state of the tool and the plans for future development will be presented. Constructive input from any interested parties is always welcome.

  7. Product quality multi-objective dryer design

    SciTech Connect

    Kiranoudis, C.T.; Maroulis, Z.B.; Marinos-Kouris, D.

    1999-11-01

    Design of conveyor-belt dryers constitutes a mathematical programming problem involving the evaluation of appropriate structural and operational process variables so that total annual plant cost involved is optimized. The increasing need for dehydrated products of the highest quality, imposes the development of criteria that, together with cost, determine the design rules for drying processes. Quality of dehydrated products is a complex resultant of properties characterizing the final products, where the most important one is color. Color is determined as a three-parameter resultant, whose values for products, which have undergone drying should deviate from the corresponding ones of natural products, as little as possible. In this case, product quality dryer design is a complex multi-objective optimization problem, involving the color deviation vector as an objective function and as constraints the ones deriving from the process mathematical model. The mathematical model of the dryer was developed and the fundamental color deterioration laws were determined for the drying process. Non-preference multi-criteria optimization methods were used and the Pareto-optimal set of efficient solutions was evaluated. An example was included to demonstrate the performance of the design procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's ‘effectiveness’ as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Conclusions Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons. PMID:24732162

  9. History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelrich, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

  10. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Christopher J; Wham, Robert M; Hobbs, Randall W; Owens, R Steven; Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  11. The Norne production ship -- Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Odland, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Norne Production and Storage Vessel (PSV) will be the largest monohull production facility in the world with a throughput capacity of 173,000 bbl oil and 238 mill scf gas per day. Production will be based on subsea completed wells, drilled through five templates and connected to the turret moored PSV via flexible risers and flow lines. A high capacity swivel stack has been designed for transfer of oil/gas/water between turret and facilities on the process deck. The Norne field is located further north than any other Norwegian field in operation or under development, and the water depth on location is 380 m.

  12. Counting on natural products for drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Reker, Daniel; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-06-01

    Natural products and their molecular frameworks have a long tradition as valuable starting points for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recently, there has been a revitalization of interest in the inclusion of these chemotypes in compound collections for screening and achieving selective target modulation. Here we discuss natural-product-inspired drug discovery with a focus on recent advances in the design of synthetically tractable small molecules that mimic nature's chemistry. We highlight the potential of innovative computational tools in processing structurally complex natural products to predict their macromolecular targets and attempt to forecast the role that natural-product-derived fragments and fragment-like natural products will play in next-generation drug discovery.

  13. Product design engineering - a global education trend in multidisciplinary training for creative product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering training. Product design engineering (PDE) is a new interdisciplinary programme combining the strengths of the industrial design and engineering. This paper examines the emergence of PDE in an environment of critique of conventional engineering education and exemplifies the current spread of programmes endorsing a hybrid programme of design and engineering skills. The paper exemplifies PDE with the analysis of the programme offered at Swinburne University of Technology (Australia), showing how the teaching of 'designerly' thinking to engineers produces a new graduate particularly suited to the current and future environment of produce design practice. The paper concludes with reflections on the significance of this innovative curriculum model for the field of product design and for engineering design in general.

  14. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  15. Engaging teenagers productively in service design

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Simon; Sustar, Helena; Wolstenholme, Daniel; Dearden, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Engaging young people in participatory design can be challenging, particularly in health-related projects. In a study co-designing diabetes support and information services with teenagers, we found framing activities using popular culture was a useful strategy. Various cultural references helped us stage activities that were productive for the design process, and were engaging for our young participants (e.g. exploring practical implications through discussions in a ‘Dragons’ Den’). Some activities were more effective than others and the idea of language-games, which has been widely explored in participatory design, explains why our strategy was successful when there was a clear ‘family resemblance’ between the popular cultural references and certain essential stages of designing. However, attention is required in selecting appropriate cultural references if this strategy is adopted elsewhere, and design facilitators should focus first on devising accessible language-games, rather than expecting popular cultural references to provide complete solutions to the challenge of staging participatory design. PMID:26516621

  16. URPD: a specific product primer design tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. Findings URPD (yoUR Primer Design), a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq), UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA) and genetic algorithm (GA) primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. Conclusions URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/. PMID:22713312

  17. Defining Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A

    2016-09-01

    The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved.

  18. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  19. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed Central

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  20. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  1. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste

  2. Incorporating ISO Metadata Using HDF Product Designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelenak, Aleksandar; Kozimor, John; Habermann, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The need to store in HDF5 files increasing amounts of metadata of various complexity is greatly overcoming the capabilities of the Earth science metadata conventions currently in use. Data producers until now did not have much choice but to come up with ad hoc solutions to this challenge. Such solutions, in turn, pose a wide range of issues for data managers, distributors, and, ultimately, data users. The HDF Group is experimenting on a novel approach of using ISO 19115 metadata objects as a catch-all container for all the metadata that cannot be fitted into the current Earth science data conventions. This presentation will showcase how the HDF Product Designer software can be utilized to help data producers include various ISO metadata objects in their products.

  3. Increase productivity with novel reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, S.T.; Mulvaney, R.C.; Felch, D.E.; Petri, J.A.; Vandenbussche, K.; Dandekar, H.W.

    1998-03-01

    Hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators have always desired flexible control over process temperature as the chemical reactions proceeded. By managing reaction temperature, petrochemical manufacturers can optimize other processing variables, thus increasing product yields and minimizing wastes and byproducts. Diverse requirements of the HPI have spawned many different reactor types. Each design has benefits but also limitations. Ongoing challenges in reactor development include large pressure drop, high catalyst inventory, labor-intensive change-out of catalysts, etc. Two case histories explore using adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactor technology for exothermic and endothermic reactions.

  4. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  5. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H. C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-12-19

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations or in distributed locations near the customer, including hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FuelCell Energy has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented Direct FuelCell technology, where the fuel is directly fed to fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating, and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report. FCE's DFC

  6. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) Where market research is undertaken, including individuals with disabilities in target populations of such research; (2) Where product design, testing, pilot demonstrations, and product trials...

  7. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-07-15

    Almost 100 years after the discovery of the Raman scattering phenomenon, related analytical techniques have emerged as important tools in biomedical sciences. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are frontier, non-invasive analytical techniques amenable for diverse biomedical areas, ranging from molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed.

  8. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2002-02-01

    generation, industrial cogeneration, marine applications and uninterrupted power for military bases. FuelCell Energy operated a 1.8 MW plant at a utility site in 1996-97, the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in North America. This proof-of-concept power plant demonstrated high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power control, and unattended operation capabilities. Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the full-size power plant; FuelCell Energy launched the Product Design Improvement (PDI) program sponsored by government and the private-sector cost-share. The PDI efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program was initiated in December 1994. Year 2000 program accomplishments are discussed in this report.

  9. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Elif; van Egmond, René

    2010-02-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral part of the main product concept. Because visual aspects of a product are considered to dominate the communication of the desired product concept, sound is usually expected to fit the visual character of a product. We argue that this can be accomplished successfully only on basis of a thorough understanding of the impact of audio-visual interactions on product sounds. Two experimental studies are reviewed to show audio-visual interactions on both perceptual and cognitive levels influencing the way people encode, recall, and attribute meaning to product sounds. Implications for sound design are discussed defying the natural tendency of product designers to analyze the "sound problem" in isolation from the other product properties.

  10. Manufactured Product Design and Planning. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Jerry E.

    This curriculum for a 1-semester or 1-year course in product design and planning contains information about the following topics: creativity, idea production techniques, problem solving, design fundamentals, design requirements, graphic communication, materials and processes, and safety. Course content is organized around the laboratory activities…

  11. Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

    2011-01-01

    Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

  12. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... product category are not reasonably available within a reasonable period of time, fail to meet the... product category designated in Round 2 (73 FR 27954, May 14, 2008) and a subcategory for wheel bearing and chassis grease to the greases product category designated in Round 3 (73 FR 27974, May 14, 2008)....

  13. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The FCE PDI program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement, and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry.

  14. Robust design of configurations and parameters of adaptable products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yongliang; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2014-03-01

    An adaptable product can satisfy different customer requirements by changing its configuration and parameter values during the operation stage. Design of adaptable products aims at reducing the environment impact through replacement of multiple different products with single adaptable ones. Due to the complex architecture, multiple functional requirements, and changes of product configurations and parameter values in operation, impact of uncertainties to the functional performance measures needs to be considered in design of adaptable products. In this paper, a robust design approach is introduced to identify the optimal design configuration and parameters of an adaptable product whose functional performance measures are the least sensitive to uncertainties. An adaptable product in this paper is modeled by both configurations and parameters. At the configuration level, methods to model different product configuration candidates in design and different product configuration states in operation to satisfy design requirements are introduced. At the parameter level, four types of product/operating parameters and relations among these parameters are discussed. A two-level optimization approach is developed to identify the optimal design configuration and its parameter values of the adaptable product. A case study is implemented to illustrate the effectiveness of the newly developed robust adaptable design method.

  15. 36 CFR 1193.23 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following factors, as the manufacturer deems appropriate: (1) Where market research is undertaken, including individuals with disabilities in target populations of such research; (2) Where product design, testing,...

  16. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  17. Group decision support system for customer-driven product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhihang; Chen, Hang; Chen, Kuen; Che, Ada

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes the work on the development of a group decision support system for customer driven product design. The customer driven is to develop products, which meet all customer requirements in whole life cycle of products. A process model of decision during product primary design is proposed to formulate the structured, semi-structured and unstructured decision problems. The framework for the decision support system is presented that integrated both advances in the group decision making and distributed artificial intelligent. The system consists of the product primary design tool kit and the collaborative platform with multi-agent structure. The collaborative platform of the system and the product primary design tool kit, including the VOC (Voice of Customer) tool, QFD (Quality Function Deployment) tool, the Conceptual design tool, Reliability analysis tool and the cost and profit forecasting tool, are indicated.

  18. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates. PMID:27088667

  19. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  20. Organizational Learning and Product Design Management: Towards a Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiva-Gomez, Ricardo; Camison-Zornoza, Cesar; Lapiedra-Alcami, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of four Spanish ceramics companies were used to construct a theoretical model of 14 factors essential to organizational learning. One set of factors is related to the conceptual-analytical phase of the product design process and the other to the creative-technical phase. All factors contributed to efficient product design management…

  1. Application of Chinese Ink Wash Drawing in Product Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Huang, Qiming; Qin, Chuan

    Based on the analysis of the art of Chinese Ink Wash Drawing style, then explains the purpose and meaning of the study for product design with Ink Wash Drawing, in the end combined with actual cases, describes the application of product design using Chinese Ink Wash Drawing.

  2. Design and production of diamond devices

    SciTech Connect

    Haenni, W.; Dan, J.P.; Perret, A.

    1995-12-31

    The outstanding properties of thin diamond films (hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity, high transparency, etc.) make them a good candidate for sensors, electronic or micromechanical devices, either self-standing or as part of microsystems. The structuring of diamond films and production of devices based on their properties has been described several times in the literature. Intrinsic as well as p-type doped diamond layers are now routinely deposited by different suppliers. To make full use of these layers in microtechnical products, it is necessary to further master suitable structuring techniques. Two methods have been developed and tested namely, selective area deposition (SAD) and direct etching of blanket-deposited diamond films. Both of these complementary approaches are described here, aiming at the production of thin diamond film structures suitable for example, to manufacture chemical sensors, cantilever beams or electrodes.

  3. Interactive Videodisc Design and Production Workshop Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Olin; And Others

    This "how to" workshop guide provides an overview of the entire videodisc authoring and production process through six individual modules. Focusing on project planning, the first module provides guidelines, procedures, and job aids to help each instructional development team member effectively use the videodisc medium. The second module describes…

  4. 77 FR 33269 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... against environmental and health measures and life-cycle costs (the ASTM Standard D7075, ``Standard... life-cycle costs for each of the designated product categories. Information on the availability... the life-cycle costs of the products. In considering a product's availability, USDA uses...

  5. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Carlos A; Sánchez, Oscar J

    2007-09-01

    Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. In this work, the key role that process design plays during the development of cost-effective technologies is recognized through the analysis of major trends in process synthesis, modeling, simulation and optimization related to ethanol production. Main directions in techno-economical evaluation of fuel ethanol processes are described as well as some prospecting configurations. The most promising alternatives for compensating ethanol production costs by the generation of valuable co-products are analyzed. Opportunities for integration of fuel ethanol production processes and their implications are underlined. Main ways of process intensification through reaction-reaction, reaction-separation and separation-separation processes are analyzed in the case of bioethanol production. Some examples of energy integration during ethanol production are also highlighted. Finally, some concluding considerations on current and future research tendencies in fuel ethanol production regarding process design and integration are presented.

  6. A Design of Product Collaborative Online Configuration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoguo; Zheng, Jin; Zeng, Qian

    According to the actual needs of mass customization, the personalization of product and its collaborative design, the paper analyzes and studies the working mechanism of modular-based product configuration technology and puts forward an information model of modular product family. Combined with case-based reasoning techniques (CBR) and the constraint satisfaction problem solving techniques (CSP), we design and study the algorithm for product configuration, and analyze its time complexity. A car chassis is made as the application object, we provide a prototype system of online configuration. Taking advantage of this system, designers can make appropriate changes on the existing programs in accordance with the demand. This will accelerate all aspects of product development and shorten the product cycle. Also the system will provide a strong technical support for enterprises to improve their market competitiveness.

  7. Design for Usability; practice-oriented research for user-centered product design.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Daan; van Kuijk, Jasper; Hoolhorst, Frederik; Kim, Chajoong; Harkema, Christelle; Dorrestijn, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Design for Usability project aims at improving the usability of electronic professional and consumer products by creating new methodology and methods for user-centred product development, which are feasible to apply in practice. The project was focused on 5 key areas: (i) design methodology, expanding the existing approach of scenario-based design to incorporate the interaction between product design, user characteristics, and user behaviour; (ii) company processes, barriers and enablers for usability in practice; (iii) user characteristics in relation to types of products and use-situations; (iv) usability decision-making; and (v) product impact on user behaviour. The project team developed methods and techniques in each of these areas to support the design of products with a high level of usability. This paper brings together and summarizes the findings.

  8. Design for Usability; practice-oriented research for user-centered product design.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Daan; van Kuijk, Jasper; Hoolhorst, Frederik; Kim, Chajoong; Harkema, Christelle; Dorrestijn, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Design for Usability project aims at improving the usability of electronic professional and consumer products by creating new methodology and methods for user-centred product development, which are feasible to apply in practice. The project was focused on 5 key areas: (i) design methodology, expanding the existing approach of scenario-based design to incorporate the interaction between product design, user characteristics, and user behaviour; (ii) company processes, barriers and enablers for usability in practice; (iii) user characteristics in relation to types of products and use-situations; (iv) usability decision-making; and (v) product impact on user behaviour. The project team developed methods and techniques in each of these areas to support the design of products with a high level of usability. This paper brings together and summarizes the findings. PMID:22316853

  9. Optoelectronic systems: design of world-class products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanase, Letitia; Cucu, Maria

    2000-02-01

    Product designing is one of the phase of the project management. The Quality System's elements, referable to design, are included in the project management. The produce definition in accordance with the stated and implied requirements, is the most important phase for the product's quality. Obviously, the sooner the best solution is selected and the deficiencies detected, the better the product quality will be, and at better price. From here, it reslut the importance of the design and Quality System planning. Design is a creative task which stars with stated needs and existing Knowledge, and ends with definition of a product that satisfy those needs and is industrially feasible. The products must be designed for the client's, not the company's benefit. The products that do not have the right set of features will not be as well saleable those products that have the right set of features. The best design may fail if it is not correctly planned. Quality planning provide a structure that helps a successful project. The emphasis is made on learning the concepts and abilities, on tools and techniques required to build quality.

  10. Interactive design and presentation of ceramic sanitary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian; Yin, Guofu; Pan, Zhigeng

    2003-04-01

    Contemporary demands on ceramic sanitary products tend more and more to emphasize diversification and individuation. How to provide effective techniques to support interactive design and presentation of ceramic sanitary products has become a great challenge for vendors. This paper presents a general framework for ceramic sanitary products design. Some dynamic adjustment algorithms of curves to support surface parameterized modeling of toilet bowl, which is one of the most complex ceramic products, are proposed. Furthermore, the VR-based display and customization environment is also illustrated. With the VRML and Java, our system not only offers users different products, but also allows users to reset selected bathroom scene through replacing products from modeling database and modifying attributes of different products, such as colors, positions, etc. Then a brief discussion and future research directions are put forward in the last part of this paper.

  11. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  12. Ergonomics and sustainability in the design of everyday use products.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness. PMID:22317314

  13. Comparing Personal Characteristic Factors of Imagination between Expert and Novice Designers within Different Product Design Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yinghsiu; Li, Jianyou

    2015-01-01

    Imagination plays a key role in various domains in helping to create innovative ideas, drawings, poems, movies, products, etc. In product design domain, the personal characteristics of imagination are crucial abilities for conceiving novel ideas during design processes. This study focuses on personal characteristic differences and similarities…

  14. Design for Health and Well Being: Knitted Products for Diabetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gault, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.

  15. Design of systems for productivity and well being.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling the process' different types of knowledge; and (4) emphasizing that performance management systems, key performance indicators (KPIs), and leadership are also part of the system design and must be given attention. With the examples presented, we argue that knowledge does exist to help system design facilitators address these basic issues. PMID:23631941

  16. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... wax melts; electronic components cleaners; floor coverings (non-carpet); foot care products; furniture..., a proposed rule in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating a total of 13 product... this final rule as the ``preferred procurement program''). The proposed rule can be found at 76...

  17. 77 FR 69381 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... preferred procurement of biobased products by Federal agencies (referred to hereafter in this FR notice as the ``preferred procurement program''). This proposed rule can be found at 77 FR 33270. This... preferred procurement under each designated product category. For information pertinent to E-Government...

  18. Entry, Pricing, and Product Design in an Initially Monopolized Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Steven J.; Murphy, Kevin M.; Topel, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze entry, pricing, and product design in a model with differentiated products. Market equilibrium can be "separating," with multiple sellers and a sorting of heterogeneous consumers across goods, or "exclusionary," with one seller serving all customer types. Entry into an initially monopolized market can occur because of cost reductions or…

  19. High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C>

    1998-05-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam via muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design.

  20. Designing low-complexity electrical consumer products for ecological use.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Wiese, Bettina S; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the environmental impact of low-complexity electrical consumer products during their use in a domestic context. In the experimental scenario, 48 users were asked to use a kettle under different conditions. On-product information (OPI), task instruction, and kettle design were employed as independent variables in a mixed multi-factorial design to examine their effects on different parameters of ecological performance (e.g., water and electricity consumption). Measures of user variables (environmental concern, knowledge, domestic habits, environmental control beliefs) were also taken to examine their relationship with performance parameters. The results revealed main effects of ecological task instruction, OPI and (partly) kettle design on ecological user behaviour. Habits, environmental concern and control beliefs were found to be related to performance parameters whereas knowledge was not. The implications of the results for product design are discussed against the background of a strong prevalence of habits and low ecological user motivation.

  1. A Computational Framework for Cable Layout Design in Complex Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wei; Liu, Jian-hua; Ning, Ru-xin; Liu, Jia-shun

    The cable layout design in complex products has been challenging because of various strict constraints. In this paper, we present a computationalframework which provides a rich solution for the cable layout problems. The framework centers at the digital mockup of the product,and the digital model of the cable bundle in the productis introduced as an essential part. The design process in the framework is carried out in a virtual environment with a wide range of supporting techniques and tools integrated, including path planning techniques, physically-based model, assembly simulation techniques and more. The techniques and tools respectively emphasizeon different aspects in this problem domain. Besides, the designers play an important role in the framework. They drive the whole design process and make decisions with their knowledge on issues that current techniques cannot solve. A prototype system is developed and applied in practical product development process. The results show that the framework is practical and promising.

  2. Design and synthesis of analogues of natural products.

    PubMed

    Maier, Martin E

    2015-05-21

    In this article strategies for the design and synthesis of natural product analogues are summarized and illustrated with some selected examples. Proven strategies include diverted total synthesis (DTS), function-oriented synthesis (FOS), biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS), complexity to diversity (CtD), hybrid molecules, and biosynthesis inspired synthesis. The latter includes mutasynthesis, the synthesis of natural products encoded by silent genes, and propionate scanning. Most of the examples from our group fall in the quite general concept of DTS. Thus, in case an efficient strategy to a natural product is at hand, modifications are possible at almost any stage of a synthesis. However, even for compounds of moderate complexity, organic synthesis remains a bottle neck. Unless some method for predicting the biological activity of a designed molecule becomes available, the design and synthesis of natural product analogues will remain what it is now, namely it will largely rely on trial and error. PMID:25829247

  3. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  4. Process and reactor design for biophotolytic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Tamburic, Bojan; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Zemichael, Fessehaye W; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2013-07-14

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has the ability to produce molecular hydrogen (H2), a clean and renewable fuel, through the biophotolysis of water under sulphur-deprived anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to advance the development of a practical and scalable biophotolytic H2 production process. Experiments were carried out using a purpose-built flat-plate photobioreactor, designed to facilitate green algal H2 production at the laboratory scale and equipped with a membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system to accurately measure H2 production rates in real time. The nutrient control method of sulphur deprivation was used to achieve spontaneous H2 production following algal growth. Sulphur dilution and sulphur feed techniques were used to extend algal lifetime in order to increase the duration of H2 production. The sulphur dilution technique proved effective at encouraging cyclic H2 production, resulting in alternating Chlamydomonas reinhardtii recovery and H2 production stages. The sulphur feed technique enabled photobioreactor operation in chemostat mode, resulting in a small improvement in H2 production duration. A conceptual design for a large-scale photobioreactor was proposed based on these experimental results. This photobioreactor has the capacity to enable continuous and economical H2 and biomass production using green algae. The success of these complementary approaches demonstrate that engineering advances can lead to improvements in the scalability and affordability of biophotolytic H2 production, giving increased confidence that H2 can fulfil its potential as a sustainable fuel of the future. PMID:23689756

  5. Scenario building as an ergonomics method in consumer product design.

    PubMed

    Suri, J F; Marsh, M

    2000-04-01

    The role of human factors in design appears to have broadened from data analysis and interpretation into application of discovery and "user experience" design. The human factors practitioner is continually in search of ways to enhance and to better communicate their contributions, as well as to raise the prominence of the user at all stages of the design process. In work with design teams on the development of many consumer products, scenario building has proved to be a valuable addition to the repertoire of more traditional human factors methods. It is a powerful exploration, prototyping and communication tool, and is particularly useful early on in the product design process. This paper describes some advantages and potential pitfalls in using scenarios, and provides examples of how and where they can be usefully applied.

  6. Generic development of topical dermatologic products, Part II: quality by design for topical semisolid products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize critical material attributes and critical process parameters, in conjunction with design of experiments or other appropriate methods to establish control strategies for the drug product. Several design-of-experiment examples are included as practical strategies for the development and optimization of formulation and process for topical drug products.

  7. Yeast metabolic chassis designs for diverse biotechnological products

    PubMed Central

    Jouhten, Paula; Boruta, Tomasz; Andrejev, Sergej; Pereira, Filipa; Rocha, Isabel; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of industrially important molecules for which microbial production routes have been experimentally demonstrated is rapidly increasing. The development of economically viable producer cells is, however, lagging behind, as it requires substantial engineering of the host metabolism. A chassis strain suitable for production of a range of molecules is therefore highly sought after but remains elusive. Here, we propose a genome-scale metabolic modeling approach to design chassis strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – a widely used microbial cell factory. For a group of 29 products covering a broad range of biochemistry and applications, we identified modular metabolic engineering strategies for re-routing carbon flux towards the desired product. We find distinct product families with shared targets forming the basis for the corresponding chassis cells. The design strategies include overexpression targets that group products by similarity in precursor and cofactor requirements, as well as gene deletion strategies for growth-product coupling that lead to non-intuitive product groups. Our results reveal the extent and the nature of flux re-routing necessary for producing a diverse range of products in a widely used cell factory and provide blueprints for constructing pre-optimized chassis strains. PMID:27430744

  8. Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bor-Shong

    2008-01-01

    To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.

  9. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  10. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M Abu; Charoo, Naseem A; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development. PMID:27606256

  11. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M Abu; Charoo, Naseem A; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development.

  12. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M. Abu; Charoo, Naseem A.; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development.

  13. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M. Abu; Charoo, Naseem A.; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development. PMID:27606256

  14. Interactive augmented reality system for product design review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Giandomenico; Re, Guido Maria

    2010-01-01

    The product development process, of industrial products, includes a phase dedicated to the design review that is a crucial phase where various experts cooperate in selecting the optimal product shape. Although computer graphics allows us to create very realistic virtual representations of the products, it is not uncommon that designers decide to build physical mock-ups of their newly conceived products because they need to physically interact with the prototype and also to evaluate the product within a plurality of real contexts. This paper describes the hardware and software development of our Augmented Reality design review system that allows to overcome some issues related to the 3D visualization and to the interaction with the virtual objects. Our system is composed by a Video See Through Head Mounted Display, which allows to improve the 3D visualization by controlling the convergence of the video cameras automatically, and a wireless control system, which allows us to create some metaphors to interact with the virtual objects. During the development of the system, in order to define and tune the algorithms, we have performed some testing sessions. Then, we have performed further tests in order to verify the effectiveness of the system and to collect additional data and comments about usability and ergonomic aspects.

  15. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  16. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7.7 Section 7.7 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities...

  17. Application of Absorption Modeling in Rational Design of Drug Product Under Quality-by-Design Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Mitra, Amitava

    2015-09-01

    Physiologically based absorption models can be an important tool in understanding product performance and hence implementation of Quality by Design (QbD) in drug product development. In this report, we show several case studies to demonstrate the potential application of absorption modeling in rational design of drug product under the QbD paradigm. The examples include application of absorption modeling—(1) prior to first-in-human studies to guide development of a formulation with minimal sensitivity to higher gastric pH and hence reduced interaction when co-administered with PPIs and/or H2RAs, (2) design of a controlled release formulation with optimal release rate to meet trough plasma concentrations and enable QD dosing, (3) understanding the impact of API particle size distribution on tablet bioavailability and guide formulation design in late-stage development, (4) assess impact of API phase change on product performance to guide specification setting, and (5) investigate the effect of dissolution rate changes on formulation bioperformance and enable appropriate specification setting. These case studies are meant to highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of the product performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients.

  18. Enhancing the support of interdisciplinary product design by using design object-oriented modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xiu-Tian; MacCallum, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the modelling difficulties faced by an designer in the development of new interdisciplinary products. It describes a novel approach to tackling these problems. The underlying methodology is based on the object-oriented technology. A unified design object based representation and modelling method is proposed to enhance the scope of product modelling to many phases of the design process, and to simplify the modelling complexity associated with the increased number of modelling methods directly adopted from individual disciplines. This unified modelling representation method encompasses several low level modelling methods and it can integrate the dynamic energy and information system modelling of mechatronic products. These design object models will greatly facilitate designers, especially those who work on the development of interdisciplinary products, such as mechatronic systems. The paper concludes that a design object-oriented modelling method based on a hybrid modelling representation encompassing bond graph notation, block diagram, and Yourdon diagram, is desirable and feasible for mechatronic system design and modelling.

  19. Mu2e production solenoid cryostat conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.H.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.M.; Peterson, T.J.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Mu2e is a muon-to-electron conversion experiment being designed by an international collaboration of more than 65 scientists and engineers from more than 20 research institutions for installation at Fermilab. The experiment is comprised of three large superconducting solenoid magnet systems, production solenoid (PS), transport solenoid (TS) and detector solenoid (DS). A 25 kW, 8 GeV proton beam strikes a target located in the PS creating muons from the decay of secondary particles. These muons are then focused in the PS and the resultant muon beam is transported through the TS towards the DS. The production solenoid presents a unique set of design challenges as the result of high radiation doses, stringent magnetic field requirements, and large structural forces. This paper describes the conceptual design of the PS cryostat and will include discussions of the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation, cooling system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system.

  20. RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KAHN,S.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.

    1997-05-12

    Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.

  1. Conceptual designs for commercial OTEC-ammonia product plantships

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Dugger, G.L.; Francis, E.J.

    1980-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy program plan for OTEC calls for design of pilot/demonstration plantships leading to commercial development for energy intensive product options as well as OTEC facilities for direct delivery of electric power to shore via undersea cables. The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has investigated alternative product options and their relative commercial viabilities since 1975, and has studied and developed proposed designs for OTEC plantships to produce significant amounts of energy products from the ocean in a reliable, environmentally acceptable, and cost effective manner, including resolution of some of the critical engineering design items through analysis and tests. This paper discusses some of this earlier work in its relation to the conceptual commercial plantship designs presented and describes the OTEC power systems and ammonia plant process requirements, including integration-operational aspects. Estimated OTEC power capacities and energy flow usage prospects are presented. Specific plantship layouts are discussed including construction and deployment, and projected costs versus market potentials are summarized.

  2. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  3. A product-service system approach to telehealth application design.

    PubMed

    Flores-Vaquero, Paul; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Hutabarat, Windo; Turner, Chris

    2016-06-01

    A considerable proportion of current point-of-care devices do not offer a wide enough set of capabilities if they are to function in any telehealth system. There is a need for intermediate devices that lie between healthcare devices and service networks. The development of an application is suggested that allows for a smartphone to take the role of an intermediate device. This research seeks to identify the telehealth service requirements for long-term condition management using a product-service system approach. The use of product-service system has proven to be a suitable methodology for the design and development of telehealth smartphone applications.

  4. Ergonomics capability in product design and development: an organizational analysis.

    PubMed

    Slappendel, C

    1994-10-01

    This paper suggests that the emergence and development of ergonomics capability in product design and development can be understood as a dynamic process of innovation, which is shaped by a combination of forces both internal and external to an organization. The comparative case study method was used to focus on six organizations (three pairs) operating from a manufacturing base in New Zealand. Data were collected from in-depth interviews, documents, archival sources and through observation. A framework for understanding the emergence and development of ergonomics capability in product design and development is presented. While ergonomics capability is a core concept in the model, four other major elements are identified. These are staffing routines, top management orientation, organizational configuration, and the external environment.

  5. The Norne production ship -- Topside design and construction strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Solberg, L.; Urdahl, P.

    1995-12-31

    Development of the Norne field at 380 m of water depth was dependent of a floating structure with the production capacity to meet the need of 27,500 Sm3/SDAY (170,000 bLS/day), and a storage capacity of 115,000 m3. This challenge was met by the selection of the Tentech 850 monohull design and the development of a topside design that meets these requirements. The critical element in selection of the chosen concept, was the solution for the turret and swivel area. Particularly the swivel concept is at the borderline of proven technology so far in the industry, and need special attention during the development phases in 1995--1996. The contracting philosophy in the development of the production ship was to make use of the industries know how in the most efficient way, and design and procure the topside based on a system approach. Thus benefit from utilizing the best know-how and experience in the industry. This paper describes how this is done based on functional specifications, and with a design and layout of the topside to make this system approach possible.

  6. Metabolic Design and Control for Production in Prokaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Keasling, J.D.

    2010-11-10

    Prokaryotic life on earth is manifested by its diversity and omnipresence. These microbes serve as natural sources of a large variety of compounds with the potential to serve the ever growing, medicinal, chemical and transportation needs of the human population. However, commercially viable production of these compounds can be realized only through significant improvement of the native production capacity of natural isolates. The most favorable way to achieve this goal is through the genetic manipulation of metabolic pathways that direct the production of these molecules. While random mutagenesis and screening have dominated the industrial production of such compounds in the past our increased understanding of microbial physiology over the last five decades has shifted this trend towards rational approaches for metabolic design. Major drivers of this trend include recombinant DNA technology, high throughput characterization of macromolecular cellular components, quantitative modeling for metabolic engine ring, targeted combinatorial engineering and synthetic biology. In this chapter we track the evolution of microbial engineering technologies from the black box era of random mutagenesis to the science and engineering-driven era of metabolic design.

  7. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  8. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    PubMed

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  9. Preliminary Design Report for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1990-04-01

    A master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) on October 15, 1987, as a reasonable basis upon which the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) could proceed to fund predesign work on the project. The Council approved the predesign work on the condition that eight preliminary tasks were completed. These tasks are: Task 1. Agreement on a refined statement of project goals. Task 2. Completion of a technical analysis of water supplies. Task 3. Completion of an experimental design plan. Task 4. Development of a harvest management plan. Task 5. Assessment of potential genetic risks. Task 6. Project coordination with all other affected parties. Task 7. Submission of a preliminary design report to the Council. Task 8. Develop a project management structure. The preliminary design report summarizes the work completed on these tasks. It provides a description of the preliminary design, engineering, and construction phases of project development, and gives an estimate of project costs. Also included is a description of other studies that were conducted to support YKPP planning. The results of studies conducted during the last 30 months indicate that hatchery facilities can be built in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins to provide harvest benefits and to supplement natural production. Planning for the Yakima subbasin is at a more advanced stage of development than for the Klickitat subbasin because of greater availability of basic resource information. The information needed to proceed with final design and construction for the Klickitat subbasin will be available by 1992, as ongoing predesign work continues. This schedule is consistent with the anticipated phased completion of the YKPP by 1997.

  10. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1) were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories. PMID:21059201

  11. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Gizele Cardoso; Fonseca Amaral, Priscilla Filomena; Nele, Marcio; Zarur Coelho, Maria Alice

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone) on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST) and emulsification index (EI). The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST) were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose) were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v) and glycerol (2% w/v), which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process. PMID:20368788

  12. The HDF Product Designer - Interoperability in the First Mile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Jelenak, A.; Habermann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Interoperable data have been a long-time goal in many scientific communities. The recent growth in analysis, visualization and mash-up applications that expect data stored in a standardized manner has brought the interoperability issue to the fore. On the other hand, producing interoperable data is often regarded as a sideline task in a typical research team for which resources are not readily available. The HDF Group is developing a software tool aimed at lessening the burden of creating data in standards-compliant, interoperable HDF5 files. The tool, named HDF Product Designer, lowers the threshold needed to design such files by providing a user interface that combines the rich HDF5 feature set with applicable metadata conventions. Users can quickly devise new HDF5 files while at the same time seamlessly incorporating the latest best practices and conventions from their community. That is what the term interoperability in the first mile means: enabling generation of interoperable data in HDF5 files from the onset of their production. The tool also incorporates collaborative features, allowing team approach in the file design, as well as easy transfer of best practices as they are being developed. The current state of the tool and the plans for future development will be presented. Constructive input from interested parties is always welcome.

  13. Development of hybrid genetic algorithms for product line designs.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, P V Sundar; Gupta, Rakesh; Jacob, Varghese S

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of artificial intelligence (AI) based meta-heuristic techniques namely genetic algorithms (GAs), for the product line design problem. This work extends previously developed methods for the single product design problem. We conduct a large scale simulation study to determine the effectiveness of such an AI based technique for providing good solutions and bench mark the performance of this against the current dominant approach of beam search (BS). We investigate the potential advantages of pursuing the avenue of developing hybrid models and then implement and study such hybrid models using two very distinct approaches: namely, seeding the initial GA population with the BS solution, and employing the BS solution as part of the GA operator's process. We go on to examine the impact of two alternate string representation formats on the quality of the solutions obtained by the above proposed techniques. We also explicitly investigate a critical managerial factor of attribute importance in terms of its impact on the solutions obtained by the alternate modeling procedures. The alternate techniques are then evaluated, using statistical analysis of variance, on a fairy large number of data sets, as to the quality of the solutions obtained with respect to the state-of-the-art benchmark and in terms of their ability to provide multiple, unique product line options.

  14. Improving product quality and productivity using better guidelines for concept design

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, C.M.; Barkan, P.

    1995-08-01

    The remarkable effectiveness of Japanese practices has led to a growing interest in the US in the development and application of rules and methodologies which attempt to capture design experience. US companies have found unexpected benefits and pitfalls in the application of these rules and methods. In this article, the authors critically examine one of the most widely accepted rules of Design for Manufacturability (DFM): minimize the number of parts. An examination of 240 assemblies and subassemblies has shown that rigid adherence to this rule can lead to unnecessarily complex parts and assembly. Quantitative insights derived from this study have led to a better design goal: minimize and simplify assembly operations. This new rule, which should not be rigidly interpreted, tends to reduce part count, while having the benefit of assuring improved assembly. Another significant advantage of the new design rule is that it results in lower product defect rates as demonstrated by correlations observed for a wide range of products from two different manufacturers. This research links quality to the product concept, enabling a new approach to improving quality at the earliest stages of design.

  15. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.

    1990-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Thermal design of a Mars oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Iyer, Venkatesh A.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal design of the thermal components of a system that uses carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce oxygen for spacecraft propulsion and/or life support is discussed. The gases are pressurized, heated and passed through an electrochemical cell. Carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide and oxygen due to thermal dissociation and electrocatalysis. The oxygen thus formed is separated from the gas mixture by the electrochemical cell. The objective of the design is to optimize both the overall mass and the power consumption of the system. The analysis shows that at electrochemical cell efficiencies of about 50 percent and lower, the optimal system would require unspent carbon dioxide in the exhaust gases to be separated and recycled. Various methods of efficiently compressing the intake gases to system pressures of 0.1 MPa are investigated. The total power requirement for oxygen production rates of 1, 5, and 10 kg/day at various cell efficiencies are presented.

  17. Design and performance of the KSC Biomass Production Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Ralph P.; Knott, William M.; Sager, John C.; Hilding, Suzanne E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System program has instituted the Kennedy Space Center 'breadboard' project of which the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) presently discussed is a part. The BPC is based on a modified hypobaric test vessel; its design parameters and operational parameters have been chosen in order to meet a wide range of plant-growing objectives aboard future spacecraft on long-duration missions. A control and data acquisition subsystem is used to maintain a common link between the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system, the illumination system, the gas-circulation system, and the nutrient delivery and monitoring subsystems.

  18. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  19. Unintended Effects of Orphan Product Designation for Rare Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sinéad M; Puwanant, Araya; Griggs, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Orphan Drug Act in 1983, designed to promote development of treatments for rare diseases, at least 378 orphan drugs have been approved. Incentives include financial support, tax credits and, perhaps most importantly, extended market exclusivity. These incentives have encouraged industry interest and accelerated research on rare diseases, allowing patients with orphan diseases access to treatments. However, extended market exclusivity has been associated with unacceptably high drug costs; both for newly developed drugs and even for drugs which were previously widely available. We suggest that a paradoxical effect of orphan product exclusivity can be reduced patient access to existing drugs. In addition, the costs of each new drug are arguably unsustainable for patients and for the American health care system. Of all the specialties, neurology has the third highest number of orphan product designations, and neurological diseases account for at least one fifth of rare diseases. Citing the use of tetrabenazine for chorea in Huntington’s disease, adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms and enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alpha for Pompe’s disease we highlight these paradoxical effects. PMID:23109143

  20. Unintended effects of orphan product designation for rare neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sinéad M; Puwanant, Araya; Griggs, Robert C

    2012-10-01

    Since the introduction of the Orphan Drug Act in 1983, designed to promote development of treatments for rare diseases, at least 378 orphan drugs have been approved. Incentives include financial support, tax credits, and perhaps most importantly, extended market exclusivity. These incentives have encouraged industry interest and accelerated research on rare diseases, allowing patients with orphan diseases access to treatments. However, extended market exclusivity has been associated with unacceptably high drug costs, both for newly developed drugs and for drugs that were previously widely available. We suggest that a paradoxical effect of orphan product exclusivity can be reduced patient access to existing drugs. In addition, the costs of each new drug are arguably unsustainable for patients and for the American health care system. Of all the specialties, neurology has the third highest number of orphan product designations, and neurological diseases account for at least one-fifth of rare diseases. Citing the use of tetrabenazine for chorea in Huntington disease, adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms, and enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alpha for Pompe disease, we highlight these paradoxical effects.

  1. M-C Power`s product design and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, R.M.; Petraglia, V.J.

    1995-08-01

    The sole mission of M-C Power is the development and subsequent commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stacks. These MCFC stacks are based on the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchanger plate design developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. Integration of the MCFC stack into a commercially viable power plant is the mission of the IMHEX{reg_sign} team. The team is composed of leaders in the packaging and design of power generation equipment, including fuel cell technology, and includes Stewart & Stevenson, Bechtel, The Institute of Gas Technology and M-C Power. In an effort to succeed in their respective missions, M-C Power and the IMHEX{reg_sign} team have developed a commercialization program. At the present time the team is making the transition from Phase I (Technology Development) to Phase II (Product Design & Improvement) of the program. Phase II`s objective is a commercially viable (cost effective and technologically reliable) MCFC power plant ready for market by the turn of the century.

  2. Teaching Design in Television Production Technology: The Twelve Steps of Preproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Henry L. (Hal), III; Loveland, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Extensive planning must be used to produce television programs. Students must develop sound design practices and understand these attributes of design in their production planning. Through the design and planning processes involved in television production, students learn that design is a creative process, and that there is no perfect design, but…

  3. Successful implementation of a wellness and tobacco cessation curriculum in psychosocial rehabilitation clubhouses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco remains a seemingly intractable problem for individuals living with severe and persistent mental illness. This study evaluated the implementation, technical assistance, and perceived impact of a model curriculum ("Learning About Healthy Living") to promote wellness and motivation to quit tobacco use in psychosocial rehabilitation clubhouses. Methods We used semi-structured interviews (n = 9) with clubhouse staff (n = 12) and a survey of participating clubhouse members (n = 271) in nine clubhouses. Results Fifty-eight percent of clubhouse participants completed surveys. Results showed tobacco users open to tobacco-free policies (62%) and perceiving more discussions about quitting tobacco with healthcare providers (69%). Analyses of staff interviews and member surveys revealed four key themes: (1) the curriculum was successfully implemented and appreciated; (2) technical assistance kept implementation on track; (3) adding wellness content and interactive components should enhance the curriculum; and, (4) the curriculum advanced other healthful policies and practices. Conclusions Mental health settings are important locations for implementing programs to address tobacco use. In this real-world implementation of a model curriculum in psychosocial rehabilitation clubhouses, the curriculum tested well, was feasible and well-received, and suggests potential impact on tobacco use outcomes. Revision, dissemination, and a randomized controlled trial evaluation of the model curriculum should now occur. PMID:21917179

  4. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  5. Tobacco Cessation Training in Clinical Psychology and Clinical Social Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfelder, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tobacco and smoking cessation training and curriculum in graduate clinical psychology and graduate clinical social work programs. The current status of the clinical graduate programs' tobacco education curricula was evaluated by using the Transtheoretical Model's Stages of Change. Perceived barriers to…

  6. Importance of Tobacco Cessation Services at Higher Education Public Institutions in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Karen E.; Smith, Dennis W.; Zhang, James J.; Perry, Jennifer; Colwell, Brian

    2004-01-01

    While rates of tobacco use on university campuses rose over the past decade, little is known about what institutions are doing to address this rising concern. Health center directors at public institutions of higher education across the state of Texas were surveyed (n = 42) regarding the perceived importance of smoking cessation, prevalence of…

  7. A dental-based, athletic trainer-mediated spit tobacco cessation program for professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M M; Greene, J C; Ellison, J A; Letendre, M A; Bergert, N

    1998-05-01

    During 1997 spring training, the National Spit Tobacco Education Program provided a spit (smokeless) tobacco intervention program to 16 professional baseball clubs. The program consisted of an awareness-raising presentation and an opportunity to discuss quitting spit tobacco use with an expert cessation counselor. For two clubs, however, a more extensive intervention was pilot-tested for feasibility and acceptability among their major- and minor-league teams during their regularly scheduled health examinations at the beginning of spring training. The intervention included an oral exam by a dentist who advised spit tobacco users to stop and pointed out any spit tobacco-associated lesions in the player's mouth, brief cessation counseling by a specially trained dental hygienist, and ongoing support and follow-up by the certified athletic trainer to promote cessation. Findings from this pilot study indicate that this intervention, which is dependent upon involvement of dental professionals, was feasible to implement during spring training and appeared to be well-received by the athletes. Dental professionals are in an excellent position to advise and help spit tobacco users to quit and can have an important role in helping youth overcome this rapidly growing addiction.

  8. Planning a spit tobacco cessation intervention: identification of beliefs associated with addiction.

    PubMed

    Hilton, J F; Walsh, M M; Masouredis, C M; Drues, J C; Grady, D G; Ernster, V L

    1994-01-01

    We examine the relationship between beliefs regarding spit tobacco (ST) use and addiction among 473 male college athletes who currently use ST. Beliefs were assessed using methods prescribed by the Theory of Reasoned Action. Independent associations between beliefs and addiction, defined by self-reported amount of ST used per week, were found via multivariate polychotomous regression modeling. We found that with increasing addiction level, athletes were significantly more likely to believe that "ST helps me relax," "ST keeps me alert," "ST tastes good," and "ST is addicting." All athletes believed that clinicians, parents, and girlfriends do not approve of their ST use, but that male peers, coaches, and professional athletes are fairly indifferent about it. To increase quit rates, highly addicted ST users may require an intensive cessation program including nicotine replacement to overcome symptoms of withdrawal, oral substitutes for the enjoyable taste of ST, and the support of male peers and athletes who influence their social norms.

  9. Oral screening and brief spit tobacco cessation counseling: a review and findings.

    PubMed

    Gansky, Stuart A; Ellison, James A; Kavanagh, Catherine; Hilton, Joan F; Walsh, Margaret M

    2002-09-01

    This paper reviews five randomized controlled trials of brief spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) cessation treatment by dental professionals consisting of oral cancer screening, cessation advice, self-help materials, and brief cessation counseling by a dental hygienist. In addition, original two-year findings from a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of a dental-directed, peer-assisted ST intervention among high school baseball athletes in rural California (n=1084) are reported. In the latter study, results show sustained quitting at two years of 23 percent (32/141) in the intervention group and 13 percent (21/166) in the control group (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9) with subjects lost-to-follow-up considered non-quitters. The evidence presented supports the efficacy of oral screening and brief cessation counseling by dental professionals to promote ST cessation in the dental office or in athletic facilities. In addition, recommendations for policy and future research are presented.

  10. Successful participant recruitment strategies for an online smokeless tobacco cessation program.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Judith S; Akers, Laura; Severson, Herbert H; Danaher, Brian G; Boles, Shawn M

    2006-12-01

    An estimated 22% of Americans currently use smokeless tobacco (ST). Most live in small towns and rural areas that offer few ST cessation resources. Approximately 94 million Americans use the Internet for health-related information, and on-line access is growing among lower-income and less-educated groups. As part of a randomized clinical trial to assess the reach and effectiveness of Web-based programs for delivering an ST cessation intervention, the authors developed and evaluated several methods for overcoming the recruitment challenges associated with Web-based research. This report describes and evaluates these methods. Participants were recruited through: (a) Thematic promotional "releases" to print and broadcast media, (b) Google ads, (c) placement of a link on other Web sites, (d) limited purchase of paid advertising, (e) direct mailings to ST users, and (f) targeted mailings to health care and tobacco control professionals. Combined recruitment activities resulted in more than 23,500 hits on our recruitment website from distinct IP addresses over 15 months, which yielded 2,523 eligible ST users who completed the registration process and enrolled in the study. Self-reports revealed that at least 1,276 (50.6%) of these participants were recruited via mailings, 874 (34.6%) from Google ads or via search engines or links on another Web site, and 373 (14.8%) from all other methods combined. The use of thematic mailings is novel in research settings. Recruitment of study participants went quickly and smoothly. Google ads and mailings to media outlets were the methods that recruited the highest number of participants.

  11. The readings of smoking fathers: a reception analysis of tobacco cessation images.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joy L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Bottorff, Joan L; LeBeau, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how new fathers decode image-based anti-smoking messages and uncover the extent to which ideals of masculinity might influence men to take up and/or disregard smoking cessation messages. The authors analyzed 5 images that had been used to promote smoking cessation and arrived at a consensus about the dominant discourse encoded by each image. During face-to-face interviews, new fathers were invited to discuss the images; these interview data were coded and analyzed using a social constructionist gender analysis. The study findings highlight how most men negotiated or opposed dominant discourses of health that communicated the dangers of smoking by reproducing dominant ideals of masculinity, including explicit disregard for self-health. They accepted dominant social discourses of fathering that reproduced traditional notions of masculinity, such as the protector and provider. The authors conclude that tobacco interventions targeted to new fathers must (a) develop more awareness of the ability of audiences to select discourses that empower their own interpretive positioning with regard to media, and (b) deconstruct and engage with context and age-specific masculine ideals to avoid providing rationales for continued tobacco use.

  12. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2014-01-01

    Background: During recent years, there have been many advances in different types of pharmacological and non-pharmacological tobacco control treatments. In this study, we aimed to identify the most effective smoking cessation methods used in quit based upon a review of the literature. Methods: We did a search of PubMed, limited to English publications from 2000 to 2012. Two trained reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts and full texts of articles after a pilot inter-rater reliability assessment which was conducted by the author (GH). The total number of papers and their conclusions including recommendation of that method (positive) or not supporting (negative) was computed for each method. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones for each method. In cases of inconsistency between the two reviewers, these were adjudicated by author. Results: Of the 932 articles that were critically assessed, 780 studies supported quit smoking methods. In 90 studies, the methods were not supported or rejected and in 62 cases the methods were not supported. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), Champix and Zyban with 352, 117 and 71 studies respectively were the most supported methods and e-cigarettes and non-Nicotine medications with one case were the least supported methods. Finally, NRT with 39 and Champix and education with 36 scores were the most supported methods. Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation. PMID:25013685

  13. Activation product safety in the ARIES-I reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S. ); Sze, D.K. ); Wong, C.; Cheng, E.T. ); Grotz, S.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The ARIES design effort has sought to maximize the environmental and safety advantages of fusion through careful selection of materials and careful design. Three goals are that the reactor achieve inherent or passive safety, that no public evacuation plan be necessary and that the waste be disposable as 10CFR61 Class C waste. The ARIES-I reactor consists of a SiC composite structure for the first wall and blanket, cooled by 10 MPa He. The breeder is Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, although Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} were also considered. The divertor consists of SiC composite tubes coated with 2 mm of tungsten. Due to the minimal afterheat of this blanket design, LOCA calculations indicate maximum temperatures will not cause damage if the plasma is promptly extinguished. Two primary safety issues are the zirconium in the breeder and tungsten on the divertor. Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was chosen because of its demonstrated high-temperature stability. The other breeders have lower afterheat and activation. Use of zirconium in the breeder will necessitate isotopic tailoring to remove {sup 90}Zr and {sup 94}Zr. The 5.8 tonnes of W on the divertor would also have to be tailored to remove {sup 186}W and/or to concentrate {sup 183}W. Thus the ARIES-I design achieves the passive safety and low-level waste disposal criteria with respect to activation products. Development of low activation materials to replace zirconium and tungsten is needed to avoid requiring an evacuation plan.

  14. Liposomal Drug Products: A Quality by Design Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming

    Quality by Design (QbD) principles has been applied to the development of two liposomal formulations, containing a hydrophilic small molecule therapeutic (Tenofovir) and a protein therapeutic (superoxide dismutase). The goal of the research is to provide critical information on 1) how to reduce the preparation variability in liposome formulations, and 2) how to increase drug encapsulation inside liposomes to reduce manufacturing cost. Most notably, an improved liposome preparation method was developed which increased the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic molecules. In particular, this method allows for very high encapsulation efficiency. For example, encapsulation efficiencies of up to 50% have been achieved, whereas previously only 20% or less have been reported. Another significant outcome from this research is a first principle mathematical model to predict the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic drugs in unilamellar liposomes. This mathematical model will be useful in: formulation development to rapidly achieve optimized formulations; comparison of drug encapsulation efficiencies of liposomes prepared using different methods; and assisting in the development of suitable process analytical technologies to achieve real-time monitoring and control of drug encapsulation during manufacturing. A novel two-stage reverse dialysis in vitro release testing method has also been developed for passively targeted liposomes, which uses the first stage to mimic the circulation of liposomes in the body and the second stage to imitate the drug release process at the target. The developed in vitro release testing method can be used to distinguish formulations with varied compositions for quality control testing purposes. This developed method may pave the way to the development of more biorelevant quality control testing methods for liposomal drug products in the future. The QbD case studies performed in this research are examples of how this approach can be used to

  15. The ILC engineering design phase: Towards the production of an engineering design report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Marc; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In August 2007, the International Linear Collider-Global Design Effort (ILC-GDE) published the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR) which contains a description of the design of the linear collider and a ''value'' cost estimate. The RDR was developed over a 2 year period starting in August 2005 with the creation of the GDE at the Second ILC workshop, held at Snowmass, Colorado. The design described in the RDR and its associated estimate allow the GDE to plan and prioritize the next phase of the ILC, the creation of an Engineering Design and the production, by mid 2010, of an Engineering Design Report (EDR). The EDR will contain, in addition to a more mature design and an updated value estimate, a plan for executing the ILC Project. The purpose of the EDR is to facilitate formal international negotiations at government level on siting, funding, organization and execution of the ILC project with a timescale consistent with the start of construction in 2012. The creation of the ILC Engineering Design will include: (1) Basic R&D to demonstrate that all components can be engineered; (2) R&D into alternative solutions to mitigate remaining risk; (3) An overall design to allow machine construction to start within 3 years following its completion; (4) selection between high tech options to allow industrialization efforts; (5) A comprehensive value-engineering exercise; (6) A complete value cost estimate for the machine, including a funding profile consistent with the project schedule; (7) A project execution plan including a realistic schedule; (8) Designs for facilities shared between different ''area systems'', and for site-specific infrastructure. The designs must include the level of detail needed for regions to estimate the cost to host; and (9) All necessary information must be provided to regions to evaluate project technical and financial risks in support of a bid to host. With the completion of the EDR, the ILC-GDE leadership will be able to seek approval of the ILC

  16. NASA's Space Launch Transitions: From Design to Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing

  17. NASA's Space Launch System Transitions From Design To Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block 1, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) (154,324 pounds) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It will evolve to a 130 t (286,601 pound) payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test-fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC), near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Core stage test stands are reaching completion

  18. Nicotine quantity and packaging disclosure in smoked and smokeless tobacco products in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Shivhare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A variety of smoked and smokeless tobacco products with varying nicotine content are accessible in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has direct bearing on tobacco dependence. Our objective was to estimate nicotine content in various types of smoked and smokeless products. Disclosure for essential health warning was also checked. Materials and Methods: Liquid-liquid extraction was used for nicotine extraction and high-performance thin layer chromatography technique was applied for quantification of nicotine in seventy-one smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Results: Significant variation in nicotine content was observed across products. In smoked tobacco, nicotine content varied from 1.01 to 13.0 mg/rod, while in smokeless tobacco products it ranged from 0.8 mg/g to 50.0 mg/g. Moisture content varied from 9% to 21%. Conclusion: This work lists a range of smoked and smokeless tobacco products available in this region. We report a wide variability in nicotine quantity across smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Such variation in nicotine content may have important implications for tobacco cessation interventions and policies PMID:26288479

  19. Design of smart functional apparel products for moxa moxibustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Au, Wai-man; Ding, Feng; Wong, Kwok-shing

    2013-08-01

    Moxa Moxibustion is a common traditional Chinese therapy in which burning Moxa is applied to affected body areas. This method has been employed for thousands of years to achieve certain medical objectives, such as pain relief or antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Its therapeutic effectiveness has been demonstrated successfully both in research and clinical studies. However, this traditional approach may cause undesirable side effects, for example: 1) burning of Moxa produces by-products such as smoke and ash; 2) patients are at risk of being burnt; 3) the active ingredients of the Moxa leaf oil are volatile, odorous, unstable in air and easy to dissipate, and difficult to store and transport; 4) it is inconvenient to operate. These side effects limit its further high-potential and high-value applications. This study is aimed at developing a multi-functional smart textile system that will adopt smart fabrics containing encapsulated Moxa oil integrated with thermally conductive materials to replace the conventional Moxa products. This will efficiently deliver the active ingredients of Moxa to a human body at optimum conditions, i.e., in a precise and controllable way, with maximum convenience and a high level of comfort. Doing so would solve the existing problems mentioned above. Both garment design skill and textile technology will be applied to Moxa Moxibustion textile to enhance the aesthetics and functionality. The smart garment performance will be assessed subjectively in a clinical trial and objectively by a number of instrumental methods.

  20. Designing a year-round production system for offshore Labrador

    SciTech Connect

    Jozan, M.M.; Wetzel, V.F.

    1980-08-01

    Of the various production schemes under consideration for use in the iceberg-plagued Labrador Sea, two seem technically feasible in the medium term (5-10 years): a quick-disconnect floating platform equipped with an ice-cutting device and a fixed structure mounted on an artificial island or submerged mound. The first alternative would be a seasonal production system relying on a dynamically positioned platform that could be easily disconnected from the riser when threatened by an oncoming iceberg; smaller ice floes would be broken up by the platform's ice cutter. The most feasible fixed-structure plan is to build a conventional platform on an artificial island or, in deeper waters, on a submerged mound. This alternative offers the room needed for the processing and liquefaction facilities required for tanker transport of natural gas. Labrador Sea hydrocarbons will most likely be transported by tankers rather than pipelines until designers devise means of protecting the pipe from iceberg scour and crossing the deep marginal trough.

  1. Designing of robotic production lines using CAx software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Langer, P.

    2015-11-01

    Present market conditions causes that modern control systems of robotized manufacturing cells should be characterized by the much greater degree of flexibility, selforganization and, above all, adaptability to emerging outer excitations. The phenomenon of information distribution is one of the most important features of modern control systems. In the paper is presented the approach, based on application of multi-agent systems, for supporting the operation of robotized manufacturing cells. The aim of this approach is to obtain the flexible response to outer excitations and preventing situations that might cause the delay of the production process. The presented paper includes description of the concept of an informatics system designed for controlling the work of production systems, including work cells. Such systems could operate independently if it would be equipped with the selforganization mechanism. It is possible in the case of the proposed multi-agent system. The implementation of the presented concept will follow the present analysis of the described concept. The advantage of the proposed concept is its hierarchical depiction that allows integrating different utilized informatics tools in one complex system. It allows preparing the final computer program.

  2. Cognitive ergonomics and production information systems under the gaze of interdisciplinary design or industrial design.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Luciene Bulhões

    2012-01-01

    The core of this work involves the study of cognitive ergonomics and production of Information Systems under the interdisciplinary of the Design or Industrial Design. It is assumed that in the dynamics of human and the systems, mediated by systematic technology, there are constant changes in social perceptions, that alter the shape of the subject dealing with the real world, concrete, adopting a pseudo-idea of the evolutionary process. Attentive to the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary groups as agents of this process, points to the danger of the emergence of the myth of innovation as a solver of social problems and suggests new ergonomics as a contributor in a different way of thinking the humanization beyond of the XXI century. PMID:22317625

  3. Cognitive ergonomics and production information systems under the gaze of interdisciplinary design or industrial design.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Luciene Bulhões

    2012-01-01

    The core of this work involves the study of cognitive ergonomics and production of Information Systems under the interdisciplinary of the Design or Industrial Design. It is assumed that in the dynamics of human and the systems, mediated by systematic technology, there are constant changes in social perceptions, that alter the shape of the subject dealing with the real world, concrete, adopting a pseudo-idea of the evolutionary process. Attentive to the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary groups as agents of this process, points to the danger of the emergence of the myth of innovation as a solver of social problems and suggests new ergonomics as a contributor in a different way of thinking the humanization beyond of the XXI century.

  4. Mechanical design productivity using CAD graphics - A user's point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, R. J.; Avery, J. T., Jr.

    1985-02-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the mechanical design productivity resulting from the use of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) graphics as a design tool. The considered studies had been conducted by a company which is involved in the design, development, and manufacture of government and defense products. Attention is given to CAD graphics for mechanical design, productivity, an overall productivity assessment, the use of CAD graphics for basic mechanical design, productivity in engineering-related areas, and an overall engineering productivity assessment. The investigation shows that there was no appreciable improvement in productivity with respect to basic mechanical design. However, rather substantial increases could be realized in productivity for engineering-related activities.

  5. Producing the Goods: Design History and the Production of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, John

    1990-01-01

    Questions the origin of design history and its relationship to art history. Maintains that design historical knowledge is produced, and it must be acknowledged that there are design histories and not one monolithic body of knowledge. (KM)

  6. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R.; Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J.; Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A.; Boni, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Green design assessment of electromechanical products based on group weighted-AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinwei; Zhou, MengChu; Li, Zhiwu; Xie, Huiguang

    2015-11-01

    Manufacturing industry is the backbone of a country's economy while environmental pollution is a serious problem that human beings must face today. The green design of electromechanical products based on enterprise information systems is an important method to solve the environmental problem. The question on how to design green products must be answered by excellent designers via both advanced design methods and effective assessment methods of electromechanical products. Making an objective and precise assessment of green design is one of the problems that must be solved when green design is conducted. An assessment method of green design on electromechanical products based on Group Weighted-AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is proposed in this paper, together with the characteristics of green products. The assessment steps of green design are also established. The results are illustrated via the assessment of a refrigerator design.

  8. Ethanol Production from Biomass: Large Scale Facility Design Project

    SciTech Connect

    Berson, R. Eric

    2009-10-29

    High solids processing of biomass slurries provides the following benefits: maximized product concentration in the fermentable sugar stream, reduced water usage, and reduced reactor size. However, high solids processing poses mixing and heat transfer problems above about 15% for pretreated corn stover solids due to their high viscosities. Also, highly viscous slurries require high power consumption in conventional stirred tanks since they must be run at high rotational speeds to maintain proper mixing. An 8 liter scraped surface bio-reactor (SSBR) is employed here that is designed to efficiently handle high solids loadings for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover (PCS) while maintaining power requirements on the order of low viscous liquids in conventional stirred tanks. Saccharification of biomass exhibit slow reaction rates and incomplete conversion, which may be attributed to enzyme deactivation and loss of activity due to a variety of mechanisms. Enzyme deactivation is classified into two categories here: one, deactivation due to enzyme-substrate interactions and two, deactivation due to all other factors that are grouped together and termed “non-specific” deactivation. A study was conducted to investigate the relative extents of “non-specific” deactivation and deactivation due to “enzyme-substrate interactions” and a model was developed that describes the kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by considering the observed deactivation effects. Enzyme substrate interactions had a much more significant effect on overall deactivation with a deactivation rate constant about 20X higher than the non-specific deactivation rate constant (0.35 h-1 vs 0.018 h-1). The model is well validated by the experimental data and predicts complete conversion of cellulose within 30 hours in the absence of enzyme substrate interactions.

  9. 78 FR 58318 - Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products... ``Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products.'' This workshop will provide a forum to discuss trial design of clinical trials intended to support registration of intravenous fat...

  10. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  11. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.

  12. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design. PMID:27630709

  13. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.

  14. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design. PMID:27630709

  15. Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA Reminder for Parents: Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children Share ... giving these products to young children. Alternatives to cough and cold medicines for infants Parents of infants ...

  16. 9 CFR 355.22 - Designation of place of receipt of returned products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of place of receipt of returned products. 355.22 Section 355.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER...

  17. 9 CFR 355.22 - Designation of place of receipt of returned products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of place of receipt of returned products. 355.22 Section 355.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER...

  18. 9 CFR 355.22 - Designation of place of receipt of returned products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of place of receipt of returned products. 355.22 Section 355.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER...

  19. 9 CFR 355.22 - Designation of place of receipt of returned products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of place of receipt of returned products. 355.22 Section 355.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER...

  20. 76 FR 56883 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... and its profile against environmental and health measures and life-cycle costs (the ASTM Standard... availability, economic and technical feasibility, environmental and public health benefits, and life-cycle... those products, including the life-cycle costs of the products. In considering an item's...

  1. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared.

  2. CFD Aided Design and Production of Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alper; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Demirel, Gizem; Ayli, Ece; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are turbo machines which produce electricity from hydraulic energy. Francis type turbines are the most common one in use today. The design of these turbines requires high engineering effort since each turbine is tailor made due to different head and discharge. Therefore each component of the turbine is designed specifically. During the last decades, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become very useful tool to predict hydraulic machinery performance and save time and money for designers. This paper describes a design methodology to optimize a Francis turbine by integrating theoretical and experimental fundamentals of hydraulic machines and commercial CFD codes. Specific turbines are designed and manufactured with the help of a collaborative CFD/CAD/CAM methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and five-axis machining for hydraulic electric power plants. The details are presented in this study. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  3. Research on Product Conceptual Design Based on Integrated of TRIZ and HOQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jianmin; Tang, Xiaowo; Shao, Yunfei

    The conceptual design determines the success of the final product quality and competition of market. The determination of design parameters and the effective method to resolve parameters contradiction are the key to success. In this paper, the concept of HOQ products designed to determine the parameters, then using the TRIZ contradiction matrix and inventive principles of design parameters to solve the problem of contradictions. Facts have proved that the effective method is to obtain the product concept design parameters and to resolve contradictions line parameters.

  4. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  5. Using Critical Incidents of Instructional Design and Multimedia Production Activities to Investigate Instructional Designers' Current Practices and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.; Luterbach, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Through consideration of critical incidents, this study analyzed 106 effective, ineffective and extraordinary instructional design and multimedia production (MP) activities discussed by 36 instructional design professionals. This evaluation provided insights into these professionals' best and not so best practices during the past 6 months.…

  6. Designing and Implementing a PBL Course on Educational Digital Video Production: Lessons Learned from a Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Paivi

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a design-based research (DBR) process for designing, implementing, and refining a problem-based learning (PBL) course on educational digital video (DV) use and production at the University of Lapland's Faculty of Education. The study focuses on the students' learning processes and outcomes from the viewpoint of meaningful…

  7. Configurable product design considering the transition of multi-hierarchical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bin; Qiu, Lemiao; Zhang, Shuyou; Tan, Jianrong; Cheng, Jin

    2013-03-01

    The current research of configurable product design mainly focuses on how to convert a predefined set of components into a valid set of product structures. With the scale and complexity of configurable products increasing, the interdependencies between customer demands and product structures grow up as well. The result is that existing product structures fails to satisfy the individual customer requirements and hence product variants are needed. This paper is aimed to build a bridge between customer demands and product structures in order to make demand-driven fast response design feasible. First of all, multi-hierarchical models of configurable product design are established with customer demand model, technical requirement model and product structure model. Then, the transition of multi-hierarchical models among customer demand model, technical requirement model and product structure model is solved with fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and the algorithm of multi-level matching. Finally, optimal structure according to the customer demands is obtained with the calculation of Euclidean distance and similarity of some cases. In practice, the configuration design of a clamping unit of injection molding machine successfully performs an optimal search strategy for the product variants with reasonable satisfaction to individual customer demands. The proposed method can automatically generate a configuration design with better alternatives for each product structures, and shorten the time of finding the configuration of a product.

  8. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)

  9. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES...) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part and shall incorporate such evaluation throughout product...

  10. An ergonomic approach to design hand tool for agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Khidiya, Mahendra Singh; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh

    2012-01-01

    Hand tool mechanisms designed to reduce the risk factors have rarely been studied. In this paper it is analyze trowel firstly designing in CATIA and then its Finite Element Analysis has been carried out by ABAQUS. The main emphasis is on finding stresses by using this software, then removing them by suitable mechanical working on tool & ergonomic change in the design of handle to make it more comfortable. Body part discomfort score and overall discomfort rating experienced by the subjects had also been estimated. During the muscular activity workers physiological responses i.e. energy expenditure rate, oxygen consumption rate and heart rate increases. This increase in physiological responses is related to the type, intensity and duration of work and thus sets limits to the performance of heavy work. In this paper oxygen consumption rate and heart rate was used for physiological cost estimation. These parameters were measured by Computerized Ambulatory Metabolic Measurement System K4b2.

  11. 77 FR 74196 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Product Design To Minimize Medication...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... using a systems approach to minimize medication errors relating to product design. The draft guidance... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for... guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication...

  12. 3 CFR - Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 19, 2010 Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense the Secretary of Homeland Security Pursuant...

  13. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  14. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  15. Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed biofuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Xiaoyu; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; Chundawat, Shishir; Chambliss, Charles; Lau, Ming W; Xiao, Zeyi; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The fermentation inhibition of yeast or bacteria by lignocellulose-derived degradation products, during hexose/pentose co-fermentation, is a major bottleneck for cost-effective lignocellulosic biorefineries. To engineer microbial strains for improved performance, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of inhibition that affect fermentative organisms in the presence of major components of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate. The development of a synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate (SH) media with a composition similar to the actual biomass hydrolysate will be an important advancement to facilitate these studies. In this work, we characterized the nutrients and plant-derived decomposition products present in AFEX™ pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACH). Themore » SH was formulated based on the ACH composition and was further used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of various families of decomposition products during Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) fermentation. Results: The ACH contained high levels of nitrogenous compounds, notably amides, pyrazines, and imidazoles. In contrast, a relatively low content of furans and aromatic and aliphatic acids were found in the ACH. Though most of the families of decomposition products were inhibitory to xylose fermentation, due to their abundance, the nitrogenous compounds showed the most inhibition. From these compounds, amides (products of the ammonolysis reaction) contributed the most to the reduction of the fermentation performance. However, this result is associated to a concentration effect, as the corresponding carboxylic acids (products of hydrolysis) promoted greater inhibition when present at the same molar concentration as the amides. Due to its complexity, the formulated SH did not perfectly match the fermentation profile of the actual hydrolysate, especially the growth curve. However, the SH formulation was effective for studying the inhibitory effect of various compounds on yeast

  16. Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaoyu; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; Chundawat, Shishir; Chambliss, Charles; Lau, Ming W; Xiao, Zeyi; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The fermentation inhibition of yeast or bacteria by lignocellulose-derived degradation products, during hexose/pentose co-fermentation, is a major bottleneck for cost-effective lignocellulosic biorefineries. To engineer microbial strains for improved performance, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of inhibition that affect fermentative organisms in the presence of major components of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate. The development of a synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate (SH) media with a composition similar to the actual biomass hydrolysate will be an important advancement to facilitate these studies. In this work, we characterized the nutrients and plant-derived decomposition products present in AFEX™ pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACH). The SH was formulated based on the ACH composition and was further used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of various families of decomposition products during Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) fermentation. Results: The ACH contained high levels of nitrogenous compounds, notably amides, pyrazines, and imidazoles. In contrast, a relatively low content of furans and aromatic and aliphatic acids were found in the ACH. Though most of the families of decomposition products were inhibitory to xylose fermentation, due to their abundance, the nitrogenous compounds showed the most inhibition. From these compounds, amides (products of the ammonolysis reaction) contributed the most to the reduction of the fermentation performance. However, this result is associated to a concentration effect, as the corresponding carboxylic acids (products of hydrolysis) promoted greater inhibition when present at the same molar concentration as the amides. Due to its complexity, the formulated SH did not perfectly match the fermentation profile of the actual hydrolysate, especially the growth curve. However, the SH formulation was effective for studying the inhibitory effect of various compounds on yeast fermentation

  17. Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kimberly; Oehlberg, Lora; Agogino, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain…

  18. Learning to Ask Naive Questions with IT Product Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    What does it mean to use, or do, theory in the scholarship of teaching and learning? The article approaches the question by considering the role of design anthropology in developing studio-based engineering programmes. Central to my discussion within situated contexts of learning is the idea of practice-based exploration conceived as a way of…

  19. 78 FR 19393 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... published, on December 5, 2012, a proposed rule in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating... this FR notice as the ``preferred procurement program''). This proposed rule can be found at 77 FR... (FR DOC 2012-10420, published May 1, 2012). The preamble to that proposed rule explains the...

  20. What Learners "Know" through Digital Media Production: Learning by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The power to influence others in ever expanding social networks in the new knowledge economy is tied to capabilities with digital media production that require increased technological knowledge. This article draws on research in primary classrooms to examine the repertoires of cross-disciplinary knowledge that literacy learners need to produce…

  1. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being. PMID:25961523

  2. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being.

  3. A mathematical formulation for interface-based modular product design with geometric and weight constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung-Woon Yoo, John

    2016-06-01

    Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.

  4. User productivity as a function of AutoCAD interface design.

    PubMed

    Mitta, D A; Flores, P L

    1995-12-01

    Increased operator productivity is a desired outcome of user-CAD interaction scenarios. Two objectives of this research were to (1) define a measure of operator productivity and (2) empirically investigate the potential effects of CAD interface design on operator productivity, where productivity is defined as the percentage of a drawing session correctly completed per unit time. Here, AutoCAD provides the CAD environment of interest. Productivity with respect to two AutoCAD interface designs (menu, template) and three task types (draw, dimension, display) was investigated. Analysis of user productivity data revealed significantly higher productivity under the menu interface condition than under the template interface condition. A significant effect of task type was also discovered, where user productivity under display tasks was higher than productivity under the draw and dimension tasks. Implications of these results are presented.

  5. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    PubMed

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  6. Third generation design solar cell module LSA task 5, large scale production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A total of twelve (12) preproduction modules were constructed, tested, and delivered. A concept to the frame assembly was designed and proven to be quite reliable. This frame design, as well as the rest of the assembly, was designed with future high volume production and the use of automated equipment in mind.

  7. Optimization of rhamnolipid production by biodegrading bacterial isolates using Plackett-Burman design.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mariam; Essam, Tamer; Yassin, Aymen S; Salama, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are biological surfactants produced by microorganisms. Pseudomonas species are well known for the production of the rhamnolipid biosurfactant. In this work, the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas spp. was investigated and further optimized. Two Plackett-Burman designs to study the effect of carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, iron concentration, magnesium concentration, phenol toxicity, pH, temperature, agitation and sampling time were tested. The first design revealed an optimization that increased biosurfactant productivity by almost two to fivefolds for the tested isolates. However, using the second design showed no remarkable increase in biosurfactant productivity. An additional validation run was adopted using the predicted optimal medium with predicted optimal conditions. The validation run showed remarkable increase in the productivity of the tested isolates. The use of microorganisms with biodegradation ability coupled with optimization of the parameters affecting productivity provides an efficient strategy for biosurfactant production.

  8. From a co-production design to an integrated single-cell biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Liang, Quanfeng; Qi, Qingsheng

    2014-11-15

    Engineering microorganisms capable of accumulating multiple products are sometimes attractive because they yield several advantages in balancing the in vivo metabolic flux and restoring the optimal cell physiology. With the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, numerous strategies for minimizing the substrate waste, optimizing the product portfolios, and maximizing the product yield in co-production systems have been designed and applied. This paper reviewed the recent developments in this field and discussed the challenges that may be encountered during the scaling up of the co-production systems. Finally, the importance of product portfolios and biorefinery strategy of single-cell in co-production processes was proposed.

  9. C-shaped electron beams: design, experimental production and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousley, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Babiker, M.; Yuan, J.

    2015-08-01

    The development of metamaterials operating at visible light wavelengths requires metamaterials to be produced with nanoscale structure over large areas. Improvements in the efficiency of electron beam lithography (EBL) could play an important role in accelerating this development. In this paper we show the production of a shaped probe for use in EBL. A phase structured electron wave containing vortices can be focused to produce a C-shaped cross section. Local spatial frequency analysis shows that both the gap and overall size of the C-shape can be easily controlled. We present the generation of such a C-shaped electron beam using a holographic binary amplitude diffraction mask. Thin AlF3 film is exposed to the C-shaped diffraction order and demonstrates the facile production of both a metallic C-shaped structure as well as the etching of a C-shaped hole.

  10. Computer integration of engineering design and production: A national opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as a purchaser of a variety of manufactured products, including complex space vehicles and systems, clearly has a stake in the advantages of computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Two major NASA objectives are to launch a Manned Space Station by 1992 with a budget of $8 billion, and to be a leader in the development and application of productivity-enhancing technology. At the request of NASA, a National Research Council committee visited five companies that have been leaders in using CIM. Based on these case studies, technical, organizational, and financial issues that influence computer integration are described, guidelines for its implementation in industry are offered, and the use of CIM to manage the space station program is recommended.

  11. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O.; Lanik, P.

    1997-09-18

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding.

  12. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 4: Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implementation plan which is presented was developed to provide the means for the successful implementation of the automated production control system. There are three factors which the implementation plan encompasses: detailed planning; phased implementation; and user involvement. The plan is detailed to the task level in terms of necessary activities as the system is developed, refined, installed, and tested. These tasks are scheduled, on a preliminary basis, over a two-and-one-half-year time frame.

  13. Kepiting field production/storage barge; Design, installation, and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, A.C.; Satar, S. ); Liles, S.P. )

    1990-04-01

    The Kepiting field is located in 295 ft (90 m) of water in the Natuna Sea, Indonesia. Development of this two-well field required innovative planning and involved unique designs of producing systems. The plan includes seafloor wells tied back to a spread-anchored, purpose-built, oil-process and -storage barge. The barge is designed to handle four producing wells and to process 10,000 B/D (1590 m{sup 3}/d) well fluid and 10 million scf/D (283 {times} 10{sup 3} std m{sup 3}/d) gas. Excess gas beyond barge-fuel needs and artificial-lift requirements is flared on the barge. Heated oil storage for 53,000 bbl (8430 m{sup 3}) is available. Processed crude is transported from the barge to a floating export terminal by a shuttle tanker. Kepiting field was operated profitably from Oct. 27, 1986, to Aug. 8, 1989, at which time the wells were plugged and the tieback risers disconnected. This paper discusses the design and construction of the barge and the operating philosophy and experience.

  14. Using satellite data in map design and production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite image maps have been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since shortly after the launch of the first Landsat satellite in 1972. Over the years, the use of image data to design and produce maps has developed from a manual and photographic process to one that incorporates geographic information systems, desktop publishing, and digital prepress techniques. At the same time, the content of most image-based maps produced by the USGS has shifted from raw image data to land cover or other information layers derived from satellite imagery, often portrayed in combination with shaded relief.

  15. The Prompt Design of CNC Grinder Based on Flexible Product Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Dequan; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Huangao; Chen, Zishun

    In mass customization the product platform is the power method to improve the reused ability of existing design resource. But to the high degree modularity product, the module limits the commonality of product platform. The flexible product platform solves the conflict of modularity’s variety and commonality. The platform parameters denote the common properties of product platform and different values of those parameters realize the flexible of product platform. Then the parameter-independent modules can be combined into a physical product platform and extend to satisfy much more market segments. The flexible product platform of CNC grinder improves the reutilization and guides the designer promptly to develop the individual CNC grinder for personal customer needs.

  16. Design Strategies for Redox Active Metalloenzymes: Applications in Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Alcala-Torano, R; Sommer, D J; Bahrami Dizicheh, Z; Ghirlanda, G

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen an increased interest in finding alternative means to produce renewable fuels in order to satisfy the growing energy demands and to minimize environmental impact. Nature can serve as an inspiration for development of these methodologies, as enzymes are able to carry out a wide variety of redox processes at high efficiency, employing a wide array of earth-abundant transition metals to do so. While it is well recognized that the protein environment plays an important role in tuning the properties of the different metal centers, the structure/function relationships between amino acids and catalytic centers are not well resolved. One specific approach to study the role of proteins in both electron and proton transfer is the biomimetic design of redox active peptides, binding organometallic clusters in well-understood protein environments. Here we discuss different strategies for the design of peptides incorporating redox active FeS clusters, [FeFe]-hydrogenase organometallic mimics, and porphyrin centers into different peptide and protein environments in order to understand natural redox enzymes. PMID:27586342

  17. Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

  18. Design, production, and testing of field effect transistors. [cryogenic MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sclar, N.

    1982-01-01

    Cryogenic MOSFETS (CRYOFETS), specifically designed for low temperature preamplifier application with infrared extrinsic detectors were produced and comparatively tested with p-channel MOSFETs under matched conditions. The CRYOFETs exhibit lower voltage thresholds, high source-follower gains at lower bias voltage, and lower dc offset source voltage. The noise of the CRYOFET is found to be 2 to 4 times greater than the MOSFET with a correspondingly lower figure of merit (which is established for source-follower amplifiers). The device power dissipation at a gain of 0.98 is some two orders of magnitude lower than for the MOSFET. Further, CRYOFETs are free of low temperature I vs V character hysteresis and balky conduction turn-on effects and operate effectively in the 2.4 to 20 K range. These devices have promise for use on long term duration sensor missions and for on-focal-plane signal processing at low temperatures.

  19. Recent developments in virtual experience design and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1995-03-01

    Today, the media of VR and Telepresence are in their infancy and the emphasis is still on technology and engineering. But, it is not the hardware people might use that will determine whether VR becomes a powerful medium--instead, it will be the experiences that they are able to have that will drive its acceptance and impact. A critical challenge in the elaboration of these telepresence capabilities will be the development of environments that are as unpredictable and rich in interconnected processes as an actual location or experience. This paper will describe the recent development of several Virtual Experiences including: `Menagerie', an immersive Virtual Environment inhabited by virtual characters designed to respond to and interact with its users; and `The Virtual Brewery', an immersive public VR installation that provides multiple levels of interaction in an artistic interpretation of the brewing process.

  20. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat, phase 1 design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final product of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.

  1. Production flow analysis: a tool for designing a lean hospital.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Sauli; Korvenranta, Heikki; Paatela, Mikael; Seppälä, Timo

    2007-01-01

    Production flow analysis (PFA) was used in the planning process for a new acute care hospital. The PFA demonstrated that functional organisation--for example, with centralised medical imaging-- generates a lot of back and forth patient transfers between functional units. This to-and-fro patient flow increases lead times of care processes and also exposes the patients to unnecessary complications. PFA produced an ideal patient flow model and layout model for the acute care hospital. Thus, PFA revealed information for use in proximity ranking of different units of the hospital; the planning team then decided which units should be placed next to each other. Medical imaging should be essentially ubiquitous, to achieve simple, high-velocity patient flow. Thus, a modern decentralized layout model for medical imaging was planned. Furthermore, PFA enables optimizing transfer routes for patients and also, e.g., lift capacity in the hospital.

  2. Production flow analysis: a tool for designing a lean hospital.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Sauli; Korvenranta, Heikki; Paatela, Mikael; Seppälä, Timo

    2007-01-01

    Production flow analysis (PFA) was used in the planning process for a new acute care hospital. The PFA demonstrated that functional organisation--for example, with centralised medical imaging-- generates a lot of back and forth patient transfers between functional units. This to-and-fro patient flow increases lead times of care processes and also exposes the patients to unnecessary complications. PFA produced an ideal patient flow model and layout model for the acute care hospital. Thus, PFA revealed information for use in proximity ranking of different units of the hospital; the planning team then decided which units should be placed next to each other. Medical imaging should be essentially ubiquitous, to achieve simple, high-velocity patient flow. Thus, a modern decentralized layout model for medical imaging was planned. Furthermore, PFA enables optimizing transfer routes for patients and also, e.g., lift capacity in the hospital. PMID:17621771

  3. Administering design fluency tests in school-aged children: analyses of design productivity over time, clustering, and switching.

    PubMed

    Hurks, Petra P M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of child-related factors (age, sex, and intellectual abilities) upon design fluency (DF) test scores. A DF test, a semantic verbal fluency (VF) test, and a Block Design test, as a proxy of intelligence, were administered to N = 80 healthy native Dutch-speaking children aged 8.45-12.82 years. Three components of DF performance were examined, i.e., design productivity over time, clustering (i.e., generating designs that share visual-spatial similarities, such as addition, deletion, or rotation), and switching (i.e., shifting between strategies that children use to draw the designs). The relation between DF design productivity over time and age was curvilinear, that is, improvements in test scores were much more pronounced for younger children than for older children. No (curvi)linear age effects were found in DF productivity scores, clustering, and switching. Also, our results did not reveal a relation between intellectual abilities and DF test scores. Furthermore, DF test scores and VF test scores were only partially significant, i.e., only significant positive correlations were found between the productivity scores of the VF test and the DF test. Finally, higher order sex by age interactions were found in all DF test scores, i.e., girls <10.5 years produced more designs, made longer clusters, and switched less than boys. Opposite sex differences were found for children >10.5 years. This illustrates the utility of combining quantitative scoring procedures with in-depth clustering and switching to understand interactions between age and sex during DF tests.

  4. Applying CBR to machine tool product configuration design oriented to customer requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengjia; Gong, Yadong; Xie, Hualong; Liu, Yongxian; Nee, Andrew Yehching

    2016-03-01

    Product customization is a trend in the current market-oriented manufacturing environment. However, deduction from customer requirements to design results and evaluation of design alternatives are still heavily reliant on the designer's experience and knowledge. To solve the problem of fuzziness and uncertainty of customer requirements in product configuration, an analysis method based on the grey rough model is presented. The customer requirements can be converted into technical characteristics effectively. In addition, an optimization decision model for product planning is established to help the enterprises select the key technical characteristics under the constraints of cost and time to serve the customer to maximal satisfaction. A new case retrieval approach that combines the self-organizing map and fuzzy similarity priority ratio method is proposed in case-based design. The self-organizing map can reduce the retrieval range and increase the retrieval efficiency, and the fuzzy similarity priority ratio method can evaluate the similarity of cases comprehensively. To ensure that the final case has the best overall performance, an evaluation method of similar cases based on grey correlation analysis is proposed to evaluate similar cases to select the most suitable case. Furthermore, a computer-aided system is developed using MATLAB GUI to assist the product configuration design. The actual example and result on an ETC series machine tool product show that the proposed method is effective, rapid and accurate in the process of product configuration. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for the product configuration design oriented to customer requirements.

  5. Beyond image quality: designing engaging interactions with digital products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, Huib; Rozendaal, Marco C.

    2008-02-01

    Ubiquitous computing (or Ambient Intelligence) promises a world in which information is available anytime anywhere and with which humans can interact in a natural, multimodal way. In such world, perceptual image quality remains an important criterion since most information will be displayed visually, but other criteria such as enjoyment, fun, engagement and hedonic quality are emerging. This paper deals with engagement, the intrinsically enjoyable readiness to put more effort into exploring and/or using a product than strictly required, thus attracting and keeping user's attention for a longer period of time. The impact of the experienced richness of an interface, both visually and degree of possible manipulations, was investigated in a series of experiments employing game-like user interfaces. This resulted in the extension of an existing conceptual framework relating engagement to richness by means of two intermediating variables, namely experienced challenge and sense of control. Predictions from this revised framework are evaluated against results of an earlier experiment assessing the ergonomic and hedonic qualities of interactive media. Test material consisted of interactive CD-ROM's containing presentations of three companies for future customers.

  6. Innovative product design based on comprehensive customer requirements of different cognitive levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Wu; Zheng, Yake; Wang, Rui; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    To improve customer satisfaction in innovative product design, a topology structure of customer requirements is established and an innovative product approach is proposed. The topology structure provides designers with reasonable guidance to capture the customer requirements comprehensively. With the aid of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the importance of the customer requirements is evaluated. Quality function deployment (QFD) is used to translate customer requirements into product and process design demands and pick out the technical requirements which need urgent improvement. In this way, the product is developed in a more targeted way to satisfy the customers. the theory of innovative problems solving (TRIZ) is used to help designers to produce innovative solutions. Finally, a case study of automobile steering system is used to illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  7. Isotope Production Facility Conceptual Thermal-Hydraulic Design Review and Scoping Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Shelton, J.D.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal-hydraulic design of the target for the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is reviewed. In support of the technical review, scoping calculations are performed. The results of the review and scoping calculations are presented in this report.

  8. Innovative product design based on comprehensive customer requirements of different cognitive levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Wu; Zheng, Yake; Wang, Rui; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    To improve customer satisfaction in innovative product design, a topology structure of customer requirements is established and an innovative product approach is proposed. The topology structure provides designers with reasonable guidance to capture the customer requirements comprehensively. With the aid of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the importance of the customer requirements is evaluated. Quality function deployment (QFD) is used to translate customer requirements into product and process design demands and pick out the technical requirements which need urgent improvement. In this way, the product is developed in a more targeted way to satisfy the customers. the theory of innovative problems solving (TRIZ) is used to help designers to produce innovative solutions. Finally, a case study of automobile steering system is used to illustrate the application of the proposed approach. PMID:25013862

  9. Innovative Product Design Based on Comprehensive Customer Requirements of Different Cognitive Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wu; Zheng, Yake; Wang, Rui; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    To improve customer satisfaction in innovative product design, a topology structure of customer requirements is established and an innovative product approach is proposed. The topology structure provides designers with reasonable guidance to capture the customer requirements comprehensively. With the aid of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the importance of the customer requirements is evaluated. Quality function deployment (QFD) is used to translate customer requirements into product and process design demands and pick out the technical requirements which need urgent improvement. In this way, the product is developed in a more targeted way to satisfy the customers. the theory of innovative problems solving (TRIZ) is used to help designers to produce innovative solutions. Finally, a case study of automobile steering system is used to illustrate the application of the proposed approach. PMID:25013862

  10. [Design and construction of artificial biological systems for complex natural products biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfeng; Meng, Hailin; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Natural products (NPs) are important drug pools for human disease prevention and treatment. The great advances in synthetic biology have greatly revolutionized the strategies of NPs development and production. This review entitled with design and construction of artificial biological systems for complex NPs biosynthesis, mainly introduced the progresses in artificial design of synthetic biological parts, naturally mining novel synthetic parts of NPs, the assembly & adaption of the artificial biological modules & systems.

  11. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  12. The modular design of robotic workcells in a flexible production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banas, W.; Sekala, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Hryniewicz, P.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the case of large-scale and mass production lines often the same model of an industrial robot is used in various places of the line and is intended to various task. However, the replacement of one industrial robot to another is a long lasting and arduous process. It requires stopping all the production line and sometimes even dismantling the whole workcell. Such situations are not frequent in production lines that are not flexible. They are related the most often with the failure on an industrial robot. However, during the designing of a flexible production line the ability to replace any robot, which is unrestricted, fast and trouble-free, greatly increase the flexibility level of such line. It could be realized by modular design of the proposed production line. In this way it could be possible to change any elements of such production system. But this approach needs to apply the specialized informatics system. This paper presents the obtained design of several versions of the same production workcell. Each, succeeding version of the designed production workcell contains more and more modular elements. Thereby it would be presented the evolution of a workcell design beginning from the typical design and ending with the fully modular one. One of tools needed to realize this task is the elaboration of a base of modules and typical joint and mounting elements that could be utilised in the described designing process. It is also presented the guidance information about the designing and programming processes useful at each stage of analysed process.

  13. Design-based validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global burned area product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. Burned area product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with burning. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val Burned Area Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.

  14. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  15. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. B.; Valkenburg, C.; Walkton, C. W.; Elliott, D. C.; Holladay, J. E.; Stevens, D. J.; Kinchin, C.; Czernik, S.

    2010-02-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case is the first to establish detailed cost targest for the production of diesel and gasoline blendstock from biomass via a fast pyrolysis process.

  16. A guided search genetic algorithm using mined rules for optimal affective product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Chris K. Y.; Kwong, C. K.; Chan, Kit Yan; Jiang, H.

    2014-08-01

    Affective design is an important aspect of new product development, especially for consumer products, to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. It can help companies to develop new products that can better satisfy the emotional needs of customers. However, product designers usually encounter difficulties in determining the optimal settings of the design attributes for affective design. In this article, a novel guided search genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to determine the optimal design attribute settings for affective design. The optimization model formulated based on the proposed approach applied constraints and guided search operators, which were formulated based on mined rules, to guide the GA search and to achieve desirable solutions. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the proposed approach and validate its effectiveness. Validation tests were conducted, and the results show that the guided search GA approach outperforms the GA approach without the guided search strategy in terms of GA convergence and computational time. In addition, the guided search optimization model is capable of improving GA to generate good solutions for affective design.

  17. SSC dipole log manget model cryostat design and initial production experience

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Engler, N.H.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

    1986-06-01

    The SSC dipole magnet development program includes the design and construction of full length magnet models for heat leak and magnetic measurements and for the evaluation of the performance of strings of magnets. The design of the model magnet cryostat is presented and the production experiences for the initial long magnet model, a heat leak measurement device, are related.

  18. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  19. Design of a Production System for Cognitive Modeling #1. Technical Report 77-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Kline, Paul J.

    This report describes several of the design decisions underlying ACT, a production system model of human cognition. ACT can be considered a high level computer programming language as well as a theory of the cognitive mechanisms underlying human information processing. ACT design decisions were based on both psychological and artificial…

  20. Apparel Design and Production: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    The apparel design and production guide is the second of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. Designed to provide youths and adults with intensive preparation for initial entry employment and also with career advancement opportunities within specific categories of jobs,…

  1. Managing Courseware Production: An Instructional Design Model with a Software Engineering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chia-Shing; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes an instructional design model for the production of courseware and combines this model with software engineering principles to specify project management responsibilities and procedures. Describes the roles of team members involved in the project and offers a project template to manage production activities to ensure that end products…

  2. 75 FR 32087 - Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-13659 Filed 6-4-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 4410-10-P ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of May 19, 2010 Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act... authority vested in me by section 722(b)(2) of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (section 11...

  3. Fostering Creativity in Design Education: Using the Creative Product Analysis Matrix with Chinese Undergraduates in Macau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore to what extent the use of a more structured mode of assessing creative products--specifically, the CPAM--could beneficially influence design students' product creativity and creative processes. For this qualitative inquiry, following our CPAM-based intervention, students wrote reflective papers in…

  4. Expanding lean thinking to the product and process design and development within the framework of sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorli, M.; Sopelana, A.; Salgado, M.; Pelaez, G.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Companies require tools to change towards a new way of developing and producing innovative products to be manufactured considering the economic, social and environmental impact along the product life cycle. Based on translating Lean principles in Product Development (PD) from the design stage and, along the entire product life cycle, it is aimed to address both sustainability and environmental issues. The drivers of sustainable culture within a lean PD have been identified and a baseline for future research on the development of appropriate tools and techniques has been provided. This research provide industry with a framework which balance environmental and sustainable factors with lean principles to be considered and incorporated from the beginning of product design and development covering the entire product lifecycle.

  5. Design and Technology Productions among Middle School Students: An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunyakari, Ritesh; Mehrotra, Swati; Chunawala, Sugra; Natarajan, Chitra

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is students' design productions as they engaged in designing and making a windmill model to lift a given weight. This work is part of a project on the development of design and technology (D&T) education units and its trials among Indian middle school students (Grade 6, age 11-14 years) in different socio-cultural settings.…

  6. Product design for energy reduction in concurrent engineering: An Inverted Pyramid Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkadi, Nasr M.

    Energy factors in product design in concurrent engineering (CE) are becoming an emerging dimension for several reasons; (a) the rising interest in "green design and manufacturing", (b) the national energy security concerns and the dramatic increase in energy prices, (c) the global competition in the marketplace and global climate change commitments including carbon tax and emission trading systems, and (d) the widespread recognition of the need for sustainable development. This research presents a methodology for the intervention of energy factors in concurrent engineering product development process to significantly reduce the manufacturing energy requirement. The work presented here is the first attempt at integrating the design for energy in concurrent engineering framework. It adds an important tool to the DFX toolbox for evaluation of the impact of design decisions on the product manufacturing energy requirement early during the design phase. The research hypothesis states that "Product Manufacturing Energy Requirement is a Function of Design Parameters". The hypothesis was tested by conducting experimental work in machining and heat treating that took place at the manufacturing lab of the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering Department (IMSE) at West Virginia University (WVU) and at a major U.S steel manufacturing plant, respectively. The objective of the machining experiment was to study the effect of changing specific product design parameters (Material type and diameter) and process design parameters (metal removal rate) on a gear head lathe input power requirement through performing defined sets of machining experiments. The objective of the heat treating experiment was to study the effect of varying product charging temperature on the fuel consumption of a walking beams reheat furnace. The experimental work in both directions have revealed important insights into energy utilization in machining and heat-treating processes and its variance based

  7. Map Design and Production Issues for the Utah Gap Analysis Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, J.A.; Wittmann, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The cartographic preparation and printing of four maps for the Utah GAP Project presented a wide range of challenges in cartographic design and production. In meeting these challenges, the map designers had to balance the purpose of the maps together with their legibility and utility against both the researchers' desire to show as much detail as possible and the technical limitations inherent in the printing process. This article describes seven design and production issues in order to illustrate the challenges of making maps from a merger of satellite data and GIS databases, and to point toward future investigation and development.

  8. Optimization of coal product structure in coal plant design expert system and its computer programming implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Yaqun, H.; Shan, L.; Yali, K.; Maixi, L.

    1999-07-01

    The optimization of coal product structure is a main task in coal preparation flowsheet design. The paper thoroughly studies the scheme of coal product structure optimization in coal plant design expert system. By comparing three fitted mathematical models of raw coal washability curve and six models of distribution curve, which simulates gravity coal separation, the optimum ones are obtained. Based on the models, applying coal product profit as an objective function and utilizing method of generalized Lagrange operators to conditionally restrain yield and ash content of coal product, the optimum flowsheet for coal preparation has been finally achieved by the way of Zangwill method, which optimizes coal product structure. It provides an efficient theoretical basis for defining technical plan in coal preparation plant designing. The paper also studies the computer programming development and implementation of coal product structure optimization, applying object oriented programming method, in coal plant design expert system. The overall structure of coal plant design expert system, knowledge expressing mechanism, explaining and reasoning mechanism, as well as knowledge learning mechanism are mentioned in this paper.

  9. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  10. "From the Formal to the Innovative": The Use of Case Studies and Sustainable Projects in Developing a Design Process Model for Educating Product/Industrial Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, G. L.; Felton, A. J.; Garner, K. B.

    2006-01-01

    The BSc in computer aided product design (CAPD) course at the University of Wolverhampton was conceived as a collaborative venture in 1989 between the School of Engineering and the School of Art and Design. The award was at the forefront of forging interdisciplinary collaboration at undergraduate level in the field of product design. It has…

  11. Modeling Design Iteration in Product Design and Development and Its Solution by a Novel Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Due to fierce market competition, how to improve product quality and reduce development cost determines the core competitiveness of enterprises. However, design iteration generally causes increases of product cost and delays of development time as well, so how to identify and model couplings among tasks in product design and development has become an important issue for enterprises to settle. In this paper, the shortcomings existing in WTM model are discussed and tearing approach as well as inner iteration method is used to complement the classic WTM model. In addition, the ABC algorithm is also introduced to find out the optimal decoupling schemes. In this paper, firstly, tearing approach and inner iteration method are analyzed for solving coupled sets. Secondly, a hybrid iteration model combining these two technologies is set up. Thirdly, a high-performance swarm intelligence algorithm, artificial bee colony, is adopted to realize problem-solving. Finally, an engineering design of a chemical processing system is given in order to verify its reasonability and effectiveness. PMID:25431584

  12. 9 CFR 318.3 - Designation of places of receipt of products and other articles for reinspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of places of receipt of products and other articles for reinspection. 318.3 Section 318.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... products and other articles for reinspection. Every official establishment shall designate, with...

  13. 9 CFR 318.3 - Designation of places of receipt of products and other articles for reinspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of places of receipt of products and other articles for reinspection. 318.3 Section 318.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... products and other articles for reinspection. Every official establishment shall designate, with...

  14. Rapid product development: project engineering joined to design engineering in a concurrent engineering context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Alain; Ouazzani, A.; Chambolle, F.; Bocquet, Jean Claud

    1997-01-01

    Software tools for designers are mainly based on geometry. Today, many industrial modelers have been rebuilt with C++, or any other object oriented language. This paper proposes to locate the research topics, in order to develop a functional link between project management tools, technical data management and product models. The 'design process' aspect will also be justified through the need of capitalizing designer intent and design history. This is related to different research works of Mechanical Engineering and Logistics Laboratory of Ecole Centrale Paris, and especially two PhD topics.

  15. Systems metabolic engineering design: Fatty acid production as an emerging case study

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. PMID:24481660

  16. Quality by design case study: an integrated multivariate approach to drug product and process development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Kaul, Goldi; Cai, Chunsheng; Chatlapalli, Ramarao; Hernandez-Abad, Pedro; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Nagi, Arwinder

    2009-12-01

    To facilitate an in-depth process understanding, and offer opportunities for developing control strategies to ensure product quality, a combination of experimental design, optimization and multivariate techniques was integrated into the process development of a drug product. A process DOE was used to evaluate effects of the design factors on manufacturability and final product CQAs, and establish design space to ensure desired CQAs. Two types of analyses were performed to extract maximal information, DOE effect & response surface analysis and multivariate analysis (PCA and PLS). The DOE effect analysis was used to evaluate the interactions and effects of three design factors (water amount, wet massing time and lubrication time), on response variables (blend flow, compressibility and tablet dissolution). The design space was established by the combined use of DOE, optimization and multivariate analysis to ensure desired CQAs. Multivariate analysis of all variables from the DOE batches was conducted to study relationships between the variables and to evaluate the impact of material attributes/process parameters on manufacturability and final product CQAs. The integrated multivariate approach exemplifies application of QbD principles and tools to drug product and process development.

  17. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents

  18. An analysis of the benefits of ethnography design methods for product modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butlewski, M.; Misztal, A.; Belu, N.

    2016-08-01

    The essence of modelling is to reflect the studied piece of reality in such a way that best describes the selected elements of the designed system. A model is used in design to optimize the structure and parameters of the constructed object and is a tool for assessing the quality of construction, eliminating weak links and ensuring adequate safety components. In view of the aim of modelling, it can be divided into functional modelling, showing the complexity of the object, and reliability modelling, specifying its states at variable threshold values. In design, modelling allows for significant savings in resources that would otherwise be spent because of problems appearing at the prototype stage, but also during production or in the course of using the product. In the practice of ergonomic design many problems could be avoided if early enough in the design process the values of parameters and their relations would be taken into account through modelling. On the other hand, the modelling process can be costly and time-consuming to carry out, and against the currently pervasive lean production it is a highly undesirable factor. Therefore, the modelling process should be supported with the use of appropriate cognitive techniques namely ethnography design, which would determine inadequacies of existing models as well as indicate the equivalent conditions for modelling. The justification of the use of this technique results both from the possibility of providing additional information, as well as the opportunity to “test” the phenomena affecting the design process. Ergonomic modelling tests developed solutions towards their adaptation to users’ anthropometric, biomechanical and psychomotor characteristics, as well as behaviour patterns. However, knowledge of the latter and achieving a sufficient ergonomic and functional quality of proposed solutions often requires the use of the ethnography design approach. The aim of this article is to test the practical

  19. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  20. Product and Process Improvement Using Mixture-Process Variable Designs and Robust Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Narinder S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Naes, Tormod

    2009-04-01

    The quality of an industrial product depends on the raw material proportions and the process variable levels, both of which need to be taken into account in designing a product. This article presents a case study from the food industry in which both kinds of variables were studied by combining a constrained mixture experiment design and a central composite process variable design. Based on the natural structure of the situation, a split-plot experiment was designed and models involving the raw material proportions and process variable levels (separately and combined) were fitted. Combined models were used to study: (i) the robustness of the process to variations in raw material proportions, and (ii) the robustness of the raw material recipes with respect to fluctuations in the process variable levels. Further, the expected variability in the robust settings was studied using the bootstrap.

  1. The HARP Hadron Production Experiment and Its Significance for Neutrino Factory Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howlett, L. C.

    2004-03-01

    A neutrino factory would provide a high flux beam of electron and muon neutrinos with well understood energy and flavour composition for detailed studies of neutrino oscillations. Such a beam requires a large number of muons and hence pions, which would be provided by a proton driver and pion production target. The optimal design of such a pion production target and the necessary pion capture system need accurate knowledge of hadron production at energies of several GeV. HARP, a large acceptance particle spectrometer of conventional design, aims to measure hadron production cross sections on thin and thick nuclear targets in the range of beam momentum 2-15 GeV/c in order to provide the desired data.

  2. RobOKoD: microbial strain design for (over)production of target compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Natalie J.; Millard, Pierre; Swainston, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable production of target compounds such as biofuels and high-value chemicals for pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and chemical industries is becoming an increasing priority given their current dependency upon diminishing petrochemical resources. Designing these strains is difficult, with current methods focusing primarily on knocking-out genes, dismissing other vital steps of strain design including the overexpression and dampening of genes. The design predictions from current methods also do not translate well-into successful strains in the laboratory. Here, we introduce RobOKoD (Robust, Overexpression, Knockout and Dampening), a method for predicting strain designs for overproduction of targets. The method uses flux variability analysis to profile each reaction within the system under differing production percentages of target-compound and biomass. Using these profiles, reactions are identified as potential knockout, overexpression, or dampening targets. The identified reactions are ranked according to their suitability, providing flexibility in strain design for users. The software was tested by designing a butanol-producing Escherichia coli strain, and was compared against the popular OptKnock and RobustKnock methods. RobOKoD shows favorable design predictions, when predictions from these methods are compared to a successful butanol-producing experimentally-validated strain. Overall RobOKoD provides users with rankings of predicted beneficial genetic interventions with which to support optimized strain design. PMID:25853130

  3. Integrated Design and Production Reference Integration with ArchGenXML V1.00

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, R H

    2004-07-20

    ArchGenXML is a tool that allows easy creation of Zope products through the use of Archetypes. The Integrated Design and Production Reference (IDPR) should be highly configurable in order to meet the needs of a diverse engineering community. Ease of configuration is key to the success of IDPR. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of using a UML diagram editor to configure IDPR through ArchGenXML and Archetypes.

  4. Capturing, Sharing, and Discovering Product Data at a Semantic Level--Moving Forward to the Semantic Web for Advancing the Engineering Product Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    Along with the greater productivity that CAD automation provides nowadays, the product data of engineering applications needs to be shared and managed efficiently to gain a competitive edge for the engineering product design. However, exchanging and sharing the heterogeneous product data is still challenging. This dissertation first presents a…

  5. Advanced product realization through model-based design and virtual prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    Several government agencies and industrial sectors have recognized the need for, and payoff of, investing in the methodologies and associated technologies for improving the product realization process. Within the defense community as well as commercial industry, there are three major needs. First, they must reduce the cost of military products, of related manufacturing processes, and of the enterprises that have to be maintained. Second, they must reduce the time required to realize products while still applying the latest technologies. Finally, they must improve the predictability of process attributes, product performance, cost, schedule and quality. They must continue to advance technology, quickly incorporate their innovations in new products and in processes to produce them, and they need to capitalize on the raw computational power and communications bandwidth that continues to become available at decreasing cost. Sandia National Laboratories initiative is pursuing several interrelated, key concepts and technologies in order to enable such product realization process improvements: model-based design; intelligent manufacturing processes; rapid virtual and physical prototyping; and agile people/enterprises. While progress in each of these areas is necessary, this paper only addresses a portion of the overall initiative. First a vision of a desired future capability in model-based design and virtual prototyping is presented. This is followed by a discussion of two specific activities parametric design analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) and virtual prototyping of miniaturized high-density electronics -- that exemplify the vision as well as provide a status report on relevant work in progress.

  6. Design and construction of a cascading pressure reactor prototype for solar-thermochemical hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermanoski, Ivan; Grobbel, Johannes; Singh, Abhishek; Lapp, Justin; Brendelberger, Stefan; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian; Whaley, Josh; McDaniel, Anthony; Siegel, Nathan P.

    2016-05-01

    Recent work regarding the efficiency maximization for solar thermochemical fuel production in two step cycles has led to the design of a new type of reactor—the cascading pressure reactor—in which the thermal reduction step of the cycle is completed in multiple stages, at successively lower pressures. This approach enables lower thermal reduction pressures than in single-staged reactors, and decreases required pump work, leading to increased solar to fuel efficiencies. Here we report on the design and construction of a prototype cascading pressure reactor and testing of some of the key components. We especially focus on the technical challenges particular to the design, and their solutions.

  7. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    SciTech Connect

    Liem, Peng Hong; Tran, Hoai Nam; Sembiring, Tagor Malem; Arbie, Bakri

    2014-09-30

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor)

  8. Improving polyglucan production in cyanobacteria and microalgae via cultivation design and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Shimpei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Nakanishi, Akihito; Chang, Jo-Shu; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, are currently being investigated as alternative biomass resources for bioethanol production, owing to their benefits, including high-photosynthetic activity and whole-year cultivation without utilization of arable land. Polyglucans comprise the major carbohydrate content of these organisms. Polyglucans can be utilized as a carbon source for microbial fermentation. Although polyglucan production has so far been promoted by nutrient limitation, it must be further enhanced to accommodate market demand. This review focuses on the recent progress in the production of α-polyglucans such asglycogen and starch in cyanobacteria and green microalgae via cultivation design, including modifying the nutrient supply and replacing the growth medium. The control and manipulation of polyglucan metabolism necessitates the elucidation of the polyglucan production mechanism. We reviewed gene expression and metabolite accumulation profiles of cyanobacteria and green microalgae during nutrient limitation-stimulated α-polyglucan accumulation. We also focus on the enhancement in cyanobacterial glycogen production via the genetic engineering of glycolysis, CO2 concentration mechanism, and photosynthetic light-harvesting protein based on the polyglucan accumulation mechanism. The combined strategies of cultivation design and genetic engineering should be considered for further enhancement of polyglucan productivity for bioethanol production.

  9. Managing design for manufacture and assembly in the development of MEMS-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Yao; Narasimhan, Nachchinarkkinian; Hariz, Alex J.

    2006-12-01

    Design for manufacturability, assembly and reliability of MEMS products is being applied to a multitude of novel MEMS products to make up for the lack of "Standard Process for MEMS" concept. The latter has proved a major handicap in commercialization of MEMS devices when compared to integrated circuits products. Furthermore, an examination of recent engineering literature seems to suggest convergence towards the development of the design for manufacturability and reliability of MEMS products. This paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques that have been pursued up to this point to achieve commercialization of MEMS products, identify some of the problems slowing down development, and explore measures that could be taken to try to address those problems. Successful commercialization critically depends on packaging and assembly, manufacturability, and reliability for micro scale products. However, a methodology that appropriately shadows next generation knowledge management will undoubtedly address most of the critical problems that are hampering development of MEMS industries. Finally this paper will also identify contemporary issues that are challenging the industry in regards to product commercialization and will recommend appropriate measures based on knowledge flow to address those shortcomings and lay out plans to expedient and successful paths to market.

  10. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrouz; Maleknia, Shayan; Heydari, Amir; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB) multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44) cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb) titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  11. Utilization of a telephone interactive voice-response tobacco cessation support service in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydari, G; Ahmady, A Ebn; Lando, H A; Almasinia, B

    2014-06-09

    Telephone smoking cessation counselling is a very cost-effective means of reaching dependent smokers in a population. We investigated the frequency of contacts and the types of topics that people accessed after a national telephone helpline was set up in the Islamic Republic of Iran at the beginning of 2011. From a total of 23 979 calls received over a 24-month period, 26.5% of callers hung up without selecting any menus. The most frequently accessed menu was addresses of smoking cessation support services (23.9%), followed by methods of smoking cessation (14.0%), self-help materials for quitting smoking (11.8%) and nicotine dependence assessment (10.4%). The average number of contacts decreased dramatically after the first month of the service but there was a significant increase in the 2 months preceding the feast of Ramadan. Religious messages provide a good opportunity to engage individuals in smoking cessation and may be useful in the planning of media campaigns.

  12. Strategies to Support Tobacco Cessation and Tobacco-Free Environments in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Nicole M.; Lavinghouze, S. Rene

    2015-01-01

    We identified and described strategies for promoting smoking cessation and smoke-free environments that were implemented in Oregon and Utah in treatment centers for mental illness and substance abuse. We reviewed final evaluation reports submitted by state tobacco control programs (TCPs) to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and transcripts from a call study evaluation. The TCPs described factors that assisted in implementing strategies: being ready for opportunity, having a sound infrastructure, and having a branded initiative. These strategies could be used by other programs serving high-need populations for whom evidence-based interventions are still being developed. PMID:26425871

  13. Integration of tobacco cessation services into multidisciplinary lung cancer care: rationale, state of the art, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Graham W.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is the largest risk factor for lung cancer and many lung cancer patients still smoke at the time of diagnosis. Although clinical practice guidelines recommend that all patients receive evidence-based tobacco treatment, implementation of these services in oncology practices is inconsistent and inadequate. Multidisciplinary lung cancer treatment programs offer an ideal environment to optimally deliver effective smoking cessation services. This article reviews best practice recommendations and current status of tobacco treatment for oncology patients, and provides recommendations to optimize delivery of tobacco treatment in multidisciplinary practice. PMID:26380175

  14. Confirming the Structure of the "Why Do You Smoke?" Questionnaire: A Community Resource for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennis W.; Lee, Jay T.; Colwell, Brian; Stevens-Manser, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    In response to the problem of adolescent smoking and limited appropriate cessation resources, this study examined the pattern and structure of the American Lung Association, Why Do You Smoke? (WDS) to determine its appropriateness for use in youth smoking cessation programs. The WDS is used to help smokers identify primary motivations for using…

  15. Smokers with Self-Reported Mental Health Conditions: A Case for Screening in the Context of Tobacco Cessation Services

    PubMed Central

    Anthenelli, Robert M.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background People with mental health conditions (MHC) smoke at high rates and many die prematurely from smoking-related illnesses. Smoking cessation programs, however, generally do not screen for MHC. This study examined the utility of MHC screening in a large tobacco quitline to determine whether self-reported MHC predicts service utilization and quitting behaviors. Methods & Findings A brief set of question on MHC was embedded in the routine intake of a state quitline, and 125,261 smokers calling from June 2012 to September 2015 were asked the questions. Quit attempt rate and 6-month success rate were analyzed for a random subset of participants. Overall, 52.2% of smokers reported at least one MHC. Demographic patterns like gender or ethnic difference in self-reported MHC were similar to that in the general population. Depression disorder was reported most often (38.6%), followed by anxiety disorder (33.8%), bipolar disorder (17.0%), drug/alcohol abuse (11.9%), and schizophrenia (7.9%). Among those reporting any MHC, about two-thirds reported more than 1 MHC. Smokers with MHC received more counseling than smokers with no MHC. Quit attempt rates were high for all three groups (>70%). The probability of relapse was greater for those with more than one MHC than for those with one MHC (p<0.005), which in turn was greater than those with no MHC (p < .01). The six-month prolonged abstinence rates for the three conditions were, 21.8%, 28.6%, and 33.7%, respectively. The main limitation of this study is the use of a non-validated self-report question to assess MHC, even though it appears to be useful for predicting quitting behavior. Conclusions Smokers with MHC actively seek treatment to quit. Smoking cessation services can use a brief set of questions to screen for MHC to help identify smokers in need of more intensive treatment to quit smoking. PMID:27391334

  16. The Importance of Location for Tobacco Cessation: Rural-Urban Disparities in Quit Success in Underserved West Virginia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northridge, Mary E.; Vallone, Donna; Xiao, Haijun; Green, Molly; Blackwood, Julia Weikle; Kemper, Suzanne E.; Duke, Jennifer; Watson, Kimberly A.; Burrus, Barri; Treadwell, Henrie M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Adults who live in rural areas of the United States have among the highest smoking rates in the country. Rural populations, including Appalachian adults, have been historically underserved by tobacco control programs and policies and little is known about their effectiveness. Purpose: To examine the end-of-class quit success of…

  17. New process modeling [sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-06-05

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice.

  18. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  19. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  20. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  1. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  2. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  3. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document seeks to promote the reduction of environmental impacts and health risks through a systems approach to design. The approach is based on die product life cycle, which includes raw materials acquisition and processing, manufacturing, use/service, resource recovery, an...

  4. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.

  5. The Impact of IQ+EQ+CQ Integration on Student Productivity in Web Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2010-01-01

    As the entry-level information technology jobs could be easily outsourced offshore, the demand for U.S. employees who are innovative and productive in information technology (IT) project design, development, and management is growing among U.S. companies. This controlled experiment presents how a model of integrating students' intelligence…

  6. Mobile Technology and CAD Technology Integration in Teaching Architectural Design Process for Producing Creative Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bin Hassan, Isham Shah; Ismail, Mohd Arif; Mustafa, Ramlee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of integrating the mobile and CAD technology on teaching architectural design process for Malaysian polytechnic architectural students in producing a creative product. The website is set up based on Caroll's minimal theory, while mobile and CAD technology integration is based on Brown and…

  7. A Further Study of Productive Failure in Mathematical Problem Solving: Unpacking the Design Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2011-01-01

    This paper replicates and extends my earlier work on productive failure in mathematical problem solving (Kapur, doi:10.1007/s11251-009-9093-x, 2009). One hundred and nine, seventh-grade mathematics students taught by the same teacher from a Singapore school experienced one of three learning designs: (a) traditional lecture and practice (LP), (b)…

  8. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation. PMID:26689874

  9. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN MANAGEMENT, PRODUCT AND PROCESS DESIGN, AND POLICY DECISION MAKING: A CONFERENCE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    On 24 September 2003, life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners and decision makers gathered at the InLCA/LCM Conference in Seattle, Washington, USA (see http://www.lcacenter.org/InLCA-LCM03/index.html) to discuss the role of LCA in management, product design, process development...

  10. Good, Better, Best: Using Universal Design and Digital Technology to Develop Great Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauke, Beth; Story, Mary Follette; Ostroff, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Industrial design and technology are lab-based disciplines with highly visual products, hands-on activities, and frequent interactions between faculty and students. As a result, the ways that online resources are used in these courses tend to be different from other subject areas with more lecture-oriented modes of learning. This article addresses…

  11. A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Denis A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

  12. Standards: a key element of optical design, engineering productivity, and time to market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngworth, Richard N.; Kiontke, Sven R.; Aikens, David M.

    2014-12-01

    Standards provide a conduit for understanding and communication in the global optics industry. Proper use and knowledge of standards is beneficial to global commerce and increases productivity. In this paper the design utility and efficiency afforded by standards is shown with examples that are congruent with current ANSI and ISO published documents.

  13. Sketches from a Design Process: Creative Cognition Inferred from Intermediate Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2005-01-01

    Novice designers produced a sequence of sketches while inventing a logo for a novel brand of soft drink. The sketches were scored for the presence of specific objects, their local features and global composition. Self-assessment scores for each sketch and art critics' scores for the end products were collected. It was investigated whether the…

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement. Quarterly report, December 1994--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Primary objective is to establish the commercial readiness of MW- class IMHEX {reg_sign} MCFC power plants for distributed generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. The following tasks are reported: product definition/planning, system design/analysis, manufacturing process development, packaging/assembly, test facilities, and technology development/improvement/verification.

  15. Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains; Final Report,

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABOUT THE WORKSHOP The Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains was held September 12–13, 2011 at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) offices in Arlington, Virginia. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (...

  16. The comparison of laser surface designing and pigment printing methods for the product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguney, Arif Taner

    2007-07-01

    Developing new designs by using the computer and transferring the designs that are obtained to textile surfaces will not only increase and facilitate the production in a more practical manner, but also help you create identical designs. This means serial manufacturing of the products at standard quality and increasing their added values. Moreover, creating textile designs using the laser will also contribute to the value of the product as far as the consumer is concerned because it will not cause any wearing off and deformation in the texture of the fabric unlike the other methods. In the system that has been designed, the laser beam at selected wavelength and intensity was directed onto a selected textile surface and a computer-controlled laser beam source was used to change the colour substances on the textile surface. Pigment printing is also used for designing in textile and apparel sector. In this method, designs are transferred to the fabric manually by using dyestuff. In this study, the denim fabric used for the surfacing trial was 100% cotton, with a weft count per centimeter of 20 and a warp count per centimeter of 27, with fabric weight of 458 g/m 2. The first step was to prepare 40 pieces of denim samples, half of which were prepared manually pigment printing and the other half by using the laser beam. After this, some test applications were done. The tensile strength, tensile extension and some fastness values of designed pieces with two methods were compared according to the international standards.

  17. Photolytic treatment of atrazine-contaminated water: products, kinetics, and reactor design.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuejun; Chen, Daniel; Li, Kuyen; Wang, Bin; Hopper, Jack

    2007-08-01

    This study investigates the products, kinetics, and reactor design of atrazine photolysis under 254-nm ultraviolet-C (UVC) irradiation. With an initial atrazine concentration of 60 microg/L (60 ppbm), only two products remain in detectable levels. Up to 77% of decomposed atrazine becomes hydroxyatrazine, the major product. Both atrazine and hydroxyatrazine photodecompose following the first-order rate equation, but the hydroxyatrazine photodecomposition rate is significantly slower than that of atrazine. For atrazine photodecomposition, the rate constant is proportional to the square of UVC output, but inversely proportional to the reactor volume. For a photochemical reactor design, a series of equations are proposed to calculate the needed UVC output power, water treatment capacity, and atrazine outlet concentration.

  18. Product and Production System Design. Grade 11-12. Course #8175 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in the sequential tasks that change a designer's idea into a completed product. Emphasis is placed on the design of a product and the manufacturing system needed to produce it. The first two sections discuss the guide's development within the framework of North Carolina's efforts to improve…

  19. Involving consumers in product design through collaboration: the case of online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shu-Yu

    2010-12-01

    The release of software attributes to users by software designers for the creation of user-designed forms is regarded as a producer-consumer collaboration, leading consumers to expend significant effort on a specific product. This article identifies such software/product attributes within online role-playing games and then explores how consumers' prior experience affects the evaluation of such attributes. In this article, product attributes comprise customized, content, and interactive externality-sensitive and complementary externality-sensitive attributes, with the value of each attribute being greater for experts than for novices. In Study 1, data were collected and analyzed for the purpose of identifying such features in online role-playing games. The results can also be generalized to convergent products, such as TV games that have been redesigned as online games or mobile games found in Study 2. For the introduction of a convergent product to be successful, our research suggests that the potential market-segment focus should be on knowledgeable consumers who accept such products more readily.

  20. A task-oriented modular and agent-based collaborative design mechanism for distributed product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi

    2014-05-01

    The rapid expansion of enterprises makes product collaborative design (PCD) a critical issue under the distributed heterogeneous environment, but as the collaborative task of large-scale network becomes more complicated, neither unified task decomposition and allocation methodology nor Agent-based network management platform can satisfy the increasing demands. In this paper, to meet requirements of PCD for distributed product development, a collaborative design mechanism based on the thought of modularity and the Agent technology is presented. First, the top-down 4-tier process model based on task-oriented modular and Agent is constructed for PCD after analyzing the mapping relationships between requirements and functions in the collaborative design. Second, on basis of sub-task decomposition for PCD based on a mixed method, the mathematic model of task-oriented modular based on multi-objective optimization is established to maximize the module cohesion degree and minimize the module coupling degree, while considering the module executable degree as a restriction. The mathematic model is optimized and simulated by the modified PSO, and the decomposed modules are obtained. Finally, the Agent structure model for collaborative design is put forward, and the optimism matching Agents are selected by using similarity algorithm to implement different task-modules by the integrated reasoning and decision-making mechanism with the behavioral model of collaborative design Agents. With the results of experimental studies for automobile collaborative design, the feasibility and efficiency of this methodology of task-oriented modular and Agent-based collaborative design in the distributed heterogeneous environment are verified. On this basis, an integrative automobile collaborative R&D platform is developed. This research provides an effective platform for automobile manufacturing enterprises to achieve PCD, and helps to promote product numeralization collaborative R&D and

  1. Using event related potentials to identify a user's behavioural intention aroused by product form design.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Fu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Qu, Qingxing; Liu, Weilin

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of product form to arouse user's behavioural intention plays a decisive role in further user experience, even in purchase decision, while traditional methods rarely give a fully understanding of user experience evoked by product form, especially the feeling of anticipated use of product. Behavioural intention aroused by product form designs has not yet been investigated electrophysiologically. Hence event related potentials (ERPs) were applied to explore the process of behavioural intention when users browsed different smart phone form designs with brand and price not taken into account for mainly studying the brain activity evoked by variety of product forms. Smart phone pictures with different anticipated user experience were displayed with equiprobability randomly. Participants were asked to click the left mouse button when certain picture gave them a feeling of behavioural intention to interact with. The brain signal of each participant was recorded by Curry 7.0. The results show that pictures with an ability to arouse participants' behavioural intention for further experience can evoke enhanced N300 and LPPs (late positive potentials) in central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions. The scalp topography shows that central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions are more activated. The results indicate that the discrepancy of ERPs can reflect the neural activities of behavioural intention formed or not. Moreover, amplitude of ERPs occurred in corresponding brain areas can be used to measure user experience. The exploring of neural correlated with behavioural intention provide an accurate measurement method of user's perception and help marketers to know which product can arouse users' behavioural intention, maybe taken as an evaluating indicator of product design. PMID:26995041

  2. Production of activated carbons from waste tire--process design and economical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Danny C K; Mui, Edward L K; Lau, Ken S T; McKay, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire--pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal--pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main process factors; these are product price, production capacity, total production cost, capital investment and the tipping fee. Net present values for the two plants at various discount factors have been determined and the internal rates of return have been determined as 27.4% and 18.9% for the waste tire plant and the coal plant, respectively.

  3. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Colin, Verónica Leticia; Rodríguez, Analía; Cristóbal, Héctor Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel. PMID:22028591

  4. Implementing quality by design for biotech products: Are regulators on track?

    PubMed

    Luciani, Francesca; Galluzzo, Sara; Gaggioli, Andrea; Kruse, Nanna Aaby; Venneugues, Pascal; Schneider, Christian K; Pini, Carlo; Melchiorri, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is an innovative approach to drug development that has started to be implemented into the regulatory framework, but currently mainly for chemical drugs. The recent marketing authorization of the first monoclonal antibody developed using extensive QbD concepts in the European Union paves the way for future further regulatory approvals of complex products employing this cutting-edge technological concept. In this paper, we report and comment on insights and lessons learnt from the non-public discussions in the European Medicines Agency's Biologicals Working Party and Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use on the key issues during evaluation related to the implementation of an extensive QbD approach for biotechnology-derived medicinal products. Sharing these insights could prove useful for future developments in QbD for biotech products in general and monoclonal antibodies in particular.

  5. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-07-05

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  6. Design and analysis of health products and services: An example at a specialized COPD unit.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Christian; Rubio, Vicente Ortún

    2008-01-01

    Health care demands have increased dramatically in recent decades. With the introduction of major changes in the management of health problems, health care costs have spiralled. Today, in the interests of cost control, medicine is geared towards outpatient care whenever possible.In this process, the medical community has been obliged to adapt its traditional criteria to the dictates of national economies. Today the criteria for the organization and evaluation of the health services are based on the concepts of efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. This has led to the emergence of a new discipline for the design and evaluation of medical service production, known as servuction, an amalgam of "service" and "production". The organigram of a new health product should include the problems the program faces and the steps proposed to overcome these problems. The concept of evaluation can be divided into two categories: administrative evaluation, and evaluative research. Avedis Donabedian was one of the founders of evaluative research, based on an easy-to-remember triad: structure-process-results. In the final evaluation of a new health care model, the innovations it provides must be considered.In this article we describe the stages involved in the design of a new health product and correlate them with the types of evaluation that should be applied at each point in the process. Our discussion addresses general aspects of servuction, but also focuses on the design of a particular service, created to care for patients with severe COPD. PMID:19340319

  7. Testing the item-order account of design effects using the production effect.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Tanya R; Levene, Merrick; Macleod, Colin M

    2014-03-01

    A number of memory phenomena evident in recall in within-subject, mixed-lists designs are reduced or eliminated in between-subject, pure-list designs. The item-order account (McDaniel & Bugg, 2008) proposes that differential retention of order information might underlie this pattern. According to this account, order information may be encoded when a common form of processing is used alone in a list (e.g., reading), but not when an unusual form of processing is used (e.g., generation) or when a common form and an unusual form are mixed within a list. The production effect--better memory for words said aloud than for words read silently--shows this same design-contingent pattern. In 2 experiments, we investigated whether differential order retention might underlie the production effect. Consistent with the item-order account, we found that retention of order information was better in pure silent lists than in either pure aloud lists or mixed lists, as measured using an order reconstruction test. Moreover, in Experiment 2, order was better preserved in free recall of pure silent lists than of either pure aloud or mixed lists. Thus, production joins the set of tasks identified by McDaniel and Bugg (2008), and our findings suggest a role for order processing in explaining the production effect.

  8. Participatory design in lean production: which contribution from employees? For what end?

    PubMed

    Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A

    2012-01-01

    The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities".

  9. Application of factorial designs for optimization of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production from Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae AS-22.

    PubMed

    Gawande, B N; Patkar, A Y

    1999-07-20

    Production of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae AS-22 was optimized in shake flasks using a statistical experimental design approach. Effect of various components in the basal medium, like carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and mineral sources as well as initial pH and temperature, were tested on enzyme production. The optimum concentrations of the selected media components were determined using statistical experimental designs. Two level fractional factorial designs in five variables, namely, dextrin, peptone, yeast extract, ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, and magnesium sulphate concentrations were constructed. The optimum medium composition thus found consisted of 49.3 g/L dextrin, 20.6 g/L peptone, 18.3 g/L yeast extract, 6.7 g/L ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, and 0.5 g/L magnesium sulphate. The maximum CGTase activity obtained was 21.4 U/mL in 28 h of incubation. The cell growth and CGTase production profiles were studied with the optimized medium in shake flasks and in 1-L fermenters. It was observed that the enzyme production was growth associated both in shake flask and in fermenter, although it was slower in shake flask. The maximum CGTase activity obtained in the fermenter was 32.5 U/mL in 16 h. The optimized medium resulted in about 9-fold increase in the enzyme activity as compared to that obtained in the basal medium in shake flask as well as in fermenter. PMID:10397852

  10. Energy Productivity of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV)

    SciTech Connect

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter M.; Khawam, George; Ryan, Randy D.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-06-03

    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  11. Optimum design and operation of primary sludge fermentation schemes for volatile fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Chanona, J; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model-knowledge based algorithm for optimising the primary sludge fermentation process design and operation. This is a recently used method to obtain the volatile fatty acids (VFA), needed to improve biological nutrient removal processes, directly from the raw wastewater. The proposed algorithm consists in a heuristic reasoning algorithm based on the expert knowledge of the process. Only effluent VFA and the sludge blanket height (SBH) have to be set as design criteria, and the optimisation algorithm obtains the minimum return sludge and waste sludge flow rates which fulfil those design criteria. A pilot plant fed with municipal raw wastewater was operated in order to obtain experimental results supporting the developed algorithm groundwork. The experimental results indicate that when SBH was increased, higher solids retention time was obtained in the settler and VFA production increased. Higher recirculation flow-rates resulted in higher VFA production too. Finally, the developed algorithm has been tested by simulating different design conditions with very good results. It has been able to find the optimal operation conditions in all cases on which preset design conditions could be achieved. Furthermore, this is a general algorithm that can be applied to any fermentation-elutriation scheme with or without fermentation reactor.

  12. Field-project designs for carbon dioxide sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production

    SciTech Connect

    W. Neal Sams; Grant Bromhal; Sinisha Jikich; Turgay Ertekin; Duane H. Smith

    2005-12-01

    Worldwide concerns about global warming and possible contributions to it from anthropogenic carbon dioxide have become important during the past several years. Coal seams may make excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration; coal-seam sequestration could enhance methane production and improve sequestration economics. Reservoir-simulation computations are an important component of any engineering design before carbon dioxide is injected underground. We have performed such simulations for a hypothetical pilot-scale project in representative coal seams. In these simulations we assume four horizontal production wells that form a square, that is, two wells drilled at right angles to each other forming two sides of a square, with another pair of horizontal wells similarly drilled to form the other two sides. Four shorter horizontal wells are drilled from a vertical well at the center of the square, forming two straight lines orthogonal to each other. By modifying coal properties, especially sorption rate, we have approximated different types of coals. By varying operational parameters, such as injector length, injection well pressure, time to injection, and production well pressure, we can evaluate different production schemes to determine an optimum for each coal type. Any optimization requires considering a tradeoff between total CO{sub 2} sequestered and the rate of methane production. Values of total CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced are presented for multiple coal types and different operational designs. 30 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Integration of active pharmaceutical ingredient solid form selection and particle engineering into drug product design.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, Martyn David; Marziano, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This review seeks to offer a broad perspective that encompasses an understanding of the drug product attributes affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) physical properties, their link to solid form selection and the role of particle engineering. While the crucial role of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solid form selection is universally acknowledged in the pharmaceutical industry, the value of increasing effort to understanding the link between solid form, API physical properties and drug product formulation and manufacture is now also being recognised. A truly holistic strategy for drug product development should focus on connecting solid form selection, particle engineering and formulation design to both exploit opportunities to access simpler manufacturing operations and prevent failures. Modelling and predictive tools that assist in establishing these links early in product development are discussed. In addition, the potential for differences between the ingoing API physical properties and those in the final product caused by drug product processing is considered. The focus of this review is on oral solid dosage forms and dry powder inhaler products for lung delivery.

  14. Process design and optimization of novel wheat-based continuous bioethanol production system.

    PubMed

    Arifeen, Najmul; Wang, Ruohang; Kookos, Ioannis K; Webb, Colin; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2007-01-01

    A novel design of a wheat-based biorefinery for bioethanol production, including wheat milling, gluten extraction as byproduct, fungal submerged fermentation for enzyme production, starch hydrolysis, fungal biomass autolysis for nutrient regeneration, yeast fermentation with recycling integrated with a pervaporation membrane for ethanol concentration, and fuel-grade ethanol purification by pressure swing distillation (PSD), was optimized in continuous mode using the equation-based software General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS). The novel wheat biorefining strategy could result in a production cost within the range of dollars 0.96-0.50 gal(-1) ethanol (dollars 0.25-0.13 L(-1) ethanol) when the production capacity of the plant is within the range of 10-33.5 million gal y(-1) (37.85-126.8 million L y(-1)). The production of value-added byproducts (e.g., bran-rich pearlings, gluten, pure yeast cells) was identified as a crucial factor for improving the economics of fuel ethanol production from wheat. Integration of yeast fermentation with pervaporation membrane could result in the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation outlet stream (up to 40 mol %). The application of a PSD system that consisted of a low-pressure and a high-pressure column and employing heat integration between the high- and low-pressure columns resulted in reduced operating cost (up to 44%) for fuel-grade ethanol production.

  15. Design and Expected Performance of the AGR-1 Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS)

    SciTech Connect

    John K. Hartwell; Dawn M. Scates

    2005-09-01

    The effluent from each test capsule of the AGR-1 experiment will be monitored by a detector system consisting of a gamma-ray spectrometer and a gross radiation detector. This collection of radiation measurement systems will be known as the AGR-1 Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). Proper design and functioning of the FPMS is critical to the success of the AGR-1 fuel test experiment.This document describes the AGR-1 FPMS and presents calculations indicating that this design will meet the pertinent test requirements.

  16. Design, production and first commissioning results of the electrical feedboxes of the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, A.; Atieh, S.; Benda, V.; Bertarelli, A.; Bouillot, A.; Brodzinski, K.; Folch, R.; Fydrych, J.; Genet, M.; Koczorowski, S.; Metral, L.; /CERN /Serpukhov, IHEP /Fermilab /CERN /Serpukhov, IHEP /CERN /Serpukhov, IHEP

    2007-12-01

    A total of 44 CERN designed cryogenic electrical feedboxes are needed to power the LHC superconducting magnets. The feedboxes include more than 1000 superconducting circuits fed by high temperature superconductor and conventional current leads ranging from 120 A to 13 kA. In addition to providing the electrical current to the superconducting circuits, they also ensure specific mechanical and cryogenic functions for the LHC. The paper focuses on the main design aspects and related production operations and gives an overview of specific technologies employed. Results of the commissioning of the feedboxes of the first LHC sectors are presented.

  17. Design of Manufacturing Cells for Uncertain Production Requirements with Presence of Routing Flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eski, Ozgur; Ozkarahan, Irem

    Cellular manufacturing has been seen as an effective strategy to the changing worldwide competition. Most of the existing cell design methods ignore the existence of stochastic production requirements and routing flexibility. In this study, a simulation based Fuzzy Goal Programming model is proposed for solving cell formation problems considering stochastic production requirements and routing flexibility. The model covers the objectives of minimizing inter-cell movements, maximizing system utilization, minimizing mean tardiness and minimizing the percentage of tardy jobs. The simple additive method and max-min method are used to handle fuzzy goals. A tabu search based solution methodology is used for solution of the proposed models and the results are presented.

  18. Metal mirror TMA, telescopes of the JSS product line: design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschstein, Steffen; Koch, Amelia; Schöneich, Jürgen; Döngi, Frank

    2005-09-01

    For the increasing market of low-cost multispectral pushbroom scanners for spaceborne Earth remote sensing the Jena-Optronik GmbH have developed the JSS product line. They are typically operated on micro-satellites with strong resources constraints. This leads to instrument designs optimised with respect to minimum size and mass, power consumption, and cost. From various customer requirements, Jena-Optronik has derived the JSS product line of low-cost optical spaceborne scanners in the visible wavelength range. Three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescope designs have become a widespread design solution for fields of view from 2 to 12 deg. The design solution chosen by Jena-Optronik is based on all-aluminium telescopes. Novel ultra-precision milling and polishing techniques now give the opportunity to achieve the necessary optical surface quality for applications in the visible range. The TMA telescope optics design of the JSS-56 imager will be accommodated onboard the RapidEye spacecraft. The JSS-56 TMA with a F-number of 4.3 realised a swath width of 78km with a Ground pixel resolution of 6.5m × 6.5m. The aluminium mirrors are Ni coated to achieve a suitable surface polish quality. This paper discusses typical requirements for the thermal design the bimetallic effects of the mirrors. To achieve a nearly diffracted limited imaging the typical surface irregularities due to the turning process have to be addressed in the ray tracing models. Analysis and integration of real mirror data in the ZEMAX design software are demonstrated here and compared with build-in standard tolerance concepts.

  19. Design, production and reverse engineering of ultra-steep hot mirrors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinlong; Tikhonravov, Alexander V; Liu, Yongli; Trubetskov, Michael K; Gorokh, Artur; Wang, Zhanshan

    2014-06-01

    We present the whole design-production chain of an ultra-steep hot mirror produced using the indirect monochromatic monitoring technique. The hot mirror without thin layers is designed utilizing the stochastic optimization procedure that takes in account upper and lower constraints for layer optical thickness. We produced the hot mirror with the ion-assisted electron beam deposition technique using indirect monochromatic monitoring strategy, performed reverse engineering of the deposited coatings, and illustrated that the random variation of the tooling factors in low-index layers is the main factor causing production errors. We modified the monitoring strategy with low-index layers monitored by quartz crystal monitor, and demonstrated the excellent correspondence to the theoretical spectral performance.

  20. Substituted cathinone products: a new trend in "bath salts" and other designer stimulant drug use.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Erik W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Willing, Laura M; Holstege, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the availability of a new generation of "designer drug" stimulants that are marketed as "bath salts" and other household products. The products are not true bath salts and contain substituted cathinone stimulant substances, such as methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone. Calls to the American Association of Poison Control Centers regarding "bath salts" consumption began in 2010 and have continued since that time. Few reports of systematic epidemiologic surveillance or definitive clinical effects of toxicity specifically associated with "bath salts" consumption have been reported in the medical literature. The current narrative review describes the growing trend of designer substituted cathinone use, pharmacology, clinical effects, and recent regulatory changes. It is hoped that a greater understanding of the clinical effects and use patterns will help inform policy and practice.

  1. The Design and Production of the Galileoscope for the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arion, Douglas N.; Smith, T.; Fienberg, R.; Pompea, S.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major efforts for the International Year of Astronomy - 2009 is the development and distribution of the Galileoscope - a high quality, low cost refractor to be distributed worldwide, with the goal of providing one million people with the opportunity to use and own a telescope of their own. This presentation will describe the design and production process that has been put in place to make this program a reality, and will include the user requirements, design specifications, construction details, instrument capabilities, and uses for the Galileoscope. The team developing the instrument includes individuals with backgrounds in astronomy education, astronomy popularization, education and outreach, instrument development and commercialization, and a manufacturing partner with extensive experience in large-volume, high quality product development. These skills were essential in creating a Galileoscope that will meet the needs and wishes of a broad audience, while meeting tight price and delivery constraints.

  2. The design and development of an integrated natural products screening database.

    PubMed

    Holt, T G; Dufresne, C; Liesch, J M; Mallow, G K

    2000-12-01

    We designed and developed NEXUS--a new natural products screening database and related suite of software applications--to utilize the spectacular increases in assay capacity of the modern high throughput screening (HTS) environment. NEXUS not only supports seamless integration with separate HTS systems, but supports user-customized integration with external laboratory automation, particularly sample preparation systems. Designed and developed based on a detailed process model for natural products drug discovery, NEXUS comprises two integrated parts: (1) a single schema of Oracle tables and callable procedures and functions, and (2) software "front-ends" to the database developed using Microsoft Excel and Oracle Discovery/2000. Many of the back-end processing functions were written in Programming Language/Structured Query Language (PL/SQL) to provide an Application Programmer's Interface, which allows end users to create custom applications with little input from information technology professionals.

  3. The design and production of tactile graphic material for the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, B

    1979-06-01

    This article, which is based on a special study carried out for the National Swedish Board for Technical Development, falls into three sections. The first presents a categorised list, with short descriptions (and evaluation, where possible), of techniques currently available (in principle, at least) for producing tactile diagrams, illustrations, maps, graphs, etc. The second section includes a general discussion of the areas of application for this material, the role of design in the production of the various types of graphic material, and finally, the resulting implications for the future development of new techniques and approaches within this area. In the concluding section, it is argued that if new production techniques are to be successful, then appropriate design criteria and training programmes for potential users must be developed simultaneously.

  4. The Industrial Property Rights Education in Collaboration with the Creative Product Design Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokoro, Tetsuro; Habuchi, Hitoe; Chonan, Isao

    Recently, the Advanced Courses of Electronic System Engineering and Architecture and Civil Engineering of Gifu National College of Technology have introduced a creative subject, “Creative Engineering Practice”. In this subject, students study intellectual property rights. More specifically, they learn and practice industrial proprietary rights, procedures for obtaining a patent right, how to use Industrial Property Digital Library and so forth, along with the practice of creative product design. The industrial property rights education in collaboration with the creative product design education has been carried out by the cooperation of Japan Patent Office, Japan Institute of Invention and Innovation and a patent attorney. Through the instruction of the cooperative members, great educative results have been obtained. In this paper, we will describe the contents of the subject together with its items to pursue an upward spiral of progress.

  5. Design of the subject of quality engineering and security of the product of the degree in engineering in industrial design and development of product based in the methodology of the case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. R.; Lambán, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the result of designing the subject Quality Engineering and Security of the Product, belonging to the Degree of Engineering in Industrial Design and Product Development, on the basis of the case methodology. Practical sessions of this subject are organized using the whole documents of the Quality System Management of the virtual company BeaLuc S.A.

  6. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  7. Loss-of-coolant accident analysis of the Savannah River new production reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, K.J.; Pryor, R.J.

    1990-11-01

    This document contains the loss-of-coolant accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. Included in this document are descriptions of the primary system, reactor vessel, and loss-of-coolant accident computer input models, the results of the cold leg and hot leg loss-of-coolant accident analyses, and the results of sensitivity calculations for the cold leg loss-of-coolant accident. 5 refs., 50 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Thermal and structural design aspects of high-temperature blankets for fusion synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Reich, M.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising process, high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam at temperatures of greater than or equal to 1000/sup 0/C is examined. In HTE, a large fraction (up to approx. 50%) of the energy input to split water to hydrogen and oxygen comes from thermal energy. For the projected operating conditions achieved by high temperature fusion blankets, overall efficiencies for hydrogen production should be on the order of 60%. The design, thermal-hydraulics, and materials for such blankets are discussed.

  9. Progress in enzyme immunoassays: production of reagents, experimental design, and interpretation*

    PubMed Central

    Kurstak, Edouard

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays represent in many cases the preferred procedure for the detection of antigens or corresponding antibodies. However, many of the current procedures are performed suboptimally. This article reviews the available designs, auxiliary recognition systems, production and purification of antibodies, conjugation procedures, solid-phase materials, recording and interpretation of results, and quality control and standardization of procedures to improve the reproducibility of tests. PMID:3910300

  10. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  11. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential. PMID:24405167

  12. Using conceptual work products of health care to design health IT.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrew B L; Butler, Keith A; Harrington, Craig; Braxton, Melissa O; Walker, Amy J; Pete, Nikki; Johnson, Trevor; Oberle, Mark W; Haselkorn, Jodie; Paul Nichol, W; Haselkorn, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces a new, model-based design method for interactive health information technology (IT) systems. This method extends workflow models with models of conceptual work products. When the health care work being modeled is substantially cognitive, tacit, and complex in nature, graphical workflow models can become too complex to be useful to designers. Conceptual models complement and simplify workflows by providing an explicit specification for the information product they must produce. We illustrate how conceptual work products can be modeled using standard software modeling language, which allows them to provide fundamental requirements for what the workflow must accomplish and the information that a new system should provide. Developers can use these specifications to envision how health IT could enable an effective cognitive strategy as a workflow with precise information requirements. We illustrate the new method with a study conducted in an outpatient multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic. This study shows specifically how the different phases of the method can be carried out, how the method allows for iteration across phases, and how the method generated a health IT design for case management of MS that is efficient and easy to use. PMID:26528606

  13. Computer-assisted everything? Tools and techniques for design and production

    SciTech Connect

    Alic, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    This article discusses applications of computer-assisted technologies in both product design/development and manufacturing. The intent is to explore the capabilities-and limits-of computer-automated engineering and manufacturing, and examine the impacts on international competitiveness. The conclusions in brief: (1) Computer-assisted everything, or CAX, will prove to be a receding goal for the foreseeable future. Many technical limitations, typically associated with computational complexity, must still be overcome; as one set of problems is solved, others will appear. No end is yet in sight. (2) Although the US had led for many years in the development of CAX technologies, American firms have not been able to use the resulting capabilities to establish substantial competitive advantages. There are two primary reasons. On the product side, computer-aided engineering remains mostly a matter of analysis (that is, solving complicated mathematical problems) rather than conceptualization and design, while it is design decisions that largely determine both product performance and manufacturing costs. Second, effective application of CAX in manufacturing requires effective integration of people and machines; US capabilities in computer applications do not extend to making the best use of people`s skills and abilities on the factory floor. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Designing RNA-based genetic control systems for efficient production from engineered metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jason T; Carothers, James M

    2015-02-20

    Engineered metabolic pathways can be augmented with dynamic regulatory controllers to increase production titers by minimizing toxicity and helping cells maintain homeostasis. We investigated the potential for dynamic RNA-based genetic control systems to increase production through simulation analysis of an engineered p-aminostyrene (p-AS) pathway in E. coli. To map the entire design space, we formulated 729 unique mechanistic models corresponding to all of the possible control topologies and mechanistic implementations in the system under study. Two thousand sampled simulations were performed for each of the 729 system designs to relate the potential effects of dynamic control to increases in p-AS production (total of 3 × 10(6) simulations). Our analysis indicates that dynamic control strategies employing aptazyme-regulated expression devices (aREDs) can yield >10-fold improvements over static control. We uncovered generalizable trends in successful control architectures and found that highly performing RNA-based control systems are experimentally tractable. Analyzing the metabolic control state space to predict optimal genetic control strategies promises to enhance the design of metabolic pathways. PMID:25314371

  15. Design and Analysis of Health Products and Services: An Example at a Specialized COPD Unit

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Christian; Rubio, Vicente Ortún

    2008-01-01

    Health care demands have increased dramatically in recent decades. With the introduction of major changes in the management of health problems, health care costs have spiralled. Today, in the interests of cost control, medicine is geared towards outpatient care whenever possible. In this process, the medical community has been obliged to adapt its traditional criteria to the dictates of national economies. Today the criteria for the organization and evaluation of the health services are based on the concepts of efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. This has led to the emergence of a new discipline for the design and evaluation of medical service production, known as servuction, an amalgam of “service” and “production”. The organigram of a new health product should include the problems the program faces and the steps proposed to overcome these problems. The concept of evaluation can be divided into two categories: administrative evaluation, and evaluative research. Avedis Donabedian was one of the founders of evaluative research, based on an easy-to-remember triad: structure-process-results. In the final evaluation of a new health care model, the innovations it provides must be considered. In this article we describe the stages involved in the design of a new health product and correlate them with the types of evaluation that should be applied at each point in the process. Our discussion addresses general aspects of servuction, but also focuses on the design of a particular service, created to care for patients with severe COPD. PMID:19340319

  16. Design, fabrication, and integration testing of the Garden Banks 388 subsea production template

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, W.R.; Smith, D.W.; Pierce, D.M.; Padilla, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Enserch Exploration`s Garden Banks 388 development has a production scheme based around a floating drilling and production facility and subsea drilling/production template. The Floating Production Facility (FPF) is a converted semisubmersible drilling rig that will drill and produce through a 24-well slot subsea template. This development is located in Block 388 of the Garden Banks area in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 200 miles southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana. The production system is being installed in an area of known oil and gas reserves and will produce to a shallow water platform 54 miles away at Eugene Island 315. The FPF will be permanently moored above the template. The subsea template has been installed in 2190 feet of water and will produce through a 2,000 foot free-standing production riser system to the FPF. The produced fluids are partially separated on the FPF before oil and gas are pumped through the template to export gathering lines that are connected to the shallow water facility. The system designed through-put is 40,000 BOPD of oil and 120 MMSCFD of gas.

  17. Design, Production and Testing of Cost-Effective, Large-Area, MCP-based Planar Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junqi; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel; Noonan, John; Setru, Sagar; Virgo, Mathew; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Wang, Xing; Xia, Lei; Zhao, Huyue

    2014-03-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP)-based photodetectors with large-area, thin planar geometry and glass-body assembly, are considered as next generation photodetector to replace photomultiplier tubes. They have shown significant potential for applications in high energy collider physics and astrophysics. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the photocathode to water and oxygen, the production of this kind of photodetectors requires photocathodes to be transferred under high vacuum. A new photodetector production facility at Argonne National Laboratory was designed and constructed. The facility aims to produce small form-factor, MCP-based photodetectors completely made out of glass. 6 x 6 cm2 photodetectors using metal and alkali antimonide as photocathode are currently under production. An overview of the production sequence and first performance results will be presented. Scaling up the production to larger form-factor devices will be discussed. The challenge of sealing a large area photodetector has recently been overcome. Windows with 20 × 20 cm2 active photocathode area were successfully sealed and progress towards large-area photodetector production progress will be reported.

  18. Design study of an ultra-compact superconducting cyclotron for isotope production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Vincent, J.

    2014-11-01

    A 12.5 MeV, 25 μA, proton compact superconducting cyclotron for medical isotope production has been designed and is currently in fabrication. The machine is initially aimed at producing 13N ammonia for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) cardiology applications. With an ultra-compact size and cost-effective price point, this system will offer clinicians unprecedented access to the preferred radiopharmaceutical isotope for cardiac PET imaging. A systems approach that carefully balanced the subsystem requirements coupled to precise beam dynamics calculations was followed. The system is designed to irradiate a liquid target internal to the cyclotron and to minimize the need for radiation shielding. The main parameters of the cyclotron, its design, and principal steps of the development work are presented here.

  19. Mechanical design evolution of the VIRUS instrument for volume production and deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattiat, Brian L.; Hill, Gary J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Bauer, Svend; Kelz, Andreas; Rafal, M. D.; Savage, Richard; Good, John; Booth, John A.; Smith, M. P.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.

    2010-07-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is an integral field spectrograph to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The VIRUS instrument is fed by more than 33,000 optical fibers and consists of 150 spectrographs in 75 individual, identical units. This paper discusses the evolution in mechanical design of the VIRUS unit spectrographs to maximize the cost benefit from volume production. Design features which enable volume manufacture and assembly are discussed. Strategies for reducing part count while enabling precision alignment are detailed. Design considerations for deployment, operation, and maintenance en mass at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope are also made. In addition, several enabling technologies are described including the use of cast aluminum in vacuum housings, use of cast Invar, and processing cast parts for precision tolerances.

  20. Theoretical Design of Molecular Electrocatalysts with Flexible Pendant Amines for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Laura E; Horvath, Samantha; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-02-01

    The design of hydrogen oxidation and production electrocatalysts is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources. The overall objective is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential. We use computational methods to examine a variety of nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines. Our studies focus on the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process involving electron transfer between the complex and the electrode and intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel center and the nitrogen of the pendant amine. The concerted PCET mechanism, which tends to require a lower overpotential, is favored by a smaller equilibrium Ni-N distance and a more flexible pendant amine ligand, thereby decreasing the energetic penalty for the nitrogen to approach the nickel center for proton transfer. Our calculations provide predictions about designing catalysts that incorporate these properties. These design principles will be useful for developing the next generation of hydrogen catalysts. PMID:26281752

  1. Maximal Usage Trial: An Overview of the Design of Systemic Bioavailability Trial for Topical Dermatological Products

    PubMed Central

    Bashaw, Edward Dennis; Tran, Doanh C.; Shukla, Chinmay G.; Liu, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologic diseases can present in varying forms and severity, ranging from the individual lesion and up to almost total skin involvement. Pharmacokinetic assessment of topical drug products has previously been plagued by bioanalytical assay limitations and the lack of a standardized study design. Since the mid-1990's the US Food and Drug Administration has developed and implemented a pharmacokinetic maximal usage trial (MUsT) design to help address these issues. The MUsT design takes into account the following elements: the enrollment of patients rather than normal volunteers, the frequency of dosing, duration of dosing, use of highest proposed strength, total involved surface area to be treated at one time, amount applied per square centimeter, application method and site preparation, product formulation, and use of a sensitive bioanalytical method that has been properly validated. This paper provides a perspective of pre-MUsT study designs and a discussion of the individual elements that make up a MUsT. PMID:26634191

  2. Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, P.; Muthuvelayudham, R.; Viruthagiri, T.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30 g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53 g/L, KH2PO4: 4.90 g/L, and CoCl2·6H2O: 0.95 g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8 IU/mL. PMID:23304453

  3. Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, P; Muthuvelayudham, R; Viruthagiri, T

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH(2)PO(4), and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30 g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53 g/L, KH(2)PO(4): 4.90 g/L, and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O: 0.95 g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8 IU/mL.

  4. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  5. Perspectives on cultivation strategies and photobioreactor designs for photo-fermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Liu, Chia-Hsien; Lo, Yung-Chung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria have considerable biotechnological potential for biological hydrogen production due to higher substrate conversion efficiency and hydrogen yield. Phototrophic fermentation using photosynthetic bacteria has a major advantage of being able to further convert the byproducts originating from dark fermentation (e.g., volatile fatty acids) to hydrogen. Through the combination of dark and photo-fermentation processes, organic feedstock is fully converted into gaseous product (H2) at the highest possible H2 yield, with significant reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The performance of photo-fermentation is highly dependent on the medium composition, culture conditions, and photobioreactor design. Therefore, this article provides a critical review of the effects of key factors affecting the photo-hydrogen production efficiency of photosynthetic bacteria, and also summarizes the strategies being applied in promoting the performance of photo-fermentation. PMID:21737260

  6. 76 FR 53912 - FDA's Public Database of Products With Orphan-Drug Designation: Replacing Non-Informative Code...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration FDA's Public Database of Products With Orphan-Drug... its public database of products that have received orphan-drug designation. The Orphan Drug Act... received orphan designation were published on our public database with non-informative code names....

  7. 9 CFR 331.4 - Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control and disposal of non-federally... Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... PROVISIONS FOR DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER...

  8. 14 CFR 193.17 - How must design and production approval holders handle information they receive from the FAA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PROTECTION OF VOLUNTARILY SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.17 How must design and production approval... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How must design and production approval holders handle information they receive from the FAA under this part? 193.17 Section 193.17...

  9. A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Fato-Aldeco, E; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Botello-Álvarez, J E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a methodology to establish an optimal process design for prickly pear wine production that preserves the peculiar and unique traits of traditional products, generating at the same time, technical information for appropriate design of both bioreactor and overall process. The strategy includes alcoholic fermentation optimization by the mixed native culture composed by Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by malolactic fermentation optimization by Oenococcus oeni. The optimization criteria were based on multiple output functions: alcohol content, volatile compounds profile, organic acids profile, and compound contents related to color, which were analyzed by spectroscopy-chromatography methods and sensory analysis. The results showed that the mixed culture inoculated into a bioreactor containing prickly pear juice with 20 °Bx of fermentable sugars concentration, processed at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 240 h, leads to a fermented product with 9.93% (v/v) total alcohol content, and significant abundance of volatile compounds, which provide fruity and ethereal aromatic notes, complemented by a lively but not unpleasant acidity. This young wine was further subjected to malolactic fermentation at constant temperature (16 °C) for 192 h, decreasing malic acid, and balancing volatile compounds contents, thus resulting in a product with better aroma and flavor perception, and a velvety feeling of long aftertaste. Repeated assays showed that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. These results were used for process design and spreadsheet construction in order to simulate the process, and properly select and size the equipment required for such process.

  10. Participatory design in lean production: which contribution from employees? For what end?

    PubMed

    Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A

    2012-01-01

    The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities". PMID:22317130

  11. A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Fato-Aldeco, E; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Botello-Álvarez, J E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a methodology to establish an optimal process design for prickly pear wine production that preserves the peculiar and unique traits of traditional products, generating at the same time, technical information for appropriate design of both bioreactor and overall process. The strategy includes alcoholic fermentation optimization by the mixed native culture composed by Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by malolactic fermentation optimization by Oenococcus oeni. The optimization criteria were based on multiple output functions: alcohol content, volatile compounds profile, organic acids profile, and compound contents related to color, which were analyzed by spectroscopy-chromatography methods and sensory analysis. The results showed that the mixed culture inoculated into a bioreactor containing prickly pear juice with 20 °Bx of fermentable sugars concentration, processed at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 240 h, leads to a fermented product with 9.93% (v/v) total alcohol content, and significant abundance of volatile compounds, which provide fruity and ethereal aromatic notes, complemented by a lively but not unpleasant acidity. This young wine was further subjected to malolactic fermentation at constant temperature (16 °C) for 192 h, decreasing malic acid, and balancing volatile compounds contents, thus resulting in a product with better aroma and flavor perception, and a velvety feeling of long aftertaste. Repeated assays showed that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. These results were used for process design and spreadsheet construction in order to simulate the process, and properly select and size the equipment required for such process. PMID:24032574

  12. Yakima/Klickitat Production Preliminary Design Report, Appendix B: Water Supply Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bureau of Reclamation.

    1990-03-01

    From May 1988 to January 1990 the Bureau of Reclamation, under an interagency agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration, conducted the water supply analysis required by Task II of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) approval of predesign work on the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project. The purposes of the analysis were to (1) document the adequacy of water supplies (quantity and quality) for the proposed artificial production facilities, and for anadromous fish spawning, incubation, rearing, and migration in the Yakima and Klickitat Rivers and their tributaries; (2) determine the availability and quality of existing anadromous fish habitat in both basins; (3) document existing constraints to achieving anadromous fish production potentials in both basins; and (4) develop a listing of streams in both basins where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are adequate for anadromous fish production; where water supplies, access, and habitat would be adequate if improvements were made and agreements reached with existing water users; and where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are inadequate or unattainable in the near term (design of the proposed production project facilities.

  13. Preliminary Design Report for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project; Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-03-01

    A master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) on October 15, 1987, as a reasonable basis upon which the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) could proceed to fund predesign work on the project. The Council approved the predesign work on the condition that eight preliminary tasks were completed. These tasks are: Agreement on a refined statement of project goals. Completion of a technical analysis of water supplies. Completion of an experimental design plan. Development of a harvest management plan. Assessment of potential genetic risks. Project coordination with all other affected parties. Submission of a preliminary design report to the Council. Develop a project management structure. The preliminary design report summarizes the work completed on these tasks. It provides a description of the preliminary design, engineering, and construction phases of project development, and gives an estimate of project costs. Also included is a description of other studies that were conducted to support YKPP planning. The results of studies conducted during the last 30 months indicate that hatchery facilities can be built in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins to provide harvest benefits and to supplement natural production. Planning for the Yakima subbasin is at a more advanced stage of development than for the Klickitat subbasin because of greater availability of basic resource information. The information needed to proceed with final design and construction for the Klickitat subbasin will be available by 1992, as ongoing predesign work continues. This schedule is consistent with the anticipated phased completion of the YKPP by 1997.

  14. 9 CFR 331.4 - Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act. 331.4 Section 331.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...

  15. 9 CFR 331.4 - Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act. 331.4 Section 331.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...

  16. Design status of KOBRA for rare isotope production and direct measurements of radiative capture cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshoo, K.; Chae, H.; Park, J.; Moon, J. Y.; Kwon, Y. K.; Souliotis, G. A.; Hashimoto, T.; Akers, C.; Berg, G. P. A.; Choi, S.; Jeong, S. C.; Kato, S.; Kim, Y. K.; Kubono, S.; Lee, K. B.; Moon, C.-B.

    2016-06-01

    KOBRA (KOrea Broad acceptance Recoil spectrometer and Apparatus) facility being designed at Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea will be utilized to produce rare isotope beams by employing multi-nucleon transfer reactions at about 20 MeV/nucleon for studies of nuclear structure. KOBRA will also provide high suppression of beam induced background for direct measurements of radiative-capture cross sections in the astrophysical energy range. The present design status of the KOBRA facility is reported along with a brief introduction to the facility. We have studied the feasibility of production of 44Ti based on the present design of KOBRA as an example, and calculated the intensity of 44Ti secondary beam, to be about 105 particles per second, for 1 pnA 46Ti primary beam with a carbon target for a beam energy of 25 MeV/nucleon. A Monte Carlo simulation with a ray-tracing code has been performed to show that recoil products 66Se are well separated from a 65As beam by KOBRA for the 65As (p, γ)66Se reaction at a beam energy of 1 MeV/nucleon.

  17. Sustainable design for automotive products: dismantling and recycling of end-of-life vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin; Chen, Ming

    2014-02-01

    The growth in automotive production has increased the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) annually. The traditional approach ELV processing involves dismantling, shredding, and landfill disposal. The "3R" (i.e., reduce, reuse, and recycle) principle has been increasingly employed in processing ELVs, particularly ELV parts, to promote sustainable development. The first step in processing ELVs is dismantling. However, certain parts of the vehicle are difficult to disassemble and use in practice. The extended producer responsibility policy requires carmakers to contribute in the processing of scrap cars either for their own developmental needs or for social responsibility. The design for dismantling approach can be an effective solution to the existing difficulties in dismantling ELVs. This approach can also provide guidelines in the design of automotive products. This paper illustrates the difficulty of handling polymers in dashboards. The physical properties of polymers prevent easy separation and recycling by using mechanical methods. Thus, dealers have to rely on chemical methods such as pyrolysis. Therefore, car designers should use a single material to benefit dealers. The use of materials for effective end-of-life processing without sacrificing the original performance requirements of the vehicle should be explored.

  18. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  19. HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder, Houston, Texas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  20. Scaffolding for Creative Product Possibilities in a Design-Based STEM Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathcock, Stephanie J.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; Eckhoff, Angela; Katsioloudis, Petros

    2015-10-01

    Creativity can and should play a role in students' science experiences. Beghetto (Roeper Review 29(4):265-270, 2007) suggested a framework for teachers to assist students in transforming their creative ideas into creative products. This framework involves taking time to listen to students' ideas, helping them recognize the constraints of a task, and giving them multiple opportunities to think through and try their ideas. Ill-structured problems, such as those found in inquiry and engineering design activities, provide excellent opportunities for students to experience creative processing and express their creativity through product creation. These types of problems are typically challenging, but the use of appropriate questioning has been shown to assist students in solving problems. This multiple case study investigated the use of inquiry-based questioning as a means of supporting creativity within a design-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) activity. Findings suggest that groups facilitated by inquiry-based questioning strategies were better able to solve an ill-structured problem and achieved a more linear progression toward creative products than groups who were not facilitated by inquiry-based questions.

  1. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps

  2. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed

  3. Bioreactor design considerations in the production of high-quality microbial exopolysaccaride

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    An examination into the effect of bioreactor design on the production of {beta},1,3-glucan exopolysaccharide ({open_quotes}curdlan{close_quotes}) by selected patent cultures of Alcaligenes faecalis and Agrobacterium radiobacter revealed that low shear mixing achieved through the replacement of the radial-flow flat-blade impellers that are commonly supplied in {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} commercial bioreactors, by low shear (high-pumping) axial-flow impellers, leads to an increase in the quality of the exopolymer recovered during the stationary-phase of batch fermentations. Whereas {open_quotes}Rushton turbine{close_quotes} impellers were effective in providing high rates of oxygen transfer necessary for high cell density fermentations, the high shear-to-flow ratio characteristic of this design produced a product of inferior quality, but with characteristics very similar to that of the commercially available {open_quotes}curdlan standard.{close_quotes} Curdlan is water insoluble, and consequently, the fermentation broth is of a relative low viscosity compared to other soluble microbial polysaccharides. Whereas curdlan does not constrain mass transfer from gas to liquid, it nevertheless offers a resistance to oxygen transfer from the liquid to the cell by virtue of the layer of insoluble exopolymer surrounding the cell mass thereby necessitating an unexpectedly high dissolved oxygen concentration for maximal productivity. The requirement for high volumetric oxygen transfer can be met by low shear designs with axial-flow impellers, providing gas dispersion is assisted by the use of sparging devices consisting of microporous materials.

  4. Design and Control of Integrated Systems for Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgis, Dimitrios

    Growing concerns on CO2 emissions have led to the development of highly efficient power plants. Options for increased energy efficiencies include alternative energy conversion pathways, energy integration and process intensification. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) constitute a promising alternative for power generation since they convert the chemical energy electrochemically directly to electricity. Their high operating temperature shows potential for energy integration with energy intensive units (e.g. steam reforming reactors). Although energy integration is an essential tool for increased efficiencies, it leads to highly complex process schemes with rich dynamic behavior, which are challenging to control. Furthermore, the use of process intensification for increased energy efficiency imposes an additional control challenge. This dissertation identifies and proposes solutions on design, operational and control challenges of integrated systems for hydrogen production and power generation. Initially, a study on energy integrated SOFC systems is presented. Design alternatives are identified, control strategies are proposed for each alternative and their validity is evaluated under different operational scenarios. The operational range of the proposed control strategies is also analyzed. Next, thermal management of water gas shift membrane reactors, which are a typical application of process intensification, is considered. Design and operational objectives are identified and a control strategy is proposed employing advanced control algorithms. The performance of the proposed control strategy is evaluated and compared with classical control strategies. Finally SOFC systems for combined heat and power applications are considered. Multiple recycle loops are placed to increase design flexibility. Different operational objectives are identified and a nonlinear optimization problem is formulated. Optimal designs are obtained and their features are discussed and compared

  5. Tap-Hole Life Cycle Design Criteria: A Case Study Based on Silicomanganese Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenkamp, J. D.; Sutherland, J. J.; Hayman, D. A.; Muller, J.

    2016-06-01

    Managing the tapping of furnaces is a challenge to most furnace operators. As a hole is made in the refractory lining and re-filled with clay, several times a day, the tap-hole is one of the weak spots in the refractory lining. Tap-hole failures are high-risk events, and steps should be taken to minimize the risks. Designing for the life-cycle of the tap-hole is proposed and discussed as a way of minimizing the risks associated with tap-hole failure. Design criteria are proposed not only for a total reline and normal operation but also for emergency conditions, as well as maintenance, and repair of the tap-hole. The criteria are discussed in the context of silicomanganese production in South Africa.

  6. Design study on the beam line for radioisotope production at KOMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung

    2015-10-01

    A beam line for radioisotope (RI) production was designed for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The specifications of the beam line are such that the energy is 100 MeV and the average current is 0.6 mA for a target size of 100 mm in diameter. The system consists of a beam transport system including a magnet, a vacuum system, beam diagnostics, power supplies and a control system. The key components of the system are the high-field 45 bending magnet, the beam scanning system and beam window. In this paper, the design of the beam line and its key components are presented.

  7. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  8. Designing Inhibitors Against Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase: Exploring Natural Products for Novel Inhibitor Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Sabrina; Harris, Katharine M.; Kantrowitz, Evan R.

    2010-01-01

    Natural products often contain unusual scaffold structures that may be elaborated by combinatorial methods to develop new drug-like molecules. Visual inspection of more than 128 natural products with some type of anti-diabetic activity suggested that a subset might provide novel scaffolds for designing potent inhibitors against fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), an enzyme critical in the control of gluconeogenesis. Using in silico docking methodology, these were evaluated to determine those that exhibited affinity for the AMP binding site. Achyrofuran from the South American plant Achyrocline satureoides, was selected for further investigation. Using the achyrofuran scaffold, inhibitors against FBPase were developed. Compounds 15 and 16 inhibited human liver and pig kidney FBPases at IC50 values comparable to that of AMP, the natural allosteric inhibitor. PMID:20116906

  9. The Conceptual Design of an Integrated Nuclearhydrogen Production Plant Using the Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen production plant was designed based on a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process for decomposing water. The sulfur cycle water decomposition system is driven by a very high temperature nuclear reactor that provides 1,283 K helium working gas. The plant is sized to approximately ten million standard cubic meters per day of electrolytically pure hydrogen and has an overall thermal efficiently of 45.2 percent. The economics of the plant were evaluated using ground rules which include a 1974 cost basis without escalation, financing structure and other economic factors. Taking into account capital, operation, maintenance and nuclear fuel cycle costs, the cost of product hydrogen was calculated at $5.96/std cu m for utility financing. These values are significantly lower than hydrogen costs from conventional water electrolysis plants and competitive with hydrogen from coal gasification plants.

  10. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Dubé, M A; McLean, D D; Kates, M

    2003-08-01

    Four different continuous process flowsheets for biodiesel production from virgin vegetable oil or waste cooking oil under alkaline or acidic conditions on a commercial scale were developed. Detailed operating conditions and equipment designs for each process were obtained. A technological assessment of these four processes was carried out to evaluate their technical benefits and limitations. Analysis showed that the alkali-catalyzed process using virgin vegetable oil as the raw material required the fewest and smallest process equipment units but at a higher raw material cost than the other processes. The use of waste cooking oil to produce biodiesel reduced the raw material cost. The acid-catalyzed process using waste cooking oil proved to be technically feasible with less complexity than the alkali-catalyzed process using waste cooking oil, thereby making it a competitive alternative to commercial biodiesel production by the alkali-catalyzed process.

  11. Integrated supply chain design for commodity chemicals production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and upgrading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimal supply chain design for commodity chemicals (BTX, etc.) production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway. The locations and capacities of distributed preprocessing hubs and integrated biorefinery facilities are optimized with a mixed integer linear programming model. In this integrated supply chain system, decisions on the biomass chipping methods (roadside chipping vs. facility chipping) are also explored. The economic objective of the supply chain model is to maximize the profit for a 20-year chemicals production system. In addition to the economic objective, the model also incorporates an environmental objective of minimizing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, analyzing the trade-off between the economic and environmental considerations. The capital cost, operating cost, and revenues for the biorefinery facilities are based on techno-economic analysis, and the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study of Minnesota, with Minneapolis-St. Paul serving as the chemicals distribution hub.

  12. Leveraging Understanding of Flow of Variable Complex Fluid to Design Better Absorbent Hygiene Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautkramer, C.; Rend, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Menstrual flow, which is a result of shedding of uterus endometrium, occurs periodically in sync with a women's hormonal cycle. Management of this flow while allowing women to pursue their normal daily lives is the purpose of many commercial products. Some of these products, e.g. feminine hygiene pads and tampons, utilize porous materials in achieving their goal. In this paper we will demonstrate different phenomena that have been observed in flow of menstrual fluid through these porous materials, share some of the advances made in experimental and analytical study of these phenomena, and also present some of the unsolved challenges and difficulties encountered while studying this kind of flow. Menstrual fluid is generally composed of four main components: blood plasma, blood cells, cervical mucus, and tissue debris. This non-homogeneous, multiphase fluid displays very complex rheological behavior, e. g., yield stress, thixotropy, and visco-elasticity, that varies throughout and between menstrual cycles and among women due to various factors. Flow rates are also highly variable during menstruation and across the population and the rheological properties of the fluid change during the flow into and through the product. In addition to these phenomena, changes to the structure of the porous medium within the product can also be seen due to fouling and/or swelling of the material. This paper will, also, share how the fluid components impact the flow and the consequences for computer simulation, the creation of a simulant fluid and testing methods, and for designing products that best meet consumer needs. We hope to bring to light the challenges of managing this complex flow to meet a basic need of women all over the world. An opportunity exists to apply learnings from research in other disciplines to improve the scientific knowledge related to the flow of this complex fluid through the porous medium that is a sanitary product.

  13. Recent advances in glycoprotein production for structural biology: toward tailored design of glycoforms.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yukiko; Satoh, Tadashi; Kato, Koichi

    2014-06-01

    Because of the complexity, heterogeneity, and flexibility of the glycans, the structural analysis of glycoproteins has been eschewed until recently, with a few prominent exceptions. This aversion may have branded structural biologists as glycophobics. However, recent technological advancements in glycoprotein expression systems, employing genetically engineered production vehicles derived from mammalian, insect, yeast, and even bacterial cells, have yielded encouraging breakthroughs. The major advance is the active control of glycoform expression of target glycoproteins based on the genetic manipulation of glycan biogenetic pathways, which was previously overlooked, abolished, or considered unmanageable. Moreover, synthetic and/or chemoenzymatic approaches now enable the preparation of glycoproteins with uniform glycoforms designed in a tailored fashion.

  14. A systematic approach for introducing innovative product design in courses with engineering and nonengineering students.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2007-01-01

    In our new global economy, biomedical product development teams need to be even more innovative in an environment constrained by fewer resources with less time from concept to market. Teams are often comprised of individuals spread around the world. To simulate this setting, we revised an existing course to incorporate teams of on-campus and distance students, with each team including both engineers and other specialties. Through interactive lectures and projects, we presented a systematic approach to innovation that should be useful to engineers and non-engineers alike. Students found the course challenging and exciting, displaying an improved ability to work in distributed teams and in developing innovative design solutions.

  15. Feeding strategy design for recombinant human growth hormone production by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Burcu; Öztürk, Sibel; Çalık, Pınar; Özdamar, Tunçer H

    2015-10-01

    Defined and semi-defined medium-based feeding strategies were developed to enhance recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) production by Bacillus subtilis BGSC-1A178 (scoC (-)) strain carrying pMK4::pre(subC)::hGH. Defined medium-based feeding strategies were designed by exponential feeding of glucose and (NH4)2HPO4 at two pre-determined specific growth rates, µ 0 = 0.10 and 0.17 h(-1). Semi-defined medium-based feeding strategies were designed by exponential feeding of substrate solution consisting of glucose, (NH4)2HPO4, peptone, and trace salt solution (PTM1) at three pre-determined specific growth rates, µ 0 = 0.10, 0.17, and 0.25 h(-1). At all the strategies applied, transition cultivation time from batch to fed-batch operation was t T = 4 h. The highest rhGH concentration was obtained as C rhGH = 0.5 g L(-1) with semi-defined medium-based feeding strategy designed with µ 0 = 0.25 h(-1) using feed substrate stock solution containing 200 g L(-1) glucose, 117 g L(-1) (NH4)2HPO4, 100 g L(-1) peptone, and 5 mL L(-1) PTM1 at t = 22 h when the cell concentration reached to C X = 8.29 g L(-1). The overall product and cell yields on glucose were obtained as [Formula: see text] = 7.21 mg g(-1) and [Formula: see text] = 0.12 g g(-1), respectively. The results indicate the requirement of designing continuous feed stream in fed-batch production to enhance rhGH production by r-B. subtilis.

  16. Design of a beneficial product for newborn calves by combining Lactobacilli, minerals, and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Natalia Cecilia; Silva de Ruiz, Clara; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-10-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most frequent diseases affecting newborn calves in intensive systems. Several strategies were proposed to protect and improve health, such as probiotics. This work was directed to design a product containing freeze-dried bacteria, vitamins, and minerals, as well as to optimize conditions with lyoprotectors, combine strains and add vitamins, minerals, and inulin to the product. The lyoprotectors were milk, milk-whey, and actose, and products were stored for 6 months at 4°C. Combined bacteria were freeze-dried in milk and the final products were added with minerals, vitamins, and insulin. The viable cells were determined by the plate count assay and antibiotic profiles to differentiate strains. Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1693, L. murinus CRL1695, L. mucosae CRL1696, L. salivarius CRL1702, L. amylovorus CRL1697, and Enterococcus faecium CRL1703 were evaluated. The optimal conditions were different for each strain. Milk and milk whey maintained the viability during the process and storage after 6 months for most of the strains, except for L. johnsonii. Lactose did not improve cell's recovery. L. murinus was viable for 6 months in all the conditions, with similar results in enterococci. In strains combined before freeze-dried, the viability decreased deeply, showing that one-step process with bacteria mixtures, vitamins, and minerals were not adequate. Freeze-dried resistance depends on each strain and must be lyophilized individually. PMID:26675304

  17. Design and development of surface rainfall forecast products on GRAPES_MESO model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhili, Liu

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we designed and developed the surface rainfall forecast products using medium scale GRAPES_MESO model precipitation forecast products. The horizontal resolution of GRAPES_MESO model is 10km*10km, the number of Grids points is 751*501, vertical levels is 26, the range is 70°E-145.15°E, 15°N-64.35 °N. We divided the basin into 7 major watersheds. Each watersheds was divided into a number of sub regions. There were 95 sub regions in all. Tyson polygon method is adopted in the calculation of surface rainfall. We used 24 hours forecast precipitation data of GRAPES_MESO model to calculate the surface rainfall. According to the site of information and boundary information of the 95 sub regions, the forecast surface rainfall of each sub regions was calculated. We can provide real-time surface rainfall forecast products every day. We used the method of fuzzy evaluation to carry out a preliminary test and verify about the surface rainfall forecast product. Results shows that the fuzzy score of heavy rain, rainstorm and downpour level forecast rainfall were higher, the fuzzy score of light rain level was lower. The forecast effect of heavy rain, rainstorm and downpour level surface rainfall were better. The rate of missing and empty forecast of light rainfall level surface rainfall were higher, so it's fuzzy score were lower.

  18. Design of a beneficial product for newborn calves by combining Lactobacilli, minerals, and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Natalia Cecilia; Silva de Ruiz, Clara; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-10-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most frequent diseases affecting newborn calves in intensive systems. Several strategies were proposed to protect and improve health, such as probiotics. This work was directed to design a product containing freeze-dried bacteria, vitamins, and minerals, as well as to optimize conditions with lyoprotectors, combine strains and add vitamins, minerals, and inulin to the product. The lyoprotectors were milk, milk-whey, and actose, and products were stored for 6 months at 4°C. Combined bacteria were freeze-dried in milk and the final products were added with minerals, vitamins, and insulin. The viable cells were determined by the plate count assay and antibiotic profiles to differentiate strains. Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1693, L. murinus CRL1695, L. mucosae CRL1696, L. salivarius CRL1702, L. amylovorus CRL1697, and Enterococcus faecium CRL1703 were evaluated. The optimal conditions were different for each strain. Milk and milk whey maintained the viability during the process and storage after 6 months for most of the strains, except for L. johnsonii. Lactose did not improve cell's recovery. L. murinus was viable for 6 months in all the conditions, with similar results in enterococci. In strains combined before freeze-dried, the viability decreased deeply, showing that one-step process with bacteria mixtures, vitamins, and minerals were not adequate. Freeze-dried resistance depends on each strain and must be lyophilized individually.

  19. Application of Plackett-Burman experimental design and Doehlert design to evaluate nutritional requirements for xylanase production by Alternaria mali ND-16.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cui, Fengjie; Liu, Zhisheng; Zhao, Hui

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to use statistically based experimental designs for the optimization of xylanase production from Alternaria mali ND-16. Ten components in the medium were screened for nutritional requirements. Three nutritional components, including NH(4)Cl, urea, and MgSO(4), were identified to significantly affect the xylanase production by using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. These three major components were subsequently optimized using the Doehlert experimental design. By using response surface methodology and canonical analysis, the optimal concentrations for xylanase production were: NH(4)Cl 11.34 g L(-1), urea 1.26 g L(-1), and MgSO(4) 0.98 g L(-1). Under these optimal conditions, the xylanase activity from A. mali ND-16 reached 30.35 U mL(-1). Verification of the optimization showed that xylanase production of 31.26 U mL(-1) was achieved. PMID:17846761

  20. Dynamic strain scanning optimization: an efficient strain design strategy for balanced yield, titer, and productivity. DySScO strategy for strain design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, constraint-based metabolic models have emerged as an important tool for metabolic engineering; a number of computational algorithms have been developed for identifying metabolic engineering strategies where the production of the desired chemical is coupled with the growth of the organism. A caveat of the existing algorithms is that they do not take the bioprocess into consideration; as a result, while the product yield can be optimized using these algorithms, the product titer and productivity cannot be optimized. In order to address this issue, we developed the Dynamic Strain Scanning Optimization (DySScO) strategy, which integrates the Dynamic Flux Balance Analysis (dFBA) method with existing strain algorithms. Results In order to demonstrate the effective of the DySScO strategy, we applied this strategy to the design of Escherichia coli strains targeted for succinate and 1,4-butanediol production respectively. We evaluated consequences of the tradeoff between growth yield and product yield with respect to titer and productivity, and showed that the DySScO strategy is capable of producing strains that balance the product yield, titer, and productivity. In addition, we evaluated the economic viability of the designed strain, and showed that the economic performance of a strain can be strongly affected by the price difference between the product and the feedstock. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the DySScO strategy is a useful computational tool for designing microbial strains with balanced yield, titer, and productivity, and has potential applications in evaluating the economic performance of the design strains. PMID:23388063

  1. Design Considerations and Economics of Water Harvesting System for Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pali, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    By and large, the design of water harvesting pond is generally based on thumb rules and needs to be upgraded on scientific and engineering principles. In this study, the design procedure of on-farm water harvesting pond has been discussed and two farm ponds of circular, rectangular and square shapes were designed for 50, 60, 75 and 80 % probability of occurrence of rainfall and runoff. Though, the circular shape resulted in the least mean water surface area, but due to not being practicable for agricultural operations, it was discarded. The square shaped ponds resulted in giving least water surface areas as 0.761 ha for the micro watershed of 8.19 ha and as 0.246 ha for the micro watershed of 1.7 ha at 80 % probability level of rainfall and runoff at 80 % level of probability. The storage capacity of the first pond was found as 32,314 m3 and it was 12,962 m3 for the second farm pond. The area to be occupied by the two ponds was worked out as about 11 % of the total land area (8.19 ha) of the first micro watershed and about 18-22 % of the area (1.7 ha) of second micro watershed. Results indicated that the designed size of the first farm pond can be acceptable for construction. The economics of farm pond based agricultural production showed that the highest B/C ratio of 2 and 1.9 were possible for the farm pond designed at 80 and 75 % probability of occurrence of rainfall and runoff respectively.

  2. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    SciTech Connect

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-15

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  3. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-01

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 μs. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  4. Small scale ethanol production: design manual. [10 to 15 gallons per hour

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, L.E. II; Eley, M.H.; Schroer, B.J.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to economically fabricate the distillation unit. A third objective was to thoroughly evaluate the unit with emphasis on production potential, operation considerations, and energy balance. The fourth objective was to work with the Farm Bureau in identifying an organization that would place the unit in a production environment. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit is capable of producing and average of 9 to 14 gallons per hour (based on alcohol percent in beer) of 174 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation is a positive 3:1. Once the unit has reached steady state very little operator attention is required with the exception of periodically refluxing. Material cost of the plate column is approximately $5000. The unit could be built by an individual provided he is trained in welding and has the necessary shop equipment. 39 figures, 12 tables.

  5. Design of an Integrated Laboratory Scale Test for Hydrogen Production via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    G.K. Housley; K.G. Condie; J.E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots

    2007-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is researching the feasibility of high-temperature steam electrolysis for high-efficiency carbon-free hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Typical temperatures for high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) are between 800º-900ºC, consistent with anticipated coolant outlet temperatures of advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. An Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test is underway to study issues such as thermal management, multiple-stack electrical configuration, pre-heating of process gases, and heat recuperation that will be crucial in any large-scale implementation of HTE. The current ILS design includes three electrolysis modules in a single hot zone. Of special design significance is preheating of the inlet streams by superheaters to 830°C before entering the hot zone. The ILS system is assembled on a 10’ x 16’ skid that includes electronics, power supplies, air compressor, pumps, superheaters, , hot zone, condensers, and dew-point sensor vessels. The ILS support system consists of three independent, parallel supplies of electrical power, sweep gas streams, and feedstock gas mixtures of hydrogen and steam to the electrolysis modules. Each electrolysis module has its own support and instrumentation system, allowing for independent testing under different operating conditions. The hot zone is an insulated enclosure utilizing electrical heating panels to maintain operating conditions. The target hydrogen production rate for the ILS is 5000 Nl/hr.

  6. What contributes to a technical purchasing decision maker's reliance on brand name for design decisions involving I&T products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutoumanos, Vincent

    The following research is intended to develop more formal mechanisms for collection, analysis, retention and dissemination of information relating to brand influence on high-technology products. Specifically, these high-technology products are associated with the engineering applications that likely would involve the loss of human life in the advent of catastrophic failure. The results of the study lead to an extension of theory involving marketing and product selection of "highly engineered" parts within the aerospace industry. The findings were separated into three distinct areas: 1) Information load will play a large role in the final design decision. If the designer is under a high level of information load during the time of a design decision, he or she likely will gravitate to the traditional design choice, regardless of the level of brand strength. 2) Even when strong brand names, like 3M, were offered as the non-traditional design choice, engineers gravitated to the traditional design choice that was presented in a mock Society for Manufacturing Engineers article. 3) Designer self-efficacy by itself will not often contribute to a decision maker's design choice. However, these data collected indicates that a combination of high designer self-efficacy moderated by high brand strength is likely to contribute significantly to a decision maker's decision. The post-hoc finding shows that many designers having high levels of self-efficacy could be developing a sense of comfort with strong brand names (like 3M) when making a design choice.

  7. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1993--July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Yearly Technical Progress Report covers the period August 3, 1993 through July 31, 1994 for Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program by Solar Turbines Incorporated under DOE Contract No. DE-AC421-93MC30246. As allowed by the Contract (Part 3, Section J, Attachment B) this report is also intended to fulfill the requirements for a fourth quarterly report. The objective of Phase 2 of the ATS Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized in the year 2000. During the period covered by this report, Solar has completed three of eight program tasks and has submitted topical reports. These three tasks included a Project Plan submission of information required by NEPA, and the selection of a Gas-Fueled Advanced Turbine System (GFATS). In the latest of the three tasks, Solar`s Engineering team identified an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine as the eventual outcome of DOE`s ATS program coupled with Solar`s internal New Product Introduction (NPI) program. This machine, designated ``ATS50`` will operate at a thermal efficiency (turbine shaft power/fuel LHV) of 50 percent, will emit less than 10 parts per million of NOx and will reduce the cost of electricity by 10 percent. It will also demonstrate levels of reliability, availability, maintainability, and durability (RAMD) equal to or better than those of today`s gas turbine systems. Current activity is concentrated in three of the remaining five tasks a Market Study, GFATS System Definition and Analysis, and the Design and Test of Critical Components.

  8. The cutlery effect: do designed products for people with disabilities stigmatise them?

    PubMed

    Renda, Gianni; Jackson, Simon; Kuys, Blair; Whitfield, T W Allan

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate of how assistive cutlery design effects perception of the user. Studies regarding the usage and development of assistive cutlery have primarily focused on the ergonomics, whereas research into the aesthetics of assistive cutlery has been minimal. A method based on Canter's "Room Inference Protocol" from the field of environmental psychology was used to evaluate the aesthetics of the assistive cutlery. A series of images were digitally composited and a survey was deployed online, with an outcome of 562 usable responses. The results demonstrated that the female model with assistive cutlery was perceived to be less attractive, less stylish and less sporty in comparison with the male model that was utilising identical pieces of assistive cutlery. The research contributes to the existing literature in the field, complimenting the study by Torrens and Smith and validating the need for greater aesthetic consideration in addition to an ergonomically acceptable response for assistive cutlery. This in turn highlights the importance of industrial design for the context and adaptations of use, rather than just a design response given to the physical manifestation of a product. Implications for Rehabilitation Reduced grip can be not only physically debilitating but also socially isolating through stigmatisation. Current assistive cutlery may be ergonomically sound, but aesthetically lacking. Large, multinational study demonstrates significant gender effect relating to the perception of women using these devices.

  9. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production.

  10. Model-based design and integration of a two-step biopharmaceutical production process.

    PubMed

    Otero, Bruno; Degerman, Marcus; Hansen, Thomas Budde; Hansen, Ernst Broberg; Nilsson, Bernt

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a two-step process in which the first step is PEGylation of a protein, and the second step is chromatographic purification of the target mono-PEGylated protein from the unreacted and the di-PEGylated impurities. The difference between optimizing each process step separately and optimizing them simultaneously is studied. It was found that by optimizing the steps simultaneously up to a 100 % increase in productivity could be obtained without reduction in yield. Optimizing both steps at the same time makes it possible for the optimization method to take into account that the di-PEGylated protein is much easier to separate than the non-PEGylated protein. The easier separation makes it possible to get a higher yield and productivity at the same time. The effect of recycling was also studied and the yield could be increased by 30 % by recycling the unreacted protein. However, if maximum productivity is required, batch mode is preferable.

  11. Design of a production process to enhance optical performance of 3ω optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rahul R.; Bruere, Justin R.; Halpin, John M.; Lucero, Phil; Mills, Steven; Bernacil, Michael; Hackel, Richard P.

    2004-06-01

    Using the Phoenix pre-production conditioning facility we have shown that raster scanning of 3ω optics using a XeF excimer laser and mitigation of the resultant damage sites with a CO2 laser can enhance their optical damage resistance. Several large-scale (43 cm x 43 cm) optics have been processed in this facility. A production facility capable of processing several large optics a week has been designed based on our experience in the pre-production facility. The facility will be equipped with UV conditioning lasers -- 351-nm XeF excimer lasers operating at 100 Hz and 23 ns. The facility will also include a CO2 laser for damage mitigation, an optics stage for raster scanning large-scale optics, a damage mapping system (DMS) that images large-scale optics and can detect damage sites or precursors as small as ~15 μm, and two microscopes to image damage sites with ~5 μm resolution. The optics will be handled in a class 100 clean room, within the facility that will be maintained at class 1000.

  12. Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.

  13. [New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

  14. (New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

  15. Application of a quality by design approach to the cell culture process of monoclonal antibody production, resulting in the establishment of a design space.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Watari, Akiko; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takuma, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    This case study describes the application of Quality by Design elements to the process of culturing Chinese hamster ovary cells in the production of a monoclonal antibody. All steps in the cell culture process and all process parameters in each step were identified by using a cause-and-effect diagram. Prospective risk assessment using failure mode and effects analysis identified the following four potential critical process parameters in the production culture step: initial viable cell density, culture duration, pH, and temperature. These parameters and lot-to-lot variability in raw material were then evaluated by process characterization utilizing a design of experiments approach consisting of a face-centered central composite design integrated with a full factorial design. Process characterization was conducted using a scaled down model that had been qualified by comparison with large-scale production data. Multivariate regression analysis was used to establish statistical prediction models for performance indicators and quality attributes; with these, we constructed contour plots and conducted Monte Carlo simulation to clarify the design space. The statistical analyses, especially for raw materials, identified set point values, which were most robust with respect to the lot-to-lot variability of raw materials while keeping the product quality within the acceptance criteria.

  16. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. B.; Valkenburg, C.; Walton, C. W.; Elliott, D. C.; Holladay, J. E.; Stevens, D. J.; Kinchin, C.; Czernik, S.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  17. Identifying Multimedia Production Competencies and Skills of Instructional Design and Technology Professionals: An Analysis of Recent Job Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William; Hoard, Brent; Brown, Abbie; Daniels, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to document necessary multimedia production competencies of Instructional Design and Technology graduates, a recent analysis of over 7 months' worth of Instructional Design and Technology job advertisements (n = 615) were conducted. Specific job skills from these postings were categorized and analyzed. The data set includes three job…

  18. Work, Train, Win: Work-Based Learning Design and Management for Productivity Gains. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kis, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Realising the potential of work-based learning schemes as a driver of productivity requires careful design and support. The length of work-based learning schemes should be adapted to the profile of productivity gains. A scheme that is too long for a given skill set might be unattractive for learners and waste public resources, but a scheme that is…

  19. Project To Design a Marketing Plan for Promoting Educators' Awareness of and Access to ERIC Products. Proposed Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The proposed strategy, which is designed to maximize the effectiveness and minimize the costs of marketing the Information Analysis Products (IAPs) produced by the 16 ERIC Clearinghouses, is based on a study of the concept of centralized versus decentralized ordering of selected ERIC products. The experiment measured four variables--postage,…

  20. The Application of an Engineering Design and Information Systems Case Study in a Senior Level Product Data Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of an engineering design and information systems case study over a three week period in a senior level class covering the topics of product data management (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM). Students that have taken the course in the past have struggled with the sometimes nebulous and difficult to…

  1. Zero to Sixty with Design-by-Prototype: How to Move Quickly in Product Development by Holding off on Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M.

    2004-01-01

    I'm going to cover four issues to emphasize why design-by-prototype has significant value: 1) We start too soon and end too late; 2) If you don't know where you're going, go there! 3) Iteration is not a dirty word, it's how we learn; 4) Experts at fabrication know how to design better.

  2. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham.

  3. Facility design consideration for continuous mix production of class 1.3 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, K. L.; Schirk, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    In November of 1989, NASA awarded the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) for production of advanced solid rocket motors using the continuous mix process. Aerojet ASRM division (AAD) was selected as the facility operator and RUST International Corporation provided the engineering, procurement, and construction management services. The continuous mix process mandates that the mix and cast facilities be 'close-coupled' along with the premix facilities, creating unique and challenging requirements for the facility designer. The classical approach to handling energetic materials-division into manageable quantities, segregation, and isolation-was not available due to these process requirements and quantities involved. This paper provides a description of the physical facilities, the continuous mix process, and discusses the monitoring and detection techniques used to mitigate hazards and prevent an incident.

  4. The design and production of Ti-6Al-4V ELI customized dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahine, Gilbert; Koike, Mari; Okabe, Toru; Smith, Pauline; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2008-11-01

    This paper addresses the production of customized Ti-6Al-4V ELI dental implants via electron beam melting (EBM). The melting of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder produces implants with great biocompatibility, fi ne mechanical performance, and a high bone ingrowth potential. The EBM technology is used to produce one-component dental implants that mimic the exact shape of the patient’s tooth, replacing the traditional, three-component, “screw-like” standardized dental implants currently used. The new generation of implants provides the possibility of simplifying pre-insertion procedures leading to faster healing time, and the potential of better and stronger osseointegration, specifi cally through incorporating lattice structure design.

  5. Aligning new interventions with developing country health systems: Target product profiles, presentation, and clinical trial design

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alan; Nunes, Julia K.; Garnett, Andrew; Biellik, Robin; Leboulleux, Didier; Birkett, Ashley J.; Loucq, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Many new interventions are being created to address health problems of the developing world. However, many developing countries have fragile health systems and find it difficult to accommodate change. Consequently, it is essential that new interventions are well aligned with health systems and their users. Establishing target product profiles (TPPs) is a critical, early step towards tailoring interventions to suit both of these constituencies. Specific analyses can help identify and establish relevant TPP criteria such as optimal formulation, presentation and packaging. Clinical trials for a new intervention should be designed to address both TPP-specific questions and anticipated use of the intervention in target countries. Examples are provided from research on malaria vaccines that are also applicable to other new public health interventions. PMID:22783872

  6. Yakima/Klickitat Production Preliminary Design Report, Appendix C: Yakima and Klickitat Preliminary Engineering Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    CH2M Hill; R.W. Beck and Associates.

    1990-03-01

    This chapter describes the biological and physical fish culture requirements of the hatchery system from which the concepts for the design are formulated. It includes a discussion of the program goals for fish production in the Yakima Basin followed by a brief summary of selected sites. The biological criteria are presented for the water system, adult holding, incubation, rearing, and finally transportation and release. The biological criteria address the water and space requirements, the number and type of vessels, and the related support requirements. To be assured that the components of the system meet all program demands, each life phase from adult capture to the juvenile or smolt transfer into the acclimation sites is analyzed.

  7. A systematic approach for introducing innovative product design in courses with engineering and nonengineering students.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2007-01-01

    In our new global economy, biomedical product development teams need to be even more innovative in an environment constrained by fewer resources with less time from concept to market. Teams are often comprised of individuals spread around the world. To simulate this setting, we revised an existing course to incorporate teams of on-campus and distance students, with each team including both engineers and other specialties. Through interactive lectures and projects, we presented a systematic approach to innovation that should be useful to engineers and non-engineers alike. Students found the course challenging and exciting, displaying an improved ability to work in distributed teams and in developing innovative design solutions. PMID:17487063

  8. Design and experimental activities supporting commercial U.S. electron accelerator production of Mo-99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Chemerisov, Sergey D.; Vandegrift, George F.; Woloshun, Keith A.; Kelsey, Charles T., IV; Tkac, Peter; Makarashvili, Vakho; Jonah, Charles D.; Olivas, Eric R.; Holloway, Michael A.; Hurtle, Ken P.; Romero, Frank P.; Dalmas, Dale A.; Harvey, James T.

    2013-04-01

    99mTc, the daughter isotope of 99Mo, is the most commonly used radioisotope for nuclear medicine in the United States. Under the direction of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are partnering with North Star Medical Technologies to demonstrate the viability of large-scale 99Mo production using electron accelerators. In this process, 99Mo is produced in an enriched 100Mo target through the 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo reaction. Five experiments have been performed to date at ANL to demonstrate this process. This paper reviews the current status of these activities, specifically the design and performance of the helium gas target cooling system.

  9. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1994--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes the tasks completed under this project during the period from August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1994. The objective of the study is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. The tasks completed include a market study for the advanced turbine system; definition of an optimized recuperated gas turbine as the prime mover meeting the requirements of the market study and whose characteristics were, in turn, used for forecasting the total advanced turbine system (ATS) future demand; development of a program plan for bringing the ATS to a state of readiness for field test; and demonstration of the primary surface recuperator ability to provide the high thermal effectiveness and low pressure loss required to support the proposed ATS cycle.

  10. Material scarcity: a reason for responsibility in technology development and product design.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Andreas R

    2013-09-01

    There are warning signs for impending scarcity of certain technology metals that play a critical role in high-tech products. The scarce elements are indispensable for the design of modern technologies with superior performance. Material scarcity can restrain future innovations and presents therefore a serious risk that must be counteracted. However, the risk is often underrated in the pursuit of technological progress. Many innovators seem to be inattentive to the limitations in availability of critical resources and the possible implications thereof. The present shortages in industrial supply with technology metals may be interpreted as a wake-up call for technology developers to tackle the issue with due consideration. The article reviews the materials scarcity phenomenon from the viewpoint of sustainable development ethics. The following questions are discussed: 'Should preventative actions be taken today in order to mitigate resource scarcity in future?' and 'Should technology developers feel responsible to do this?' The discussion presents arguments for industrial designers and engineers to create a sense of responsibility for the proactive mitigation of material scarcity. Being protagonists of the innovation system, they have the opportunity to lead change towards resource-aware technology development. The paper concludes by outlining ideas on how they can pioneer sustainable management of critical materials.

  11. Single-Step Fabrication of Computationally Designed Microneedles by Continuous Liquid Interface Production.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ashley R; Caudill, Cassie L; Tumbleston, John R; Bloomquist, Cameron J; Moga, Katherine A; Ermoshkin, Alexander; Shirvanyants, David; Mecham, Sue J; Luft, J Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Microneedles, arrays of micron-sized needles that painlessly puncture the skin, enable transdermal delivery of medications that are difficult to deliver using more traditional routes. Many important design parameters, such as microneedle size, shape, spacing, and composition, are known to influence efficacy, but are notoriously difficult to alter due to the complex nature of microfabrication techniques. Herein, we utilize a novel additive manufacturing ("3D printing") technique called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP) to rapidly prototype sharp microneedles with tuneable geometries (size, shape, aspect ratio, spacing). This technology allows for mold-independent, one-step manufacturing of microneedle arrays of virtually any design in less than 10 minutes per patch. Square pyramidal CLIP microneedles composed of trimethylolpropane triacrylate, polyacrylic acid and photopolymerizable derivatives of polyethylene glycol and polycaprolactone were fabricated to demonstrate the range of materials that can be utilized within this platform for encapsulating and controlling the release of therapeutics. These CLIP microneedles effectively pierced murine skin ex vivo and released the fluorescent drug surrogate rhodamine.

  12. Design and Application of The Painting Material Supply System of The Painting Robot for Steel Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Kunio; Hisayasu, Azuma; Mori, Tsunehito; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Nakashima, Yoshio

    With the increase of painting works and the decrease of skilled workers, the demand for robot painting of the large-scale steel product is rapidly increasing. But there are many technical problems in the development of the painting robot for this use. The collision between a robot and a work-piece is one of the most important problems, because the robot operates in a small space of a work-piece. Above all, the collision of the painting material supply hose with painted film on a work-piece is very serious. To avoid the hose collision, we propose an in-line type of paint supply mechanism using swivel joints. The key point in this system is the sealing performance and its durability, and we propose the piping system with compliance to strengthen the sealing performance. In this paper, the design method of this system is discussed on the basis of the analysis of the fluctuatinal elastic deformation of a O-ring in the swivel joint. We produced a prototype of the painting robot with the in-line system designed by this method. Application of this robot to the painting of ship-hull block is also discussed. Results from this application show the effectiveness of the in-line system.

  13. Designing interactive consumer products: utility of paper prototypes and effectiveness of enhanced control labelling.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Franke, Holger; Ruettinger, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The studies reported here examined differences in user behaviour when presented with a low-fidelity paper prototype compared to fully operational product, and evaluated the effectiveness of different types of enhanced labelling of controls. In the first study with a paper prototype, 30 users of high-pressure washers were asked to choose the settings of the temperature control for different cleaning objects, comparing standard with information-enriched control labelling. In the second study, 34 users operated a real high-pressure washer with different forms of control labelling. The results of both studies provided evidence for some benefits of an information-enriched control labelling over traditional temperature-centred controls labelling. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the data of the two studies suggested that low-fidelity paper prototypes may have to be used with caution. Therefore, designers need to be aware that the behavioural effects induced by different design modifications may be overestimated when using paper prototypes. The implications of the findings are discussed within the framework of an enlarged concept of fidelity.

  14. Rational Design of Porous Conjugated Polymers and Roles of Residual Palladium for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianwei; Cai, Zhengxu; Wu, Qinghe; Lo, Wai-Yip; Zhang, Na; Chen, Lin X; Yu, Luping

    2016-06-22

    Developing highly efficient photocatalyts for water splitting is one of the grand challenges in solar energy conversion. Here, we report the rational design and synthesis of porous conjugated polymer (PCP) that photocatalytically generates hydrogen from water splitting. The design mimics natural photosynthetics systems with conjugated polymer component to harvest photons and the transition metal part to facilitate catalytic activities. A series of PCPs have been synthesized with different light harvesting chromophores and transition metal binding bipyridyl (bpy) sites. The photocatalytic activity of these bpy-containing PCPs can be greatly enhanced due to the improved light absorption, better wettability, local ordering structure, and the improved charge separation process. The PCP made of strong and fully conjugated donor chromophore DBD (M4) shows the highest hydrogen production rate at ∼33 μmol/h. The results indicate that copolymerization between a strong electron donor and weak electron acceptor into the same polymer chain is a useful strategy for developing efficient photocatalysts. This study also reveals that the residual palladium in the PCP networks plays a key role for the catalytic performance. The hydrogen generation activity of PCP photocatalyst can be further enhanced to 164 μmol/h with an apparent quantum yield of 1.8% at 350 nm by loading 2 wt % of extra platinum cocatalyst. PMID:27254306

  15. Single-Step Fabrication of Computationally Designed Microneedles by Continuous Liquid Interface Production.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ashley R; Caudill, Cassie L; Tumbleston, John R; Bloomquist, Cameron J; Moga, Katherine A; Ermoshkin, Alexander; Shirvanyants, David; Mecham, Sue J; Luft, J Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Microneedles, arrays of micron-sized needles that painlessly puncture the skin, enable transdermal delivery of medications that are difficult to deliver using more traditional routes. Many important design parameters, such as microneedle size, shape, spacing, and composition, are known to influence efficacy, but are notoriously difficult to alter due to the complex nature of microfabrication techniques. Herein, we utilize a novel additive manufacturing ("3D printing") technique called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP) to rapidly prototype sharp microneedles with tuneable geometries (size, shape, aspect ratio, spacing). This technology allows for mold-independent, one-step manufacturing of microneedle arrays of virtually any design in less than 10 minutes per patch. Square pyramidal CLIP microneedles composed of trimethylolpropane triacrylate, polyacrylic acid and photopolymerizable derivatives of polyethylene glycol and polycaprolactone were fabricated to demonstrate the range of materials that can be utilized within this platform for encapsulating and controlling the release of therapeutics. These CLIP microneedles effectively pierced murine skin ex vivo and released the fluorescent drug surrogate rhodamine. PMID:27607247

  16. Accelerator production of tritium plant design and supporting engineering development and demonstration work

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen with a half life of 12.3 years. Because it is essential for US thermonuclear weapons to function, tritium must be periodically replenished. Since K reactor at Savannah River Site stopped operating in 1988, tritium has been recycled from dismantled nuclear weapons. This process is possible only as long as many weapons are being retired. Maintaining the stockpile at the level called for in the present Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-I) will require the Department of Energy to have an operational tritium production capability in the 2005--2007 time frame. To make the required amount of tritium using an accelerator based system (APT), neutrons will be produced through high energy proton reactions with tungsten and lead. Those neutrons will be moderated and captured in {sup 3}He to make tritium. The APT plant design will use a 1,700 MeV linear accelerator operated at 100 mA. In preparation for engineering design, starting in October 1997 and subsequent construction, a program of engineering development and demonstration is underway. That work includes assembly and testing of the first 20 MeV of the low energy plant linac at 100 mA, high-energy linac accelerating structure prototyping, radiofrequency power system improvements, neutronic efficiency measurements, and materials qualifications.

  17. Single-Step Fabrication of Computationally Designed Microneedles by Continuous Liquid Interface Production

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ashley R.; Caudill, Cassie L.; Tumbleston, John R.; Bloomquist, Cameron J.; Moga, Katherine A.; Ermoshkin, Alexander; Shirvanyants, David; Mecham, Sue J.; Luft, J. Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Microneedles, arrays of micron-sized needles that painlessly puncture the skin, enable transdermal delivery of medications that are difficult to deliver using more traditional routes. Many important design parameters, such as microneedle size, shape, spacing, and composition, are known to influence efficacy, but are notoriously difficult to alter due to the complex nature of microfabrication techniques. Herein, we utilize a novel additive manufacturing (“3D printing”) technique called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP) to rapidly prototype sharp microneedles with tuneable geometries (size, shape, aspect ratio, spacing). This technology allows for mold-independent, one-step manufacturing of microneedle arrays of virtually any design in less than 10 minutes per patch. Square pyramidal CLIP microneedles composed of trimethylolpropane triacrylate, polyacrylic acid and photopolymerizable derivatives of polyethylene glycol and polycaprolactone were fabricated to demonstrate the range of materials that can be utilized within this platform for encapsulating and controlling the release of therapeutics. These CLIP microneedles effectively pierced murine skin ex vivo and released the fluorescent drug surrogate rhodamine. PMID:27607247

  18. Rational Design of Porous Conjugated Polymers and Roles of Residual Palladium for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianwei; Cai, Zhengxu; Wu, Qinghe; Lo, Wai-Yip; Zhang, Na; Chen, Lin X; Yu, Luping

    2016-06-22

    Developing highly efficient photocatalyts for water splitting is one of the grand challenges in solar energy conversion. Here, we report the rational design and synthesis of porous conjugated polymer (PCP) that photocatalytically generates hydrogen from water splitting. The design mimics natural photosynthetics systems with conjugated polymer component to harvest photons and the transition metal part to facilitate catalytic activities. A series of PCPs have been synthesized with different light harvesting chromophores and transition metal binding bipyridyl (bpy) sites. The photocatalytic activity of these bpy-containing PCPs can be greatly enhanced due to the improved light absorption, better wettability, local ordering structure, and the improved charge separation process. The PCP made of strong and fully conjugated donor chromophore DBD (M4) shows the highest hydrogen production rate at ∼33 μmol/h. The results indicate that copolymerization between a strong electron donor and weak electron acceptor into the same polymer chain is a useful strategy for developing efficient photocatalysts. This study also reveals that the residual palladium in the PCP networks plays a key role for the catalytic performance. The hydrogen generation activity of PCP photocatalyst can be further enhanced to 164 μmol/h with an apparent quantum yield of 1.8% at 350 nm by loading 2 wt % of extra platinum cocatalyst.

  19. Methodology for the design, production, and test of plastic optical displacement sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahlves, Maik; Kelb, Christian; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    Optical displacement sensors made entirely from plastic materials offer various advantages such as biocompatibility and high flexibility compared to their commonly used electrical and glass-based counterparts. In addition, various low-cost and large-scale fabrication techniques can potentially be utilized for their fabrication. In this work we present a toolkit for the design, production, and test of such sensors. Using the introduced methods, we demonstrate the development of a simple all-optical displacement sensor based on multimode plastic waveguides. The system consists of polymethylmethacrylate and cyclic olefin polymer which serve as cladding and core materials, respectively. We discuss several numerical models which are useful for the design and simulation of the displacement sensors as well as two manufacturing methods capable of mass-producing such devices. Prior to fabrication, the sensor layout and performance are evaluated by means of a self-implemented ray-optical simulation which can be extended to various other types of sensor concepts. Furthermore, we discuss optical and mechanical test procedures as well as a high-precision tensile testing machine especially suited for the characterization of the opto-mechanical performance of such plastic optical displacement sensors.

  20. A methodology towards virtualisation-based high performance simulation platform supporting multidisciplinary design of complex products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Fei; (Luke) Zhang, Xiaolong; Luo, Yongliang; Zhang, Yabin

    2012-08-01

    Multidisciplinary design of complex products leads to an increasing demand for high performance simulation (HPS) platforms. One great challenge is how to achieve high efficient utilisation of large-scale simulation resources in distributed and heterogeneous environments. This article reports a virtualisation-based methodology to realise a HPS platform. This research is driven by the issues concerning large-scale simulation resources deployment and complex simulation environment construction, efficient and transparent utilisation of fine-grained simulation resources and high reliable simulation with fault tolerance. A framework of virtualisation-based simulation platform (VSIM) is first proposed. Then the article investigates and discusses key approaches in VSIM, including simulation resources modelling, a method to automatically deploying simulation resources for dynamic construction of system environment, and a live migration mechanism in case of faults in run-time simulation. Furthermore, the proposed methodology is applied to a multidisciplinary design system for aircraft virtual prototyping and some experiments are conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology can (1) significantly improve the utilisation of fine-grained simulation resources, (2) result in a great reduction in deployment time and an increased flexibility for simulation environment construction and (3)achieve fault tolerant simulation.

  1. Material scarcity: a reason for responsibility in technology development and product design.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Andreas R

    2013-09-01

    There are warning signs for impending scarcity of certain technology metals that play a critical role in high-tech products. The scarce elements are indispensable for the design of modern technologies with superior performance. Material scarcity can restrain future innovations and presents therefore a serious risk that must be counteracted. However, the risk is often underrated in the pursuit of technological progress. Many innovators seem to be inattentive to the limitations in availability of critical resources and the possible implications thereof. The present shortages in industrial supply with technology metals may be interpreted as a wake-up call for technology developers to tackle the issue with due consideration. The article reviews the materials scarcity phenomenon from the viewpoint of sustainable development ethics. The following questions are discussed: 'Should preventative actions be taken today in order to mitigate resource scarcity in future?' and 'Should technology developers feel responsible to do this?' The discussion presents arguments for industrial designers and engineers to create a sense of responsibility for the proactive mitigation of material scarcity. Being protagonists of the innovation system, they have the opportunity to lead change towards resource-aware technology development. The paper concludes by outlining ideas on how they can pioneer sustainable management of critical materials. PMID:23054676

  2. Modeling, design, and life performance prediction for energy production from geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, D.

    1998-01-01

    System modeling supports the design and long-term, commercially successful operation of geothermal reservoirs. Modeling guides in the placement of the injection and production wells, in the stimulation of the reservoir, and in the operational strategies used to ensure continuing production. Without an understanding of the reservoir, it is possible to harm the reservoir by inappropriate operation (especially break-through of cold injection fluid) and the desired profitable lifetimes will not be reached. In this project the authors have continued to develop models for predicting the life of geothermal reservoirs. One of the goals has been to maintain and transfer existing Hot Dry Rock two-dimensional fractured reservoir analysis capability to the geothermal industry and to begin the extension of the analysis concepts to three dimensions. Primary focus has been on interaction with industry, maintenance of Geocrack2D, and development of the Geocrack3D model. It is important to emphasize that the modeling is complementary to current industry modeling, in that they focus on flow in fractured rock and on the coupled effect of thermal cooling. In the following sections the authors document activities as part of this research project: industry interaction; national and international collaboration; and model development.

  3. Optimization of renewal regime for improvement of polysaccharides production from Porphyridium cruentum by uniform design.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liqin; Wang, Changhai; Ma, Cuihua; Shi, Lei

    2010-03-01

    To probe the effects of renewal regime on the production of polysaccharides, Porphyridium cruentum was cultured semi-continuously in flat plate photobioreactor. Uniform design was used to optimize renewal conditions. Quadratic mathematic models related to productivity, total recovery yield of biomass and polysaccharides were set up to clarify the influence of individual factors and their interactions. According to the mathematic models, the optimal semi-continuous condition for total yield of polysaccharide was NaNO3 3.5 g/L, renewal rate 27%, renewal period 2.91 days. The optimal condition for polysaccharide output rate was NaNO3 0.5 g/L, renewal rate 5%, renewal period 7 days. With the optimal renewal regime, the maximal total recovery yields of polysaccharide achieved at 29.4 g, which was 1.57 times higher than that of batch cultivation. The maximum output rate of polysaccharide was 68.64 mg/L per day, which was 2.02 times higher than previous reported data.

  4. Enhanced production of thermostable laccases from a native strain of Pycnoporus sanguineus using central composite design*

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Cavazos, Leticia I.; Junghanns, Charles; Nair, Rakesh; Cárdenas-Chávez, Diana L.; Hernández-Luna, Carlos; Agathos, Spiros N.; Parra, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The production of thermostable laccases from a native strain of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus isolated in Mexico was enhanced by testing different media and a combination of inducers including copper sulfate (CuSO4). The best conditions obtained from screening experiments in shaken flasks using tomato juice, CuSO4, and soybean oil were integrated in an experimental design. Enhanced levels of tomato juice as the medium, CuSO4 and soybean oil as inducers (36.8% (v/v), 3 mmol/L, and 1% (v/v), respectively) were determined for 10 L stirred tank bioreactor runs. This combination resulted in laccase titer of 143 000 IU/L (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), pH 3.0), which represents the highest activity so far reported for P. sanguineus in a 10-L fermentor. Other interesting media resulting from the screening included glucose-bactopeptone which increased laccase activity up to 20 000 IU/L, whereas the inducers Acid Blue 62 and Reactive Blue 19 enhanced enzyme production in this medium 10 times. Based on a partial characterization, the laccases of this strain are especially promising in terms of thermostability (half-life of 6.1 h at 60 °C) and activity titers. PMID:24711355

  5. Vroom: designing an augmented environment for remote collaboration in digital cinema production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd; Cornish, Tracy

    2013-03-01

    As media technologies become increasingly affordable, compact and inherently networked, new generations of telecollaborative platforms continue to arise which integrate these new affordances. Virtual reality has been primarily concerned with creating simulations of environments that can transport participants to real or imagined spaces that replace the "real world". Meanwhile Augmented Reality systems have evolved to interleave objects from Virtual Reality environments into the physical landscape. Perhaps now there is a new class of systems that reverse this precept to enhance dynamic media landscapes and immersive physical display environments to enable intuitive data exploration through collaboration. Vroom (Virtual Room) is a next-generation reconfigurable tiled display environment in development at the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) at the University of California, San Diego. Vroom enables freely scalable digital collaboratories, connecting distributed, high-resolution visualization resources for collaborative work in the sciences, engineering and the arts. Vroom transforms a physical space into an immersive media environment with large format interactive display surfaces, video teleconferencing and spatialized audio built on a highspeed optical network backbone. Vroom enables group collaboration for local and remote participants to share knowledge and experiences. Possible applications include: remote learning, command and control, storyboarding, post-production editorial review, high resolution video playback, 3D visualization, screencasting and image, video and multimedia file sharing. To support these various scenarios, Vroom features support for multiple user interfaces (optical tracking, touch UI, gesture interface, etc.), support for directional and spatialized audio, giga-pixel image interactivity, 4K video streaming, 3D visualization and telematic production. This paper explains the design process that

  6. Application of Systems Engineering Principles for Concept Design of New Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Karunakaran Nair Ajith; Jagathy Raj, Vettuvila Purushothaman

    2016-06-01

    A successful engineering design is one that meets the user requirements completely. Design essentially starts with concept design followed by detailed design. The importance of concept design is brought out in this paper. Systems engineering principles and practices are used to build the concept design starting from user requirements and user specified reference scenarios. Systems engineering methodology helps in proper understanding of the user requirements, identifying multiple solutions, short listing the candidate solutions and finally selecting one or two feasible designs. A case study analysis is presented to demonstrate the systems engineering practices followed for concept abstraction and preliminary design of a typical engineering system.

  7. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, February 1995--April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Karstensen, K.W.

    1995-07-01

    This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period February 1, 1995, through April 30, 1995, for Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program by Solar Turbines Incorporated under DOE contract No. DE-AC21-93MC30246. The objective of Phase II of the ATS Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. A secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS. Tasks 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 of Phase II have been completed in prior quarters. Their results have been discussed in the applicable quarterly reports and in their respective topical reports. With the exception of Task 7, final editions of these topical reports have been submitted to the DOE. This quarterly report, then, addresses only Task 4 and the nine subtasks included in Task 8, {open_quotes}Design and Test of Critical Components.{close_quotes} These nine subtasks address six ATS technologies as follows: (1) Catalytic Combustion - Subtasks 8.2 and 8.5, (2) Recuperator - Subtasks 8.1 and 8.7, (3) Autothermal Fuel Reformer - Subtask 8.3, (4) High Temperature Turbine Disc - Subtask 8.4, (5) Advanced Control System (MMI) - Subtask 8.6, and (6) Ceramic Materials - Subtasks 8.8 and 8.9. Major technological achievements from Task 8 efforts during the quarter are as follows: (1) The subscale catalytic combustion rig in Subtask 8.2 is operating consistently at 3 ppmv of NO{sub x} over a range of ATS operating conditions. (2) The spray cast process used to produce the rim section of the high temperature turbine disc of Subtask 8.4 offers additional and unplanned spin-off opportunities for low cost manufacture of certain gas turbine parts.

  8. Optimal design of protein production plants with time and size factor process models.

    PubMed

    Montagna, J M; Vecchietti, A R; Iribarren, O A; Pinto, J M; Asenjo, J A

    2000-01-01

    In this work we propose an optimization model for the design of a biotechnological multiproduct batch plant. A first level of detail posynomial model is constructed for each unit, as well as decisions regarding the structural optimization of the plant. A particular feature of this model is that it contains composite units in which semicontinuous items operate on the material contained by batch items. This occurs in the purification steps, in particular with the microfilters operating between retentate and permeate vessels, and with the homogenizer and ultrafilters operating on the material contained in a batch holding vessel. Also, the unit models rely on batch operating time expressions that depend on both the batch size and the size of semicontinuous items. The model takes into account all of the available options to increase the efficiency of the batch plant design: unit duplication in-phase and out-of-phase and intermediate storage tanks. The resulting mathematical model for the minimization of the plant capital cost is a mixed integer non-linear program (MINLP), which is solved to global optimality with an implementation of the outer approximation/ equality relaxation/ augmented penalty (OA/ER/AP) method. A plant that produces four recombinant proteins in eight processing stages is used to illustrate the proposed approach. An interesting feature of this example is that it represents an attempt to standardize a plant for the production of both therapeutic and nontherapeutic proteins; the model applied is generic and can thus be applied to any such modular plant. Results indicate that the best solution in terms of minimal capital cost contains no units in parallel and with intermediate storage tank allocation.

  9. Performance degradation of a large production reactor recirculation pump during off-design conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    In order to accurately predict reactor hydraulic behavior during a hypothetical Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA) the performance of reactor coolant pumps under off-design conditions must be understood. The LOCA of primary interest for the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors involves the aspiration of air into the recirculated heavy water flow as reactor tank inventory is lost, (system temperatures are too low to result in significant flashing of water coolant into steam). Entrained air causes degradation in the performance of the large recirculation pumps. The amount of degradation is a parameter used in computer codes which predict the course of the accident. This paper describes the analysis of data obtained during in-reactor simulated LOCA tests, and presents the head degradation curve for the SRS reactor recirculation pumps. The greatest challenge of the analysis was to determine a reasonable estimate of mixture density at the pump suction. Specially designed three-beam densitometers were used to determine mixture density. Since it was not feasible to place them in the most advantageous location, measured pump motor power along with other techniques, were used to calculate the average mixture density at the pump impeller. This technique provides a good estimate of pump suction mixture density. Measurements from more conventional instruments were used to arrive at the value of pump two-component head over a wide range of flows. The results were significantly different from previous work with commercial reactor recirculation pumps. Further experimental work using a 1/4 scale model of the SRS pump should provide an opportunity to confirm these results, and is currently in progress.

  10. [Practical Use Evaluation of Aluminum Packaging for Medicinal Products Based on Universal Design].

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Kazuya; Hidaka, Takashi; Marubashi, Koichi; Takagi, Hirokazu; Kamimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Many pharmacists have requested optimization of aluminum packaging of medicinal products in terms of usability. To improve operational efficiency of aluminum packaging, we used Universal Design (UD)-based approach, which enables products to be used properly and consistently regardless of users. The UD-pack used in this research is composed of a film that can be easily opened and torn linear. Here, we compared the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging by evaluating the practical use of each under the cooperation of 24 pharmacists. Following opening and removal of contents of one sample for both types of packaging, monitors were asked which type was easier to use in each case. Also, monitors were to repeat the opening and removal of contents of five samples in a row, and were asked the same question. Monitors were recorded by digital camera to measure the time required to finish the procedure for five samples in a row. After opening one sample, approximately 83% of monitors preferred the UD-pack, and after opening five samples, all (100%) preferred the UD-pack. Regarding the time required for opening five samples and removing the contents measured by analyzing the recorded video, the UD-pack significantly reduced the time required for all monitors. The average time ratio of the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging was approximately 59%, and no significant difference was observed between male and female pharmacists. Our results indicate the UD-pack improves ease of opening and removal of contents and increases efficiency of dispensing in a clinical setting compared with conventional aluminum packaging.

  11. [Practical Use Evaluation of Aluminum Packaging for Medicinal Products Based on Universal Design].

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Kazuya; Hidaka, Takashi; Marubashi, Koichi; Takagi, Hirokazu; Kamimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Many pharmacists have requested optimization of aluminum packaging of medicinal products in terms of usability. To improve operational efficiency of aluminum packaging, we used Universal Design (UD)-based approach, which enables products to be used properly and consistently regardless of users. The UD-pack used in this research is composed of a film that can be easily opened and torn linear. Here, we compared the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging by evaluating the practical use of each under the cooperation of 24 pharmacists. Following opening and removal of contents of one sample for both types of packaging, monitors were asked which type was easier to use in each case. Also, monitors were to repeat the opening and removal of contents of five samples in a row, and were asked the same question. Monitors were recorded by digital camera to measure the time required to finish the procedure for five samples in a row. After opening one sample, approximately 83% of monitors preferred the UD-pack, and after opening five samples, all (100%) preferred the UD-pack. Regarding the time required for opening five samples and removing the contents measured by analyzing the recorded video, the UD-pack significantly reduced the time required for all monitors. The average time ratio of the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging was approximately 59%, and no significant difference was observed between male and female pharmacists. Our results indicate the UD-pack improves ease of opening and removal of contents and increases efficiency of dispensing in a clinical setting compared with conventional aluminum packaging. PMID:26632152

  12. TESPI (Tool for Environmental Sound Product Innovation): a simplified software tool to support environmentally conscious design in SMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misceo, Monica; Buonamici, Roberto; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldesi, Luciano; Grimaldi, Filomena; Rinaldi, Caterina

    2004-12-01

    TESPI (Tool for Environmental Sound Product Innovation) is the prototype of a software tool developed within the framework of the "eLCA" project. The project, (www.elca.enea.it)financed by the European Commission, is realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs)". The implementation by SMEs of environmental product innovation (as fostered by the European Integrated Product Policy, IPP) needs specific adaptation to their economic model, their knowledge of production and management processes and their relationships with innovation and the environment. In particular, quality and costs are the main driving forces of innovation in European SMEs, and well known barriers exist to the adoption of an environmental approach in the product design. Starting from these considerations, the TESPI tool has been developed to support the first steps of product design taking into account both the quality and the environment. Two main issues have been considered: (i) classic Quality Function Deployment (QFD) can hardly be proposed to SMEs; (ii) the environmental aspects of the product life cycle need to be integrated with the quality approach. TESPI is a user friendly web-based tool, has a training approach and applies to modular products. Users are guided through the investigation of the quality aspects of their product (customer"s needs and requirements fulfilment) and the identification of the key environmental aspects in the product"s life cycle. A simplified check list allows analyzing the environmental performance of the product. Help is available for a better understanding of the analysis criteria. As a result, the significant aspects for the redesign of the product are identified.

  13. Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment Method (NERPA) Using Product-Process Computer Aided Engineering for Ergonomic Workplace Design

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340

  14. Design and production of functionalized biopolyesters by Methylobacterium extorquens ATCC 55366: Toward new tissue engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefer, Heinrich Friedrich Philipp Till Nikolaus

    Vascular networks are required to support the formation and function of three-dimensional tissues. Biodegradable scaffolds are being considered in order to promote vascularization where natural regeneration of lost or destroyed vascular networks fails. Particularly; composite materials are expected to fulfill the complex demands of a patient's body to support wound healing. Microbial biopolyesters are being regarded as such second and third generation biomaterials. Methylobacterium extorquens is one of several microorganisms that should be considered for the production of advanced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). M. extorquens displays a distinct advantage in that it is able to utilize methanol as an inexpensive substrate for growth and biopolyester production. The design of functionalized PHAs, which would be made of both saturated short-chain-length (scl, C ≤ 5) and unsaturated medium-chain-length (mcl, 6 ≤ C ≤ 14) monomeric units, aimed at combining desirable material properties of inert scl/mcl-PHAs with those of functionalized mcl-PHAs. By independently inserting the phaC1 or the phaC2 gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13, recombinant M. extorquens strains were obtained which were capable of producing PHAs containing C-C double bonds. A fermentation process was developed to obtain gram quantities of biopolyesters employing the recombinant M. extorquens ATCC 55366 strain which harbored the phaC2 gene of P. fluorescens GK13, the better one of the two strains at incorporating unsaturated monomeric units. The PHAs produced were found in a blend of scl-PHAs and functionalized scl/mcl-PHAs (4 ≤ C ≤ 6), which were the products of the native and of the recombinant PHA synthase, respectively. Thermo-mechanical analysis confirmed that the functionalized scl/mcl-PHAs exhibited the desirable material properties expected. This project contributed to current research on polyhydroxyalkanoates at different levels. The terminal double bonds of the functionalized scl

  15. Design and construction of a 7,500 liter immobilized cell reactor-separator for ethanol production from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.

    1992-12-31

    A 7,500 liter reactor/separator has been constructed for the production of ethanol from concentrated whey permeate. This unit is sited in Hopkinton IA, across the street from a whey generating cheese plant A two phase construction project consisting of (1) building and testing a reactor/separator with a solvent absorber in a single unified housing, and (2) building and testing an extractive distillation/product stripper for the recovery of anhydrous ethanol is under way. The design capacity of this unit is 250,000 gal/yr of anhydrous product. Design and construction details of the reactor/absorber separator are given, and design parameters for the extractive distillation system are described.

  16. Vitamin B12 production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii: optimization of medium composition through statistical experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Kośmider, Alicja; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    A two-step statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the medium for vitamin B(12) production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In the first step, using Plackett-Burman design, five of 13 tested medium components (calcium pantothenate, NaH(2)PO(4)·2H(2)O, casein hydrolysate, glycerol and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O) were identified as factors having significant influence on vitamin production. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize levels of medium components selected in the first step. Valid statistical models describing the influence of significant factors on vitamin B(12) production were established for each optimization phase. The optimized medium provided a 93% increase in final vitamin concentration compared to the original medium. PMID:22178491

  17. Application of statistical experimental designs for the optimization of medium constituents for the production of citric acid from pineapple waste.

    PubMed

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Somalanka, Subba Rao; Bandaru, Sita Ramalakshmi; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2008-07-01

    Statistical experimental designs were applied for the optimization of medium constituents for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 in solid state fermentation (SSF) using pineapple waste as the sole substrate. Using Plackett-Burman design, yeast extract, moisture content of the substrate, KH(2)PO(4) and Na(2)HPO(4) were identified as significant variables which highly influenced citric acid production and these variables were subsequently optimized using a central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions were found to be yeast extract 0.34 (%w/w), moisture content of the substrate 70.71 (%), KH(2)PO(4) 0.64 (%w/w) and Na(2)HPO(4) 0.69 (%w/w). Citric acid production at these optimum conditions was 202.35 g/kg ds (g citric acid produced/kg of dried pineapple waste as substrate).

  18. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Aliyu; Bala, Muntari; Bala, Shuaibu M.

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween-80 resulted in maximum lipase production of 6.10 U/g. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important medium parameters affecting the lipase production, and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters can be explored using response surface methodology. PMID:25937979

  19. Supercritical water gasification of biomass for H2 production: process design.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Castello, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    The supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass for H(2) production is analyzed in terms of process development and energetic self-sustainability. The conceptual design of a plant is proposed and the SCWG process involving several substrates (glycerol, microalgae, sewage sludge, grape marc, phenol) is simulated by means of AspenPlus™. The influence of various parameters - biomass concentration and typology, reaction pressure and temperature - is analyzed. The process accounts for the possibility of exploiting the mechanical energy of compressed syngas (later burned to sustain the SCWG reaction) through expansion in turbines, while purified H(2) is fed to fuel cells. Results show that the SCWG reaction can be energetically self-sustained if minimum feed biomass concentrations of 15-25% are adopted. Interestingly, the H(2) yields are found to be maximal at similar feed concentrations. Finally, an energy balance is performed showing that the whole process could provide a net power of about 150 kW(e)/(1000 kg(feed)/h).

  20. Design and Analysis of a Scalable In-situ Cryogen Production Facility for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, D. E.; Nieczkoski, S. J.; Duke, M. B.; Gardner, T. Q.

    2006-04-01

    A system demonstration of a scalable cryogen production facility will be necessary to establish the feasibility of in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) as part of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative. Cryogenic fluids such as liquid oxygen, hydrogen, and methane will be required for propellants for return vehicle propulsion, life support consumables, power generation, and precursors for the refinement of structural materials. A key technology necessary for the realization of a cryogenic ISRU system is high-efficiency cryocoolers that can enable low-temperature thermal processing of extracted volatile materials for separation, liquefaction, and zero boiloff (ZBO) storage. This paper addresses the design and analysis of the following pertinent technologies: (1) producing a concentrated feedstock from low partial-pressure volatile constituents to drive chemical and thermal reaction operations, (2) balancing unit feed and effluent flows and molecular species to derive system efficiency and capture of high-purity cryogenic fluids, (3) thermal isolation of cryogenically cooled stages from ambient and elevated temperature subsystems to achieve power efficiency and thermal stability, and (4) developing a reverse-Brayton cycle cryocooler that provides cooling at 20 K for liquefying and sustaining hydrogen storage.