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Sample records for design tobacco-cessation product

  1. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting.

  2. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit; Ebbert, Jon O; Sood, Richa; Stevens, Susanna R

    2006-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.

  3. Policy predictors of participation in adult tobacco cessation programs.

    PubMed

    Spurlock, Amy Yoder

    2005-11-01

    This article examines the effect of tobacco cessation treatment factors and environmental, structural, and client factors on participation in tobacco cessation programs among adults in a tobacco growing state. A pooled time series cross-sectional research design was used to analyze the primary and secondary data collected at the population level (N = 140 Health Department Service Areas; HDSA). Results indicated that for every cessation program added, there would be an increase in participation of 4 adults per 10,000 smokers, and for every 1.00 dollar per capita spent on counteradvertising, there would be an increase in participation of 26 adults per 10,000 smokers. Local health departments need to initiate or increase counteradvertising, targeting younger adults and HDSAs with higher per capita tobacco production; enhance marketing efforts for cessation; and increase the number of cessation programs offered by HDSAs to as many as are feasible and affordable.

  4. An Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Diseases and Health Conditions on Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Dawn E.; Barr, Nikki; Rickert, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of chronic health conditions on tobacco cessation and participation in a follow-up assessment among 13,900 smokers in a telephone-based tobacco cessation programme. Design: This study involved gathering data from individuals during pre- and post-intervention telephonic assessments following their decision…

  5. An Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Diseases and Health Conditions on Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Dawn E.; Barr, Nikki; Rickert, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of chronic health conditions on tobacco cessation and participation in a follow-up assessment among 13,900 smokers in a telephone-based tobacco cessation programme. Design: This study involved gathering data from individuals during pre- and post-intervention telephonic assessments following their decision…

  6. Smart devices and a future of hybrid tobacco cessation programs.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Rachel; Yellowlees, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    The Internet and mobile "apps" on smart devices are increasingly being seen as primary tools to combat tobacco abuse with the development of several online tobacco cessation programs. This article reviews the small and recent body of research into the functionality and effectiveness of these Web-based programs, most of which are now being designed for mobile devices rather than for fixed computers. Based on current research findings, it is apparent that successful future tobacco cessation programs will utilize a wide variety of features available through smart devices and mobile applications, but will also incorporate the capacity to easily access live healthcare professionals as necessary, either online or in-person. These hybrid models of behavioral intervention for tobacco cessation appear likely to be more successful than previous approaches, but require more evaluation than has occurred in the past.

  7. A National Survey of Tobacco Cessation Programs for Youths

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Emery, Sherry; Sporer, Amy K.; Mermelstein, Robin; Flay, Brian R.; Berbaum, Michael; Warnecke, Richard B.; Johnson, Timothy; Mowery, Paul; Parsons, Jennifer; Harmon, Lori; Hund, Lisa; Wells, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We collected data on a national sample of existing community-based tobacco cessation programs for youths to understand their prevalence and overall characteristics. Methods. We employed a 2-stage sampling design with US counties as the first-stage probability sampling units. We then used snowball sampling in selected counties to identify administrators of tobacco cessation programs for youths. We collected data on cessation programs when programs were identified. Results. We profiled 591 programs in 408 counties. Programs were more numerous in urban counties; fewer programs were found in low-income counties. State-level measures of smoking prevalence and tobacco control expenditures were not associated with program availability. Most programs were multisession, school-based group programs serving 50 or fewer youths per year. Program content included cognitive-behavioral components found in adult programs along with content specific to adolescence. The median annual budget was $2000. Few programs (9%) reported only mandatory enrollment, 35% reported mixed mandatory and voluntary enrollment, and 56% reported only voluntary enrollment. Conclusions. There is considerable homogeneity among community-based tobacco cessation programs for youths. Programs are least prevalent in the types of communities for which national data show increases in youths’ smoking prevalence. PMID:17138932

  8. A national survey of tobacco cessation programs for youths.

    PubMed

    Curry, Susan J; Emery, Sherry; Sporer, Amy K; Mermelstein, Robin; Flay, Brian R; Berbaum, Michael; Warnecke, Richard B; Johnson, Timothy; Mowery, Paul; Parsons, Jennifer; Harmon, Lori; Hund, Lisa; Wells, Henry

    2007-01-01

    We collected data on a national sample of existing community-based tobacco cessation programs for youths to understand their prevalence and overall characteristics. We employed a 2-stage sampling design with US counties as the first-stage probability sampling units. We then used snowball sampling in selected counties to identify administrators of tobacco cessation programs for youths. We collected data on cessation programs when programs were identified. We profiled 591 programs in 408 counties. Programs were more numerous in urban counties; fewer programs were found in low-income counties. State-level measures of smoking prevalence and tobacco control expenditures were not associated with program availability. Most programs were multisession, school-based group programs serving 50 or fewer youths per year. Program content included cognitive-behavioral components found in adult programs along with content specific to adolescence. The median annual budget was 2000 dollars. Few programs (9%) reported only mandatory enrollment, 35% reported mixed mandatory and voluntary enrollment, and 56% reported only voluntary enrollment. There is considerable homogeneity among community-based tobacco cessation programs for youths. Programs are least prevalent in the types of communities for which national data show increases in youths' smoking prevalence.

  9. Tobacco Cessation Interventions for Underserved Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Despite high rates of smoking among some subgroups of women, there is a lack of tailored interventions to address smoking cessation among women. We identify components of a women-centered approach to tobacco cessation by analyzing 3 bodies of literature: sex and gender influences in tobacco use and addiction; evidence-based tobacco cessation guidelines; and best practices in delivery of women-centered care. Programming for underserved women should be tailored, build confidence and increase motivation, integrate social justice issues and address inequities, and be holistic and comprehensive. Addressing the complexity of women’s smoking and tailoring appropriately could help address smoking among subpopulations of women. PMID:27226783

  10. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  11. Tobacco cessation counseling training with standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah E; Singleton, Jacqueline A; Worth, Celeste T; Krugler, Jacqueline; Moore, Regan; Wesley, Gina C; Mitchell, Charlene K

    2007-09-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess clinician receptivity to tobacco cessation counseling training methods using standardized patients. Additionally, the study assessed changes in clinician knowledge and behavioral intentions following the training. Medical and dental residents and dental hygiene students from the University of Louisville attended a one- to two-hour lecture addressing the counseling strategies (the Five As/the Five Rs) and pharmacotherapy recommended in the U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline: Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Participants subsequently had three training encounters with standardized patients representing various stages of change including a patient ready to quit, a patient contemplating quitting, and a patient resistant to quitting. Thirty-six participants completed a preprogram survey prior to the lecture and a postprogram evaluation that included questions about their attitudes and beliefs about tobacco, their comfort level with various aspects of tobacco intervention, and eight knowledge questions. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant increase in objective knowledge about the practices recommended in the Clinical Practice Guideline following intervention. Results also indicate a significant increase in subjective measures of participant receptivity, self-reported comfort, and perceived skill with various aspects of tobacco intervention. Overall, participants were found to be very receptive to training sessions on tobacco cessation counseling with standardized patients. In light of the educational gains and positive response from participants, the use of standardized patients is a promising strategy for training on tobacco cessation counseling.

  12. Workplace tobacco cessation program in India: A success story

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Majmudar, Parishi V.; Gupta, Subhadra D.; Rane, Pallavi S.; Uplap, Pallavi A.; Shastri, Surendra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This paper describes the follow-up interventions and results of the work place tobacco cessation study. Aims: To assess the tobacco quit rates among employees, through self report history, and validate it with rapid urine cotinine test; compare post-intervention KAP regarding tobacco consumption with the pre-intervention responses and assess the tobacco consumption pattern among contract employees and provide assistance to encourage quitting. Settings and Design: This is a cohort study implemented in a chemical industry in rural Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: All employees (104) were interviewed and screened for oral neoplasia. Active intervention in the form of awareness lectures, focus group discussions and if needed, pharmacotherapy was offered. Medical staff from the industrial medical unit and from a local referral hospital was trained. Awareness programs were arranged for the family members and contract employees. Statistical Analysis Used: Non-parametric statistical techniques and kappa. Results: Forty eight per cent employees consumed tobacco. The tobacco quit rates increased with each follow-up intervention session and reached 40% at the end of one year. There was 96% agreement between self report tobacco history and results of rapid urine cotinine test. The post-intervention KAP showed considerable improvement over the pre-intervention KAP. 56% of contract employees used tobacco and 55% among them had oral pre-cancerous lesions. Conclusions: A positive atmosphere towards tobacco quitting and positive peer pressure assisting each other in tobacco cessation was remarkably noted on the entire industrial campus. A comprehensive model workplace tobacco cessation program has been established, which can be replicated elsewhere. PMID:20442834

  13. Effective Tobacco Cessation via Health Coaching: An Institutional Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Miranda; Ayers, Gale D.; Talbert, Betina; Hill, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tobacco abuse is a well-recognized scourge on health and healthcare costs. Attempts to facilitate tobacco cessation are rarely better than marginally effective. Primary Objective: To describe an observational trial of an existing and highly successful tobacco cessation program featuring health coaching as the primary intervention. Core components of program design and data are presented and may serve as a model for other public health settings. Methods: Health coaching and three complementary program components (auriculotherapy, alpha-electrical stimulation, and relaxation techniques) are presented. Quit rates at 6 months for 161 patients over 3 years are provided featuring 30-day point prevalence smoke free and intent-to-treat values. Comparisons for telephonic vs in-clinic health coaching, free choice vs mandated participation, and program costs are provided. Results: Point prevalence quit rate was 88.7% while the more conservative intent-to-treat quit rate was 51.6%. Telephonic and in-clinic health coaching were not significantly different at any time point. Smoke-free rates at 6 and 12 months were 76.9% and 63.2%, respectively. Conclusions: Two cost-effective smoking cessation models featuring health coaching are presented. Point prevalence (30-day) above 80% and an enduring effect was seen. Personal and societal burdens (health and financial) of tobacco use might be greatly impacted if such programs were successfully implemented on a larger scale. PMID:25568823

  14. Teaching Tobacco Cessation Skills to Uruguayan Physicians Using Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llambi, Laura; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; Garcia, Sofia; Miranda, Natalia; Arredondo, Antonio Lopez; Margolis, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, with the ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Uruguay has implemented a wide range of legal restrictions designed to reduce the devastating impacts of tobacco. This legal process generated an increase in demand for tobacco cessation treatment, which led to the need to train a large number of…

  15. Teaching Tobacco Cessation Skills to Uruguayan Physicians Using Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llambi, Laura; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; Garcia, Sofia; Miranda, Natalia; Arredondo, Antonio Lopez; Margolis, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, with the ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Uruguay has implemented a wide range of legal restrictions designed to reduce the devastating impacts of tobacco. This legal process generated an increase in demand for tobacco cessation treatment, which led to the need to train a large number of…

  16. Institutionalizing a Comprehensive Tobacco-Cessation Protocol in an Indigenous Health System: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Santos, LorrieAnn; Braun, Kathryn; Aea, Kamuela; Shearer, Leimomi

    2008-01-01

    Background Native Hawaiians have high smoking prevalence and high lung cancer mortality rates. Objectives To describe a comprehensive tobacco cessation protocol and share lessons learned in institutionalizing it across the five Native Hawaiian Health Care Systems (NHHCS). Methods NHHCS representatives worked together to culturally tailor the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality protocol for smoking cessation. Process objectives included number of staff trained in tobacco cessation, inclusion of the Tobacco User Guide Sheet (TUGS) in the intake process and medical record, and expansion of programs for smokers who want to quit. Outcome objectives included percent of individuals asked about smoking status and percent of identified smokers that received brief intervention, set a quit date, were linked to services, and remained smoke-free for 90 days. Results After 18 months, the NHHCS were at different stages of protocol adoption. More successful NHHCS were more likely to have several champions for the program and administrative support for staff training, new programs, and integrating the TUGS into client charts. They also showed greater success in getting smokers to set a quit date and remain smoke-free for 90 days. Conclusion Although the five NHHCS helped design the protocol, each operates independently. More effort and time are needed to help each system overcome internal barriers to institutionalizing a new protocol and to facilitate support for tobacco-cessation champions among medical records and data management supervisors. These lessons may be useful to other organizations that want to institutionalize a comprehensive tobacco-cessation protocol. PMID:20208308

  17. Integrative tobacco cessation: A survey assessing past quit strategies and future interest

    PubMed Central

    Howerter, Amy; Floden, Lysbeth; Matthews, Eva; Muramoto, Myra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco cessation remains a public health priority. Unassisted quits are most common despite evidence for a combination of guideline-recommended strategies. This paper reports findings from a pilot study designed to assess past quit strategies and tobacco users’ receptiveness to using an integrative clinic that offers both conventional and alternative treatments for future cessation attempts. Methods Participants were recruited from a pool of individuals reporting for jury duty. Paper-pencil surveys assessed smoking, past cessation behaviors, and interest in use of the integrative clinic which offers both conventional and alternative treatments. Current and former smokers (n=304) returned surveys. Results Using multivariate logistic regression, past physiological quit strategies, past behavioral quit strategies, and use of multiple quit strategies increased agreement with interest in future use of an integrative clinic option. Additionally, there is support for the notion that if such a clinic were offered, smokers may be inclined to use this resource for a future quit attempt. Conclusions An integrative clinic option for tobacco cessation may encourage smokers to try to quit, especially for those who have used varied cessation strategies in the past. Motivating smokers to use a combined approach for tobacco cessation is a potential future direction for tobacco cessation treatment. Developing and testing an integrative approach may support this effort. PMID:27747150

  18. Translating public health knowledge into practice: development of a lay health advisor perinatal tobacco cessation program.

    PubMed

    English, Kevin C; Merzel, Cheryl; Moon-Howard, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    The value of lay health advisor (LHA) interventions as an effective approach toward ameliorating racial, ethnic and/socioeconomic health disparities has been noted by researchers and policy makers. Translating scientific knowledge to bring state-of-the-art health promotion/disease prevention innovation to underserved populations is critical for addressing these health disparities. This article examines the experiences of a community-academic partnership in designing, developing, and implementing an evidence-based, LHA-driven perinatal tobacco cessation program for low-income, predominately African American and Hispanic women. A multimethod process evaluation was conducted to analyze three essential domains of program implementation: (1) fit of the tobacco cessation program into the broader project context, (2) feasibility of program implementation, and (3) fidelity to program implementation protocols. Findings indicate that project partners have largely succeeded in integrating an evidence-based tobacco cessation program into a community-based maternal and infant health project. The successful implementation of this intervention appears to be attributable to the following two predominant factors: (1) the utilization of a scientifically validated tobacco cessation intervention model and (2) the emphasis on continuous LHA training and capacity development.

  19. Establishing a model workplace tobacco cessation program in India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Shastri, Surendra S.; Uplap, Pallavi A.; Majmudar, Parishi V.; Rane, Pallavi S.; Gupta, Subhadra D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is highly prevalent and culturally accepted in rural Maharashtra, India. Aims: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) regarding tobacco consumption, identify reasons for initiation and continuation of tobacco use, identify prevalence of tobacco consumption and its relation with different precancerous lesions, provide professional help for quitting tobacco, and develop local manpower for tobacco cessation activities. Settings, Design, Methods and Material: The present study was conducted for one year in a chemical industrial unit in Ratnagiri district. All employees (104) were interviewed and screened for oral neoplasia. Their socio-demographic features, habits, awareness levels etc. were recorded. Active intervention in the form of awareness lectures, focus group discussions, one-to-one counseling and, if needed, pharmacotherapy was offered to the tobacco users. Results: All employees actively participated in the program. Overall, 48.08% of the employees were found to use tobacco, among which the smokeless forms were predominant. Peer pressure and pleasure were the main reasons for initiation of tobacco consumption, and the belief that, though injurious, it would not harm them, avoiding physical discomfort on quitting and relieving stress were important factors for continuation of the habit. Employees had poor knowledge regarding the ill-effects of tobacco. 40% of tobacco users had oral precancerous lesions, which were predominant in employees consuming smokeless forms of tobacco. Conclusions: Identifying reasons for initiation and continuation of tobacco consumption along with baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tobacco use, are important in formulating strategies for a comprehensive workplace tobacco cessation program. PMID:20386628

  20. The role of Pakistani dentists in tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Rubina; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Moeen, Faisal; Noor, Nouman; Humayun, Sadaf

    2008-12-01

    To assess Pakistani dentists' ability, willingness and perceived barriers to carry out tobacco cessation activities for their patients in the dental office. The study is limited to the smoking form of tobacco use. Using a structured questionnaire for a cross sectional study, 239 full time or part time practising licensed dentists based in Islamabad and Rawalpindi were recruited by two sampling techniques; convenience and cluster sampling. Participation rate was 66.2%. Based on the characteristics, the study population is assumed representative of the average Pakistani dentist. Prevalence of smoking amongst dentists was 20.3%. Only one-third rated their knowledge and ability regarding tobacco cessation messages as good/excellent. The majority of the dentists considered tobacco cessation activity as peripheral to their profession. The main barrier to performing tobacco cessation interventions was cited as gender. Dentists exhibit a superficial approach to delivery of smoking cessation care. It is recommended that dentists be trained in delivering effective tobacco dependence intervention, using the WHO/FDI advocacy guide for oral health professionals, modified to incorporate gender oriented culturally sensitive doctor-patient interaction. Tobacco cessation clinics should also be set up in private and public sectors to augment the dentists' participation.

  1. Behavioral tobacco cessation treatments: yesterday's news or tomorrow's headlines?

    PubMed

    Brandon, T H

    2001-09-15

    This article reviews behavioral treatments (broadly defined) for tobacco use, discusses cessation treatments for cancer patients, and predicts the future direction of behavioral interventions. During the past decade, progress in behavioral treatments for tobacco use has not kept pace with progress made in the development of pharmacotherapies. Nevertheless, the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of behavioral treatments compare favorably with the pharmacotherapies. Intensive behavioral interventions with empirical support are reviewed, and the difficulty of attracting smokers to intensive smoking clinics is discussed. Because there has been little research on tobacco cessation interventions designed specifically for cancer patients, clinicians should follow the Five A's suggested in the recent Clinical Practice Guidelines: Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange. The future of behavioral treatments will likely emphasize both minimal interventions (via telephone, Internet, and written materials) designed for broad impact and intensive interventions targeted to particular subgroups of smokers with the need and motivation for them (eg, the heavily nicotine-dependent, pregnant women, depression-prone smokers, and medical patients). A blurring of the distinctions between behavioral interventions, pharmacotherapies, and community-oriented approaches is also likely as multidimensional cessation strategies are developed.

  2. Evidence-based approach to an inpatient tobacco cessation protocol.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Mary Beth; Cox, Geoff; Heath, Janie

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use contributes to USD53 to USD73 billion per year in healthcare expenditures and causes nearly 440,000 deaths per year. Given the strong cause-effect relationship between smoking and poor health outcomes, it is critical that smokers are identified early and advised about smoking cessation. Furthermore, the Joint Commission now mandates that tobacco cessation advice be given to patients admitted with heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction. As such, an interdisciplinary group at an urban academic medical center developed and implemented a tobacco cessation protocol with the goal of identifying and targeting inpatient smokers through evidence-based education and counseling. The protocol focused on admission assessment, education, and provision of standing orders for medication treatment for nicotine withdrawal and/or tobacco cessation therapy during the inpatient encounter and referral for outpatient counseling at discharge.

  3. Comparison of an intensive pharmacist-managed telephone clinic with standard of care for tobacco cessation in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Timothy; Kazerooni, Rashid; Vannort, Erin M; Nguyen, Khanh; Nguyen, Stacey; Harris, Jessica; Bounthavong, Mark

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Pharmacist-Managed Telephone Tobacco Cessation Clinic (PMTTCC) compared to the standard of care (SOC) at the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System. A retrospective cohort study was performed investigating the proportion of veterans who quit smoking at 6 months while enrolled in the PMTTCC. Chart review was performed using the Veterans Affairs Computerized Patient Record System. The PMTTCC group included patients who had received medication and counseling from the tobacco cessation pharmacists. The cohort was compared to a matched SOC group who did not receive counseling, only tobacco cessation medication therapy through a primary care provider. The primary outcome for this study was patient-reported tobacco cessation at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were abstinence at 1 and 3 months. A total of 1,006 patients were included in the analysis, 503 patients from the PMTTCC and 503 patients from SOC. The overall study population was 54 years old on average, 92.5% male, 70.0% Caucasian, 45.5% with history of psychiatric conditions, and had an average smoking history of 33-pack years. Patients in the PMTTCC group had statistically significant improvements in abstinence at 6 months versus the SOC group (81/503, 16.1% vs. 48/503, 9.5%; p < .0001). Quitters were older on average versus non-quitters (56.03 vs. 53.65 years; p = .01). Patients enrolled in the PMTTCC had improved tobacco abstinence rates at 6 months compared to SOC. Although the study was not designed to test for causality, the results lend support for using intensive tobacco cessation management in veteran population. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Development of a tobacco cessation intervention for Alaska Native youth

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Fadahunsi, Oluwole; Hanza, Marcelo; Smith, Christina M.; Hughes, Christine A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Boyer, Rahnia; Decker, Paul A.; Luger, Elizabeth; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted cessation intervention developed for AN youth. Intervention components were informed by prior focus groups assessing treatment preferences among AN youth, a social cognitive theoretical framework and feedback obtained from a teen advisory group. The intervention consisted of a weekend program where youth traveled by small airplane from their villages to stay overnight with other adolescents who quit tobacco use together. The program included recreational activities, talking circles, personal stories from elders and teen advisors, and cognitive behavioral counseling. Two intervention pilots were conducted from October 2010 to January 2011 using a non-randomized, uncontrolled study design with assessments at baseline and six-week follow-up. One village in Western Alaska was selected for each pilot with a targeted enrollment of 10 adolescents each. Participants were recruited for each pilot within five days, but recruitment challenges and ‘‘lessons learned’’ are described. The first pilot enrolled nine adolescents (all female) aged 13–16 years; all nine attended the intervention program and 78% (7/9) completed follow-up. The second pilot enrolled 12 adolescents (eight females, four males) aged 12–17 years, of which seven attended the intervention program. Six of these seven participants (86%) completed follow-up. In both pilots, participants rated the intervention as highly acceptable. A targeted cessation intervention was feasible and acceptable to AN youth. The intervention will be tested for efficacy in a subsequent randomized controlled trial. PMID:24058327

  5. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  6. Lay health influencers: how they tailor brief tobacco cessation interventions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nicole P; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-10-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented.

  7. Activating lay health influencers to promote tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Myra L; Hall, John R; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z; Lando, Harry A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay "health influencers," on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants' prior intervention experience, 80%-86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71%-79% reported >1 in the past 30. Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation.

  8. Activating Lay Health Influencers to Promote Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Hall, John R.; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z.; Lando, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay “health influencers,” on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Methods Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. Results In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants’ prior intervention experience, 80–86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71–79% reported ≥1 in the past 30. Conclusions Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation. PMID:24636035

  9. Online tobacco cessation education to optimize standards of practice for psychiatric mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    Amole, Jacques; Heath, Janie; Joshua, Thomas V; McLear, Beth

    2012-03-01

    This article presents an overview of an online education offering to improve standards of practice for nurses intervening with tobacco-dependent mentally ill populations. Designed as a pilot study and guided by the theory of reasoned action framework, the pretest-posttest educational program was conducted to examine attitudes and beliefs, knowledge, and intentions to integrate tobacco cessation interventions into practice. Although positive attitudes and beliefs were demonstrated, knowledge gaps continued to exist after the online program. Strengths and challenges of the online education offering are presented with recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Indian dental students' attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Murugaboopathy, Vikneshan; Ankola, Anil V; Hebbal, Mamata; Sharma, Ratika

    2013-04-01

    Tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) has been proven to be very effective in helping tobacco users to quit. Dentists can play a vital role in helping patients to quit tobacco use. The aim of this study was to examine five groups of Indian dental students' attitudes and practices regarding TCC. Out of 514 fifth-year students in five colleges of Karnataka, India, 456 students voluntarily participated. The thirty-five-item questionnaire consisted of four sections: demographic characteristics, practices in the institution, attitudes toward tobacco cessation programs in the dental setting, knowledge of tobacco counseling, and perceived barriers in counseling. To test the reliability of the survey items, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. Frequency distributions and percentages were examined for each item, and chi-square tests were used to analyze differences based on tobacco usage status. The sample consisted of 317 female and 139 male students. The majority of the students (n=429, 94 percent) reported that they give anti-tobacco usage advice to patients who smoke and planned to advise patients about tobacco cessation throughout their careers. Fewer students (n=314, 68.9 percent) indicated that such counseling would assist patients to quit. The major barriers were reported to be patients' resistance, inadequate skills, and poor knowledge about nicotine replacement therapy. This study found that these students had a positive attitude about TCC, along with adequate knowledge regarding the ill effects of tobacco. However, this study concludes that tobacco cessation should be given greater emphasis in the curriculum of Indian dental schools in order to expand the use of TCC in dental practices.

  11. Population Health Trial for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation with Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    snuff or chewing tobacco , which has been reported to be 4-10 times lower than for smoking.12 Another reason may be the perception of decreased...Epstein JB. The oral effects of smokeless tobacco . J Can Dent Assoc. 2000;66:22-5. 5. Alguacil J, Silverman DT. Smokeless and other noncigarette ... Tobacco Cessation with Military Personnel PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Herbert Severson, Ph.D

  12. The role of academic pharmacy in tobacco cessation and control.

    PubMed

    McBane, Sarah E; Corelli, Robin L; Albano, Christian B; Conry, John M; Della Paolera, Mark A; Kennedy, Amy K; Jenkins, Antoine T; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2013-06-12

    Despite decades of public health initiatives, tobacco use remains the leading known preventable cause of death in the United States. Clinicians have a proven, positive effect on patients' ability to quit, and pharmacists are strategically positioned to assist patients with quitting. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy recognizes health promotion and disease prevention as a key educational outcome; as such, tobacco cessation education should be a required component of pharmacy curricula to ensure that all pharmacy graduates possess the requisite evidence-based knowledge and skills to intervene with patients who use tobacco. Faculty members teaching tobacco cessation-related content must be knowledgeable and proficient in providing comprehensive cessation counseling, and all preceptors and practicing pharmacists providing direct patient care should screen for tobacco use and provide at least minimal counseling as a routine component of care. Pharmacy organizations should establish policies and resolutions addressing the profession's role in tobacco cessation and control, and the profession should work together to eliminate tobacco sales in all practice settings where pharmacy services are rendered.

  13. Community-based tobacco cessation program among women in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, G A; Kulkarni, S V; Majmudar, P V; Gupta, S D; Shastri, S S

    2014-12-01

    Globally tobacco epidemic kills nearly six million people annually. Consumption of tobacco products is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco is addictive; hence, tobacco users need support in quitting. Providing tobacco cessation services to women in community enabling them to quit tobacco, identifying factors associated with quitting and documenting the processes involved to establish a replicable "model tobacco cessation program." This is a community based tobacco cessation program of one year duration conducted among women in a low socioeconomic area of Mumbai, India. It involved three interventions conducted at three months interval, comprised of health education, games and counseling sessions and a post intervention follow-up. Uni and multivariate analysis was performed to find out association of various factors with quitting tobacco. The average compliance in three intervention rounds was 95.2%. The mean age at initiation of tobacco was 17.3 years. Tobacco use among family members and in the community was primary reasons for initiation and addiction to tobacco was an important factor for continuation, whereas health education and counseling seemed to be largely responsible for quitting. The quit rate at the end of the programme was 33.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that women in higher age groups and women consuming tobacco at multiple locations are less likely to quit tobacco. Changing cultural norms associated with smokeless tobacco, strict implementation of antitobacco laws in the community and work places and providing cessation support are important measures in preventing initiation and continuation of tobacco use among women in India.

  14. Teaching tobacco cessation skills to Uruguayan physicians using information and communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Llambí, Laura; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; García, Sofía; Miranda, Natalia; Arredondo, Antonio Lopez; Margolis, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, with the ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Uruguay has implemented a wide range of legal restrictions designed to reduce the devastating impacts of tobacco. This legal process generated an increase in demand for tobacco cessation treatment, which led to the need to train a large number of physicians. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are evolving constantly, creating new opportunities to make online education more interactive. The evolution of ICTs presents an opportunity to develop innovative continuing medical education (CME) experiences to meet the increasing demand for this topic. A blended-learning course on tobacco cessation was developed and implemented, combining face-to-face and online activities. Educational strategy focused on (1) facilitating interaction among generalists and between generalists and experts, and (2) providing high impact CME incorporating multifaceted interventions with wiki-type collaborative construction of practical knowledge. Multiple-choice tests and commitments-to-change were used for evaluation. Three hundred thirty-five health professionals participated in the course. Of these, 145 (43.3%) attended the on-site workshop, 216 (64.5%) participated in the online activities, and 109 (32.5%) completed both phases. Fifty of the 105 (47.6%) participants completing the pretest had a passing score, while 78.1% received a passing score on the final test (p < .001). Differences between mean pretest and posttest scores among those who completed both phases compared with those who only did the online phase were statistically significant (p = .003 and p = .009, respectively). The need to train physicians on tobacco cessation skills can be addressed via ICTs and educational activities that include participant interaction. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital

  15. Oral Cancer Knowledge and Practice among Dental Patients and their Attitude Towards Tobacco Cessation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Tahani, Bahareh; Nouri, Samin; Khazaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    One of the main causes of delay in diagnosis of oral cancer is lack of awareness about aetiology and symptoms among the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of patients regarding oral cancer and their attitude towards tobacco cessation. This study was carried out in Isfahan-Iran in 2014. A 29-item self-administrated questionnaire was designed and piloted and distributed to patients attending dental clinics. Questions were focused on awareness about oral cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, places in the mouth which are more susceptible and attitude toward tobacco cessation. Chi-square, T-test, ANOVA and logistic regression tests were used for statistical analysis. A total of 546 valid completed questionnaires were obtained. The mean knowledge score of patients was 4.1(±2.7) out of 13. Some 80% of patients did not know about early manifestations of oral cancer. Only 18% knew the most likely sites of oral cancer. Only 43.1% and 65.2% of patients reported alcohol and tobacco consumption as the main risk factors but they had a fair knowledge about other risk factors. There was no significant difference in Knowledge level between patients regarding their sex, educational levels and age. Most patents (90%) expected their dentists to warn them about the harmful effects of smoking and showed willingness to quit if recommended. Knowledge about oral cancer was found to be quite low. It seems necessary to increase the level of public awareness using educational programs with cooperation of dentists in tobacco cessation programs.

  16. Mediators of a successful web-based smokeless tobacco cessation program.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Brian G; Smolkowski, Keith; Seeley, John R; Severson, Herbert H

    2008-10-01

    To examine self-efficacy and program exposure as possible mediators observed treatment effects for a web-based tobacco cessation intervention. The ChewFree trial used a two-arm design to compare tobacco abstinence at both the 3- and 6-month follow-up for participants randomized to either an enhanced intervention condition or a basic information-only control condition. Internet in US and Canada. Our secondary analyses focused upon 402 participants who visited the web-based program at least once, whose baseline self-efficacy rating showed room for improvement, who reported that they were still using tobacco at the 6-week assessment, and for whom both 3- and 6-month follow-up data were available. An enhanced web-based behavioral smokeless tobacco cessation intervention delivered program content using text, interactive activities, testimonial videos and an ask-an-expert forum and a peer forum. The basic control condition delivered tobacco cessation content using static text only. Change in self-efficacy and program exposure from baseline to 6 weeks were tested as simple and multiple mediators on the effect of treatment condition on point-prevalence tobacco abstinence measured at 3- and 6-month follow-up. While both participant self-efficacy and program exposure satisfied the requirements for simple mediation, only self-efficacy emerged as a mediator when we used the more robust test of multiple mediation. Results confirm the importance of self-efficacy change as a probable underlying mechanism in a successful web-based behavioral intervention. While program exposure was found to be a simple mediator of tobacco abstinence, it failed to emerge as a mediator when tested with self-efficacy change in a multiple mediator test suggesting that self-efficacy and program exposure share a complex, possibly reciprocal relationship with the tobacco abstinence outcome. Our results underscore the utility of searching for mediators in research on web-based interventions.

  17. Preventing 3 Million Premature Deaths and Helping 5 Million Smokers Quit: A National Action Plan for Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Michael C.; Croyle, Robert T.; Curry, Susan J.; Cutler, Charles M.; Davis, Ronald M.; Gordon, Catherine; Healton, Cheryl; Koh, Howard K.; Orleans, C. Tracy; Richling, Dennis; Satcher, David; Seffrin, John; Williams, Christine; Williams, Larry N.; Keller, Paula A.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2004-01-01

    In August 2002, the Subcommittee on Cessation of the Interagency Committee on Smoking and Health (ICSH) was charged with developing recommendations to substantially increase rates of tobacco cessation in the United States. The subcommittee’s report, A National Action Plan for Tobacco Cessation, outlines 10 recommendations for reducing premature morbidity and mortality by helping millions of Americans stop using tobacco. The plan includes both evidence-based, population-wide strategies designed to promote cessation (e.g., a national quitline network) and a Smokers’ Health Fund to finance the programs (through a $2 per pack excise tax increase). The subcommittee report was presented to the ICSH (February 11, 2003), which unanimously endorsed sending it to Secretary Thompson for his consideration. In this article, we summarize the national action plan. PMID:14759928

  18. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  19. Patient receptivity to tobacco cessation counseling and services in a dental teaching institute: a patient review.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pavan Uday; Vivek, S; Chandrasekhar, Thatimatla; Parimi, Nalini; Praveen, B H; Lingaraj, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    The dentists are in a unique position to render tobacco cessation counseling to their patients. The current study is set to assess the attitudes of tobacco users toward tobacco cessation counseling attending a dental teaching institute and hospital in Andhra Pradesh. A systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Survey was conducted among 660 patients attending a dental teaching institute. Patients who have completed oral examination in the department of oral medicine and radiology were asked to complete pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed in both English and Telugu (local language). Among the study subjects 88.9% were planning to quit the habit, 72.27% had agreed that they discussed about ill-effects of tobacco, 82% of the subjects said that dentist should routinely offer quit tobacco assistance and services. The present study indicates the majority of patients are receptive towards tobacco counseling and services in the dental setting. In this study, the majority of tobacco users were planning to quit. Majority of patients were unaware of the resources available to help them to quit. Dentists have a significant opportunity to disseminate information to patients who need assistance in quitting the habit of tobacco usage.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Tobacco Cessation Among Indian Dentists.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabiha; Reddy, Srikanth; Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, Padma; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding tobacco cessation among dentists in Hyderabad city, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 264 dentists registered in the local Indian Dental Association branch, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. The questionnaire comprised of 35 items and used a five-point Likert scale to assess tobacco use prevention and cessation counseling. The majority of the study participants were females (55.7%) with a mean age of 29.9 ± 7.5 years. No significant gender difference was observed for any of the mean domain scores. A statistically significant difference was noted between age groups in the 'Knowledge' domain, 'professional role and identity' item (P = 0.03) vs the 'Practice' domain, 'social influences' item (P = 0.05) with 40+ years having a higher mean score (6.5 ± 1.5). In terms of the education, those possessing Bachelor's of Dental Science had a significantly higher mean score (10.8 ± 2.2) for the 'Attitude' question 'belief about consequences' (P = 0.05) than did those with a Master's degree. The reported barriers were insufficient reimbursement (48.1%), lack of tobacco-related self-help material/pamphlets for patients (46.5%) and lack of patient motivation to receive tobacco cessation counseling (43.6%). In the present study, although dentists possessed knowledge about tobacco cessation, it was not adequate. Dental professionals play an important role in educating patients regarding the oral health risks of tobacco use and motivating them to quit.

  1. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  2. Educating Physical Therapist Students in Tobacco Cessation Counseling: Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pignataro, Rose M.; Gurka, Matthew; Jones, Dina L.; Kershner, Ruth E.; Ohtake, Patricia J.; Stauber, William; Swisher, Anne K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking is the leading preventable cause of chronic disease and premature morbidity. People with physical disabilities experience elevated smoking prevalence when compared with their non-disabled peers. The physical therapy profession is dedicated to meeting needs of people with physical disabilities, yet most physical therapists (PT) do not typically provide tobacco cessation interventions. Similar deficits exist among other health professions, creating a demand for improved services to address smoking-related health burdens. Within other health professions, insufficient tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) education has been linked to a lack of interventions and may account for similar deficits in physical therapy practice. Study Purpose Goals were to assess feasibility, implementation, and results of a tailored TCC educational program for entry-level physical therapist (PT) students. Subjects Two cohorts of entry-level physical therapist (PT) students (n = 12 and n = 17) Methods Educational objectives were established based on prior review of the literature, a survey of national PT education programs, and clinical guidelines for TCC established by the United States Public Health Service (USPHS). Based on these objectives, the team designed a 3-hour workshop involving didactic content and problem-based skills practice. A pre- and post-test survey was used to measure 6 dimensions: knowledge, perceived barriers, perceived facilitators, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-rated skill in TCC. Within each cohort, changes in score were compared using a paired t test. The ability to apply clinical guidelines for TCC was assessed using case scenarios and structured observation. These outcomes were selected based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, which states that future behavior is determined by intention to act. Intention to act is a product of knowledge, a positive balance between perceived barriers and facilitators, strong self-efficacy, favorable

  3. Educating Physical Therapist Students in Tobacco Cessation Counseling: Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pignataro, Rose M; Gurka, Matthew; Jones, Dina L; Kershner, Ruth E; Ohtake, Patricia J; Stauber, William; Swisher, Anne K

    2015-09-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of chronic disease and premature morbidity. People with physical disabilities experience elevated smoking prevalence when compared with their non-disabled peers. The physical therapy profession is dedicated to meeting needs of people with physical disabilities, yet most physical therapists (PT) do not typically provide tobacco cessation interventions. Similar deficits exist among other health professions, creating a demand for improved services to address smoking-related health burdens. Within other health professions, insufficient tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) education has been linked to a lack of interventions and may account for similar deficits in physical therapy practice. Goals were to assess feasibility, implementation, and results of a tailored TCC educational program for entry-level physical therapist (PT) students. Two cohorts of entry-level physical therapist (PT) students (n = 12 and n = 17). Educational objectives were established based on prior review of the literature, a survey of national PT education programs, and clinical guidelines for TCC established by the United States Public Health Service (USPHS). Based on these objectives, the team designed a 3-hour workshop involving didactic content and problem-based skills practice. A pre- and post-test survey was used to measure 6 dimensions: knowledge, perceived barriers, perceived facilitators, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-rated skill in TCC. Within each cohort, changes in score were compared using a paired t test. The ability to apply clinical guidelines for TCC was assessed using case scenarios and structured observation. These outcomes were selected based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, which states that future behavior is determined by intention to act. Intention to act is a product of knowledge, a positive balance between perceived barriers and facilitators, strong self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectations, and necessary skills

  4. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapy for Specific Problems: Youth Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. The majority of children smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence, and many older teens have well-established dependence on nicotine. Efforts to promote and support smoking cessation among these youth smokers are critical. The available experimental studies of youth cessation interventions find that behavioral interventions increase the chances of youth smokers achieving successful cessation. Currently there is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with youth smokers. Many innovative studies have been compromised by challenges in recruiting sufficient numbers of youth, obtaining approval for waivers of parental consent, and high attrition in longitudinal studies. Key areas for future work include bridging the fields of adolescent development and treatment design, matching treatments to developmental trajectories of smoking behavior, better understanding treatment processes and treatment moderators, and building demand for evidence-based cessation treatments. PMID:19035825

  6. The effectiveness of a telephone-based tobacco cessation program offered as part of a worksite health promotion program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Seaverson, Erin Ld; Staufacker, Michael J; Tanaka, Akiko

    2011-06-01

    Extensive research on tobacco cessation affirms the effectiveness of interventions, although the literature is more limited concerning the impact of programs designed specifically for the workplace. The present study examines the effectiveness of a telephone-based health coaching tobacco cessation program that was provided as part of worksite health promotion programs by 10 large employers. The participants were recruited based on their health risks as identified by health assessments, and the program was personalized to meet their individual needs and stages of change. The results indicate that at 12 months, health coaching program participants achieved a 32% quit rate, compared to 18% for nonparticipants. The quit rate was highest (44%) among program completers who were ready to change at baseline. These results suggest that a tobacco cessation program offered as part of a worksite health promotion program can be highly effective, especially for those who are ready to change. However, the relatively low annual participation rate may indicate that tobacco users remain among the most difficult to engage and to support in their efforts to complete programs. Therefore, implementing a variety of engagement strategies, such as policy changes, as well as social and financial incentives and penalties will most likely have a positive effect at the population level.

  7. Tobacco cessation in India: how can oral health professionals contribute?

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archana; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is described as the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with the World Bank predicting over 450 million tobacco-related deaths in the next fifty years. In India, the proportion of all deaths that can be attributed to tobacco use is expected to rise from 1.4% in 1990 to 13.3% in 2020 of which smoking alone will cause about 930,000 adult deaths by 2010. Many studies have shown that counseling from a health professional is an effective method of helping patients quit the tobacco habit. Tobacco cessation needs to be urgently expanded by training health professionals in providing routine clinical interventions, increasing availability and subsidies of pharmacotherapy, developing wide-reaching strategies such as quitlines, and cost- effective strategies, including group interventions. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) emphasizes the vital contribution of participation of health professional bodies, as well as training and healthcare institutions in tobacco control efforts. Dentists can play an important role in helping patients quit using tobacco. One of the key strategies to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality is to encourage the involvement of health professionals in tobacco-use prevention and cessation counselling. The dental office is an ideal setting for tobacco cessation services since preventive treatment services, oral screening, and patient education have always been a large part of the dental practice.

  8. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  9. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  10. Pharmacist-managed tobacco cessation program in Veterans Health Administration community-based outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Dent, Larry A; Scott, Jesse G; Lewis, Evan

    2004-01-01

    To describe an ongoing pharmacist-managed tobacco cessation clinic and assess the long-term effectiveness of the program. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) community-based outpatient clinic in Missoula, Montana. Pharmacy professor/clinical pharmacy specialist, advanced pharmacy practice experience students, and tobacco cessation participants. Ongoing, pharmacist-managed tobacco cessation program offered to veterans. With use of the "Vets without Cigarettes" program developed by the Montana VHA and the most current strategies reported in the literature, the clinical pharmacy specialist and pharmacy students provide tobacco cessation services for Missoula Veterans Affairs Primary Care Center veterans. Activities include a three-session program using the Transtheoretical Model of Change, tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy, behavioral strategies, cognitive techniques, documentation, and follow-up survey. Percentage of veterans contacted reporting tobacco abstinence. Follow-up survey results were obtained for 130 (87.8%) of 148 veterans attending one or more sessions of the tobacco cessation class between November 1999 and December 2003. Of the 130 veterans contacted, 54 (41.5%) continued to be tobacco free. This program demonstrates that pharmacists are effective providers of tobacco cessation services. Furthermore, a comprehensive tobacco cessation program is provided that can serve as a model to guide pharmacists in assisting more patients to become tobacco free and live healthier lifestyles.

  11. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  12. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  13. Evaluation of Multidisciplinary Tobacco Cessation Training Program in a Large Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Timothy C.; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W.; Watanabe, Jonathan H.; Bounthavong, Mark; Zillich, Alan J.; Christofferson, Dana E.; Myers, Mark G.; Himstreet, Julianne E.; Belperio, Pamela S.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care professionals can have a dramatic impact by assisting patients with tobacco cessation but most have limited training. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 4-hour tobacco cessation training program. Methods: A team of multidisciplinary health care professionals created a veteran-specific tailored version of the Rx for…

  14. Evaluation of Multidisciplinary Tobacco Cessation Training Program in a Large Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Timothy C.; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W.; Watanabe, Jonathan H.; Bounthavong, Mark; Zillich, Alan J.; Christofferson, Dana E.; Myers, Mark G.; Himstreet, Julianne E.; Belperio, Pamela S.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care professionals can have a dramatic impact by assisting patients with tobacco cessation but most have limited training. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 4-hour tobacco cessation training program. Methods: A team of multidisciplinary health care professionals created a veteran-specific tailored version of the Rx for…

  15. Tobacco Cessation Intervention During Pregnancy Among Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based participatory research program with Alaska Native people addressing a community need to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women and children. Tobacco use during pregnancy among Alaska Native women is described along with development of a community partnership, findings from a pilot tobacco cessation intervention, current work, and future directions. Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of western Alaska, the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and/or use of smokeless tobacco) during pregnancy is 79%. Results from a pilot intervention study targeting pregnant women indicated low rates of participation and less than optimal tobacco abstinence outcomes. Developing alternative strategies to reach pregnant women and to enhance the efficacy of interventions is a community priority, and future directions are offered. PMID:22311690

  16. Tobacco cessation intervention during pregnancy among Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Patten, Christi A

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a community-based participatory research program with Alaska Native people addressing a community need to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women and children. Tobacco use during pregnancy among Alaska Native women is described along with development of a community partnership, findings from a pilot tobacco cessation intervention, current work, and future directions. Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of western Alaska, the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and/or use of smokeless tobacco) during pregnancy is 79%. Results from a pilot intervention study targeting pregnant women indicated low rates of participation and less than optimal tobacco abstinence outcomes. Developing alternative strategies to reach pregnant women and to enhance the efficacy of interventions is a community priority, and future directions are offered.

  17. A Novel Public Health Approach to Measuring Tobacco Cessation Needs Among Cancer Survivors in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Underwood, J Michael; Hyde-Rolland, Samantha J; Thorsness, Julia; Stewart, Sherri L

    2017-05-20

    Cancer survivors who continue to smoke have poorer response to treatment, higher risk for future cancers and lower survival rates than those who quit tobacco after diagnosis. Despite the increased risk for negative health outcomes, tobacco use among Alaskan cancer survivors is 19%, among the highest in the nation. To characterize and address tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who called a quit line for help in quitting tobacco, Alaska's Comprehensive Cancer Control program initiated a novel partnership with the state's Tobacco Quit Line. Alaska's Tobacco Quit Line, a state-funded resource that provides confidential coaching, support, and nicotine replacement therapies for Alaskan adults who wish to quit using tobacco, was used to collect demographic characteristics, health behaviors, cessation referral methods and other information on users. From September 2013- December 2014, the Alaska Quit Line included questions about previous cancer status and other chronic conditions to assess this information from cancer survivors who continue to use tobacco. Alaska's Tobacco Quit Line interviewed 3,141 smokers, 129 (4%) of whom were previously diagnosed with cancer. Most cancer survivors who called in to the quit line were female (72%), older than 50 years of age (65%), white (67%), and smoked cigarettes (95%). Cancer survivors reported a higher prevalence of asthma, COPD and heart disease than the non-cancer cohort. Approximately 34% of cancer survivors were referred to the quit line by a health care provider. This report illustrates the need for health care provider awareness of persistent tobacco use among cancer survivors in Alaska. It also provides a sound methodologic design for assessing ongoing tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who call a quit line. This survey methodology can be adapted by other public health programs to address needs and increase healthy behaviors among individuals with chronic disease.

  18. Tobacco Cessation Treatment for Alaska Native Adolescents: Group Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and the potential efficacy of a targeted cessation intervention for AN youth using a group randomized design. Methods: Eight villages in western Alaska were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (n = 4 villages) or a delayed treatment control condition (written materials only; n = 4 villages). Ten adolescents aged 12–17 years were targeted from each village with a planned enrollment of 80. The intervention was held over a weekend, and youth traveled from their villages to quit tobacco use with other teens. The intervention comprised 8hr of group-based counseling. Talking circles, personal stories from elders, and recreational activities were included to enhance cultural acceptability and participation. Newsletters were mailed weekly for 5-weeks postprogram. Assessments were conducted at baseline, week 6 (end-of-treatment), and 6 months. Self-reported tobacco abstinence was confirmed with salivary cotinine. Results: Recruitment targets were met in the intervention (41 enrolled) but not in control villages (27 enrolled). All intervention participants attended the weekend program. Retention was high; 98% of intervention and 86% of control participants completed 6-month follow-up. The 7-day point-prevalence self-reported tobacco abstinence rates for intervention and control participants were 10% (4/41) and 0% (0/27) at both week 6 and 6 months (p = .15). Only 1 adolescent in the intervention condition was biochemically confirmed abstinent at week 6 and none at 6 months. Conclusion: The intensive individual-focused intervention used in this study was feasible but not effective for tobacco cessation among AN youth. Alternative approaches are warranted. PMID:24532352

  19. Interventions for tobacco cessation in the dental setting

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Alan B; Ebbert, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco use has significant adverse effects on oral health. Oral health professionals in the dental office or community setting have a unique opportunity to increase tobacco abstinence rates among tobacco users. Objectives This review assesses the effectiveness of interventions for tobacco cessation delivered by oral health professionals and offered to cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users in the dental office or community setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1966-November 2011), EMBASE (1988-November 2011), CINAHL (1982-November 2011), Healthstar (1975-November 2011), ERIC (1967-November 2011), PsycINFO (1984-November 2011), National Technical Information Service database (NTIS, 1964-November 2011), Dissertation Abstracts Online (1861-November 2011), Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE, 1995-November 2011), and Web of Science (1993-November 2011). Selection criteria We included randomized and pseudo-randomized clinical trials assessing tobacco cessation interventions conducted by oral health professionals in the dental office or community setting with at least six months of follow-up. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently reviewed abstracts for potential inclusion and abstracted data from included trials. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The primary outcome was abstinence from smoking or all tobacco use (for users of smokeless tobacco) at the longest follow-up, using the strictest definition of abstinence reported. The effect was summarised as an odds ratio, with correction for clustering where appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic and where appropriate a pooled effect was estimated using an inverse variance fixed-effect model. Main results Fourteen clinical trials met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Included studies assessed the efficacy of interventions in the dental office or in a

  20. Interventions for tobacco cessation in the dental setting.

    PubMed

    Carr, Alan B; Ebbert, Jon

    2012-06-13

    Tobacco use has significant adverse effects on oral health. Oral health professionals in the dental office or community setting have a unique opportunity to increase tobacco abstinence rates among tobacco users. This review assesses the effectiveness of interventions for tobacco cessation delivered by oral health professionals and offered to cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users in the dental office or community setting. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1966-November 2011), EMBASE (1988-November 2011), CINAHL (1982-November 2011), Healthstar (1975-November 2011), ERIC (1967-November 2011), PsycINFO (1984-November 2011), National Technical Information Service database (NTIS, 1964-November 2011), Dissertation Abstracts Online (1861-November 2011), Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE, 1995-November 2011), and Web of Science (1993-November 2011). We included randomized and pseudo-randomized clinical trials assessing tobacco cessation interventions conducted by oral health professionals in the dental office or community setting with at least six months of follow-up. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts for potential inclusion and abstracted data from included trials. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The primary outcome was abstinence from smoking or all tobacco use (for users of smokeless tobacco) at the longest follow-up, using the strictest definition of abstinence reported. The effect was summarised as an odds ratio, with correction for clustering where appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I² statistic and where appropriate a pooled effect was estimated using an inverse variance fixed-effect model. Fourteen clinical trials met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Included studies assessed the efficacy of interventions in the dental office or in a community school or college setting. Six studies evaluated the effectiveness of interventions among

  1. Project Quit Tobacco International: laying the groundwork for tobacco cessation in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The 3 aims of Project Quit Tobacco International are to design a tobacco curriculum for medical colleges, develop culturally appropriate approaches to clinic and community-based tobacco cessation, and to build tobacco research and training networks within India and Indonesia as a prototype for other countries. This article describes pilot interventions being launched in 10 medical colleges in these 2 countries to (a) integrate tobacco into their 4-year training programs, ( b) establish illness-specific cessation clinics, and (c) involve colleges in community outreach efforts to promote smoke-free households. This article reports on lessons learned, challenges faced, and successes realized to date.

  2. Faculty Development in Tobacco Cessation: Training Health Professionals and Promoting Tobacco Control in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Issues Cessation programs are essential components of comprehensive tobacco control. Health care providers, especially physicians, have major responsibility for role modeling and promoting cessation. For successful, sustainable cessation training programs, countries need health care professionals with knowledge and skills to deliver and teach tobacco cessation. Approach Review literature relevant to faculty development in tobacco cessation and discuss its strategic potential in tobacco control. Key findings Faculty development is essential for sustainable tobacco cessation training programs, and a potentially powerful strategy to shift professional and societal norms toward cessation and support of comprehensive tobacco control in countries with normative tobacco use and underdeveloped tobacco control programs. Implications Medical faculty are in a key position to influence tobacco cessation and control programs because of their roles as educators and researchers, receptivity to innovation and, influence on competencies and standards for medical education and practice. Faculty development programs must consider the number and type of faculty, and tobacco cessation curricula needed. Faculty development fosters the ability to institutionalize cessation education for students and community practitioners. Academic faculty are often leaders in their professional disciplines, influential in establishing clinical practice standards, and technical experts for government and other key health organizations. Conclusion Training health care professional faculty to become knowledgeable and committed to tobacco cessation opens opportunities to promote cessation and shift professional and societal norms away from tobacco use. PMID:19737208

  3. Effectiveness of a brief community outreach tobacco cessation intervention in India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial (the BABEX Trial).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Bidyut K; West, Robert; Arora, Monika; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Reddy, K Srinath; Shahab, Lion

    2017-02-01

    Tobacco use kills half a million people every month, most in low-middle income countries (LMICs). There is an urgent need to identify potentially low-cost, scalable tobacco cessation interventions for these countries. To evaluate a brief community outreach intervention delivered by health workers to promote tobacco cessation in India. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. 32 low-income administrative blocks in Delhi, half government authorised ('resettlement colony') and half unauthorised ('J.J. cluster') communities. 1213 adult tobacco users. Administrative blocks were computer randomised in a 1:1 ratio, to the intervention (16 clusters; n=611) or control treatment (16 clusters; n=602), delivered and assessed at individual level between 07/2012 and 11/2013. The intervention was single session quit advice (15 min) plus a single training session in yogic breathing exercises; the control condition comprised very brief quit advice (1 min) alone. Both were delivered via outreach, with contact made though household visits. The primary outcome was 6-month sustained abstinence from all tobacco, assessed 7 months post intervention delivery, biochemically verified with salivary cotinine. The smoking cessation rate was higher in the intervention group (2.6% (16/611)) than in the control group (0.5% (3/602)) (relative risk=5.32, 95% CI 1.43 to 19.74, p=0.013). There was no interaction with type of tobacco use (smoked vs smokeless). Results did not change materially in adjusted analyses, controlling for participant characteristics. A single session community outreach intervention can increase tobacco cessation in LMIC. The effect size, while small, could impact public health if scaled up with high coverage. ISRCTCN23362894. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Effectiveness of a brief community outreach tobacco cessation intervention in India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial (the BABEX Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Bidyut K; West, Robert; Arora, Monika; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Reddy, K Srinath; Shahab, Lion

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco use kills half a million people every month, most in low–middle income countries (LMICs). There is an urgent need to identify potentially low-cost, scalable tobacco cessation interventions for these countries. Objective To evaluate a brief community outreach intervention delivered by health workers to promote tobacco cessation in India. Design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 low-income administrative blocks in Delhi, half government authorised (‘resettlement colony’) and half unauthorised (‘J.J. cluster’) communities. Participants 1213 adult tobacco users. Interventions Administrative blocks were computer randomised in a 1:1 ratio, to the intervention (16 clusters; n=611) or control treatment (16 clusters; n=602), delivered and assessed at individual level between 07/2012 and 11/2013. The intervention was single session quit advice (15 min) plus a single training session in yogic breathing exercises; the control condition comprised very brief quit advice (1 min) alone. Both were delivered via outreach, with contact made though household visits. Measurements The primary outcome was 6-month sustained abstinence from all tobacco, assessed 7 months post intervention delivery, biochemically verified with salivary cotinine. Results The smoking cessation rate was higher in the intervention group (2.6% (16/611)) than in the control group (0.5% (3/602)) (relative risk=5.32, 95% CI 1.43 to 19.74, p=0.013). There was no interaction with type of tobacco use (smoked vs smokeless). Results did not change materially in adjusted analyses, controlling for participant characteristics. Conclusions A single session community outreach intervention can increase tobacco cessation in LMIC. The effect size, while small, could impact public health if scaled up with high coverage. Trial registration number ISRCTCN23362894. PMID:27708113

  5. Climate for Innovation, 12-Step Orientation, & Tobacco Cessation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Laschober, Tanja C.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between (1) three indicators of climate for innovation (clinician skills, absence of program obstacles, policy-related incentives) and adoption extensiveness of both behavioral treatments for tobacco cessation (TC) and system-level support for TC in substance use disorder treatment programs, (2) a program’s 12-step treatment orientation and adoption extensiveness, and (3) whether 12-step treatment orientation moderates the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Data were obtained from a random sample of 1,006 program administrators. Hierarchical regression results showed that both absence of program obstacles and policy-related incentives are positively related to adoption extensiveness. Twelve-step treatment orientation is neither related to adoption extensiveness nor a moderator of the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Although the adoption of both behavioral treatments for TC and system-level support for TC is not extensive, we conclude that a 12-step treatment orientation neither hampers nor promotes adoption extensiveness. PMID:24355811

  6. Climate for innovation, 12-step orientation, and tobacco cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, Jessica L; Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian T

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between (1) three indicators of climate for innovation (clinician skills, absence of program obstacles, policy-related incentives) and adoption extensiveness of both behavioral treatments for tobacco cessation (TC) and system-level support for TC in substance use disorder treatment programs, (2) a program's 12-step treatment orientation and adoption extensiveness, and (3) whether 12-step treatment orientation moderates the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Data were obtained from a random sample of 1006 program administrators. Hierarchical regression results showed that both absence of program obstacles and policy-related incentives are positively related to adoption extensiveness. Twelve-step treatment orientation is neither related to adoption extensiveness nor a moderator of the relationship between climate for innovation and adoption extensiveness. Although the adoption of both behavioral treatments for TC and system-level support for TC is not extensive, we conclude that a 12-step treatment orientation neither hampers nor promotes adoption extensiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining physicians' preparedness for tobacco cessation services in India: Findings from primary care public health facilities in two Indian states.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rajmohan; Jena, Pratap Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A total of 275 million tobacco users live throughout India and are in need of tobacco cessation services. However, the preparation of physicians to deliver this service at primary care health facilities remains unknown. The study aimed to examine the primary care physicians' preparedness to deliver tobacco cessation services in two Indian states. Researchers surveyed physicians working in primary care public health facilities, primarily in rural areas using a semistructured interview schedule. Physicians' preparedness was defined in the study as those possessing knowledge of tobacco cessation methods and exhibiting a positive attitude towards the benefits of tobacco cessation counselling as well as being willing to be part of tobacco prevention or cessation program. Overall only 17% of physicians demonstrated adequate preparation to provide tobacco cessation services at primary care health facilities in both the States. The findings revealed minimal tobacco cessation training during formal medical education (21.3%) and on-the-job training (18.9%). Factors, like sex and age of service provider, type of health facility, location of health facility and number of patients attended by the service provider, failed to show significance during bivariate and regression analysis. Preparedness was significantly predicted by state health system. The study highlights a lack of preparedness of primary care physicians to deliver tobacco cessation services. Both the curriculum in medical school and on-the-job training require an addition of a learning component on tobacco cessation. The addition of this component will enable existing primary care facilities to deliver tobacco cessation services.

  8. Optimizing Tobacco Cessation Resource Awareness Among Patients and Providers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Laura; Donohue, Caitlin; DeNofrio, Tina; Vitale Pedulla, Lillian; Haddad, Robert I; Rabinowits, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Despite receiving a cancer diagnosis, many patients continue to use tobacco during treatment, negatively affecting their outcomes. We hypothesized that limited tobacco cessation (TC) discussion among patients and providers was partially the result of providers' lack of awareness of current TC resources available. We surveyed the head and neck oncology providers (HNOPs) at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute to evaluate their awareness of existing TC resources within the community and performed a 6-month medical record review of active tobacco users (ATUs) to evaluate the frequency of documented TC discussions in clinic. We educated the HNOPs about available TC resources, developed a TC resource teaching sheet, placed a provider alert page in examination rooms as a reminder of TC discussions, and built a TC discussion template to ease documentation. Four weeks postintervention, we resurveyed providers and again performed medical record reviews of ATUs. Preintervention, 13% of HNOPs were aware of TC resources available, and TC discussion documentation was 28%. Postintervention, 100% of HNOPs became aware of the TC resources available, and documentations increased to 56% at 5 months. Identification of ATUs increased from six to 13 per month to 17 to 33 per month post intervention. Eighty-eight percent of HNOPs felt the intervention prompted TC discussions in clinic with their ATUs. The limited number of TC discussions among patients and providers was at least partially the result of unawareness of TC resources available within the community. Educating HNOPs and alerting them to ATUs at their clinic visits successfully prompted TC discussions in clinic. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. The role of the dental team in tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N W

    2004-02-01

    The dental team can play an effective role in the creation of tobacco-free communities and individuals through participation in community and political action and in counselling their patients to quit. Maintaining a smoke-free environment is important. There are well-tried and cost effective methods for brief interventions in dental clinical settings, and team-work, to which both clinical and reception/administrative staff must contribute, is fundamental. Quit rates of the order of 10%, sustained over a year or more, can be achieved and this may be increased by prescription of nicotine replacement therapies, or of buproprion, to aid nicotine withdrawal. Prevention of smoking uptake, especially by young people, is much more difficult and has a weaker evidence base. In much of Central and Eastern Europe the situation is very severe because of high smoking rates and associated diseases and where, although governments are now acting with advertising bans and other legislation arising from the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the healthcare professions themselves have high smoking prevalences and a comparative lack of involvement in tobacco cessation and prevention practices. In South and South-East Asia, and in emigrant communities originating from these areas, the use of oral unsmoked tobacco, the chewing of areca nut, and various mixtures of these ingredients in the form of betel quids, is highly addictive and carcinogenic to the mouth, pharynx and oesophagus. Special and specific efforts are needed for cessation and coping strategies in these communities, for which there is a less well-developed evidence base.

  10. The Return on Investment of a Medicaid Tobacco Cessation Program in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Patrick; West, Kristina; Ku, Leighton

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective A high proportion of low-income people insured by the Medicaid program smoke. Earlier research concerning a comprehensive tobacco cessation program implemented by the state of Massachusetts indicated that it was successful in reducing smoking prevalence and those who received tobacco cessation benefits had lower rates of in-patient admissions for cardiovascular conditions, including acute myocardial infarction, coronary atherosclerosis and non-specific chest pain. This study estimates the costs of the tobacco cessation benefit and the short-term Medicaid savings attributable to the aversion of inpatient hospitalization for cardiovascular conditions. Methods A cost-benefit analysis approach was used to estimate the program's return on investment. Administrative data were used to compute annual cost per participant. Data from the 2002–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys were used to estimate the costs of hospital inpatient admissions by Medicaid smokers. These were combined with earlier estimates of the rate of reduction in cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to the tobacco cessation program to calculate the return on investment. Findings Administrative data indicated that program costs including pharmacotherapy, counseling and outreach costs about $183 per program participant (2010 $). We estimated inpatient savings per participant of $571 (range $549 to $583). Every $1 in program costs was associated with $3.12 (range $3.00 to $3.25) in medical savings, for a $2.12 (range $2.00 to $2.25) return on investment to the Medicaid program for every dollar spent. Conclusions These results suggest that an investment in comprehensive tobacco cessation services may result in substantial savings for Medicaid programs. Further federal and state policy actions to promote and cover comprehensive tobacco cessation services in Medicaid may be a cost-effective approach to improve health

  11. Outcome of tobacco cessation in workplace and clinic settings: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ransing, Ramdas S; Patil, Dipak B; Desai, Maruti B; Modak, Asawari

    2016-01-01

    Several biological, social, and cultural factors contribute to the poor outcome of tobacco cessation interventions. Inability to engage large number of participants is one of the major identifiable factors. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of tobacco cessation interventions in the clinical and workplace settings. In the present study, we recruited 100 participants in tobacco cessation clinic (TCC) group and workplace group (50 participants in each). Both the groups were regularly intervened and were followed up regularly at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Active interventions in the form of awareness lectures, focused group discussions, and if needed, pharmacotherapy (nicotine/non-nicotine replacement therapy) was carried out for all participants. The outcome was assessed as no change, harm reduction (>50% reduction), complete cessation, and drop out. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0. At the end of 1 month, there was higher tobacco cessation rate in the workplace group versus TCC group (n = 22, 44% vs n = 9, 18%; P < 0.0001). The tobacco cessation rate was maintained even after 6 months of intervention (n = 30, 60% vs n = 12, 24%; P = 0.002) and dropout rate was also lower among the workplace group than the TCC group (n = 14, 28% vs n = 27, 54%; P < 0.0001). Our study findings suggest that the workplace setting has superior outcome in tobacco cessation and harm reduction than clinical setting. In addition, it is associated with low dropout rate and the cessation effect is maintained over a period of 6 months.

  12. The return on investment of a Medicaid tobacco cessation program in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Richard, Patrick; West, Kristina; Ku, Leighton

    2012-01-01

    A high proportion of low-income people insured by the Medicaid program smoke. Earlier research concerning a comprehensive tobacco cessation program implemented by the state of Massachusetts indicated that it was successful in reducing smoking prevalence and those who received tobacco cessation benefits had lower rates of in-patient admissions for cardiovascular conditions, including acute myocardial infarction, coronary atherosclerosis and non-specific chest pain. This study estimates the costs of the tobacco cessation benefit and the short-term Medicaid savings attributable to the aversion of inpatient hospitalization for cardiovascular conditions. A cost-benefit analysis approach was used to estimate the program's return on investment. Administrative data were used to compute annual cost per participant. Data from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys were used to estimate the costs of hospital inpatient admissions by Medicaid smokers. These were combined with earlier estimates of the rate of reduction in cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to the tobacco cessation program to calculate the return on investment. Administrative data indicated that program costs including pharmacotherapy, counseling and outreach costs about $183 per program participant (2010 $). We estimated inpatient savings per participant of $571 (range $549 to $583). Every $1 in program costs was associated with $3.12 (range $3.00 to $3.25) in medical savings, for a $2.12 (range $2.00 to $2.25) return on investment to the Medicaid program for every dollar spent. These results suggest that an investment in comprehensive tobacco cessation services may result in substantial savings for Medicaid programs. Further federal and state policy actions to promote and cover comprehensive tobacco cessation services in Medicaid may be a cost-effective approach to improve health outcomes for low-income populations.

  13. The impact of the Georgia Health Sciences University nursing faculty practice on tobacco cessation rates.

    PubMed

    Heath, Janie; Inglett, Sandra; Young, Sara; Joshua, Thomas V; Sakievich, Nita; Hawkins, James; Andrews, Jeannette O; Tingen, Martha S

    2012-03-01

    Nursing faculty practice groups can play a vital role in tobacco cessation in academic medical centers. Outcomes from the Georgia Health Sciences University Nursing Faculty Practice Group Tobacco Cessation Program revealed 64% abstinence outcomes at the end of treatment (N = 160) over a 2-year period from the campus-wide tobacco-free policy initiation. A nurse-led, evidence-based, interdisciplinary approach can be an effective strategy to make a difference in the lives of tobacco-dependent individuals, while at the same time integrating practice with education and research. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  15. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  16. Traditional and innovative promotional strategies of tobacco cessation services: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; McCausland, Kristen; Duke, Jennifer; Hansen, Heather; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-08-01

    An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines (QLs). This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for QL services. Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases QL call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to QLs, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion.

  17. Development of a Tobacco Cessation Clinical Decision Support System for Pediatric Emergency Nurses.

    PubMed

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Dexheimer, Judith W; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-12-01

    Almost 50% of children who visit the pediatric emergency department are exposed to tobacco smoke. However, pediatric emergency nurses do not routinely address this issue. The incorporation of a clinical decision support system into the electronic health record may improve the rates of tobacco exposure screening and interventions. We used a mixed-methods design to develop, refine, and implement an evidence-based clinical decision support system to help nurses screen, educate, and assist caregivers to quit smoking. We included an advisory panel of emergency department experts and leaders and focus and user groups of nurses. The prompts include the following: (1) "Ask" about child smoke exposure and caregiver smoking; (2) "Advise" caregivers to reduce their child's smoke exposure by quitting smoking; (3) "Assess" interest; and (4) "Assist" caregivers to quit. The clinical decision support system was created to reflect nurses' suggestions and was implemented in five busy urgent care settings with 38 nurses. The nurses reported that the system was easy to use and helped them to address caregiver smoking. The use of this innovative tool may create a sustainable and disseminable model for prompting nurses to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation treatment.

  18. Traditional and Innovative Promotional Strategies of Tobacco Cessation Services: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; McCausland, Kristen; Duke, Jennifer; Hansen, Heather; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines. This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for quitline services. Methods Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Results Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases quitline (QL) call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Conclusions Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to quitlines, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion. PMID:24515948

  19. Printed Educational Materials' Impact on Tobacco Cessation Brief Interventions in CAM Practice: Patient and Practitioner Experiences.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Emery R; Nichter, Mark; Howerter, Amy; Floden, Lysbeth; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Gordon, Judith S; Muramoto, Myra L

    2016-11-01

    Printed educational materials (PEMs) have long demonstrated their usefulness as economical and effective media for health communication. In this article, we evaluate the impact of targeted tobacco cessation PEMS for use along with a brief intervention training designed for three types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners: chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage. We describe how PEMs in CAM practitioners' offices were perceived and used by practitioners and by patients. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 53 practitioners and 38 of their patients. This analysis specifically focused on developing and distributing project-related posters and pamphlets in CAM practice. Our findings indicate that materials (1) legitimated tobacco-related expertise among CAM practitioners and tobacco-related conversations as part of routine CAM practice, (2) increased practitioners' willingness to approach the topic of tobacco with patients, (3) created an effective way to communicate tobacco-related information and broaden the reach of brief intervention initiatives, and (4) were given to patients who were not willing to engage in direct discussion of tobacco use with practitioners.

  20. Sharing Collaborative Designs of Tobacco Cessation Performance Improvement CME Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullikin, Elizabeth A.; Ales, Mary W.; Cho, Jane; Nelson, Teena M.; Rodrigues, Shelly B.; Speight, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Performance Improvement Continuing Medical Education (PI CME) provides an important opportunity for CME providers to combine educational and quality health care improvement methodologies. Very few CME providers take on the challenges of planning this type of intervention because it is still a new practice and there are limited…

  1. Perceptions of pharmacogenetic research to guide tobacco cessation by patients, providers and leaders in a tribal healthcare setting

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Jaedon P; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Beans, Julie A; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Tyndale, Rachel F; Robinson, Renee F

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Describe patients,’ providers’ and healthcare system leaders’ perceptions of pharmacogenetic research to guide tobacco cessation treatment in an American Indian/Alaska Native primary care setting. Materials & methods: This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with 20 American Indian/Alaska Native current or former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers and nine healthcare system leaders. Results: Participants supported pharmacogenetic research to guide tobacco cessation treatment provided that a community-based participatory research approach be employed, research closely coordinate with existing tobacco cessation services and access to pharmacogenetic test results be restricted to providers involved in tobacco cessation. Conclusion: Despite a history of mistrust toward genetic research in tribal communities, participants expressed willingness to support pharmacogenetic research to guide tobacco cessation treatment. PMID:26871371

  2. Maintaining Addiction: Tobacco Cessation Policy and Substance Abuse Treatment for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurst-Swanger, Karel; Stockweather, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Examines how institutions, which are part of the substance abuse treatment industry, address the connection between tobacco and other drugs in youth. Results suggest that the majority of treatment programs are routinely assessing tobacco use of the youth in their care, but only a small proportion follow through with tobacco cessation as an…

  3. Maintaining Addiction: Tobacco Cessation Policy and Substance Abuse Treatment for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurst-Swanger, Karel; Stockweather, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Examines how institutions, which are part of the substance abuse treatment industry, address the connection between tobacco and other drugs in youth. Results suggest that the majority of treatment programs are routinely assessing tobacco use of the youth in their care, but only a small proportion follow through with tobacco cessation as an…

  4. Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Tobacco Cessation and Prevention: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Leslie; Pagell, Francie; Hallion, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer-reviewed research on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and tobacco cessation and prevention. Results found growing evidence for the TTM's validity as applied to tobacco use, though the evidence was inconclusive. Eight different staging mechanisms were identified, raising the question of which are most valid and reliable. Interventions…

  5. Offering acupuncture as an adjunct for tobacco cessation: a community clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Emiley; Fung, Lei-Chun; Li, Chin-Shang; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Tam, Leonard; Tang, Carrie; Tong, Elisa K

    2013-09-01

    Disparities in smoking rates remain prominent within Asian Americans. Medical pluralism and cultural tailoring may enhance Asian Americans engaging with tobacco cessation assistance. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a community clinic's smoking cessation program targeting a Chinese population that offered acupuncture, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and counseling from 2007 to 2010. Most participants used acupuncture, with about half choosing acupuncture and NRT, followed by more than 40% choosing acupuncture only; few chose NRT only. Tobacco cessation rates at 6 months were relatively high for the acupuncture + NRT group and only acupuncture group (37.7% vs. 28.9%). In comparing tobacco reduction >50% from baseline with an expanded only NRT group, the acupuncture + NRT group had a higher odds ratio than the only acupuncture group, which had a lower odds ratio. Our evaluation of this real-world community program offering acupuncture as a cultural adjunct to a tobacco cessation program suggests that acupuncture might help with engagement by Chinese American male smokers into a tobacco cessation program that offers counseling and NRT. Future larger studies should further evaluate the efficacy of offering acupuncture in combination with NRT on the outcomes of cessation and reduction.

  6. Offering Acupuncture as an Adjunct for Tobacco Cessation: A Community Clinic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Emiley; Fung, Lei-Chun; Li, Chin-Shang; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Tam, Leonard; Tang, Carrie; Tong, Elisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in smoking rates remain prominent within Asian Americans. Medical pluralism and cultural tailoring may enhance Asian Americans engaging with tobacco cessation assistance. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a community clinic’s smoking cessation program targeting a Chinese population that offered acupuncture, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and counseling from 2007 to 2010. Most participants used acupuncture, with about half choosing acupuncture and NRT, followed by more than 40% choosing acupuncture only; few chose NRT only. Tobacco cessation rates at 6 months were relatively high for the acupuncture + NRT group and only acupuncture group (37.7% vs. 28.9%). In comparing tobacco reduction >50% from baseline with an expanded only NRT group, the acupuncture + NRT group had a higher odds ratio than the only acupuncture group, which had a lower odds ratio. Our evaluation of this real-world community program offering acupuncture as a cultural adjunct to a tobacco cessation program suggests that acupuncture might help with engagement by Chinese American male smokers into a tobacco cessation program that offers counseling and NRT. Future larger studies should further evaluate the efficacy of offering acupuncture in combination with NRT on the outcomes of cessation and reduction. PMID:23667059

  7. Clinicians' awareness of the Affordable Care Act mandate to provide comprehensive tobacco cessation treatment for pregnant women covered by Medicaid.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; England, Lucinda J; Malarcher, Ann; Mahoney, Jeanne; Anderson, Britta; Schulkin, Jay

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires states to provide tobacco-cessation services without cost-sharing for pregnant traditional Medicaid-beneficiaries effective October 2010. It is unknown the extent to which obstetricians-gynecologists are aware of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit. We sought to examine the awareness of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit in a national sample of obstetricians-gynecologists and assessed whether reimbursement would influence their tobacco cessation practice. In 2012, a survey was administered to a national stratified-random sample of obstetricians-gynecologists (n = 252) regarding awareness of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit. Results were stratified by the percentage of pregnant Medicaid patients. Chi-squared tests (p < 0.05) were used to assess significant associations. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Eighty-three percent of respondents were unaware of the benefit. Lack of awareness increased as the percentage of pregnant Medicaid patients in their practices decreased (range = 71.9%-96.8%; P = 0.02). One-third (36.1%) of respondents serving pregnant Medicaid patients reported that reimbursement would influence them to increase their cessation services. Four out of five obstetricians-gynecologists surveyed in 2012 were unaware of the ACA provision that required states to provide tobacco cessation coverage for pregnant traditional Medicaid beneficiaries as of October 2010. Broad promotion of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit could reduce treatment barriers.

  8. Tobacco Cessation Counseling Training in US Entry-Level Physical Therapist Education Curricula: Prevalence, Content, and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gurka, Matthew J.; Jones, Dina L.; Kershner, Ruth E.; Ohtake, Patricia J.; Stauber, William T.; Swisher, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The US Public Health Service (USPHS) recommends tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) training for all health care professionals. Within physical therapist practice, smoking can have adverse effects on treatment outcomes in all body systems. In addition, people with physical disabilities have a higher smoking prevalence than the general population, creating a strong need for tobacco cessation among physical therapy clientele. Therefore, TCC training is an important component of entry-level physical therapist education. Objective The aims of this study were: (1) to determine need for TCC training within entry-level physical therapist education and (2) to identify potential barriers to implementation of USPHS guidelines in the academic environment. Design A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted. Methods Directors or academic coordinators of clinical education from entry-level physical therapist programs (N=204) were surveyed using an online instrument designed specifically for this study. Data regarding program and faculty characteristics, tobacco-related training content, and faculty opinions toward TCC in both physical therapist practice and education were analyzed descriptively. Results The response rate was 71%. A majority (60%) of programs indicated inclusion of tobacco-related training, most commonly 1 to 2 hours in duration, and of these programs, 40% trained students in the implementation of USPHS clinical guidelines for TCC. Limitations Data analyses were constrained by limited or missing data in some areas. A single faculty member completed the survey for each program. Conclusions There is a need for TCC training in entry-level physical therapist education. Inclusion may be facilitated by addressing perceived barriers toward TCC as a component of physical therapist practice and promoting the relevance of TCC as it relates to intended outcomes of physical therapy interventions. PMID:24830717

  9. Tobacco cessation counseling training in US entry-level physical therapist education curricula: prevalence, content, and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Pignataro, Rose M; Gurka, Matthew J; Jones, Dina L; Kershner, Ruth E; Ohtake, Patricia J; Stauber, William T; Swisher, Anne K

    2014-09-01

    The US Public Health Service (USPHS) recommends tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) training for all health care professionals. Within physical therapist practice, smoking can have adverse effects on treatment outcomes in all body systems. In addition, people with physical disabilities have a higher smoking prevalence than the general population, creating a strong need for tobacco cessation among physical therapy clientele. Therefore, TCC training is an important component of entry-level physical therapist education. The aims of this study were: (1) to determine need for TCC training within entry-level physical therapist education and (2) to identify potential barriers to implementation of USPHS guidelines in the academic environment. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted. Directors or academic coordinators of clinical education from entry-level physical therapist programs (N=204) were surveyed using an online instrument designed specifically for this study. Data regarding program and faculty characteristics, tobacco-related training content, and faculty opinions toward TCC in both physical therapist practice and education were analyzed descriptively. The response rate was 71%. A majority (60%) of programs indicated inclusion of tobacco-related training, most commonly 1 to 2 hours in duration, and of these programs, 40% trained students in the implementation of USPHS clinical guidelines for TCC. Data analyses were constrained by limited or missing data in some areas. A single faculty member completed the survey for each program. There is a need for TCC training in entry-level physical therapist education. Inclusion may be facilitated by addressing perceived barriers toward TCC as a component of physical therapist practice and promoting the relevance of TCC as it relates to intended outcomes of physical therapy interventions. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  10. Tobacco cessation services through community health workers for Spanish-speaking populations.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bristow, Zuzanne; Sias, Jeri J; Urquidi, Ulysses J; Feng, Chun

    2006-02-01

    Partnerships were established with the University of Arizona's Healthcare Partnership to train promotores--Spanish-speaking community health workers--as tobacco cessation counselors. Tobacco Free El Paso certified promotores to help identify tobacco users and offer tobacco cessation counseling services. The project certified 89 participants, of whom 95% were promotores; 88% were Hispanic/Latino, 67% were females, and 62% indicated Spanish as their primary language. Participants who completed Técnicas Básicas, Treatment Specialist, and Déjate de ese Vicio certifications significantly increased self-confidence levels to deliver brief smoking cessation interventions (P < .05). Satisfaction scores (scale = 1-5) were also relatively high for each certification (Técnicas Básicas, mean = 4.8; Treatment Specialist, mean = 4.7; Déjate de ese Vicio, mean = 4.6). The results suggest that promotores understood the concepts and methodologies presented.

  11. Factors that influence delivery of tobacco cessation support in general dental practice: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Lala, Rizwana; Csikar, Julia; Douglas, Gail; Muarry, Jenni

    2017-12-01

    To review the literature reporting factors that are associated with the delivery of lifestyle support in general dental practice. A systematic review of the quantitative observational studies describing activities to promote the general health of adults in primary care general dental practice. Behavior change included tobacco cessation, alcohol reduction, diet, weight management, and physical activity. Tooth brushing and oral hygiene behaviors were excluded as the focus of this review was on the common risk factors that affect general health as well as oral health. Six cross sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies only reported activities to support tobacco cessation. As well as tobacco cessation one study also reported activities related to alcohol usage, physical activity, and Body Mass Index. Perceptions of time availability consistently correlated with activities and beliefs about tobacco cessation, alongside the smoking status of the dental professional. Dentists who perceive having more available time were more likely to discuss smoking with patients, prescribe smoking cessation treatments and direct patients toward (signpost to) lifestyle support services. Dental professionals who smoke were less likely to give smoking cessation advice and counselling than nonsmokers. Finally, the data showed that professional support may be relevant. Professionals who work in solo practices or those who felt a lack of support from the wider professional team (peer support) were more likely to report barriers to delivering lifestyle support. Organizational changes in dental practices to encourage more team working and professional time for lifestyle support may influence delivery. Dental professionals who are smokers may require training to develop their beliefs about the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Self-initiated tobacco cessation and substance use outcomes among adolescents entering substance use treatment in a managed care organization

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Cynthia I.; Chi, Felicia; Sterling, Stacy; Kohn, Carolyn; Weisner, Constance

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents with substance use (SU) problems have high rates of tobacco use, yet SU treatment has historically ignored treatment for tobacco use. Barriers to such efforts include the belief that tobacco cessation could compromise other SU abstinence. This study examines self-initiated tobacco cessation and 12-month alcohol and drug abstinence in adolescents entering SU treatment in a private, managed care organization. Results Self-initiated tobacco cessation at 6 months, and at both 6 and 12 months, were related to higher odds of drug abstinence but not alcohol abstinence. Conclusion Self-initiated tobacco cessation was not related to poor SU outcomes, and may be important to maintaining drug abstinence. Implementing tobacco cessation efforts in SU treatment can be challenging, but comprised SU outcomes may not be a barrier. The positive associations for drug abstinence and lack of associations for alcohol abstinence could be due to differences in motivation, medical conditions, or to the illicit nature of drug use. Tobacco use has serious long-term health consequences, and tobacco cessation efforts in adolescent SU treatment programs need further research. PMID:19010600

  13. Evaluating pharmacists' ability to counsel on tobacco cessation using two standardized patient scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Beth A.; Chewning, Betty A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact that role-playing two pre/post standardized patient scenarios within a tobacco cessation training program had on pharmacists' counseling skills. Second, to analyze the validity of the observation coding tool used to evaluate pharmacist's role-play performance. Methods Pharmacists performed two role-playing scenarios which incorporated national guidelines, the 5A's counseling process, and the “preparation” and “action” phases of the transtheoretical model. Pharmacists' performance was evaluated with an observation coding tool. Results Pharmacists' (n=25) counseling performance improved significantly post-training (p<0.02: Action Scenario; p<0.004: Preparation Scenario). More than 50% of pharmacists provided patient-directed tobacco consultation services in the one year following training. The observation tool score for the “action phase” scenario was highly associated with pharmacists' subsequent delivery of tobacco cessation services in community practice. Conclusion Role-playing facilitated pharmacists' skill development. The evaluation tool and Action Scenario may be powerful for predicting pharmacists' delivery of tobacco cessation services. Practice Implications Incorporating role-playing and structured tools for performance evaluation can help enhance pharmacist performance during training and predict service delivery in community practice. Together they could facilitate tailored feedback to help pharmacists struggling with the difficult task of extending cognitive service roles in practice. PMID:21237610

  14. Tobacco users' perceptions of a brief tobacco cessation intervention in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Pallavi D; Chewning, Betty A

    2010-01-01

    To explore factors affecting tobacco users' perceived appropriateness of a brief and proactive tobacco cessation counseling program, ask, advise, and refer (AAR), at community pharmacies. Inductive thematic analysis. Southern Wisconsin during fall 2008. 24 tobacco users who had recently received brief and proactive tobacco cessation counseling at a community pharmacy. Semistructured telephone interviews conducted by primary author. Perceptions of a brief and proactive tobacco cessation counseling program conducted at community pharmacies. In conducting the thematic analysis, eight distinct themes were identified. Display of information and resources at pharmacies for use by tobacco users as needed was identified as the most predominant theme and was found to be most helpful by many respondents. Other themes identified in decreasing order of prevalence were: tobacco users' perceptions of the role of pharmacists in health care, tobacco users' belief that smoking could interact with a current medication or health condition, tobacco users' sensitivity toward their tobacco use behavior or being told what to do, nonconfrontational and friendly approach of pharmacists, tobacco users' readiness to quit at the time of AAR counseling, tobacco user initiation of tobacco use discussion, and tobacco users' belief that tobacco use is bad. Overall, this qualitative investigation suggests that several factors might influence tobacco users' perceived appropriateness of AAR counseling at community pharmacies. AAR might be well received by tobacco users and pharmacy patrons as long as it is done in a professional and respectful manner.

  15. Tobacco Cessation via Public Dental Clinics: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Judy A.; Albert, David A.; Crews, Karen M.; Payne, Thomas J.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to compare the effectiveness of a dental practitioner advice and brief counseling intervention to quit tobacco use versus usual care for patients in community health centers on tobacco cessation, reduction in tobacco use, number of quit attempts, and change in readiness to quit. Methods. We randomized 14 federally funded community health center dental clinics that serve diverse racial/ethnic groups in 3 states (Mississippi, New York, and Oregon) to the intervention (brief advice and assistance, including nicotine replacement therapy) or usual care group. Results. We enrolled 2549 smokers. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly higher abstinence rates at the 7.5-month follow-up, for both point prevalence (F1,12 = 6.84; P < .05) and prolonged abstinence (F1,12 = 14.62; P < .01) than did those in the usual care group. Conclusions. The results of our study suggest the viability and effectiveness of tobacco cessation services delivered to low-income smokers via their dental health care practitioner in community health centers. Tobacco cessation services delivered in public dental clinics have the potential to improve the health and well-being of millions of Americans. PMID:20466951

  16. An evaluation of health benefit modification in Taft-Hartley health and welfare funds: implications for encouraging tobacco-cessation coverage.

    PubMed

    Au-Yeung, Caroline M; Weisman, Susan R; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Forster, Jean L; Skoog, Rodney; Luneburg, Wade; Hesse, Bernie

    2010-12-01

    An estimated one fifth of all U.S. adult smokers receive health benefits through insurance plans administered by Taft-Hartley Health and Welfare Funds. Most funds do not offer comprehensive tobacco-cessation services to fund participants despite evidence that doing so would be cost effective and save lives. This paper examines the decision-making processes of Minnesota-based fund trustees and advisors to identify factors that influence decisions about modifications to benefits. Formative data about the process by which funds make health benefit modifications were collected in 2007-2008 from 25 in-depth key informant interviews with fund trustees and a cross-section of fund advisors, including administrators, attorneys, and healthcare business consultants. Analyses were performed using a general inductive approach to identify conceptual themes, employing qualitative data analysis software. The most commonly cited factors influencing trustees' decisions about health plan benefit modifications-including modifications regarding tobacco-cessation benefits-were benefit costs, participants' demand for services, and safeguarding participants' health. Barriers included information gaps, concerns about participants' response, and difficulty projecting benefit utilization and success. Advisors wielded considerable influence in decision-making processes. Trustees relied on a small pool of business, legal, and administrative advisors to provide guidance and recommendations about possible health plan benefit modifications. Providing advisors with evidence-based information and resources about benefit design, cost/return-on-investment (ROI), effectiveness, and promotion may be an effective means to influence funds to provide comprehensive tobacco-cessation benefits. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Stead, Lindsay; Aveyard, Paul; Bitton, John; Stapleton, John; McRobbie, Hayden; Pokhrel, Subhash; Lester-George, Adam; Borland, Ron

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides a concise review of the efficacy, effectiveness and affordability of health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation, in order to inform national guideline development and assist countries in planning their provision of tobacco cessation support. Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of major health-care tobacco cessation interventions were used to derive efficacy estimates in terms of percentage-point increases relative to comparison conditions in 6-12-month continuous abstinence rates. This was combined with analysis and evidence from 'real world' studies to form a judgement on the probable effectiveness of each intervention in different settings. The affordability of each intervention was assessed for exemplar countries in each World Bank income category (low, lower middle, upper middle, high). Based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, an intervention was judged as affordable for a given income category if the estimated extra cost of saving a life-year was less than or equal to the per-capita gross domestic product for that category of country. Brief advice from a health-care worker given opportunistically to smokers attending health-care services can promote smoking cessation, and is affordable for countries in all World Bank income categories (i.e. globally). Proactive telephone support, automated text messaging programmes and printed self-help materials can assist smokers wanting help with a quit attempt and are affordable globally. Multi-session, face-to-face behavioural support can increase quit success for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco and is affordable in middle- and high-income countries. Nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, nortriptyline, varenicline and cytisine can all aid quitting smoking when given with at least some behavioural support; of these, cytisine and nortriptyline are affordable globally. Brief advice from a health-care worker, telephone helplines, automated text

  18. Health‐care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Stead, Lindsay; Aveyard, Paul; Bitton, John; Stapleton, John; McRobbie, Hayden; Pokhrel, Subhash; Lester‐George, Adam; Borland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims This paper provides a concise review of the efficacy, effectiveness and affordability of health‐care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation, in order to inform national guideline development and assist countries in planning their provision of tobacco cessation support. Methods Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of major health‐care tobacco cessation interventions were used to derive efficacy estimates in terms of percentage‐point increases relative to comparison conditions in 6–12‐month continuous abstinence rates. This was combined with analysis and evidence from ‘real world’ studies to form a judgement on the probable effectiveness of each intervention in different settings. The affordability of each intervention was assessed for exemplar countries in each World Bank income category (low, lower middle, upper middle, high). Based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, an intervention was judged as affordable for a given income category if the estimated extra cost of saving a life‐year was less than or equal to the per‐capita gross domestic product for that category of country. Results Brief advice from a health‐care worker given opportunistically to smokers attending health‐care services can promote smoking cessation, and is affordable for countries in all World Bank income categories (i.e. globally). Proactive telephone support, automated text messaging programmes and printed self‐help materials can assist smokers wanting help with a quit attempt and are affordable globally. Multi‐session, face‐to‐face behavioural support can increase quit success for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco and is affordable in middle‐ and high‐income countries. Nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, nortriptyline, varenicline and cytisine can all aid quitting smoking when given with at least some behavioural support; of these, cytisine and nortriptyline are affordable globally. Conclusions Brief

  19. Implementing a referral to telephone tobacco cessation services in Louisiana community pharmacies: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baggarly, Scott A; Jenkins, Tara L; Biglane, Gina C; Smith, Gregory W; Smith, Connie M; Blaylock, Benny L

    2010-09-01

    With one of the highest rates of tobacco dependence in the nation, Louisiana has been searching for economical and effective methods for assisting patients in cessation efforts. Community pharmacists are in an excellent position to promote tobacco cessation due to their availability to patients. The "Ask-Advise-Refer" model is a short intervention in which patients desiring to quit smoking are referred to free tobacco cessation telephone counseling services. To evaluate the implementation of the Ask-Advise-Refer model in a sample of Louisiana pharmacies and identify barriers experienced by pharmacists when identifying and referring appropriate patients. Nine pharmacists from across the state implemented the Ask-Advise-Refer model in their community pharmacies. Each pharmacist submitted a weekly tally sheet consisting of number of patients asked about tobacco dependence, number of patients not ready to quit, number referred to tobacco cessation telephone counseling, number enrolled in study, and amount of time involved with interventions. Additionally, participating pharmacists completed a self-administered survey at the completion of the pilot study to determine opinions on barriers to widespread implementation of the program. Over a 6-month period, the 9 pharmacists asked 5429 patients about tobacco dependence. Of the 657 self-identified tobacco-dependent patients, 478 (72.8%) were not ready to quit, and 179 (27.2%) indicated that they were ready to quit tobacco in the next 30 days. Of the patients ready to quit, 169 (94.4%) were referred to telephone counseling services to assist in their cessation efforts. Louisiana community pharmacists have the ability to screen and identify tobacco-dependent patients ready to quit tobacco use, but barriers exist that prevent a large number of these patients from being referred to available, free cessation counseling.

  20. Feasibility of using a standardized patient encounter for training chiropractic students in tobacco cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Cheryl; Kaeser, Martha A; Beavers, David V

    2013-01-01

    Objective : Although tobacco cessation training is included in many health profession programs, it is not yet routinely incorporated into chiropractic education. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating a problem-based learning tobacco cessation activity into a lecture course for chiropractic students. Methods : Seventy-two students were assigned to participate in two 1-hour lectures on health promotion counseling and tobacco cessation followed by an experiential student-driven lab session using standardized patients at various stages of dependency and willingness to quit. The intervention was based on the transtheoretic model and the "5 A's" of counseling (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange). Outcomes were assessed via (1) questionnaires completed by the standardized patients regarding the students' use of the 5A's, and (2) questionnaires completed by the students using a 5-point Likert scale of "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree" on the acceptability of this method of learning. Descriptive statistics were computed. Results : Sixty-eight students (94%) completed the activity, spending a median of 2.5 minutes with patients. Over 90% addressed 4 of the 5A's: 99% asked patients if they were smokers; 97% advised them to quit; 90% assessed if they were willing to quit; and 99% offered assistance in quitting. Only 79% arranged a follow-up visit. Overall, students expressed a positive response to the experience; 81% said it increased their confidence in being able to advise patients, and 77% felt it would be valuable for use in their future practice. Conclusion : This active learning exercise appeared to be a feasible way to introduce tobacco counseling into the curriculum.

  1. Types of Lay Health Influencers in Tobacco Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Wind, Steven; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Castañeda, Heide; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify types of health influencers in tobacco cessation based on the frequency and characteristics of brief intervention activities. Methods Longitudinal qualitative interviews were completed with 28 individuals post-training. Results Four individuals were categorized as Rarely Active, 5 as Active with Family and Friends, 9 as Active in the Workplace, and 10 as Proactive in Multiple Settings. Unique motivators, intervention behaviors, and barriers were documented. Some individuals displayed high levels of self-efficacy necessary for expanding the reach of community-based interventions. Conclusion Training programs need to address the impact of contextual factors on initiating and sustaining intervention activities. PMID:20524890

  2. Maintenance of tobacco cessation programmes in public hospitals in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ballbè, Montse; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve; Cabezas, Carmen; Riccobene, Anna; Valverde, Araceli; Gual, Antoni; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-03-01

    The provision of smoking cessation interventions in hospitals has been strongly recommended. The aim of this study is to determine the maintenance of smoking cessation programmes for inpatients and hospital workers in hospitals of Catalonia (Spain) seven years after the implementation of a Tobacco Cessation Programme. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all hospitals that offer public service in Catalonia, Spain (n=73). An online questionnaire was sent to all coordinators of the smoke-free hospital project or managers of each hospital. The survey included questions about the type of hospital, type of programmes implemented and availability and source of smoking cessation drugs. Responses to the questionnaire were submitted by 58 hospitals (79.5%). 74% and 93.1% of the hospitals had smoking cessation programmes for inpatients and workers, respectively. Most of the hospitals maintained the programmes and started routinely buying smoking cessation drugs after a period of receiving them free-of-charge. However, 17.2% of the hospitals refused to buy these drugs and 24% never had these drugs available. Through a supportive Tobacco Cessation Programme, most hospitals have smoking cessation programmes for both patients and workers. Most of them have incorporated smoking cessation drugs as a regular resource in their services' portfolio. The lack of these resources may jeopardise the maintenance of well-established programmes in hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tobacco cessation education for pharmacists: Face-to-face presentations versus live webinars.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Hoch, Matthew A; Vitale, Frank M; Wahl, Kimberly R; Corelli, Robin L; de Moor, Carl

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the perceived effectiveness of tobacco cessation continuing education for pharmacists in face-to-face presentation versus live webinar modalities. METHODS A continuing pharmacy education (CPE) activity, Do Ask, Do Tell: A Practical Approach to Smoking Cessation, was offered in face-to-face and live webinar modalities. Following the activity, participants completed a brief questionnaire that assessed the anticipated impact of the activity on their smoking cessation counseling practices. RESULTS Of the 1,088 CPE participants, 819 (75%) attended a face-to-face presentation and 269 (25%) participated in a live webinar. Posttraining self-rated ability to address tobacco use was similar between groups ( P = 0.38), and both the face-to-face and live webinar groups reported a significant difference between pre- and posttraining abilities ( P < 0.05 for both groups). Attendees of the face-to-face presentation reported higher likelihoods of providing each of the individual tasks required to provide an effective, brief tobacco cessation intervention ( P < 0.05 for each task). CONCLUSION These data suggest that more value exists in face-to-face education than live webinars when personal and interactive skills are the focus of the activity.

  4. Application of a CBPR framework to inform a multi-level tobacco cessation intervention in public housing neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jeannette O; Tingen, Martha S; Jarriel, Stacey Crawford; Caleb, Maudesta; Simmons, Alisha; Brunson, Juanita; Mueller, Martina; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Newman, Susan D; Cox, Melissa J; Magwood, Gayenell; Hurman, Christina

    2012-09-01

    African American women in urban, high poverty neighborhoods have high rates of smoking, difficulties with quitting, and disproportionate tobacco-related health disparities. Prior research utilizing conventional "outsider driven" interventions targeted to individuals has failed to show effective cessation outcomes. This paper describes the application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to inform a culturally situated, ecological based, multi-level tobacco cessation intervention in public housing neighborhoods. The CBPR framework encompasses problem identification, planning and feasibility/pilot testing, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination. There have been multiple partners in this process including public housing residents, housing authority administrators, community health workers, tenant associations, and academic investigators. The advisory process has evolved from an initial small steering group to our current institutional community advisory boards. Our decade-long CBPR journey produced design innovations, promising preliminary outcomes, and a full-scaled implementation study in two states. Challenges include sustaining engagement with evolving study partners, maintaining equity and power in the partnerships, and long-term sustainability of the intervention. Implications include applicability of the framework with other CBPR partnerships, especially scaling up evolutionary grassroots involvement to multi-regional partnerships.

  5. A Descriptive Study of Health Promotion Activities Related to Tobacco Cessation Utilized by Air Force Nurse Practitioners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    m ^ also include the provision of care in combat or deployed situations. Patient Education (patient teaching): the process of influencing patient...make important contiibutions to cost containment in the area of health care (Damrosch, 1991). Patient education and tobacco cessation intervention...Krause, 1995; Pender & Pender, 1987; Sparics, 1995). For successful patient education to occur, motivational factors of the patient related to

  6. Integrating tobacco cessation treatment into mental health care for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    McFall, Miles; Atkins, David C; Yoshimoto, Dan; Thompson, Charles E; Kanter, Evan; Malte, Carol A; Saxon, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    The integration of tobacco cessation treatment into mental health care for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), known as Integrated Care (IC), was evaluated in an uncontrolled feasibility and effectiveness study. Veterans (N = 107) in PTSD treatment at two outpatient clinics received IC delivered by mental health practitioners. Outcomes were seven-day point prevalence abstinence measured at two, four, six, and nine months post-enrollment and repeated seven-day point prevalence abstinence (RPPA) obtained across three consecutive assessment intervals (four, six, and nine months). Abstinence rates at the four assessment intervals were 28%, 23%, 25%, and 18%, respectively, and RPPA was 15%. The number of IC sessions and a previous quit history greater than six months predicted RPPA. Stopping smoking was not associated with worsening PTSD or depression.

  7. Organizational Factors as Predictors of Tobacco Cessation Pharmacotherapy Adoption in Addiction Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Muilenburg, Jessica L.; Laschober, Tanja C.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated three organizational factors (i.e., counseling staff clinical skills, absence of treatment program obstacles, policy-related incentives) as predictors of tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy (TCP) adoption (comprised of the nine available TCP) in addiction treatment programs using the innovation implementation effectiveness framework. Methods Data were obtained in 2010 from a random sample of 1006 addiction treatment program administrators located across the U.S. using structured telephone interviews. Results According to program administrator reports, TCP is adopted in approximately 30% of treatment programs. Negative binomial regression results show that fewer treatment program obstacles and more policy-related incentives are related to greater adoption of TCP. Counter to prediction, clinical skills are unrelated to TCP adoption. Conclusions Our findings suggest that organizational factors, based on established theoretical frameworks, merit further examination as facilitators of the adoption of diverse TCP in addiction treatment programs. PMID:24365803

  8. A video feedback-based tobacco cessation counselling course for undergraduates-preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Antal, M.; Forster, A.; Zalai, Z.; Barabas, K.; Spangler, J.; Braunitzer, G.; Nagy, K.

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion To our knowledge, we are the first to have applied video feedback combined with behavioural modification methods in the teaching of tobacco cessation counselling. We conclude that teaching method can help dentists better understand smokers, gain confidence in tobacco cessation counselling and become more effective promoters of a smoke-free lifestyle. In addition, this method can be easily adapted to other healthcare educational settings, including other oral health training programmes. PMID:23279406

  9. Patients' attitudes towards the role of dentists in tobacco cessation counselling after a brief and simple intervention.

    PubMed

    Ahmady, A Ebn; Homayoun, A; Lando, H A; Haghpanah, F; Khoshnevisan, M H

    2014-03-13

    Dental professionals are in a unique position to promote smoking cessation among their patients. We evaluated the effects of a brief counselling intervention by a dentist on patients' attitude towards the role of dentists in tobacco cessation programmes. In a semi-experimental study in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 70 eligible smokers were selected and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The initial attitudes of the patients regarding tobacco cessation counselling services provided by the dentist were determined using a validated questionnaire. The intervention group received a brief chair-side counselling by a dentist based on the 5 A's approach, while no intervention was provided for the control group. At 8-weeks follow-up, smokers receiving the intervention showed significantly more positive attitudes towards the role of the dentist in advising patients to quit smoking compared with those in the control group. More responsibility could be transferred to dentists for tobacco prevention.

  10. Tobacco cessation and household spending on non-tobacco goods: results from the US Consumer Expenditure Surveys.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Erin S; Dave, Dhaval M; Pozen, Alexis; Fahs, Marianne; Gallo, William T

    2017-03-16

    To estimate the impact of tobacco cessation on household spending on non-tobacco goods in the USA. Using 2006-2015 Consumer Expenditure Survey data, 9130 tobacco-consuming households were followed for four quarters. Households were categorised during the fourth quarter as having: (1) recent tobacco cessation, (2) long-term cessation, (3) relapsed cessation or (4) no cessation. Generalised linear models were used to compare fourth quarter expenditures on alcohol, food at home, food away from home, housing, healthcare, transportation, entertainment and other goods between the no-cessation households and those with recent, long-term or relapsed cessation. The full sample was analysed, and then analysed by income quartile. In the full sample, households with long-term and recent cessation had lower spending on alcohol, food, entertainment and transportation (p<0.001). Recent cessation was further associated with reduced spending on food at home (p<0.001), whereas relapsed cessation was associated with higher spending on healthcare and food away from home (p<0.001). In the highest income quartile, long-term and recent cessations were associated with reduced alcohol spending only (p<0.001), whereas in the lowest income quartile, long-term and recent cessations were associated with lower spending on alcohol, food at home, transportation and entertainment (p<0.001). Households that quit tobacco spend less in areas that enable or complement their tobacco cessation, most of which may be motivated by financial strain. The most robust association between tobacco cessation and spending was the significantly lower spending on alcohol. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  12. Focus groups of Alaska Native adolescent tobacco users: preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation.

    PubMed

    Patten, Christi A; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C; Offord, Kenneth P; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A; Hurt, Richard D; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S

    2009-08-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non-tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth.

  13. Tobacco cessation among users of telephone and web-based interventions--four states, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Thompson, Trevor; Underwood, J Michael; Momin, Behnoosh; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2015-01-02

    Smoking caused an average of 480,000 deaths per year in the United States from 2005 to 2009, and three in 10 cancer deaths in the United States are tobacco related. Tobacco cessation is a high public health priority, and all states offer some form of tobacco cessation service. Quitlines provide telephone-based counseling services and are an effective intervention for tobacco cessation. In addition to telephone services, 96% of all U.S. quitlines offer Web-based cessation services. Evidence is limited on the number of tobacco users who use more than one type of service, and studies report mixed results on whether combined telephone and Web-based counseling improves long-term cessation compared with telephone alone. CDC conducted a survey of users of telephone and Web-based cessation services in four states to determine the cessation success of users of these interventions. After adjusting for multiple variables, persons who used both telephone and Web-based services were more likely to report abstinence from smoking for 30 days at follow up (odds ratio = 1.3) compared with telephone-only users and with Web-only users (odds ratio = 1.5). These findings suggest that states might consider offering both types of cessation services to increase cessation success.

  14. Use of Tobacco Cessation Treatments Among Young Adult Smokers: 2005 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Sporer, Amy K.; Pugach, Oksana; Campbell, Richard T.; Emery, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We compared use of smoking cessation treatments and factors associated with treatment use among young adult smokers and other adult smokers. Methods. We used data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey core and cancer control supplement. The sample consisted of 6511 current smokers, of whom 759 were aged 18–24 years. Our analyses were weighted to account for differential sampling probabilities and nonresponse rates. We compared continuous measures using the t test; logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and confidence intervals. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of treatment use. Results. Behavioral treatment use was infrequent among all smokers (4%–5%). Young adult smokers were less likely than other smokers to use pharmacotherapy (18% vs 32%). Correlates of pharmacotherapy use for young adult smokers were receiving advice from a health care provider, heavier smoking, and higher educational attainment. Compared with other smokers, young adult smokers were less likely to have received advice to quit from a health care provider (49% vs 60%). Conclusions. Evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments are underused by young adult smokers. PMID:17600243

  15. Building tobacco cessation capacity in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    David, Annette M; Cruz, Peter J; Mercado, Susan P; Li, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands-Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a posttraining knowledge assessment exam, pre- and posttraining confidence assessments, and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the posttraining knowledge assessment exam at the first attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their second attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre- and posttraining confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials, and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations such as Pacific Islanders.

  16. Do state characteristics matter? State level factors related to tobacco cessation quitlines

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Paula A; Koss, Kalsea J; Baker, Timothy B; Bailey, Linda A; Fiore, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Background Quitline services are an effective population‐wide tobacco cessation strategy adopted widely in the United States as part of state comprehensive tobacco control efforts. Despite widespread evidence supporting quitlines' effectiveness, many states lack sufficient financial resources to adequately fund and promote this service. Efforts to augment state tobacco control efforts might be fostered by greater knowledge of state level factors associated with the funding and implementation of those efforts. Methods We analysed data from the 2004 North American Quitline Consortium survey and from publicly available sources to identify state level factors related to quitline implementation and funding. Factors included in the analyses were state demographic characteristics, tobacco use variables, state tobacco control spending, and economic and political climate variables. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Results The best fitting multivariate model that significantly predicted the presence or absence of a state quitline included only cigarette excise tax rate (p = 0.020). In terms of funding levels, states with high rates of cigarette consumption (p = 0.047) and with higher per capita expenditures for tobacco control programmes (p = 0 .0.004) were most likely to spend more on per capita operations budget for quitlines. Conclusion State level factors appear to play a part in whether states had established quitlines by mid‐2004 and the amount of per capita quitline funding. PMID:18048637

  17. Tobacco Cessation Practices and Attitudes Among Nurses in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda P; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Králíková, Eva; Kmetova, Alexandra; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Malá, Katerina; Roubíčková, Eva; Wells, Marjorie J; Brook, Jenny K

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the leading cause of cancer in the Czech Republic. More than one-third of the population older than 15 years smokes, including many nurses. Most smokers want to quit, but the extent of nurses' involvement in tobacco cessation is unknown. The purposes of this study are to describe the frequency of nurses' interventions in helping smokers quit, examine their attitudes and skills, and explore the relationship of nurses' smoking status to level of intervention. A convenience sample of nurses in the Czech Republic completed a survey about their frequency of interventions according to the 5As for tobacco dependence treatment (i.e., ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange), their attitudes and perceived skills, and their smoking status (never, former, current). A total of 157 nurses completed the survey; 26% "always" or "usually" assisted patients with smoking cessation. Few (22%) reported that nurses could play an important role in helping patients quit, and 65% rated their ability to help smokers quit as "fair/poor." Nurse who smoked (30%) were less likely to consistently assess smoking status or arrange for follow-up support. Few nurses in the Czech Republic consistently provide smoking cessation support to patients, have the skills to do so, or view this role as an important part of their role. To reduce tobacco-related cancers in the Czech Republic, capacity-building efforts are needed to enhance nurses' skills and confidence in providing smoking cessation interventions. Support is also need to help nurses who smoke quit.

  18. Effectiveness of two interactive educational methods to teach tobacco cessation counseling for senior dental students.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Mina; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Ahamdi, Arezoo Ebn; Razeghi, Samaneh; Yazdani, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the major health problems in many countries is tobacco use. Dental professionals are in a unique position to promote smoking cessation since they have the opportunity for regular interaction with their patients. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two educational methods to teach tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) in dental practice for senior dental students. In this interventional study, 93 eligible senior dental students from two dental schools in Tehran, Iran were randomly divided into two groups. Two educational programs, role play (RP) and problem-based learning (PBL), with the same aim about TCC in dental practice, were developed and implemented for the two groups. The score of knowledge, attitude, and skill were determined in both groups before and after participation in the course using a questionnaire. The changes in the scores from pre- to post-test were statistically analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA test. Total scores of knowledge, attitude, and skill of the participants showed improvements when compared to scores before training (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). However, the differences between the two study methods were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The results suggested that TCC training through RP and PBL methods leads to improvement in knowledge, attitude, and skills of dental students in the short-term evaluation.

  19. Effectiveness of two interactive educational methods to teach tobacco cessation counseling for senior dental students

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Mina; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Ahamdi, Arezoo Ebn; Razeghi, Samaneh; Yazdani, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Nowadays, one of the major health problems in many countries is tobacco use. Dental professionals are in a unique position to promote smoking cessation since they have the opportunity for regular interaction with their patients. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two educational methods to teach tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) in dental practice for senior dental students. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 93 eligible senior dental students from two dental schools in Tehran, Iran were randomly divided into two groups. Two educational programs, role play (RP) and problem-based learning (PBL), with the same aim about TCC in dental practice, were developed and implemented for the two groups. The score of knowledge, attitude, and skill were determined in both groups before and after participation in the course using a questionnaire. The changes in the scores from pre- to post-test were statistically analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA test. Results: Total scores of knowledge, attitude, and skill of the participants showed improvements when compared to scores before training (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). However, the differences between the two study methods were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that TCC training through RP and PBL methods leads to improvement in knowledge, attitude, and skills of dental students in the short-term evaluation. PMID:28932135

  20. Building Tobacco Cessation Capacity in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    David, Annette M.; Cruz, Peter J.; Mercado, Susan P.; Dan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions (BTI) training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands - Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a post-training knowledge assessment exam, pre- and post-confidence assessments and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the post-training knowledge assessment exam at the 1st attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their 2nd attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre and post confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations like Pacific Islanders. PMID:23632079

  1. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study

    PubMed Central

    Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients’ smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. Methods This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants’ attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. Results To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students’ training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative

  2. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Cristina; Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients' smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants' attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students' training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative evaluation and the other about the summative

  3. A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Tobacco Cessation on Prescription in Swedish Primary Health Care: A Protocol of the Motivation 2 Quit (M2Q) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Peter; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Petzold, Max; Tomson, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sweden, the prevalence of tobacco use is disproportionately high among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Previous research and clinical experience suggest that prescribed lifestyle interventions in the primary health care (PHC) setting such as Physical Activity on Prescription are effective in changing behavior. However, there is a lack of evidence for if and how such a prescription approach could be effectively transferred into the tobacco cessation context. Objective The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Tobacco Cessation on Prescription (TCP) compared to current practice for tobacco cessation targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in the PHC setting in Sweden. Methods The design is a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial. The sample will consist of 928 daily tobacco users with Swedish social security numbers and permanent resident permits, recruited from 14-20 PHC centers located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Stockholm County. The primary outcome will be measured in self-reported 7-day abstinence at 6 and 12 months after the intervention. The secondary outcomes will be measured in daily tobacco consumption, number of quit attempts, and health-related quality of life at 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Data will be collected through questionnaires and review of electronic medical records. Cost-effectiveness will be estimated through decision analytic modeling and measured by the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year. Results In the first set of PHC centers participating in the study, eight centers have been included. Recruitment of individual study participants is currently ongoing. Inclusion of a second set of PHC centers is ongoing with expected study start in September 2016. Conclusions If TCP is found effective and cost-effective compared to standard treatment, the method could be implemented to facilitate tobacco cessation for socioeconomically

  4. The SCIDOTS Project: Evidence of benefits of an integrated tobacco cessation intervention in tuberculosis care on treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence to support the association between tuberculosis (TB) and tobacco smoking and that the smoking-related immunological abnormalities in TB are reversible within six weeks of cessation. Therefore, connecting TB and tobacco cessation interventions may produce significant benefits and positively impact TB treatment outcomes. However, no study has extensively documented the evidence of benefits of such integration. SCIDOTS Project is a study from the context of a developing nation aimed to determine this. Methods An integrated TB-tobacco intervention was provided by trained TB directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) providers at five chest clinics in Malaysia. The study was a prospective non-randomized controlled intervention using quasi-experimental design. Using Transtheoretical Model approach, 120 eligible participants who were current smokers at the time of TB diagnosis were assigned to either of two treatment groups: conventional TB DOTS plus smoking cessation intervention (integrated intervention or SCIDOTS group) or conventional TB DOTS alone (comparison or DOTS group). At baseline, newly diagnosed TB patients considering quitting smoking within the next 30 days were placed in the integrated intervention group, while those who were contemplating quitting were assigned to the comparison group. Eleven sessions of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy with or without nicotine replacement therapy were provided to each participant in the integrated intervention group. The impacts of the novel approach on biochemically validated smoking cessation and TB treatment outcomes were measured periodically as appropriate. Results A linear effect on both 7-day point prevalence abstinence and continuous abstinence was observed over time in the intervention group. At the end of 6 months, patients who received the integrated intervention had significantly higher rate of success in quitting smoking when compared with those who

  5. Laying the groundwork for Tobacco Cessation Education in Medical Colleges in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Padmawathi, Retna Siwi; Muramoto, Myra

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a pioneering effort to introduce smoking cessation into Indonesia's medical school curriculum, and the first ever attempt to fully integrate tobacco control in all four years of medical school anywhere in Southeast Asia. The development, pretesting, and piloting of an innovative modular tobacco curriculum are discussed as well as the challenges that face implementation. In-depth interviews were conducted with medical school administrators and faculty in four medical colleges to determine interest in and willingness to fully integrate tobacco cessation into the college curriculum. A tobacco focused curriculum review, student focus groups, and a survey of medical students (n = 579) assessed current exposure to information about tobacco and interest in learning cessation skills. A modular tobacco curriculum was developed and was pretested, modified, piloted, and evaluated. Qualitative research was conducted to identify potential challenges to future curriculum implementation. Fifteen modules were successfully developed focusing on the relationship between tobacco and specific organ systems, diseases related to smoking, the impact of tobacco on medication effectiveness, and information on how to explain to patients about effects of tobacco on their health condition. Lecturers and students positively evaluated the curriculum as increasing their competency to support cessation during illness as a teachable moment. Systemic challenges to implementing the curriculum were identified including shifts in pedagogy, decentralized curriculum decision-making, and frequent lecturer turnover. A fully integrated tobacco curriculum for medical schools was piloted and is now freely available online. An important lesson learned in Indonesia was that a tobacco curriculum must be flexible enough to be adjusted when shifts in medical education take place. The curriculum is a resource for medical colleges and expert committees in Southeast Asia deliberating how best to

  6. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 countries, the role of health professional in the fight against tobacco is still less than ideal. In many Latin American schools of medicine, deficiencies in medical education has led to insecure physicians when they have to motivate their patients to stop smoking or to prevent young people to begin tobacco consumption. If each general practitioner or specialist during their daily medical assistance could talk to their smoker patients about the big benefits of stop smoking and support them to get free of tobacco, we would be winning a battle against smoking. Also if we could achieve generations of young non smoking doctors, who could be a real example for patients, this could also impact the prevalence of smokers. In this article we analyze the neurobiological bases of nicotine addiction, which we think are missing in the medical curriculum and could help doctors to understand tobacco smoking as a disease rather than a risk factor, and discuss the main reasons supporting an urgent change in the medical approach of tobacco cessation in Latin America as well as the need to actualize the medical curriculum in order to give physicians the skills needed to intervene successfully with their smoker patients and to be themselves non smokers.

  7. Substance Use Disorder Counselors' Reports of Tobacco Cessation Services Availability, Implementation, and Tobacco-related Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, Jessica L; Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian T

    2015-09-01

    Adolescence is a prime developmental stage for early tobacco cessation (TC) intervention. This study examined substance use disorder counselors' reports of the availability and implementation of TC services (behavioral treatments and pharmacotherapies) in their treatment programs and the relationship between their tobacco-related knowledge and implementation of TC services. Survey data were collected in 2012 from 63 counselors working in 22 adolescent-only treatment programs. Measures included 15 TC behavioral treatments, nine TC pharmacotherapies, and three tobacco-related knowledge scales (morbidity/mortality, modalities and effectiveness, pharmacology). First, nine of the 15 behavioral treatments are reported as being available by more than half of counselors; four of the 15 behavioral treatments are used by counselors with more than half of adolescents. Of the nine pharmacotherapies, availability of the nicotine patch is reported by almost 40%, buproprion by nearly 30%, and clonidine by about 21% of counselors. Pharmacotherapies are used by counselors with very few adolescents. Second, counselors' tobacco-related knowledge varies based on the knowledge scale examined. Third, we only find a significant positive relationship between counselors' implementation of TC behavioral treatments and TC modalities and effectiveness knowledge. Findings suggest that more behavioral treatments should be made available in substance use disorder treatment programs considering that they are the main treatment recommendation for adolescents. Counselors should be encouraged to routinely use a wide range of available behavioral treatments. Finally, counselors should be encouraged to expand their knowledge of TC modalities and effectiveness because of the relationship with behavioral treatments implementation. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Different Quit Smoking Methods Selected by Patients in Tobacco Cessation Centers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Leischow, Scott J.; Harry, A. Lando; Shadmehr, Mohammad B.; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling) with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8) and the quit and win (n = 17). The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers’ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system. PMID:26442750

  9. High quit ratio among Asian immigrants in California: implications for population tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Wong, Shiushing; Tang, Hao; Shi, Chih-Wen; Chen, Moon S

    2007-09-01

    Asian immigrants to the U.S. are participants in a natural experiment on the effects of social norms on tobacco cessation. Smoking is socially acceptable in most Asian countries. When Asian smokers move to U.S. states such as California, they experience a radically different social norm toward smoking. This study examines ever smokers among two groups of Asian immigrants in California, Chinese and Koreans, and finds that most have quit smoking. The quit ratios (percent of ever smokers who have quit) for Chinese (52.5%) and Korean immigrants (51.1%) have quit ratios for ever smokers in California in general (53.3%), which is among the highest in the U.S. These high quit ratios contrast sharply with much lower quit ratios for Chinese in China (11.5%) and for Koreans in Korea (22.3%). Such large differences in quit ratios are the results of accumulated differences over the years, because of dramatic differences in annual cessation rates: Chinese in California quit at roughly seven times the rate of Chinese in China, and Koreans in California three times that of Koreans in Korea. Analyses further show that these large differences in annual cessation rates come mainly from the fact that these immigrants in California made quit attempts at a much higher rate than their counterparts in their home countries. These results suggest that creating an impetus to drive up quit attempts, which often results from a significant change in social norms toward smoking, is the most important strategy to improve cessation on the population level.

  10. Evaluation of a Newly Developed Tobacco Cessation Program for People with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    King, Jessica L.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Moorhouse, Michael; Merten, Julie W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for at least 480,000 deaths in the United States annually. People with disabilities smoke at a rate 1.5 times greater than the able-bodied population. Higher incidence of tobacco use among people with disabilities has been directly related to both unique and universal cessation barriers. Despite increased prevalence of tobacco use and cessation obstacles, evidence is lacking on the development of successful interventions targeting people with disabilities. Objective We aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a cessation intervention tailored to people with disabilities. Methods Eighteen tobacco users with disabilities (56% African American, 64% male) participated in a 4-week, 8-session tobacco cessation program consisting of group sessions on managing addiction, relapse, and lifestyle changes specific to people with disabilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the program. A follow-up measure of smoking status, triggers, and nicotine replacement therapy usage was completed at 4 weeks and 6 months. Results Sixteen participants completed the intervention (89%), with participants on average attending 86% of sessions. Most participants rated the program as excellent (83%) or good (8%). Qualitative interviews revealed participants value social support, accessibility, and a tailored program. Four participants (22%) reported abstinence at six months, which is greater than the standard quit rate. Conclusion This study suggests tailoring a cessation program to the characteristics unique to people with disabilities may be critical in delivering meaningful and effective cessation interventions among this population. PMID:26365086

  11. Smoking Lung Cancer Patients and Tobacco Cessation - Is the Current Treatment in Germany Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, K; Thielke, L; Deter, A; Riemer, T; Eggeling, S; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2015-11-01

    Lung cancer is the most preventable neoplastic disease for men and women. The incidence rate per year is 14.000 in Germany. Smoking is the main risk factor for the onset of lung cancer and for a share of 90% of cases, lung cancer is associated with smoking. Recent studies have shown that the time slot of diagnosing lung cancer is a teachable moment for tobacco cessation interventions. The therapy that was rated most effective was a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy (e. g. NRT, Bupropion, Varenicline). We examined the smoking status of all patients undergoing lung cancer surgery in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in this study. A retrospective semi structured interview via telephone was conducted regarding smoking habits and current quality of life. 131 patients (36.6% female, average age of 68.7 years) of an urban German hospital were included.Results showed a relapse rate of 22.3%, while 86.2% used to be highly addicted smokers; A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated a significant overall impact of smoking status on quality of life with a medium effect size, controlled for age, gender, living conditions, tumor stage, duration of smoking abstinence, type of cancer therapy, type of resection method, and the time period between the date of surgery and of the survey. Two thirds of all smokers did not see an association between their habit and their disease.So far motivation to quit and long term abstinence rates are not sufficiently established even among seriously sick patients in Germany; further initiatives should focus on new and more intense interventions and educational strategies.

  12. Evaluation of a newly developed tobacco cessation program for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica L; Pomeranz, Jamie L; Young, Mary Ellen; Moorhouse, Michael; Merten, Julie W

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for at least 480,000 deaths in the United States annually. People with disabilities smoke at a rate 1.5 times greater than the able-bodied population. Higher incidence of tobacco use among people with disabilities has been directly related to both unique and universal cessation barriers. Despite increased prevalence of tobacco use and cessation obstacles, evidence is lacking on the development of successful interventions targeting people with disabilities. We aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a cessation intervention tailored to people with disabilities. Eighteen tobacco users with disabilities (56% African American, 64% male) participated in a 4-week, 8-session tobacco cessation program consisting of group sessions on managing addiction, relapse, and lifestyle changes specific to people with disabilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the program. A follow-up measure of smoking status, triggers, and nicotine replacement therapy usage was completed at 4 weeks and 6 months. Sixteen participants completed the intervention (89%), with participants on average attending 86% of sessions. Most participants rated the program as excellent (83%) or good (8%). Qualitative interviews revealed participants value social support, accessibility, and a tailored program. Four participants (22%) reported abstinence at six months, which is greater than the standard quit rate. This study suggests tailoring a cessation program to the characteristics unique to people with disabilities may be critical in delivering meaningful and effective cessation interventions among this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. "Tobacco Free With FDNY": the New York City Fire Department World Trade Center Tobacco Cessation Study.

    PubMed

    Bars, Matthew P; Banauch, Gisela I; Appel, David; Andreachi, Michael; Mouren, Philippe; Kelly, Kerry J; Prezant, David J

    2006-04-01

    After the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse, 15% (1,767) of rescue workers from the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) considered themselves to be current cigarette smokers. Post-WTC collapse, 98% reported acute respiratory symptoms, and 81% reported health concerns. Nonetheless, 29% of current smokers increased tobacco use, and 23% of ex-smokers resumed cigarette smoking. To determine the effect of a comprehensive tobacco-cessation program using combination tobacco-dependency treatment medications adjusted to the individual's daily tobacco use. FDNY cigarette smokers enrolled in "Tobacco Free With FDNY," a no-cost quit-smoking program providing counseling, support, and medications. At the end of the 3-month treatment phase and at the 6-month and 12-month follow-up visits, abstinence rates were confirmed by expired carbon monoxide levels or by the verification of a household member. FDNY Bureau of Health Services between August 1, 2002 and October 30, 2002. A total of 220 current cigarette smokers from the FDNY. At study enrollment, the mean (+/- SD) tobacco use was 20 +/- 7 cigarettes per day, and the mean tobacco dependency, as assessed by a modified Fagerstrom test score, was 6.7 +/- 2.5 (maximum score, 10). Based on tobacco use, 20% of enrollees used three types of nicotine medications, 64% used two types, 14% used one type, and 3% used no medications. Additionally, 14% of enrollees used bupropion sustained release. The confirmed continuous abstinence rates were 47%, 36%, and 37%, respectively, after 3 months of treatment and at the 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Abstinence rates did not correlate with the history of tobacco use but correlated inversely with tobacco dependency. Adverse events and maximal nicotine medication use were unrelated, and no one experienced a serious adverse event. Tobacco dependency treatment using combination nicotine medications is effective and safe. Future studies should consider the following: (1) both history of

  14. Tobacco cessation skills certification in Arizona: application of a state wide, community based model for diffusion of evidence based practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, M.; Connolly, T.; Strayer, L.; Ranger-Moore, J.; Blatt, W.; Leischow, R.; Leischow, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the development and preliminary results from a community based certification model for training in tobacco cessation skills in Arizona.
DESIGN—A programme evaluation using both quantitative pre-post measures and qualitative methods.
SETTING—Arizona's comprehensive tobacco control programme of state funded, community based local projects and their community partners providing tobacco treatment services for geographically, socioeconomically, and ethnically diverse communities.
INTERVENTION—A three tiered model of skills based training emphasising Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines, and utilising a training of trainers approach to build community capacity. Certification roles addressed basic tobacco cessation skills, tobacco cessation specialist, and tobacco treatment services manager.
PARTICIPANTS—Initial target audience was community based local project personnel and their community partners, with later adoption by community organisations unaffiliated with local projects, and the general public.
MAIN EVALUATION MEASURES—Process measures: participant satisfaction, knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy. Outcome: participant demographics, community organisations represented, post-training, cessation related activities.
RESULTS—During the model's implementation year, 1075 participants attended certification training, 947 participants received basic skills certificates and 82 received specialist certificates. Pre, post, and three month measures of self efficacy showed significant and durable increases. Analysis of participant characteristics demonstrated broad community representation. At post-training follow up, 80.9% of basic skills trainees had performed at least one brief intervention and 74.8% had made a referral to intensive services. Among cessation specialists, 48.8% were delivering intensive services and 69.5% were teaching basic skills classes.
CONCLUSIONS—Initial experience with Arizona

  15. How Medicaid and Other Public Policies Affect Use of Tobacco Cessation Therapy, United States, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Erin; Bysshe, Tyler; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction State Medicaid programs can cover tobacco cessation therapies for millions of low-income smokers in the United States, but use of this benefit is low and varies widely by state. This article assesses the effects of changes in Medicaid benefit policies, general tobacco policies, smoking norms, and public health programs on the use of cessation therapy among Medicaid smokers. Methods We used longitudinal panel analysis, using 2-way fixed effects models, to examine the effects of changes in state policies and characteristics on state-level use of Medicaid tobacco cessation medications from 2010 through 2014. Results Medicaid policies that require patients to obtain counseling to get medications reduced the use of cessation medications by approximately one-quarter to one-third; states that cover all types of cessation medications increased usage by approximately one-quarter to one-third. Non-Medicaid policies did not have significant effects on use levels. Conclusions States could increase efforts to quit by developing more comprehensive coverage and reducing barriers to coverage. Reductions in barriers could bolster smoking cessation rates, and the costs would be small compared with the costs of treating smoking-related diseases. Innovative initiatives to help smokers quit could improve health and reduce health care costs. PMID:27788063

  16. Survey of patient opinion on tobacco cessation counseling and services in a dental teaching institution and hospital.

    PubMed

    Kadanakuppe, Sushi; Aradhya, Shankar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the opinion of dental patients who use tobacco towards receiving tobacco cessation counseling and services in a dental college and hospital setting. A cross-sectional descriptive survey method using a structured questionnaire was used in this study. Participants were patients attending The Oxford Dental College, Hospital, and Research Center, Bengaluru, India. Each patient in the clinic waiting room was asked by the investigator to complete a 29-item self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis using Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Ninety-six percent (n = 770) of tobacco users had previously attempted to quit tobacco and 95.7% were willing to quit. Sixteen percent (n = 132) of respondents reported that they currently used tobacco. About 83% of tobacco users agreed that the student dentist should ask patients whether or not they use tobacco, 79.4% agreed that the student dentist should advise tobacco users to quit, and 81.4% agreed that student dentists should offer information on quitting tobacco to patients who want to quit. Only 12.5% (n = 100) of the patients who use tobacco were aware of the community resources available to quit tobacco. This study shows that patients expect and felt comfortable with receiving tobacco cessation counseling services by oral health professionals in a dental hospital setting.

  17. How Medicaid and Other Public Policies Affect Use of Tobacco Cessation Therapy, United States, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Ku, Leighton; Brantley, Erin; Bysshe, Tyler; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K

    2016-10-27

    State Medicaid programs can cover tobacco cessation therapies for millions of low-income smokers in the United States, but use of this benefit is low and varies widely by state. This article assesses the effects of changes in Medicaid benefit policies, general tobacco policies, smoking norms, and public health programs on the use of cessation therapy among Medicaid smokers. We used longitudinal panel analysis, using 2-way fixed effects models, to examine the effects of changes in state policies and characteristics on state-level use of Medicaid tobacco cessation medications from 2010 through 2014. Medicaid policies that require patients to obtain counseling to get medications reduced the use of cessation medications by approximately one-quarter to one-third; states that cover all types of cessation medications increased usage by approximately one-quarter to one-third. Non-Medicaid policies did not have significant effects on use levels. States could increase efforts to quit by developing more comprehensive coverage and reducing barriers to coverage. Reductions in barriers could bolster smoking cessation rates, and the costs would be small compared with the costs of treating smoking-related diseases. Innovative initiatives to help smokers quit could improve health and reduce health care costs.

  18. Online Tobacco Cessation Training and Competency Assessment for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Practitioners: Protocol for the CAM Reach Web Study.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Myra L; Howerter, Amy; Eaves, Emery R; Hall, John R; Buller, David B; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-06

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists, are a growing presence in the US health care landscape and already provide health and wellness care to significant numbers of patients who use tobacco. For decades, conventional biomedical practitioners have received training to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) and referrals to cessation services as part of routine clinical care, whereas CAM practitioners have been largely overlooked for BI training. Web-based training has clear potential to meet large-scale training dissemination needs. However, despite the exploding use of Web-based training for health professionals, Web-based evaluation of clinical skills competency remains underdeveloped. In pursuit of a long-term goal of helping CAM practitioners integrate evidence-based practices from US Public Health Service Tobacco Dependence Treatment Guideline into routine clinical care, this pilot protocol aims to develop and test a Web-based tobacco cessation training program tailored for CAM practitioners. In preparation for a larger trial to examine the effect of training on CAM practitioner clinical practice behaviors around tobacco cessation, this developmental study will (1) adapt an existing in-person tobacco cessation BI training program that is specifically tailored for CAM therapists for delivery via the Internet; (2) develop a novel, Web-based tool to assess CAM practitioner competence in tobacco cessation BI skills, and conduct a pilot validation study comparing the competency assessment tool to live video role plays with a standardized patient; (3) pilot test the Web-based training with 120 CAM practitioners (40 acupuncturists, 40 chiropractors, 40 massage therapists) for usability, accessibility, acceptability, and effects on practitioner knowledge, self-efficacy, and competency with tobacco cessation; and (4) conduct qualitative and quantitative

  19. Online Tobacco Cessation Training and Competency Assessment for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Practitioners: Protocol for the CAM Reach Web Study

    PubMed Central

    Howerter, Amy; Eaves, Emery R; Hall, John R; Buller, David B; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists, are a growing presence in the US health care landscape and already provide health and wellness care to significant numbers of patients who use tobacco. For decades, conventional biomedical practitioners have received training to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) and referrals to cessation services as part of routine clinical care, whereas CAM practitioners have been largely overlooked for BI training. Web-based training has clear potential to meet large-scale training dissemination needs. However, despite the exploding use of Web-based training for health professionals, Web-based evaluation of clinical skills competency remains underdeveloped. Objective In pursuit of a long-term goal of helping CAM practitioners integrate evidence-based practices from US Public Health Service Tobacco Dependence Treatment Guideline into routine clinical care, this pilot protocol aims to develop and test a Web-based tobacco cessation training program tailored for CAM practitioners. Methods In preparation for a larger trial to examine the effect of training on CAM practitioner clinical practice behaviors around tobacco cessation, this developmental study will (1) adapt an existing in-person tobacco cessation BI training program that is specifically tailored for CAM therapists for delivery via the Internet; (2) develop a novel, Web-based tool to assess CAM practitioner competence in tobacco cessation BI skills, and conduct a pilot validation study comparing the competency assessment tool to live video role plays with a standardized patient; (3) pilot test the Web-based training with 120 CAM practitioners (40 acupuncturists, 40 chiropractors, 40 massage therapists) for usability, accessibility, acceptability, and effects on practitioner knowledge, self-efficacy, and competency with tobacco cessation; and (4) conduct

  20. Design and pilot evaluation of an Internet spit tobacco cessation program.

    PubMed

    Gala, S; Pesek, F; Murray, J; Kavanagh, C; Graham, S; Walsh, M

    2008-01-01

    To develop an interactive Web site to help smokeless tobacco (ST) users to reduce or stop their ST use and pilot test it for feasibility, acceptability, and short-term outcomes. An interactive, multiple-contact Internet ST cessation program was developed, refined based on feedback from 17 ST users, and pilot-tested for feasibility, acceptability, and short-term effects on the ST-related behavior and attitudes among baseball athletes attending 3 colleges in California. Consenting ST users completed a baseline questionnaire and enrolled on the Web site for help with stopping ST use. One month later, outcomes were assessed. Although 18 ST-using baseball athletes enrolled on the Web site, follow-up data were obtained from 12 individuals. Loss to follow-up occurred when we were unable to contact participants by telephone or mailed surveys. At 1-month follow-up, over 80% (N=11) reported that the Web site was: "helpful in stopping or reducing my tobacco use"; easy to navigate; and "appealing." Moreover, 8% (n=1) self-reported abstinence from ST use. Among nonquitters, there was a 26% mean reduction in ST use per day compared to baseline values. In addition, among all enrollees, there was a 4-fold increase in motivation to quit (7% versus 31%) and a 21% increase in their confidence in being able to quit (67% versus. 85%) from baseline to follow-up. The interactive ST cessation Web site was feasible to implement, acceptable to ST users, and appeared to reduce ST use, enhance motivation to quit, and increase confidence about one's ability to quit. Further study with a larger sample size and a control group is needed to determine efficacy to promote cessation of ST use.

  1. Effectiveness of oral health education versus nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco cessation- a parallel randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Raja, Mitali; Saha, Sabyasachi; Krishna-Reddy, Vamsi; Mohd, Shafaat; Narang, Ridhi; Sood, Poonam

    2016-02-01

    India has millions of tobacco users. It is the leading cause of deaths due to oral cancer and hence needs effective strategies to curb it. Hence the aim of present study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Oral Health Education (OHE) and Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) in tobacco cessation. The clinical trial consisted of Manohar Lal Kapoor (MLK) factory workers (n= 40) giving history of tobacco consumption (smoking/smokeless) within past 30 days. They were randomized into OHE (n=20) and NRT (n=20) groups. Baseline evaluation (demographic, smoking/ smokeless behaviour) was done. Fagerstrom test was used for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and to assess nicotine addiction level. Follow up was done at an interval of 1week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months to assess the reduction in the mean FTND score. "Nano-CheckTM Rapid Nicotine test" was used for the qualitative detection of cotinine in human urine. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed (Paired and Unpaired t test). In both OHE and NRT group there was a significant reduction (p< 0.00001) in mean Fagerstrom score at every follow up but when both the groups were compared mean Fagerstrom score reduction was more in NRT than OHE at all time interval though it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). NRT is better than OHE when both the groups were compared. However, it was found that any intervention given to tobacco users either NRT or OHE is helpful for the patients in the process of quitting tobacco. Tobacco cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, oral health education, fagerstrom test, urine cotinine.

  2. Effectiveness of oral health education versus nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco cessation- a parallel randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Krishna-Reddy, Vamsi; Mohd, Shafaat; Narang, Ridhi; Sood, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Background India has millions of tobacco users. It is the leading cause of deaths due to oral cancer and hence needs effective strategies to curb it. Hence the aim of present study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Oral Health Education (OHE) and Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) in tobacco cessation. Material and Methods The clinical trial consisted of Manohar Lal Kapoor (MLK) factory workers (n= 40) giving history of tobacco consumption (smoking/smokeless) within past 30 days. They were randomized into OHE (n=20) and NRT (n=20) groups. Baseline evaluation (demographic, smoking/ smokeless behaviour) was done. Fagerstrom test was used for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and to assess nicotine addiction level. Follow up was done at an interval of 1week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months to assess the reduction in the mean FTND score. “Nano-CheckTM Rapid Nicotine test” was used for the qualitative detection of cotinine in human urine. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed (Paired and Unpaired t test). Results In both OHE and NRT group there was a significant reduction (p< 0.00001) in mean Fagerstrom score at every follow up but when both the groups were compared mean Fagerstrom score reduction was more in NRT than OHE at all time interval though it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions NRT is better than OHE when both the groups were compared. However, it was found that any intervention given to tobacco users either NRT or OHE is helpful for the patients in the process of quitting tobacco. Key words:Tobacco cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, oral health education, fagerstrom test, urine cotinine. PMID:26855709

  3. Is There a Role for Community Health Workers in Tobacco Cessation Programs? Perceptions of Administrators and Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have shown that with appropriate training, Community Health Workers (CHWs) can be actively involved in health promotion and disease prevention (including tobacco cessation). This study examined the perceptions of administrators and health care professionals regarding the actual and potential role(s) of CHWs in a tobacco cessation program (TCP) within a universal health care system. Methods: This study was part of a larger exploratory, cross-sectional comprehensive assessment of the implementation of the TCP through the primary care public health system in 7 towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to 84 administrators at different levels (regional, municipal, and health units) and 80 health care professionals who were directly involved in the TCP. For this study, we assessed the perceptions of administrators and health care professionals on the actual and potential role(s) of CHWs in the TCP. Results: The overall response rate was 56.2%. Although 48.4% of respondents indicated that CHWs already participated in the TCP, there was a wide range in the participants’ responses regarding their involvement (33.3% among regional administrators and 65% among health care professionals). Identification/referral of patients and promotion of the TCP in the community were the most frequent CHWs’ activities reported. Overall, respondents were very receptive about trained CHWs having multiple roles in the TCP, except for delivery of a brief intervention. Conclusion: With appropriate training, health care administrators and health care professionals are very receptive regarding the involvement of CHWs in a TCP delivered through a public health system. PMID:24420327

  4. Readiness of Accredited Social Health Activist Workers for Tobacco Cessation Counseling after a Brief Intervention in Odisha, India: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Knv; Pathi, Jugajyothi; Avinash, J; Raju, P V Krishnam; Sureshan, Vinay; Vidya, K C

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was (1) to explore the baseline beliefs and practices of accredited social health activist (ASHA) workers of Khurda district of Orissa with respect to tobacco cessation and (2) to assess whether a brief intervention will be effective in improving the beliefs and practices of ASHA workers. The results of this study could be utilized by policy makers for framing important strategies for tobacco cessation in rural areas utilizing ASHA workers. A quasi-experimental study (before and after comparison) was performed in Khurda district of Orissa to find out whether a brief intervention could improve the beliefs and practices of ASHA workers related to antitobacco counseling in rural areas. A 14-item structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire, written in English (translated in Odiya), was used. The final sample size was estimated as 135. Data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 21) for analysis. All the mean belief items, practice items, degree of preparedness, and interest in training scores of study population increased significantly from baseline to postintervention. The study population showed a statistically significant improvement in postintervention composite belief and composite practices score. The majority of ASHA workers had positive beliefs and favorable practices after attending a brief intervention toward smoking cessation in their community. After attending the intervention, nearly half of the respondents felt themselves either somewhat or very well prepared for tobacco cessation. Most of them showed their interest toward getting further training in the field. Training programs and regular tobacco cessation activities should be planned in the primary health-care delivery system of India.

  5. Teaching tobacco cessation to large student cohorts through train-the-trainers and problem based learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Llambi, Laura; Barros, Mary; Parodi, Carolina; Cora, Mariana; Garces, Gaston

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Graduates of medical schools receive limited training on tobacco cessation and are ill-equipped to treat tobacco dependence. In this paper, we describe and present evidence from an educational intervention based on a train-the-trainers model and problem-based learning strategy aimed to educate a large number of first-year medical students on tobacco-related issues. A survey assessing students' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs was conducted before and after educational intervention. Tobacco experts from the faculty staff, who are trained problem-based learning tutors, served as facilitators in the problem-based learning setting with 1000 medical students. Significant changes in knowledge and beliefs were observed. Items such as need for further training in cessation, importance, and effectiveness of brief advice showed significant variations after the educational intervention. Educational intervention based on a train-the-trainers and problem-based learning approaches are feasible and effective to educate a large cohort of first-year medical students in tobacco issues. Further research is needed to find out whether this intervention improves overall patient care management.

  6. Practice-Based Referrals to a Tobacco Cessation Quit Line: Assessing the Impact of Comparative Feedback vs General Reminders

    PubMed Central

    Wadland, William C.; Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Weismantel, David; Pathak, Pramod K.; Fadel, Huda; Powell, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE We undertook a study to assess the impact of comparative feedback vs general reminders on practice-based referrals to a tobacco cessation quit line and estimated costs for projected quit responses. METHODS We conducted a group-randomized clinical trial comparing the impact of 6 quarterly (18 months) feedback reports (intervention) with that of general reminders (control) on practice-based clinician referrals to a quit-line service. Feedback reports were based on an Achievable Benchmark of Care approach using baseline practice, clinician, and patient survey responses, and referrals per quarter. Comparable quit responses and costs were estimated. RESULTS Three hundred eight clinicians participated (171 family medicine, 88 internal medicine, 49 obstetrics-gynecology) from 87 primary care practices in Michigan. After 18 months, there were more referrals from the intervention than from the control practices (484 vs 220; P <.001). Practice facsimile (fax) referrals (84%, n = 595) exceeded telephone referrals (16%, n = 109), but telephone referrals resulted in greater likelihood of enrollment (77% telephone vs 44% fax, P <.001). The estimated number of smokers who quit based on the level of services utilized by referred smokers was 66 in the feedback and 36 in the gentle reminder practices. CONCLUSION Providing comparative feedback on clinician referrals to a quit-line service had a modest impact with limited increased costs. PMID:17389537

  7. Coevolution of Information Sharing and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices Among North American Tobacco Cessation Quitlines

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Jessie E.; Lemaire, Robin H.; Valente, Thomas W.; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the coevolution of information sharing and implementation of evidence-based practices among US and Canadian tobacco cessation quitlines within the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). Methods. Web-based surveys were used to collect data from key respondents representing each of 74 participating funders of NAQC quitlines during the summer and fall of 2009, 2010, and 2011. We used stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in information sharing and practice implementation in the NAQC network. Results. Funders were more likely to share information within their own country and with funders that contracted with the same service provider. Funders contracting with larger service providers shared less information but implemented significantly more practices. Funders connected to larger numbers of tobacco control researchers more often received information from other funders. Intensity of ties to the NAQC network administrative organization did not influence funders’ decisions to share information or implement practices. Conclusions. Our findings show the importance of monitoring the NAQC network over time. We recommend increased cross-border information sharing and sharing of information between funders contracting with different and smaller service providers. PMID:26180993

  8. Quit Smoking Experts’ Opinions toward Quality and Results of Quit Smoking Methods Provided in Tobacco Cessation Services Centers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad B.; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the core responsibilities of health system is to treat tobacco dependence. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess physicians’ opinions towards quality and result of different quit smoking methods provided in tobacco cessation services centers in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, random sampling of all quit centers at country level was used to obtain a representative sample size of 100 physicians. Physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects, and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: Most experts preferred to use combination quit smoking methods and then Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) with 26 and 23, respectively. The least used methods were quit line and some methods without medication with 3 cases. The method which gained the maximum scores were telephone consultation, acupuncture, Willpower, Champix, combined method, and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) with the mean of 23.3, 23, 22.5, 22, 21.7 and 21.3, respectively. The minimum scores were related to e-cigarette, some methods without medication, and non-NRT medication with the mean of 12.3, 15.8 and 16.2, respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean of scores based on different cities (P = 0.256). Analysis of variance in mean scores showed significant differences in the means scores of different methods (P < 0.000). Conclusions: According to physicians acupuncture, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods and these methods could be much more feasible and cost effective than other methods. PMID:26425329

  9. Quit Smoking Experts' Opinions toward Quality and Results of Quit Smoking Methods Provided in Tobacco Cessation Services Centers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Leischow, Scott J; Lando, Harry A; Shadmehr, Mohammad B; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    One of the core responsibilities of health system is to treat tobacco dependence. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess physicians' opinions towards quality and result of different quit smoking methods provided in tobacco cessation services centers in Iran. In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, random sampling of all quit centers at country level was used to obtain a representative sample size of 100 physicians. Physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects, and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Most experts preferred to use combination quit smoking methods and then Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) with 26 and 23, respectively. The least used methods were quit line and some methods without medication with 3 cases. The method which gained the maximum scores were telephone consultation, acupuncture, Willpower, Champix, combined method, and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) with the mean of 23.3, 23, 22.5, 22, 21.7 and 21.3, respectively. The minimum scores were related to e-cigarette, some methods without medication, and non-NRT medication with the mean of 12.3, 15.8 and 16.2, respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean of scores based on different cities (P = 0.256). Analysis of variance in mean scores showed significant differences in the means scores of different methods (P < 0.000). According to physicians acupuncture, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods and these methods could be much more feasible and cost effective than other methods.

  10. "Knowledge, recommendation, and beliefs of e-cigarettes among physicians involved in tobacco cessation: A qualitative study".

    PubMed

    Singh, Binu; Hrywna, Mary; Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D; Jane Lewis, M; Steinberg, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Physicians are rated the most trustworthy source of information for smokers and thus play an increasing role in disseminating information on e-cigarettes to patients. Therefore, it is important to understand what is currently being communicated about e-cigarettes between physicians and patients. This study explored the knowledge, beliefs, communication, and recommendation of e-cigarettes among physicians of various specialties. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in early 2016 with 35 physicians across five different specialties. Interviews were transcribed and coded for the following deductive themes: (1) tobacco cessation recommendation practices, (2) knowledge of e-cigarettes, (3) communication of e-cigarettes with patients, (4) recommendation of e-cigarettes, and (5) general beliefs about e-cigarettes. Physicians across all specialties reported having conversations with patients about e-cigarettes. Conversations were generally prompted by the patient inquiring about e-cigarettes as a cessation method. Overall, physicians felt there was a lack of information on the efficacy and long term health effects but despite lack of evidence, generally did not discourage patients from trying e-cigarettes as a cessation device. Although physicians did not currently recommend e-cigarettes over traditional cessation methods, they were open to recommending e-cigarettes in the future if adequate data became available suggesting effectiveness. Patients are inquiring about e-cigarettes with physicians across various specialties. Future research should continue to study physicians' perceptions/practices given their potential to impact patient behavior and the possibility that such perceptions may change over time in response to the evidence-base on e-cigarettes.

  11. Early changes in the components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of smokers after tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Ponciano-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Paez-Martinez, Nayeli; Villa-Romero, Antonio; Gutierrez-Grobe, Ylse; Mendez-Sanchez, Nahum

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of early changes in some components of metabolic syndrome after smoking cessation. Forty-eight heavy smokers from the Tobacco Cessation Clinic (24 women/24 men), average age of 49.4 years, were included in this study. They smoked a mean of 19.92 cigarettes per day and had smoked 33.23 packages per year during 33.4 years. Participants were included in a treatment group based on cognitive behavior therapy (CBT); 16 participants received varenicline and the other 16 nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The target quit day was scheduled for week 3 through abrupt cessation. Abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) levels. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated weekly. Glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL-C), and insulin to determine the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were determined in blood samples at weeks 1, 4, and 10. As a control group 96 healthy nonsmokers were matched by age and sex. The mean BMI in smokers was 26.94 kg/m(2) and in nonsmokers 26.23 kg/m(2). Smokers showed hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and lower levels of HDL-C than nonsmokers. Percentages of cessation in week 3 were 81% for NRT and 93% for CBT and varenicline. The mean weight increase at the end of the treatment was 1.09 kg in the CBT group, 1.06 kg in the NRT group, and 1.17 kg in the varenicline group. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31.25% in week 1 and 29.16% at the end. There were reductions in the number of subjects with hypertension, glucose alterations, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL levels. Benefits of quitting smoking exceeded by far the risks associated with the amount of weight gained.

  12. An Analysis of the Cost-Effectiveness and Efficacy of Tobacco Cessation Aids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-13

    than non - smokers . Smokers also work on average 40 minutes less per day due to smoking breaks, becoming 1 full month of lost productivity per year.12... Non -smoking enlisted men exhibit less chance-oriented personalities and report less stress than enlisted smokers .13 A study of female recruits found...that daily smokers in the Navy receive reports indicating poorer job performance than non - smokers . Women who upon entry into service smoked at least

  13. Enabling distributed electronic research data collection for a rural Appalachian tobacco cessation study.

    PubMed

    Borlawsky, Tara B; Lele, Omkar; Jensen, Daniel; Hood, Nancy E; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2011-12-01

    Tobacco use is increasingly prevalent among vulnerable populations, such as people living in rural Appalachian communities. Owing to limited access to a reliable internet service in such settings, there is no widespread adoption of electronic data capture tools for conducting community-based research. By integrating the REDCap data collection application with a custom synchronization tool, the authors have enabled a workflow in which field research staff located throughout the Ohio Appalachian region can electronically collect and share research data. In addition to allowing the study data to be exchanged in near-real-time among the geographically distributed study staff and centralized study coordinator, the system architecture also ensures that the data are stored securely on encrypted laptops in the field and centrally behind the Ohio State University Medical Center enterprise firewall. The authors believe that this approach can be easily applied to other analogous study designs and settings.

  14. Pilot Implementation of a Wellness and Tobacco Cessation Curriculum in North Carolina Group Homes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah M; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-05-01

    Despite a steady decline in smoking rates in recent decades, individuals with mental illness continue to smoke at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. Adults with mental illness are motivated to quit and quit with rates similar to the general population when evidence-based cessation interventions are used. To build an evidence base for a wellness and cessation curriculum aimed at individuals with mental illness, the Breathe Easy Live Well (BELW) program was pilot tested in two group homes in North Carolina in the spring of 2014. Evaluators conducted pre- and post-implementation site visits and interviews with program instructors to assess outcomes as well as barriers and facilitators to implementation. Qualitative analysis of the data indicated that implementation was successful in both group homes, and the following themes emerged: (1) Training and technical assistance provided throughout implementation was sufficient; (2) Instructors used prior professional experiences and goal setting to facilitate program success and participant engagement; (3) Fostering positive coping strategies contributed to reports of reduced smoking; (4) Curriculum length may be a barrier to recruitment. Additional results included an increased interest among group home residents in more diligently managing mental illness symptoms and one group home moving the designated smoking area out of the direct path of the entrance/exit. Results of this pilot project suggest that BELW could be a potentially useful tool for group home staff to address health and wellness along with smoking cessation among individuals with mental illness.

  15. Promoting Tobacco Cessation and Smoke-Free Workplaces Through Community Outreach Partnerships in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Toro, Elba C.; Fernández, Maria E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Mejía, Luz M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. Objectives The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Results Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. Conclusions This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control. PMID:25152097

  16. Tobacco cessation via doctors of chiropractic: Results of a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Istvan, Joseph; Haas, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is a sizeable and growing body of empirical literature on the effects of physician advice to quit smoking. Because of the association between tobacco use and the health problems that may provoke referral to chiropractic care, doctors of chiropractic (DCs) may be able to give patients personalized proximal health feedback that may motivate them to quit. However, DCs have not been utilized in this role. The primary aim of this study was to design and refine a brief office-based tobacco intervention for use within chiropractic settings. Methods: This study was conducted in 20 private chiropractic practices in 2 phases: (a) intervention development, in which we created and focus tested practitioner and patient materials, and (b) feasibility, in which we evaluated the impact of the intervention on 210 tobacco-using chiropractic patients. Results: Analyses were conducted on 156 patients who exclusively smoked cigarettes. Using an intent-to-treat approach, assuming all nonresponders to be smokers, 13 (8.3%) reported 7-day abstinence at 6 weeks, 22 (14.1%) at the 6-month follow-up, and 35 (22.4%) at the 12-month assessment. Eleven participants (7.1%) reported prolonged abstinence at the 6-month follow-up, and 15 (9.6%) reported prolonged abstinence at 12 months. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to refine a brief office-based treatment for tobacco dependence for use in chiropractic settings. The results of this study were promising and will lead to a randomized clinical trial. If found to be effective, this model could be disseminated to chiropractic practitioners throughout the United States. PMID:20097840

  17. Tobacco cessation via doctors of chiropractic: results of a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Judith S; Istvan, Joseph; Haas, Mitchell

    2010-03-01

    There is a sizeable and growing body of empirical literature on the effects of physician advice to quit smoking. Because of the association between tobacco use and the health problems that may provoke referral to chiropractic care, doctors of chiropractic (DCs) may be able to give patients personalized proximal health feedback that may motivate them to quit. However, DCs have not been utilized in this role. The primary aim of this study was to design and refine a brief office-based tobacco intervention for use within chiropractic settings. This study was conducted in 20 private chiropractic practices in 2 phases: (a) intervention development, in which we created and focus tested practitioner and patient materials, and (b) feasibility, in which we evaluated the impact of the intervention on 210 tobacco-using chiropractic patients. Analyses were conducted on 156 patients who exclusively smoked cigarettes. Using an intent-to-treat approach, assuming all nonresponders to be smokers, 13 (8.3%) reported 7-day abstinence at 6 weeks, 22 (14.1%) at the 6-month follow-up, and 35 (22.4%) at the 12-month assessment. Eleven participants (7.1%) reported prolonged abstinence at the 6-month follow-up, and 15 (9.6%) reported prolonged abstinence at 12 months. To our knowledge, this is the first study to refine a brief office-based treatment for tobacco dependence for use in chiropractic settings. The results of this study were promising and will lead to a randomized clinical trial. If found to be effective, this model could be disseminated to chiropractic practitioners throughout the United States.

  18. Promoting tobacco cessation and smoke-free workplaces through community outreach partnerships in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Toro, Elba C; Fernández, Maria E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Calo, William A; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Mejía, Luz M; Mazas, Carlos A; Santos-Ortiz, Maria del Carmen; Wetter, David W

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Combined Effects of Web and Quitline Interventions for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G.; Severson, Herbert H.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Andrews, Judy A.; Cummins, Sharon E.; Lichtenstein, Edward; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Hudkins, Coleen; Widdop, Chris; Crowley, Ryann; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of smokeless tobacco (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) is a significant public health problem but smokeless tobacco users have few resources to help them quit. Web programs and telephone-based programs (Quitlines) have been shown to be effective for smoking cessation. We evaluate the effectiveness of a Web program, a Quitline, and the combination of the two for smokeless users recruited via the Web. Objectives To test whether offering both a Web and Quitline intervention for smokeless tobacco users results in significantly better long-term tobacco abstinence outcomes than offering either intervention alone; to test whether the offer of Web or Quitline results in better outcome than a self-help manual only Control condition; and to report the usage and satisfaction of the interventions when offered alone or combined. Methods Smokeless tobacco users (N= 1,683) wanting to quit were recruited online and randomly offered one of four treatment conditions in a 2×2 design: Web Only, Quitline Only, Web + Quitline, and Control (printed self-help guide). Point-prevalence all tobacco abstinence was assessed at 3- and 6-months post enrollment. Results 69% of participants completed both the 3- and 6-month assessments. There was no significant additive or synergistic effect of combining the two interventions for Complete Case or the more rigorous Intent To Treat (ITT) analyses. Significant simple effects were detected, individually the interventions were more efficacious than the control in achieving repeated 7-day point prevalence all tobacco abstinence: Web (ITT, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.94, p = .033) and Quitline (ITT: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.13, 2.11, p = .007). Participants were more likely to complete a Quitline call when offered only the Quitline intervention (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = .054, .093, p = .013), the number of website visits and duration did not differ when offered alone or in combination with Quitline. Rates of program helpfulness (p <.05) and

  20. State Medicaid Expansion Tobacco Cessation Coverage and Number of Adult Smokers Enrolled in Expansion Coverage - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    DiGiulio, Anne; Haddix, Meredith; Jump, Zach; Babb, Stephen; Schecter, Anna; Williams, Kisha-Ann S; Asman, Kat; Armour, Brian S

    2016-12-09

    In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3). Insurance coverage for tobacco cessation treatments is associated with increased quit attempts, use of cessation treatments, and successful smoking cessation (3); this coverage has the potential to reduce Medicaid costs (4). However, barriers such as requiring copayments and prior authorization for treatment can impede access to cessation treatments (3,5). As of July 1, 2016, 32 states (including the District of Columbia) have expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA),*(,†) which has increased access to health care services, including cessation treatments (5). CDC used data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicaid Budget and Expenditure System (MBES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the number of adult smokers enrolled in Medicaid expansion coverage. To assess cessation coverage among Medicaid expansion enrollees, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of, and barriers to accessing, evidence-based cessation treatments. As of December 2015, approximately 2.3 million adult smokers were newly enrolled in Medicaid because of Medicaid expansion. As of July 1, 2016, all 32 states that have expanded Medicaid eligibility under ACA covered some cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion enrollees, with nine states covering all nine cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion

  1. Correlates of the Use of Different Tobacco Cessation Methods by Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users According to Their Socio-Demographic Characteristics: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-10

    PubMed Central

    Ruhil, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco control has two aspects. One involves preventing non-tobacco users from using tobacco and the second involves tobacco cessation (quitting) by existing tobacco users. There are various methods of tobacco cessation. Pharmacotherapy [e.g., nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and medications such as bupropion] and behavioral counselling are some of the internationally approved methods of tobacco cessation. Objective: This paper intends to study how age, gender, residence (rural/urban), education, and occupation influence the use of various tobacco cessation methods by smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010. There were 3725 smokers and 6354 smokeless tobacco users included in the study who made attempts to quit in the 12 months prior to the survey by use of different cessation methods (NRT, drugs such as bupropion, counselling, and other methods). Results: A significant association was demonstrated between increasing educational attainment and use of cessation methods for all the methods among smokers. Being employed (Govt. or non-Govt.) was positively associated with the use of NRT as a cessation method by smokers. Students and homemakers had higher odds of using pharmacotherapy methods among smokers. A significant association was demonstrated for the gender and age of tobacco users with the use of counselling as a cessation method among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusion: The findings of this study have important implications for tobacco cessation service providers in view of supporting their decision of choosing a particular tobacco cessation method for tobacco users according to certain kinds of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:27385871

  2. Correlates of the Use of Different Tobacco Cessation Methods by Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users According to Their Socio-Demographic Characteristics: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Ruhil, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco control has two aspects. One involves preventing non-tobacco users from using tobacco and the second involves tobacco cessation (quitting) by existing tobacco users. There are various methods of tobacco cessation. Pharmacotherapy [e.g., nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and medications such as bupropion] and behavioral counselling are some of the internationally approved methods of tobacco cessation. This paper intends to study how age, gender, residence (rural/urban), education, and occupation influence the use of various tobacco cessation methods by smokers and smokeless tobacco users. The study was a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010. There were 3725 smokers and 6354 smokeless tobacco users included in the study who made attempts to quit in the 12 months prior to the survey by use of different cessation methods (NRT, drugs such as bupropion, counselling, and other methods). A significant association was demonstrated between increasing educational attainment and use of cessation methods for all the methods among smokers. Being employed (Govt. or non-Govt.) was positively associated with the use of NRT as a cessation method by smokers. Students and homemakers had higher odds of using pharmacotherapy methods among smokers. A significant association was demonstrated for the gender and age of tobacco users with the use of counselling as a cessation method among smokeless tobacco users. The findings of this study have important implications for tobacco cessation service providers in view of supporting their decision of choosing a particular tobacco cessation method for tobacco users according to certain kinds of sociodemographic characteristics.

  3. Meeting the Tobacco Cessation Coverage Requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: State Smoking Cessation Quitlines and Cost Sharing.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Robin H; Bailey, Linda; Leischow, Scott J

    2015-11-01

    We explored whether various key stakeholders considered cost sharing with state telephone-based tobacco cessation quitlines, because including tobacco cessation services as part of the required essential health benefits is a new requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). We analyzed qualitative data collected from interviews conducted in April and May of 2014 with representatives of state health departments, quitline service providers, health plans, and insurance brokers in 4 US states. State health departments varied in the strategies they considered the role their state quitline would play in meeting the ACA requirements. Health plans and insurance brokers referred to state quitlines because they were perceived as effective and free, but in 3 of the 4 states, the private stakeholder groups did not consider cost sharing. If state health departments are going to initiate cost-sharing agreements with private insurance providers, then they will need to engage a broad array of stakeholders and will need to overcome the perception that state quitline services are free.

  4. Meeting the Tobacco Cessation Coverage Requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: State Smoking Cessation Quitlines and Cost Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Linda; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether various key stakeholders considered cost sharing with state telephone-based tobacco cessation quitlines, because including tobacco cessation services as part of the required essential health benefits is a new requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We analyzed qualitative data collected from interviews conducted in April and May of 2014 with representatives of state health departments, quitline service providers, health plans, and insurance brokers in 4 US states. Results. State health departments varied in the strategies they considered the role their state quitline would play in meeting the ACA requirements. Health plans and insurance brokers referred to state quitlines because they were perceived as effective and free, but in 3 of the 4 states, the private stakeholder groups did not consider cost sharing. Conclusions. If state health departments are going to initiate cost-sharing agreements with private insurance providers, then they will need to engage a broad array of stakeholders and will need to overcome the perception that state quitline services are free. PMID:26447918

  5. Use of cell phones and computers for health promotion and tobacco cessation by American Indian college students in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Jo Ann W; Nelson, Lonnie A; Young, Sara L; Buchwald, Dedra; Roll, John

    2017-01-01

    Cell phones and personal computers have become popular mechanisms for delivering and monitoring health information and education, including the delivery of tobacco cessation education and support. Tobacco smoking is prevalent among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs), with 26% AI/AN adult men smoking compared to 19% of Caucasian adult males and 22% of African American adult males. Smoking is even more prevalent in Northern Plains AI populations, with 42% of men and women reporting current smoking. The literature on the availability and use of cell phones and computers, or the acceptability of use in health promotion among AIs and ANs, is scant. The authors report findings from a survey of AI students regarding their cell phone and computer access and use. The survey was conducted to inform the development and implementation of a text messaging smoking cessation intervention modeled on a program developed and used in Australia. A 22-item paper and pencil survey was administered to students at tribal colleges in rural Montana. The survey questions included cell phone ownership and access to service, use of cell phones and computers for health information, demographics, tobacco use habits, and interest in an intervention study. The study was reviewed and determined exempt by the institutional review boards at the tribal colleges and the lead research university. The study was conducted by researchers at the tribal colleges. Survey respondents received $10 when the survey was completed and returned. Data analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Among 153 AI respondents, the mean age was 29 years, range was 18-64 years. Overall, 40% reported smoking cigarettes with a mean age of 16 years at initiation. A total of 131 participants (86%) had cell phones and, of those, 122 (93%) had unlimited text messaging. A total of 104 (68%) had smart phones (with internet access), although 40% of those with smart phones reported

  6. Ear acupuncture for co-occurring substance abuse and borderline personality disorder: an aid to encourage treatment retention and tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Stuyt, Elizabeth B

    2014-08-01

    Retention of individuals with co-occurring borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders in treatment is known to be difficult. An outcome study of a tobacco-free 90-day inpatient dual-diagnosis treatment programme that uses several evidenced-based treatments in addition to ear acupuncture (acudetox) was undertaken to determine overall treatment effectiveness. Between January 2009 and December 2011, 231 patients were treated in the programme, 88% with nicotine dependence and 79% with personality disorder diagnoses. All patients completing the programme were invited to enrol in a 1-year follow-up study in which they responded to monthly questionnaires to assess outcomes. 185 patients (80%) successfully completed the programme. There was no correlation between successful programme completion and gender, race, age, primary drug dependence diagnosis or primary psychiatric diagnosis. The use of acudetox was positively correlated with successful completion (p=0.006). Of the 78 patients with BPD, 100% of men and 83% of women successfully completed the programme. Their use of acudetox was positively correlated with successful completion (p=0.026). At the end of the year, 140 questionnaires were returned: 51 patients with BPD reported outcomes similar to the group as a whole, with 55% sober and doing well. The use of acudetox was positively correlated with both successful completion of the programme for those with BPD as well as successful tobacco cessation, which ultimately improves the ability to maintain sobriety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Improving designer productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  8. Improving designer productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  9. A feasibility study evaluating effectiveness of an intervention to implement brief tobacco cessation counseling in community chain pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Pallavi D.; Chewning, Betty A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the feasibility of implementing ask-advise-refer (AAR) in representative community chain pharmacies serving low socioeconomic areas, and to assess the effectiveness of a multimodal intervention on short-term implementation of AAR. Design Randomized controlled trial Settings Sixteen community chain pharmacies in South-central Wisconsin Intervention A multimodal intervention including: 1) training to implement AAR, 2) workflow integration recommendations, 3) a cessation poster to create awareness, and 4) a support visit. Main outcome measures Number of patrons asked about their tobacco use, number of tobacco users advised to quit, number of quitline cards given, and number of tobacco users enrolled in the quitline. Results As hypothesized, the multimodal intervention significantly predicted the number of patrons asked (estimate=4.84, incidence rate ratios[IRR]=127.2; p<0.001) tobacco users advised (estimate=2.12, IRR=8.33; p<0.01), quitline cards distributed (estimate=1.04, IRR=2.82; p<0.05), and tobacco users enrolled in the quitline (estimate=2.31, IRR=10.13; p<0.001). Conclusion This trial demonstrates the feasibility of implementing AAR in routine community pharmacy practice. This trial also indicates the short-term effectiveness of the intervention in facilitating AAR, implementation in partnership with other public health services and systems. More research is needed to evaluate the generalizability, effectiveness and sustainability of AAR, including factors influencing adoption and the impact on cessation. PMID:22825231

  10. [Comparison of insurance coverage of tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies in five countries from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development].

    PubMed

    Le Faou, A-L; Scemama, O

    2005-11-01

    Reports in the literature demonstrate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tobacco treatments including drug and behavioral therapies. The health insurance coverage of smoking cessation treatments could lower financial barriers which limit the access to these services. The purpose of this paper was to compare health insurance coverage for pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation in five countries from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. A literature review was performed using Medline, official websites and Google. A grid was used to analyse articles and reports in order to identify: the public or private coverage of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies; the population groups who were covered; the extent and content of the insurance coverage as well as the practical ways to obtain it and the training and certification of the health staff to prescribe these treatments. Australia, Quebec, the United States, New Zealand and the United Kingdom provide financial coverage for some of the drugs prescribed to stop smoking. The financial coverage depends on the organization of the health care system: universal coverage in Australia, Quebec, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom and private coverage in the United States except for the Medicaid public program. In the United States as well as in the United Kingdom the first population group to benefit from financial coverage of smoking cessation therapy were socially precarious persons. Prescription schemes are recommended in the present programs and persons who receive the treatment are generally requested to attend follow-up visits. All countries studied encourage training of health professionals in tobacco cessation, but except for Australia and New Zealand there is no mandatory registration of physicians who prescribe smoking cessation drugs. The financial coverage of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies is often the result of a political decision. Taking into consideration the situation of developed

  11. Designing for Productive Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu; Bielaczyc, Katerine

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the design principles undergirding "productive failure" (PF; M. Kapur, 2008). We then report findings from an ongoing program of research on PF in mathematical problem solving in 3 Singapore public schools with significantly different mathematical ability profiles, ranging from average to lower ability. In…

  12. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation. PMID:27077338

  13. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation.

  14. Smokeless tobacco: challenges, products and, cessation.

    PubMed

    Rankin, K Vendrell; Jones, Daniel L; Benton, Elain

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco companies continue to develop and aggressively market new products for oral use. Most new products are intended to dissolve in the mouth and swallow rather than spit out the juices. These products effectively circumvent smoke-free policies, decrease tobacco cessation efforts, and create individuals who use both smokeless tobacco (ST) and cigarettes. All ST products contain nicotine, carcinogens, and pose multiple health risks. The cancer and health risks associated with ST use extend well beyond the changes in the oral cavity and the risk of oral cancer. Unlike cigarettes, the contents of ST vary widely by brand and product posing difficulty in the use of the available pharmacotherapy for cessation. Although no uniform guidelines exist for the use of pharmacotherapy for smokeless tobacco cessation, research suggests that use of these drugs is effective. The most important motivator for quitting ST cessation remains in the hands of the dentist.

  15. Production Design: Holding It Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, James O.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses production design for videos. Outlines general considerations (opening, transitions, content areas, and closing) and specific considerations (typography, screen design, music, and sound effects). Offers an example. (SR)

  16. Production Design: Holding It Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, James O.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses production design for videos. Outlines general considerations (opening, transitions, content areas, and closing) and specific considerations (typography, screen design, music, and sound effects). Offers an example. (SR)

  17. Production Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  18. Perceived Implementation of the Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) Tobacco-Free Regulation in NY State and Clinical Practice Behaviors to Support Tobacco Cessation: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Tormes Eby, Lillian T.; Laschober, Tanja C.

    2013-01-01

    This study measured substance use disorder clinicians’ perceptions regarding the implementation extensiveness of the Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) tobacco-free regulation, passed in New York State in July of 2008, at three time-points and across organizations with varying characteristics. Repeated cross-sectional data were collected from clinicians approximately 4 months pre-regulation (Time 0, N = 362), 10–12 months postregulation (Time 1, N = 462), and 20–24 months post-regulation (Time 2, N = 509). Clinician perceptions of implementation extensiveness (number of required policies in effect), use of tobacco cessation-related intake procedures, and use of guideline recommended counseling for treating tobacco dependence are significantly greater at Time 1 and Time 2 compared to Time 0. Additionally, differences are found in perceived implementation extensiveness based on hospital-based status, profit status, and level of care offered, although the pattern of effects differed some over the three time-points under investigation. PMID:23375360

  19. Culture-Orientated Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

  20. Culture-Orientated Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

  1. Designing Productive Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.

    Based on the premise that school facility design should actively encourage efficient and effective learning, this book explores key design decisions that have a crucial impact on the kind of student-teacher-media interactions which take place in all school rooms and open spaces. Topics addressed include learning space specifications; the…

  2. Design for Production Manual. Volume 2. Design/Production Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    assist you and your organization in a re-thinking process concerning shipbuilding design and production. To this end , the writers want to emphasize that... break the design process into a number of stages, which reflect the realities of the overall ship design and production scheme. For each stage a set...consistent with steel unit breaks . At the same time system diagrams will have been developed which indicate the links between system elements and the

  3. Integrated Product Design Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    scenario barriers application DOME world LABVIEW plugin Computer with I/O card Programmable logic controller Machine tool world Application Manufacturing object module: MOM design context need concept scenario barriers application

  4. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  5. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  6. Optical design for consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anurag

    2014-10-01

    Optical engineers often limit their focus on meeting the provided targets on performance and geometry and assume that the specifications are largely non-negotiable. Such approach ignores the value proposition behind the product and the challenges associated with overall product design, manufacturing, business development and legal issues. As a result, the design effort can be expensive, time consuming and can result in product failure. We discuss a product based systems engineering approach that leads to an application specific optical design that is more effective and efficient to implement.

  7. Requirements statement in product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slătineanu, L.; Dodun, O.; Coteaţă, M.; Coman, I.; Manole, V.; Gika, C. V.

    2016-11-01

    One of the activities corresponding to the product design and development refers to clarifying the requirements necessary to be fulfilled by the final product. There are distinct opinions concerning the ways in which these requirements could be formulated and applied. The paper presents the results of a succinct analysis aiming to highlight the developing of product requirements in the case of applying the value analysis method and the axiomatic design method, respectively. The way in which the requirements are formulated in the case of a patent application is also considered. Results of the study were applied in the cases of designing some mechanical products.

  8. MCFC PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    This contract is supported by DOE and DOD/DARPA funds. The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOD's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (A) to provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed. (B) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator.

  9. MCFC product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-05-01

    This contract is supported by DOE and DOD/DARPA funds. The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOE's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (A) To provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed; and (B) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator. These objectives are planned to be achieved in the program coordinated with the Department of Energy, which has been funding a multiyear natural gas fueled direct fuel cell power plant program for civilian applications. Because many DARPA and DOE objectives are similar, the coordinated program activities are considered the most cost-effective for accomplishment of the program objectives. The DARPA/DOE joint program was launched in 1994. The DOE part of the program is expected to continue to the year 2000. The final output of this DOE program is to construct and operate a 2 MW power plant on an East Coast site. The site will be accessible to DOD energy/environmental systems base planners and logistics personnel as well as mission and policy planners to refine deployment configurations of this new power generation system for fixed base applications. A dual fuel fixed base design for military fuels operation, as well as support system logistics will be the key deliverables for the DARPA part of the program.

  10. MCFC PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-04-30

    The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOD's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (1) To provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed. (2) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator. These objectives are planned to be achieved in the program coordinated with the Department of Energy, which has been funding a multiyear natural gas fueled direct fuel cell power plant program (DE-FC21-95MC31184) for civilian applications. Because many DARPA and DOE objectives are similar, the coordinated program activities are considered the most cost-effective for accomplishment of the program objectives. The DARPA/DOE joint program was launched in 1994. The DOE part of the program is expected to continue to Year 2000. The final output of this DOE program is to construct and operate a 2 MW power plant on an East Coast site. The site will be accessible to DOD energy/environmental systems base planners and logistics personnel as well as mission and policy planners to refine deployment configurations of this new power generation system for fixed base applications.

  11. Production Facility SCADA Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Baily, Scott A.; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Wheat, Robert Mitchell Jr.

    2015-03-23

    The following report covers FY 14 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production facility. The goal of this effort is to provide Northstar with a baseline system design.

  12. Robust modular product family design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lan; Allada, Venkat

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust product family? An example of a simplified vacuum product family is used to illustrate our methodology. In the example, customer requirements are selected as signal factors; future changes of customer requirements are selected as noise factors; an index called quality characteristic (QC) is set to evaluate the product vacuum family; and the module instance matrix (M) is selected as control factor. Initially a relation between the objective function (QC) and the control factor (M) is established, and then the feasible M space is systemically explored using a simplex method to determine the optimum M and the corresponding QC values. Next, various noise levels at different time points are introduced into the system. For each noise level, the optimal values of M and QC are computed and plotted on a QC-chart. The tunable time period of the control factor (the module matrix, M) is computed using the QC-chart. The tunable time period represents the maximum time for which a given control factor can be used to satisfy current and future customer needs. Finally, a robustness index is used to break up the tunable time period into suitable time periods that designers should consider while designing product families.

  13. Development and Testing of a Computerized Decision Support System to Facilitate Brief Tobacco Cessation Treatment in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Proposal and Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dexheimer, Judith W; Khoury, Jane C; Miller, Julie A; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) is unequivocally harmful to children's health, yet up to 48% of children who visit the pediatric emergency department (PED) and urgent care setting are exposed to tobacco smoke. The incorporation of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) into the electronic health records (EHR) of PED patients may improve the rates of screening and brief TSE intervention of caregivers and result in decreased TSE in children. Objective We propose a study that will be the first to develop and evaluate the integration of a CDSS for Registered Nurses (RNs) into the EHR of pediatric patients to facilitate the identification of caregivers who smoke and the delivery of TSE interventions to caregivers in the urgent care setting. Methods We will conduct a two-phase project to develop, refine, and integrate an evidence-based CDSS into the pediatric urgent care setting. RNs will provide input on program content, function, and design. In Phase I, we will develop a CDSS with prompts to: (1) ASK about child TSE and caregiver smoking, (2) use a software program, Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap), to ADVISE caregivers to reduce their child's TSE via total smoking home and car bans and quitting smoking, and (3) ASSESS their interest in quitting and ASSIST caregivers to quit by directly connecting them to their choice of free cessation resources (eg, Quitline, SmokefreeTXT, or SmokefreeGOV) during the urgent care visit. We will create reports to provide feedback to RNs on their TSE counseling behaviors. In Phase II, we will conduct a 3-month feasibility trial to test the results of implementing our CDSS on changes in RNs’ TSE-related behaviors, and child and caregiver outcomes. Results This trial is currently underway with funding support from the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute. We have completed Phase I. The CDSS has been developed with input from our advisory panel and RNs, and pilot tested. We are nearing completion of

  14. Health and economic effects from linking bedside and outpatient tobacco cessation services for hospitalized smokers in two large hospitals: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extended smoking cessation follow-up after hospital discharge significantly increases abstinence. Hospital smoke-free policies create a period of ‘forced abstinence’ for smokers, thus providing an opportunity to integrate tobacco dependence treatment, and to support post-discharge maintenance of hospital-acquired abstinence. This study is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1U01HL1053231). Methods/Design The Inpatient Technology-Supported Assisted Referral study is a multi-center, randomized clinical effectiveness trial being conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) and at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) hospitals in Portland, Oregon. The study assesses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of linking a practical inpatient assisted referral to outpatient cessation services plus interactive voice recognition (AR + IVR) follow-up calls, compared to usual care inpatient counseling (UC). In November 2011, we began recruiting 900 hospital patients age ≥18 years who smoked ≥1 cigarettes in the past 30 days, willing to remain abstinent postdischarge, have a working phone, live within 50 miles of the hospital, speak English, and have no health-related barriers to participation. Each site will randomize 450 patients to AR + IVR or UC using a 2:1 assignment strategy. Participants in the AR + IVR arm will receive a brief inpatient cessation consult plus a referral to available outpatient cessation programs and medications, and four IVR follow-up calls over seven weeks postdischarge. Participants do not have to accept the referral. At KPNW, UC participants will receive brief inpatient counseling and encouragement to self-enroll in available outpatient services. The primary outcome is self-reported thirty-day smoking abstinence at six months postrandomization for AR + IVR participants compared to usual care. Additional outcomes include self-reported and biochemically confirmed seven-day abstinence at

  15. [Current concepts in tobacco cessation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Márk, Antal; Ramseier, Christoph A; Katalin, Barabás; András, Forster; Zsolt, Zalai; Katalin, Nagy

    2012-09-01

    In the recent years, for oral care in general, both improving oral hygiene and tobacco use cessation have been identified as necessary measures to gain and maintain long-term periodontal health. This growing evidence has given the dental team a whole new task to tackle when achieving and maintaining oral health with their patients. In order to support dental patients to quit tobacco use, it is helpful for the clinician to have a clear understanding of the genesis of 'tobacco use disease' in general. At present, the evidence-based method for tobacco use cessation consists of professional counselling on behavioural change using the so called "5A Method" (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrange") in combination with pharmacotherapy. A suitable model for behavioural support in tobacco use cessation would help patients to move from one stage to the next. People who want to quit the smoking habit do not always participate in carefully controlled nicotine withdrawal programs, e.g. in linear fashion and from start to finish. Nevertheless, simple instructions - like those offered in the "Assist" (to help) and "Arrange" (to organize follow-up visits) - can be valuable tools for dental professionals supporting their patients to quit smoking. On the basis of significant evidence on the recovery of the oral mucosa and the periodontal tissue following tobacco use cessation, a new task has been emerged in dentistry: the role of oral health professionals providing counselling for patients who ought to quit tobacco use.

  16. Tennessee health plan tobacco cessation coverage.

    PubMed

    Kolade, Folasade M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the smoking cessation coverage available from public and private Tennessee health plans. Cross-sectional study. The sampling frame for private plans was a register of licensed plans obtained from the Tennessee Commerce Department. Government websites and reports provided TennCare data. Data were abstracted from plan manuals and formularies for benefit year 2012. Classification of coverage included comprehensive-all seven recommended medications plus individual and group counseling; moderate-at least two forms of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus bupropion and varenicline and one form of counseling; inadequate-at least one treatment, or none-no medications or counseling, or coverage only for pregnant women. Of nine private plans, one provided comprehensive coverage; two, moderate coverage; four, inadequate coverage, as did TennCare; and two plans provided no coverage. Over 362,800 smokers had inadequate access to cessation treatments under TennCare, while 119,094 smokers had inadequate or no cessation coverage under private plans. In 2012, Tennessee fell short of Healthy People goals for total managed care and comprehensive TennCare coverage of smoking cessation. If Tennessee mandates that all health plans provide full coverage, 481,900 smokers may immediately be in a better position to quit. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  18. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2011-12-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  19. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  20. Knowledge, Beliefs, Behaviors, and Social Norms Related to Use of Alternative Tobacco Products Among Undergraduate and Graduate Nursing Students in an Urban U.S. University Setting.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Zhou, Sherry; Katigbak, Carina; Naegle, Madeline; Sherman, Scott; Weitzman, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess nursing students' knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms regarding use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs). This anonymous online survey was conducted with all students enrolled in a college of nursing. The survey utilized measures from several national tobacco studies to assess knowledge and beliefs about ATPs (hookahs, cigars or cigarillos, bidis, kreteks, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes) compared to cigarettes, health effects of ATPs, personal use of ATPs, and social norms. Data were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics and frequencies were performed for basic sociodemographic data. Paired samples t tests were performed to determine differences for scaled measures. Nursing students demonstrated very low levels of knowledge about ATPs and their health consequences, despite high rates of ATP personal use. About 76% of participants reported use of one or more ATPs once or more in their lifetimes. A greater proportion of students had used hookahs or waterpipes (39.6%) compared to cigarettes (32.7%). Nurses' lack of knowledge about the emerging use and health threats associated with ATPs may undermine their ability to provide appropriate tobacco cessation counseling. Research is needed to identify gaps in nurses' education regarding tobacco cessation counseling and to develop new counseling approaches specific to use of ATPs. Nurses play critical roles in counseling their patients for tobacco cessation. Further research and education about the risks presented by ATPs are critical to reducing excess tobacco-related mortality. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. Holistic Design for Total Product Well Being

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Chris W.; Hamilton, George S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent hardware development work at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center creates and argument for the use of a holistic design approach as opposed to a piece part design approach. A piece part design approach being one where individual pieces are developed to their finished state having to meet certain interface and human engineering requirements without much consideration to the final product as a whole. A holistic design approach being one where the final product is evaluated early and frequently during the design process, and individual parts are developed with consideration to how they interact a whole,and how they interact with the user and environment. Examples from the development of the Materials Science Research Rack - 1 will illustrate: a design failure due to piece part design; a design save, due to a failure of piece part design, but saved by evaluating the design holistically; and a design success due to a holistic design approach.

  2. Engineering Changes in Product Design - A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K.; Janardhan Reddy, K., Dr

    2016-09-01

    Changes are fundamental to product development. Engineering changes are unavoidable and can arise at any phase of the product life cycle. The consideration of market requirements, customer/user feedbacks, manufacturing constraints, design innovations etc., turning them into viable products can be accomplished when product change is managed properly. In the early design cycle, informal changes are accepted. However, changes become formal when its complexity and cost increases, and as product matures. To maximize the market shares, manufacturers have to effectively and efficiently manage engineering changes by means of Configuration Control. The paper gives a broad overview about ‘Engineering Change Management’ (ECM) through configuration management and its implications in product design. The aim is to give an idea and understanding about the engineering changes in product design scenario to the new researchers. This paper elaborates the significant aspect of managing the engineering changes and the importance of ECM in a product life cycle.

  3. Improving product introduction through effective design reviews.

    PubMed

    Pelnik, Tammy M

    2003-01-01

    The design review process is a part of the manufacturer's due diligence in developing a safe and effective product. Design review provides early and on-going independent feedback to developers. By adopting a proactive review process, design improvements can be pursued at an optimum time in the product development effort, i.e., when it will cost less to implement changes and when these changes may have the greatest impact. Effective implementation of the design review requirement will lead to better medical products and improved product introduction results.

  4. Cost benefits from human productivity design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The degree to which changing definitions of productivity influence the design of space systems is discussed from a sociological point of view. Particular attention is given to the importance of subjective criteria used in judgements about the cost and benefits of designing a Space Station. It is recommended that designers, administrators, and potential private industrial participants recognize the objectives and goals of other groups involved in the Space Station program in order to establish the most cooperative and productive design environment.

  5. Designing Visceral, Behavioural and Reflective Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Mersha; Rusli, Helen Agustin

    2017-09-01

    Designers and manufacturers often see consumption as the primary objective of a product - with implications such as discarded products, obsolete wastes, and ecological degradation. The paper aims to find the answer to the question, how emotional design can adapt the discarded and undesirable products into something valuable in a long term? This paper presents a framework combining Chapman's theory and Norman's theory on three levels of emotional design to highlight what long lasting connection with products entails. A design approach is presented combing the Wabi Sabi philosophy that promotes the celebration of decay and damage. This is used as one of the design principles for the experiments conducted on discarded products. Through constant user interaction before, during and after the experiments the evaluation of design as an agent of transformation is done. The user conducted the evaluation based on the Kansei elements of looks, sound, smell, and feel of the product. The experiments confirmed that a long-term value is only achieved through redesigning and reconstructing the perception of people towards products on a reflective level, rather than the visceral and behavioural elements of the product. The research found attachment to the visceral and behavioural elements of a product instead of an emotional one was causing users to discard products faster than required. The research indicated that many people, including designers and manufacturers, are unconsciously focusing on usability (behavioural level) and physical look (visceral level) of a product that are easily replaced, than on a meaningful way (reflective level) to create and maintain long-lasting emotions. The research concluded with a proposition towards digitization of products which could perhaps be an all round solution to make products more appropriate to human emotions. Digitization could give products the ability to capture, store and then communicate the stories, journey and memories back, in

  6. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  7. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  8. Product design, semantics and emotional response.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Oya; Sener, Bahar

    This paper explores theoretical issues in ergonomics related to semantics and the emotional content of design. The aim is to find answers to the following questions: how to design products triggering "happiness" in one's mind; which product attributes help in the communication of positive emotions; and finally, how to evoke such emotions through a product. In other words, this is an investigation of the "meaning" that could be designed into a product in order to "communicate" with the user at an emotional level. A literature survey of recent design trends, based on selected examples of product designs and semantic applications to design, including the results of recent design awards, was carried out in order to determine the common attributes of their design language. A review of Good Design Award winning products that are said to convey and/or evoke emotions in the users has been done in order to define good design criteria. These criteria have been discussed in relation to user emotional responses and a selection of these has been given as examples.

  9. Design Review Improvements Product Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-07

    Boeing Anne Ramsey, Harris Corporation Ronald H. Mandel, Lockheed Martin Mark King, Micropac Industries Melanie Berg, NASA Cindy Kohlmiller...Peters, Raytheon Donna Potter , SSL 1 U.S. SPACE PROGRAM MISSION ASSURANCE IMPROVEMENT WORKSHOP LOCKHEED-MARTIN | SUNNYVALE, CA | MAY 5 - 7, 2015 Design...SME Jeff Cusick Raytheon SME Luis Garcia Raytheon SME Bill Hoehn Raytheon SME Ethan Nguyen Raytheon SME Dyane Peters Raytheon SME Donna Potter SSL SME

  10. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    PubMed

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors.

  11. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    PubMed

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities.

  12. Haptics for Product Design and Manufacturing Simulation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pingjun

    2016-01-01

    Product design and manufacturing simulation is a promising research and application area for haptics. By benefiting from its natural human-computer interaction and realistic force/torque feedback, haptics can change the traditional design and manufacturing approaches which are mainly based on physical mock-ups or CAD (Computer Aided Design) modes. This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive survey of haptics for product design and manufacturing simulation in the past 10 years, mainly from 2004-2014, including haptics for product design and shape modelling, haptics for machining simulation, and haptics for virtual assembly and maintenance simulation. The new haptic devices and rendering algorithms involved in this area are introduced, the major research efforts and the typical systems are discussed, and the new ideas and research progresses are investigated. Then, conclusions and future trends are summarized.

  13. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds. A Spanish version of this dataset is available for download at http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/products/list_of_labeled_products.html

  14. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  15. Designing for Productive Adaptations of Curriculum Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debarger, Angela Haydel; Choppin, Jeffrey; Beauvineau, Yves; Moorthy, Savitha

    2013-01-01

    Productive adaptations at the classroom level are evidence-based curriculum adaptations that are responsive to the demands of a particular classroom context and still consistent with the core design principles and intentions of a curriculum intervention. The model of design-based implementation research (DBIR) offers insights into complexities and…

  16. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  17. Designing for Productive Adaptations of Curriculum Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debarger, Angela Haydel; Choppin, Jeffrey; Beauvineau, Yves; Moorthy, Savitha

    2013-01-01

    Productive adaptations at the classroom level are evidence-based curriculum adaptations that are responsive to the demands of a particular classroom context and still consistent with the core design principles and intentions of a curriculum intervention. The model of design-based implementation research (DBIR) offers insights into complexities and…

  18. Product Development by Design Navigation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Hiromu

    Manufacturers must be able to develop new products within a specified time period. This paper discusses a method for developing high performance products from a limited number of experiments, utilizing the concept of “function error”. Unlike conventional methods where the sequence of design, prototyping and experiment must be repeated several times, the proposed method can determine optimal design values directly from experimental data obtained from the first prototype. The theoretical basis of the method is presented, then its effectiveness proven by applying it to design an extrusion machine and a CNC lathe.

  19. Bioreactor design for photofermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Basar

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen will become a significant fuel in the near future. Photofermentative production of hydrogen is a promising and sustainable process. The design, construction and successful operation of the photobioreactors are of critical importance for photofermentative hydrogen production and became a major field of research where novel technologies are developed and adapted frequently. This paper gives an overview of the design aspects related to photobioreactors giving particular attention to design limitations, construction material, type, operating mode and scale-up. Sub-components of the overall system setup such as mixing, temperature control and hydrogen collection are also discussed. Recent achievements in the photobioreactor technologies are described.

  20. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds.

  1. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined.

  2. Engaging teenagers productively in service design.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Simon; Sustar, Helena; Wolstenholme, Daniel; Dearden, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Engaging young people in participatory design can be challenging, particularly in health-related projects. In a study co-designing diabetes support and information services with teenagers, we found framing activities using popular culture was a useful strategy. Various cultural references helped us stage activities that were productive for the design process, and were engaging for our young participants (e.g. exploring practical implications through discussions in a 'Dragons' Den'). Some activities were more effective than others and the idea of language-games, which has been widely explored in participatory design, explains why our strategy was successful when there was a clear 'family resemblance' between the popular cultural references and certain essential stages of designing. However, attention is required in selecting appropriate cultural references if this strategy is adopted elsewhere, and design facilitators should focus first on devising accessible language-games, rather than expecting popular cultural references to provide complete solutions to the challenge of staging participatory design.

  3. Microstructure Mediated Design of Material and Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Ayan; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh; Mistree, Farrokh

    In this paper, the construct of microstructure-mediated design is explored by framing a multiscale system with the appropriate aspects of the material microstructure, followed by multiscale material modeling, and then engineering the microstructure using the Inductive Design Exploration Method, to achieve the product specifications. As the microstructure represents the limiting interface between structure-property relations including system performance and process-structure relations, we have adopted the phrase microstructure mediated design. We illustrate the efficacy of this construct via the integrated design of a submersible and an Al-based matrix composite.

  4. Designing Interoperable Data Products with Community Conventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.; Jelenak, A.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    The HDF Product Designer (HPD) is a cloud-based client-server collaboration tool that can bring existing netCDF-3/4/CF, HDF4/5, and HDF-EOS2/5 products together to create new interoperable data products that serve the needs of the Earth Science community. The tool is designed to reduce the burden of creating and storing data in standards-compliant, interoperable HDF5 files and lower the technical and programming skill threshold needed to design such products by providing a user interface that combines the netCDF-4/HDF5 interoperable feature set with applicable metadata conventions. Users can collaborate quickly to devise new HDF5 products while at the same time seamlessly incorporating the latest best practices and conventions in their community by importing existing data products. The tool also incorporates some expert system features through CLIPS, allowing custom approaches in the file design, as well as easy transfer of preferred conventions as they are being developed. The current state of the tool and the plans for future development will be presented. Constructive input from any interested parties is always welcome.

  5. Product quality multi-objective dryer design

    SciTech Connect

    Kiranoudis, C.T.; Maroulis, Z.B.; Marinos-Kouris, D.

    1999-11-01

    Design of conveyor-belt dryers constitutes a mathematical programming problem involving the evaluation of appropriate structural and operational process variables so that total annual plant cost involved is optimized. The increasing need for dehydrated products of the highest quality, imposes the development of criteria that, together with cost, determine the design rules for drying processes. Quality of dehydrated products is a complex resultant of properties characterizing the final products, where the most important one is color. Color is determined as a three-parameter resultant, whose values for products, which have undergone drying should deviate from the corresponding ones of natural products, as little as possible. In this case, product quality dryer design is a complex multi-objective optimization problem, involving the color deviation vector as an objective function and as constraints the ones deriving from the process mathematical model. The mathematical model of the dryer was developed and the fundamental color deterioration laws were determined for the drying process. Non-preference multi-criteria optimization methods were used and the Pareto-optimal set of efficient solutions was evaluated. An example was included to demonstrate the performance of the design procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's ‘effectiveness’ as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Conclusions Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons. PMID:24732162

  7. An optimisation method for complex product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ni; Yi, Wenqing; Bi, Zhuming; Kong, Haipeng; Gong, Guanghong

    2013-11-01

    Designing a complex product such as an aircraft usually requires both qualitative and quantitative data and reasoning. To assist the design process, a critical issue is how to represent qualitative data and utilise it in the optimisation. In this study, a new method is proposed for the optimal design of complex products: to make the full use of available data, information and knowledge, qualitative reasoning is integrated into the optimisation process. The transformation and fusion of qualitative and qualitative data are achieved via the fuzzy sets theory and a cloud model. To shorten the design process, parallel computing is implemented to solve the formulated optimisation problems. A parallel adaptive hybrid algorithm (PAHA) has been proposed. The performance of the new algorithm has been verified by a comparison with the results from PAHA and two other existing algorithms. Further, PAHA has been applied to determine the shape parameters of an aircraft model for aerodynamic optimisation purpose.

  8. Product functions: interfaces with ergonomic design.

    PubMed

    Campos, Lívia F de A; Lanutti, Jamille N de L; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In addition to technical quality, increasing emphasis is being placed on the importance of elements such as the appearance and meaning of products. To be successful, therefore, attention must be paid to the aesthetic and symbolic functions of objects as well as to reliability and physical quality. Study of the interfaces of these functions may provide a theoretical basis for the ergonomic design of products. The objective of this review is to attempt to establish the nature of these interfaces.

  9. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Christopher J; Wham, Robert M; Hobbs, Randall W; Owens, R Steven; Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  10. History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelrich, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

  11. Counting on natural products for drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Reker, Daniel; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-06-01

    Natural products and their molecular frameworks have a long tradition as valuable starting points for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recently, there has been a revitalization of interest in the inclusion of these chemotypes in compound collections for screening and achieving selective target modulation. Here we discuss natural-product-inspired drug discovery with a focus on recent advances in the design of synthetically tractable small molecules that mimic nature's chemistry. We highlight the potential of innovative computational tools in processing structurally complex natural products to predict their macromolecular targets and attempt to forecast the role that natural-product-derived fragments and fragment-like natural products will play in next-generation drug discovery.

  12. Product design engineering - a global education trend in multidisciplinary training for creative product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering training. Product design engineering (PDE) is a new interdisciplinary programme combining the strengths of the industrial design and engineering. This paper examines the emergence of PDE in an environment of critique of conventional engineering education and exemplifies the current spread of programmes endorsing a hybrid programme of design and engineering skills. The paper exemplifies PDE with the analysis of the programme offered at Swinburne University of Technology (Australia), showing how the teaching of 'designerly' thinking to engineers produces a new graduate particularly suited to the current and future environment of produce design practice. The paper concludes with reflections on the significance of this innovative curriculum model for the field of product design and for engineering design in general.

  13. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  14. Engaging teenagers productively in service design

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Simon; Sustar, Helena; Wolstenholme, Daniel; Dearden, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Engaging young people in participatory design can be challenging, particularly in health-related projects. In a study co-designing diabetes support and information services with teenagers, we found framing activities using popular culture was a useful strategy. Various cultural references helped us stage activities that were productive for the design process, and were engaging for our young participants (e.g. exploring practical implications through discussions in a ‘Dragons’ Den’). Some activities were more effective than others and the idea of language-games, which has been widely explored in participatory design, explains why our strategy was successful when there was a clear ‘family resemblance’ between the popular cultural references and certain essential stages of designing. However, attention is required in selecting appropriate cultural references if this strategy is adopted elsewhere, and design facilitators should focus first on devising accessible language-games, rather than expecting popular cultural references to provide complete solutions to the challenge of staging participatory design. PMID:26516621

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    P. Voyentzie; T. Leo; A. Kush; L. Christner; G. Carlson; C. Yuh

    1998-12-20

    Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the sixteen Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) stacks, ERC is finalizing the next generation commercial entry product design. The second generation cells are 50% larger in area, 40% lighter on equal geometric area basis, and 30% thinner than the earlier design. These improvements have resulted in doubling of the full-height stack power. A low-cost and high-strength matrix has also been developed for improving product ruggedness. The low-cost advanced cell design incorporating these improvements has been refined through six short stack tests. Power production per cell of two times the SCDP maximum power operation, over ten thermal cycles, and overall operating flexibility with respect to load and thermal changes have been demonstrated in these short stack tests. An internally insulated stack enclosure has been designed and fabricated to eliminate the need for an inert gas environment during operation. ERC has acquired the capability for testing 400kW full-height direct fuel ceil (DFC) stack and balance-of-plant equipment. With the readiness of the power plant test facility, the cell package design, and the stack module, full-height stack testing has begun. The first full- height stack incorporating the post-SCDP second generation design was completed. The stack reached a power level of 253 kW, setting a world record for the highest power production from the advanced fuel cell system. Excellent performance uniformity at this power level affirmed manufacturing reproducibility of the components at the factory. This unoptimized small size test has achieved pipeline natural gas to DC electricity conversion efficiency of 47% (based on lower heating value - LHV) including the parasitic power consumed by the BOP equipment; that should translate to more than 50% efficiency in commercial operation, before employing cogeneration. The power plant system also operated smoothly. With the success of this

  16. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-12-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  17. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed Central

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  18. URPD: a specific product primer design tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. Findings URPD (yoUR Primer Design), a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq), UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA) and genetic algorithm (GA) primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. Conclusions URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/. PMID:22713312

  19. URPD: a specific product primer design tool.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Li-Yeh; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2012-06-19

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. URPD (yoUR Primer Design), a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq), UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA) and genetic algorithm (GA) primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/.

  20. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  1. Defining Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A

    2016-09-01

    The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved.

  2. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  3. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste

  4. Incorporating ISO Metadata Using HDF Product Designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelenak, Aleksandar; Kozimor, John; Habermann, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The need to store in HDF5 files increasing amounts of metadata of various complexity is greatly overcoming the capabilities of the Earth science metadata conventions currently in use. Data producers until now did not have much choice but to come up with ad hoc solutions to this challenge. Such solutions, in turn, pose a wide range of issues for data managers, distributors, and, ultimately, data users. The HDF Group is experimenting on a novel approach of using ISO 19115 metadata objects as a catch-all container for all the metadata that cannot be fitted into the current Earth science data conventions. This presentation will showcase how the HDF Product Designer software can be utilized to help data producers include various ISO metadata objects in their products.

  5. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  6. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H. C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-12-19

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations or in distributed locations near the customer, including hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FuelCell Energy has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented Direct FuelCell technology, where the fuel is directly fed to fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating, and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report. FCE's DFC

  7. Intelligent Product Construction and Design in Smart Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xi; Li, Qiao

    2017-08-01

    Under the concept of intelligent earth development, smart products should be born.Smart product building is not the technology of traditional products,but high-tech products to give perception, memory, thinking, reflecting a series of intellectual ability.Its design thinking is more systematic, more macroscopic, more stereo.Smart product design challenges the wisdom of mankind.

  8. Integrate System Modeling for Design and Production Planning of High Quality Products Considering Failure Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro; Koga, Tsuyoshi

    2009-07-01

    Since the product recall problem is recently observed, realizing design and production activities that can prevent occurrences of a product failure has been becoming a serious issue. This paper proposes "the Synthetic design approach of a product and a production process which enables to reduce occurrences of a product failure from the initial stage of a product development." In order to realize this proposed concept as a specific system, the integrated model of the failure information in the design and production is introduced. This paper shows some examples of design and production for a circuit breaker and an automobile with considering a design error and a production failure using developed prototype system.

  9. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-07-15

    Almost 100 years after the discovery of the Raman scattering phenomenon, related analytical techniques have emerged as important tools in biomedical sciences. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are frontier, non-invasive analytical techniques amenable for diverse biomedical areas, ranging from molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed.

  10. Embedded systems engineering for products and services design.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Tareq Z; Karwowski, Waldemar; Soares, Marcelo M

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) professionals strive to develop new techniques to enhance the value of contributions to multidisciplinary smart product design teams. Products and services designers challenge themselves to search beyond the traditional design concept of addressing the physical, social, and cognitive factors. This paper covers the application of embedded user-centered systems engineering design practices into work processes based on the ISO 13407 framework [20] to support smart systems and services design and development. As practitioners collaborate to investigate alternative smart product designs, they concentrate on creating valuable products which will enhance positive interaction. This paper capitalizes on the need to follow a user-centered SE approach to smart products design [4, 22]. Products and systems intelligence should embrace a positive approach to user-centered design while improving our understanding of usable value-adding, experience and extending our knowledge of what inspires others to design enjoyable services and products.

  11. 36 CFR 1193.23 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... individuals with disabilities in target populations of such research; (2) Where product design, testing, pilot... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Product design, development... § 1193.23 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers shall evaluate the accessibility...

  12. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a... and services covered by this part and shall incorporate such evaluation throughout product design...

  13. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall... shall incorporate such evaluation throughout product design, development, and fabrication, as early...

  14. Medicare, Medicaid, and MCH Tobacco Cessation Promotion Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2009-04-01

    04/01/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4180-4191) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Effective Tobacco Cessation via Health Coaching: An Institutional Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sforzo, Gary A; Kaye, Miranda; Ayers, Gale D; Talbert, Betina; Hill, Marilyn

    2014-09-01

    背景:大家公认滥用烟草会造成健 康和医疗费用的祸害。但是,促进 戒烟的意图很少有实效。主要目的:描述一个现有的非常 成功的戒烟计划,其特点是将健 康指导作为主要干预措施。本文 给 出 程 序 设 计 和 数 据 的 核 心 内 容,这两方面内容可用作其他公 共卫生设置的模型。方法:采用健康指导和辅助计划内 容(耳针疗法、阿尔法-电刺激以及 放松技巧)。提供了在3年多时间 161例患者在6个月时的戒烟率,维 持3年多时间,其指标为30天时点不 吸烟和意向性治疗值。 还比较了通 过电话与诊所内指导、自由选择与 要求参与、以及方案费用的情况。结果:时点戒烟率为88.7%,而 较 保 守 的 意 向 性 治 疗 戒 烟 率 为 51.6%。在任何时间点,通过电 话和诊所训练的戒烟效果无显著 差异。在6和12个月的无吸烟率分 别为76.9%和63.2%。结论:提供了两种成本高效、提 供健康指导的戒烟模式。时点戒 烟率(30天)达80%以上,而且 效果持久。如果这样的戒烟项目 大规模实施,将对烟草消费所造 成的个人和社会的负担(健康和 经济方面)产生极大的影响。

  16. Population Health Trial for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation With Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    attention within the military, the use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff ) has not been a focus of medical services or research...INTRODUCTION While smoking cessation has received considerable attention within the military, the use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff ) has...tobacco juice while using snuff or chew. Table 3. Current Tobacco Use of DoD Smokeless Tobacco Participants – Indicators of Dependence Current

  17. A Model DoD Systems Approach for Tobacco Cessation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 01-10-2007 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED... control program for military installations. Specifically, it focused on three areas of intervention: expanding pharmacotherapy as a benefit, providing...out of the control of the project team, which have been noted elsewhere, the Navy and Marines were removed from the study. In order to maintain the

  18. Population Health Trial for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation with Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Military Personnel under the direction of Jane Bowers, Community Dental Health Hygienist , Fort Drum, New York z conducted at USA DENTAL ACTIVITY, FORT...to me by Jane Bowers, or her designee, Community Dental Health Hygienist , Fort Drum, New York, phone 315-772-7841JS7, CCd I have been given an...Accomplishments include visits for orientation and training at dental clinics at 14 additional military installations: 6 AF sites were added for enrollment purposes

  19. Role of nicotine receptor partial agonists in tobacco cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Nivedita; Chand, Prabhat; Murthy, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    One in three adults in India uses tobacco, a highly addictive substance in one or other form. In addition to prevention of tobacco use, offering evidence-based cessation services to dependent tobacco users constitutes an important approach in addressing this serious public health problem. A combination of behavioral methods and pharmacotherapy has shown the most optimal results in tobacco dependence treatment. Among currently available pharmacological agents, drugs that preferentially act on the α4 β2-nicotinic acetyl choline receptor like varenicline and cytisine appear to have relatively better cessation outcomes. These drugs are in general well tolerated and have minimal drug interactions. The odds of quitting tobacco use are at the very least doubled with the use of partial agonists compared with placebo and the outcomes are also superior when compared to nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion. The poor availability of partial agonists and specifically the cost of varenicline, as well as the lack of safety data for cytisine has limited their use world over, particularly in developing countries. Evidence for the benefit of partial agonists is more robust for smoking rather than smokeless forms of tobacco. Although more studies are needed to demonstrate their effectiveness in different populations of tobacco users, present literature supports the use of partial agonists in addition to behavioral methods for optimal outcome in tobacco dependence. PMID:24574554

  20. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay…

  1. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay…

  2. 77 FR 33269 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing to amend the Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement (Guidelines) to add 12 sections that will designate the following product categories within which biobased products would be afforded Federal procurement preference: Agricultural spray adjuvants; animal cleaning products; deodorants; dethatcher products; fuel conditioners; leather, vinyl, and rubber care products; lotions and moisturizers; shaving products; specialty precision cleaners and solvents; sun care products; wastewater systems coatings; and water clarifying agents. USDA is also proposing minimum biobased contents for each of these product categories.

  3. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2002-02-01

    generation, industrial cogeneration, marine applications and uninterrupted power for military bases. FuelCell Energy operated a 1.8 MW plant at a utility site in 1996-97, the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in North America. This proof-of-concept power plant demonstrated high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power control, and unattended operation capabilities. Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the full-size power plant; FuelCell Energy launched the Product Design Improvement (PDI) program sponsored by government and the private-sector cost-share. The PDI efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program was initiated in December 1994. Year 2000 program accomplishments are discussed in this report.

  4. Study on Product Innovative Design Process Driven by Ideal Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuying; Lu, Ximei; Wang, Ping; Liu, Hui

    Product innovative design in companies today relies heavily on individual members’ experience and creative ideation as well as their skills of integrating creativity and innovation tools with design methods agilely. Creative ideation and inventive ideas generation are two crucial stages in product innovative design process. Ideal solution is the desire final ideas for given problem, and the striving reaching target for product design. In this paper, a product innovative design process driven by ideal solution is proposed. This design process encourages designers to overcome their psychological inertia, to foster creativity in a systematic way for acquiring breakthrough creative and innovative solutions in a reducing sphere of solution-seeking, and results in effective product innovative design rapidly. A case study example is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  5. Plant Design for the Production of DUAGG

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2003-02-04

    The cost of producing DUAGG is an important consideration for any interested private firm in determining whether DUCRETE is economically viable as a material of construction in next-generation spent nuclear fuel casks. This study analyzed this project as if it was a stand-alone project. The capital cost includes engineering design, equipment costs and installation, start up, and management; the study is not intended to be a life-cycle cost analysis. The costs estimated by this study are shown in Table ES.1, and the conclusions of this study are listed in Table ES.2. The development of DUAGG and DUCRETE is a major thrust of the Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Project. An obvious use of depleted uranium is as a shielding material (e.g., DUCRETE). DUCRETE is made by replacing the conventional stone aggregate in concrete with DUAGG. One objective of this project is to bring the development of DUCRETE to a point at which a demonstrated basis exists for its commercial deployment. The estimation of the costs to manufacture DUAGG is an important part of this effort. Paul Lessing and William Quapp developed DUAGG and DUCRETE as part of an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) program to find beneficial uses for depleted uranium (DU). Subsequently, this technology was licensed to Teton Technologies, Inc. The DUAGG process mixes DUO{sub 2} with sintering materials and additives to form pressed briquettes. These briquettes are sintered at 1300 C, and the very dense sintered briquettes are then crushed and classified into gap-graded size fractions. The graded DUAGG is then ready to be used to make high-strength heavy DUCRETE. The DUCRETE shielding will be placed into an annular steel cask-shell mold, which has internal steel reinforcing bars. The objectives of this study are to (1) use previous DUAGG process developments to design a plant that will produce DUAGG at a baseline rate, (2) determine the size of the equipment required to meet

  6. 78 FR 34867 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... designated product categories: countertops to the composite panels category; and wheel bearing and chassis... countertops subcategory to the existing composite panels product category. USDA has determined that each of... subcategory for countertops to the composite panels product category designated in Round 2 (73 FR 27954,...

  7. Manufactured Product Design and Planning. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Jerry E.

    This curriculum for a 1-semester or 1-year course in product design and planning contains information about the following topics: creativity, idea production techniques, problem solving, design fundamentals, design requirements, graphic communication, materials and processes, and safety. Course content is organized around the laboratory activities…

  8. Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

    2011-01-01

    Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

  9. Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

    2011-01-01

    Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

  10. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The FCE PDI program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement, and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry.

  11. Robust design of configurations and parameters of adaptable products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yongliang; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2014-03-01

    An adaptable product can satisfy different customer requirements by changing its configuration and parameter values during the operation stage. Design of adaptable products aims at reducing the environment impact through replacement of multiple different products with single adaptable ones. Due to the complex architecture, multiple functional requirements, and changes of product configurations and parameter values in operation, impact of uncertainties to the functional performance measures needs to be considered in design of adaptable products. In this paper, a robust design approach is introduced to identify the optimal design configuration and parameters of an adaptable product whose functional performance measures are the least sensitive to uncertainties. An adaptable product in this paper is modeled by both configurations and parameters. At the configuration level, methods to model different product configuration candidates in design and different product configuration states in operation to satisfy design requirements are introduced. At the parameter level, four types of product/operating parameters and relations among these parameters are discussed. A two-level optimization approach is developed to identify the optimal design configuration and its parameter values of the adaptable product. A case study is implemented to illustrate the effectiveness of the newly developed robust adaptable design method.

  12. Design of digestion systems for maximum methane production

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A computer analysis of microbial kinetics of methane fermentation using the Contois kinetic model has shown that design of continuous flow anaerobic digesters can be based on two criteria: (a) maximum volumetric methane productivity or (b) maximum total daily methane production. The difference in performance of digesters designed on these two criteria is that over a given time period, the methane production from the digester designed for maximum total daily methane production will exceed the gas production of the digester designed for maximum volumetric methane productivity by 43, 74, 56 and 60 percent for dairy, poultry, swine and beef waste respectively. The influent feed concentration of volatile solids (VS), the detention time and the operating temperature are the major design factors which determine the maximum total daily methane production. Maximum volatile solids reduction based on developed kinetic data was 75, 56, 30 and 62 percent for swine, beef, dairy and poultry waste respectively. (Refs. 11).

  13. Designing small, low-cost, portable electromedical products.

    PubMed

    Millar, N

    1993-04-01

    In response to demands for smaller, cheaper, portable electromedical products, designers are developing circuitry that operates at reduced power levels, thereby allowing smaller batteries to be used. Application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) enable products to have fewer components and are inherently more power efficient than circuits comprised of discrete components. In this article, the author examines the existing applications of ASICs and discusses how new design techniques can be used to reduce a product's overall power consumption and production costs.

  14. Group decision support system for customer-driven product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhihang; Chen, Hang; Chen, Kuen; Che, Ada

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes the work on the development of a group decision support system for customer driven product design. The customer driven is to develop products, which meet all customer requirements in whole life cycle of products. A process model of decision during product primary design is proposed to formulate the structured, semi-structured and unstructured decision problems. The framework for the decision support system is presented that integrated both advances in the group decision making and distributed artificial intelligent. The system consists of the product primary design tool kit and the collaborative platform with multi-agent structure. The collaborative platform of the system and the product primary design tool kit, including the VOC (Voice of Customer) tool, QFD (Quality Function Deployment) tool, the Conceptual design tool, Reliability analysis tool and the cost and profit forecasting tool, are indicated.

  15. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  16. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-07

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  17. Sustaining Design and Production Resources. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    1950 V 22 1941 1958 Midget 20 1939 1952 The Porpoise and Oberon classes (Tables A. 2 and A.3) followed the same cycle of design improvement as the...1. Nuclear submarines-Great Britain-Design and construction. 2 . Shipbuilding industry-Great Britain. 3. Military-industrial complex-Great Britain. 4...Industrial Base, Vol- ume 2 .: MOD Roles and Required Technical Resources, MG- 326/ 2 -MOD (forthcoming) " The United Kingdom ’s Nuclear Submarine Industrial

  18. 36 CFR 1193.23 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 1193.23 Section 1193.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... § 1193.23 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers shall evaluate the accessibility...

  19. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part...

  20. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part...

  1. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of...

  2. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part...

  3. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part...

  4. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of...

  5. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of...

  6. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6.7 Section 6.7 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO... identify barriers to accessibility and usability as part of such a product design and development process...

  7. Organizational Learning and Product Design Management: Towards a Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiva-Gomez, Ricardo; Camison-Zornoza, Cesar; Lapiedra-Alcami, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of four Spanish ceramics companies were used to construct a theoretical model of 14 factors essential to organizational learning. One set of factors is related to the conceptual-analytical phase of the product design process and the other to the creative-technical phase. All factors contributed to efficient product design management…

  8. Organizational Learning and Product Design Management: Towards a Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiva-Gomez, Ricardo; Camison-Zornoza, Cesar; Lapiedra-Alcami, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of four Spanish ceramics companies were used to construct a theoretical model of 14 factors essential to organizational learning. One set of factors is related to the conceptual-analytical phase of the product design process and the other to the creative-technical phase. All factors contributed to efficient product design management…

  9. CAD/CAM: improved design quality, increased productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D. E.; England, J.

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining productivity levels while assuring the quality of engineering products grows increasingly more difficult and costly for industries such as the energy industry which are heavily committed to product design. The man/machine interface made possible through the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can be applied to the design process as a tool for increased control to assure the quality of the final engineering product. The quality-control aspects of CAD/CAM technology are addressed in this presentation.

  10. Designing future products: what difficulties do designers encounter and how can their creative process be supported?

    PubMed

    Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    To remain competitive, companies must regularly offer new products to consumers. A major challenge for designers is therefore to come up with design solutions and define products that are both new and adapted to future users and usages. Although classic methods and ergonomic recommendations are useful in most run-of-the-mill design contexts, they are of limited benefit when the design situation requires greater creativity. This paper therefore addresses issues related to product design by pursuing a triple objective: (1) highlight the difficulties encountered by designers in imagining and conceiving new products, (2) find out which conditions could help designers come up with creative ideas for innovative products, and (3) suggest methods and tools to support designers' creative process and help them take other stakeholders' needs and expectations into consideration.

  11. Product Data Model for Performance-driven Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guang-Zhong; Xu, Xin-Jian; Xiao, Shou-Ne; Yang, Guang-Wu; Pu, Fan

    2017-09-01

    When designing large-sized complex machinery products, the design focus is always on the overall performance; however, there exist no design theory and method based on performance driven. In view of the deficiency of the existing design theory, according to the performance features of complex mechanical products, the performance indices are introduced into the traditional design theory of "Requirement-Function-Structure" to construct a new five-domain design theory of "Client Requirement-Function-Performance-Structure-Design Parameter". To support design practice based on this new theory, a product data model is established by using performance indices and the mapping relationship between them and the other four domains. When the product data model is applied to high-speed train design and combining the existing research result and relevant standards, the corresponding data model and its structure involving five domains of high-speed trains are established, which can provide technical support for studying the relationships between typical performance indices and design parameters and the fast achievement of a high-speed train scheme design. The five domains provide a reference for the design specification and evaluation criteria of high speed train and a new idea for the train's parameter design.

  12. Design of petroleum products terminal wastewater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum products terminals, used in conjunction with transportation operations to accomplish the flow of products from their source in refineries down to the consumers, are relatively simple facilities comprising product storage, the means for connecting storage to transportation operations, and other operations to support those functions. Although wastewater generation at terminals is relatively minor, increasingly strict regulation of wastewater from even minor sources is making it more critical that terminal wastewater handling, treatment, and disposal be understood and optimized to ensure that effective wastewater treatment is accomplished at reasonable cost. Anticipating the increased demands on terminal wastewater handling, the API Marketing Terminal Effluent Task Force has sponsored a number of studies to characterize wastewater at terminals and to develop practical means for treating the water. In addition, the Task Force sponsored Texaco`s writing of the report on which this paper is based, API 4602, Minimization, Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters. This paper highlights some of the key recommendations in the report, which are: (1) begin characterizing the terminal`s tank bottoms water flow and quality as soon as possible; (2) determine the optimum wastewater disposal option; (3) for most situations, segregate stormwater from contaminated water; (4) if wastewater is treated, use a collection tank to equalize the flow and concentration of tank bottoms water; (5) if wastewater is hauled off to a disposal company, consider removing benzene first; and (6) minimize the use of detergents in the terminal.

  13. Design and Drawing for Production: Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    In a departure from conventional learning and teaching, this New York State course syllabus was planned to provide high school students with opportunities in design and drawing, and experiences in creative thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving. The two-semester course presents an introduction to a universal graphic language by using…

  14. Design and Drawing for Production: Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    In a departure from conventional learning and teaching, this New York State course syllabus was planned to provide high school students with opportunities in design and drawing, and experiences in creative thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving. The two-semester course presents an introduction to a universal graphic language by using…

  15. 78 FR 19393 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... and Property Management, Room 361, Reporters Building, 300 7th St. SW., Washington, DC 20024; email... of product category designation and in identifying: Manufacturers producing and marketing products...) authorized chemical cleaning products and dispensing systems) should not be cited as a test method, but...

  16. Design and Drawing for Production. Syllabus. Field Test Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This syllabus, which replaces the New York State Education Department publication "Mechanical Drawing and Design," is intended for use in teaching a high school course in design and drawing for production. The materials included in the guide reflect a shift away from the conventional methods of teaching design and drawing to a greater…

  17. Design and Drawing for Production. Syllabus. Field Test Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This syllabus, which replaces the New York State Education Department publication "Mechanical Drawing and Design," is intended for use in teaching a high school course in design and drawing for production. The materials included in the guide reflect a shift away from the conventional methods of teaching design and drawing to a greater…

  18. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Carlos A; Sánchez, Oscar J

    2007-09-01

    Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. In this work, the key role that process design plays during the development of cost-effective technologies is recognized through the analysis of major trends in process synthesis, modeling, simulation and optimization related to ethanol production. Main directions in techno-economical evaluation of fuel ethanol processes are described as well as some prospecting configurations. The most promising alternatives for compensating ethanol production costs by the generation of valuable co-products are analyzed. Opportunities for integration of fuel ethanol production processes and their implications are underlined. Main ways of process intensification through reaction-reaction, reaction-separation and separation-separation processes are analyzed in the case of bioethanol production. Some examples of energy integration during ethanol production are also highlighted. Finally, some concluding considerations on current and future research tendencies in fuel ethanol production regarding process design and integration are presented.

  19. Survey instrument for the universal design of consumer products.

    PubMed

    Beecher, Valerie; Paquet, Victor

    2005-05-01

    Universal design is a process intended to include all user groups in product or environmental design. The objective of this study was to develop a usability testing survey instrument to inform how well consumer products complied with established principles of universal design. Thirty-six adults, aging adults and adult wheelchair users performed standardized tasks with pens, food storage containers, pliers and calculators, and for each task responded to a preliminary set of survey items and rated task difficulty. Factor analysis of the survey responses produced an eleven-factor solution that accounted for 67% of the variance in scores and corresponded fairly closely to the principles of universal design. Analysis of scale scores developed from each factor showed that some of the scales were sensitive to product feature and user group differences, and were negatively associated with perceived task difficulty. Such a tool may aid designers who intend their products for user groups of diverse abilities and preferences.

  20. Product design enhancement using apparent usability and affective quality.

    PubMed

    Seva, Rosemary R; Gosiaco, Katherine Grace T; Santos, Ma Crea Eurice D; Pangilinan, Denise Mae L

    2011-03-01

    In this study, apparent usability and affective quality were integrated in a design framework called the Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model (UPEEM). The UPEEM was validated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The methodology consists of four phases namely product selection, attribute identification, design alternative generation, and design alternative evaluation. The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. In the attribute identification stage, design elements of the product were identified. The possible values of these elements were also determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the attributes will be varied in the design alternative stage and which of the attributes significantly contribute to affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability in the design evaluation stage. Results suggest that product attributes related to form are relevant in eliciting intense affect and perception of usability in mobile phones especially those directly related to functionality and aesthetics. This study considered only four product attributes among so many due to the constraints of the research design employed. Attributes related to aesthetic perception of a product enhance apparent usability such as those related to dimensional ratios.

  1. A Design of Product Collaborative Online Configuration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoguo; Zheng, Jin; Zeng, Qian

    According to the actual needs of mass customization, the personalization of product and its collaborative design, the paper analyzes and studies the working mechanism of modular-based product configuration technology and puts forward an information model of modular product family. Combined with case-based reasoning techniques (CBR) and the constraint satisfaction problem solving techniques (CSP), we design and study the algorithm for product configuration, and analyze its time complexity. A car chassis is made as the application object, we provide a prototype system of online configuration. Taking advantage of this system, designers can make appropriate changes on the existing programs in accordance with the demand. This will accelerate all aspects of product development and shorten the product cycle. Also the system will provide a strong technical support for enterprises to improve their market competitiveness.

  2. Engineering design methodology for bio-mechatronic products.

    PubMed

    Derelöv, Micael; Detterfelt, Jonas; Björkman, Mats; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Four complex biotechnology products/product systems (a protein purification system, a bioreactor system, a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, and an enzymatic glucose analyzer) are analyzed using conceptual design principles. A design model well-known in mechanical system design, the Hubka-Eder (HE) model, is adapted to biotechnology products that exemplify combined technical systems of mechanical, electronic, and biological components, here referred to as bio-mechatronic systems. The analysis concludes that an extension of the previous HE model with a separate biological systems entity significantly contributes to facilitating the functional and systematic analyses of bio-mechatronic systems.

  3. PBO Strainmeters: Distribution, Design and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K.; Anderson, G.; Hasting, M.; Mueller, B.

    2004-12-01

    passed to the Strainmeter Analysis and Archive Centers. LSM data, collected at 1 sps, will be buffered on-site and downloaded at least daily to PBO. It will then be sent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography for analysis and to the archives for storage. Strainmeter data analysis will include: instrument calibration, removal of spikes and offsets, identification of strain induced by changes in atmospheric and pore pressure, removal of borehole relaxation trends in BSM data, and production of an earth tide model. Borehole seismic data will likely be sent to the Array Network Facility (ANF) located at Scripps for analysis, quality-checking, distribution and arching. The ANF also process and analyses data for the USArray arm of EarthScope. PBO strain data products will be divided into 3 levels. The raw data will be considered the Level 0 product. Level 1 data will consist of clean, scaled, gauge data. The Level 2 data set will contain derived products: areal and shear strains, tidal and pressure corrections. Level 2 data will be further divided into 3 sub-levels ranging from a rapid solution produced every 24 hours to a final verified data set updated every 3 months. The data will be available in XML and SEED format from the EarthScope Data Access System. Metadata such as site information and scale factors will be retrievable from the PBO Operational Database.

  4. Specific PCR product primer design using memetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2009-01-01

    To provide feasible primer sets for performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment, many primer design methods have been proposed. However, the majority of these methods require a relatively long time to obtain an optimal solution since large quantities of template DNA need to be analyzed. Furthermore, the designed primer sets usually do not provide a specific PCR product size. In recent years, evolutionary computation has been applied to PCR primer design and yielded promising results. In this article, a memetic algorithm (MA) is proposed to solve primer design problems associated with providing a specific product size for PCR experiments. The MA is compared with a genetic algorithm (GA) using an accuracy formula to estimate the quality of the primer design and test the running time. Overall, 50 accession nucleotide sequences were sampled for the comparison of the accuracy of the GA and MA for primer design. Five hundred runs of the GA and MA primer design were performed with PCR product lengths of 150-300 bps and 500-800 bps, and two different methods of calculating T(m) for each accession nucleotide sequence were tested. A comparison of the accuracy results for the GA and MA primer design showed that the MA primer design yielded better results than the GA primer design. The results further indicate that the proposed method finds optimal or near-optimal primer sets and effective PCR products in a dry dock experiment. Related materials are available online at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/ma-pd/.

  5. Design for Usability; practice-oriented research for user-centered product design.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Daan; van Kuijk, Jasper; Hoolhorst, Frederik; Kim, Chajoong; Harkema, Christelle; Dorrestijn, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Design for Usability project aims at improving the usability of electronic professional and consumer products by creating new methodology and methods for user-centred product development, which are feasible to apply in practice. The project was focused on 5 key areas: (i) design methodology, expanding the existing approach of scenario-based design to incorporate the interaction between product design, user characteristics, and user behaviour; (ii) company processes, barriers and enablers for usability in practice; (iii) user characteristics in relation to types of products and use-situations; (iv) usability decision-making; and (v) product impact on user behaviour. The project team developed methods and techniques in each of these areas to support the design of products with a high level of usability. This paper brings together and summarizes the findings.

  6. Interactive design and presentation of ceramic sanitary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian; Yin, Guofu; Pan, Zhigeng

    2003-04-01

    Contemporary demands on ceramic sanitary products tend more and more to emphasize diversification and individuation. How to provide effective techniques to support interactive design and presentation of ceramic sanitary products has become a great challenge for vendors. This paper presents a general framework for ceramic sanitary products design. Some dynamic adjustment algorithms of curves to support surface parameterized modeling of toilet bowl, which is one of the most complex ceramic products, are proposed. Furthermore, the VR-based display and customization environment is also illustrated. With the VRML and Java, our system not only offers users different products, but also allows users to reset selected bathroom scene through replacing products from modeling database and modifying attributes of different products, such as colors, positions, etc. Then a brief discussion and future research directions are put forward in the last part of this paper.

  7. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  8. Optoelectronic systems: design of world-class products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanase, Letitia; Cucu, Maria

    2000-02-01

    Product designing is one of the phase of the project management. The Quality System's elements, referable to design, are included in the project management. The produce definition in accordance with the stated and implied requirements, is the most important phase for the product's quality. Obviously, the sooner the best solution is selected and the deficiencies detected, the better the product quality will be, and at better price. From here, it reslut the importance of the design and Quality System planning. Design is a creative task which stars with stated needs and existing Knowledge, and ends with definition of a product that satisfy those needs and is industrially feasible. The products must be designed for the client's, not the company's benefit. The products that do not have the right set of features will not be as well saleable those products that have the right set of features. The best design may fail if it is not correctly planned. Quality planning provide a structure that helps a successful project. The emphasis is made on learning the concepts and abilities, on tools and techniques required to build quality.

  9. Swedish anthropometrics for product and workplace design.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lars; Sperling, Lena; Gard, Gunvor; Ipsen, Staffan; Olivares Vergara, Cindy

    2009-07-01

    The present study describes the anthropometrics of the Swedish workforce, aged 18-65, and compares the measurements with data collected four decades earlier. This anthropometric information is based on measurements of a total of 367 subjects, 105 males and 262 females. Of the 367 subjects, 268 responded to advertisements (Study A) and 99 were randomly selected from a community register (Study B). Subjects were scanned in four positions. Manual measuring equipment was used for hands, feet, head and stature. As differences between significant measurements in Studies A and B were negligible, the data were merged. Anthropometric descriptive statistics of women and men are presented for 43 body dimensions. Participants represent the Swedish population fairly well when compared with national statistics of stature and weight. Comparing new anthropometric data with old shows that the breadth, depth, height, and length measurements of Swedes as well as weight have increased and that Swedish anthropometric homogeneity has decreased. The results indicate that there is a need to update ergonomic recommendations and adjust products and workplaces to the new information.

  10. Ergonomics and sustainability in the design of everyday use products.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness.

  11. Product design simplification system for concurrent engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Grier C. I.; Hsu, Hung-Yao

    1995-08-01

    Product design is the most important stage in the course of product development. All the important decision-making regarding manufacturing and assembly is made during this period. Concurrent engineering (CE) has been proposed to facilitate the whole development processes by using multi-disciplinary team-work. Under the concept of CE there is a need to provide the designers an expert system to investigate their design in the early stage of design. In this paper the construction of a product design simplification system has been explored and a prototype system has been developed. The system can be used to evaluate product design on the basis of design for assembly (DFA) principles. Design simplification can be accomplished by three approaches. The first uses the three criteria of Boothroyd and Dewhurst's Methodology, the second examines the functional implication of parts and the third considers if a part is secured after assembly. The system will give the designer advice according to the evaluation results. All the rules in the rule-base are derived from the expertise in DFA field. On the basis of the implementation of this prototype system further research directions are also suggested.

  12. Comparing Personal Characteristic Factors of Imagination between Expert and Novice Designers within Different Product Design Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yinghsiu; Li, Jianyou

    2015-01-01

    Imagination plays a key role in various domains in helping to create innovative ideas, drawings, poems, movies, products, etc. In product design domain, the personal characteristics of imagination are crucial abilities for conceiving novel ideas during design processes. This study focuses on personal characteristic differences and similarities…

  13. Comparing Personal Characteristic Factors of Imagination between Expert and Novice Designers within Different Product Design Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yinghsiu; Li, Jianyou

    2015-01-01

    Imagination plays a key role in various domains in helping to create innovative ideas, drawings, poems, movies, products, etc. In product design domain, the personal characteristics of imagination are crucial abilities for conceiving novel ideas during design processes. This study focuses on personal characteristic differences and similarities…

  14. Evaluation of product design in environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Becerra, Alejandro; Lin, Li

    2001-02-01

    This research presents an evaluation method to support design decision-making early in the design stage. The method is aimed at solid consumer products, and incorporates our previous work on Environmental Consciousness Criteria (ECC). A framework is defined as the foundation for the problem analysis, consisting of four mapping schemas connecting the product to the natural environment. We approach the problem of designing an environmentally conscious product as that of making decisions to incorporate the ECC as design progresses from the conceptual to the preliminary to the parametric design phases. A methodology is developed whose focus is on both the material properties and the geometric features of the product, and on how these impact the product's disposal stage. The method uses fuzzy methods and Multi Attribute Utility Analysis (MAUA). It is able to accommodate the varying degrees of uncertainty and availability of information, as well as other criteria such as cost. An analysis of cost implications from recovery is presented also. Application of this decision-making method will assist designers in maintaining environmental leadership in product development beyond the manufacturing stage.

  15. Design for Health and Well Being: Knitted Products for Diabetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gault, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.

  16. Expected productivity-based risk analysis in conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, Julie; Miller, David

    2006-07-01

    To be effectively used in design decisions, it is important to bring risk into the design process as a quantitative parameter that engineers can both understand and trade. One parameter that is often used when making design decisions is the productivity of a design. If instead of only the nominal value, it were possible to examine the expected value of the productivity metric, taking into account failures and risk items, the concept of risk could be brought into the design process in a very quantitative and tradable way. While the expected productivity is easy to calculate for a simple system, it is more complex if the system has a path-dependent productivity function. An approach has been developed to model the expected productivity of systems with path-dependent productivities, in an accurate and efficient manner. This approach has been tested against Monte Carlo simulations with excellent results. This paper discusses the need for the new modeling methodology, the details of the methodology that has been developed, and an example of how to use expected productivity in a trade study for a real mission, the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer.

  17. Design of Bee Products Quality Monitoringinformation Service Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yeping; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Shengping; E, Yue

    The bee products quality monitoring and tracing information service platform was researched and developed. This paper describes the design concept and critical technologies for the construction of the bee products quality monitoring and tracing information service platform. The system has functions of remote information collection, production-purchase-processing automatic coding, bar code generation and identification, product quality tracking and tracing, information release, origin evaluation, market prediction, and analysis based on Geographic Information System (GIS), providing information technology(IT) tools for bee products quality safety control and quality tracing in China.

  18. Graph-Based Design Languages: A Lingua Franca for Product Design Including Abstract Geometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Product engineering involves designing and dimensioning a product, including geometric modeling and scientific simulation and analysis to fulfill predetermined requirements. Therefore, the engineering design effort requires a multidisciplinary analysis that is based on a multitude of different models, each of which require a different kind of representation of the same product geometry. The proposed approach uses a design language and a design compiler to translate an abstract source geometry in an abstract representation scheme into an arbitrary target format. With this approach, all models are generated automatically and are consistent with each other.

  19. Entry, Pricing, and Product Design in an Initially Monopolized Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Steven J.; Murphy, Kevin M.; Topel, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze entry, pricing, and product design in a model with differentiated products. Market equilibrium can be "separating," with multiple sellers and a sorting of heterogeneous consumers across goods, or "exclusionary," with one seller serving all customer types. Entry into an initially monopolized market can occur because of cost reductions or…

  20. Entry, Pricing, and Product Design in an Initially Monopolized Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Steven J.; Murphy, Kevin M.; Topel, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze entry, pricing, and product design in a model with differentiated products. Market equilibrium can be "separating," with multiple sellers and a sorting of heterogeneous consumers across goods, or "exclusionary," with one seller serving all customer types. Entry into an initially monopolized market can occur because of cost reductions or…

  1. Design of systems for productivity and well being.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling the process' different types of knowledge; and (4) emphasizing that performance management systems, key performance indicators (KPIs), and leadership are also part of the system design and must be given attention. With the examples presented, we argue that knowledge does exist to help system design facilitators address these basic issues.

  2. Optimizing product life cycle processes in design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneye, Ola. B.; Anderl, Reiner

    2002-02-01

    Life cycle concepts do not only serve as basis in assisting product developers understand the dependencies between products and their life cycles, they also help in identifying potential opportunities for improvement in products. Common traditional concepts focus mainly on energy and material flow across life phases, necessitating the availability of metrics derived from a reference product. Knowledge of life cycle processes won from an existing product is directly reused in its redesign. Depending on sales volume nevertheless, the environmental impact before product optimization can be substantial. With modern information technologies today, computer-aided life cycle methodologies can be applied well before product use. On the basis of a virtual prototype, life cycle processes are analyzed and optimized, using simulation techniques. This preventive approach does not only help in minimizing (or even eliminating) environmental burdens caused by product, costs incurred due to changes in real product can also be avoided. The paper highlights the relationship between product and life cycle and presents a computer-based methodology for optimizing the product life cycle during design, as presented by SFB 392: Design for Environment - Methods and Tools at Technical University, Darmstadt.

  3. High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C>

    1998-05-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam via muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design.

  4. A systems-based approach for integrated design of materials, products and design process chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Jitesh H.; Choi, Hae-Jin; Allen, Janet K.; McDowell, David L.; Mistree, Farrokh

    2007-12-01

    The concurrent design of materials and products provides designers with flexibility to achieve design objectives that were not previously accessible. However, the improved flexibility comes at a cost of increased complexity of the design process chains and the materials simulation models used for executing the design chains. Efforts to reduce the complexity generally result in increased uncertainty. We contend that a systems based approach is essential for managing both the complexity and the uncertainty in design process chains and simulation models in concurrent material and product design. Our approach is based on simplifying the design process chains systematically such that the resulting uncertainty does not significantly affect the overall system performance. Similarly, instead of striving for accurate models for multiscale systems (that are inherently complex), we rely on making design decisions that are robust to uncertainties in the models. Accordingly, we pursue hierarchical modeling in the context of design of multiscale systems. In this paper our focus is on design process chains. We present a systems based approach, premised on the assumption that complex systems can be designed efficiently by managing the complexity of design process chains. The approach relies on (a) the use of reusable interaction patterns to model design process chains, and (b) consideration of design process decisions using value-of-information based metrics. The approach is illustrated using a Multifunctional Energetic Structural Material (MESM) design example. Energetic materials store considerable energy which can be released through shock-induced detonation; conventionally, they are not engineered for strength properties. The design objectives for the MESM in this paper include both sufficient strength and energy release characteristics. The design is carried out by using models at different length and time scales that simulate different aspects of the system. Finally, by

  5. Human experience and product usability: principles to assist the design of user-product interactions.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Koc, Marianella; Popovic, Vesna; Emmison, Michael

    2009-07-01

    This paper introduces research that investigates how human experience influences people's understandings of product usability. It describes an experiment that employs visual representation of concepts to elicit participants' ideas of a product's use. Results from the experiment lead to the identification of relationships between human experience, knowledge, and context-of-use--relationships that influence designers' and users' concepts of product usability. These relationships are translated into design principles that inform the design activity with respect to the aspects of experience that trigger people's understanding of a product's use. A design tool (ECEDT) is devised to aid designers in the application of these principles. This tool is then trialled in the context of a design task in order to verify applicability of the findings.

  6. Transforming Multidisciplinary Customer Requirements to Product Design Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-Jie; Ding, Guo-Fu; Qin, Sheng-Feng; Li, Rong; Yan, Kai-Yin; Xiao, Shou-Ne; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing of complexity of complex mechatronic products, it is necessary to involve multidisciplinary design teams, thus, the traditional customer requirements modeling for a single discipline team becomes difficult to be applied in a multidisciplinary team and project since team members with various disciplinary backgrounds may have different interpretations of the customers' requirements. A new synthesized multidisciplinary customer requirements modeling method is provided for obtaining and describing the common understanding of customer requirements (CRs) and more importantly transferring them into a detailed and accurate product design specifications (PDS) to interact with different team members effectively. A case study of designing a high speed train verifies the rationality and feasibility of the proposed multidisciplinary requirement modeling method for complex mechatronic product development. This proposed research offersthe instruction to realize the customer-driven personalized customization of complex mechatronic product.

  7. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  8. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  9. Development of a validation test for self-reported abstinence from smokeless tobacco products: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.B.; Bray, J.T.

    1988-07-01

    Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, 11 heavy elements at concentrations that are easily detectable have been identified in smokeless tobacco products. These concentrations were found to increase in cheek epithelium samples of the user after exposure to smokeless tobacco. This feasibility study suggests that the level of strontium in the cheek epithelium could be a valid measure of recent smokeless tobacco use. It also demonstrates that strontium levels become undetectable within several days of smokeless tobacco cessation. This absence of strontium could validate a self-report of abstinence from smokeless tobacco. Finally, the X-ray spectrum of heavy metal content of cheek epithelium from smokeless tobacco users could itself provide a visual stimulus to further motivate the user to terminate the use of smokeless tobacco products.

  10. Generic development of topical dermatologic products, Part II: quality by design for topical semisolid products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize critical material attributes and critical process parameters, in conjunction with design of experiments or other appropriate methods to establish control strategies for the drug product. Several design-of-experiment examples are included as practical strategies for the development and optimization of formulation and process for topical drug products.

  11. Yeast metabolic chassis designs for diverse biotechnological products

    PubMed Central

    Jouhten, Paula; Boruta, Tomasz; Andrejev, Sergej; Pereira, Filipa; Rocha, Isabel; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of industrially important molecules for which microbial production routes have been experimentally demonstrated is rapidly increasing. The development of economically viable producer cells is, however, lagging behind, as it requires substantial engineering of the host metabolism. A chassis strain suitable for production of a range of molecules is therefore highly sought after but remains elusive. Here, we propose a genome-scale metabolic modeling approach to design chassis strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – a widely used microbial cell factory. For a group of 29 products covering a broad range of biochemistry and applications, we identified modular metabolic engineering strategies for re-routing carbon flux towards the desired product. We find distinct product families with shared targets forming the basis for the corresponding chassis cells. The design strategies include overexpression targets that group products by similarity in precursor and cofactor requirements, as well as gene deletion strategies for growth-product coupling that lead to non-intuitive product groups. Our results reveal the extent and the nature of flux re-routing necessary for producing a diverse range of products in a widely used cell factory and provide blueprints for constructing pre-optimized chassis strains. PMID:27430744

  12. Yeast metabolic chassis designs for diverse biotechnological products.

    PubMed

    Jouhten, Paula; Boruta, Tomasz; Andrejev, Sergej; Pereira, Filipa; Rocha, Isabel; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2016-07-19

    The diversity of industrially important molecules for which microbial production routes have been experimentally demonstrated is rapidly increasing. The development of economically viable producer cells is, however, lagging behind, as it requires substantial engineering of the host metabolism. A chassis strain suitable for production of a range of molecules is therefore highly sought after but remains elusive. Here, we propose a genome-scale metabolic modeling approach to design chassis strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae - a widely used microbial cell factory. For a group of 29 products covering a broad range of biochemistry and applications, we identified modular metabolic engineering strategies for re-routing carbon flux towards the desired product. We find distinct product families with shared targets forming the basis for the corresponding chassis cells. The design strategies include overexpression targets that group products by similarity in precursor and cofactor requirements, as well as gene deletion strategies for growth-product coupling that lead to non-intuitive product groups. Our results reveal the extent and the nature of flux re-routing necessary for producing a diverse range of products in a widely used cell factory and provide blueprints for constructing pre-optimized chassis strains.

  13. Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bor-Shong

    2008-01-01

    To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.

  14. Design control considerations for biologic-device combination products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dave; Liu, Roger; Anand Subramony, J; Cammack, Jon

    2017-01-11

    Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products. As innovative as biologic-device combination products are, they can pose considerable development, regulatory, and commercialization challenges due to unique physicochemical properties and special clinical considerations (e.g., dosing volumes, frequency, co-medications, etc.) of the biologic medicine. A biologic-device combination product is a marriage between two partners with "cultural differences," so to speak. There are clear differences in the development, review, and commercialization processes of the biologic and the device. When these two cultures come together in a combination product, developers and reviewers must find ways to address the design controls and risk management processes of both the biologic and device, and knit them into a single entity with supporting product approval documentation. Moreover, digital medicine and connected health trends are pushing the boundaries of combination product development and regulations even further. Despite an admirable cooperation between industry and FDA in recent years, unique product configurations and design features have resulted in review challenges. These challenges have prompted agency reviewers to modernize consultation processes, while at the same time, promoting

  15. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  16. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M. Abu; Charoo, Naseem A.; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development. PMID:27606256

  17. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M Abu; Charoo, Naseem A; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development.

  18. Advanced Turbine Systems Program: Conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Objective is to provide the conceptual design and product development plant for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000 (secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS). This report addresses the remaining 7 of the 9 subtasks in Task 8, Design and Test of Critical Components: catalytic combustion, recuperator, high- temperature turbine disc, advanced control system, and ceramic materials.

  19. Electro-optic product design for manufacture: where next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, John R. M.; MacDonald, M.; Jeffery, G.; Troughton, M.

    2016-10-01

    Manufacturing of electro-optic products for military environments poses a large number of apparently intractable and mutually contradictory problems. The ability to successfully engage in this area presents an intellectual challenge of a high order. The Advanced Targeting Sector of Leonardo's Airborne and Space Systems Division, based in Edinburgh, has developed a successful range of electro-optic products and transitioned these into a volume, and high value, manufacturing environment. As products cycle through the design process, there has been strong feedback from users, suppliers, and most importantly from our manufacturing organization, that has driven evolution of our design practices. It is fair to say that recent pointer trackers and lasers bear little resemblance to those designed and built 10 years ago. Looking ahead, this process will only continue. There are interesting technologies that will drive improvements in manufacturability, reliability and usability of electro-optic products. Examples might include freeform optics, additive manufacture of metal components, and laser welding of optics to metals, to name but a few. These have uses across our product portfolio and, when sufficiently matured, will have a major impact on the product quality and reliability

  20. Interactive augmented reality system for product design review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Giandomenico; Re, Guido Maria

    2010-01-01

    The product development process, of industrial products, includes a phase dedicated to the design review that is a crucial phase where various experts cooperate in selecting the optimal product shape. Although computer graphics allows us to create very realistic virtual representations of the products, it is not uncommon that designers decide to build physical mock-ups of their newly conceived products because they need to physically interact with the prototype and also to evaluate the product within a plurality of real contexts. This paper describes the hardware and software development of our Augmented Reality design review system that allows to overcome some issues related to the 3D visualization and to the interaction with the virtual objects. Our system is composed by a Video See Through Head Mounted Display, which allows to improve the 3D visualization by controlling the convergence of the video cameras automatically, and a wireless control system, which allows us to create some metaphors to interact with the virtual objects. During the development of the system, in order to define and tune the algorithms, we have performed some testing sessions. Then, we have performed further tests in order to verify the effectiveness of the system and to collect additional data and comments about usability and ergonomic aspects.

  1. Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

  2. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  3. Green photonics: the role of photonics in sustainable product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessler, Berit; Tober, Ursula

    2011-05-01

    Photonic technologies will play an increasingly significant role in reducing our environmental impact. In addition to the direct eco-benefits derived from the products themselves, green photonics will also impact the product design and manufacturing processes employed. Examples are discussed covering laser manufacturing, solid-state lighting, solar cells and optical communications. The importance of considering the full lifetime environmental impact of products is discussed, including raw materials, manufacture, use, and end of life issues. Industrial and legislative strategies are reviewed, and a number of specific measures are presented for accelerating the development of green photonics technologies and promoting their adoption into society.

  4. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  5. Perspectives toward the stereotype production method for public symbol design: a case study of novice designers.

    PubMed

    Ng, Annie W Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the practices and attitudes of novice designers toward user involvement in public symbol design at the conceptual design stage, i.e. the stereotype production method. Differences between male and female novice designers were examined. Forty-eight novice designers (24 male, 24 female) were asked to design public symbol referents based on suggestions made by a group of users in a previous study and provide feedback with regard to the design process. The novice designers were receptive to the adoption of user suggestions in the conception of the design, but tended to modify the pictorial representations generated by the users to varying extents. It is also significant that the male and female novice designers appeared to emphasize different aspects of user suggestions, and the female novice designers were more positive toward these suggestions than their male counterparts. The findings should aid the optimization of the stereotype production method for user-involved symbol design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 74196 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Product Design To Minimize Medication...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Product Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors... using a systems approach to minimize medication errors relating to product design. The draft...

  7. Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.

  8. Recirculation: A New Concept to Drive Innovation in Sustainable Product Design for Bio-Based Products.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, James; Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Herrero-Davila, Lorenzo; Moity, Laurianne

    2016-12-29

    Bio-based products are made from renewable materials, offering a promising basis for the production of sustainable chemicals, materials, and more complex articles. However, biomass is not a limitless resource or one without environmental and social impacts. Therefore, while it is important to use biomass and grow a bio-based economy, displacing the unsustainable petroleum basis of energy and chemical production, any resource must be used effectively to reduce waste. Standards have been developed to support the bio-based product market in order to achieve this aim. However, the design of bio-based products has not received the same level of attention. Reported here are the first steps towards the development of a framework of understanding which connects product design to resource efficiency. Research and development scientists and engineers are encouraged to think beyond simple functionality and associate value to the potential of materials in their primary use and beyond.

  9. 77 FR 69381 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... solvents; sun care products; wastewater systems coatings; and water clarifying agents. Today's final rule... contamination are dire. The commenter gave as an example the cleaning of single use and reusable medical devices... petroleum based cleaners and solvents. Thus, USDA believes that the designation of biobased...

  10. 36 CFR 1193.23 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and evaluation. 1193.23 Section 1193.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... § 1193.23 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment and...

  11. 36 CFR 1193.23 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and evaluation. 1193.23 Section 1193.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... § 1193.23 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment and...

  12. 36 CFR 1193.23 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and evaluation. 1193.23 Section 1193.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... § 1193.23 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment and...

  13. Application of Absorption Modeling in Rational Design of Drug Product Under Quality-by-Design Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Mitra, Amitava

    2015-09-01

    Physiologically based absorption models can be an important tool in understanding product performance and hence implementation of Quality by Design (QbD) in drug product development. In this report, we show several case studies to demonstrate the potential application of absorption modeling in rational design of drug product under the QbD paradigm. The examples include application of absorption modeling—(1) prior to first-in-human studies to guide development of a formulation with minimal sensitivity to higher gastric pH and hence reduced interaction when co-administered with PPIs and/or H2RAs, (2) design of a controlled release formulation with optimal release rate to meet trough plasma concentrations and enable QD dosing, (3) understanding the impact of API particle size distribution on tablet bioavailability and guide formulation design in late-stage development, (4) assess impact of API phase change on product performance to guide specification setting, and (5) investigate the effect of dissolution rate changes on formulation bioperformance and enable appropriate specification setting. These case studies are meant to highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of the product performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients.

  14. Mu2e production solenoid cryostat conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.H.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.M.; Peterson, T.J.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Mu2e is a muon-to-electron conversion experiment being designed by an international collaboration of more than 65 scientists and engineers from more than 20 research institutions for installation at Fermilab. The experiment is comprised of three large superconducting solenoid magnet systems, production solenoid (PS), transport solenoid (TS) and detector solenoid (DS). A 25 kW, 8 GeV proton beam strikes a target located in the PS creating muons from the decay of secondary particles. These muons are then focused in the PS and the resultant muon beam is transported through the TS towards the DS. The production solenoid presents a unique set of design challenges as the result of high radiation doses, stringent magnetic field requirements, and large structural forces. This paper describes the conceptual design of the PS cryostat and will include discussions of the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation, cooling system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system.

  15. Enhancing the support of interdisciplinary product design by using design object-oriented modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xiu-Tian; MacCallum, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the modelling difficulties faced by an designer in the development of new interdisciplinary products. It describes a novel approach to tackling these problems. The underlying methodology is based on the object-oriented technology. A unified design object based representation and modelling method is proposed to enhance the scope of product modelling to many phases of the design process, and to simplify the modelling complexity associated with the increased number of modelling methods directly adopted from individual disciplines. This unified modelling representation method encompasses several low level modelling methods and it can integrate the dynamic energy and information system modelling of mechatronic products. These design object models will greatly facilitate designers, especially those who work on the development of interdisciplinary products, such as mechatronic systems. The paper concludes that a design object-oriented modelling method based on a hybrid modelling representation encompassing bond graph notation, block diagram, and Yourdon diagram, is desirable and feasible for mechatronic system design and modelling.

  16. Process Metallurgy an Enabler of Resource Efficiency: Linking Product Design to Metallurgy in Product Centric Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus; van Schaik, Antoinette

    In this paper the link between process metallurgy, classical minerals processing, product centric recycling and urban/landfill mining is discussed. The depth that has to be achieved in urban mining and recycling must glean from the wealth of theoretical knowledge and insight that have been developed in the past in minerals and metallurgical processing. This background learns that recycling demands a product centric approach, which considers simultaneously the multi-material interactions in man-made complex `minerals'. Fast innovation in recycling and urban mining can be achieved by further evolving from this well developed basis, evolving the techniques and tools that have been developed over the years. This basis has already been used for many years to design, operate and control industrial plants for metal production. This has been the basis for Design for Recycling rules for End-of-Life products. Using, among others, the UNEP Metal Recycling report as a basis (authors are respectively Lead and Main authors of report), it is demonstrated that a common theoretical basis as developed in metallurgy and minerals processing can help much to level the playing field between primary processing, secondary processing, recycling, and urban/landfill mining and product design hence enhancing resource efficiency. Thus various scales of detail link product design with metallurgical process design and its fundamentals.

  17. On Adaptive Extended Different Life Cycle of Product Design Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of following the whole lifespan of product and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces enterprises of different nature, enterprises at different developing stage will adopt different mode strategy. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated in different developing stages such as company development period, crisis predicament period, lasting steadies period, improving by payback period, issues steadies secondary period, declining go and live period, enterprise should pursue different mode product tactics of research and development such as shrinking strategy, consolidating strategy, innovation keeping forging ahead strategy. Enterprise should break regular management mode to introduce different research and development mode to promote enterprise's competitiveness effectively.

  18. RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KAHN,S.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.

    1997-05-12

    Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.

  19. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  20. Conceptual designs for commercial OTEC-ammonia product plantships

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Dugger, G.L.; Francis, E.J.

    1980-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy program plan for OTEC calls for design of pilot/demonstration plantships leading to commercial development for energy intensive product options as well as OTEC facilities for direct delivery of electric power to shore via undersea cables. The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has investigated alternative product options and their relative commercial viabilities since 1975, and has studied and developed proposed designs for OTEC plantships to produce significant amounts of energy products from the ocean in a reliable, environmentally acceptable, and cost effective manner, including resolution of some of the critical engineering design items through analysis and tests. This paper discusses some of this earlier work in its relation to the conceptual commercial plantship designs presented and describes the OTEC power systems and ammonia plant process requirements, including integration-operational aspects. Estimated OTEC power capacities and energy flow usage prospects are presented. Specific plantship layouts are discussed including construction and deployment, and projected costs versus market potentials are summarized.

  1. Tazerka multiwell FPSU the design of production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rietveld, R.J.C.; Biss, N.C.; Gelderblom, D.

    1983-09-01

    This paper will review the problems and the solutions associated with the design of the production facilities on the Multiwell Floating-Production and Storage Unit (FPSU) operated by Shell Tunirex in the Tazerka field, offshore Tunisia, on behalf of a joint venture with AGIP (Africa) and Enterprise Tunisienne d'Activites Petrolieres. Economics and product specification dictated the application of special techniques in the production of, and utility of, designs as regards process flexibility, gas disposal, power generation and pollution prevention. The field, containing estimated reserves of 8-10 million barrels of recoverable oil, is located in deep water (140-300m). To be economic, a novel application of multi-well floating-production and storage concept was developed. It was desirable to use a single process train with as near a 100% on-stream factor as possible. While not the first application of a flow station on a weather-vaning unit, it is believed to be the first to process crude directly from several subsea wells.

  2. Combinatorial library-based design with Basis Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Joe Zhongxiang; Shi, Shenghua; Na, Jim; Peng, Zhengwei; Thacher, Tom

    2009-10-01

    Uncovering useful lead compounds from a vast virtual library of synthesizable compounds continues to be of tremendous interest to pharmaceutical researchers. Here we present the concept of Basis Products (BPs), a new and broadly applicable method for achieving efficient selections from a combinatorial library. By definition, Basis Products are a strategically selected subset of compounds from a potentially very large combinatorial library, and any compound in a combinatorial library can represented by its BPs. In this article we will show how to use BP docking scores to find the top compounds of a combinatorial library. Compared with the brute-force docking of an entire virtual library, docking with BPs are much more efficient because of the substantial size reduction, saving both time and resources. We will also demonstrate how BPs can be used for property-based combinatorial library designs. Furthermore, BPs can also be considered as fragments carrying chemistry knowledge, hence they can potentially be used in combination with any fragment-based design method. Therefore, BPs can be used to integrate combinatorial design with structure-based design and/or fragment-based design. Other potential applications of BPs include lead hopping and consensus core building, which we will describe briefly as well in this report.

  3. A product-service system approach to telehealth application design.

    PubMed

    Flores-Vaquero, Paul; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Hutabarat, Windo; Turner, Chris

    2016-06-01

    A considerable proportion of current point-of-care devices do not offer a wide enough set of capabilities if they are to function in any telehealth system. There is a need for intermediate devices that lie between healthcare devices and service networks. The development of an application is suggested that allows for a smartphone to take the role of an intermediate device. This research seeks to identify the telehealth service requirements for long-term condition management using a product-service system approach. The use of product-service system has proven to be a suitable methodology for the design and development of telehealth smartphone applications.

  4. Large acceptance muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.; Autin, B.

    2000-01-06

    The possibility of achieving the high muon fluxes suggested in recent work on muon colliders has revived interest in the idea of using muon storage rings for neutrino production. Through proper design of the lattice, a significant fraction of the stored muons can be converted into an intense, low-divergence beam of neutrinos. This work examines the incorporation of a long, high-beta straight section for production of neutrino beams into a lattice which is otherwise optimized for transverse and longitudinal admittance. The ring must be able to accept a very large emittance and large momentum spread muon beam.

  5. Design and Production of Damage-Resistant Tray Pack Containers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    U) (01 ECHNICAL REPORT AD _____ 4ATICK/TR-86/008 < DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF DAMAGE-RESISTANT TRAY PACK CONTAINE’.RS BY D I RICHARD D. CUMMINGS JULY...REPORT & PERIOO COVEREDDESIGN AND PRODUCTION OP DAMAGE-RESISTANT FINAL REPORT TRAY PACK CON’TAINERS 13 APRIL 1984 - 31 JULY 1985 G. PERFORMING ORG...Cont"nue on iee ,ide I ne.esar, od Identif, by bloPk nub.,) * TRAY PACK(S) LOADS CONTAINERS DAMAGE PACKAGING LOADING (HANDLING) SHIPPING TESTS 20

  6. Design of nanocatalysts for green hydrogen production from bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Bion, Nicolas; Duprez, Daniel; Epron, Florence

    2012-01-09

    Bioethanol is an interesting feedstock that may be used for hydrogen production by steam or autothermal reforming. However, the impurities (heavy alcohols, esters, acids, N compounds) contained in the raw feedstock require a costly purification, as they have a dramatic impact on catalyst activity and stability. Thus, a method that can utilize the raw feedstock without severe degradation of the catalyst would be desirable. In this Minireview, the composition of bioethanol from first and second generation biomass, the reactions involved in the catalytic ethanol steam reforming process and the design of catalysts adapted for hydrogen production from a real bioethanol feed are surveyed.

  7. Symposium: experimental design for poultry production and genomics research.

    PubMed

    Pesti, Gene M; Aggrey, Samuel E; Fancher, Bryan I

    2013-09-01

    This symposium dealt with the theoretical and practical aspects of choosing and evaluating experimental designs, and how experimental results may be related to poultry production through modeling. Additionally, recent advances in techniques for generating high-throughput genomic sequencing data, genomic breeding values, genomics selection, and genome-wide association studies have provided unique computational challenges to the poultry industry. Such challenges were presented and discussed.

  8. Space crew productivity: A driving factor in space station design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbers, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The criteria of performance, cost, and mission success probability (program confidence) are the principal factors that program or project managers and system engineers use in selecting the optimum design approach for meeting mission objectives. A frame of reference is discussed in which the interrelationships of these pertinent parameters can be made visible, and from which rational or informed decisions can be derived regarding the potential impact of adjustments in crew productivity on total Space Station System effectiveness.

  9. Food product design: emerging evidence for food policy.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven

    2017-03-01

    The research on the impact of specific brand elements such as food descriptors and package colors is underexplored. We tested whether a "light" color and a "low-calorie" descriptor on food packages gain favorable consumer perception ratings as compared with regular packages. Our online experiment recruited 406 adults in a 3 (product type: Chips versus Juice versus Yoghurt) × 2 (descriptor type: regular versus low-calorie) × 2 (color type: regular versus light) mixed design. Dependent variables were sensory (evaluations of the product's nutritional value and quality), product-based (evaluations of the product's physical appeal), and consumer-based (evaluations of the potential consumers of the product) scales. "Low-calorie" descriptors were found to increase sensory ratings as compared with regular descriptors and light-colored packages received higher product-based ratings as compared with their regular-colored counterparts. Food package color and descriptors present a promising venue for understanding preventative measures against obesity.[Formula: see text].

  10. Bioreactor design for continuous dark fermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2011-09-01

    Dark fermentative H2 production (DFHP) has received increasing attention in recent years due to its high H2 production rate (HPR) as well as the versatility of the substrates used in the process. For most studies in this field, batch reactors have been applied due to their simple operation and efficient control; however, continuous DFHP operation is necessary from economical and practical points of view. Continuous systems can be classified into two categories, suspended and immobilized bioreactors, according to the life forms of H2 producing bacteria (HPB) used in the reactor. This paper reviews operational parameters for bioreactor design including pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and H2 partial pressure. Also, in this review, various bioreactor configurations and performance parameters including H2 yield (HY), HPR, and specific H2 production rate (SHPR) are evaluated and presented.

  11. Metabolic Design and Control for Production in Prokaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Keasling, J.D.

    2010-11-10

    Prokaryotic life on earth is manifested by its diversity and omnipresence. These microbes serve as natural sources of a large variety of compounds with the potential to serve the ever growing, medicinal, chemical and transportation needs of the human population. However, commercially viable production of these compounds can be realized only through significant improvement of the native production capacity of natural isolates. The most favorable way to achieve this goal is through the genetic manipulation of metabolic pathways that direct the production of these molecules. While random mutagenesis and screening have dominated the industrial production of such compounds in the past our increased understanding of microbial physiology over the last five decades has shifted this trend towards rational approaches for metabolic design. Major drivers of this trend include recombinant DNA technology, high throughput characterization of macromolecular cellular components, quantitative modeling for metabolic engine ring, targeted combinatorial engineering and synthetic biology. In this chapter we track the evolution of microbial engineering technologies from the black box era of random mutagenesis to the science and engineering-driven era of metabolic design.

  12. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  13. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    PubMed

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  14. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1) were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories. PMID:21059201

  15. Preliminary Design Report for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1990-04-01

    A master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) on October 15, 1987, as a reasonable basis upon which the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) could proceed to fund predesign work on the project. The Council approved the predesign work on the condition that eight preliminary tasks were completed. These tasks are: Task 1. Agreement on a refined statement of project goals. Task 2. Completion of a technical analysis of water supplies. Task 3. Completion of an experimental design plan. Task 4. Development of a harvest management plan. Task 5. Assessment of potential genetic risks. Task 6. Project coordination with all other affected parties. Task 7. Submission of a preliminary design report to the Council. Task 8. Develop a project management structure. The preliminary design report summarizes the work completed on these tasks. It provides a description of the preliminary design, engineering, and construction phases of project development, and gives an estimate of project costs. Also included is a description of other studies that were conducted to support YKPP planning. The results of studies conducted during the last 30 months indicate that hatchery facilities can be built in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins to provide harvest benefits and to supplement natural production. Planning for the Yakima subbasin is at a more advanced stage of development than for the Klickitat subbasin because of greater availability of basic resource information. The information needed to proceed with final design and construction for the Klickitat subbasin will be available by 1992, as ongoing predesign work continues. This schedule is consistent with the anticipated phased completion of the YKPP by 1997.

  16. Design considerations in an active medical product safety monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Joshua J; Fireman, Bruce; Ryan, Patrick B; Maclure, Malcolm; Gerhard, Tobias; Toh, Sengwee; Rassen, Jeremy A; Nelson, Jennifer C; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Active medical product monitoring systems, such as the Sentinel System, will utilize electronic healthcare data captured during routine health care. Safety signals that arise from these data may be spurious because of chance or bias, particularly confounding bias, given the observational nature of the data. Applying appropriate monitoring designs can filter out many false-positive and false-negative associations from the outset. Designs can be classified by whether they produce estimates based on between-person or within-person comparisons. In deciding which approach is more suitable for a given monitoring scenario, stakeholders must consider the characteristics of the monitored product, characteristics of the health outcome of interest (HOI), and characteristics of the potential link between these. Specifically, three factors drive design decisions: (i) strength of within-person and between-person confounding; (ii) whether circumstances exist that may predispose to misclassification of exposure or misclassification of the timing of the HOI; and (iii) whether the exposure of interest is predominantly transient or sustained. Additional design considerations include whether to focus on new users, the availability of appropriate active comparators, the presence of an exposure time trend, and the measure of association of interest. When the key assumptions of self-controlled designs are fulfilled (i.e., lack of within-person, time-varying confounding; abrupt HOI onset; and transient exposure), within-person comparisons are preferred because they inherently avoid confounding by fixed factors. The cohort approach generally is preferred in other situations and particularly when timing of exposure or outcome is uncertain because cohort approaches are less vulnerable to biases resulting from misclassification.

  17. Species selection in secondary wood products: implications for product design and promotion

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Scott A. Bowe; Scott A. Bowe

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions that people have of several commercially important wood species and determined if word-based and specimen-based evaluations differed. Such knowledge can help secondary wood manufacturers better understand their products and develop more effective design concepts and promotional messages. A sample of more than 250 undergraduate...

  18. Development of hybrid genetic algorithms for product line designs.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, P V Sundar; Gupta, Rakesh; Jacob, Varghese S

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of artificial intelligence (AI) based meta-heuristic techniques namely genetic algorithms (GAs), for the product line design problem. This work extends previously developed methods for the single product design problem. We conduct a large scale simulation study to determine the effectiveness of such an AI based technique for providing good solutions and bench mark the performance of this against the current dominant approach of beam search (BS). We investigate the potential advantages of pursuing the avenue of developing hybrid models and then implement and study such hybrid models using two very distinct approaches: namely, seeding the initial GA population with the BS solution, and employing the BS solution as part of the GA operator's process. We go on to examine the impact of two alternate string representation formats on the quality of the solutions obtained by the above proposed techniques. We also explicitly investigate a critical managerial factor of attribute importance in terms of its impact on the solutions obtained by the alternate modeling procedures. The alternate techniques are then evaluated, using statistical analysis of variance, on a fairy large number of data sets, as to the quality of the solutions obtained with respect to the state-of-the-art benchmark and in terms of their ability to provide multiple, unique product line options.

  19. Improving product quality and productivity using better guidelines for concept design

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, C.M.; Barkan, P.

    1995-08-01

    The remarkable effectiveness of Japanese practices has led to a growing interest in the US in the development and application of rules and methodologies which attempt to capture design experience. US companies have found unexpected benefits and pitfalls in the application of these rules and methods. In this article, the authors critically examine one of the most widely accepted rules of Design for Manufacturability (DFM): minimize the number of parts. An examination of 240 assemblies and subassemblies has shown that rigid adherence to this rule can lead to unnecessarily complex parts and assembly. Quantitative insights derived from this study have led to a better design goal: minimize and simplify assembly operations. This new rule, which should not be rigidly interpreted, tends to reduce part count, while having the benefit of assuring improved assembly. Another significant advantage of the new design rule is that it results in lower product defect rates as demonstrated by correlations observed for a wide range of products from two different manufacturers. This research links quality to the product concept, enabling a new approach to improving quality at the earliest stages of design.

  20. Designing optical disk systems into audio/video products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiandong

    2008-12-01

    Optical disk systems are still widely used in players in consumer electronics and automotive applications, although more and more audio and video contents are played from other medias such as flash memory and hard disk drive based devices. There are various architectures with the integrations of audio and video (A/V) decoders and optical disk servo components to reduced product BOM cost. Some issues are addressed for designing optical disk playing modules into an audio or video products. Servo implementation including tracking, seeking and rotating control needs to consider the characteristics of low cost mechanisms and non-ideal disks. When optical disk systems are used in portable or moving environments, the approaches from servo control side and electronic can be helpful for anti-shock. Special handlings to defect disks are important to playability.

  1. Vaccine stability study design and analysis to support product licensure.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Timothy L

    2009-11-01

    Stability evaluation supporting vaccine licensure includes studies of bulk intermediates as well as final container product. Long-term and accelerated studies are performed to support shelf life and to determine release limits for the vaccine. Vaccine shelf life is best determined utilizing a formal statistical evaluation outlined in the ICH guidelines, while minimum release is calculated to help assure adequate potency through handling and storage of the vaccine. In addition to supporting release potency determination, accelerated stability studies may be used to support a strategy to recalculate product expiry after an unintended temperature excursion such as a cold storage unit failure or mishandling during transport. Appropriate statistical evaluation of vaccine stability data promotes strategic stability study design, in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with the determination of the degradation rate, and the associated risk to the customer.

  2. Thermal design of a Mars oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Iyer, Venkatesh A.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal design of the thermal components of a system that uses carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce oxygen for spacecraft propulsion and/or life support is discussed. The gases are pressurized, heated and passed through an electrochemical cell. Carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide and oxygen due to thermal dissociation and electrocatalysis. The oxygen thus formed is separated from the gas mixture by the electrochemical cell. The objective of the design is to optimize both the overall mass and the power consumption of the system. The analysis shows that at electrochemical cell efficiencies of about 50 percent and lower, the optimal system would require unspent carbon dioxide in the exhaust gases to be separated and recycled. Various methods of efficiently compressing the intake gases to system pressures of 0.1 MPa are investigated. The total power requirement for oxygen production rates of 1, 5, and 10 kg/day at various cell efficiencies are presented.

  3. Thermal design of a Mars oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Iyer, Venkatesh A.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal design of the thermal components of a system that uses carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce oxygen for spacecraft propulsion and/or life support is discussed. The gases are pressurized, heated and passed through an electrochemical cell. Carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide and oxygen due to thermal dissociation and electrocatalysis. The oxygen thus formed is separated from the gas mixture by the electrochemical cell. The objective of the design is to optimize both the overall mass and the power consumption of the system. The analysis shows that at electrochemical cell efficiencies of about 50 percent and lower, the optimal system would require unspent carbon dioxide in the exhaust gases to be separated and recycled. Various methods of efficiently compressing the intake gases to system pressures of 0.1 MPa are investigated. The total power requirement for oxygen production rates of 1, 5, and 10 kg/day at various cell efficiencies are presented.

  4. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.

    1990-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Design and performance of the KSC Biomass Production Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Ralph P.; Knott, William M.; Sager, John C.; Hilding, Suzanne E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System program has instituted the Kennedy Space Center 'breadboard' project of which the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) presently discussed is a part. The BPC is based on a modified hypobaric test vessel; its design parameters and operational parameters have been chosen in order to meet a wide range of plant-growing objectives aboard future spacecraft on long-duration missions. A control and data acquisition subsystem is used to maintain a common link between the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system, the illumination system, the gas-circulation system, and the nutrient delivery and monitoring subsystems.

  6. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  7. Addressing the variables in LED product design to ensure product reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keebler, Philip F.; Sharp, Frank D.

    2011-10-01

    Continuing developments in LED lighting are leading to more lighting products for illumination in LED fixtures for the residential, commercial, and industrial facilities. Most of the research in the past ten years has been aimed at developing LEDs with higher brightness, higher efficacies, good color performance and longer life. Many efforts have been accomplished to develop LED driver circuits to drive LED arrays, even drivers that are dimmable. Manufacturers are increasing their level of concern with the performance and life of the whole LED product with a renewed emphasis on reliability. Reliability for LED products not only involves thermal management, fixture design, and driver loading but also how products respond to electrical disturbances that occur in the building electrical environments where the products must function. EPRI research has demonstrated that the immunity of LED lighting systems to common everyday electrical disturbances is critical to establishing the reliability needed to ensure expected performance and for their survival during product life. Test results showing the application of voltage surges, transients, and sags among other disturbances will be presented. This paper will discuss the application of the results of EPRI research in this area, the test protocol associated with EPRI system compatibility concept, examples of how applying the concept has identified reliability problems in LED products, and how the reliability of these LED systems can be easily improved.

  8. Unintended Effects of Orphan Product Designation for Rare Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sinéad M; Puwanant, Araya; Griggs, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Orphan Drug Act in 1983, designed to promote development of treatments for rare diseases, at least 378 orphan drugs have been approved. Incentives include financial support, tax credits and, perhaps most importantly, extended market exclusivity. These incentives have encouraged industry interest and accelerated research on rare diseases, allowing patients with orphan diseases access to treatments. However, extended market exclusivity has been associated with unacceptably high drug costs; both for newly developed drugs and even for drugs which were previously widely available. We suggest that a paradoxical effect of orphan product exclusivity can be reduced patient access to existing drugs. In addition, the costs of each new drug are arguably unsustainable for patients and for the American health care system. Of all the specialties, neurology has the third highest number of orphan product designations, and neurological diseases account for at least one fifth of rare diseases. Citing the use of tetrabenazine for chorea in Huntington’s disease, adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms and enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alpha for Pompe’s disease we highlight these paradoxical effects. PMID:23109143

  9. Unintended effects of orphan product designation for rare neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sinéad M; Puwanant, Araya; Griggs, Robert C

    2012-10-01

    Since the introduction of the Orphan Drug Act in 1983, designed to promote development of treatments for rare diseases, at least 378 orphan drugs have been approved. Incentives include financial support, tax credits, and perhaps most importantly, extended market exclusivity. These incentives have encouraged industry interest and accelerated research on rare diseases, allowing patients with orphan diseases access to treatments. However, extended market exclusivity has been associated with unacceptably high drug costs, both for newly developed drugs and for drugs that were previously widely available. We suggest that a paradoxical effect of orphan product exclusivity can be reduced patient access to existing drugs. In addition, the costs of each new drug are arguably unsustainable for patients and for the American health care system. Of all the specialties, neurology has the third highest number of orphan product designations, and neurological diseases account for at least one-fifth of rare diseases. Citing the use of tetrabenazine for chorea in Huntington disease, adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms, and enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alpha for Pompe disease, we highlight these paradoxical effects.

  10. Surface Mine Design and Planning for Lunar Regolith Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, Leslie Sour; Gertsch, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    Terrestrial surface mine design and planning techniques are applied to the production of lunar regolith for manufacturing makeup gases for the life-support system of a lunar base. Two scenarios are examined, due to the uncertainty of whether bound hydrogen sensed near the lunar poles is from cometary ice deposited in cold traps (mesh 1), or to hydrogen implanted within regolith grains by the solar wind (mesh 2). Scenario mesh 1, with a total production requirement of 44 tonne/day of regolith, could be handled with four groups of four 6-m3 capacity slushers (drag scrapers), each group extending 100 m around a single processing module. Scenario mesh 2 (4.382 tonne/day) could be accomplished with three powered bowl-type scrapers (capacity 24 m3) gathering the regolith into long windrows feeding a large processor. The present orebody model is extremely thin (1 m), although broad in extent: this prevents usage of high production-rate systems such as large draglines.

  11. M-C Power`s product design and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Scroppo, J.A.; Laurens, R.M.; Petraglia, V.J.

    1995-12-31

    The sole mission of M-C Power is the development and subsequent commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stacks. These MCFC stacks are based on the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchanger plate design developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. Integration of the MCFC stack into a commercially viable power plant is the mission of the IMHEX{sup {reg_sign}} team. The team is composed of leaders in the packaging and design of power generation equipment, including fuel cell technology, and includes Stewart & Stevenson, Bechtel, The Institute of Gas Technology and M-C Power. In an effort to succeed in their respective missions, M-C Power and the IMHEX{sup {reg_sign}} team have developed a commercialization program. At the present time, the team is making the transition from Phase I (Technology Development) to Phase II (Product Design & Improvement) of the program. Phase II`s objective is a commercially viable (cost effective and technologically reliable) MCFC power plant ready for market by the turn of the century.

  12. M-C Power`s product design and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, R.M.; Petraglia, V.J.

    1995-08-01

    The sole mission of M-C Power is the development and subsequent commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stacks. These MCFC stacks are based on the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchanger plate design developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. Integration of the MCFC stack into a commercially viable power plant is the mission of the IMHEX{reg_sign} team. The team is composed of leaders in the packaging and design of power generation equipment, including fuel cell technology, and includes Stewart & Stevenson, Bechtel, The Institute of Gas Technology and M-C Power. In an effort to succeed in their respective missions, M-C Power and the IMHEX{reg_sign} team have developed a commercialization program. At the present time the team is making the transition from Phase I (Technology Development) to Phase II (Product Design & Improvement) of the program. Phase II`s objective is a commercially viable (cost effective and technologically reliable) MCFC power plant ready for market by the turn of the century.

  13. Teaching Design in Television Production Technology: The Twelve Steps of Preproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Henry L. (Hal), III; Loveland, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Extensive planning must be used to produce television programs. Students must develop sound design practices and understand these attributes of design in their production planning. Through the design and planning processes involved in television production, students learn that design is a creative process, and that there is no perfect design, but…

  14. Teaching Design in Television Production Technology: The Twelve Steps of Preproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Henry L. (Hal), III; Loveland, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Extensive planning must be used to produce television programs. Students must develop sound design practices and understand these attributes of design in their production planning. Through the design and planning processes involved in television production, students learn that design is a creative process, and that there is no perfect design, but…

  15. Studio in Advertising Design, Fashion Design and Illustration, Product Design, Stage Design. Volume 3: Advanced Elective Courses in Art for Grades 10, 11, or 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The document provides teaching guidelines and information on advance elective courses in a studio art program for grades 10, 11, and 12. The courses are presented in four sections: (1) studio in advertising design--advertising and production, lettering, illustrating, and color reproduction; (2) studio in fashion design and illustration--elements…

  16. Studio in Advertising Design, Fashion Design and Illustration, Product Design, Stage Design. Volume 3: Advanced Elective Courses in Art for Grades 10, 11, or 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The document provides teaching guidelines and information on advance elective courses in a studio art program for grades 10, 11, and 12. The courses are presented in four sections: (1) studio in advertising design--advertising and production, lettering, illustrating, and color reproduction; (2) studio in fashion design and illustration--elements…

  17. Activation product safety in the ARIES-I reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S. ); Sze, D.K. ); Wong, C.; Cheng, E.T. ); Grotz, S.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The ARIES design effort has sought to maximize the environmental and safety advantages of fusion through careful selection of materials and careful design. Three goals are that the reactor achieve inherent or passive safety, that no public evacuation plan be necessary and that the waste be disposable as 10CFR61 Class C waste. The ARIES-I reactor consists of a SiC composite structure for the first wall and blanket, cooled by 10 MPa He. The breeder is Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, although Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} were also considered. The divertor consists of SiC composite tubes coated with 2 mm of tungsten. Due to the minimal afterheat of this blanket design, LOCA calculations indicate maximum temperatures will not cause damage if the plasma is promptly extinguished. Two primary safety issues are the zirconium in the breeder and tungsten on the divertor. Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was chosen because of its demonstrated high-temperature stability. The other breeders have lower afterheat and activation. Use of zirconium in the breeder will necessitate isotopic tailoring to remove {sup 90}Zr and {sup 94}Zr. The 5.8 tonnes of W on the divertor would also have to be tailored to remove {sup 186}W and/or to concentrate {sup 183}W. Thus the ARIES-I design achieves the passive safety and low-level waste disposal criteria with respect to activation products. Development of low activation materials to replace zirconium and tungsten is needed to avoid requiring an evacuation plan.

  18. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  19. Incorporating security considerations into optimal product architecture and component sharing decision in product family design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas Arciniegas, Alvaro J.; Kim, Harrison M.

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate components to share in product family design is not a trivial decision; especially when a firm wants to protect the most sensitive information contained in their products from being exposed to users, third-party manufacturers, or undesirable agents. This article proposes tools to help designers identify sets of components containing sensitive information, as well as components that are candidates for sharing amongst the family. It also finds the most desirable component arrangement in each product that facilitates sharing while protecting the sensitive information that has been previously identified. The proposed framework is applied to three printers in which the architecture used for the ink cartridges and printheads are significantly different. Third-party manufacturers and remanufacturers offer their own alternatives for these subsystems (ink cartridges and printheads) since the customer for printer supplies is always looking for a cheaper alternative; meanwhile, the original equipment manufacturers attempt to secure their products and retain their customers with original supplies. The functional description of the system is analysed to identify the sensitive components for each printer; then, the optimal clustering strategy is found, as well as the set of components that are candidates for sharing, according to their connectivity and the security considerations.

  20. Liposomal Drug Products: A Quality by Design Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming

    Quality by Design (QbD) principles has been applied to the development of two liposomal formulations, containing a hydrophilic small molecule therapeutic (Tenofovir) and a protein therapeutic (superoxide dismutase). The goal of the research is to provide critical information on 1) how to reduce the preparation variability in liposome formulations, and 2) how to increase drug encapsulation inside liposomes to reduce manufacturing cost. Most notably, an improved liposome preparation method was developed which increased the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic molecules. In particular, this method allows for very high encapsulation efficiency. For example, encapsulation efficiencies of up to 50% have been achieved, whereas previously only 20% or less have been reported. Another significant outcome from this research is a first principle mathematical model to predict the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic drugs in unilamellar liposomes. This mathematical model will be useful in: formulation development to rapidly achieve optimized formulations; comparison of drug encapsulation efficiencies of liposomes prepared using different methods; and assisting in the development of suitable process analytical technologies to achieve real-time monitoring and control of drug encapsulation during manufacturing. A novel two-stage reverse dialysis in vitro release testing method has also been developed for passively targeted liposomes, which uses the first stage to mimic the circulation of liposomes in the body and the second stage to imitate the drug release process at the target. The developed in vitro release testing method can be used to distinguish formulations with varied compositions for quality control testing purposes. This developed method may pave the way to the development of more biorelevant quality control testing methods for liposomal drug products in the future. The QbD case studies performed in this research are examples of how this approach can be used to

  1. LISE++: Exotic beam production with fragment separators and their design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

    2016-06-01

    Since the LISE++ code presentation at the EMIS 2007 conference (Tarasov and Bazin, 2008), important improvements have been made in the analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of transmission, and accuracy of reaction product distributions. In this paper new features of the code in ion-beam optics, creation of new LISE++ blocks, and development of some reaction models will be discussed. Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, and can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints.

  2. Optical pumping system design for large production of hyperpolarized.

    PubMed

    Ruset, I C; Ketel, S; Hersman, F W

    2006-02-10

    We present a design for a spin-exchange optical pumping system to produce large quantities of highly polarized 129Xe. Low xenon concentrations in the flowing gas mixture allow the laser to maintain high Rb polarization. The large spin-exchange rate between Rb and 129Xe through the long-lived van der Waals molecules at low pressure, combined with a high flow rate, results in large production rates of hyperpolarized xenon. We report a maximum polarization of 64% achieved for a 0.3 l/h Xe flow rate, and maximum magnetization output of 6 l/h at 22% polarization. Our findings regarding the polarization dependence on temperature, nitrogen partial pressure, and gas mixture flow velocity are also reported.

  3. Vector Design for Improved DNA Vaccine Efficacy, Safety and Production

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James A.

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a disruptive technology that offers the promise of a new rapidly deployed vaccination platform to treat human and animal disease with gene-based materials. Innovations such as electroporation, needle free jet delivery and lipid-based carriers increase transgene expression and immunogenicity through more effective gene delivery. This review summarizes complementary vector design innovations that, when combined with leading delivery platforms, further enhance DNA vaccine performance. These next generation vectors also address potential safety issues such as antibiotic selection, and increase plasmid manufacturing quality and yield in exemplary fermentation production processes. Application of optimized constructs in combination with improved delivery platforms tangibly improves the prospect of successful application of DNA vaccination as prophylactic vaccines for diverse human infectious disease targets or as therapeutic vaccines for cancer and allergy. PMID:26344110

  4. Designing of robotic production lines using CAx software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Langer, P.

    2015-11-01

    Present market conditions causes that modern control systems of robotized manufacturing cells should be characterized by the much greater degree of flexibility, selforganization and, above all, adaptability to emerging outer excitations. The phenomenon of information distribution is one of the most important features of modern control systems. In the paper is presented the approach, based on application of multi-agent systems, for supporting the operation of robotized manufacturing cells. The aim of this approach is to obtain the flexible response to outer excitations and preventing situations that might cause the delay of the production process. The presented paper includes description of the concept of an informatics system designed for controlling the work of production systems, including work cells. Such systems could operate independently if it would be equipped with the selforganization mechanism. It is possible in the case of the proposed multi-agent system. The implementation of the presented concept will follow the present analysis of the described concept. The advantage of the proposed concept is its hierarchical depiction that allows integrating different utilized informatics tools in one complex system. It allows preparing the final computer program.

  5. Designing a year-round production system for offshore Labrador

    SciTech Connect

    Jozan, M.M.; Wetzel, V.F.

    1980-08-01

    Of the various production schemes under consideration for use in the iceberg-plagued Labrador Sea, two seem technically feasible in the medium term (5-10 years): a quick-disconnect floating platform equipped with an ice-cutting device and a fixed structure mounted on an artificial island or submerged mound. The first alternative would be a seasonal production system relying on a dynamically positioned platform that could be easily disconnected from the riser when threatened by an oncoming iceberg; smaller ice floes would be broken up by the platform's ice cutter. The most feasible fixed-structure plan is to build a conventional platform on an artificial island or, in deeper waters, on a submerged mound. This alternative offers the room needed for the processing and liquefaction facilities required for tanker transport of natural gas. Labrador Sea hydrocarbons will most likely be transported by tankers rather than pipelines until designers devise means of protecting the pipe from iceberg scour and crossing the deep marginal trough.

  6. Design of smart functional apparel products for moxa moxibustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Au, Wai-man; Ding, Feng; Wong, Kwok-shing

    2013-08-01

    Moxa Moxibustion is a common traditional Chinese therapy in which burning Moxa is applied to affected body areas. This method has been employed for thousands of years to achieve certain medical objectives, such as pain relief or antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Its therapeutic effectiveness has been demonstrated successfully both in research and clinical studies. However, this traditional approach may cause undesirable side effects, for example: 1) burning of Moxa produces by-products such as smoke and ash; 2) patients are at risk of being burnt; 3) the active ingredients of the Moxa leaf oil are volatile, odorous, unstable in air and easy to dissipate, and difficult to store and transport; 4) it is inconvenient to operate. These side effects limit its further high-potential and high-value applications. This study is aimed at developing a multi-functional smart textile system that will adopt smart fabrics containing encapsulated Moxa oil integrated with thermally conductive materials to replace the conventional Moxa products. This will efficiently deliver the active ingredients of Moxa to a human body at optimum conditions, i.e., in a precise and controllable way, with maximum convenience and a high level of comfort. Doing so would solve the existing problems mentioned above. Both garment design skill and textile technology will be applied to Moxa Moxibustion textile to enhance the aesthetics and functionality. The smart garment performance will be assessed subjectively in a clinical trial and objectively by a number of instrumental methods.

  7. NASA's Space Launch Transitions: From Design to Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing

  8. NASA's Space Launch System Transitions From Design To Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block 1, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) (154,324 pounds) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It will evolve to a 130 t (286,601 pound) payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test-fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC), near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Core stage test stands are reaching completion

  9. Cognitive ergonomics and production information systems under the gaze of interdisciplinary design or industrial design.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Luciene Bulhões

    2012-01-01

    The core of this work involves the study of cognitive ergonomics and production of Information Systems under the interdisciplinary of the Design or Industrial Design. It is assumed that in the dynamics of human and the systems, mediated by systematic technology, there are constant changes in social perceptions, that alter the shape of the subject dealing with the real world, concrete, adopting a pseudo-idea of the evolutionary process. Attentive to the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary groups as agents of this process, points to the danger of the emergence of the myth of innovation as a solver of social problems and suggests new ergonomics as a contributor in a different way of thinking the humanization beyond of the XXI century.

  10. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R.; Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J.; Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A.; Boni, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Green design assessment of electromechanical products based on group weighted-AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinwei; Zhou, MengChu; Li, Zhiwu; Xie, Huiguang

    2015-11-01

    Manufacturing industry is the backbone of a country's economy while environmental pollution is a serious problem that human beings must face today. The green design of electromechanical products based on enterprise information systems is an important method to solve the environmental problem. The question on how to design green products must be answered by excellent designers via both advanced design methods and effective assessment methods of electromechanical products. Making an objective and precise assessment of green design is one of the problems that must be solved when green design is conducted. An assessment method of green design on electromechanical products based on Group Weighted-AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is proposed in this paper, together with the characteristics of green products. The assessment steps of green design are also established. The results are illustrated via the assessment of a refrigerator design.

  12. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic... the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c) Preference compliance date... in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished...

  13. Ethanol Production from Biomass: Large Scale Facility Design Project

    SciTech Connect

    Berson, R. Eric

    2009-10-29

    High solids processing of biomass slurries provides the following benefits: maximized product concentration in the fermentable sugar stream, reduced water usage, and reduced reactor size. However, high solids processing poses mixing and heat transfer problems above about 15% for pretreated corn stover solids due to their high viscosities. Also, highly viscous slurries require high power consumption in conventional stirred tanks since they must be run at high rotational speeds to maintain proper mixing. An 8 liter scraped surface bio-reactor (SSBR) is employed here that is designed to efficiently handle high solids loadings for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover (PCS) while maintaining power requirements on the order of low viscous liquids in conventional stirred tanks. Saccharification of biomass exhibit slow reaction rates and incomplete conversion, which may be attributed to enzyme deactivation and loss of activity due to a variety of mechanisms. Enzyme deactivation is classified into two categories here: one, deactivation due to enzyme-substrate interactions and two, deactivation due to all other factors that are grouped together and termed “non-specific” deactivation. A study was conducted to investigate the relative extents of “non-specific” deactivation and deactivation due to “enzyme-substrate interactions” and a model was developed that describes the kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by considering the observed deactivation effects. Enzyme substrate interactions had a much more significant effect on overall deactivation with a deactivation rate constant about 20X higher than the non-specific deactivation rate constant (0.35 h-1 vs 0.018 h-1). The model is well validated by the experimental data and predicts complete conversion of cellulose within 30 hours in the absence of enzyme substrate interactions.

  14. 78 FR 58318 - Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products... ``Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products.'' This workshop will provide a forum to discuss trial design of clinical trials intended to support registration of intravenous fat...

  15. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  16. 9 CFR 355.22 - Designation of place of receipt of returned products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of place of receipt of returned products. 355.22 Section 355.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA...

  17. 9 CFR 355.22 - Designation of place of receipt of returned products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of place of receipt of returned products. 355.22 Section 355.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA...

  18. 9 CFR 355.22 - Designation of place of receipt of returned products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of place of receipt of returned products. 355.22 Section 355.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA...

  19. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing to require the use of the descriptive designation ``mechanically tenderized'' on the labels of raw or partially cooked needle- or blade- tenderized beef products, including beef products injected with marinade or solution, unless such products are destined to be fully cooked at an official establishment. Beef products that have been......

  20. 9 CFR 355.22 - Designation of place of receipt of returned products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of place of receipt of returned products. 355.22 Section 355.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER...

  1. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design. PMID:27630709

  2. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.

  3. 76 FR 56883 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... restorers; blast media; candles and wax melts; electronic components cleaners; floor coverings (non-carpet... ``Miscellaneous products--blasting grit.'' The second is floor coverings (non-carpet), which may overlap with the... components cleaners; floor coverings (non-carpet); foot care products; furniture cleaners and protectors...

  4. Advances in product release strategies and impact on bioprocess design.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, Bangaru; Harrison, Sue; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2009-08-01

    Intracellular products such as recombinant insulin, which are typically produced in microbial host cells, demand a product release step to remove them from the cell. How this is performed determines the quantity of released contaminants, the particle size distribution of cell debris and the physical properties of the resultant process stream, which all impact on the performance of the downstream operations. Thus, achieving selective release of the desired product is crucial for improving the process economics. Advances in upstream processing (the bioreactor phase) have been successful in achieving high product titres, and downstream costs now typically dominate the overall manufacturing costs. Here, we review and discuss the selective release of products as a possible means of improving the efficiency of downstream processing.

  5. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared.

  6. Productive Conjunctions: The Design of Effective Literacy and Thinking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David

    2005-01-01

    The application of research outcomes aligned to a single paradigm can result in the design of polarized classroom pedagogies. In contrast, the application of multi-paradigmatic perspectives can result in the design of effective literacy and thinking tools. The research outcomes from cognitive and neuro-psychologists adopting normative…

  7. The Future of Product Design Utilising Printed Electronics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Nicola; Southee, Darren; Evans, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the teaching of emerging technologies to design students, using "printed electronics" as an example as it recently became viable to mass manufacture and is ready for use in designs. Printed electronics is introduced as a disruptive technology, and approaches employed in knowledge transfer to industrial/product…

  8. Research on Product Conceptual Design Based on Integrated of TRIZ and HOQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jianmin; Tang, Xiaowo; Shao, Yunfei

    The conceptual design determines the success of the final product quality and competition of market. The determination of design parameters and the effective method to resolve parameters contradiction are the key to success. In this paper, the concept of HOQ products designed to determine the parameters, then using the TRIZ contradiction matrix and inventive principles of design parameters to solve the problem of contradictions. Facts have proved that the effective method is to obtain the product concept design parameters and to resolve contradictions line parameters.

  9. CFD Aided Design and Production of Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alper; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Demirel, Gizem; Ayli, Ece; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are turbo machines which produce electricity from hydraulic energy. Francis type turbines are the most common one in use today. The design of these turbines requires high engineering effort since each turbine is tailor made due to different head and discharge. Therefore each component of the turbine is designed specifically. During the last decades, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become very useful tool to predict hydraulic machinery performance and save time and money for designers. This paper describes a design methodology to optimize a Francis turbine by integrating theoretical and experimental fundamentals of hydraulic machines and commercial CFD codes. Specific turbines are designed and manufactured with the help of a collaborative CFD/CAD/CAM methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and five-axis machining for hydraulic electric power plants. The details are presented in this study. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  10. Nicotine quantity and packaging disclosure in smoked and smokeless tobacco products in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Shivhare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    A variety of smoked and smokeless tobacco products with varying nicotine content are accessible in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has direct bearing on tobacco dependence. Our objective was to estimate nicotine content in various types of smoked and smokeless products. Disclosure for essential health warning was also checked. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for nicotine extraction and high-performance thin layer chromatography technique was applied for quantification of nicotine in seventy-one smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Significant variation in nicotine content was observed across products. In smoked tobacco, nicotine content varied from 1.01 to 13.0 mg/rod, while in smokeless tobacco products it ranged from 0.8 mg/g to 50.0 mg/g. Moisture content varied from 9% to 21%. This work lists a range of smoked and smokeless tobacco products available in this region. We report a wide variability in nicotine quantity across smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Such variation in nicotine content may have important implications for tobacco cessation interventions and policies.

  11. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  12. Using Critical Incidents of Instructional Design and Multimedia Production Activities to Investigate Instructional Designers' Current Practices and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.; Luterbach, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Through consideration of critical incidents, this study analyzed 106 effective, ineffective and extraordinary instructional design and multimedia production (MP) activities discussed by 36 instructional design professionals. This evaluation provided insights into these professionals' best and not so best practices during the past 6 months.…

  13. Using Critical Incidents of Instructional Design and Multimedia Production Activities to Investigate Instructional Designers' Current Practices and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.; Luterbach, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Through consideration of critical incidents, this study analyzed 106 effective, ineffective and extraordinary instructional design and multimedia production (MP) activities discussed by 36 instructional design professionals. This evaluation provided insights into these professionals' best and not so best practices during the past 6 months.…

  14. Configurable product design considering the transition of multi-hierarchical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bin; Qiu, Lemiao; Zhang, Shuyou; Tan, Jianrong; Cheng, Jin

    2013-03-01

    The current research of configurable product design mainly focuses on how to convert a predefined set of components into a valid set of product structures. With the scale and complexity of configurable products increasing, the interdependencies between customer demands and product structures grow up as well. The result is that existing product structures fails to satisfy the individual customer requirements and hence product variants are needed. This paper is aimed to build a bridge between customer demands and product structures in order to make demand-driven fast response design feasible. First of all, multi-hierarchical models of configurable product design are established with customer demand model, technical requirement model and product structure model. Then, the transition of multi-hierarchical models among customer demand model, technical requirement model and product structure model is solved with fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and the algorithm of multi-level matching. Finally, optimal structure according to the customer demands is obtained with the calculation of Euclidean distance and similarity of some cases. In practice, the configuration design of a clamping unit of injection molding machine successfully performs an optimal search strategy for the product variants with reasonable satisfaction to individual customer demands. The proposed method can automatically generate a configuration design with better alternatives for each product structures, and shorten the time of finding the configuration of a product.

  15. Reliability evaluation of nonlinear design space in pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Shingo; Onuki, Yoshinori; Takayama, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    Formulation design space of indomethacin tablets was investigated using a nonlinear response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation (RSM-S). In this study, a resampling method with replacement was applied to evaluate the reliability of border on the design space estimated by RSM-S. The quantities of lactose, cornstarch, and microcrystalline cellulose were chosen as the formulation factors. Response surfaces were estimated using RSM-S, and the nonlinear design space was defined under the restriction of more than 3 kgf hardness and more than 70% dissolution 30 min before and after an accelerated test. The accuracy of the resampling method was elucidated and high correlation coefficients were produced. However, the distribution of the border on the design space generated by the resampling method was far from normal, and the confidence interval of the border was estimated using a nonparametric percentile technique. Consequently, the reliability of the design space was decreased by approaching the edge of the experimental design. RSM-S and this resampling method might be useful for estimating the reliability of nonlinear design space.

  16. Clinical development and trial design of biosimilar products: a Japanese perspective.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Masayuki; Ando, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, development of biosimilar products has attracted considerable attention. Because of the structural complexity of biologics, it is difficult to demonstrate that a biosimilar product is identical to the reference product. Therefore, for the development of biosimilar products, we need to adopt an approach that is different from generic product development. In this article, we discuss the guidelines for the development of biosimilar products along with the case examples of biosimilar product development in Japan. In addition, we discuss several issues of clinical trial design for demonstrating biosimilarity to a reference product.

  17. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)

  18. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)

  19. Product design and apparent usability. The influence of novelty in product appearance.

    PubMed

    Mugge, Ruth; Schoormans, Jan P L

    2012-11-01

    This research enhances our understanding of the relationship between aesthetics and usability by investigating the effects of novelty in product appearance on the apparent usability of a product. In two experimental studies using washing machines and digital cameras as stimuli, we systematically manipulated the level of novelty (low vs. high) in the product appearance by changing the product's color or shape. Participants were presented with one of these product appearances and a list of the product's technical specifications. Next, participants indicated how difficult or easy they expected the usage of the product to be. Our findings demonstrate that because people associate a high level of novelty with technological advancement, novelty in a product appearance negatively affects their expectations of a product's usability at the point of sale. Furthermore, novices are more likely to use the level of novelty as a cue for a product's apparent usability than experts.

  20. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  1. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  2. 3 CFR - Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 19, 2010 Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense the Secretary of Homeland Security Pursuant...

  3. Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed biofuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Xiaoyu; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; ...

    2015-01-01

    Background: The fermentation inhibition of yeast or bacteria by lignocellulose-derived degradation products, during hexose/pentose co-fermentation, is a major bottleneck for cost-effective lignocellulosic biorefineries. To engineer microbial strains for improved performance, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of inhibition that affect fermentative organisms in the presence of major components of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate. The development of a synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate (SH) media with a composition similar to the actual biomass hydrolysate will be an important advancement to facilitate these studies. In this work, we characterized the nutrients and plant-derived decomposition products present in AFEX™ pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACH). Themore » SH was formulated based on the ACH composition and was further used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of various families of decomposition products during Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) fermentation. Results: The ACH contained high levels of nitrogenous compounds, notably amides, pyrazines, and imidazoles. In contrast, a relatively low content of furans and aromatic and aliphatic acids were found in the ACH. Though most of the families of decomposition products were inhibitory to xylose fermentation, due to their abundance, the nitrogenous compounds showed the most inhibition. From these compounds, amides (products of the ammonolysis reaction) contributed the most to the reduction of the fermentation performance. However, this result is associated to a concentration effect, as the corresponding carboxylic acids (products of hydrolysis) promoted greater inhibition when present at the same molar concentration as the amides. Due to its complexity, the formulated SH did not perfectly match the fermentation profile of the actual hydrolysate, especially the growth curve. However, the SH formulation was effective for studying the inhibitory effect of various compounds on yeast

  4. Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaoyu; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; Chundawat, Shishir; Chambliss, Charles; Lau, Ming W; Xiao, Zeyi; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The fermentation inhibition of yeast or bacteria by lignocellulose-derived degradation products, during hexose/pentose co-fermentation, is a major bottleneck for cost-effective lignocellulosic biorefineries. To engineer microbial strains for improved performance, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of inhibition that affect fermentative organisms in the presence of major components of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate. The development of a synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate (SH) media with a composition similar to the actual biomass hydrolysate will be an important advancement to facilitate these studies. In this work, we characterized the nutrients and plant-derived decomposition products present in AFEX™ pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACH). The SH was formulated based on the ACH composition and was further used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of various families of decomposition products during Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) fermentation. Results: The ACH contained high levels of nitrogenous compounds, notably amides, pyrazines, and imidazoles. In contrast, a relatively low content of furans and aromatic and aliphatic acids were found in the ACH. Though most of the families of decomposition products were inhibitory to xylose fermentation, due to their abundance, the nitrogenous compounds showed the most inhibition. From these compounds, amides (products of the ammonolysis reaction) contributed the most to the reduction of the fermentation performance. However, this result is associated to a concentration effect, as the corresponding carboxylic acids (products of hydrolysis) promoted greater inhibition when present at the same molar concentration as the amides. Due to its complexity, the formulated SH did not perfectly match the fermentation profile of the actual hydrolysate, especially the growth curve. However, the SH formulation was effective for studying the inhibitory effect of various compounds on yeast fermentation

  5. An ergonomic approach to design hand tool for agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Khidiya, Mahendra Singh; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh

    2012-01-01

    Hand tool mechanisms designed to reduce the risk factors have rarely been studied. In this paper it is analyze trowel firstly designing in CATIA and then its Finite Element Analysis has been carried out by ABAQUS. The main emphasis is on finding stresses by using this software, then removing them by suitable mechanical working on tool & ergonomic change in the design of handle to make it more comfortable. Body part discomfort score and overall discomfort rating experienced by the subjects had also been estimated. During the muscular activity workers physiological responses i.e. energy expenditure rate, oxygen consumption rate and heart rate increases. This increase in physiological responses is related to the type, intensity and duration of work and thus sets limits to the performance of heavy work. In this paper oxygen consumption rate and heart rate was used for physiological cost estimation. These parameters were measured by Computerized Ambulatory Metabolic Measurement System K4b2.

  6. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  7. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being.

  8. Electron Microscopy as a Valuable Tool for Designing Biobased Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efforts are being made worldwide, including USDA laboratories [1-2] to investigate new uses for agriculturally-derived and/or biobased materials as well as to improve and transform such materials to create products of novel functionalities. While the knowledge of biopolymers and material processing ...

  9. What Learners "Know" through Digital Media Production: Learning by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The power to influence others in ever expanding social networks in the new knowledge economy is tied to capabilities with digital media production that require increased technological knowledge. This article draws on research in primary classrooms to examine the repertoires of cross-disciplinary knowledge that literacy learners need to produce…

  10. What Learners "Know" through Digital Media Production: Learning by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The power to influence others in ever expanding social networks in the new knowledge economy is tied to capabilities with digital media production that require increased technological knowledge. This article draws on research in primary classrooms to examine the repertoires of cross-disciplinary knowledge that literacy learners need to produce…

  11. A mathematical formulation for interface-based modular product design with geometric and weight constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung-Woon Yoo, John

    2016-06-01

    Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.

  12. User productivity as a function of AutoCAD interface design.

    PubMed

    Mitta, D A; Flores, P L

    1995-12-01

    Increased operator productivity is a desired outcome of user-CAD interaction scenarios. Two objectives of this research were to (1) define a measure of operator productivity and (2) empirically investigate the potential effects of CAD interface design on operator productivity, where productivity is defined as the percentage of a drawing session correctly completed per unit time. Here, AutoCAD provides the CAD environment of interest. Productivity with respect to two AutoCAD interface designs (menu, template) and three task types (draw, dimension, display) was investigated. Analysis of user productivity data revealed significantly higher productivity under the menu interface condition than under the template interface condition. A significant effect of task type was also discovered, where user productivity under display tasks was higher than productivity under the draw and dimension tasks. Implications of these results are presented.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic design of the target/blanket for the accelerator production of tritium conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.; Kapernick, R.J.

    1997-11-01

    A conceptual design was developed for the target/blanket system of an accelerator-based system to produce tritium. The target/blanket system uses clad tungsten rods for a spallation target and clad lead rods as a neutron multiplier in a blanket surrounding the target. The neutrons produce tritium in {sup 3}He, which is contained in aluminum tubes located in the decoupler and blanket regions. This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic design of the target, decoupler, and blanket developed for the conceptual design of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, and demonstrates there is adequate margin in the design at full power operation.

  14. Learning to Ask Naive Questions with IT Product Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    What does it mean to use, or do, theory in the scholarship of teaching and learning? The article approaches the question by considering the role of design anthropology in developing studio-based engineering programmes. Central to my discussion within situated contexts of learning is the idea of practice-based exploration conceived as a way of…

  15. Learning to Ask Naive Questions with IT Product Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    What does it mean to use, or do, theory in the scholarship of teaching and learning? The article approaches the question by considering the role of design anthropology in developing studio-based engineering programmes. Central to my discussion within situated contexts of learning is the idea of practice-based exploration conceived as a way of…

  16. Design and performance of the KSC biomass production chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.P.; Knott, W.M.; Sager, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    An atmospherically sealed chamber has been constructed for the purpose of studying gas, liquid, and microbial contaminants produced by growing food crops. This chamber is designed to provide suitable biomass for evaluation of quality, yield, volume, and energy for different environments and nutrient delivery systems.

  17. Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kimberly; Oehlberg, Lora; Agogino, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain…

  18. Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kimberly; Oehlberg, Lora; Agogino, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain…

  19. Dual-well recovery system design for enhanced DNAPL production

    SciTech Connect

    Nazar, A.; Gray, D.; Oolman, T.

    1997-12-31

    An innovative recovery well system was designed and installed for the enhanced recovery of dense non-aqueous phase liquid, DNAPL (creosote) at an active wood treating facility which had historic releases of wood treating chemicals to soils and groundwater. The regulatory objective of the work, which is being conducted pursuant to a State RCRA Post-Closure Permit, is to implement interim measures for enhanced DNAPL recovery in the vicinity of the downgradient point of compliance (POC) of a 2-acre RCRA Regulated Unit. The RCRA-Regulated Unit consists of two closed former surface impoundments formerly used for wastewater treatment. The facility is underlain by coarsening downward sand and gravel deposits ranging in thickness from about 75 to 90 feet below ground surface (ft-bgs). DNAPL is present in both residual and mobile phases throughout the saturated zone from a depth of approximately 25 to 90 ft-bgs. The DNAPL has also accumulated on the top of a confining clay layer which underlies the alluvial sand and gravel deposits. Due to the physical nature of the subsurface materials and the presence of DNAPL, innovative recovery well installation and design practices were required to provide for the ability to enhance DNAPL recovery. The technology consists of a dual-well recirculating design contained within a singular, large diameter borehole. The design incorporated innovative practices in drilling and installation, screen slot sizing, and well construction, featuring a dual-well design. Conventional mud rotary drilling techniques were utilized with innovative equipment modifications and the use of a natural organic polymer drilling fluid additive to enhance overall recovery well efficiency and performance.

  20. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2014-01-01

    Background: During recent years, there have been many advances in different types of pharmacological and non-pharmacological tobacco control treatments. In this study, we aimed to identify the most effective smoking cessation methods used in quit based upon a review of the literature. Methods: We did a search of PubMed, limited to English publications from 2000 to 2012. Two trained reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts and full texts of articles after a pilot inter-rater reliability assessment which was conducted by the author (GH). The total number of papers and their conclusions including recommendation of that method (positive) or not supporting (negative) was computed for each method. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones for each method. In cases of inconsistency between the two reviewers, these were adjudicated by author. Results: Of the 932 articles that were critically assessed, 780 studies supported quit smoking methods. In 90 studies, the methods were not supported or rejected and in 62 cases the methods were not supported. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), Champix and Zyban with 352, 117 and 71 studies respectively were the most supported methods and e-cigarettes and non-Nicotine medications with one case were the least supported methods. Finally, NRT with 39 and Champix and education with 36 scores were the most supported methods. Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation. PMID:25013685

  1. The readings of smoking fathers: a reception analysis of tobacco cessation images.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joy L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Bottorff, Joan L; LeBeau, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how new fathers decode image-based anti-smoking messages and uncover the extent to which ideals of masculinity might influence men to take up and/or disregard smoking cessation messages. The authors analyzed 5 images that had been used to promote smoking cessation and arrived at a consensus about the dominant discourse encoded by each image. During face-to-face interviews, new fathers were invited to discuss the images; these interview data were coded and analyzed using a social constructionist gender analysis. The study findings highlight how most men negotiated or opposed dominant discourses of health that communicated the dangers of smoking by reproducing dominant ideals of masculinity, including explicit disregard for self-health. They accepted dominant social discourses of fathering that reproduced traditional notions of masculinity, such as the protector and provider. The authors conclude that tobacco interventions targeted to new fathers must (a) develop more awareness of the ability of audiences to select discourses that empower their own interpretive positioning with regard to media, and (b) deconstruct and engage with context and age-specific masculine ideals to avoid providing rationales for continued tobacco use.

  2. Implementation of Tobacco Cessation Quitline Practices in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bonito, Joseph A.; Provan, Keith; Ruppel, Erin; Leischow, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships between implementation of tobacco quitline practices, levels of evidence of practices, and quitline reach and spending. Methods. In June and July 2009, a total of 176 quitline funders and providers in the United States and Canada completed a survey on quitline practices, in particular quitline-level implementation for the reported practices. From these data, we selected and categorized evidence-based and emerging quitline practices by the strength of the evidence for each practice to increase quitline efficacy and reach. Results. The proportion of quitlines implementing each practice ranged from 3% (text messaging) to 92% (providing a multiple-call protocol). Implementation of practices showing higher levels of evidence for increasing either reach or efficacy showed moderate but significant positive correlations with both reach outcomes and spending levels. The strongest correlation was between reach outcomes and spending levels (r = 0.80; P < .01). Conclusions. The strong relationship between quitline spending and reach reinforces the need to increase quitline funding to levels commensurate with national cessation goals. PMID:25122024

  3. Tobacco Cessation Training in Clinical Psychology and Clinical Social Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfelder, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tobacco and smoking cessation training and curriculum in graduate clinical psychology and graduate clinical social work programs. The current status of the clinical graduate programs' tobacco education curricula was evaluated by using the Transtheoretical Model's Stages of Change. Perceived barriers to…

  4. Tobacco Cessation Training in Clinical Psychology and Clinical Social Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfelder, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tobacco and smoking cessation training and curriculum in graduate clinical psychology and graduate clinical social work programs. The current status of the clinical graduate programs' tobacco education curricula was evaluated by using the Transtheoretical Model's Stages of Change. Perceived barriers to…

  5. Tobacco Cessation Among Low-Income Smokers: Motivational Enhancement and Nicotine Patch Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite decades of tobacco use decline among the general population in the United States, tobacco use among low-income populations continues to be a major public health concern. Smoking rates are higher among individuals with less than a high school education, those with no health insurance, and among individuals living below the federal poverty level. Despite these disparities, smoking cessation treatments for low-income populations have not been extensively tested. In the current study, the efficacy of 2 adjunctive smoking cessation interventions was evaluated among low-income smokers who were seen in a primary care setting. Methods: A total of 846 participants were randomly assigned either to motivational enhancement treatment plus brief physician advice and 8 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or to standard care, which consisted of brief physician advice and 8 weeks of NRT. Tobacco smoking abstinence was at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months following baseline. Results: The use of the nicotine patch, telephone counseling, and positive decisional balance were predictive of increased abstinence rates, and elevated stress levels and temptation to smoke in both social/habit and negative affect situations decreased abstinence rates across time. Analyses showed intervention effects on smoking temptations, length of patch use, and number of telephone contacts. Direct intervention effects on abstinence rates were not significant, after adjusting for model predictors and selection bias due to perirandomization attrition. Conclusions: Integrating therapeutic approaches that promote use of and adherence to medications for quitting smoking and that target stress management and reducing negative affect may enhance smoking cessation among low-income smokers. PMID:24174612

  6. Comparing an Immediate Cessation Versus Reduction Approach to Smokeless Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Katherine R.; Luo, Xianghua; Anderson, Amanda J.; Jensen, Joni A.; Allen, Sharon S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Relatively few studies have investigated pharmacological or behavioral treatment of smokeless tobacco (ST) users who do not have immediate quit plans. In this study, we compared a reduction treatment approach with an immediate cessation approach in a population of ST users who reported no immediate plans to quit. Methods: Subjects randomly assigned to the immediate cessation condition set a quit date soon after enrollment and were offered 2 weeks of nicotine patch therapy to help in their cessation efforts. Subjects assigned to the ST reduction group were provided with their choice of either 4 mg nicotine lozenge or ST brand switching to help them reduce their ST use or levels of nicotine exposure, respectively. Quit date was 6 weeks after the onset of treatment. Follow-up was at 12 weeks and 26 weeks postenrollment and 26 weeks postquit. Results: Both 7-day point prevalence abstinence and prolonged abstinence rates following the quit date were significantly higher in the immediate cessation group versus the reduction group at 12 and 26 weeks (all p values ≤ .04) and for prolonged abstinence at 6 months postquit (p = .002). Significant reductions in ST use among nonquitters were observed for both groups (p < .0001) with no differences between groups. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that immediate cessation with an established quit date resulted in greater cessation success than a gradual reduction approach among ST users who do not have an immediate quit plan but are motivated to quit. PMID:22218402

  7. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  8. Successful implementation of a wellness and tobacco cessation curriculum in psychosocial rehabilitation clubhouses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco remains a seemingly intractable problem for individuals living with severe and persistent mental illness. This study evaluated the implementation, technical assistance, and perceived impact of a model curriculum ("Learning About Healthy Living") to promote wellness and motivation to quit tobacco use in psychosocial rehabilitation clubhouses. Methods We used semi-structured interviews (n = 9) with clubhouse staff (n = 12) and a survey of participating clubhouse members (n = 271) in nine clubhouses. Results Fifty-eight percent of clubhouse participants completed surveys. Results showed tobacco users open to tobacco-free policies (62%) and perceiving more discussions about quitting tobacco with healthcare providers (69%). Analyses of staff interviews and member surveys revealed four key themes: (1) the curriculum was successfully implemented and appreciated; (2) technical assistance kept implementation on track; (3) adding wellness content and interactive components should enhance the curriculum; and, (4) the curriculum advanced other healthful policies and practices. Conclusions Mental health settings are important locations for implementing programs to address tobacco use. In this real-world implementation of a model curriculum in psychosocial rehabilitation clubhouses, the curriculum tested well, was feasible and well-received, and suggests potential impact on tobacco use outcomes. Revision, dissemination, and a randomized controlled trial evaluation of the model curriculum should now occur. PMID:21917179

  9. Medicaid Tobacco Cessation: Big Gaps Remain In Efforts To Get Smokers To Quit.

    PubMed

    Ku, Leighton; Bruen, Brian K; Steinmetz, Erika; Bysshe, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Medicaid enrollees are about twice as likely as the general US population to smoke tobacco: 32 percent of people in the program identify themselves as smokers. This article provides the first data about the effectiveness of state Medicaid programs in promoting smoking cessation. Our analysis of Medicaid enrollees' use of cessation medications found that about 10 percent of current smokers received cessation medications in 2013. Every state Medicaid program covers cessation benefits, but the use of these medications varies widely, with the rate in Minnesota being thirty times higher than that in Texas. Most states could increase their efforts to help smokers quit, working with public health agencies, managed care plans, and others. In 2013 Medicaid spent $103 million on cessation medications-less than 0.25 percent of the estimated cost to Medicaid of smoking-related diseases. Additionally, states that have not expanded Medicaid eligibility in the wake of the Affordable Care Act have higher smoking prevalence and lower utilization rates of cessation medication, compared to expansion states. Given these factors, nonexpansion states will have a greater public health burden related to smoking. Medicaid and public health agencies should work together to make smoking cessation a priority for Medicaid beneficiaries. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Medicaid Tobacco Cessation: Big Gaps Remain In Efforts To Get Smokers To Quit

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Leighton; Bruen, Brian K.; Steinmetz, Erika; Bysshe, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Medicaid enrollees are about twice as likely as the general US population to smoke tobacco: 32 percent of people in the program identify themselves as smokers. This article provides the first data about the effectiveness of state Medicaid programs in promoting smoking cessation. Our analysis of Medicaid enrollees’ use of cessation medications found that about 10 percent of current smokers received cessation medications in 2013. Every state Medicaid program covers cessation benefits, but the use of these medications varies widely, with the rate in Minnesota being thirty times higher than that in Texas. Most states could increase their efforts to help smokers quit, working with public health agencies, managed care plans, and others. In 2013 Medicaid spent $103 million on cessation medications—less than 0.25 percent of the estimated cost to Medicaid of smoking-related diseases. Additionally, states that have not expanded Medicaid eligibility in the wake of the Affordable Care Act have higher smoking prevalence and lower utilization rates of cessation medication, compared to expansion states. Given these factors, nonexpansion states will have a greater public health burden related to smoking. Medicaid and public health agencies should work together to make smoking cessation a priority for Medicaid beneficiaries. PMID:26733702

  11. Obesity and Tobacco Cessation Toolkits: Practical Tips and Tools to Save Lives.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Susan D; Gregg, Laurie C; DeFrancesco, Mark S

    2016-12-01

    Both obesity and smoking are public health burdens that together contribute to approximately one third of the deaths annually in the United States. In 2015, under the direction of Dr. Mark DeFrancesco, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened two workgroups with the purpose of creating toolkits that bring together information that the obstetrician-gynecologist can use to address these preventable health problems. An Obesity Prevention and Treatment Workgroup and a Tobacco and Nicotine Cessation Workgroup developed toolkits on Obesity Prevention and Treatment (www.acog.org/ObesityToolkit)andTobaccoandNicotineCessation(www.acog.org/TobaccoToolkit). The toolkits contain specific talking points, counseling methods, and algorithms to address these health concerns in a supportive, efficient, and effective manner. By including these methods in practice, clinicians can help prevent the tragedy of early deaths caused by obesity, tobacco, and nicotine use.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Integrating Tobacco Cessation Into Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Paul G; Jeffers, Abra; Smith, Mark W; Chow, Bruce K; McFall, Miles; Saxon, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    We examined the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation integrated with treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Smoking veterans receiving care for PTSD (N = 943) were randomized to care integrated with smoking cessation versus referral to a smoking cessation clinic. Smoking cessation services, health care cost and utilization, quality of life, and biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes were assessed over 18-months of follow-up. Clinical outcomes were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and quality of life in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon. We discounted cost and outcomes at 3% per year and report costs in 2010 US dollars. The mean of smoking cessation services cost was $1286 in those randomized to integrated care and $551 in those receiving standard care (P < .001). There were no significant differences in the cost of mental health services or other care. After 12 months, prolonged biochemically verified abstinence was observed in 8.9% of those randomized to integrated care and 4.5% of those randomized to standard care (P = .004). The model projected that Integrated Care added $836 in lifetime cost and generated 0.0259 quality adjusted life years (QALYs), an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $32 257 per QALY. It was 86.0% likely to be cost-effective compared to a threshold of $100 000/QALY. Smoking cessation integrated with treatment for PTSD was cost-effective, within a broad confidence region, but less cost-effective than most other smoking cessation programs reported in the literature. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Share2Quit: Online Social Network Peer Marketing of Tobacco Cessation Systems.

    PubMed

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Cutrona, Sarah L; Luger, Tana M; Volz, Erik; Kinney, Rebecca; Rao, Sowmya R; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2017-03-01

    Although technology-assisted tobacco interventions (TATIs) are effective, they are underused due to recruitment challenges. We tested whether we could successfully recruit smokers to a TATI using peer marketing through a social network (Facebook). We recruited smokers on Facebook using online advertisements. These recruited smokers (seeds) and subsequent waves of smokers (peer recruits) were provided the Share2Quit peer recruitment Facebook app and other tools. Smokers were incentivized for up to seven successful peer recruitments and had 30 days to recruit from date of registration. Successful peer recruitment was defined as a peer recruited smoker completing the registration on the TATI following a referral. Our primary questions were (1) whether smokers would recruit other smokers and (2) whether peer recruitment would extend the reach of the intervention to harder-to-reach groups, including those not ready to quit and minority smokers. Overall, 759 smokers were recruited (seeds: 190; peer recruits: 569). Fifteen percent (n = 117) of smokers successfully recruited their peers (seeds: 24.7%; peer recruits: 7.7%) leading to four recruitment waves. Compared to seeds, peer recruits were less likely to be ready to quit (peer recruits 74.2% vs. seeds 95.1%), more likely to be male (67.1% vs. 32.9%), and more likely to be African American (23.8% vs. 10.8%) (p < .01 for all comparisons). Peer marketing quadrupled our engaged smokers and enriched the sample with not-ready-to-quit and African American smokers. Peer recruitment is promising, and our study uncovered several important challenges for future research. This study demonstrates the successful recruitment of smokers to a TATI using a Facebook-based peer marketing strategy. Smokers on Facebook were willing and able to recruit other smokers to a TATI, yielding a large and diverse population of smokers.

  14. Comparing an immediate cessation versus reduction approach to smokeless tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Katherine R; Luo, Xianghua; Anderson, Amanda J; Jensen, Joni A; Allen, Sharon S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2012-08-01

    Relatively few studies have investigated pharmacological or behavioral treatment of smokeless tobacco (ST) users who do not have immediate quit plans. In this study, we compared a reduction treatment approach with an immediate cessation approach in a population of ST users who reported no immediate plans to quit. Subjects randomly assigned to the immediate cessation condition set a quit date soon after enrollment and were offered 2 weeks of nicotine patch therapy to help in their cessation efforts. Subjects assigned to the ST reduction group were provided with their choice of either 4 mg nicotine lozenge or ST brand switching to help them reduce their ST use or levels of nicotine exposure, respectively. Quit date was 6 weeks after the onset of treatment. Follow-up was at 12 weeks and 26 weeks postenrollment and 26 weeks postquit. Both 7-day point prevalence abstinence and prolonged abstinence rates following the quit date were significantly higher in the immediate cessation group versus the reduction group at 12 and 26 weeks (all p values ≤ .04) and for prolonged abstinence at 6 months postquit (p = .002). Significant reductions in ST use among nonquitters were observed for both groups (p < .0001) with no differences between groups. Our study demonstrated that immediate cessation with an established quit date resulted in greater cessation success than a gradual reduction approach among ST users who do not have an immediate quit plan but are motivated to quit.

  15. Interface design and contemporary: human creating new guidelines for high-tech products.

    PubMed

    Pagnan, Andreia Salvan; Ribeiro, Giovana Freitas Rabelo; Gonçalves, Maria Goretti Souza; Câmara, Jairo José Drummond; Baptista, Sandra Motta

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary electronic industry offers a wide range of products. Usually touch sensitive and with few buttons and a lot of functions these products not always have a friendly interface. The human x design interface based on electronics' ergonomics is the focus of this research. An evolutionary analysis of the electronics industry design within a contemporary context clarifies this relation and proposes new guidelines for a more conscious design.

  16. 75 FR 32087 - Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of May 19, 2010 Designating the Chairperson of the Defense Production Act... authority vested in me by section 722(b)(2) of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (section 11 of... Security and the Secretary of Defense as rotating Chairpersons of the Defense Production Act Committee...

  17. The Study to the Theory of Human-Machine-Integration in Product Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Zhou, Renhe

    2017-09-01

    The paper puts forward a design concept named Human-Machine-Integration which refers to the shape of the product designed according to the location and contact type when the product is used. It considers the double properties of function and aesthetics to product and makes the designer combine the formal principle with Human-Machine Engineering theory together to mould the product shape conforming to the easy-to-user principle with the consideration of form beauty at the same time. It regards the man - machine – environment as a whole body and has practical significance to the system design of the product. When a product is designed according to Human-Machine-Integration theory, contact parts form and contact area and the harmonious relationship between forms of contact parts and overall product should be considered. And the Convex-concave match of product part and body part should be complement with each other and tolerant match of product part is contacted with the human body part. At the same time, the purpose of form should be fully considered. Correspondence, Integrity, Systematicness and Independence are four characteristics of Human-Machine-Integration design.

  18. Computer integration of engineering design and production: A national opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as a purchaser of a variety of manufactured products, including complex space vehicles and systems, clearly has a stake in the advantages of computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Two major NASA objectives are to launch a Manned Space Station by 1992 with a budget of $8 billion, and to be a leader in the development and application of productivity-enhancing technology. At the request of NASA, a National Research Council committee visited five companies that have been leaders in using CIM. Based on these case studies, technical, organizational, and financial issues that influence computer integration are described, guidelines for its implementation in industry are offered, and the use of CIM to manage the space station program is recommended.

  19. Interactive Videodisc Design and Production, Workshop Guide. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    shop, instructors, and instructional developers . These can be allocated to a videodisc production, and their salaries, equipment, facilities, benefits ... developing similar programs. The W1orkshop Guide you are now using will be a great benefit , but it is important to gain some hands-on experience to...Interactive Videodisc Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Module 1: Analysis and Project Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Analyze Needs, Goals

  20. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 4: Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implementation plan which is presented was developed to provide the means for the successful implementation of the automated production control system. There are three factors which the implementation plan encompasses: detailed planning; phased implementation; and user involvement. The plan is detailed to the task level in terms of necessary activities as the system is developed, refined, installed, and tested. These tasks are scheduled, on a preliminary basis, over a two-and-one-half-year time frame.

  1. [Medical product designing model for the "BOP" in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xie-hui; Yan, Zhuang-zhi; Shi, Jun; Wanigasekara, N R

    2006-01-01

    China has a large population under the average economy. This group of people is often referred to those at the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP). In order to meet their special medical needs, this paper is to discuss a topic on how to create medical products for the "BOP" in China, especially under sustainable developments based on the investigation and analysis in Shanghai. Also, a new possible development model including the government's support, knowledge exchange and communication is introduced.

  2. Design and Technology Productions among Middle School Students: An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunyakari, Ritesh; Mehrotra, Swati; Chunawala, Sugra; Natarajan, Chitra

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is students' design productions as they engaged in designing and making a windmill model to lift a given weight. This work is part of a project on the development of design and technology (D&T) education units and its trials among Indian middle school students (Grade 6, age 11-14 years) in different socio-cultural…

  3. Third generation design solar cell module LSA task 5, large scale production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A total of twelve (12) preproduction modules were constructed, tested, and delivered. A concept to the frame assembly was designed and proven to be quite reliable. This frame design, as well as the rest of the assembly, was designed with future high volume production and the use of automated equipment in mind.

  4. Design and Technology Productions among Middle School Students: An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunyakari, Ritesh; Mehrotra, Swati; Chunawala, Sugra; Natarajan, Chitra

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is students' design productions as they engaged in designing and making a windmill model to lift a given weight. This work is part of a project on the development of design and technology (D&T) education units and its trials among Indian middle school students (Grade 6, age 11-14 years) in different socio-cultural…

  5. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    PubMed

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  6. Design, production and testing of PMN-PT electrostrictive transducers.

    PubMed

    Coutte, J; Dubus, B; Debus, J C; Granger, C; Jones, D

    2002-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate ceramics (PMN) are promising materials for application in the field of high power transducers. The advantage of PMN materials are the large strains generated under moderate electric field and the low hysteresis. The electrostrictive effect is non-linear, the corresponding physical constants depend on temperature and frequency and a DC electrical bias is required. These difficulties must be considered at the design stage. A finite element model has been developed and validated in the ATILA code for non-linear static and time-domain analyses. These numerical modelings are used to design and test two Langevin-type electrostrictive transducers. The first transducer is made of PMN-PT-La (90-10-1%) ceramics (TRS Ceramics), the second one of ESCI ceramics (Morgan Matroc). For given static mechanical prestresses, resonance frequencies and effective coupling coefficients are measured at different DC electric fields and temperatures.

  7. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O.; Lanik, P.

    1997-09-18

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding.

  8. Design and Industrial Production of Frequency Standards in the USSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    optical pump source design with a cylindrical gas - discharge tube , located in an evacuated bulb (Fig. 13 ). Table 1. Bulb number 10 6 11 6 flexi...that the basic aging process of the gas -" discharge tube can be explained by surface conductance, caused by the influence of HF discharge plasrria on...lifetime of the gas - discharge tube . To decrcase the influencs of these factors, the rubidium f= 1420405751 117, , , , .7682 zk 0.0014 , , , .77 f

  9. Usability in product design--the importance and need for systematic assessment models in product development--Usa-Design Model (U-D) ©.

    PubMed

    Merino, Giselle Schmidt Alves Díaz; Teixeira, Clarissa Stefani; Schoenardie, Rodrigo Petry; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Diáz; Gontijo, Leila Amaral

    2012-01-01

    In product design, human factors are considered as an element of differentiation given that today's consumer demands are increasing. Safety, wellbeing, satisfaction, health, effectiveness, efficiency, and other aspects must be effectively incorporated into the product development process. This work proposes a usability assessment model that can be incorporated as an assessment tool. The methodological approach is settled in two stages. First a literature review focus specifically on usability and developing user-centred products. After this, a model of usability named Usa-Design (U-D©) is presented. Consisted of four phases: understanding the use context, pre-preliminary usability assessment (efficiency/effectiveness/satisfaction); assessment of usability principles and results, U-D© features are modular and flexible, allowing principles used in Phase 3 to be changed according to the needs and scenario of each situation. With qualitative/quantitative measurement scales of easy understanding and application, the model results are viable and applicable throughout all the product development process.

  10. Design of policy mechanism to promote cleaner production in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T Z

    2001-07-01

    In order to promote cleaner production in China, a package of policy options was presented based on the identification of the barriers encountered in the CP demonstration project and the effectiveness and feasibility of policy options for the CP implementation were analyzed. Furthermore, the policy mechanism framework was given, which composes of compulsory, economic incentive, social pressure and supportive function. Finally, the implementation strategy of the policy mechanism, in which the emphasis will be changed from compulsory policy options towards economic and social pressure policy options, was proposed.

  11. Using satellite data in map design and production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite image maps have been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since shortly after the launch of the first Landsat satellite in 1972. Over the years, the use of image data to design and produce maps has developed from a manual and photographic process to one that incorporates geographic information systems, desktop publishing, and digital prepress techniques. At the same time, the content of most image-based maps produced by the USGS has shifted from raw image data to land cover or other information layers derived from satellite imagery, often portrayed in combination with shaded relief.

  12. Designing inorganic light-protective skin nanotechnology products.

    PubMed

    Popov, Alexey P; Zvyagin, Andrei V; Lademann, Juergen; Roberts, Michael S; Sanchez, Washington; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Myllylä, Risto

    2010-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the use of inorganic nanoparticles, mainly zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), for sunscreen applications considering their intrinsic physical properties and the Mie theory. These properties cause, from one side, attenuation of the ultraviolet light by absorption and scattering (dependent on a particle size), which is the purpose sunscreens are designed for, and formation of free radicals (i.e., phototoxicity) during this process--from the other. Particle penetration into skin is also an important issue addressed in this review due to possible adverse effects associated with interaction between nanoparticles and skin living cells.

  13. Design of agricultural product quality safety retrospective supervision system of Jiangsu province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    In store and supermarkets to consumers can trace back agricultural products through the electronic province card to query their origin, planting, processing, packaging, testing and other important information and found that the problems. Quality and safety issues can identify the responsibility of the problem. This paper designs a retroactive supervision system for the quality and safety of agricultural products in Jiangsu Province. Based on the analysis of agricultural production and business process, the goal of Jiangsu agricultural product quality safety traceability system construction is established, and the specific functional requirements and non-functioning requirements of the retroactive system are analyzed, and the target is specified for the specific construction of the retroactive system. The design of the quality and safety traceability system in Jiangsu province contains the design of the overall design, the trace code design and the system function module.

  14. Needs of ergonomic design at control units in production industries.

    PubMed

    Levchuk, I; Schäfer, A; Lang, K-H; Gebhardt, Hj; Klussmann, A

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, an increasing use of innovative technologies in manufacturing areas was monitored. A huge amount of physical workload was replaced by the change from conventional machine tools to computer-controlled units. CNC systems spread in current production processes. Because of this, machine operators today mostly have an observational function. This caused increasing of static work (e.g., standing, sitting) and cognitive demands (e.g., process observation). Machine operators have a high responsibility, because mistakes may lead to human injuries as well as to product losses - and in consequence may lead to high monetary losses (for the company) as well. Being usable often means for a CNC machine being efficient. An intuitive usability and an ergonomic organization of CNC workplaces can be an essential basis to reduce the risk of failures in operation as well as physical complaints (e.g. pain or diseases because of bad body posture during work). In contrast to conventional machines, CNC machines are equipped both with hardware and software. An intuitive and clear-sighted operating of CNC systems is a requirement for quick learning of new systems. Within this study, a survey was carried out among trainees learning the operation of CNC machines.

  15. A systematic procedure for modeling usability based on product design variables: a case study in audiovisual consumer electronic products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Jae; Han, Sung H; Yun, Myung Hwan; Kwahk, Jiyoung

    2002-01-01

    A systematic modeling approach to describing, prescribing, and predicting usability of a product has been presented. Given the evaluation results of the usability dimension (UD) and the measurement of the product's design variables, referred to as the human interface elements (HIEs), the approach enables one to systematically assess the relationship between the UD and HIEs. The assessed relationship is called a usability model. Once built, such a usability model can relate, in a quantitative manner, the HIEs directly to the UDs, and thus can serve as an effective aid to designers by evaluating and predicting the usability of an existing or hypothetical product. A usability model for elegance of audiovisual consumer electronic products has been demonstrated.

  16. Design Strategies for Redox Active Metalloenzymes: Applications in Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Alcala-Torano, R; Sommer, D J; Bahrami Dizicheh, Z; Ghirlanda, G

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen an increased interest in finding alternative means to produce renewable fuels in order to satisfy the growing energy demands and to minimize environmental impact. Nature can serve as an inspiration for development of these methodologies, as enzymes are able to carry out a wide variety of redox processes at high efficiency, employing a wide array of earth-abundant transition metals to do so. While it is well recognized that the protein environment plays an important role in tuning the properties of the different metal centers, the structure/function relationships between amino acids and catalytic centers are not well resolved. One specific approach to study the role of proteins in both electron and proton transfer is the biomimetic design of redox active peptides, binding organometallic clusters in well-understood protein environments. Here we discuss different strategies for the design of peptides incorporating redox active FeS clusters, [FeFe]-hydrogenase organometallic mimics, and porphyrin centers into different peptide and protein environments in order to understand natural redox enzymes.

  17. Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

  18. Production flow analysis: a tool for designing a lean hospital.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Sauli; Korvenranta, Heikki; Paatela, Mikael; Seppälä, Timo

    2007-01-01

    Production flow analysis (PFA) was used in the planning process for a new acute care hospital. The PFA demonstrated that functional organisation--for example, with centralised medical imaging-- generates a lot of back and forth patient transfers between functional units. This to-and-fro patient flow increases lead times of care processes and also exposes the patients to unnecessary complications. PFA produced an ideal patient flow model and layout model for the acute care hospital. Thus, PFA revealed information for use in proximity ranking of different units of the hospital; the planning team then decided which units should be placed next to each other. Medical imaging should be essentially ubiquitous, to achieve simple, high-velocity patient flow. Thus, a modern decentralized layout model for medical imaging was planned. Furthermore, PFA enables optimizing transfer routes for patients and also, e.g., lift capacity in the hospital.

  19. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat, phase 1 design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final product of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.

  20. Recent developments in virtual experience design and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1995-03-01

    Today, the media of VR and Telepresence are in their infancy and the emphasis is still on technology and engineering. But, it is not the hardware people might use that will determine whether VR becomes a powerful medium--instead, it will be the experiences that they are able to have that will drive its acceptance and impact. A critical challenge in the elaboration of these telepresence capabilities will be the development of environments that are as unpredictable and rich in interconnected processes as an actual location or experience. This paper will describe the recent development of several Virtual Experiences including: `Menagerie', an immersive Virtual Environment inhabited by virtual characters designed to respond to and interact with its users; and `The Virtual Brewery', an immersive public VR installation that provides multiple levels of interaction in an artistic interpretation of the brewing process.