Science.gov

Sample records for design window search

  1. Design a Window.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasprzak, Edward M.

    2002-01-01

    Guides students through the process of designing a window. Allows them to use technology and a variety of representations while maximizing and minimizing the dimensions based on cost and light. Includes activity sheets. (Author/NB)

  2. Single-agent parallel window search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powley, Curt; Korf, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel window search is applied to single-agent problems by having different processes simultaneously perform iterations of Iterative-Deepening-A(asterisk) (IDA-asterisk) on the same problem but with different cost thresholds. This approach is limited by the time to perform the goal iteration. To overcome this disadvantage, the authors consider node ordering. They discuss how global node ordering by minimum h among nodes with equal f = g + h values can reduce the time complexity of serial IDA-asterisk by reducing the time to perform the iterations prior to the goal iteration. Finally, the two ideas of parallel window search and node ordering are combined to eliminate the weaknesses of each approach while retaining the strengths. The resulting approach, called simply parallel window search, can be used to find a near-optimal solution quickly, improve the solution until it is optimal, and then finally guarantee optimality, depending on the amount of time available.

  3. Single-agent parallel window search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powley, Curt; Korf, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel window search is applied to single-agent problems by having different processes simultaneously perform iterations of Iterative-Deepening-A(asterisk) (IDA-asterisk) on the same problem but with different cost thresholds. This approach is limited by the time to perform the goal iteration. To overcome this disadvantage, the authors consider node ordering. They discuss how global node ordering by minimum h among nodes with equal f = g + h values can reduce the time complexity of serial IDA-asterisk by reducing the time to perform the iterations prior to the goal iteration. Finally, the two ideas of parallel window search and node ordering are combined to eliminate the weaknesses of each approach while retaining the strengths. The resulting approach, called simply parallel window search, can be used to find a near-optimal solution quickly, improve the solution until it is optimal, and then finally guarantee optimality, depending on the amount of time available.

  4. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  5. High-Temperature Optical Window Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeloffs, Norman; Taranto, Nick

    1995-01-01

    A high-temperature optical window is essential to the optical diagnostics of high-temperature combustion rigs. Laser Doppler velocimetry, schlieren photography, light sheet visualization, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy are a few of the tests that require optically clear access to the combustor flow stream. A design was developed for a high-temperature window that could withstand the severe environment of the NASA Lewis 3200 F Lean Premixed Prevaporized (LPP) Flame Tube Test Rig. The development of this design was both time consuming and costly. This report documents the design process and the lessons learned, in an effort to reduce the cost of developing future designs for high-temperature optical windows.

  6. Error-Based Design Space Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papila, Melih; Papila, Nilay U.; Shyy, Wei; Haftka, Raphael T.; Fitz-Coy, Norman

    2002-01-01

    Windowing of design space is considered in order to reduce the bias errors due to low-order polynomial response surfaces (RS). Standard design space windowing (DSW) uses a region of interest by setting a requirement on response level and checks it by a global RS predictions over the design space. This approach, however, is vulnerable since RS modeling errors may lead to the wrong region to zoom on. The approach is modified by introducing an eigenvalue error measure based on point-to-point mean squared error criterion. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the benefit of the error-based DSW.

  7. Design of viewing windows for controlled-atmosphere chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    A guide to the design of safe viewing windows is presented. Design criteria, the properties of materials, the problems of structural design in unreliable materials such as glass, the mathematics of reliability and redundance, and problems associated with testing windows are discussed, and formulas are presented for the design of windows. Criteria adopted at ORNL for controlled-atmosphere chambers are presented, a program for surveying and upgrading the safety of existing facilities is described, and the results of this program are reported.

  8. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  9. Transforming the market for residential windows: design considerations for DOE's Efficient Window Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1998-08-01

    Market adoption of recent, commercially available technological advances that improve the energy performance of windows will lead to immediate economic and energy savings benefits to the nation. This paper is a scoping study intended to inform the design of a major DOE initiative to accelerate market adoption of these windows in the residential sector. We describe the structure of the US residential window market and the interests of the various market players. We then briefly review five recent market transformation initiatives. Finally, we summarize our findings in a list of considerations we believe will be important for the DOE's initiative to transform the US residential window market.

  10. Optimisation of sampling windows design for population pharmacokinetic experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes an approach for optimising sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments. Sampling windows designs are more practical in late phase drug development where patients are enrolled in many centres and in out-patient clinic settings. Collection of samples under the uncontrolled environment at these centres at fixed times may be problematic and can result in uninformative data. Population pharmacokinetic sampling windows design provides an opportunity to control when samples are collected by allowing some flexibility and yet provide satisfactory parameter estimation. This approach uses information obtained from previous experiments about the model and parameter estimates to optimise sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments within a space of admissible sampling windows sequences. The optimisation is based on a continuous design and in addition to sampling windows the structure of the population design in terms of the proportion of subjects in elementary designs, number of elementary designs in the population design and number of sampling windows per elementary design is also optimised. The results obtained showed that optimal sampling windows designs obtained using this approach are very efficient for estimating population PK parameters and provide greater flexibility in terms of when samples are collected. The results obtained also showed that the generalized equivalence theorem holds for this approach.

  11. BEAM DUMP WINDOW DESIGN FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    RAPARIA,D.RANK,J.MURDOCH,G.ET AL.

    2004-03-10

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator systems will provide a 1 GeV, 1.44 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. Beam tuning dumps are provided at the end of the linac (the Linac Dump) and in the Ring-to-Target transport line (the Extraction Dump) [1]. Thin windows are required to separate the accelerator vacuum from the poor vacuum upstream of the beam dump. There are several challenging engineering issues that have been addressed in the window design. Namely, handling of the high local power density deposited by the stripped electrons from the H-beam accelerated in the linac, and the need for low-exposure removal and replacement of an activated window. The thermal design of the linac dump window is presented, as is the design of a vacuum clamp and mechanism that allows remote removal and replacement of the window.

  12. Windows.

    PubMed

    Tonneau, François

    2005-05-31

    Some models of performance assume that behavior depends on environmental quantities (for example, rates of reinforcement) that are defined over intervals of fixed duration. Although such window models may serve as useful approximations, they are incompatible with well-known properties of behavior (for instance, sensitivity to delay). Window models with variable window length, however, are more difficult to refute. This article examines some implications of the assumption of random window length. Variable windows are shown to produce continuous forgetting and temporal discounting functions, to display properties analogous to parallel aggregation, and to make reasonable predictions about steady-state relations between reinforcement and responding. Issues of interpretation nonetheless suggest that alternatives to window models should be developed.

  13. Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

  14. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-07-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  15. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  16. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2006-05-01

    Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

  17. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  18. Design and Verification of Critical Pressurised Windows for Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoure, Richard; Busto, Lara; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben; Leal, Mendes M.

    2014-06-01

    The Window Design for Manned Spaceflight (WDMS) project was tasked with establishing the state-of-art and explore possible improvements to the current structural integrity verification and fracture control methodologies for manned spacecraft windows.A critical review of the state-of-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice was conducted. Shortcomings of the methodology in terms of analysis, inspection and testing were identified. Schemes for improving verification practices and reducing conservatism whilst maintaining the required safety levels were then proposed.An experimental materials characterisation programme was defined and carried out with the support of the 'Glass and Façade Technology Research Group', at the University of Cambridge. Results of the sample testing campaign were analysed, post-processed and subsequently applied to the design of a breadboard window demonstrator.Two Fused Silica glass window panes were procured and subjected to dedicated analyses, inspection and testing comprising both qualification and acceptance programmes specifically tailored to the objectives of the activity.Finally, main outcomes have been compiled into a Structural Verification Guide for Pressurised Windows in manned spacecraft, incorporating best practices and lessons learned throughout this project.

  19. New window design options for CEBAF energy upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.; Mammosser, J.; Nguyen, V.

    1997-07-01

    As the Jefferson Laboratory upgrades the existing CEBAF electron accelerator to operate at higher energies, the fundamental power coupler windows will be required to operate with lower RF dissipation and increased immunity to radiation from cavity field emission. New designs and modifications to existing designs which can achieve these goals are described.

  20. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  1. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  2. Iterated local search algorithm for solving the orienteering problem with soft time windows.

    PubMed

    Aghezzaf, Brahim; Fahim, Hassan El

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the orienteering problem with time windows (OPTW) and the impact of relaxing the time windows on the profit collected by the vehicle. The way of relaxing time windows adopted in the orienteering problem with soft time windows (OPSTW) that we study in this research is a late service relaxation that allows linearly penalized late services to customers. We solve this problem heuristically by considering a hybrid iterated local search. The results of the computational study show that the proposed approach is able to achieve promising solutions on the OPTW test instances available in the literature, one new best solution is found. On the newly generated test instances of the OPSTW, the results show that the profit collected by the OPSTW is better than the profit collected by the OPTW.

  3. VACUUM WINDOW DESIGN FOR HIGH-POWER LASERS.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.

    2005-04-21

    One of the problems in the high-power lasers design is in outcoupling of a powerful laser beam out of a vacuum volume into atmosphere. Usually the laser device is located inside a vacuum tank. The laser radiation is transported to the outside world through the transparent vacuum window. While considered transparent, some of the light passing through the glass is absorbed and converted to heat. For most applications, these properties are academic curiosities; however, in multi-kilowatt lasers, the heat becomes significant and can lead to a failure. The absorbed power can result in thermal stress, reduction of light transmission and, consequently, window damage. Modern optical technology has developed different types of glass (Silica, BK7, diamond, etc.) that have high thermal conductivity and damage threshold. However, for kilo- and megawatt lasers the issue still remains open. In this paper we present a solution that may relieve the heat load on the output window. We discuss advantages and issues of this particular window design.

  4. Designing a Visual Interface for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xia

    1999-01-01

    "MedLine Search Assistant" is a new interface for MEDLINE searching that improves both search precision and recall by helping the user convert a free text search to a controlled vocabulary-based search in a visual environment. Features of the interface are described, followed by details of the conceptual design and the physical design of…

  5. Designing a Visual Interface for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xia

    1999-01-01

    "MedLine Search Assistant" is a new interface for MEDLINE searching that improves both search precision and recall by helping the user convert a free text search to a controlled vocabulary-based search in a visual environment. Features of the interface are described, followed by details of the conceptual design and the physical design of…

  6. Design of a High Average Power Waveguide Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, E.; Hays, T.; Kirchgessner, J.; Padamsee, H.; Cole, M.; Schultheiss, T.

    1997-05-01

    A study has been performed to design a waveguide vacuum window operating at 500 MHz capable of propagating >1 MW average power. This would extend current technology by about a factor of 2 in average power, made possible by advances in available ceramic size and quality. Self-matched and tuning-post-matched configurations were examined, as well as full-height and reduced-height waveguide cross sections. The two ceramics considered were aluminum oxide and beryllia oxide. Beryllia's greater thermal conductivity over alumina and its availability in large sizes with low loss tangent (<3 × 10-4) made it very attractive despite its tensile strength being lower than alumina's. The analyses to be presented comprise of obtaining satisfactory RF design using the computer code MAFIA, performing a perturbation calculation in MAFIA to obtain power deposition in the slightly lossy ceramic, feeding the power deposition data into the thermo-mechanical computer code ANSYS, then using ANSYS to determine ceramic operating temperature and mechanical stress. Another pertinent quantity obtained from MAFIA is the electric field profile throughout the window assembly. Results from numerous window configurations will be tabulated, plotted, and discussed.

  7. Design of traveling wave windows for the PEP-II RF coupling network

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, N.M.; Ng, C.K.; Judkins, J.; Neubauer, M.

    1995-05-01

    The waveguide windows in the PEP-II RF coupling network have to withstand high power of 500 kW. Traveling wave windows have lower power dissipation than conventional self-matched windows, thus rendering the possibility of less stringent mechanical design. The traveling wave behavior is achieved by providing a reflecting iris on each side of the window, and depending on the configuration of the irises, traveling wave windows are characterized as inductive or capacitive types. A numerical design procedure using MAFIA has been developed for traveling wave windows. The relative advantages of inductive and capacitive windows are discussed. Furthermore, the issues of bandwidth and multipactoring are also addressed.

  8. The windows of SETI--frequency and time in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Oliver, B M

    1987-01-01

    On Earth intelligent life evolved as a natural consequence of the events set in motion when the planet formed over 4 billion years ago. Since chemical evolution and solar-system formation appear to be occurring throughout the universe, we theorize that our universe may be rich with planets populated by intelligent beings who, like us, can search for evidence of other technological civilizations. Terrestrial civilization now has this capability. But if we do not begin the search soon, we'll lose the opportunity to do it from Earth as interfering signals of Earthly origin rapidly close the microwave window.

  9. Design and Application of CVD Diamond Windows for X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Jaski, Yifei; Cookson, David

    2007-01-19

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  10. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.; Experimental Facilities Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  11. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  12. Window Design Strategies to Conserve Energy. NBS Building Science Series 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. Robert; Crenshaw, Richard W.

    A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing, interior accessories, and building interior. Design strategies within these groups can improve one or more of the six energy functions of windows: solar…

  13. Missing pixels restoration for remote sensing images using adaptive search window and linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Shen-Chuan; Chen, Peng-Yu; Chao, Chian-Yen

    2016-07-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems proposed an efficient image compression standard that can do lossless compression (CCSDS-ICS). CCSDS-ICS is the most widely utilized standard for satellite communications. However, the original CCSDS-ICS is weak in terms of error resilience with even a single incorrect bit possibly causing numerous missing pixels. A restoration algorithm based on the neighborhood similar pixel interpolator is proposed to fill in missing pixels. The linear regression model is used to generate the reference image from other panchromatic or multispectral images. Furthermore, an adaptive search window is utilized to sieve out similar pixels from the pixels in the search region defined in the neighborhood similar pixel interpolator. The experimental results show that the proposed methods are capable of reconstructing missing regions with good visual quality.

  14. Visual Signals Vertically Extend the Perceptual Span in Searching a Text: A Gaze-Contingent Window Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauchard, Fabrice; Eyrolle, Helene; Cellier, Jean-Marie; Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of visual signals on perceptual span in text search and the kinds of signal information that facilitate the search. Participants were asked to find answers to specific questions in chapter-length texts in either a normal or a window condition, where the text disappeared beyond a vertical 3 degrees gaze-contingent…

  15. Arcjet exploratory tests of ARC optical window design for the AFE vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Ellis E.; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Craig, Roger A.; Sobeck, Charles K.; Sarver, George L., III; Salerno, Louis J.; Love, Wendell; Maa, Scott; Covington, AL

    1991-01-01

    Tests were made in the 20 MW arc jet facility at the NASA ARC to determine the suitability of sapphire and fused silica as window materials for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) entry vehicle. Twenty nine tests were made; 25 at a heating rate about 80 percent of that expected during the AFE entry and 4 at approximately the full, 100 percent AFE heating rate profile, that produces a temperature of about 2900 F on the surface of the tiles that protect the vehicle. These tests show that a conductively cooled window design using mechanical thermal contacts and sapphire is probably not practical. Cooling the window using mechanical thermal contacts produces thermal stresses in the sapphire that cause the window to crack. An insulated design using sapphire, that cools the window as little as possible, appears promising although some spectral data in the vacuum-ultra-violet (VUV) will be lost due to the high temperature reached by the sapphire. The surface of the insulated sapphire windows, tested at the 100 percent AFE heating rate, showed some slight ablation, and cracks appeared in two of three test windows. One small group of cracks were obviously caused by mechanical binding of the window in the assembly, which can be eliminated with improved design. Other cracks were long, straight, thin crystallographic cracks that have very little effect on the optical transmission of the window. Also, the windows did not fall apart along these crystallographic cracks when the windows were removed from their assemblies. Theoretical results from the thermal analysis computer program SINDA indicate that increasing the window thickness from 4 to 8 mm may enable surface ablation to be avoided. An insulated design using a fused silica window tested at the nominal AFE heating rate experienced severe ablation, thus fused silica is not considered to be an acceptable window material.

  16. Clinician Search Behaviors May Be Influenced by Search Engine Design

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico; Zrimec, Tatjana; Compton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Searching the Web for documents using information retrieval systems plays an important part in clinicians’ practice of evidence-based medicine. While much research focuses on the design of methods to retrieve documents, there has been little examination of the way different search engine capabilities influence clinician search behaviors. Objectives Previous studies have shown that use of task-based search engines allows for faster searches with no loss of decision accuracy compared with resource-based engines. We hypothesized that changes in search behaviors may explain these differences. Methods In all, 75 clinicians (44 doctors and 31 clinical nurse consultants) were randomized to use either a resource-based or a task-based version of a clinical information retrieval system to answer questions about 8 clinical scenarios in a controlled setting in a university computer laboratory. Clinicians using the resource-based system could select 1 of 6 resources, such as PubMed; clinicians using the task-based system could select 1 of 6 clinical tasks, such as diagnosis. Clinicians in both systems could reformulate search queries. System logs unobtrusively capturing clinicians’ interactions with the systems were coded and analyzed for clinicians’ search actions and query reformulation strategies. Results The most frequent search action of clinicians using the resource-based system was to explore a new resource with the same query, that is, these clinicians exhibited a “breadth-first” search behaviour. Of 1398 search actions, clinicians using the resource-based system conducted 401 (28.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.37-31.11) in this way. In contrast, the majority of clinicians using the task-based system exhibited a “depth-first” search behavior in which they reformulated query keywords while keeping to the same task profiles. Of 585 search actions conducted by clinicians using the task-based system, 379 (64.8%, 95% CI 60.83-68.55) were

  17. Clinician search behaviors may be influenced by search engine design.

    PubMed

    Lau, Annie Y S; Coiera, Enrico; Zrimec, Tatjana; Compton, Paul

    2010-06-30

    Searching the Web for documents using information retrieval systems plays an important part in clinicians' practice of evidence-based medicine. While much research focuses on the design of methods to retrieve documents, there has been little examination of the way different search engine capabilities influence clinician search behaviors. Previous studies have shown that use of task-based search engines allows for faster searches with no loss of decision accuracy compared with resource-based engines. We hypothesized that changes in search behaviors may explain these differences. In all, 75 clinicians (44 doctors and 31 clinical nurse consultants) were randomized to use either a resource-based or a task-based version of a clinical information retrieval system to answer questions about 8 clinical scenarios in a controlled setting in a university computer laboratory. Clinicians using the resource-based system could select 1 of 6 resources, such as PubMed; clinicians using the task-based system could select 1 of 6 clinical tasks, such as diagnosis. Clinicians in both systems could reformulate search queries. System logs unobtrusively capturing clinicians' interactions with the systems were coded and analyzed for clinicians' search actions and query reformulation strategies. The most frequent search action of clinicians using the resource-based system was to explore a new resource with the same query, that is, these clinicians exhibited a "breadth-first" search behaviour. Of 1398 search actions, clinicians using the resource-based system conducted 401 (28.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.37-31.11) in this way. In contrast, the majority of clinicians using the task-based system exhibited a "depth-first" search behavior in which they reformulated query keywords while keeping to the same task profiles. Of 585 search actions conducted by clinicians using the task-based system, 379 (64.8%, 95% CI 60.83-68.55) were conducted in this way. This study provides evidence that

  18. Detection of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and the design of time windows.

    PubMed

    Janusauskas, Arturas; Sörnmo, Leif; Svensson, Owe; Engdahl, Bo

    2002-02-01

    A new approach to the design of time windows is presented for detection of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). The windows are designed with reference to a minimum mean square error criterion involving the correlation properties of the ensemble of responses. Latency information is introduced in the detection process by windowing at different scales that result from wavelet decomposition. The significance of both subject- and population-specific time windows is investigated. The detection performance is evaluated on a health screen database consisting of 4989 records. The results show that the present approach to windowing yields a significantly better performance in separating normal-hearing subjects from hearing-impaired subjects when compared to detection based on unwindowed signals. With time windowing, the specificity increased with almost 15% at a fixed sensitivity of 90%.

  19. Opto-mechanical design of optical window for aero-optics effect simulation instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-ming; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu; Ming, Xing; Zhang, Yan

    2016-10-01

    A complete theory is established for opto-mechanical systems design of the window in this paper, which can make the design more rigorous .There are three steps about the design. First, the universal model of aerodynamic environment is established based on the theory of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and the pneumatic pressure distribution and temperature data of optical window surface is obtained when aircraft flies in 5-30km altitude, 0.5-3Ma speed and 0-30°angle of attack. The temperature and pressure distribution values for the maximum constraint is selected as the initial value of external conditions on the optical window surface. Then, the optical window and mechanical structure are designed, which is also divided into two parts: First, mechanical structure which meet requirements of the security and tightness is designed. Finally, rigorous analysis and evaluation are given about the structure of optics and mechanics we have designed. There are two parts to be analyzed. First, the Fluid-Solid-Heat Coupled Model is given based on finite element analysis. And the deformation of the glass and structure can be obtained by the model, which can assess the feasibility of the designed optical windows and ancillary structure; Second, the new optical surface is fitted by Zernike polynomials according to the deformation of the surface of the optical window, which can evaluate imaging quality impact of spectral camera by the deformation of window.

  20. Design and comparison of laser windows for high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yanxiong; Liu, Wenwen; Liu, Haixia; Wang, Caili; Niu, Haisha; Man, Da

    2014-11-01

    High-power laser systems are getting more and more widely used in industry and military affairs. It is necessary to develop a high-power laser system which can operate over long periods of time without appreciable degradation in performance. When a high-energy laser beam transmits through a laser window, it is possible that the permanent damage is caused to the window because of the energy absorption by window materials. So, when we design a high-power laser system, a suitable laser window material must be selected and the laser damage threshold of the window must be known. In this paper, a thermal analysis model of high-power laser window is established, and the relationship between the laser intensity and the thermal-stress field distribution is studied by deducing the formulas through utilizing the integral-transform method. The influence of window radius, thickness and laser intensity on the temperature and stress field distributions is analyzed. Then, the performance of K9 glass and the fused silica glass is compared, and the laser-induced damage mechanism is analyzed. Finally, the damage thresholds of laser windows are calculated. The results show that compared with K9 glass, the fused silica glass has a higher damage threshold due to its good thermodynamic properties. The presented theoretical analysis and simulation results are helpful for the design and selection of high-power laser windows.

  1. Design and implementation of face recognition system based on Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Ting; Li, Ailan

    2015-07-01

    In view of the basic Windows login password input way lacking of safety and convenient operation, we will introduce the biometrics technology, face recognition, into the computer to login system. Not only can it encrypt the computer system, also according to the level to identify administrators at all levels. With the enhancement of the system security, user input can neither be a cumbersome nor worry about being stolen password confidential.

  2. The Jovian atmospheric window at 2.7 microns: A search for H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, H. P.; Davis, D. S.; Hofmann, R.; Bjoraker, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric transmission window at 2.7 microns in Jupiter's atmosphere was observed at a spectral resolution of 0.1/cm from the Kuiiper Airborne Observatory. From an analysis of the CH4 abundance (80 m-am) and the H2O abundance ( 0.0125 cm-am) it was determined that the penetration depth of solar flux at 2.7 microns is near the base of the NH3 cloud layer. The upper limit to H2O at 2.7 microns and other results suggest that photolytic reactions in Jupiter's lower troposphere may not be as significant as was previously thought. A search for H2S in Jupiter's atmosphere yielded an upper limit of 0.1 cm-am. The corresponding limit to the element abundance ratio S/H was approx. 1.7x10(-8), about 10(-3) times the solar value. Upon modeling the abundance and distribution of H2S in Jupiter's atmosphere it was concluded that, contrary to expectations, sulfur-bearing chromophores are not present in significant amounts in Jupiter's visible clouds. Rather, it appears that most of Jupiter's sulfur is locked up as NH4SH in a lower cloud layer. Alternatively, the global abundance of sulfur in Jupiter may be significantly depleted.

  3. The Jovian atmospheric window at 2.7 microns - A search for H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, H. P.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Davis, D. S.; Hofmann, R.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric transmission window at 2.7 microns in Jupiter's atmosphere was observed at a spectral resolution of 0.1/cm from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. From an analysis of the CH4 abundance (80 m-am) and the H2O abundance (0.0125 cm-am) it was determined that the penetration depth of solar flux at 2.7 microns is near the base of the NH3 cloud layer. The upper limit to H2O at 2.7 microns and other results suggest that photolytic reactions in Jupiter's lower troposphere may not be as significant as was previously thought. A search for H2S in Jupiter's atmosphere yielded an upper limit of 0.1 cm-am. The corresponding limit to the element abundance ratio S/H was approx. 1.7 x 10(-8), about 10(-3) times the solar value. Upon modeling the abundance and distribution of H2S in Jupiter's atmosphere it was concluded that, contrary to expectations, sulfur-bearing chromophores are not present in significant amounts in Jupiter's visible clouds. Rather, it appears that most of Jupiter's sulfur is locked up as NH4SH in a lower cloud layer. Alternatively, the global abundance of sulfur in Jupiter may be significantly depleted.

  4. Entrance window design parameters for high-pressure gas x-ray imaging detectors.

    PubMed

    Jordan, L M; Dibianca, F A

    1995-01-01

    Gas ionization x-ray detectors operating at pressures up to 100 atm offer inherently high spatial and contrast resolution. However, incorporating the detector x-ray entrance window in a conventional pressure vessel designed for such pressures can result in high primary beam loss in the window and a much reduced overall detective quantum efficiency. The design of a gas chamber cover plate for a strip beam detector which mechanically isolates the x-ray entrance window from the lateral tensile stresses in the chamber body is described. A number of test windows of this design, varying in three geometric parameters-thickness, window curvature, and fillet radius-were fabricated from wrought aluminum [6061-T651 ] and subjected to pressures of up to 400 atm for the purpose of selecting an optimum window for a prototype digital x-ray imaging detector. The experimental data indicate that windows can be designed for a detector admitting a 1.0 cm wide x-ray beam that have rupture pressures exceeding 500 atm while maintaining x-ray transmittances of as much as 93.4% for a 120 kVp tungsten anode spectrum.

  5. Automated Hardware Design via Evolutionary Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the application of evolutionary search to the process of automated engineering design. Evolutionary search techniques involve the simulation of Darwinian mechanisms by computer algorithms. In recent years, such techniques have attracted much attention because they are able to tackle a wide variety of difficult problems and frequently produce acceptable solutions. The results obtained are usually functional, often surprising, and typically "messy" because the algorithms are told to concentrate on the overriding objective and not elegance or simplicity. advantages. First, faster design cycles translate into time and, hence, cost savings. Second, automated design techniques can be made to scale well and hence better deal with increasing amounts of design complexity. Third, design quality can increase because design properties can be specified a priori. For example, size and weight specifications of a device, smaller and lighter than the best known design, might be optimized by the automated design technique. The domain of electronic circuit design is an advantageous platform in which to study automated design techniques because it is a rich design space that is well understood, permitting human-created designs to be compared to machine- generated designs. developed for circuit design was to automatically produce high-level integrated electronic circuit designs whose properties permit physical implementation in silicon. This process entailed designing an effective evolutionary algorithm and solving a difficult multiobjective optimization problem. FY 99 saw many accomplishments in this effort.

  6. A multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dezhi; He, Runzhong; Li, Shuangyan; Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained.

  7. A multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dezhi; He, Runzhong; Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained. PMID:28934272

  8. Design, fabrication, and testing of large airborne ZnSe windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruszynski, Charles J.; Ford, William M.; Rudisill, J. Earl; Stark, W. Reynolds, Jr.; Anderson, Granville R., II

    1995-09-01

    The High Altitude Observatory (HALO) is an instrumented gulfstream IIb aircraft sponsored by the US Army Space and Strategic Defense Command as an optical data collection platform. Capable of operation at altitudes above 50,000 feet, the HALO's highly diverse and flexible sensor suite has provided infrared, visible and ultraviolet data on numerous BMDO, DOD, and NASA test programs. This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of two large zinc selenide infrared windows employed by the aircraft's primary sensor system, the Infrared Instrumentation System. The paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the windows and coatings, the window proof testing for flight qualification, and summarizes the current operational experience with the windows.

  9. Design and analysis of a Be window for the APS diagnostics undulator beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, S.

    1997-06-01

    The design of a beryllium (Be) window for use under the extremely high heat load of an undulator beam is one of the challenges for third-generation synchrotron radiation beamlines. A novel design of a Be window is presented for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics undulator beamline, whose beam has a peak power density of 150 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam). The window has a double concave profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center and is brazed to a water-cooled oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper manifold. Finite-element thermal analysis of the Be window is also presented.

  10. Design goals and challenges for a photovoltaic-powered electrochromic window covering

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Branz, H M

    1994-12-01

    An estimated 1.0%-1.5% of the total cooling energy need in U.S. buildings, and 10%-30% of the peak electric utility power demand, is caused by unwanted solar heat-gain through windows. A large fraction of the approximately two billion square meters of building windows in the United States could benefit from the use of some solar gain control strategy. If a cost-effective, retrofit, electrochromic (EC) window covering were available, this energy savings potential could be realized in a relatively short time. A {open_quotes}glue on{close_quotes}, retrofit EC window treatment, similar to conventional static solar-gain control .films, could accelerate the application of this new technology in buildings. However, the costs of electrical wiring for each retrofitted window could dominate the economics of the retrofit decision and slow market acceptance of EC-windows. By incorporating a photovoltaic (PV) power source into the EC window retrofit, this wiring cost could be reduced or eliminated, and the installation of the EC window treatment could be greatly simplified. In this paper, we suggest the use of an integrated, photovoltaic-powered electrochromic (PV-EC) window treatment that can be applied to an existing window in much the same way that conventional, static, solar-gain control films are now applied. This concept is the subject of a new three-year research and development (R&D) project at our laboratory. We present our design concepts and rationale and identify some of the technical challenges involved.

  11. ConSearch: An Electronic Document Research and Retrieval Utility for Windows from Management Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews ConSearch 3.0, a product that provides flexible searching of electronic files, allowing the location of related meanings as well as exact matches. ConSearch 3.0 differs from other file retrieval approaches by relating words in search phrases of questions to the "meaning" of the words, which are stored in a "conceptual…

  12. Photodetachment neutralizer development: Laser window design study: Volume 1, Summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-30

    Photodetachment neutralization (PDN) has been proposed as a major improvement to the gas cell neutralization utilized on current neutral beam heating systems for magnetic containment fusion devices. This PDN system will use a Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) to produce a light beam with photons of a near optimal wavelength which can be reflected back and forth across the path of the ion beam to create the necessary high density light ''cloud'' required for the photodetachment process. In a fusion device the neutral beam goes directly into the process vacuum chamber and therefore the oxygen iodine gas mixture in the laser must be isolated by a window from the neutral beam channel without loss of too much light or leakage of miniscule quantities of laser gas. The aerodynamic windows that have traditionally been used with chemical lasers are viewed as undesirable for the fusion application where any contamination of the fusion vacuum chamber by laser gas would be a big problem. It was concluded that the technological issues were uncertain enough that a verification by designing, fabricating, and testing of a demonstration window would be required before feasibility of such a window could be considered certain. The statement of work defined for this study consisted of two tasks: determination of the absorption characteristics of the proposed sapphire window material and the fluorocarbon coolant, and design and analysis of the proposed double disk heat exchanger window and demonstration test hardware.

  13. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) program computer software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Pertzborn, N.F.

    1997-03-26

    The Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) Program System Design Description contains a discussion of the design details for the WinCal product. Information in this document will assist a developer in maintaining the WinCal system. The content of this document follows the guidance in WHC-CM-3-10, Software Engineering Standards, Standard for Software User Documentation.

  14. Searching for O-X-B mode-conversion window with monitoring of stray microwave radiation in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Laqua, H. P.; Nagasaki, K.; Inagaki, S.; Notake, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Mutoh, T.; LHD Experimental Group

    2006-10-15

    In the Large Helical Device, the stray microwave radiation is monitored by using so-called sniffer probes during electron cyclotron heating. In monitoring the stray radiation, we changed the microwave beam injection angle and search the O-X-B mode-conversion window to excite electron Bernstein waves (EBWs). When the microwave beam is injected toward the vicinity of the predicted O-X-B mode-conversion window, the electron temperature rises in the central part of overdense plasmas. In that case, the stray radiation level near the injection antenna becomes low. These results indicate that monitoring the stray radiation near the injection antenna is helpful in confirming the effectiveness of excitation of EBWs simply without precise analysis.

  15. Open the Windows: Design New Spaces for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    As a technologist, the author is interested in how the digital world is changing the educational landscape. As he began to research effective learning spaces, he discovered that the architecture, design, and school facilities communities are making a great deal of progress in creating better classrooms and school buildings. Unfortunately, many in…

  16. The windows of SETI - Frequency and time in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1987-01-01

    Since interstellar travel is not economically possible on the time scale of a human lifetime, communication with extraterrestrials can be achieved only by sending some form of energy or matter across space; photons (electromagnetic waves) are best. Of particular interest to SETI is the region from about 1,000-60,000 MHz known as the free-space microwave window. During the course of NASA's Cyclops program, it was pointed out that the hydrogen and hydroxyl lines bounded a band in which there were no other known lines. The threatened loss of the microwave window to earth-based services is discussed.

  17. The windows of SETI - Frequency and time in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1987-12-01

    Since interstellar travel is not economically possible on the time scale of a human lifetime, communication with extraterrestrials can be achieved only by sending some form of energy or matter across space; photons (electromagnetic waves) are best. Of particular interest to SETI is the region from about 1,000-60,000 MHz known as the free-space microwave window. During the course of NASA's Cyclops program, it was pointed out that the hydrogen and hydroxyl lines bounded a band in which there were no other known lines. The threatened loss of the microwave window to earth-based services is discussed.

  18. The windows of SETI - Frequency and time in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1987-01-01

    Since interstellar travel is not economically possible on the time scale of a human lifetime, communication with extraterrestrials can be achieved only by sending some form of energy or matter across space; photons (electromagnetic waves) are best. Of particular interest to SETI is the region from about 1,000-60,000 MHz known as the free-space microwave window. During the course of NASA's Cyclops program, it was pointed out that the hydrogen and hydroxyl lines bounded a band in which there were no other known lines. The threatened loss of the microwave window to earth-based services is discussed.

  19. Multitasking Web Searching and Implications for Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Seda; Ozmutlu, H. C.; Spink, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    Findings from a study of users' multitasking searches on Web search engines include: multitasking searches are a noticeable user behavior; multitasking search sessions are longer than regular search sessions in terms of queries per session and duration; both Excite and AlltheWeb.com users search for about three topics per multitasking session and…

  20. High-power RF window design for the PEP-II B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, M.; Hodgson, J.; Ng, C.; Schwarz, H.; Skarpaas, K.; Kroll, N. |; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the design of RF windows to transmit up to 500 kW CW to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. RF analysis of the windows using high-frequency simulation codes are described. These provide information about the power loss distribution in the ceramic and tim matching properties of the structure. Finite-element analyses of the resulting temperature distribution and thermal stresses are presented. Fabrication methods including a proposed scheme to compensate for thermal expansion s are discussed and hardware tests to validate this approach are described. The effects of surface coatings (intentional and otherwise) and the application of air cooling are considered.

  1. Design considerations of CareWindows, a Windows 3.0-based graphical front end to a Medical Information Management System using a pass-through-requester architecture.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R. E.; Purves, T.; Feldman, M.; Schiffman, R. M.; Barry, S.; Christner, M.; Kipa, G.; McCarthy, B. D.; Stiphout, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Care Windows development project demonstrated the feasibility of an approach designed to add the benefits of an event-driven, graphically-oriented user interface to an existing Medical Information Management System (MIMS) without overstepping economic and logistic constraints. The design solution selected for the Care Windows project incorporates three important design features: (1) the effective de-coupling of severs from requesters, permitting the use of an extensive pre-existing library of MIMS servers, (2) the off-loading of program control functions of the requesters to the workstation processor, reducing the load per transaction on central resources and permitting the use of object-oriented development environments available for microcomputers, (3) the selection of a low end, GUI-capable workstation consisting of a PC-compatible personal computer running Microsoft Windows 3.0, and (4) the development of a highly layered, modular workstation application, permitting the development of interchangeable modules to insure portability and adaptability. PMID:1807665

  2. The Impact of Overhang Design on the Performance of ElectrochromicWindows

    SciTech Connect

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, various facade designs with overhangs combined with electrochromic window control strategies were modeled with a prototypical commercial office building in a hot and cold climate using the DOE 2.1E building energy simulation program. Annual total energy use (ATE), peak electric demand (PED), average daylight illuminance (DI), and daylight glare index (DGI) were computed and compared to determine which combinations of fagade design and control strategies yielded the greatest energy efficiency, daylight amenity, and visual comfort.

  3. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Appendices to volume 1, sections 3-6 (part 1 of 3). [design of Venus probe windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design is described of the Venus probe windows, which are required to measure solar flux, infrared flux, aureole, and cloud particles. Window heating and structural materials for the probe window assemblies are discussed along with the magnetometer. The command lists for science, power and communication requirements, telemetry sign characteristics, mission profile summary, mass properties of payloads, and failure modes are presented.

  4. Proton-beam window design for a transmutation facility operating with a liquid lead target

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, C.; Lypsch, F.; Lizana, P.

    1995-10-01

    The proton beam target of an accelerator-driven transmutation facility can be designed as a vertical liquid lead column. To prevent lead vapor from entering the accelerator vacuum, a proton-beam window has to separate the area above the lead surface from the accelerator tube. Two radiation-cooled design alternatives have been investigated which should withstand a proton beam of 1.6 GeV and 25 mA. Temperature calculations based on energy deposition calculations with the Monte Carlo code HETC, stability analysis and spallation-induced damage calculations have been performed showing the applicability of both designs.

  5. IR window design for hypersonic missile seekers: thermal shock and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingst, Uwe; Koerber, Stefan

    2001-10-01

    Infra-red (IR) seekers on missiles at high Mach-numbers in the lower tier air defence often suffer from degradation in performance due to aerothermodynamic effects. The kind and rate of degradation depends on the geometric design (shape) and location of the IR-window. Optimal design may reduce those effects but still misses to totally withstand the imposed thermal stresses (thermal shock). Proper thermal protection systems and/or window cooling systems will be needed. The first part of this paper deals particularly with passive IR- window design features to reduce the thermal stresses. A series of wind-tunnel testings focused on the thermal shock behavior of different IR-window shapes under critical flight conditions. The variation of typical design parameters demonstrates the available features to reduce thermal shock by passive ways. The second part presents active thermal stress reduction devices, e.g. an active cooling system. Among others the most efficient reduction of thermal heating is based on three components: A partial coverage of the IR-dome to protect most parts against heating effects, a rotating system bearing the IR-dome and a liquid spray-cooling system in the gap between the cover and the IR-dome. The hemispherical or pyramidal dome can be located either midways in the missile nose section or sideways on the structure. The liquid spray cooling system combines both, a heat exchange by fluid evaporation and a heat transfer by fluid and gas cross flow (convection), causing a low fluid consumption. Such a cooling system along with their driving parameters and the resulting analytical performance will be presented.

  6. Design search and optimization in aerospace engineering.

    PubMed

    Keane, A J; Scanlan, J P

    2007-10-15

    In this paper, we take a design-led perspective on the use of computational tools in the aerospace sector. We briefly review the current state-of-the-art in design search and optimization (DSO) as applied to problems from aerospace engineering, focusing on those problems that make heavy use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This ranges over issues of representation, optimization problem formulation and computational modelling. We then follow this with a multi-objective, multi-disciplinary example of DSO applied to civil aircraft wing design, an area where this kind of approach is becoming essential for companies to maintain their competitive edge. Our example considers the structure and weight of a transonic civil transport wing, its aerodynamic performance at cruise speed and its manufacturing costs. The goals are low drag and cost while holding weight and structural performance at acceptable levels. The constraints and performance metrics are modelled by a linked series of analysis codes, the most expensive of which is a CFD analysis of the aerodynamics using an Euler code with coupled boundary layer model. Structural strength and weight are assessed using semi-empirical schemes based on typical airframe company practice. Costing is carried out using a newly developed generative approach based on a hierarchical decomposition of the key structural elements of a typical machined and bolted wing-box assembly. To carry out the DSO process in the face of multiple competing goals, a recently developed multi-objective probability of improvement formulation is invoked along with stochastic process response surface models (Krigs). This approach both mitigates the significant run times involved in CFD computation and also provides an elegant way of balancing competing goals while still allowing the deployment of the whole range of single objective optimizers commonly available to design teams.

  7. The design and implementation of a windowing interface pinch force measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tze-Yee; Chen, Yuanu-Joan; Chung, Chin-Teng; Hsiao, Ming-Heng

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a novel windowing interface pinch force measurement system that is basically based on an USB (Universal Series Bus) microcontroller which mainly processes the sensing data from the force sensing resistance sensors mounted on five digits. It possesses several friendly functions, such as the value and curve trace of the applied force by a hand injured patient displayed in real time on a monitoring screen, consequently, not only the physician can easily evaluate the effect of hand injury rehabilitation, but also the patients get more progressive during the hand physical therapy by interacting with the screen of pinch force measurement. In order to facilitate the pinch force measurement system and make it friendly, the detail hardware design and software programming flowchart are described in this paper. Through a series of carefully and detailed experimental tests, first of all, the relationship between the applying force and the FSR sensors are measured and verified. Later, the different type of pinch force measurements are verified by the oscilloscope and compared with the corresponding values and waveform traces in the window interface display panel to obtain the consistency. Finally, a windowing interface pinch force measurement system based on the USB microcontroller is implemented and demonstrated. The experimental results show the verification and feasibility of the designed system.

  8. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fatherley, V. E. Bingham, D. A.; Cartelli, M. D.; Griego, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; DiDomizio, R. A.; Pollack, M. J.

    2016-11-15

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  9. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3.

    PubMed

    Fatherley, V E; Bingham, D A; Cartelli, M D; DiDomizio, R A; Griego, J R; Herrmann, H W; Lopez, F E; Oertel, J A; Pollack, M J

    2016-11-01

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  10. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatherley, V. E.; Bingham, D. A.; Cartelli, M. D.; DiDomizio, R. A.; Griego, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Pollack, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  11. Optimal blood sampling time windows for parameter estimation using a population approach: design of a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Marylore; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Duval, Vincent; Laveille, Christian; Jochemsen, Roeline; Aarons, Leon

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine optimal blood sampling time windows for the estimation of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters by a population approach within the clinical constraints. A population PK model was developed to describe a reference phase II PK dataset. Using this model and the parameter estimates, D-optimal sampling times were determined by optimising the determinant of the population Fisher information matrix (PFIM) using PFIM_ _M 1.2 and the modified Fedorov exchange algorithm. Optimal sampling time windows were then determined by allowing the D-optimal windows design to result in a specified level of efficiency when compared to the fixed-times D-optimal design. The best results were obtained when K(a) and IIV on K(a) were fixed. Windows were determined using this approach assuming 90% level of efficiency and uniform sample distribution. Four optimal sampling time windows were determined as follow: at trough between 22 h and new drug administration; between 2 and 4 h after dose for all patients; and for 1/3 of the patients only 2 sampling time windows between 4 and 10 h after dose, equal to [4 h-5 h 05] and [9 h 10-10 h]. This work permitted the determination of an optimal design, with suitable sampling time windows which was then evaluated by simulations. The sampling time windows will be used to define the sampling schedule in a prospective phase II study.

  12. Design guided data analysis for summarizing systematic pattern defects and process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qian; Venkatachalam, Panneerselvam; Lee, Julie; Chen, Zhijin; Zafar, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    As the semiconductor process technology moves into more advanced nodes, design and process induced systematic defects become increasingly significant yield limiters. Therefore, early detection of these defects is crucial. Focus Exposure Matrix (FEM) and Process Window Qualification (PWQ) are routine methods for discovering systematic patterning defects and establishing the lithography process window. These methods require the stepper to expose a reticle onto the wafer at various focus and exposure settings (also known as modulations). The wafer is subsequently inspected by a bright field, broadband plasma or an E-Beam Inspection tool using a high sensitivity inspection recipe (i.e. hot scan) that often reports a million or more defects. Analyzing this vast stream of data to identify the weak patterns and arrive at the optimal focus/exposure settings requires a significant amount of data reduction through aggressive sampling and nuisance filtering schemes. However, these schemes increase alpha risk, i.e. the probability of not catching some systematic or otherwise important defects within a modulation and thus reporting that modulation as a good condition for production wafers. In order to reduce this risk and establish a more accurate process window, we describe a technique that introduces image-and-design integration methodologies into the inspection data analysis workflow. These image-and-design integration methodologies include contour extraction and alignment to design, contour-to-design defect detection, defective/nuisance pattern retrieval, confirmed defective/nuisance pattern overlay with inspection data, and modulation-related weak-pattern ranking. The technique we present provides greater automation, from defect detection to defective pattern retrieval to decision-making steps, that allows for statistically summarized results and increased coverage of the wafer to be achieved without an adverse impact on cycle time. Statistically summarized results, lead

  13. Designing Search: Effective Search Interfaces for Academic Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ghaphery, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries customize, support, and provide access to myriad information systems, each with complex graphical user interfaces. The number of possible information entry points on an academic library Web site is both daunting to the end-user and consistently challenging to library Web site designers. Faced with the challenges inherent in…

  14. Designing Search: Effective Search Interfaces for Academic Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ghaphery, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries customize, support, and provide access to myriad information systems, each with complex graphical user interfaces. The number of possible information entry points on an academic library Web site is both daunting to the end-user and consistently challenging to library Web site designers. Faced with the challenges inherent in…

  15. Genome-wide search for genetic modulators in gene regulatory pathways: weighted window-based peak identification algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjee; Kim, Kyunga; Park, Taesung

    2011-06-01

    Genome-wide gene expression and genotype data have been integratively analyzed in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies to elucidate the genetics of gene transcription. Most eQTL analyses have focused on identifying polymorphic genetic variants that influence the expression levels of individual genes, and such analyses may have limitations in explaining gene regulatory pathways that are likely to involve multiple genes and their genetic and/or non-genetic modulators. We have developed a novel two-step method for identifying potential genetic modulators of transcription processes for multiple genes in a biological pathway. We proposed a new weighted window-based peak identification algorithm to improve the detection of genetic modulators for individual genes and employed a Poisson-based test to search for master genetic modulators of multiple genes. Here, we have illustrated this two-step approach by analyzing the gene expression data in the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) lymphoblast cells and single nucleotide polymorphism chip data.

  16. Lunar exploration phase III: Launch window and trajectory design for a lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingyang; Yang, Hongwei; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-09-01

    The lunar exploration phase III mission is a part of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation's lunar exploration program that will perform a soft-landing and sample return from the Moon to test the key technologies that are required for human lunar missions. This paper focuses primarily on the trajectory design and orbital launch window generation for a lunar probe that are consistent with the constraints imposed by third phase of lunar exploration. Two categories of trajectories are explored: Earth-to-Moon and Moon-to-Earth. With the patched conic technique, the analytical and modified analytical models of the transfer trajectories are developed. The requirement of high-latitude landing for the return phase trajectory is considered in the modified model. By varying the initial input conditions and with a fast convergence iteration scheme, different characteristics of the transfer trajectory are generated. The orbital launch windows are established to study the mission sensitivities to time and fuel consumption and to provide a launch timetable that is compatible with this mission's requirements. The lunar surface stay time is analyzed for different conditions. The high-fidelity gravitational model is introduced to demonstrate the accuracy and convergence behavior of the analytical solution. The design method can also be used as a basis for the future human lunar missions.

  17. Design of the commissioning filter/mask/window assembly for undulator beamline front ends at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1995-10-20

    A compact filter/mask/window assembly has been designed for undulator beamline commissioning activity at the Advanced Photon Source beamlines. The assembly consists of one 300-{mu}m graphite filter, one 127-{mu}m CVD diamond filter and two 250-{mu}m beryllium windows. A water-cooled Glidcop fixed mask with a 4.5-mm {times} 4.5-mm output optical aperture and a 0.96-mrad {times} 1.6-mrad beam missteering acceptance is a major part in the assembly. The CVD diamond filter which is mounted on the downstream side of the fixed mask is designed to also function as a transmitting x-ray beam position monitor. The sum signal from the latter can be used to monitor the physical condition of the graphite filter and prevent any possible chain reaction damage to the beryllium windows downstream. In this paper, the design concept as well as the detailed structural design of the commissioning window are presented. Further applications of the commissioning window commissioning window components are also discussed.

  18. HYBRID BRIDGMAN ANVIL DESIGN: AN OPTICAL WINDOW FOR IN-SITU SPECTROSCOPY IN LARGE VOLUME PRESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-07-29

    The absence of in-situ optical probes for large volume presses often limits their application to high-pressure materials research. In this paper, we present a unique anvil/optical window-design for use in large volume presses, which consists of an inverted diamond anvil seated in a Bridgman type anvil. A small cylindrical aperture through the Bridgman anvil ending at the back of diamond anvil allows optical access to the sample chamber and permits direct optical spectroscopy measurements, such as ruby fluorescence (in-situ pressure) or Raman spectroscopy. This performance of this anvil-design has been demonstrated by loading KBr to a pressure of 14.5 GPa.

  19. a New Design for Diamond Window Equipped Paris-Edinburgh — First Tests and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Dedera, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2012-12-01

    High pressure cells of the Paris-Edinburgh type are important tools for experimental high pressure studies in material science. Although these cells were originally developed for use in neutron diffraction, today they are also applied in alternative experimental high pressure fields. Their main advantages are their small construction size, limited weight and the relative high reachable pressures with a maximized sample volume. The small construction size also results in very good cost efficiency. The major drawback of these cells is that due to their simple squeezer geometry pressure extrapolations are nearly impossible and, hence, the use of internal standard is mandatory. Consequently, the normal use of Paris-Edinburgh cells is mostly limited to experiments with neutron or synchrotron radiation, during which pressure and temperature are determined by using an internal diffraction standard. To overcome this problem, tone may combine the advantages of diamond anvil cells with those of Paris-Edinburgh-cells by integrating diamond windows into the upper and / or the lower anvil. With such a cell it is possible to retrieve pressure and / or temperature data by measuring the shift of Raman bands or fluorescence lines by spectroscopic methods. Several attempts have been made to build such a cell ([1] and Klotz pers. communication) using different window materials. Until now no final setup has been published. We present a new Paris-Edinburgh cell design especially constructed for use within high energy relativistic heavy ion radiation experiments. This design uses conventional diamond anvils as spectroscopic windows in conjunction with specially designed hardened steel anvils. We have performed first feasibility studies up to 2.5 GPa with a standard Raman spectrometer using a special adapted Raman glass fiber probe. We present results of several mechanical test runs and one experiment with relativistic heavy ion radiation at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f

  20. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques developed for measuring stagnation-point radiation in NASA's cancelled Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). It specifies the need for such a measurement; the types and requirements for the needed instruments; the Radiative Heating Experiment (RHE) developed for the AFE; the requirements, design parameters, and performance of the window developed for the RHE; the procedures and summary of the technique; and results of the arc-jet wind tunnel experiment conducted to demonstrate the overall concept. Subjects emphasized are the commercial implications of the knowledge to be gained by this experiment in connection with the Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV), the nonequilibrium nature of the radiation, concerns over the contribution of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation to the overall radiation, and the limit on the flight environment of the vehicle imposed by the limitations on the window material. Results show that a technique exists with which the stagnation-point radiation can be measured in flight in an environment of interest to commercial ASTV applications.

  1. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  2. Analysis and design of modified window shapes for S-transform to improve time-frequency localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianping; Jiang, Jin

    2015-06-01

    This paper deals with window design issues for modified S-transform (MST) to improve the performance of time-frequency analysis (TFA). After analyzing the drawbacks of existing window functions, a window design technique is proposed. The technique uses a sigmoid function to control the window width in frequency domain. By proper selection of certain tuning parameters of a sigmoid function, windows with different width profiles can be obtained for multi-component signals. It is also interesting to note that the MST algorithm can be considered as a special case of a generalized method that adds a tunable shaping function to the standard window in frequency domain to meet specific frequency localization needs. The proposed design technique has been validated on a physical vibration test system using signals with different characteristics. The results have demonstrated that the proposed MST algorithm has superior time-frequency localization capabilities over standard ST, as well as other classical TFA methods. Subsequently, the proposed MST algorithm is applied to vibration monitoring of pipes in a water supply process controlled by a diaphragm pump for fault detection purposes.

  3. Methods for joint optimization of mask and design targets for improving lithographic process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shayak; Agarwal, Kanak B.; Orshansky, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Low-k1 lithography results in features that suffer from poor lithographic yield in the presence of process variation. The problem is especially pronounced for lower-level metals used for local routing, where bi-directionality and tight pitches give rise to lithography unfriendly layout patterns. However, there exists inherent unutilized flexibility in design shapes, e.g., one can modify such wires without significantly affecting design behavior. We develop two different techniques to simultaneously modify mask and design shapes during optical proximity correction (OPC) to improve lithographic yield of low-level metal layers. The methods utilize image slope information, which is available during OPC image simulations at no extra cost, as a measure of lithographic process window. We first propose a method that identifies fragments with low normalized image log slope (NILS) and then use this NILS information to guide dynamic target modification between iterations of OPC. The method uses a pre-characterized lookup table to assign a different magnitude of local target correction to different NILS bins. Next we develop an optimization flow where we derive a cost function that maximizes both contour fidelity and robustness to drive our simultaneous mask and target optimization (SMATO) method. We develop analytical equations to predict the cost for a given mask and target modification and use a fast algorithm to minimize this cost function to obtain an optimal mask and target solution. Our experiments on sample 1× (M1) layouts show that the use of SMATO reduces the process manufacturability index (PMI) by 15.4% compared with OPC, which further leads to 69% reduction in the number of layout hotspots. Additionally, such improvement is obtained at low average runtime overhead (5.5%). Compared with process window optical proximity correction (PWOPC), we observe 4.6% improvement in PMI at large (2.6×) improvement in runtime.

  4. 3RIP: File Design for the Search System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Rolf; And Others

    The file design of the search system part of an interactive search and editing system, 3RIP, is described. A scatter-stored and compact inverted file is used to search a primary file of up to 4 million records containing on the order of 10-E9 characters of text and numeric data. Searchable attributes are keywords, words or phrases in text, names,…

  5. Vanadium dioxide thin films for smart windows: optical design and performance improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xinfeng; Gu, Congcong; Chen, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-12-01

    The high quality vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films have been fabricated successfully on sapphire by a simple novel sputtering oxidation coupling (SOC) method. Transmittance spectra of vanadium dioxide film have been measured between 25 °C and 90 °C. The thin film samples exhibit a good insulator-metal transition near room temperature. The optical constants of VO2 thin film samples were derived by fitting the transmittance spectra using the Drude-Lorentz model. In order to improve the transition efficiency, the thin film thickness was optimized by the optical design. The calculated results with different thin film thickness show that VO2 thin film with 84 nm owns a maximums value of the transition efficiency. This research will promote VO2 thin film optical performance improvement for the smart windows.

  6. System Design of Real Time Vehicle Type Recognition Based on Video for Windows (AVI) Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wei; Luo, Zhiqing

    In this system, with technology of motion detection, the data frames include vehicle digital image can be detected automatically from a Video for Windows (AVI) File, at the same time, vehicle type will be recognized and displayed automatically. The system's process consists of five steps: Read the AVI file and decompose it into digital image frames; Motion detection; Vehicle digital image processing; Counting number of black pixels included in vehicle body contour and project on car image; Module of vehicle type classification. In particular, algorithm of vehicle recognition through counting number of black pixels included in vehicle body contour is one innovation algorithm. Experiment on actual AVI files shows: the system design is simple and effective.

  7. Visual search asymmetries in heavy clutter: implications for display design.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Yusuke; McCarley, Jason S

    2011-06-01

    An experiment aimed to test whether design of symbology to produce visual search asymmetries might facilitate target detection in cluttered displays. A visual search asymmetry exists between two stimuli when a target of one type is found efficiently among distractors of the second type but a target of the second type is found with difficulty among distractors of the first type. Asymmetries have generally been studied within relatively sparse displays. In the present study, the authors tested whether an asymmetry driven by stimulus familiarity persists within heavily cluttered imagery. In this study, 10 participants performed a visual search task using stimuli (canonical vs. reversed Ns) known to produce a search asymmetry. Search stimuli were embedded within geospatial images containing either low or high levels of clutter. A decision theoretic index of sensitivity served as the dependent measure. The search asymmetry was robust against the presence of heavy display clutter. Specifically, sensitivity was greater when the target was a reversed N rather than an N, and this pattern remained within cluttered displays. Time-accuracy analysis revealed that the search asymmetry increased the rate of information accumulation roughly equally within low- and high- clutter images. Search asymmetries are robust against heavy, spatially continuous visual clutter. Design of display symbology to produce visual search asymmetries can offset the costs of visual clutter, maximizing detectability of task-critical information in complex displays.

  8. Design and use of a servo-controlled high pressure window bomb in spectroscopic studies of solid propellant combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, F.; Mann, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using a high pressure window bomb as a laboratory scale model of actual motor conditions. The design and operation of a modified high pressure window bomb is discussed. An optical servocontrol mechanism has been designed to hold the burning surface of a propellant strand at a fixed position within the bomb chamber. This mechanism permits the recording of visible and infrared emission spectra from various propellants. Preliminary visible emission spectra of a nonmetalized and metalized propellant are compared with spectra recorded using the modified bomb.

  9. Design and use of a servo-controlled high pressure window bomb in spectroscopic studies of solid propellant combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, F.; Mann, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using a high pressure window bomb as a laboratory scale model of actual motor conditions. The design and operation of a modified high pressure window bomb is discussed. An optical servocontrol mechanism has been designed to hold the burning surface of a propellant strand at a fixed position within the bomb chamber. This mechanism permits the recording of visible and infrared emission spectra from various propellants. Preliminary visible emission spectra of a nonmetalized and metalized propellant are compared with spectra recorded using the modified bomb.

  10. A scan statistic for identifying optimal risk windows in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Stanley; Hambidge, Simon J.; McClure, David L.; Daley, Matthew F.; Glanz, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    In examining the association between vaccines and rare adverse events after vaccination in post-licensure observational studies, it is challenging to define appropriate risk windows because pre-licensure randomized clinical trials provide little insight on the timing of specific adverse events. Past vaccine safety studies have often used pre-specified risk windows based on prior publications, biological understanding of the vaccine, and expert opinion. Recently, a data driven approach was developed to identify appropriate risk windows for vaccine safety studies that use the self-controlled case series design. This approach employs both the maximum incidence rate ratio and the linear relation between the estimated incidence rate ratio and the inverse of average person time at risk, given a specified risk window. In this paper, we present a scan statistic that can identify appropriate risk windows in vaccine safety studies using the self-controlled case series design while taking into account the dependence of time intervals within an individual and while adjusting for time-varying covariates such as age and seasonality. This approach uses the maximum likelihood ratio test based on fixed effects models, which has been used for analyzing data from self-controlled case series design in addition to conditional Poisson models. PMID:23303643

  11. A scan statistic for identifying optimal risk windows in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design.

    PubMed

    Xu, Stanley; Hambidge, Simon J; McClure, David L; Daley, Matthew F; Glanz, Jason M

    2013-08-30

    In the examination of the association between vaccines and rare adverse events after vaccination in postlicensure observational studies, it is challenging to define appropriate risk windows because prelicensure RCTs provide little insight on the timing of specific adverse events. Past vaccine safety studies have often used prespecified risk windows based on prior publications, biological understanding of the vaccine, and expert opinion. Recently, a data-driven approach was developed to identify appropriate risk windows for vaccine safety studies that use the self-controlled case series design. This approach employs both the maximum incidence rate ratio and the linear relation between the estimated incidence rate ratio and the inverse of average person time at risk, given a specified risk window. In this paper, we present a scan statistic that can identify appropriate risk windows in vaccine safety studies using the self-controlled case series design while taking into account the dependence of time intervals within an individual and while adjusting for time-varying covariates such as age and seasonality. This approach uses the maximum likelihood ratio test based on fixed-effects models, which has been used for analyzing data from self-controlled case series design in addition to conditional Poisson models.

  12. Life-Prediction Parameters of Sapphire Determined for the Design of a Space Station Combustion Facility Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the stress corrosion parameters and predict the life of a sapphire window being considered for use in the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center conducted stress corrosion tests, fracture toughness tests, and reliability analyses, as shown in the figures. Standardized test methods, developed and updated by the author under the auspices of American Society for Testing and Materials, were employed. One interesting finding is that sapphire exhibits a susceptibility to stress corrosion in water similar to that of glass. In addition to generating the stress corrosion parameters and fracture toughness data, closed-form expressions for the variances of the crack growth parameters were derived. The expressions allow confidence bands to be easily placed on life predictions of ceramic components. Brittle materials such as sapphire and quartz are required for windows in a variety of applications such as the Fluids and Combustion Facility. To minimize the launch weight of such facilities, researchers must design the windows to be as lightweight as possible. The safe use of lightweight, brittle windows in structural applications is limited by two factors: low fracture toughness and slow crack growth, or stress corrosion. Stress corrosion of these and other optical materials can occur in relatively common environments, such as humid air. Access to the data has been requested by designers for use in the life prediction of a Northrop Grumman F16 instrument window and a Jet Propulsion Laboratory instrument window. One Space Act Agreement has been formed. Future work includes the measurement of the life of subscale windows.

  13. Optimal fractional order PID design via Tabu Search based algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Abdullah; Yeroglu, Celaleddin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization method based on the Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA) to design a Fractional-Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller. All parameter computations of the FOPID employ random initial conditions, using the proposed optimization method. Illustrative examples demonstrate the performance of the proposed FOPID controller design method.

  14. Window frame or ''superferric'' magnet design for low B(<3T) heavy ion storage ring study

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Keohane, G., Lee, Y.; Phillips, R.; Plate, S.; Repata, L.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, L.

    1985-01-01

    Double magnets share common laminations without magnetic coupling. Single layer coils of rectangular conductor are dry wound on extruded bore tubes. Magnet construction requires no molding or prestress. Absence of superconducting (SC) magnetization fields in the aperture results in very large dynamic range. The coil is wound continuously across the modplane to give unusually large dynamic aperture. Above approx.2.2 T saturation is corrected by simple sextupole windings with no inductive coupling to the dipole. Ultrastable design requires no internal quench protection. A quadrupole pair of novel design gives excellent field quality to B > 2 T without corrections, with no SC magnetization. Experience shows magnets are accurate enough for the assembly to take place at its final location. No training is required. Test procedures (measurements with search coils or with the beam) and cooldown properties are discussed. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Window frame or ''superferric'' magnet design for low B(< 3T) heavy ion storage ring study

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Keohane, G.; Lee, Y.; Phillips, R.; Plate, S.; Repeta, L.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, L.

    1985-10-01

    Double magnets share common laminations without magnetic coupling. Single layer coils of rectangular conductor are dry wound on extruded bore tubes. Magnet construction requires no molding or prestress. Absence of superconducting (SC) magnetization fields in the aperture results in very large dynamic range. The coil is wound continuously across the midplane to give unusually large dynamic aperture. Above about2.2 T saturation is corrected by simple sextupole windings with no inductive coupling to the dipole. Ultrastable design requires no internal quench protection. A quadrupole pair of novel design gives excellent field quality to B > 2 T without corrections, with no SC magnetization. Experience shows magnets are accurate enough for the assembly to take place at its final location. No training is required. Test procedures (measurements with search coils or with the beam) and cooldown properties are discussed.

  16. Fast search algorithms for computational protein design.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Seydou; Roberts, Kyle E; Allouche, David; Donald, Bruce R; André, Isabelle; Schiex, Thomas; Barbe, Sophie

    2016-05-05

    One of the main challenges in computational protein design (CPD) is the huge size of the protein sequence and conformational space that has to be computationally explored. Recently, we showed that state-of-the-art combinatorial optimization technologies based on Cost Function Network (CFN) processing allow speeding up provable rigid backbone protein design methods by several orders of magnitudes. Building up on this, we improved and injected CFN technology into the well-established CPD package Osprey to allow all Osprey CPD algorithms to benefit from associated speedups. Because Osprey fundamentally relies on the ability of A* to produce conformations in increasing order of energy, we defined new A* strategies combining CFN lower bounds, with new side-chain positioning-based branching scheme. Beyond the speedups obtained in the new A*-CFN combination, this novel branching scheme enables a much faster enumeration of suboptimal sequences, far beyond what is reachable without it. Together with the immediate and important speedups provided by CFN technology, these developments directly benefit to all the algorithms that previously relied on the DEE/ A* combination inside Osprey* and make it possible to solve larger CPD problems with provable algorithms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds.

  18. Design and RF measurements of a 5 GHz 500 kW window for the ITER LHCD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, J.; Achard, J.; Bae, Y. S.; Bernard, J. M.; Dechambre, N.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Faure, N.; Goniche, M.; Kim, J.; Larroque, S.; Magne, R.; Marfisi, L.; Namkung, W.; Park, H.; Park, S.; Poli, S.; Vulliez, K.

    2014-02-01

    CEA/IRFM is conducting R&D efforts in order to validate the critical RF components of the 5 GHz ITER LHCD system, which is expected to transmit 20 MW of RF power to the plasma. Two 5 GHz 500 kW BeO pill-box type window prototypes have been manufactured in 2012 by the PMB Company, in close collaboration with CEA/IRFM. Both windows have been validated at low power, showing good agreement between measured and modeling, with a return loss better than 32 dB and an insertion loss below 0.05 dB. This paper reports on the window RF design and the low power measurements. The high power tests up to 500kW have been carried out in March 2013 in collaboration with NFRI. Results of these tests are also reported.

  19. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Multilayer Coated X-Ray Optics for the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Dwight C.

    1996-01-01

    Hoover et. al. built and tested two imaging Schwarzschild multilayer microscopes. These instruments were constructed as prototypes for the "Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope," which is a doubly reflecting, multilayer x-ray microscope configured to operate within the "water window." The "water window" is the narrow region of the x-ray spectrum between the K absorption edges of oxygen (lamda = 23.3 Angstroms) and of carbon (lamda = 43.62 Angstroms), where water is relatively highly transmissive and carbon is highly absorptive. This property of these materials, thus permits the use of high resolution multilayer x-ray microscopes for producing high contrast images of carbon-based structures within the aqueous physiological environments of living cells. We report the design, fabrication and testing of multilayer optics that operate in this regime.

  20. MDTS: automatic complex materials design using Monte Carlo tree search.

    PubMed

    M Dieb, Thaer; Ju, Shenghong; Yoshizoe, Kazuki; Hou, Zhufeng; Shiomi, Junichiro; Tsuda, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Complex materials design is often represented as a black-box combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we present a novel python library called MDTS (Materials Design using Tree Search). Our algorithm employs a Monte Carlo tree search approach, which has shown exceptional performance in computer Go game. Unlike evolutionary algorithms that require user intervention to set parameters appropriately, MDTS has no tuning parameters and works autonomously in various problems. In comparison to a Bayesian optimization package, our algorithm showed competitive search efficiency and superior scalability. We succeeded in designing large Silicon-Germanium (Si-Ge) alloy structures that Bayesian optimization could not deal with due to excessive computational cost. MDTS is available at https://github.com/tsudalab/MDTS.

  1. Tabu search method with random moves for globally optimal design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Nanfang

    1992-09-01

    Optimum engineering design problems are usually formulated as non-convex optimization problems of continuous variables. Because of the absence of convexity structure, they can have multiple minima, and global optimization becomes difficult. Traditional methods of optimization, such as penalty methods, can often be trapped at a local optimum. The tabu search method with random moves to solve approximately these problems is introduced. Its reliability and efficiency are examined with the help of standard test functions. By the analysis of the implementations, it is seen that this method is easy to use, and no derivative information is necessary. It outperforms the random search method and composite genetic algorithm. In particular, it is applied to minimum weight design examples of a three-bar truss, coil springs, a Z-section and a channel section. For the channel section, the optimal design using the tabu search method with random moves saved 26.14 percent over the weight of the SUMT method.

  2. Entropy-Based Search Algorithm for Experimental Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, N. K.; Knuth, K. H.

    2011-03-01

    The scientific method relies on the iterated processes of inference and inquiry. The inference phase consists of selecting the most probable models based on the available data; whereas the inquiry phase consists of using what is known about the models to select the most relevant experiment. Optimizing inquiry involves searching the parameterized space of experiments to select the experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. In the case where it is important to learn about each of the model parameters, the relevance of an experiment is quantified by Shannon entropy of the distribution of experimental outcomes predicted by a probable set of models. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, we must search this high-dimensional entropy space. Brute force search methods will be slow and computationally expensive. We present an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment for efficient experimental design. This algorithm is inspired by Skilling's nested sampling algorithm used in inference and borrows the concept of a rising threshold while a set of experiment samples are maintained. We demonstrate that this algorithm not only selects highly relevant experiments, but also is more efficient than brute force search. Such entropic search techniques promise to greatly benefit autonomous experimental design.

  3. A new RF window designed for high-power operation in an S-band LINAC RF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Youngdo; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Hwang, Woonha; Ryu, Jiwan; Roh, Sungjoo

    2016-09-01

    A new RF window is designed for high-power operation at the Pohang Light Source-II (PLSII) S-band linear accelerator (LINAC) RF system. In order to reduce the strength of the electric field component perpendicular to the ceramic disk, which is commonly known as the main cause of most discharge breakdowns in ceramic disk, we replace the pill-box type cavity in the conventional RF window with an overmoded cavity. The overmoded cavity is coupled with input and output waveguides through dual side-wall coupling irises to reduce the electric field strength at the iris and the number of possible mode competitions. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, CST MWS, was used in the design process. The simulated maximum electric field component perpendicular to the ceramic for the new RF window is reduced by an order of magnitude compared with taht for the conventional RF window, which holds promise for stable high-power operation.

  4. Fast Color Grouping and Slow Color Inhibition: Evidence for Distinct Temporal Windows for Separate Processes in Preview Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Jason J.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Hulleman, Johan; Watson, Derrick G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report 4 experiments that examined color grouping and negative carryover effects in preview search via a probe detection task (J. J. Braithwaite, G. W. Humphreys, & J. Hodsoll, 2003). In Experiment 1, there was evidence of a negative color carryover from the preview to new items, using both search and probe detection measures. There…

  5. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  6. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  7. Window Design Criteria to Avoid Overheating by Excessive Solar Heat Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.

    Building Research studies show that overheating because of excessive solar heat gains can be troublesome in buildings of lightweight construction with large areas of glazing. The work being done at the Building Research Station provides the data for calculation of peak temperatures resulting from solar heat gain. Attention is given to window size…

  8. Note: A heated-air curtain design using the Coanda effect to protect optical access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gustavious Paul; Keenan, Thomas L.; Herning, James; Kimblin, Clare; DiBenedetto, John; Anthony, Glen

    2011-01-01

    We present an air knife design for creating a heated air curtain to protect optical infrared access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments. The design uses the Coanda effect to turn the air curtain and to attach the air curtain to the window surface. The design was tested and verified on our 24 m stack and used extensively over a 6 yr period on several release stacks. During testing and subsequent use no detrimental changes to access window materials have been noted. This design allows stack monitoring without significantly affecting the stack flow profile or chemical concentration.

  9. Note: A heated-air curtain design using the Coanda effect to protect optical access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gustavious Paul; Keenan, Thomas L; Herning, James; Kimblin, Clare; DiBenedetto, John; Anthony, Glen

    2011-01-01

    We present an air knife design for creating a heated air curtain to protect optical infrared access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments. The design uses the Coanda effect to turn the air curtain and to attach the air curtain to the window surface. The design was tested and verified on our 24 m stack and used extensively over a 6 yr period on several release stacks. During testing and subsequent use no detrimental changes to access window materials have been noted. This design allows stack monitoring without significantly affecting the stack flow profile or chemical concentration.

  10. Buck-boost converter feedback controller design via evolutionary search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareswaran, K.; Devi, V.; Nadeem, S. K.; Sreedevi, V. T.; Palani, S.

    2010-11-01

    Buck-boost converters are switched power converters. The model of the converter system varies from the ON state to the OFF state and hence traditional methods of controller design based on approximate transfer function models do not yield good dynamic response at different operating points of the converter system. This article attempts to design a feedback controller for a buck-boost type dc-dc converter using a genetic algorithm. The feedback controller design is perceived as an optimisation problem and a robust controller is estimated through an evolutionary search. Extensive simulation and experimental results provided in the article show the effectiveness of the new approach.

  11. Application of multivariable search techniques to structural design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.; Hague, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Multivariable optimization techniques are applied to a particular class of minimum weight structural design problems: the design of an axially loaded, pressurized, stiffened cylinder. Minimum weight designs are obtained by a variety of search algorithms: first- and second-order, elemental perturbation, and randomized techniques. An exterior penalty function approach to constrained minimization is employed. Some comparisons are made with solutions obtained by an interior penalty function procedure. In general, it would appear that an interior penalty function approach may not be as well suited to the class of design problems considered as the exterior penalty function approach. It is also shown that a combination of search algorithms will tend to arrive at an extremal design in a more reliable manner than a single algorithm. The effect of incorporating realistic geometrical constraints on stiffener cross-sections is investigated. A limited comparison is made between minimum weight cylinders designed on the basis of a linear stability analysis and cylinders designed on the basis of empirical buckling data. Finally, a technique for locating more than one extremal is demonstrated.

  12. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiative Heating Experiment, RHE, aboard the Aeroassist Flight Experiment, AFE, (now cancelled) was to make in-situ measurements of the stagnation region shock layer radiation during an aerobraking maneuver from geosynchronous to low earth orbit. The measurements were to provide a data base to help develop and validate aerothermodynamic computational models. Although cancelled, much work was done to develop the science requirements and to successfully meet RHE technical challenges. This paper discusses the RHE scientific objectives and expected science performance of a small sapphire window for the RHE radiometers. The spectral range required was from 170 to 900 nm. The window size was based on radiometer sensitivity requirements including capability of on-orbit solar calibration.

  13. Simulated annealing and metaheuristic for randomized priority search algorithms for the aerial refuelling parallel machine scheduling problem with due date-to-deadline windows and release times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the aerial refuelling scheduling problem (ARSP), where a set of fighter jets (jobs) with certain ready times must be refuelled from tankers (machines) by their due dates; otherwise, they reach a low fuel level (deadline) incurring a high cost. ARSP is an identical parallel machine scheduling problem with release times and due date-to-deadline windows to minimize the total weighted tardiness. A simulated annealing (SA) and metaheuristic for randomized priority search (Meta-RaPS) with the newly introduced composite dispatching rule, apparent piecewise tardiness cost with ready times (APTCR), are applied to the problem. Computational experiments compared the algorithms' solutions to optimal solutions for small problems and to each other for larger problems. To obtain optimal solutions, a mixed integer program with a piecewise weighted tardiness objective function was solved for up to 12 jobs. The results show that Meta-RaPS performs better in terms of average relative error but SA is more efficient.

  14. Replacement steel windows

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Condren, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the authors experiences in the investigation, design, and installation of replacement steel windows for two renovation projects at a major university in the northeast: a student residential complex and the law school. The authors review the construction of the existing walls (cast-in-place concrete barrier wall at the student residential complex and brick and stone masonry barrier wall at the law school), and the construction and performance of the original steel windows. To maintain the appearance of these architecturally significant buildings, the university elected to install replacement steel windows. The authors discuss special design consideration for steel windows (versus the more prevalent aluminum replacement window), including available window section profiles, corrosion protection, frame fabrication, and glazing design. The authors also review window flashing concepts they employed for the barrier wall construction, which has no drainage cavity. The authors summarize lessons learned during the window selection, design, fabrication, testing, and installation phases of the projects, and present recommendations for improved durability and water penetration resistance of steel windows.

  15. An Integrated Hydrofoil and Propeller Design Tool for the Window (Trademark) Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    reserved. 0 The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute pulicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis dowment in... Thesis Supervisor Accepted by Acce y-." -- A. Douglas Carmichael Professor of Ocean Engineering C airman Department Graduate Committee PfflMUTnoN ST-A1Th...Help Program 62 3-30 WindowsTM MIT-PLL Help Program with Help Displayed 63 3-31 MIT-PI L Editor 64 3-32 MIT-PLL Edit Process 65 3-33 MIT-PLL Wake File

  16. Design and construction of a storm window with increased thermal efficiency which opens to allow ventilation as needed. Final technical report, proposal number F375

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The project as originally conceived and funded envisioned a conventional full - window - length storm sash mounted in the cement block window opening. Appropriate linkage would open the storm sash. This design proved to be a safety hazard and physically undesirable. The design of the storm window sash was revised. Individual storm frames were to be mounted on each awning sash. Mechanical interferences with the storm sash occurred when a two inch air space was used. This was solved by reducing the air space to the optimum dimension of 3/4 inches. The sizes and configuration of the awning type windows were studied to aid in cost effective and efficient design of the storm frame. It was discovered that in all but the later (aluminum conserving) models, the window pane was recessed 3/4 inches. This serendipidous fact resulted in the design of a triple glazed window utilizing only one storm sash glazed on both sides. The resultant combination window and storm sash is estimated to give approximately R 3.9 to R 5.2 insulation value.

  17. Fast color grouping and slow color inhibition: evidence for distinct temporal windows for separate processes in preview search.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jason J; Humphreys, Glyn W; Hulleman, Johan; Watson, Derrick G

    2007-06-01

    The authors report 4 experiments that examined color grouping and negative carryover effects in preview search via a probe detection task (J. J. Braithwaite, G. W. Humphreys, & J. Hodsoll, 2003). In Experiment 1, there was evidence of a negative color carryover from the preview to new items, using both search and probe detection measures. There was also a negative bias against probes on old items that carried the majority color in the preview. With a short preview duration (150 ms) carryover effects to new items were greatly reduced, but probe detection remained biased against the majority color in the old items. Experiments 2 and 4 showed that the color bias effects on old items could be reduced when these items had to be prioritized relative to being ignored. Experiment 3 tested and rejected the idea that variations in the probability of whether minority or majority colors were probed were crucial. These results show that the time course of color carryover effects can be separated from effects of early color grouping in the preview display: Color grouping is fast, and inhibitory color carryover effects are slow.

  18. Window insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, W. A.

    1985-10-01

    An insulator for mounting to a window. A pair of plastic layers including a plurality of partitions positioned therebetween form air pockets between the layers. A plurality of suction cups and suction grooves arranged in rows on one outer surface of the sheet removably secure the sheet to a window. The sheet includes a circumferentially extending recessed portion receiving the window frame.

  19. Search Hanford accessible reports electronically system design description. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gilomen, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Search Hanford Accessible Records Electronically (SHARE) system was produced by a combined team of personnel from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Corrective Action Data Systems (CADS) and Information Resource Management (IRM) Information and Scientific Systems (ISS) organizations. The ESQD Text Evaluation and exchange Tool (ETEXT) prototype was used as a basis for the requirements used to support this design/build effort. TOPIC was used to build the SHARE application. TOPIC is a text search and retrieval software product produced by the Verity Corporation. The TOPIC source code is not provided with the product, and the programs cannot be changed. TOPIC can be customized for special requirements. The software is fully documented. Help messages, menu and screen layouts, command edits and options, and internal system design are all described in the TOPIC documentation. This System Design Description (SDD) will not reiterate the TOPIC documentation and design. Instead, it will focus on the SHARE installation of TOPIC. This SDD is designed to assist the SHARE database/infobase administrator (DBA) in maintaining and supporting the application. It assumes that the assigned DBA is knowledgeable in using the TOPIC product, and is also knowledgeable in using a personal computer (PC), Disk Operating System (DOS) commands, and the document WHC-CM-3-10. SHARE is an Impact Level 4 system, and all activities related to SHARE must conform with the WHC-CM-3-10 procedures for an Impact Level 4 system. The Alternatives Analysis will be treated as a level 3-Q document, to allow for reference by potential future projects.

  20. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  1. Optimizing nanophotonic cavity designs with the gravitational search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Saucer, Timothy W; Sih, Vanessa

    2013-09-09

    Designing photonic crystal cavities with high quality factors and low mode volumes is of great importance for maximizing interactions of light and matter in metamaterials. Previous work on photonic crystal cavities has revealed dramatic improvements in performance by fine-tuning the device design. In L3 cavities, slight shifts of the holes on the edge of the cavity have been found to greatly increase quality factors without significantly altering the mode volume. Here we demonstrate utilizing a nature inspired search algorithm to efficiently explore a large parameter space. The results converge upon a new cavity model with a high quality factor to mode volume ratio (Q/V = 798,000 (λ/n)(-3)).

  2. Design and Empirical Evaluation of Search Software for Legal Professionals on the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Bert J.; Vreeland, Robert C.; Sumner, Robert G., Jr.; Yang, Kiduk

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of effective search aids for legal researchers on the World Wide Web focuses on the design and evaluation of two software systems developed to explore models for browsing and searching across a user-selected set of Web sites. Describes crawler-enhanced search engines, filters, distributed full-text searching, and natural language…

  3. Testing a New Design for Subject Searching in Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabenstott, Karen M.; Weller, Marjorie S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a project that demonstrates subject searching in an experimental online catalog based on academic library databases that were enhanced with search trees; compares the retrieval effectiveness of search trees with random subject searching approaches; evaluates system and retrieval effectiveness; and discusses proposed research. (Contains…

  4. Designing of PVA/Rose Bengal long-pass optical window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bashir, S. M.; Yahia, I. S.; Binhussain, M. A.; AlSalhi, M. S.

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Rose Bengal (RB) composite films were prepared by casting technique form aqueous solutions doped with different dye concentrations. The effect of dye concentration on the structure, spectroscopic and optical properties was characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The optical limiting properties of PVA/RB films were measured using He-Ne laser beam at 632.8 nm wavelength and showed the best optical limiting behavior at high dye concentrations. The results were interpreted on the basis of hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups in PVA and the carbonyl group of face-to face stacked H-aggregates of RB molecules which was evident by all the characterization techniques. Furthermore, PVA/10 wt% RB film showed excellent optical cut-off properties in the spectral range (600-1400 nm) with a high transmission value (Σ 84%) which is a promising result for the long-pass optical filters and protective window applications.

  5. A preliminary human factors planning and design outline of parameters related to space station windows and CCTV monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The question of the merits of placing windows on proposed future space stations is addressed. The use of windows for human visual capabilities is compared to using closed circuit television. Placement and field of view, as well as the number of windows is discussed.

  6. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ∼800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set. PMID:27079901

  7. Campus: "Lab" and "Window" for Sustainable Design Research and Education--The DECOS Educational Network Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezzoli, Carlo; Penin, Lara

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to diffuse the concept of a multi-lateral learning process as a means to promote experimental didactics and research (and the cross-fertilization between these two activities) in the field of design of sustainable product-service systems (PSSs) and to consider the university campus as the locus for the design,…

  8. Campus: "Lab" and "Window" for Sustainable Design Research and Education--The DECOS Educational Network Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezzoli, Carlo; Penin, Lara

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to diffuse the concept of a multi-lateral learning process as a means to promote experimental didactics and research (and the cross-fertilization between these two activities) in the field of design of sustainable product-service systems (PSSs) and to consider the university campus as the locus for the design,…

  9. On the search for design principles in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Poyatos, Juan F

    2012-01-01

    The search for basic concepts and underlying principles was at the core of the systems approach to science and technology. This approach was somehow abandoned in mainstream biology after its initial proposal, due to the rise and success of molecular biology. This situation has changed. The accumulated knowledge of decades of molecular studies in combination with new technological advances, while further highlighting the intricacies of natural systems, is also bringing back the quest-for-principles research program. Here, I present two lessons that I derived from my own quest: the importance of studying biological information processing to identify common principles in seemingly unrelated contexts and the adequacy of using known design principles at one level of biological organization as a valuable tool to help recognizing principles at an alternative one. These and additional lessons should contribute to the ultimate goal of establishing principles able to integrate the many scales of biological complexity.

  10. Study of design-based e-beam defect inspection for hotspot detection and process window characterization on 10nm logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Halder, Sandip; Di Lorenzo, Paolo; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Fang, Wei; Liu, Kevin; Jau, Jack

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink of design rules from 14nm to 10nm to 7nm, conserving process windows in a high volume manufacturing environment is becoming more and more difficult. Masks, scanners, and etch processes have to meet very tight specifications in order to keep defect, CD, as well as overlay within the margins of the process window. In this work, we study a design-based e-beam defect inspection technology for wafer level process window characterization and intra-field defect variability on 10nm logic devices. Due to high resolution, e-beam technology is the natural choice for review and/or detection of subtle pattern deviations, aka defects. The capability of integrating design information (GDS file) with defect detection, dimension measurement of critical structure, and defect classification provides added values for engineers to identify yield limiting systematic defects and to provide feedback to design.

  11. CAVE WINDOW

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  12. Winflume: Windows-based Software for the Design and Calibration of Long-throated Measuring Flumes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs provide a practical, low-cost, flexible means of measuring open-channel flows in new and existing irrigation systems, with distinct advantages over other flume and weir devices. A primary advantage is the fact that these structures can be custom-designed ...

  13. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  14. Air transparent soundproof window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  15. Statistical Design of Experiments on Fabrication of Bilayer Tablet of Narrow Absorption Window Drug: Development and In vitro characterisation.

    PubMed

    Jivani, R R; Patel, C N; Jivani, N P

    2012-07-01

    The current study involves the fabrication of oral bioadhesive bilayer matrices of narrow absorption window drug baclofen and the optimisation of their in vitro drug release and characterisation. Statistical design of experiments, a computer-aided optimisation technique, was used to identify critical factors, their interactions and ideal process conditions that accomplish the targeted response(s). A central composite design was employed to systematically optimise the drug delivery containing a polymer, filler and compression force. The values of ratio of different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and compression force were varied to be fitted in design. Drug release at 1 h (Q1), 4 h (Q4), 8 h (Q8), 12 h (Q12), and hardness were taken as responses. Tablets were prepared by direct compression methods. The compressed tablets were evaluated for their hardness, weight variation, friability, content uniformity and diameter. Counter plots were drawn and optimum formulation was selected by desirability function. The formulations were checked for their ex vivo mucoadhesion. The experimental value of Q1, Q4, Q8, Q12 and hardness for check-point batch was found to be 31.64, 45.82, 73.27, 98.95% and 4.4 kg/cm(2), respectively. The release profile indicates Highuchi kinetics (Fickian transport) mechanism. The results of the statistical analysis of the data demonstrated significant interactions amongst the formulation variables, and the desirability function was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to predict the optimal formulation for the bilayer tablet.

  16. Design of rigid GRIN-endoscope with sapphire window and improved image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluder, Grzegorz; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Bakholdin, Alexey

    2015-05-01

    The possibilities of using gradient index (GRIN) lenses as the objective and relay lens in rigid endoscopic systems working in visible spectrum are investigated. The final aim of the project is to obtain a system providing diffraction limited image quality, which could be used for examining the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes steps of the design of the system with working distance equal to 125 mm and angular field of view 25°. The diameter of the GRIN lenses is equal to 2,2 mm. Influence of the gradient of refractive index on the image quality is shown. Current results are analysed and future steps are described.

  17. Design and implementation of a Windows NT network to support CNC activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearrow, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Manufacturing, Materials, & Processes Technology Division is undergoing dramatic changes to bring it's manufacturing practices current with today's technological revolution. The Division is developing Computer Automated Design and Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) abilities. The development of resource tracking is underway in the form of an accounting software package called Infisy. These two efforts will bring the division into the 1980's in relationship to manufacturing processes. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is the final phase of change to be implemented. This document is a qualitative study and application of a CIM application capable of finishing the changes necessary to bring the manufacturing practices into the 1990's. The documentation provided in this qualitative research effort includes discovery of the current status of manufacturing in the Manufacturing, Materials, & Processes Technology Division including the software, hardware, network and mode of operation. The proposed direction of research included a network design, computers to be used, software to be used, machine to computer connections, estimate a timeline for implementation, and a cost estimate. Recommendation for the division's improvement include action to be taken, software to utilize, and computer configurations.

  18. Design of an Event-Driven Random-Access-Windowing CCD-Based Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P.; Lam, Raymond K.; Portillo, Angel A.; Ortiz, Gerardo G.

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available cameras are not design for the combination of single frame and high-speed streaming digital video with real-time control of size and location of multiple regions-of-interest (ROI). A new control paradigm is defined to eliminate the tight coupling between the camera logic and the host controller. This functionality is achieved by defining the indivisible pixel read out operation on a per ROI basis with in-camera time keeping capability. This methodology provides a Random Access, Real-Time, Event-driven (RARE) camera for adaptive camera control and is will suited for target tracking applications requiring autonomous control of multiple ROI's. This methodology additionally provides for reduced ROI read out time and higher frame rates compared to the original architecture by avoiding external control intervention during the ROI read out process.

  19. Presurgical window of opportunity trial design as a platform for testing anticancer drugs: Pros, cons and a focus on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Barba, Maddalena; Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Catenaro, Teresa; Di Lauro, Luigi; Mottolese, Marcella; Santini, Daniele; Milella, Michele; De Maria, Ruggero

    2016-10-01

    The high attrition rate is a major issue in anticancer drug development. Among the alternative trial designs, presurgical window of opportunity trials envision a short course treatment in the time window between diagnostic biopsy and surgery in a moderately-sized patient population. This approach allows testing therapeutics when pre- and post-treatment tumor tissues are available for comprehensive molecular analyses. The emerging evidence may help define the ability of a given agent to modulate its target(s) and help obtain a broader picture of the molecular changes operated by the treatment. The resulting gain may outweigh the potential harms for patients in the early disease setting. Window of opportunity trials have been extensively applied to breast cancer. Overall, a wider use of these trial designs might lead to the identification of potential responders, ineffective drugs or combinations, and ultimately contribute to enhance the efficiency of the clinical developmental process.

  20. Window generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William K.; May, Roger A.

    1989-03-01

    The present invention relates generally to video target recognition systems and more specifically to a window generator which receives a field of video data and applies an identification code to rectangular subregions to identify distinct target areas within a given background area. The present invention comprises a window generator which provides a 6 bit target identification number for up to 63 target areas and one background area in a frame of serially scanned data. The window generator receives a field of video data from an image data source. This video data consists of digitized frames of serially scanned data similar to a conventional television screen image, which is divided horizontally in pixels, and vertically in lines. The window generator permits any given frame to be subdivided into specific rectangular subregions, which may be located anywhere on the video picture. By allowing statistics to be collected on the individual subregions (or target areas) the window generator permits local processing of video data within the specified target areas as opposed to processing of video data over the entire video field. One embodiment of the window generator is composed of: a microprocessor, a random access memory (RAM), a comparator, a line memory, two counters, an OR gate, a frame initialization circuit, and a buffer. These elements function as described below.

  1. My face, a window to communication: using creative design in learning.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Elizabeth; Collins, Diane; Carey, Melissa

    2010-11-01

    Creative art as part of assessment in nursing is a powerful alternative to traditional methods of promoting engagement for students who have different learning styles, and who value engagement in creative activities. This paper describes an innovative assessment approach for first year nursing students which addressed the development of a beginning knowledge base in therapeutic communication as well as critical thinking and writing skills. Each student was asked to design a wearable mask to display an abstract interpretation of the therapeutic communication skills required as a nursing student, followed by a discussion about therapeutic nursing communication. Results from an evaluation of the assessment are described using Bigg's (1995) structure of observed learning outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Seventy percent of students (n=35) found the new assessment to be an effective learning strategy. As a creative exercise, 82% (n=41) found the assessment to have engaged them at a personal level. More effort is needed for innovative assessment strategies to promote student engagement. Use of a creative assessment approach that incorporates art creation shows much promise in bridging the gap from a superficial understanding of concepts to an understanding characterised by deeper learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association Sorting Algorithm Design for Error Searching System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Dong, Zhenghong; Li, Mengwei

    2017-02-01

    For the searching results of error searching system for Integrated Decision Information System (IDIS), this paper proposed a method to carry out association sorting according to degree of association of searched results by keywords, which can priorily recommend user interested searching results. Errors of IDIS platform are occurred very often. Because those errors belong to different stages like setup, configuration, and operation, or those errors may occurred in different services, applications, or IP ports, or may be happened in different system software, different version of software, and those errors are also can be classified into different types. As there will be many error information are searched out, it is required to sort them according to degree of association, and provide user interested results. This paper proposed a method to carry out association sorting for the searching results according to the times of searched repeated results by keywords, which effectively put results with high degree of association in the front and increase the searching efficiency.

  3. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  4. Au nanorod design as light-absorber in the first and second biological near-infrared windows for in vivo photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Fong; Chang, Shih-Hui Gilbert; Cheng, Fong-Yu; Shanmugam, Vijayakumar; Cheng, Yu-Sheng; Su, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2013-06-25

    Photothermal cancer therapy using near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation is an emerging treatment. In the NIR region, two biological transparency windows are located in 650-950 nm (first NIR window) and 1000-1350 nm (second NIR window) with optimal tissue transmission obtained from low scattering and energy absorption, thus providing maximum radiation penetration through tissue and minimizing autofluorescence. To date, intensive effort has resulted in the generation of various methods that can be used to shift the absorbance of nanomaterials to the 650-950 nm NIR regions for studying photoinduced therapy. However, NIR light absorbers smaller than 100 nm in the second NIR region have been scant. We report that a Au nanorod (NR) can be designed with a rod-in-shell (rattle-like) structure smaller than 100 nm that is tailored to be responsive to the first and second NIR windows, in which we can perform hyperthermia-based therapy. In vitro performance clearly displays high efficacy in the NIR photothermal destruction of cancer cells, showing large cell-damaged area beyond the laser-irradiated area. This marked phenomenon has made the rod-in-shell structure a promising hyperthermia agent for the in vivo photothermal ablation of solid tumors when activated using a continuous-wave 808 m (first NIR window) or a 1064 nm (second NIR window) diode laser. We tailored the UV-vis-NIR spectrum of the rod-in-shell structure by changing the gap distance between the Au NR core and the AuAg nanoshell, to evaluate the therapeutic effect of using a 1064 nm diode laser. Regarding the first NIR window with the use of an 808 nm diode laser, rod-in-shell particles exhibit a more effective anticancer efficacy in the laser ablation of solid tumors compared to Au NRs.

  5. Window Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A highly reflective insulating material developed to protect NASA spacecraft from intense solar radiation is now being used in a commercially-available window-insulating product which offers significant energy savings. Called Nunsun, it is a thin metallized film adhesively bonded to windows of homes, office buildings, schools, industrial plants and other facilities; the film reflects the sun's heat and glare outward, thereby cutting down on energy costs for cooling. Trained dealer personnel can affix the film to windows of any size in minutes (right), converting ordinary glass to heat-reflective mirror glass at a fraction of the cost. Manufactured by National Metallizing, a division of Standard Packaging Corporation, Cranbury, New Jersey, Nunsun is also available in windowshade form.

  6. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  7. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  8. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third…

  9. Windows and daylighting: A brighter outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This is an overview of energy efficient window glazing and framing technology. The topics of the report include: windows and energy use, a point of view; a challenging federal opportunity; DOE window research; advanced optical technologies such as spectrally selective glazing, switchable glazing, super windows with low-emissivity coatings and noble gas fills; and performance evaluation and design tools.

  10. Through the Google Goggles: Sociopolitical Bias in Search Engine Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, A.

    Search engines like Google are essential to navigating the Web's endless supply of news, political information, and citizen discourse. The mechanisms and conditions under which search results are selected should therefore be of considerable interest to media scholars, political theorists, and citizens alike. In this chapter, I adopt a "deliberative" ideal for search engines and examine whether Google exhibits the "same old" media biases of mainstreaming, hypercommercialism, and industry consolidation. In the end, serious objections to Google are raised: Google may favor popularity over richness; it provides advertising that competes directly with "editorial" content; it so overwhelmingly dominates the industry that users seldom get a second opinion, and this is unlikely to change. Ultimately, however, the results of this analysis may speak less about Google than about contradictions in the deliberative ideal and the so-called "inherently democratic" nature of the Web.

  11. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-01-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  12. Physical Database Design for Efficient Time-Series Similarity Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jinho; Park, Sanghyun

    Similarity search in time-series databases finds such data sequences whose changing patterns are similar to that of a query sequence. For efficient processing, it normally employs a multi-dimensional index. In order to alleviate the well-known dimensionality curse, the previous methods for similarity search apply the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) to data sequences, and take only the first two or three DFT coefficients as organizing attributes. Other than this ad-hoc approach, there have been no research efforts on devising a systematic guideline for choosing the best organizing attributes. This paper first points out the problems occurring in the previous methods, and proposes a novel solution to construct optimal multi-dimensional indexes. The proposed method analyzes the characteristics of a target time-series database, and identifies the organizing attributes having the best discrimination power. It also determines the optimal number of organizing attributes for efficient similarity search by using a cost model. Through a series of experiments, we show that the proposed method outperforms the previous ones significantly.

  13. A guided search genetic algorithm using mined rules for optimal affective product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Chris K. Y.; Kwong, C. K.; Chan, Kit Yan; Jiang, H.

    2014-08-01

    Affective design is an important aspect of new product development, especially for consumer products, to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. It can help companies to develop new products that can better satisfy the emotional needs of customers. However, product designers usually encounter difficulties in determining the optimal settings of the design attributes for affective design. In this article, a novel guided search genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to determine the optimal design attribute settings for affective design. The optimization model formulated based on the proposed approach applied constraints and guided search operators, which were formulated based on mined rules, to guide the GA search and to achieve desirable solutions. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the proposed approach and validate its effectiveness. Validation tests were conducted, and the results show that the guided search GA approach outperforms the GA approach without the guided search strategy in terms of GA convergence and computational time. In addition, the guided search optimization model is capable of improving GA to generate good solutions for affective design.

  14. Design and implementation of laser target simulator in hardware-in-the-loop simulation system based on LabWindows/CVI and RTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Qiujie; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Xiaoyang; Shan, Bin; Cui, Xuntai; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to satisfy the requirements of the real-time and generality, a laser target simulator in semi-physical simulation system based on RTX+LabWindows/CVI platform is proposed in this paper. Compared with the upper-lower computers simulation platform architecture used in the most of the real-time system now, this system has better maintainability and portability. This system runs on the Windows platform, using Windows RTX real-time extension subsystem to ensure the real-time performance of the system combining with the reflective memory network to complete some real-time tasks such as calculating the simulation model, transmitting the simulation data, and keeping real-time communication. The real-time tasks of simulation system run under the RTSS process. At the same time, we use the LabWindows/CVI to compile a graphical interface, and complete some non-real-time tasks in the process of simulation such as man-machine interaction, display and storage of the simulation data, which run under the Win32 process. Through the design of RTX shared memory and task scheduling algorithm, the data interaction between the real-time tasks process of RTSS and non-real-time tasks process of Win32 is completed. The experimental results show that this system has the strongly real-time performance, highly stability, and highly simulation accuracy. At the same time, it also has the good performance of human-computer interaction.

  15. Design of an On-Line Query Language for Full Text Patent Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glantz, Richard S.

    The design of an English-like query language and an interactive computer environment for searching the full text of the U.S. patent collection are discussed. Special attention is paid to achieving a transparent user interface, to providing extremely broad search capabilities (including nested substitution classes, Kleene star events, and domain…

  16. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  17. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  18. Search for efficient complete and planned missing data designs for analysis of change.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Jia, Fan; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Little, Todd D

    2016-09-01

    The design of longitudinal data collection is an essential component of any study of change. A well-designed study will maximize the efficiency of statistical tests and minimize the cost of available resources (e.g., budget). Two families of designs have been used to collect longitudinal data: complete data (CD) and planned missing (PM) designs. This article proposes a systematic and flexible procedure named SEEDMC (SEarch for Efficient Designs using Monte Carlo Simulation) to search for efficient CD and PM designs for growth-curve modeling under budget constraints. This procedure allows researchers to identify efficient designs for multiple effects separately and simultaneously, and designs that are robust to MCAR attrition. SEEDMC is applied to identify efficient designs for key change parameters in linear and quadratic growth models. The identified efficient designs are summarized and the strengths and possible extensions of SEEDMC are discussed.

  19. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  20. Tocorime Apicu: design and validation of an experimental search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Reginald L.

    2001-07-01

    In the development of an integrated, experimental search engine, Tocorime Apicu, the incorporation and emulation of the evolutionary aspects of the chosen biological model (honeybees) and the field of high-performance knowledge discovery in databases results in the coupling of diverse fields of research: evolutionary computations, biological modeling, machine learning, statistical methods, information retrieval systems, active networks, and data visualization. The use of computer systems provides inherent sources of self-similarity traffic that result from the interaction of file transmission, caching mechanisms, and user-related processes. These user-related processes are initiated by the user, application programs, or the operating system (OS) for the user's benefit. The effect of Web transmission patterns, coupled with these inherent sources of self-similarity associated with the above file system characteristics, provide an environment for studying network traffic. The goal of the study was client-based, but with no user interaction. New methodologies and approaches were needed as network packet traffic increased in the LAN, LAN+WAN, and WAN. Statistical tools and methods for analyzing datasets were used to organize data captured at the packet level for network traffic between individual source/destination pairs. Emulation of the evolutionary aspects of the biological model equips the experimental search engine with an adaptive system model which will eventually have the capability to evolve with an ever- changing World Wide Web environment. The results were generated using a LINUX OS.

  1. Breakdown in ceramic window

    SciTech Connect

    Dhavale, A.S.; Mittal, K.C.

    2014-07-01

    A capacitive type coaxial ceramic window is designed for the SC linac. The coaxial power coupler has inner conductor diameter 34.8 mm and outer conductor diameter 80 mm. An alumina disk of diameter 150 mm and thickness 3.6 mm is used as ceramic. The diameter of the inner conductor of the coupler near the ceramic is increased to 39.2 mm to match the impedance at 1050 MHz. A copper prototype of the window is fabricated and characterized. A performance of the window is often degraded because of the multipacting. A CST particle studio is used to simulate the multipacting trajectories. The particle trajectories are observed at different locations and different power levels up to 1 MW. The results are dependent on the initial position of the primary electron and power level. A few soft multipacting barriers are observed at the operating power level. (author)

  2. In Search of Design-Focus in IS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babb, Jeffry S.; Waguespack, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    Curricula in information systems embrace a broad range of topics that leave the identity of information systems as a discipline somewhat in flux. In the spirit of "the first among equals," we posit that design should have preeminence in the education of information systems professionals. Design frames problem understanding and defines…

  3. Searching Creativity: (N)On Place Design Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Önal, Gökçe Ketizmen

    This study is mainly about developing an approach for fostering creativity in design education through analyzing the interactions among creative dimensions resembling spatial and organizational pattern of folding as a technique and also by the help of cognitive action of designers: workshop participants. In order to make an assessment, a case…

  4. Automobile design. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design of automobiles (domestic and foreign). Topics include engines, exhaust, fuels, transmissions, and suspension systems. Also covered are computer aided design, computer graphics, gas turbine engines, and propulsion systems. (Contains a minimum of 144 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Target Window Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  6. In Search for a Robust Design of Environmental Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Budi, Setia; Susanto, Ferry; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg; Malhotra, Vishv; Turner, Paul

    2017-03-22

    This paper presents an approach to the design of Environmental Sensor Networks (ESN) which aims at providing a robust, fit-for-purpose network with minimum redundancy. A set of near optimum ESN designs is sought using an Evolutionary Algorithm, which incorporates redundancy and robustness as fitness functions. This work can assist the decision making process when determining the number of sensor nodes and how the nodes are going to be deployed in the region of interest.

  7. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    PubMed

    Pynt, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'.

  8. Search Interface Design Using Faceted Indexing for Web Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadason, Francis; Intaraksa, Neelawat; Patamawongjariya, Pornprapa; Desai, Kavita

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access to Web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the Deep Structure Indexing System (DSIS) derived from POPSI (Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya, and the facet analysis and chain indexing system of Ranganathan. (AEF)

  9. Search Interface Design Using Faceted Indexing for Web Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadason, Francis; Intaraksa, Neelawat; Patamawongjariya, Pornprapa; Desai, Kavita

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access to Web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the Deep Structure Indexing System (DSIS) derived from POPSI (Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya, and the facet analysis and chain indexing system of Ranganathan. (AEF)

  10. Conserved PCR primer set designing for closely-related species to complete mitochondrial genome sequencing using a sliding window-based PSO algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Ho, Chang-Hsuan; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2011-03-18

    Complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequencing is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. For long template sequencing, i.e., like the entire mtDNA, it is essential to design primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplicons which are partly overlapping each other. The presented chromosome walking strategy provides the overlapping design to solve the problem for unreliable sequencing data at the 5' end and provides the effective sequencing. However, current algorithms and tools are mostly focused on the primer design for a local region in the genomic sequence. Accordingly, it is still challenging to provide the primer sets for the entire mtDNA. The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated primer design algorithm for entire mt genome in general, and for the common primer sets for closely-related species in particular. We introduce ClustalW to generate the multiple sequence alignment needed to find the conserved sequences in closely-related species. These conserved sequences are suitable for designing the common primers for the entire mtDNA. Using a heuristic algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO), all the designed primers were computationally validated to fit the common primer design constraints, such as the melting temperature, primer length and GC content, PCR product length, secondary structure, specificity, and terminal limitation. The overlap requirement for PCR amplicons in the entire mtDNA is satisfied by defining the overlapping region with the sliding window technology. Finally, primer sets were designed within the overlapping region. The primer sets for the entire mtDNA sequences were successfully demonstrated in the example of two closely-related fish species. The pseudo code for the primer design algorithm is provided. In conclusion, it can be said that our proposed sliding window-based PSO algorithm provides the necessary primer sets for the entire mt genome amplification and

  11. Search for a C0 IR design using existing magnets

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Johnstone

    2000-07-05

    Future upgrades at Fermilab possibly include installation of a third detector in the Tevatron at the C0 straight section. The front-running contender for this site is currently the BTeV heavy quark program. A significant fraction of proposed BTeV detector R and D calls for installation of a new low-luminosity interaction region at C0 early in Run II. New magnets will not be available during the interim period and any medium {beta}{sup *} IR insert must therefore be designed solely from Tevatron spares. This paper discusses some of the IR optics design issues related specifically to this magnet restriction and, more generally, issues affecting the Tevatron and its operation that will arise with the installation of any low-{beta}{sup *} IR at C0. The results of several attempts (and subsequent failures) to find a viable C0 IR optics solution using existing magnets are presented.

  12. Searching for missing heritability: Designing rare variant association studies

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, Or; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Samocha, Kaitlin; Do, Ron; Hechter, Eliana; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Lander, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies have revealed thousands of loci predisposing to hundreds of human diseases and traits, revealing important biological pathways and defining novel therapeutic hypotheses. However, the genes discovered to date typically explain less than half of the apparent heritability. Because efforts have largely focused on common genetic variants, one hypothesis is that much of the missing heritability is due to rare genetic variants. Studies of common variants are typically referred to as genomewide association studies, whereas studies of rare variants are often simply called sequencing studies. Because they are actually closely related, we use the terms common variant association study (CVAS) and rare variant association study (RVAS). In this paper, we outline the similarities and differences between RVAS and CVAS and describe a conceptual framework for the design of RVAS. We apply the framework to address key questions about the sample sizes needed to detect association, the relative merits of testing disruptive alleles vs. missense alleles, frequency thresholds for filtering alleles, the value of predictors of the functional impact of missense alleles, the potential utility of isolated populations, the value of gene-set analysis, and the utility of de novo mutations. The optimal design depends critically on the selection coefficient against deleterious alleles and thus varies across genes. The analysis shows that common variant and rare variant studies require similarly large sample collections. In particular, a well-powered RVAS should involve discovery sets with at least 25,000 cases, together with a substantial replication set. PMID:24443550

  13. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  14. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  15. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  16. Searching for Concurrent Design Patterns in Video Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Micah J.; Fedorova, Alexandra; Dickie, Ryan; Tagliasacchi, Andrea; Couture-Beil, Alex; Mustard, Craig; Mottishaw, Shane; Brown, Aron; Huang, Zhi Feng; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Ghazali, Nasser; Brownsword, Andrew

    The transition to multicore architectures has dramatically underscored the necessity for parallelism in software. In particular, while new gaming consoles are by and large multicore, most existing video game engines are essentially sequential and thus cannot easily take advantage of this hardware. In this paper we describe techniques derived from our experience parallelizing an open-source video game Cube 2. We analyze the structure and unique requirements of this complex application domain, drawing conclusions about parallelization tools and techniques applicable therein. Our experience and analysis convinced us that while existing tools and techniques can be used to solve parts of this problem, none of them constitutes a comprehensive solution. As a result we were inspired to design a new parallel programming environment (PPE) targeted specifically at video game engines and other complex soft real-time systems. The initial implementation of this PPE, Cascade, and its performance analysis are also presented.

  17. IR Window Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-15

    spectrophometry . Our approach to the second objective is based on a distinction between metathesis and reduction as methods of removing impurities...for an experiment which can give accurate enough data for the application of our method to measure the relative contribution of the...found extensive application in optical devices designed for the 10 y wavelength region. Modulators, mirror substrates, and laser windows have beer

  18. An effective hybrid cuckoo search and genetic algorithm for constrained engineering design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.; Jawahar, N.; Mukund Nilakantan, J.

    2014-10-01

    This article presents an effective hybrid cuckoo search and genetic algorithm (HCSGA) for solving engineering design optimization problems involving problem-specific constraints and mixed variables such as integer, discrete and continuous variables. The proposed algorithm, HCSGA, is first applied to 13 standard benchmark constrained optimization functions and subsequently used to solve three well-known design problems reported in the literature. The numerical results obtained by HCSGA show competitive performance with respect to recent algorithms for constrained design optimization problems.

  19. Ontology-Driven Search and Triage: Design of a Web-Based Visual Interface for MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Demelo, Jonathan; Parsons, Paul; Sedig, Kamran

    2017-02-02

    Diverse users need to search health and medical literature to satisfy open-ended goals such as making evidence-based decisions and updating their knowledge. However, doing so is challenging due to at least two major difficulties: (1) articulating information needs using accurate vocabulary and (2) dealing with large document sets returned from searches. Common search interfaces such as PubMed do not provide adequate support for exploratory search tasks. Our objective was to improve support for exploratory search tasks by combining two strategies in the design of an interactive visual interface by (1) using a formal ontology to help users build domain-specific knowledge and vocabulary and (2) providing multi-stage triaging support to help mitigate the information overload problem. We developed a Web-based tool, Ontology-Driven Visual Search and Triage Interface for MEDLINE (OVERT-MED), to test our design ideas. We implemented a custom searchable index of MEDLINE, which comprises approximately 25 million document citations. We chose a popular biomedical ontology, the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), to test our solution to the vocabulary problem. We implemented multistage triaging support in OVERT-MED, with the aid of interactive visualization techniques, to help users deal with large document sets returned from searches. Formative evaluation suggests that the design features in OVERT-MED are helpful in addressing the two major difficulties described above. Using a formal ontology seems to help users articulate their information needs with more accurate vocabulary. In addition, multistage triaging combined with interactive visualizations shows promise in mitigating the information overload problem. Our strategies appear to be valuable in addressing the two major problems in exploratory search. Although we tested OVERT-MED with a particular ontology and document collection, we anticipate that our strategies can be transferred successfully to other contexts.

  20. Ontology-Driven Search and Triage: Design of a Web-Based Visual Interface for MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Diverse users need to search health and medical literature to satisfy open-ended goals such as making evidence-based decisions and updating their knowledge. However, doing so is challenging due to at least two major difficulties: (1) articulating information needs using accurate vocabulary and (2) dealing with large document sets returned from searches. Common search interfaces such as PubMed do not provide adequate support for exploratory search tasks. Objective Our objective was to improve support for exploratory search tasks by combining two strategies in the design of an interactive visual interface by (1) using a formal ontology to help users build domain-specific knowledge and vocabulary and (2) providing multi-stage triaging support to help mitigate the information overload problem. Methods We developed a Web-based tool, Ontology-Driven Visual Search and Triage Interface for MEDLINE (OVERT-MED), to test our design ideas. We implemented a custom searchable index of MEDLINE, which comprises approximately 25 million document citations. We chose a popular biomedical ontology, the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), to test our solution to the vocabulary problem. We implemented multistage triaging support in OVERT-MED, with the aid of interactive visualization techniques, to help users deal with large document sets returned from searches. Results Formative evaluation suggests that the design features in OVERT-MED are helpful in addressing the two major difficulties described above. Using a formal ontology seems to help users articulate their information needs with more accurate vocabulary. In addition, multistage triaging combined with interactive visualizations shows promise in mitigating the information overload problem. Conclusions Our strategies appear to be valuable in addressing the two major problems in exploratory search. Although we tested OVERT-MED with a particular ontology and document collection, we anticipate that our strategies can be

  1. Design and analysis of a self-biased broadband magnetoelectric cantilever operated at multi-frequency windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J. N.; Xin, C. Z.; Ma, J.; Lin, Y. H.; Nan, C. W.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites with self-biased and wide resonance frequency band properties are promising candidates for magnetic field sensor and energy harvester. Here, we present a ME cantilever by in-series connecting a few SrFe12O19/Metglas/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 components. Due to the in-built magnetic bias of SrFe12O19, the ME cantilever shows self-biased property. Meanwhile, by merging the resonance responses of the in-series ME components together, the ME cantilever presents multi-wide resonance bands (i.e., 500 Hz ˜ 700 Hz, 3.3 kHz ˜ 4.4 kHz and 44 kHz ˜ 70 kHz). In these three wide frequency windows, the ME voltage coefficients (α V) of the ME cantilever are higher than 40 mV/Oe, 115 mV/Oe and 400 mV/Oe, respectively.

  2. Study of Fuze Structure and Reliability Design Based on the Direct Search Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhang; Ning, Wang

    2017-03-01

    Redundant design is one of the important methods to improve the reliability of the system, but mutual coupling of multiple factors is often involved in the design. In my study, Direct Search Method is introduced into the optimum redundancy configuration for design optimization, in which, the reliability, cost, structural weight and other factors can be taken into account simultaneously, and the redundant allocation and reliability design of aircraft critical system are computed. The results show that this method is convenient and workable, and applicable to the redundancy configurations and optimization of various designs upon appropriate modifications. And this method has a good practical value.

  3. Reviewing Ligand-Based Rational Drug Design: The Search for an ATP Synthase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Hsien; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Following major advances in the field of medicinal chemistry, novel drugs can now be designed systematically, instead of relying on old trial and error approaches. Current drug design strategies can be classified as being either ligand- or structure-based depending on the design process. In this paper, by describing the search for an ATP synthase inhibitor, we review two frequently used approaches in ligand-based drug design: The pharmacophore model and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Moreover, since ATP synthase ligands are potentially useful drugs in cancer therapy, pharmacophore models were constructed to pave the way for novel inhibitor designs. PMID:21954360

  4. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  5. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-05-04

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  6. Evaluation of ALON for cannon window application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Richard A.; Kerwien, Henry

    1999-07-01

    In the application of laser ignition to large caliber cannons, a critical element is the window into the cannon chamber to admit the laser energy. This window must repeatedly withstand a particularly harsh environment of highly reactive high temperature combustion products from the gun propeller at pressures up to 440 MPa. Failure of the window can be caused by either thermal gradients in the window or mechanical force, or a combustion. Previous successes with single-crystal sapphire have sometimes been limited by window deterioration modes suggestive of crystalline behavior. Samples of ALON have been fabricated in the same design as the standard sapphire windows and were qualified for gun testing. This process involves a series of experiments in a closed chamber where gun propellant is burned to generate an environment similar to that inside the gun. Windows mounted in two methods have been tested. One of these windows has survived the full pre-gun test series with no visible damage.

  7. The "Known" in Known-Item Searches: Empirical Support for User-Centered Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; O'Neill, Ann L.

    1995-01-01

    User-centered design of catalog records requires the study of user behaviors and cognition related to interaction with the catalog. During 3 phases of a pilot study, 103 catalog users described 386 searches; searchers generally knew the title, publication date, page numbers, and/or the author. (Author/AEF)

  8. Efficient and Accurate Optimal Linear Phase FIR Filter Design Using Opposition-Based Harmony Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S. K.; Dutta, R.; Choudhury, R.; Kar, R.; Mandal, D.; Ghoshal, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems. PMID:23844390

  9. Efficient and accurate optimal linear phase FIR filter design using opposition-based harmony search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Saha, S K; Dutta, R; Choudhury, R; Kar, R; Mandal, D; Ghoshal, S P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems.

  10. Strategic Considerations in the Design of a Screening System for Substructure Searches of Chemical Structure Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, George W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in the design of screening systems for substructure searches of chemical structure files is the development of a methodology for selection of an optimal set of structural characteristics to act as screens. Distributions of several structural characteristics of the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry System are summarized. (13…

  11. Strategic Considerations in the Design of a Screening System for Substructure Searches of Chemical Structure Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, George W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in the design of screening systems for substructure searches of chemical structure files is the development of a methodology for selection of an optimal set of structural characteristics to act as screens. Distributions of several structural characteristics of the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry System are summarized. (13…

  12. Design and implementation of I2Vote--an interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices.

    PubMed

    van Ooijen, P M A; Broekema, A; Oudkerk, M

    2011-08-01

    To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft® Windows Mobile® 6 Classic with a large 3.5 in. TFT touch screen (320×240 pixel resolution), high luminance and integrated IEEE 802.11b/g wireless. For software development Visual Studio 2008 professional (Microsoft) was used and all components were written in C#. Two test sessions were conducted to test the software technically followed by two real classroom tests in a radiology class for medical students on thoracic radiology. The novel ARS, called I2Vote, was successfully implemented and provided an easy to use, stable setup. The acceptance of both students and teachers was very high and the interaction with the students improved because of the anonymous interaction possibility. An easy to use handheld based ARS that enables interactive, image-based, teaching is achieved. The system effectively adds an extra dimension to the use of an ARS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SUSTAINABLE ALLOY DESIGN: SEARCHING FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT ALTERNATIVES THROUGH CRYSTAL ENGINEERING

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    necessary if the abstract is to be limited. Standard Form 298 Back (Rev. 8/98) SUSTAINABLE ALLOY DESIGN : SEARCHING FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT ALTERNATIVES...approach to predict Co and Ti site preference for a quaternary alloy Ni3Al(Co,Ti). 4. Developed new charge optimized many-body (COMB) potentials...Probe correlative microscopy. II. RE free solute design for Ni based superalloys Optimal pathways, which are not captured in the periodic

  14. Experimental concept and design of DarkLight, a search for a heavy photon

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Ray F.

    2013-11-01

    This talk gives an overview of the DarkLight experimental concept: a search for a heavy photon A′ in the 10-90 MeV/c 2 mass range. After briefly describing the theoretical motivation, the talk focuses on the experimental concept and design. Topics include operation using a half-megawatt, 100 MeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab FEL, detector design and performance, and expected backgrounds estimated from beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. An Adaptive Tabu Search Heuristic for the Location Routing Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows with a Theater Distribution Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Fractional Factorial Design........................................... 128 6.3 An Excel – VBA based LPDPTW Problem Generator...an entirely different vehicle type ( tanker ) than a Class I (Food) demand (flatbed trailer). Additionally, a Class V (Ammunition) demand generally...are no longer aliased with other two factor interactions. 6.3 An Excel – VBA based LPDPTW Problem Generator The design of experiment described in

  16. A checklist to assess database-hosting platforms for designing and running searches for systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Alison; Rogers, Morwenna

    2014-03-01

    Systematic reviews require literature searches that are precise, sensitive and often complex. Database-hosting platforms need to facilitate this type of searching in order to minimise errors and the risk of bias in the results. The main objective of the study was to create a generic checklist of criteria to assess the ability of host platforms to cope with complex searching, for example, for systematic reviews, and to test the checklist against three host platforms (EBSCOhost, OvidSP and ProQuest). The checklist was developed as usual review work was carried out and through discussion between the two authors. Attributes on the checklist were designated as 'desirable' or 'essential'. The authors tested the checklist independently against three host platforms and graded their performance from 1 (insufficient) to 3 (performs well). Fifty-five desirable or essential attributes were identified for the checklist. None of the platforms performed well for all of the attributes on the checklist. Not all database-hosting platforms are designed for complex searching. Librarians and other decision-makers who work in health research settings need to be aware of the different limitations of host platforms for complex searching when they are making purchasing decisions or training others. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  17. Designing prospective cohort studies for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicity during sensitive windows of human reproduction and development – the LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Germaine M. Buck; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Wilcosky, Timothy C.; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Schrader, Steven M.; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2014-01-01

    Summary Buck Louis GM, Schisterman EF, Sweeney AM, Wilcosky TC, Gore-Langton RE, Lynch CD, Boyd Barr D, Schrader SM, Kim S, Chen Z, Sundaram R, on behalf of the LIFE Study. Designing prospective cohort studies for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicity during sensitive windows of human reproduction and development – the LIFE Study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2011; 25: 413–424. The relationship between the environment and human fecundity and fertility remains virtually unstudied from a couple-based perspective in which longitudinal exposure data and biospecimens are captured across sensitive windows. In response, we completed the LIFE Study with methodology that intended to empirically evaluate a priori purported methodological challenges: implementation of population-based sampling frameworks suitable for recruiting couples planning pregnancy;obtaining environmental data across sensitive windows of reproduction and development;home-based biospecimen collection; anddevelopment of a data management system for hierarchical exposome data. We used two sampling frameworks (i.e. fish/wildlife licence registry and a direct marketing database) for 16 targeted counties with presumed environmental exposures to persistent organochlorine chemicals to recruit 501 couples planning pregnancies for prospective longitudinal follow-up while trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. Enrolment rates varied from <1% of the targeted population (n = 424 423) to 42% of eligible couples who were successfully screened; 84% of the targeted population could not be reached, while 36% refused screening. Among enrolled couples, ~85% completed daily journals while trying; 82% of pregnant women completed daily early pregnancy journals, and 80% completed monthly pregnancy journals. All couples provided baseline blood/urine samples; 94% of men provided one or more semen samples and 98% of women provided one or more saliva samples. Women successfully used urinary fertility

  18. Redefining the Axion Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Mescia, Federico; Nardi, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of axion searches is to reach inside the parameter space region of realistic axion models. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We consider hadronic axion models and classify the representations RQ of the new heavy quarks Q . By requiring that (i) the Q 's are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long-lived strongly interacting relics, (ii) no Landau poles are induced below the Planck scale; 15 cases are selected which define a phenomenologically preferred axion window bounded by a maximum (minimum) value of the axion-photon coupling about 2 times (4 times) larger than is commonly assumed. Allowing for more than one RQ, larger couplings, as well as complete axion-photon decoupling, become possible.

  19. On the design of a postprocessor for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence /SETI/ system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J.; Seeger, C. L.; Stull, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an on-line postprocessor for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) system is described. Signal processing tasks of the postprocessor include: (1) analysis of power level, phase coherence, and state of polarization of single-channel signals in a search for significant signals; (2) grouping or aggregation of adjacent channel data, time averaging of data; and (3) the detection of drifting and modulated signals. Control functions include multichannel spectrum analyzer frequency and clock control, system calibration and selfdiagnostic, control of data flow to and from short-term and long-term (archival) memories, and operation of detection subsystems, such as a visual display and a tunable receiver.

  20. On the design of a postprocessor for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence /SETI/ system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J.; Seeger, C. L.; Stull, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an on-line postprocessor for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) system is described. Signal processing tasks of the postprocessor include: (1) analysis of power level, phase coherence, and state of polarization of single-channel signals in a search for significant signals; (2) grouping or aggregation of adjacent channel data, time averaging of data; and (3) the detection of drifting and modulated signals. Control functions include multichannel spectrum analyzer frequency and clock control, system calibration and selfdiagnostic, control of data flow to and from short-term and long-term (archival) memories, and operation of detection subsystems, such as a visual display and a tunable receiver.

  1. Design for a New Observatory for the Optical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covault, Corbin

    2012-03-01

    For decades scientists have searched the skies for signals from extraterrestrial civilizations using large radio telescopes. However, researchers have recently considered the possibility that signals sent at optical wavelengths may be a more promising means of interstellar communications. Such signals may be sent in the form of very rapid (ns) light pulses generated by large lasers. In principle, optical telescopes equipped with high-speed light sensors can be used to detect such signals. Already, several groups have initiated preliminary search efforts. Here we describe the design for a new observatory to search for optical signals from extraterrestrial sources. Our design is relatively inexpensive to build, and observations can be conducted remotely by students. We use a set of four individual telescopes to scan the sky as it moves overhead. Each telescope includes a large area Fresnel lens and an array of photo-multiplier tubes. The four telescopes will be operated in coincidence so as to minimize the chance of recording false signals due to background light fluctuations. Preliminary performance estimates suggest that this design will allow for the most sensitive optical searches done to date. Deployment and initial observations are scheduled to begin Summer 2012.

  2. Three-dimensional laser window formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report discusses in detail the aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formation of these windows. Included in this discussion are the design criteria, bonding mediums, and evaluation testing for three-dimensional laser windows.

  3. Pharmacophore modeling and three-dimensional database searching for drug design using catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Y; Güner, O F

    2001-07-01

    Perceiving a pharmacophore is the first essential step towards understanding the interaction between a receptor and a ligand. Once a pharmacophore is established, a beneficial use of it is 3D database searching to retrieve novel compounds that would match the pharmacophore, without necessarily duplicating the topological features of known active compounds (hence remain independent of existing patents). As the 3D searching technology has evolved over the years, it has been effectively used for lead optimization, combinatorial library focusing, as well as virtual high-throughput screening. Clearly established as one of the successful computational tools in rational drug design, we present in this review article a brief history of the evolution of this technology and detailed algorithms of Catalyst, the latest 3D searching software to be released. We also provide brief summary of published successes with this technology, including two recent patent applications.

  4. Design and implementation of priority and time-window based traffic scheduling and routing-spectrum allocation mechanism in elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honghuan; Xing, Fangyuan; Yin, Hongxi; Zhao, Nan; Lian, Bizhan

    2016-02-01

    With the explosive growth of network services, the reasonable traffic scheduling and efficient configuration of network resources have an important significance to increase the efficiency of the network. In this paper, an adaptive traffic scheduling policy based on the priority and time window is proposed and the performance of this algorithm is evaluated in terms of scheduling ratio. The routing and spectrum allocation are achieved by using the Floyd shortest path algorithm and establishing a node spectrum resource allocation model based on greedy algorithm, which is proposed by us. The fairness index is introduced to improve the capability of spectrum configuration. The results show that the designed traffic scheduling strategy can be applied to networks with multicast and broadcast functionalities, and makes them get real-time and efficient response. The scheme of node spectrum configuration improves the frequency resource utilization and gives play to the efficiency of the network.

  5. Design and Implementation of Sound Searching Robots in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Han, Lianfu; Shen, Zhengguang; Fu, Changfeng; Liu, Chao

    2016-09-21

    A sound target-searching robot system which includes a 4-channel microphone array for sound collection, magneto-resistive sensor for declination measurement, and a wireless sensor networks (WSN) for exchanging information is described. It has an embedded sound signal enhancement, recognition and location method, and a sound searching strategy based on a digital signal processor (DSP). As the wireless network nodes, three robots comprise the WSN a personal computer (PC) in order to search the three different sound targets in task-oriented collaboration. The improved spectral subtraction method is used for noise reduction. As the feature of audio signal, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) is extracted. Based on the K-nearest neighbor classification method, we match the trained feature template to recognize sound signal type. This paper utilizes the improved generalized cross correlation method to estimate time delay of arrival (TDOA), and then employs spherical-interpolation for sound location according to the TDOA and the geometrical position of the microphone array. A new mapping has been proposed to direct the motor to search sound targets flexibly. As the sink node, the PC receives and displays the result processed in the WSN, and it also has the ultimate power to make decision on the received results in order to improve their accuracy. The experiment results show that the designed three-robot system implements sound target searching function without collisions and performs well.

  6. Design and Implementation of Sound Searching Robots in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lianfu; Shen, Zhengguang; Fu, Changfeng; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A sound target-searching robot system which includes a 4-channel microphone array for sound collection, magneto-resistive sensor for declination measurement, and a wireless sensor networks (WSN) for exchanging information is described. It has an embedded sound signal enhancement, recognition and location method, and a sound searching strategy based on a digital signal processor (DSP). As the wireless network nodes, three robots comprise the WSN a personal computer (PC) in order to search the three different sound targets in task-oriented collaboration. The improved spectral subtraction method is used for noise reduction. As the feature of audio signal, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) is extracted. Based on the K-nearest neighbor classification method, we match the trained feature template to recognize sound signal type. This paper utilizes the improved generalized cross correlation method to estimate time delay of arrival (TDOA), and then employs spherical-interpolation for sound location according to the TDOA and the geometrical position of the microphone array. A new mapping has been proposed to direct the motor to search sound targets flexibly. As the sink node, the PC receives and displays the result processed in the WSN, and it also has the ultimate power to make decision on the received results in order to improve their accuracy. The experiment results show that the designed three-robot system implements sound target searching function without collisions and performs well. PMID:27657088

  7. Engineering Bacteria to Search for Specific Concentrations of Molecules by a Systematic Synthetic Biology Design Method.

    PubMed

    Tien, Shin-Ming; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria navigate environments full of various chemicals to seek favorable places for survival by controlling the flagella's rotation using a complicated signal transduction pathway. By influencing the pathway, bacteria can be engineered to search for specific molecules, which has great potential for application to biomedicine and bioremediation. In this study, genetic circuits were constructed to make bacteria search for a specific molecule at particular concentrations in their environment through a synthetic biology method. In addition, by replacing the "brake component" in the synthetic circuit with some specific sensitivities, the bacteria can be engineered to locate areas containing specific concentrations of the molecule. Measured by the swarm assay qualitatively and microfluidic techniques quantitatively, the characteristics of each "brake component" were identified and represented by a mathematical model. Furthermore, we established another mathematical model to anticipate the characteristics of the "brake component". Based on this model, an abundant component library can be established to provide adequate component selection for different searching conditions without identifying all components individually. Finally, a systematic design procedure was proposed. Following this systematic procedure, one can design a genetic circuit for bacteria to rapidly search for and locate different concentrations of particular molecules by selecting the most adequate "brake component" in the library. Moreover, following simple procedures, one can also establish an exclusive component library suitable for other cultivated environments, promoter systems, or bacterial strains.

  8. A niched Pareto tabu search for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Wu, Jianfeng; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Jichun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a new multi-objective optimization method, the niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS), for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed NPTS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport code, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to search for the near Pareto-optimal tradeoffs of groundwater remediation strategies. The difference between the proposed NPTS and the existing multiple objective tabu search (MOTS) lies in the use of the niche selection strategy and fitness archiving to maintain the diversity of the optimal solutions along the Pareto front and avoid repetitive calculations of the objective functions associated with the flow and transport model. Sensitivity analysis of the NPTS parameters is evaluated through a synthetic pump-and-treat remediation application involving two conflicting objectives, minimizations of both remediation cost and contaminant mass remaining in the aquifer. Moreover, the proposed NPTS is applied to a large-scale pump-and-treat groundwater remediation system of the field site at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, involving minimizations of both total pumping rates and contaminant mass remaining in the aquifer. Additional comparison of the results based on the NPTS with those obtained from other two methods, namely the single objective tabu search (SOTS) and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), further indicates that the proposed NPTS has desirable computation efficiency, stability, and robustness and is a promising tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems.

  9. Engineering Bacteria to Search for Specific Concentrations of Molecules by a Systematic Synthetic Biology Design Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria navigate environments full of various chemicals to seek favorable places for survival by controlling the flagella’s rotation using a complicated signal transduction pathway. By influencing the pathway, bacteria can be engineered to search for specific molecules, which has great potential for application to biomedicine and bioremediation. In this study, genetic circuits were constructed to make bacteria search for a specific molecule at particular concentrations in their environment through a synthetic biology method. In addition, by replacing the “brake component” in the synthetic circuit with some specific sensitivities, the bacteria can be engineered to locate areas containing specific concentrations of the molecule. Measured by the swarm assay qualitatively and microfluidic techniques quantitatively, the characteristics of each “brake component” were identified and represented by a mathematical model. Furthermore, we established another mathematical model to anticipate the characteristics of the “brake component”. Based on this model, an abundant component library can be established to provide adequate component selection for different searching conditions without identifying all components individually. Finally, a systematic design procedure was proposed. Following this systematic procedure, one can design a genetic circuit for bacteria to rapidly search for and locate different concentrations of particular molecules by selecting the most adequate “brake component” in the library. Moreover, following simple procedures, one can also establish an exclusive component library suitable for other cultivated environments, promoter systems, or bacterial strains. PMID:27096615

  10. Cooperative learning over composite search spaces: Experiences with a multi-agent design system

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.V.N.; Lesser, V.R.; Lander, S.E.

    1996-12-31

    We suggest the use of two learning techniques - short term and long term - to enhance search efficiency in a multi-agent design system by letting the agents learn about non-local requirements on the local search process. The first technique allows an agent to accumulate and apply constraining information about global problem solving, gathered as a result of agent communication, to further problem solving within the same problem instance. The second technique is used to classify problem instances and appropriately index and retrieve constraining information to apply to new problem instances. These techniques will be presented within the context of a multi-agent parametric-design application called STEAM. We show that learning conclusively improves solution quality and processing-time results.

  11. Design of a Pilot-Activated Recovery System Using Genetic Search Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Copyright 1999 by Optimal Synthesis . All Rights Reserved. DESIGN OF A PILOT-ACTIVATED RECOVERY SYSTEM USING GENETIC SEARCH METHODS G. D. Sweriduk...and P. K. Menon† M. L. Steinberg‡ Optimal Synthesis Inc. Aeromechanics Division 470 San Antonio Road, Suite 200 Naval Air Systems Command Palo Alto, CA...Flight Control Engineer, Senior Member, AIAA Copyright ©1999 by Optimal Synthesis Inc.. Printed by the American Institute of Aeronautics and

  12. Apollo experience report: Spacecraft structural windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pigg, O. E.; Weiss, S. P.

    1973-01-01

    The window structural design and verification experience is presented for the Apollo command and lunar modules. This report presents window design philosophy, design criteria, hardware description, and qualification and acceptance test programs and discusses the problems encountered and solutions developed in these areas. The structural characteristics of glass are not generally well understood by designers. The optics and instrument glass covers were not considered to be structural components and thus were not normally subjected to the design, qualification, and acceptance standards necessary to preclude failures. These two factors contributed significantly to window problems on both Apollo spacecraft.

  13. Cost-Optimal Design of a 3-Phase Core Type Transformer by Gradient Search Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, R.; Das, A.; Sensarma, A. K.; Sanyal, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    3-phase core type transformers are extensively used as power and distribution transformers in power system and their cost is a sizable proportion of the total system cost. Therefore they should be designed cost-optimally. The design methodology for reaching cost-optimality has been discussed in details by authors like Ramamoorty. It has also been discussed in brief in some of the text-books of electrical design. The paper gives a method for optimizing design, in presence of constraints specified by the customer and the regulatory authorities, through gradient search technique. The starting point has been chosen within the allowable parameter space the steepest decent path has been followed for convergence. The step length has been judiciously chosen and the program has been maneuvered to avoid local minimal points. The method appears to be best as its convergence is quickest amongst different optimizing techniques.

  14. Fossum at Cupola windows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-19

    ISS029-E-043401 (19 Nov. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 29 commander, looks through a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station. A blue and white part of Earth is visible through the windows.

  15. Fossum at Cupola windows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-19

    ISS029-E-043397 (19 Nov. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 29 commander, looks through a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station. A blue and white part of Earth is visible through the windows.

  16. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Older types of window cleaners may contain: Ammonia Ethanol Isopropyl alcohol Methanol New types of window cleaners ... pain Vomiting Vomiting blood HEART AND BLOOD Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly LUNGS AND AIRWAYS ...

  17. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  18. Estimation of ZnSe Slow-Crack-Growth Properties for Design of the Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews some of the literature on the fracture strength, fracture toughness, and crack growth properties of chemical-vapor-deposited ZnSe. The literature was reviewed to determine if the existing data on ZnSe is adequate to design windows for the Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) project. Unfortunately, most of the published reports do not give all of the necessary design parameters despite having measured the data to do so. Further, the original data is not available. The data tabulated herein was determined by digitizing plots in original reprints of the publications. Based on the published data, an estimate of the slow-crack-growth parameters for small cracks in 100 percent humidity was made. For 100 percent humidity, the slow-crack-growth parameters n and A for small crack (or single crystal) failure were estimated. Weibull moduli estimated from bending of beams and circular plates ranged from 4 to 9, while fracture strengths ranged from 29 MPa in water to 72 MPa in dry nitrogen. Fracture toughness measurements yielded ranges, with the lower values representing failure from small flaws within grains and the larger values representing macroscopic cracks. Much of the data analyzed exhibited significant scatter, and the standard deviations were very large.

  19. Window Replacement Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Explores ways to replace facility windows more easily and efficiently by evaluating long-term needs and window options. Recommends obtaining references from window manufacturer and installer, scheduling the work during times the facility is unoccupied, and ensuring that historic and life-safety issues be considered. (GR)

  20. Design and Implementation of a Threaded Search Engine for Tour Recommendation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghoon; Park, Gyung-Leen; Ko, Jin-Hee; Shin, In-Hye; Kang, Mikyung

    This paper implements a threaded scan engine for the O(n!) search space and measures its performance, aiming at providing a responsive tour recommendation and scheduling service. As a preliminary step of integrating POI ontology, mobile object database, and personalization profile for the development of new vehicular telematics services, this implementation can give a useful guideline to design a challenging and computation-intensive vehicular telematics service. The implemented engine allocates the subtree to the respective threads and makes them run concurrently exploiting the primitives provided by the operating system and the underlying multiprocessor architecture. It also makes it easy to add a variety of constraints, for example, the search tree is pruned if the cost of partial allocation already exceeds the current best. The performance measurement result shows that the service can run even in the low-power telematics device when the number of destinations does not exceed 15, with an appropriate constraint processing.

  1. SP-100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Marcille, T.F.; Protsik, R.; Deane, N.A.; Hoover, D.G. )

    1993-01-15

    The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport code, several input processors and two general purpose neutronic output processors. Coupling these programs within ENGINEOUS provides automatic transition paths between applications, with no source code modifications. ENGINEOUS captures human design knowledge, as well as information about the specific CAE applications and stores this information in knowledge base files. The knowledge base information is used by the ENGINEOUS expert system to drive knowledge directed and knowledge supplemented search modules to find an optimum shield design for a given reactor definition, ensuring that specified constraints are satisfied. Alternate designs, not accommodated in the optimization design rules, can readily be explored through the use of a parametric study capability.

  2. SP-100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcille, Thomas F.; Protsik, Robert; Deane, Nelson A.; Hoover, Darryl G.

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport code, several input processors and two general purpose neutronic output processors. Coupling these programs within ENGINEOUS provides automatic transition paths between applications, with no source code modifications. ENGINEOUS captures human design knowledge, as well as information about the specific CAE applications and stores this information in knowledge base files. The knowledge base information is used by the ENGINEOUS expert system to drive knowledge directed and knowledge supplemented search modules to find an optimum shield design for a given reactor definition, ensuring that specified constraints are satisfied. Alternate designs, not accommodated in the optimization design rules, can readily be explored through the use of a parametric study capability.

  3. Aberration and boresight error correction for conformal aircraft windows using the inner window surface and tilted fixed correctors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhu; Cui, Qingfeng; Mao, Shan

    2016-04-01

    A static solution to aberrations and boresight error for tilted conformal aircraft windows at different look angles is reported. The solution uses the inner window surface to correct the window aberrations at a 0° look angle and uses fixed correctors behind the window to correct the residual window aberrations at other look angles. Then, the boresight error for the window at different look angles is corrected by tilting the fixed correctors. The principle of the solution is discussed, and a design example shows that the solution is effective in correcting the aberrations and boresight error for a tilted conformal aircraft window at different look angles.

  4. Conformal ALON® windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Smith, Mark; Nag, Nagendra; Foti, Robyn; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2014-05-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Optical Ceramic) combines broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. ALON's cubic structure means that it is transparent in its polycrystalline form, allowing it to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet controls every aspect of the manufacturing process, beginning with synthesis of ALON® powder, continuing through forming/heat treatment of blanks, ending with optical fabrication of ALON® windows. Surmet has made significant progress in its production capability in recent years. Additional scale up of Surmet's manufacturing capability, for complex geometries, larger sizes and higher quantities, is underway. The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. Surmet's ability to produce large curved ALON® blanks is an important step in the development of conformal windows for future aircraft applications.

  5. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schildkamp, W.; Nikitina, L.

    2012-09-15

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  6. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schildkamp, W; Nikitina, L

    2012-09-01

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  7. Extended design window of resonant plasma-wave transistor for terahertz emitter by considering degenerate carrier velocity model with Fermi-Dirac distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Yul; Kim, Sung-Ho; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we propose extended design window which is helpful to judge whether the plasma-wave transistor (PWT) operates as a resonant terahertz (THz) electromagnetic (EM) wave emitter. When metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is on strong inversion which is believed to be an operation regime of PWT THz emitter, Boltzmann statistics is no longer valid and degenerate Fermi-Dirac distribution should be considered. Based on degenerate carrier velocity model, we report the increased maximum channel length (Lmax) to 17 nm for strained silicon (s-Si) PWT with assuming μ = 500 cm2·V-1·s-1. As mobility is enhanced, it is possible to observe two emission spectrums [fundamental (N = 1) and third (N = 3) harmonics] in a specific operation range. Theoretically, increment of Lmax for enhanced μ is limited to near 35 nm by the Pauli’s principle in the case of s-Si PWT. This theoretical value of Lmax should be compromised by considering actual PWT operation voltage for gate oxide breakdown.

  8. Optimum tuned mass damper design using harmony search with comparison of classical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Bekdaş, Gebrail; Sayin, Baris

    2017-07-01

    As known, tuned mass dampers (TMDs) are added to mechanical systems in order to obtain a good vibration damping. The main aim is to reduce the maximum amplitude at the resonance state. In this study, a metaheuristic algorithm called harmony search employed for the optimum design of TMDs. As the optimization objective, the transfer function of the acceleration of the system with respect to ground acceleration was minimized. The numerical trails were conducted for 4 single degree of freedom systems and the results were compared with classical methods. As a conclusion, the proposed method is feasible and more effective than the other documented methods.

  9. A design study of a signal detection system. [for search of extraterrestrial radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described which can aid in the search for radio signals from extraterrestrial sources, or in other applications characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios and very high data rates. The system follows a multichannel (16 million bin) spectrum analyzer, and has critical processing, system control, and memory fuctions. The design includes a moderately rich set of algorithms to be used in parallel to detect signals of unknown form. A multi-threshold approach is used to obtain high and low signal sensitivities. Relatively compact and transportable memory systems are specified.

  10. Extending the X Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1993-12-23

    The X Window System was originally developed in 1984 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It provides client-server computing functionality and also facilitates the establishment of a distributed computing environment. Since its inception the X Window System has undergone many enhancements. Despite these enhancements there will always be a functionality desired in the standard released version of X that is not supported or commercially or academically available. The developers of the X Window System have designed it in such a way that it is possible to add functionality that is not included in the standard release. This is called an extension. Extensions are one method used to develop a customized version of the X Window System to support a specialized application. This report presents the mechanics of adding an extension and examines a particular extension that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support data compression in X Windows which was one aspect of the Desktop Video and Collaborative Engineering Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD).

  11. Optimization of Spherical Roller Bearing Design Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and Grid Search Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rajiv; Waghole, Vikas

    2015-07-01

    Bearing standards impose restrictions on the internal geometry of spherical roller bearings. Geometrical and strength constraints conditions have been formulated for the optimization of bearing design. The long fatigue life is one of the most important criteria in the optimum design of bearing. The life is directly proportional to the dynamic capacity; hence, the objective function has been chosen as the maximization of dynamic capacity. The effect of speed and static loads acting on the bearing are also taken into account. Design variables for the bearing include five geometrical parameters: the roller diameter, the roller length, the bearing pitch diameter, the number of rollers, and the contact angle. There are a few design constraint parameters which are also included in the optimization, the bounds of which are obtained by initial runs of the optimization. The optimization program is made to run for different values of these design constraint parameters and a range of the parameters is obtained for which the objective function has a higher value. The artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA) has been used to solve the constrained optimized problem and the optimum design is compared with the one obtained from the grid search method (GSM), both operating independently. Both the ABCA and the GSM have been finally combined together to reach the global optimum point. A constraint violation study has also been carried out to give priority to the constraint having greater possibility of violations. Optimized bearing designs show a better performance parameter with those specified in bearing catalogs. The sensitivity analysis of bearing parameters has also been carried out to see the effect of manufacturing tolerance on the objective function.

  12. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng; Li, Yan; Tang, Tian-Jin

    2012-06-01

    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects. Considering the imaging performance, flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows. For aircrafts operating at high speeds, the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic, but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes. The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with, respectively, a flat window, a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared. Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard, aerodynamic drag, narcissus effect, and imaging performance, so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application.

  13. IMPATT Diodes Based on 〈111〉, 〈100〉, and 〈110〉 Oriented GaAs: A Comparative Study to Search the Best Orientation for Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Windows.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bhadrani; Tripathi, Anvita; Das, Adrija; Singh, Kumari Alka; Acharyya, Aritra; Banerjee, J P

    2015-01-01

    The authors have carried out the large-signal (L-S) simulation of double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diodes based on 〈111〉, 〈100〉, and 〈110〉 oriented GaAs. A nonsinusoidal voltage excited (NSVE) L-S simulation technique is used to investigate both the static and L-S performance of the above-mentioned devices designed to operate at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) atmospheric window frequencies, such as 35, 94, 140, and 220 GHz. Results show that 〈111〉 oriented GaAs diodes are capable of delivering maximum RF power with highest DC to RF conversion efficiency up to 94 GHz; however, the L-S performance of 〈110〉 oriented GaAs diodes exceeds their other counterparts while the frequency of operation increases above 94 GHz. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for the future experimentalists to choose the GaAs substrate of appropriate orientation to fabricate DDR GaAs IMPATT diodes at mm-wave frequencies.

  14. A metabolic network analysis & NMR experiment design tool with user interface-driven model construction for depth-first search analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, T; Phalakornkule, C; Ghosh, S; Grossmann, I E; Koepsel, R R; Ataai, M M; Domach, M M

    2003-04-01

    A Windows program for metabolic engineering analysis and experimental design has been developed. A graphical user interface enables the pictorial, "on-screen" construction of a metabolic network. Once a model is composed, balance equations are automatically generated. Model construction, modification and information exchange between different users is thus considerably simplified. For a given model, the program can then be used to predict all the extreme point flux distributions that optimize an objective function while satisfying balances and constraints by using a depth-first search strategy. One can also find the minimum reaction set that satisfies different conditions. Based on the identified flux distributions or linear combinations, the user can simulate the NMR and GC/MS spectra of selected signal molecules. Alternately, spectra vectorization allows for the automated optimization of labeling experiments that are intended to distinguish between different, yet plausible flux extreme point distributions. The example provided entails predicting the flux distributions associated with deleting pyruvate kinase and designing 13C NMR experiments that can maximally discriminate between the flux distributions.

  15. Custom Windows: The Choice Is Crystal Clear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the 12 services schools should request of their custom window manufacturer. Services requested are designed to make a viable partnership between the school and manufacturer that satisfies building aesthetics, enhances performance needs, and controls risk. (GR)

  16. The Serendip II design. [narrowband astronautical radio signal search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werthimer, D.; Tarter, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Serendip II is an automated system designed to perform a real time search for narrow band radio signals in the spectra of sources in a regularly scheduled, non-Seti, astronomical observing program. Because Serendip II is expected to run continuously without requiring dedicated observing time, it is hoped that a large portion of the sky will be surveyed at high sensitivity and low cost. Serendip II will compute the power spectrum using a 65,536 channel fast Fourier transform processor with a real time bandwidth of 128 KHz and 2 Hz per channel resolution. After searching for peaks in a 100 KHz portion of the radio telescope's IF band, Serendip II will move to the next 100 KHz portion using a programmable frequency synthesizer; when the whole IF band has been scanned, the process will start again. Unidentified peaks in the power spectra are candidates for further study and their celestial coordinates will be recorded along with the time and power, IF and RF frequency, and bandwidth of the peak.

  17. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  18. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Reference energy extremal optimization: a stochastic search algorithm applied to computational protein design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naigong; Zeng, Chen

    2008-08-01

    We adapt a combinatorial optimization algorithm, extremal optimization (EO), for the search problem in computational protein design. This algorithm takes advantage of the knowledge of local energy information and systematically improves on the residues that have high local energies. Power-law probability distributions are used to select the backbone sites to be improved on and the rotamer choices to be changed to. We compare this method with simulated annealing (SA) and motivate and present an improved method, which we call reference energy extremal optimization (REEO). REEO uses reference energies to convert a problem with a structured local-energy profile to one with more random profile, and extremal optimization proves to be extremely efficient for the latter problem. We show in detail the large improvement we have achieved using REEO as compared to simulated annealing and discuss a number of other heuristics we have attempted to date. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Laser sealed evacuated window glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. K.; Tracy, C. E.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    1984-10-01

    The design and fabrication of a highly insulating, evacuated window glazing were investigated. A thermal network model was used to parametrically predict the thermal performance of such a window. Achievable design options are predicted to provide a glazing with a thermal conductance less than 0.6 W/sq m K which is compact, lightweight and durable. A CO2 laser was used to produce a continuous, leak tight, welded glass perimeter seal around 25 x 25 sq cm test specimens. Various diameters of regularly spaced spherical support spacers were incorporated in the specimens as well as an integral SnO2:F transparent, low emissivity coating for suppression of radiative heat transfer. Laser sealing rates of .06 cm/s were achieved at a 580 C glass working temperature with 400 W of continouous wave (CW) laser power.

  1. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  2. Multi-functional windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  3. Designing novel nicotinic agonists by searching a database of molecular shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Robert P.; Venkataraghavan, R.

    1987-10-01

    We introduce an approach by which novel ligands can be designed for a receptor if a pharmacophore geometry has been established and the receptor-bound conformations of other ligands are known. We use the shape-matching method of Kuntz et al. [J. Mol. Biol., 161 (1982) 269-288] to search a database of molecular shapes for those molecules which can fit inside the combined volume of the known ligands and which have interatomic distances compatible with the pharmacophore geometry. Some of these molecules are then modified by interactive modeling techniques to better match the chemical properties of the known ligands. Our shape database (about 5000 candidate molecules) is derived from a subset of the Cambridge Crystallographic Database [Allen et al., Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B,35 (1979) 2331-2339]. We show, as an example, how several novel designs for nicotinic agonists can be derived by this approach, given a pharmacophore model derived from known agonists [Sheridan et al., J. Med. Chem., 29 (1986) 889-906]. This report complements our previous report [DesJarlais et al., J. Med. Chem., in press], which introduced a similar method for designing ligands when the structure of the receptor is known.

  4. Design of a near-IR Doppler instrument for planet searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Wang, Ji; Groot, John

    2010-07-01

    Doppler searches are extending to the near infrared to detect and characterize habitable planets around low mass stars. We present an optical design and performance of a near-IR Doppler instrument. This instrument has two operating modes covering 0.8-1.8 microns. One mode is called IRET, which consists of a fix-delay interferometer and a crossdispersed echelle spectrograph to simultaneously cover 0.8-1.35 microns with a spectral resolution of R=22000 on a 2k x 2k H2RG IR array. The other mode is called FIRST, which uses a silicon immersion grating as the main disperser to simultaneously cover 1.4-1.8 microns with a spectral resolution of R=55000 on the same detector as IRET. The triplepass parabola white pupil design is used to restrain background scatter radiation with stable configuration for precision radial velocity measurements. We used high index standard glasses for camera optics and VPH gratings as crossdispersers in both modes. The FIRST mode can be switched in and out conveniently while the IRET mode is kept without moving parts to increase its stability. This instrument is designed to deliver up to 1 m/s Doppler precision RV measurements of nearby bright M dwarfs at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope. The instrument is expected to be operational in the spring 2011.

  5. The effect of wild card designations and rare alleles in forensic DNA database searches.

    PubMed

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Bright, Jo-Anne; Buckleton, John S; Curran, James M; Morling, Niels

    2015-05-01

    Forensic DNA databases are powerful tools used for the identification of persons of interest in criminal investigations. Typically, they consist of two parts: (1) a database containing DNA profiles of known individuals and (2) a database of DNA profiles associated with crime scenes. The risk of adventitious or chance matches between crimes and innocent people increases as the number of profiles within a database grows and more data is shared between various forensic DNA databases, e.g. from different jurisdictions. The DNA profiles obtained from crime scenes are often partial because crime samples may be compromised in quantity or quality. When an individual's profile cannot be resolved from a DNA mixture, ambiguity is introduced. A wild card, F, may be used in place of an allele that has dropped out or when an ambiguous profile is resolved from a DNA mixture. Variant alleles that do not correspond to any marker in the allelic ladder or appear above or below the extent of the allelic ladder range are assigned the allele designation R for rare allele. R alleles are position specific with respect to the observed/unambiguous allele. The F and R designations are made when the exact genotype has not been determined. The F and R designation are treated as wild cards for searching, which results in increased chance of adventitious matches. We investigated the probability of adventitious matches given these two types of wild cards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Search and design of nonmagnetic centrosymmetric layered crystals with large local spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qihang; Zhang, Xiuwen; Jin, Hosub; Lam, Kanber; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.; Zunger, Alex

    2015-06-01

    Until recently, spin polarization in nonmagnetic materials was the exclusive territory of noncentrosymmetric structures. It was recently shown that a form of "hidden spin polarization" (named the "Rashba-2" or "R-2" effect) could exist in globally centrosymmetric crystals provided the individual layers belong to polar point group symmetries. This realization could considerably broaden the range of materials that might be considered for spin-polarization spintronic applications to include the hitherto "forbidden spintronic compound" that belongs to centrosymmetric symmetries. Here we take the necessary steps to transition from such general, material-agnostic condensed matter theory arguments to material-specific "design principles" that could aid future laboratory search of R-2 materials. Specifically, we (i) classify different prototype layered structures that have been broadly studied in the literature in terms of their expected R-2 behavior, including the B i2S e3 -structure type (a prototype topological insulator), Mo S2 -structure type (a prototype valleytronic compound), and LaBiO S2 -structure type (a host of superconductivity upon doping); (ii) formulate the properties that ideal R-2 compounds should have in terms of combination of their global unit cell symmetries with specific point group symmetries of their constituent "sectors"; and (iii) use first-principles band theory to search for compounds from the prototype family of LaOBi S2 -type structures that satisfy these R-2 design metrics. We initially consider both stable and hypothetical M'O M X2 (M': Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Al, Ga, In, Tl; M: P, As, Sb, Bi; X: S, Se, Te) compounds to establish an understanding of trends of R-2 with composition, and then indicate the predictions that are expected to be stable and synthesizable. We predict large spin splittings (up to ˜200 meV for holes in LaOBiT e2 ) as well as surface Rashba states. Experimental testing of such predictions is called for.

  7. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  8. Optimal fractional delay-IIR filter design using cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manjeet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar

    2015-11-01

    This paper applied a novel global meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) to determine optimal coefficients of a fractional delay-infinite impulse response (FD-IIR) filter and trying to meet the ideal frequency response characteristics. Since fractional delay-IIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem, it cannot be computed efficiently using conventional gradient based optimization techniques. A weighted least square (WLS) based fitness function is used to improve the performance to a great extent. FD-IIR filters of different orders have been designed using the CSA. The simulation results of the proposed CSA based approach have been compared to those of well accepted evolutionary algorithms like Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The performance of the CSA based FD-IIR filter is superior to those obtained by GA and PSO. The simulation and statistical results affirm that the proposed approach using CSA outperforms GA and PSO, not only in the convergence rate but also in optimal performance of the designed FD-IIR filter (i.e., smaller magnitude error, smaller phase error, higher percentage improvement in magnitude and phase error, fast convergence rate). The absolute magnitude and phase error obtained for the designed 5th order FD-IIR filter are as low as 0.0037 and 0.0046, respectively. The percentage improvement in magnitude error for CSA based 5th order FD-IIR design with respect to GA and PSO are 80.93% and 74.83% respectively, and phase error are 76.04% and 71.25%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 14 CFR 25.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 25.775 Section 25... § 25.775 Windshields and windows. (a) Internal panes must be made of nonsplintering material. (b.... (d) The design of windshields and windows in pressurized airplanes must be based on factors peculiar...

  10. Switchable window modeling. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    This document presents the work conducted as part of Subtask A.1, High-Performance Glazing, of Task 12 of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. At the start of the task, the participants agreed that chromogenic technology (switchable glazing) held considerable promise, and that algorithms to accurately model their dynamic behavior were needed. The purpose of this subtask was to develop algorithms that could be incorporated into building energy analysis programs for predicting the thermal and optical performance of switchable windows. The work entailed a review of current techniques for modelling switchable glazing in windows and switchable windows in buildings and methods for improving upon existing modeling approaches. The proposed approaches correct some of the shortcomings in the existing techniques, and could be adapted for use in other similar programs. The proposed approaches generally provide more detailed calculations needed for evaluating the short-term (hourly and daily) impact of switchable windows on the energy and daylighting performance of a building. Examples of the proposed algorithms are included.

  11. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  12. Measured Rattle Threshold of Residential House Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizov, Natalia; Schultz, Troy; Hobbs, Christopher; Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Window rattle is a common indoor noise effect in houses exposed to low frequency noise from such sources as railroads, blast noise and sonic boom. Human perception of rattle can be negative that is a motivating factor of the current research effort to study sonic boom induced window rattle. A rattle study has been conducted on residential houses containing windows of different construction at a variety of geographic locations within the United States. Windows in these houses were excited by a portable, high-powered loudspeaker and enclosure specifically designed to be mounted on the house exterior to cover an entire window. Window vibration was measured with accelerometers placed on different window components. Reference microphones were also placed inside the house and inside of the loudspeaker box. Swept sine excitation was used to identify the vibration threshold at which the response of the structure becomes non-linear and begins to rattle. Initial results from this study are presented and discussed. Future efforts will continue to explore the rattle occurrence in windows of residential houses exposed to sonic booms.

  13. Orion Window Covers Removed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a technician carefully removes the window covers on Orion before the fourth and final Ogive panel is installed around the spacecraft and Launch Abort System. The Ogive panels will smooth the airflow over the conical spacecraft to limit sound and vibration, which will make for a much smoother ride for the astronauts who will ride inside Orion in the future. The work marked the final major assembly steps for the spacecraft before it is transported to Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in November. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch in December 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  14. Orion Window Covers Removed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, preparations are underway to remove the window covers on Orion before the fourth and final Ogive panel is installed around the spacecraft and Launch Abort System. The Ogive panels will smooth the airflow over the conical spacecraft to limit sound and vibration, which will make for a much smoother ride for the astronauts who will ride inside Orion in the future. The work marked the final major assembly steps for the spacecraft before it is transported to Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in November. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch in December 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  15. Orion Window Covers Removed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a technician on a work platform carefully removes the window covers on Orion before the fourth and final Ogive panel is installed around the spacecraft and Launch Abort System. The Ogive panels will smooth the airflow over the conical spacecraft to limit sound and vibration, which will make for a much smoother ride for the astronauts who will ride inside Orion in the future. The work marked the final major assembly steps for the spacecraft before it is transported to Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in November. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch in December 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  16. Orion Window Covers Removed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a window cover has been carefully removed from the Orion spacecraft before the fourth and final Ogive panel is installed around the spacecraft and Launch Abort System. The Ogive panels will smooth the airflow over the conical spacecraft to limit sound and vibration, which will make for a much smoother ride for the astronauts who will ride inside Orion in the future. The work marked the final major assembly steps for the spacecraft before it is transported to Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in November. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch in December 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  17. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  18. Electromagnet Design for an Experimental Search for CP Violation in Positronium Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersburg, Ryan; Henning, Reyco; Bartram, Chelsea

    2015-04-01

    The 3-photon decay of spin-aligned triplet positronium could be used to search for a charge conjugation and parity (CP) symmetry violation. This CP violation would manifest as a nonzero angular correlation (S-> .k1 -->) (S-> .k1 --> ×k2 -->) between the three decay photons' momentum vectors (|k1 --> | > |k2 --> | > |k3 --> |) and the triplet positronium spin (S->). Current limits on this correlation are at the ~10-3 level; therefore, we propose an experiment to improve this limit. In our experiment, the positronium is spin-polarized by a uniform magnetic field from a conventional electromagnet, and the photons are detected by a segmented NaI gamma detector array with large angular acceptance. This talk discusses the design of this unique electromagnet, which requires good field uniformity for the positronium source and a novel yoke design to minimize fringe field effects for the NaI array's PMTs. This project was supported by the Gillian T. Cell Senior Thesis Research Award in the College of Arts & Sciences, administered by Honors Carolina.

  19. Searching for new energetic materials: Computational design of novel nitro-substituted heterocyclic explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyshesvky, Roman; Pagoria, Philip; Kuklja, Maija

    2015-06-01

    The continuous search for safe and powerful energetic materials is an exciting research challenge that attracts experts in material science, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Elucidation of meaningful correlations between sensitivity and structures of explosives is a fundamental problem, which ought to be resolved to ensure successful design of new materials and improvements of existing energetics. In this report, quantum-chemical DFT study of thermal decomposition of a series of recently synthesized oxadiazole-based explosives, BNFF (3,4-bis(4-Nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole-N-oxide), BNFF-1 (3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole) and ANFF-1 (3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole) is presented. We also show how the knowledge of discovered correlations between structures and thermal stability of these compounds is used to design several novel candidate heterocyclic energetic molecules, including DNBTT (2,7-dinitro-4H,9H-bis([1,2,4]triazolo)[1,5-b:1',5'-e][1,2,4,5]tetrazine), compound with high thermal stability, which is on par or better than that of TATB.

  20. Searching for new energetic materials: Computational design of novel nitro-substituted heterocyclic explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Pagoria, Philip; Kuklja, Maija M.

    2017-01-01

    The continuous search for safe and powerful energetic materials is an exciting research challenge that attracts experts in material science, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Elucidation of meaningful relationships between sensitivity and structures of explosives is a fundamental problem, which needs to be addressed to ensure successful design of new materials and improvements of existing energetics. In this paper, quantum-chemical DFT study of thermal decomposition of a series of recently synthesized oxadiazole-based explosives, BNFF (3,4-bis(4-Nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole-N-oxide), BNFF-1 (3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole) and ANFF-1 (3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole) is presented. We also show how the knowledge of discovered interplay between the structures and thermal stability of these compounds is used to design several novel candidate heterocyclic energetic molecules, including DNBTT (2,7-dinitro-4H,9H-bis([1,2,4]triazolo)[1,5-b:1',5'-e][1,2,4,5]tetrazine), the compound with high thermal stability, which is on predicted to be par or better than that of TATB.

  1. A proteomics search algorithm specifically designed for high-resolution tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Craig D; Coon, Joshua J

    2013-03-01

    The acquisition of high-resolution tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) is becoming more prevalent in proteomics, but most researchers employ peptide identification algorithms that were designed prior to this development. Here, we demonstrate new software, Morpheus, designed specifically for high-mass accuracy data, based on a simple score that is little more than the number of matching products. For a diverse collection of data sets from a variety of organisms (E. coli, yeast, human) acquired on a variety of instruments (quadrupole-time-of-flight, ion trap-orbitrap, and quadrupole-orbitrap) in different laboratories, Morpheus gives more spectrum, peptide, and protein identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR) than Mascot, Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA), and Sequest. Additionally, Morpheus is 1.5 to 4.6 times faster, depending on the data set, than the next fastest algorithm, OMSSA. Morpheus was developed in C# .NET and is available free and open source under a permissive license.

  2. Design, rationale, and baseline demographics of SEARCH I: a prospective cluster-randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Frank; Shaikh, Asif; Iqbal, Ahmar

    2012-01-01

    Questionnaires are available to identify patients at risk for several chronic diseases, including COPD, but are infrequently utilized in primary care. COPD is often underdiagnosed, while at the same time the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends against spirometric screening for COPD in asymptomatic adults. Use of a symptom-based questionnaire and subsequent handheld spirometric device depending on the answers to the questionnaire is a promising approach to identify patients at risk for COPD. Screening, Evaluating and Assessing Rate CHanges of diagnosing respiratory conditions in primary care 1 (SEARCH I) was a prospective cluster-randomized study in 168 US primary care practices evaluating the effect of the COPD-Population Screener (COPD-PS™) questionnaire. The effect of this questionnaire alone or sequentially with the handheld copd-6TM device was evaluated on new diagnoses of COPD and on respiratory diagnostic practice patterns (including referrals for pulmonary function testing, referrals to pulmonologists, new diagnoses of COPD, and new respiratory medication prescriptions). Participating practices entered a total of 9704 consecutive consenting subjects aged ≥ 40 years attending primary care clinics. Study arm results were compared for new COPD diagnosis rates between usual care and (1) COPD-PS plus copd-6 and (2) COPD-PS alone. A cluster-randomization design allowed comparison of the intervention effects at the practice level instead of individuals being the subjects of the intervention. Regional principal investigators controlled the flow of study information to sub-investigators at participating practices to reduce observation bias (Hawthorne effect). The results of SEARCH I, to be published subsequently, will provide insight into the real world utility of the COPD-PS as well as two-stage COPD case finding with COPD-PS and copd-6. PMID:22848157

  3. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  4. Improved understanding of the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms applied to the water distribution design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, A. C.; Simpson, A. R.; Maier, H. R.; Marchi, A.; Nixon, J. B.

    2012-09-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been applied successfully to many water resource problems, such as system design, management decision formulation, and model calibration. The performance of an EA with respect to a particular problem type is dependent on how effectively its internal operators balance the exploitation/exploration trade-off to iteratively find solutions of an increasing quality. For a given problem, different algorithms are observed to produce a variety of different final performances, but there have been surprisingly few investigations into characterizing how the different internal mechanisms alter the algorithm's searching behavior, in both the objective and decision space, to arrive at this final performance. This paper presents metrics for analyzing the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms, a particular type of EA, for the optimal water distribution system design problem, which is a classical NP-hard problem in civil engineering. Using the proposed metrics, behavior is characterized in terms of three different attributes: (1) the effectiveness of the search in improving its solution quality and entering into optimal or near-optimal regions of the search space, (2) the extent to which the algorithm explores as it converges to solutions, and (3) the searching behavior with respect to the feasible and infeasible regions. A range of case studies is considered, where a number of ant colony optimization variants are applied to a selection of water distribution system optimization problems. The results demonstrate the utility of the proposed metrics to give greater insight into how the internal operators affect each algorithm's searching behavior.

  5. Optimization of complex high-dimensional layout configurations for IC physical designs using graph search, data analytics, and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Vito; Teoh, Edward Kah Ching; Xu, Ji; Rangarajan, Bharath

    2017-04-01

    A typical new IC design has millions of layout configurations, not seen on previous product or test chip designs. Knowing the disposition of each and every configuration, problematic or not, is the key to optimizing design for yield. In this paper, we present a method to systematically characterize the configuration coverage of any layout. Coverage can be compared between designs, and configurations for which there is a lack of coverage can also be computed. When combined with simulation, metrology, and defect data for some configurations, graph search and machine learning algorithms can be applied to optimize designs for manufacturing yield.

  6. High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  7. High-R window technology development. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 ``super`` windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  8. Cordilleran slab windows

    SciTech Connect

    Thorkelson, D.J.; Taylor, R.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The geometry and geologic implications of subducted spreading ridges are topics that have bedeviled earth scientists ever since the recognition of plate tectonics. As a consequence of subduction of the Kula-Farallon and East Pacific rises, slab windows formed and migrated beneath the North American Cordillera. The probable shape and extent of these windows, which represent the asthenosphere-filled gaps between two separating, subducting oceanic plates, are depicted from the Late Cretaceous to the present. Possible effects of the existence and migration of slab windows on the Cordillera at various times include cessation of arc volcanism and replacement by rift or plate-edge volcanism; lithospheric uplift, attenuation, and extension; and increased intensity of compressional tectonism. Eocene extensional tectonism and alkaline magmatism in southern British Columbia and the northwestern United States were facilitated by slab-window development.

  9. Intelligent Thermochromic Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkin, Ivan P.; Manning, Troy D.

    2006-03-01

    This article covers the background and related science associated with a thermochromic window. A thermochromic window is a device that changes its reflectance and transmission properties at a specific critical temperature. At this temperature the material undergoes a semiconductor-to-metal transition—at low temperature the window will let in all of the sun's energy while above the critical temperature it will reflect the infrared portion of the sun's energy. Hence a thermochromic window could be used to significantly reduce air conditioning costs, which has consequential positive benefit in reducing electricity consumption and hence green house gas emissions. This article details the underlying science in making a new thin-film thermochromic coating by chemical vapor deposition; it describes the underlying physical chemistry associated with the semiconductor-to-metal transition and shows how substitutional doping within a crystal lattice can be used to lower the thermochromic switching temperature.

  10. Apollo window meteoroid experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cour-Palais, B. G.; Brown, M. L.; Mckay, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo window meteoroid experiment is described which uses the Apollo command module heat shield window surfaces to obtain information about the flux of meteoroids with masses of 10 to the minus 7th power g and less; to examine the residue and the morphology of the craters produced by these meteoroid; to obtain information regarding the dynamic and physical properties of the meteoroids; and to discover possible correlations with the lunar-rock-crater studies. Photographs are included.

  11. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Hun, Diana E; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  12. High-power RF window and coupler development for the PEP-II B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, M.; Fant, K.; Hodgson, J.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of the RF windows designed to transmit power to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. Design choices to maximize the reliability of the window are discussed. Fabrication technologies for the window are described and finite-element analysis of the assembly process is presented. Conditioning and high-power testing of the window are discussed. Design of the coupler assembly including the integration of the window and other components is reported.

  13. Development of radiometer windows for atmospheric entry vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda

    1993-01-01

    A test program was established to determine the feasibility of developing a radiometer window for stagnation region shock layer atmospheric entry experiments from geosynchronous orbit and with measurements extending into the VUV region to about 170 nm. This test program examined both isolated (uncooled) and cooled window mounting options. Preliminary tests determined the gross suitability of sapphire and fused silica as window materials. Measurements show that the expected maximum temperature (1500 C) is itself not a problem, but that temperature gradients can easily break a window and that the transmission of sapphire and of fused silica at 174 nm drops dramatically at temperatures beyond 800 C and 500 C, respectively. A series of developmental tests showed that the surface of an uncooled fused silica window begins to melt at the entry conditions tested while an uncooled sapphire window generally does not, and that a cooled sapphire window design that keeps the window below 800 C appears possible. The final proof-of-design tests narrowed the selection of possible candidate window sizes and mounting configurations. These tests demonstrate that the best insulated and cooled window designs use small diameter sapphire windows and that thermal modeling codes can be used to assist the design process.

  14. Target-nontarget similarity decreases search efficiency and increases stimulus-driven control in visual search.

    PubMed

    Barras, Caroline; Kerzel, Dirk

    2017-07-05

    Some points of criticism against the idea that attentional selection is controlled by bottom-up processing were dispelled by the attentional window account. The attentional window account claims that saliency computations during visual search are only performed for stimuli inside the attentional window. Therefore, a small attentional window may avoid attentional capture by salient distractors because it is likely that the salient distractor is located outside the window. In contrast, a large attentional window increases the chances of attentional capture by a salient distractor. Large and small attentional windows have been associated with efficient (parallel) and inefficient (serial) search, respectively. We compared the effect of a salient color singleton on visual search for a shape singleton during efficient and inefficient search. To vary search efficiency, the nontarget shapes were either similar or dissimilar with respect to the shape singleton. We found that interference from the color singleton was larger with inefficient than efficient search, which contradicts the attentional window account. While inconsistent with the attentional window account, our results are predicted by computational models of visual search. Because of target-nontarget similarity, the target was less salient with inefficient than efficient search. Consequently, the relative saliency of the color distractor was higher with inefficient than with efficient search. Accordingly, stronger attentional capture resulted. Overall, the present results show that bottom-up control by stimulus saliency is stronger when search is difficult, which is inconsistent with the attentional window account.

  15. From Information Searching to Learning: A Comparison of Contrasting Hypertextual Menu Designs for Computer-Based Instructional Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yee-Rong; Waugh, Michael L.

    This study examined the influence of three different combinations of document structures and menu designs on users' attitude, performance, and learning in five different search tasks. The three types of combinations studied were: (1) an explicit menu signaling hierarchical structure where cross-referencing was not supported (EXH--explicit and…

  16. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  17. Optimal pipe size design for looped irrigation water supply system using harmony search: Saemangeum project area.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Guen; Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  18. Window classification of brain CT images in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L Rodney; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2012-01-01

    Effective capability to search biomedical articles based on visual properties of article images may significantly augment information retrieval in the future. In this paper, we present a new method to classify the window setting types of brain CT images. Windowing is a technique frequently used in the evaluation of CT scans, and is used to enhance contrast for the particular tissue or abnormality type being evaluated. In particular, it provides radiologists with an enhanced view of certain types of cranial abnormalities, such as the skull lesions and bone dysplasia which are usually examined using the " bone window" setting and illustrated in biomedical articles using "bone window images". Due to the inherent large variations of images among articles, it is important that the proposed method is robust. Our algorithm attained 90% accuracy in classifying images as bone window or non-bone window in a 210 image data set.

  19. Overpressure proof testing of large infrared windows for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruszynski, Charles J.

    1991-10-01

    Many commonly used infrared window materials, such as zinc sulfide and zinc selenide, are subject to structural failure due to stress-corrosion induced cracking. This failure mechanism is of critical importance in applications in which the window experiences high static pressure loading for prolonged periods in humid atmospheres, conditions typical of airborne optical windows. The most effective means of screening windows against failure due to this mechanism is by use of overpressure proof testing. In this paper, the design of overpressure proof tests for large airborne infrared windows is discussed. The underlying physical phenomena and governing mathematical relationships are presented. A hypothetical proof test design for a large infrared window to be employed in a man-rated aircraft is developed to illustrate the application of the analytical methodology. Practical considerations in the execution of large infrared window overpressure proof tests are also discussed.

  20. Designing an effective gateway for documentation search through a WWW server

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, V.

    1995-11-01

    Lookup, a NERSC`s utility, searches several documentation databases to find exact as well as approximate matches for the user`s search term. However, it is only available for those who run it directly on NERSC`s machines. To provide a wider access to a large audience, I developed a gateway which handles information requests and returns the appropriated documents.

  1. Principled Design and Runtime Analysis of Abstract Convex Evolutionary Search.

    PubMed

    Moraglio, Alberto; Sudholt, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Geometric crossover is a formal class of crossovers that includes many well-known recombination operators across representations. In previous work, it was shown that all evolutionary algorithms with geometric crossover (but no mutation) do the same form of convex search regardless of the underlying representation, the specific selection mechanism, offspring distribution, search space, and problem at hand. Furthermore, it was suggested that the generalised convex search could perform well on generalised forms of concave and approximately concave fitness landscapes regardless of the underlying space and representation. In this article, we deepen this line of enquiry and study the runtime of generalised convex search on concave fitness landscapes. This is a first step toward linking a geometric theory of representations and runtime analysis in the attempt to (1) set the basis for a more general, unified approach for the runtime analysis of evolutionary algorithms across representations, and (2) identify the essential matching features of evolutionary search behaviour and landscape topography that cause polynomial performance. We present a general runtime result that can be systematically instantiated to specific search spaces and representations and present its specifications to three search spaces. As a corollary, we obtain that the convex search algorithm optimises LeadingOnes in [Formula: see text] fitness evaluations, which is faster than all unbiased unary black box algorithms.

  2. Design of personalized search engine based on user-webpage dynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jihan; Li, Shanglin; Zhu, Yingke; Xiao, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Personalized search engine focuses on establishing a user-webpage dynamic model. In this model, users' personalized factors are introduced so that the search engine is better able to provide the user with targeted feedback. This paper constructs user and webpage dynamic vector tables, introduces singular value decomposition analysis in the processes of topic categorization, and extends the traditional PageRank algorithm.

  3. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Haglund, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  4. Designing prospective cohort studies for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicity during sensitive windows of human reproduction and development--the LIFE Study.

    PubMed

    Buck Louis, Germaine M; Schisterman, Enrique F; Sweeney, Anne M; Wilcosky, Timothy C; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Lynch, Courtney D; Boyd Barr, Dana; Schrader, Steven M; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between the environment and human fecundity and fertility remains virtually unstudied from a couple-based perspective in which longitudinal exposure data and biospecimens are captured across sensitive windows. In response, we completed the LIFE Study with methodology that intended to empirically evaluate a priori purported methodological challenges: implementation of population-based sampling frameworks suitable for recruiting couples planning pregnancy; obtaining environmental data across sensitive windows of reproduction and development; home-based biospecimen collection; and development of a data management system for hierarchical exposome data. We used two sampling frameworks (i.e., fish/wildlife licence registry and a direct marketing database) for 16 targeted counties with presumed environmental exposures to persistent organochlorine chemicals to recruit 501 couples planning pregnancies for prospective longitudinal follow-up while trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. Enrolment rates varied from <1% of the targeted population (n = 424,423) to 42% of eligible couples who were successfully screened; 84% of the targeted population could not be reached, while 36% refused screening. Among enrolled couples, ∼ 85% completed daily journals while trying; 82% of pregnant women completed daily early pregnancy journals, and 80% completed monthly pregnancy journals. All couples provided baseline blood/urine samples; 94% of men provided one or more semen samples and 98% of women provided one or more saliva samples. Women successfully used urinary fertility monitors for identifying ovulation and home pregnancy test kits. Couples can be recruited for preconception cohorts and will comply with intensive data collection across sensitive windows. However, appropriately sized sampling frameworks are critical, given the small percentage of couples contacted found eligible and reportedly planning pregnancy at any point in time. © Published 2011. This

  5. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  6. Dust adhesion on Viking lander camera window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of dust impingement on a duplicate Viking Lander camera window indicated the possibility of window obscuration after several days of exposure even at low dust concentration levels. As a result the following corrective measures were recommended: (1) The clearance between the housing surface and the camera post should be eliminated by using an appropriately designed plastic skirt: (2) The three horizontal ledges below the window inside the cavity act as bases for pile-up of dust that slides down the window surface; they should be replaced by a single inclined plane down which the dust will slide and fall out on the ground: (3) Adhered dust on the window surface can be removed by high pressure CO2 jets directed down against the window; the amount of CO2 gas needed for the entire mission can be carried in a 3 1/2-inch diameter sphere equipped with a remotely programable valve. These measures were incorporated in the design of the lander camera system. The continued high quality of photographs transmitted from the Viking spacecraft several months after landing attests to their effectiveness.

  7. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    SciTech Connect

    Curcija, Dragan Charlie; Zhu, Ling; Czarnecki, Stephen; Mitchell, Robin D.; Kohler, Christian; Vidanovic, Simon V.; Huizenga, Charlie

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the

  8. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    SciTech Connect

    Curcija, Dragan Charlie; Zhu, Ling; Czarnecki, Stephen; Mitchell, Robin D.; Kohler, Christian; Vidanovic, Simon V.; Huizenga, Charlie

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the

  9. Design of Content Based Image Retrieval Scheme for Diabetic Retinopathy Images using Harmony Search Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sivakamasundari, J; Natarajan, V

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disorder that affects the structure of retinal blood vessels due to long-standing diabetes mellitus. Automated segmentation of blood vessel is vital for periodic screening and timely diagnosis. An attempt has been made to generate continuous retinal vasculature for the design of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) application. The typical normal and abnormal retinal images are preprocessed to improve the vessel contrast. The blood vessels are segmented using evolutionary based Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) combined with Otsu Multilevel Thresholding (MLT) method by best objective functions. The segmentation results are validated with corresponding ground truth images using binary similarity measures. The statistical, textural and structural features are obtained from the segmented images of normal and DR affected retina and are analyzed. CBIR in medical image retrieval applications are used to assist physicians in clinical decision-support techniques and research fields. A CBIR system is developed using HSA based Otsu MLT segmentation technique and the features obtained from the segmented images. Similarity matching is carried out between the features of query and database images using Euclidean Distance measure. Similar images are ranked and retrieved. The retrieval performance of CBIR system is evaluated in terms of precision and recall. The CBIR systems developed using HSA based Otsu MLT and conventional Otsu MLT methods are compared. The retrieval performance such as precision and recall are found to be 96% and 58% for CBIR system using HSA based Otsu MLT segmentation. This automated CBIR system could be recommended for use in computer assisted diagnosis for diabetic retinopathy screening.

  10. Design of combinatorial libraries for the exploration of virtual hits from fragment space searches with LoFT.

    PubMed

    Lessel, Uta; Wellenzohn, Bernd; Fischer, J Robert; Rarey, Matthias

    2012-02-27

    A case study is presented illustrating the design of a focused CDK2 library. The scaffold of the library was detected by a feature trees search in a fragment space based on reactions from combinatorial chemistry. For the design the software LoFT (Library optimizer using Feature Trees) was used. The special feature called FTMatch was applied to restrict the parts of the queries where the reagents are permitted to match. This way a 3D scoring function could be simulated. Results were compared with alternative designs by GOLD docking and ROCS 3D alignments.

  11. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  12. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  13. Opening the Literature Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  14. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  15. Candles in Our Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    "Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book,…

  16. Candles in Our Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    "Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book,…

  17. Window comparator for voltages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit determines whether voltage is within preselected range of voltage levels.Device requires fewer components than previous window comparators and is less susceptible to errors from reference drift. Comparator is useful in process-control circuitry, measuring instruments, and checkout equipment.

  18. Calcium fluoride window mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, D. Douglas

    1982-10-01

    A technique has been developed for joining a large calcium fluoride crystal to a stainless-steel flange by means of a silver transition ring. The process involves both vacuum brazing using a copper-silver alloy and air brazing using silver chloride. This paper describes the procedure used in fabricating a high-vacuum leak-tight calcium fluoride window assembly.

  19. Opening the Literature Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  20. Windows into Art Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John…

  1. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  2. Foamglass solar window collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, P. C.

    Solar heating of a living area by means of a foamglass window collector is reported. The collector was built with readily available materials available at most local hardware stores. The payback period was found to be 3.7 years, slightly longer than anticipated.

  3. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction... and windows must be constructed of a nonsplintering material, such as nonsplintering safety glass. (b) The design of windshields, windows, and canopies in pressurized airplanes must be based on...

  4. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction... and windows must be constructed of a nonsplintering material, such as nonsplintering safety glass. (b) The design of windshields, windows, and canopies in pressurized airplanes must be based on...

  5. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction... and windows must be constructed of a nonsplintering material, such as nonsplintering safety glass. (b) The design of windshields, windows, and canopies in pressurized airplanes must be based on...

  6. Highly transparent light-harvesting window film.

    PubMed

    Cocilovo, Byron; Hashimura, Aki; Tweet, Douglas J; Voutsas, Tolis; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-10-20

    We have simulated unique textured window films that capture solar radiation without compromising the window's transparency by scattering infrared light toward photovoltaic strips located at the edges of the window. These films are ideal for powering electrochromic glass, which is difficult to install as each window requires its own power source. Our most promising design consists of an embedded array of 35° cones coated with a five-layer SiO2-Ag stack that was simulated to direct 1.4% of the incident light toward the edges and generate 1 W of power under a collimated 1000  W/m2 AM1.5G source at 60° and an average of 0.5 W over a full year when applied to a 1  m×1  m window. The internal visible transmittance of the window with the applied film is 95% at normal incidence, and remains above 85% for viewing angles up to 60°. The haze is 0.6% at normal incidence and 3.9% at 60°.

  7. Noise Transmission Characteristics of Damped Plexiglas Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    2002-01-01

    Most general aviation aircraft utilize single layer plexiglas material for the windshield and side windows. Adding noise control treatments to transparent panels is a challenging problem. In this paper, damped plexiglas windows are evaluated for replacement of conventional windows in general aviation aircraft to reduce the structure-borne and airborne noise transmitted into the interior. In contrast to conventional solid windows, the damped plexiglas window panels are fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. Results from acoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility are used to compare different designs of the damped plexiglas panels with solid windows of the same nominal thickness. Comparisons of the solid and damped plexiglas panels show reductions in the radiated sound power of up to 8 dB at low frequency resonances and as large as 4.5 dB over a 4000 Hz bandwidth. The weight of the viscoelastic treatment was approximately 1% of the panel mass. Preliminary FEM/BEM modeling shows good agreement with experimental results for radiated sound power.

  8. Ab initio materials design using conformational space annealing and its application to searching for direct band gap silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Ho; Oh, Young Jun; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Jooyoung; Chang, K. J.

    2016-06-01

    Lately, the so-called inverse method of materials design has drawn much attention, where specific material properties are initially assigned and target materials are subsequently searched for. Although this method has been successful for some problems, the success of designing complex crystal structures containing many atoms is often limited by the efficiency of the search method utilized. Here we combine the global optimization method of conformational space annealing (CSA) with first-principles quantum calculations and report a new scheme named AMADEUS (Ab initio MAterials DEsign Using cSa). We demonstrate the utility of AMADEUS through the discovery of direct band gap Si crystals. The newly-designed direct gap Si allotropes show excellent optical properties and the spectroscopic limited maximum efficiencies comparable to those of best-known non-silicon photovoltaic materials. Our scheme not only provides a new perspective for the inverse problem of materials design but also may serve as a new tool for the computational design of a wide range of materials.

  9. Double window viewing chamber assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Inventor); Owen, R. B. (Inventor); Elkins, B. R. (Inventor); White, W. T. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A viewing chamber which permits observation of a sample retained therein includes a pair of double window assemblies mounted in opposed openings in the walls thereof so that a light beam can directly enter and exit from the chamber. A flexible mounting arrangement for the outer windows of the window assemblies enables the windows to be brought into proper alignment. An electrical heating arrangement prevents fogging of the outer windows whereas desiccated air in the volume between the outer and inner windows prevents fogging of the latter.

  10. VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED JUST BELOW THE CHOIR LOFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTAR. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. details: window jamb from first period of construction; window jamb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    details: window jamb from first period of construction; window jamb, sill profile, and transom profile from second period of construction - Joseph Poffenberger Farm, House, 17834 Mansfield Avenue, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

  14. Designing the Search Service for Enterprise Portal based on Oracle Universal Content Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K. S.; Kuznetsov, D. Y.; Pominov, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise Portal is an important part of an organization in informative and innovative space. The portal provides collaboration between employees and the organization. This article gives a valuable background of Enterprise Portal and technologies. The paper presents Oracle WebCenter Portal and UCM Server integration in detail. The focus is on tools for Enterprise Portal and on Search Service in particular. The paper also presents several UML diagrams to describe the use of cases for Search Service and main components of this application.

  15. Thermal and structural behavior of filters and windows for synchrotron x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Hahn, U.; Dejus, R.; Kuzay, T.

    1993-05-13

    This report contains the following discussions: Introduction: Use of filters and windows in the front end designs; An interactive code for 3D graphic viewing of absorbed power in filters/windows and a new heat load generation algorithm for the finite element analysis; Failure criteria and analysis methods for the filter and window assembly; Comparison with test data and existing devices in HASYLAB; Cooling the filter: Radiation cooling or conduction cooling?; Consideration of window and filter thickness: Thicker or thinner?; Material selection criteria for filters/windows; Photon transmission through filters/windows; Window and filter design for APS undulators; Window and filter design for APS wigglers; and Window design for APS bending magnet front ends.

  16. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  17. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  18. Constraints on relaxion windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Im, Sang Hui

    2016-12-01

    We examine the low energy phenomenology of the relaxion solution to the weak scale hierarchy problem. Assuming that the Hubble friction is responsible for a dissipation of the relaxion energy, we identify the cosmological relaxion window which corresponds to the parameter region compatible with a given value of the acceptable number of inflationary e-foldings. We then discuss a variety of observational constraints on the relaxion window, including those from astrophysical and cosmological considerations. We find that majority of the parameter space with a relaxion mass m ϕ ≳ 100 eV or a relaxion decay constant f ≲107GeV is excluded by existing constraints. There is an interesting parameter region with m ϕ ˜ 0 .2 - 10 GeV and f ˜ few - 200 TeV, which is allowed by existing constraints, but can be probed soon by future beam dump experiments such as the SHiP experiment, or by improved EDM experiments.

  19. Supporting Flight Control for UAV-Assisted Wilderness Search and Rescue Through Human Centered Interface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    component of the display logic is the virtual camera , which determines the perspective and frame of reference used to graphically communicate 3D...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inexpensive, rapidly deployable, camera -equipped Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV...assisted search a reality. Our experiments show that the traditional method for controlling a camera -enabled UAV is significantly more difficult than

  20. Search Engine Designer for Tomorrow: Interview with TextWise's Elizabeth Liddy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elizabeth Liddy, president of TextWise, an information access and analytics company. Background on TextWise is provided; advanced search engines are discussed; TextWise products and projects are described; and the changing role of information professionals is considered. (MES)

  1. Search Engine Designer for Tomorrow: Interview with TextWise's Elizabeth Liddy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elizabeth Liddy, president of TextWise, an information access and analytics company. Background on TextWise is provided; advanced search engines are discussed; TextWise products and projects are described; and the changing role of information professionals is considered. (MES)

  2. In Search of Design Principles for Developing Digital Learning and Performance Support for a Student Design Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Lars; van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Henny; McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of organizational, technical, and course-related…

  3. Lens window simplifies TDL housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Rowland, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Lens window seal in tunable-diode-laser housing replaces plan parallel window. Lens seals housing and acts as optical-output coupler, thus eliminating need for additional reimaging or collimating optics.

  4. Value of window technique in diagnosis of the ground glass opacities in patients with non-small cell pulmonary cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Gang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the value of window technique in qualitative diagnosis of the ground glass opacities (GGO) in patients with non-small cell pulmonary cancer. A total of 124 clinically suspected pulmonary cancer patients were analyzed retrospectively. The lesions were affirmed by puncture biopsy, and were GGO on pulmonary window while were invisible on mediastinal window. Sixty-four multi-detector spiral computed tomography with the window width and window level of 1,500 Hounsfield units (HU) and -450 HU on pulmonary window, while the window width and window level of 400 and 40 HU on mediastinal window, was used in the study. The window adjustment technique was used to analyze the window width and window level of lesion on pulmonary window and mediastinal window, for searching invisible threshold on 3-megapixel medical displays. The diagnostic accuracy and the cut-off value were compared on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The results showed that the window width and window level on pulmonary window and mediastinal window of malignant lesions were significantly less than those of benign ones (P<0.05). The cut-off value on pulmonary window was the window width and window level of 1,300 and -220 HU, the area under the ROC was 0.830 [sensitivity was 72.5%, specificity was 84.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.712-0.945]. The cut-off value on mediastinal window was the window width and window level of 360 and 30 HU, and the area under the ROC was 0.623 (was 62.0%, specificity was 55.7%; 95% CI, 0.541-0.745). In conclusion, the window technique has high sensitivity and accuracy in qualitative diagnosis of the GGO.

  5. Seeker multispectral atmospheric reentry technology (SMART) window development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, G.; Herman, B.; Morrow, H.; Anderson, W.; Hsu, I.; Stubbs, D.

    1992-05-01

    Seeker Multispectral Atmospheric Reentry Technology (SMART) window development is concerned with the application of innovative technologies to develop an internally cooled window with minimum aperture size for a large field-of-regard (FOR) multispectral seeker installed in an endoatmospheric hypersonic kill vehicle. The window should be very small and lightweight and have a built-in scanner to cover the FOR. The design of such a window requires input from several critical areas, including system requirements, optical design, fabrication of micro-optical components, cooling, optomechanical design, mechanical stress analysis, and flow-field analysis. This paper describes our approach to the development of a SMART window and the current state of our design.

  6. Design of an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) from standard components running in real-time under Windows.

    PubMed

    Guger, C; Schlögl, A; Walterspacher, D; Pfurtscheller, G

    1999-01-01

    An EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is a direct connection between the human brain and the computer. Such a communication system is needed by patients with severe motor impairments (e.g. late stage of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) and has to operate in real-time. This paper describes the selection of the appropriate components to construct such a BCI and focuses also on the selection of a suitable programming language and operating system. The multichannel system runs under Windows 95, equipped with a real-time Kernel expansion to obtain reasonable real-time operations on a standard PC. Matlab controls the data acquisition and the presentation of the experimental paradigm, while Simulink is used to calculate the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm that describes the current state of the EEG in real-time. First results of the new low-cost BCI show that the accuracy of differentiating imagination of left and right hand movement is around 95%.

  7. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  8. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  9. Windows: The Benefits Are Clear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of specifying windows in a school renovation or building project in order to energize a campus. Explains how windows are psychologically uplifting, how glass accentuates excitement and its shapes signal stability, and how windows convey the institution's confidence in the present. (GR)

  10. Downsampling Photodetector Array with Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patawaran, Ferze D.; Farr, William H.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2012-01-01

    In a photon counting detector array, each pixel in the array produces an electrical pulse when an incident photon on that pixel is detected. Detection and demodulation of an optical communication signal that modulated the intensity of the optical signal requires counting the number of photon arrivals over a given interval. As the size of photon counting photodetector arrays increases, parallel processing of all the pixels exceeds the resources available in current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and gate array (GA) technology; the desire for a high fill factor in avalanche photodiode (APD) detector arrays also precludes this. Through the use of downsampling and windowing portions of the detector array, the processing is distributed between the ASIC and GA. This allows demodulation of the optical communication signal incident on a large photon counting detector array, as well as providing architecture amenable to algorithmic changes. The detector array readout ASIC functions as a parallel-to-serial converter, serializing the photodetector array output for subsequent processing. Additional downsampling functionality for each pixel is added to this ASIC. Due to the large number of pixels in the array, the readout time of the entire photodetector is greater than the time between photon arrivals; therefore, a downsampling pre-processing step is done in order to increase the time allowed for the readout to occur. Each pixel drives a small counter that is incremented at every detected photon arrival or, equivalently, the charge in a storage capacitor is incremented. At the end of a user-configurable counting period (calculated independently from the ASIC), the counters are sampled and cleared. This downsampled photon count information is then sent one counter word at a time to the GA. For a large array, processing even the downsampled pixel counts exceeds the capabilities of the GA. Windowing of the array, whereby several subsets of pixels are designated

  11. Interferometer for Space Station Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Inspection of space station windows for micrometeorite damage would be a difficult task insitu using current inspection techniques. Commercially available optical profilometers and inspection systems are relatively large, about the size of a desktop computer tower, and require a stable platform to inspect the test object. Also, many devices currently available are designed for a laboratory or controlled environments requiring external computer control. This paper presents an approach using a highly developed optical interferometer to inspect the windows from inside the space station itself using a self- contained hand held device. The interferometer would be capable as a minimum of detecting damage as small as one ten thousands of an inch in diameter and depth while interrogating a relatively large area. The current developmental state of this device is still in the proof of concept stage. The background section of this paper will discuss the current state of the art of profilometers as well as the desired configuration of the self-contained, hand held device. Then, a discussion of the developments and findings that will allow the configuration change with suggested approaches appearing in the proof of concept section.

  12. Temperature Profile of IR Blocking Windows Used in Cryogenic X-Ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S.; Funk, T.; Drury, O.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-08-08

    Cryogenic high-resolution X-ray spectrometers are typically operated with thin IR blocking windows to reduce radiative heating of the detector while allowing good x-ray transmission. We have estimated the temperature profile of these IR blocking windows under typical operating conditions. We show that the temperature in the center of the window is raised due to radiation from the higher temperature stages. This can increase the infrared photon flux onto the detector, thereby increasing the IR noise and decreasing the cryostat hold time. The increased window temperature constrains the maximum window size and the number of windows required. We discuss the consequences for IR blocking window design.

  13. Stator Blade Laser Window Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugas, Grant A.

    2004-01-01

    All turbofan engines used in modern aviation contain a series of fan blades and compressor blades which are all connected to one drive shaft. Inside the jet engine between each set of blades are stator blades, which are pitched opposite of the fan and compressor blades, the stator blades are both rotational and axial fixed in place. The project that I was assigned to involves the QAT 22 fan test rig; which is currently under final design review and very soon will be fabricated. The purpose of this research facility is to better understand the effects of stator blades. Stator blades are used to straiten the air in a turbine. The researcher's primary aim is to determine what the airflow is like at both the leading edge and the trailing edge of a stator blade. My work focused on designing the windows usable for both a compressor rig and a test fan rig. The difference between the two is the test fan application will be looking into a stator blade array rather than just looking at the rotor. My discussion will include a detailed explanation of how the PIV laser window system functions fiom start to finish. I will also discuss how the information is gathered and organized. Further more I plan to talk about the purpose of this kind of research and the advantages to using this technology to determine the airflow characteristics of blade designs. Finally I will discuss the researcher s conclusion on the relationship between aerodynamics of a blade and how noise is produced. NASA's main goal with this particular facility is find ways to quiet engine noise by reducing the amount of cavitations that occurs around the blades of a turbofan engine. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. Design of Protein Multi-specificity Using an Independent Sequence Search Reduces the Barrier to Low Energy Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Sevy, Alexander M.; Jacobs, Tim M.; Crowe, James E.; Meiler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Computational protein design has found great success in engineering proteins for thermodynamic stability, binding specificity, or enzymatic activity in a ‘single state’ design (SSD) paradigm. Multi-specificity design (MSD), on the other hand, involves considering the stability of multiple protein states simultaneously. We have developed a novel MSD algorithm, which we refer to as REstrained CONvergence in multi-specificity design (RECON). The algorithm allows each state to adopt its own sequence throughout the design process rather than enforcing a single sequence on all states. Convergence to a single sequence is encouraged through an incrementally increasing convergence restraint for corresponding positions. Compared to MSD algorithms that enforce (constrain) an identical sequence on all states the energy landscape is simplified, which accelerates the search drastically. As a result, RECON can readily be used in simulations with a flexible protein backbone. We have benchmarked RECON on two design tasks. First, we designed antibodies derived from a common germline gene against their diverse targets to assess recovery of the germline, polyspecific sequence. Second, we design “promiscuous”, polyspecific proteins against all binding partners and measure recovery of the native sequence. We show that RECON is able to efficiently recover native-like, biologically relevant sequences in this diverse set of protein complexes. PMID:26147100

  15. Design of Protein Multi-specificity Using an Independent Sequence Search Reduces the Barrier to Low Energy Sequences.

    PubMed

    Sevy, Alexander M; Jacobs, Tim M; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens

    2015-07-01

    Computational protein design has found great success in engineering proteins for thermodynamic stability, binding specificity, or enzymatic activity in a 'single state' design (SSD) paradigm. Multi-specificity design (MSD), on the other hand, involves considering the stability of multiple protein states simultaneously. We have developed a novel MSD algorithm, which we refer to as REstrained CONvergence in multi-specificity design (RECON). The algorithm allows each state to adopt its own sequence throughout the design process rather than enforcing a single sequence on all states. Convergence to a single sequence is encouraged through an incrementally increasing convergence restraint for corresponding positions. Compared to MSD algorithms that enforce (constrain) an identical sequence on all states the energy landscape is simplified, which accelerates the search drastically. As a result, RECON can readily be used in simulations with a flexible protein backbone. We have benchmarked RECON on two design tasks. First, we designed antibodies derived from a common germline gene against their diverse targets to assess recovery of the germline, polyspecific sequence. Second, we design "promiscuous", polyspecific proteins against all binding partners and measure recovery of the native sequence. We show that RECON is able to efficiently recover native-like, biologically relevant sequences in this diverse set of protein complexes.

  16. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  17. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  18. Window performance in extreme cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, S. N.; Buska, J. S.; Barrett, S. A.

    1982-12-01

    Extreme cold causes heavy buildup of frost, ice and condensation on many windows. It also increases the incentive for improving the airtightness of windows against heat loss. Our study shows that tightening specifications for Alaskan windows to permit only 30% of the air leakage allowed by current American airtightness standards is economically attractive. We also recommend triple glazing in much of Alaska to avoid window icing in homes and barracks. We base our conclusions on a two year field study of Alaskan military bases that included recording humidity and temperature data, observing moisture accumulation on windows and measuring airtightness with a fan pressurized device.

  19. Design of an ultraviolet projection lens by using a global search algorithm and computer optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoric, Nenad; Livshits, Irina; Dilworth, Don; Okishev, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a method for designing an ultraviolet (UV) projection lens for microlithography. Our approach for meeting this objective is to use a starting design automatically obtained by the DSEARCH feature in the SYNOPSYS™ lens design program. We describe the steps for getting a desired starting point for the projection lens and discuss optimization problems unique to this system, where the two parts of the projection lens are designed independently.

  20. Interface Design Concepts in the Development of ELSA, an Intelligent Electronic Library Search Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Rebecca; Smith, Philip J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes issues and advances in the design of appropriate inference engines and knowledge structures needed by commercially feasible intelligent intermediary systems for information retrieval. Issues associated with the design of interfaces to such functions are discussed in detail. Design principles for guiding implementation of these interfaces…

  1. Laplacian magic windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    A transparent sheet, flat to unaided vision but with a gentle surface relief, can concentrate light onto a screen with intensity reproducing any desired image: the sheet is a ‘magic window’. When the ray deflections are sufficiently small that there are no caustics between the window and the screen, the image intensity is the Laplacian function of the relief height function—a very simple approximation to general freeform optics. Therefore the desired relief is obtained by solving Poisson’s equation. Numerical simulations indicate that the Laplacian image approximation will apply to realistic situations.

  2. A simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, M.; White, M. R.

    1980-03-01

    Window dirtiness is an obvious result of air pollution. The hazemeter described is a cheap and proven device for assessing two optical factors related to this. The value of measuring direct transmission loss is immediately apparent. The value of the haze or scattered light factor is not so obvious. It affects the total light passed through the window and was shown to have correlations with some of the psychological tests of which a brief mention has been made. The potential of this instrument can be extended to the design of more sophisticated analyses of the effect of pollution on windows; for example, the correlation of optical factors with deposit gauge and rain gauge readings, spectral distributions (say at twilight) and the effect on drivers of dirty windscreens.

  3. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  4. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. ); Soule, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Postbuckling behavior of windows subjected to synchrotron radiation x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Sharma, S.K.

    1993-09-01

    Analyses performed on two Be windows (250 and 100 {mu}m thick) show that the additional postbuckling strength still exists after initial window buckling and this part can be used by a thin window design in the working stage. However, the load factor to complate failure is not as big as the load factor to failure of a uniformly compressed window (the case for a thick window where buckling stress is larger than yielding stress of the window material). That is, the load factor of a thin window to collapse is not as large as that of a thick window without buckling. Hence, unless there is a special need for a thin window, buckling of the windows in normal working stage should not be recommended. Although shakedown was not considered, a similar conclusion can be expected for that case.

  6. Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by Boeing, at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Space Station Manufacturing building, the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) will help Space Station crews take some of the best photographs ever snapped from an orbiting spacecraft by eliminating glare and allowing researchers to control their cameras and other equipment from the ground. The WORF is designed to make the best possible use of the high-quality research window in the Space Station's U.S. Destiny laboratory module. Engineers at the MSFC proposed a derivative of the EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Rack already used on the Space Station and were given the go-ahead. The EXPRESS rack can hold a wide variety of experiments and provide them with power, communications, data, cooling, fluids, and other utilities - all the things that Earth-observing experiment instruments would need. WORF will supply payloads with power, data, cooling, video downlink, and stable, standardized interfaces for mounting imaging instruments. Similar to specialized orbital observatories, the interior of the rack is sealed against light and coated with a special low-reflectant black paint, so payloads will be able to observe low-light-level subjects such as the faint glow of auroras. Cameras and remote sensing instruments in the WORF can be preprogrammed, controlled from the ground, or operated by a Station crewmember by using a flexible shroud designed to cinch tightly around the crewmember's waist. The WORF is scheduled to be launched aboard the STS-114 Space Shuttle mission in the year 2003.

  7. Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by Boeing, at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Space Station Manufacturing building, the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) will help Space Station crews take some of the best photographs ever snapped from an orbiting spacecraft by eliminating glare and allowing researchers to control their cameras and other equipment from the ground. The WORF is designed to make the best possible use of the high-quality research window in the Space Station's U.S. Destiny laboratory module. Engineers at the MSFC proposed a derivative of the EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Rack already used on the Space Station and were given the go-ahead. The EXPRESS rack can hold a wide variety of experiments and provide them with power, communications, data, cooling, fluids, and other utilities - all the things that Earth-observing experiment instruments would need. WORF will supply payloads with power, data, cooling, video downlink, and stable, standardized interfaces for mounting imaging instruments. Similar to specialized orbital observatories, the interior of the rack is sealed against light and coated with a special low-reflectant black paint, so payloads will be able to observe low-light-level subjects such as the faint glow of auroras. Cameras and remote sensing instruments in the WORF can be preprogrammed, controlled from the ground, or operated by a Station crewmember by using a flexible shroud designed to cinch tightly around the crewmember's waist. The WORF is scheduled to be launched aboard the STS-114 Space Shuttle mission in the year 2003.

  8. Integrated self-cleaning window assembly for optical transmission in combustion environments

    DOEpatents

    Kass, Michael D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2007-07-24

    An integrated window design for optical transmission in combustion environments is described. The invention consists of an integrated optical window design that prevents and removes the accumulation of carbon-based particulate matter and gaseous hydrocarbons through a combination of heat and catalysis. These windows will enable established optical technologies to be applied to combustion environments and their exhaust systems.

  9. On the survivability of diagnostic windows in the CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.

    1988-11-01

    The problem of radiation induced stresses in CIT diagnostic windows is discussed. Existing data indicate windows of existing design will probably survive if placed on the periphery of the reactor. There is a lack of adequate engineering data upon which the design and survivability of windows can be based. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Windows on the axion

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Hybrid Stochastic Search Technique based Suboptimal AGC Regulator Design for Power System using Constrained Feedback Control Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Omveer, Hasan, N.

    2010-10-01

    A new hybrid stochastic search technique is proposed to design of suboptimal AGC regulator for a two area interconnected non reheat thermal power system incorporating DC link in parallel with AC tie-line. In this technique, we are proposing the hybrid form of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) based regulator. GASA has been successfully applied to constrained feedback control problems where other PI based techniques have often failed. The main idea in this scheme is to seek a feasible PI based suboptimal solution at each sampling time. The feasible solution decreases the cost function rather than minimizing the cost function.

  12. In search for a canonical design ABL stability class for wind farm turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, G. C.; Verelst, D. R.; Bertagnolio, F.; Ott, S.; Chougule, A.

    2016-09-01

    Production as well as loading of wake exposed wind turbines is known to depend significantly on stability of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL), which adds a new dimension to design of wind farm turbines. Adding this new aspect in wind turbine design makes the number of design cycle computations to blow up with a factor equal to the number of representative stability bin classes. The research question to be answered in this paper is: Can an ABL stability probability distribution in a meaningful way be collapsed into a representative design stability class as based on a (predefined) confidence level.

  13. Frame fungi on insulated windows.

    PubMed

    Käpylä, M

    1985-11-01

    Insulated windows (fixed triple glass window elements), became common in Finland during and after the energy crisis. Moisture tends to condense along the edges causing mold growth on the frames. Nine houses with insulated glass windows and eight with other types of window were studied. Fungus samples were taken from the window edges and from the inside air and cultivated on malt extract agar. In five of the houses with insulated windows there was visible mold growth on the window edges. The predominant fungus was Aureobasidium pullulans. With other types of windows there was only one case of visible mold. The concentrations of fungi were about the same in the air of houses with both types of windows. Aureobasidium was rare in the air samples. Thus, window frame molds seem to contribute very little to airborne fungus concentrations. In situ trials were done to control the mold growth with disinfectants. Repeated spraying with aldehydes or quaternary ammonium chlorides in alcohols proved to be successful.

  14. A HIGH-POWER L-BAND RF WINDOW

    SciTech Connect

    R. RIMMER; G. KOEHLER; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of a high power alumina disk window in WR1500 waveguide at L Band, suitable for use in the NLC damping ring RF cavities at 714 MHz and the LEDA Accelerator at 700 MHz. The design is based on the fabrication methods used for the successful PEP-II cavity windows. Four prototype windows at 700 MHz have been produced by LBNL for testing at LANL. The RF design and simulation using MAFIA, laboratory cold test measurements, fabrication methods and preliminary high power test results are discussed.

  15. Automobile design. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design of automobiles (domestic and foreign). Topics include engines, exhaust, fuels, transmissions, and suspension systems. Also covered are computer aided design, computer graphics, gas turbine engines, and propulsion systems. (Contains a minimum of 171 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Automobile design. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design of automobiles (domestic and foreign). Topics include engines, exhaust, fuels, transmissions, and suspension systems. Also covered are computer aided design, computer graphics, gas turbine engines, and propulsion systems. (Contains a minimum of 107 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Generalized serial search code acquisition - The equivalent circular state diagram approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polydoros, A.; Simon, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A transform-domain method for deriving the generating function of the acquisition process resulting from an arbitrary serial search strategy is presented. The method relies on equivalent circular state diagrams, uses Mason's formula from flow-graph theory, and employs a minimum number of required parameters. The transform-domain approach is briefly described and the concept of equivalent circular state diagrams is introduced and exploited to derive the generating function and resulting mean acquisition time for three particular cases of interest, the continuous/center Z search, the broken/center Z search, and the expanding window search. An optimization of the latter technique is performed whereby the number of partial windows which minimizes the mean acquisition time is determined. The numerical results satisfy certain intuitive predictions and provide useful design guidelines for such systems.

  18. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller.

    PubMed

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M A; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation.

  19. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller

    PubMed Central

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M. A.; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation. PMID:26745265

  20. Measuring flexural rigidity over individual geological provinces: On the design of optimal windows for spectral data analysis on flat two-dimensional domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. V.; Simons, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere, its spatial variations, and its possible directional dependence, are geophysical quantities that provide much important information about the structure and evolution of the continents -- especially when combined with other observables such as heat flow, Moho depth, seismic anisotropy, and crustal age. The decades-old picture from the study by Bechtel et al. (Nature, 1990), that elastic thickness in North America is controlled largely by the thermal state of the lithosphere, is due for a revision, and for two reasons. The first is the new wealth of geophysical data being collected from the EarthScope suite of experiments; the second is substantial improvements in the measurement and modeling of gravity and topography and the inversion of their cross-power-spectral properties for flexural rigidity, including its anisotropy. In this presentation we focus on the latter, namely on the development of a new dedicated method to map elastic thickness variations in complex geologic terrains. To reach our goal of matching the tremendous data quality available for North America with measurement and modeling sophistication as far as elastic thickness is concerned, we initially focus on the somewhat more abstract problem of measuring wavelength-dependent properties (such as power spectra, admittance or coherence functions) of data collected over two-dimensional (2-D) geologic provinces of arbitrary description. Thomson's multi-taper method, which uses spatio-spectrally concentrated "Slepian" data windows has been widely used for estimating the spectral characteristics of geological data (gravity and magnetic anomalies, topography, etc). However, these "traditional" 2-D tapers suffer from problems both in the space and spectral domain. In the space domain, they have been restricted to the estimation of power spectra for data defined on rectangular regions. It is clear, however, that typical geologic provinces have irregular

  1. Automatic feature design for optical character recognition using an evolutionary search procedure.

    PubMed

    Stentiford, F W

    1985-03-01

    An automatic evolutionary search is applied to the problem of feature extraction in an OCR application. A performance measure based on feature independence is used to generate features which do not appear to suffer from peaking effects [17]. Features are extracted from a training set of 30 600 machine printed 34 class alphanumeric characters derived from British mail. Classification results on the training set and a test set of 10 200 characters are reported for an increasing number of features. A 1.01 percent forced decision error rate is obtained on the test data using 316 features. The hardware implementation should be cheap and fast to operate. The performance compares favorably with current low cost OCR page readers.

  2. Design of a Novel Electromagnet for an Experimental Search for CP Violation in ortho-Positronium Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Gulden; Henning, Reyco; Bartram, Chelsea; Murphy, Jake

    2016-09-01

    Observation of CP-violation in the lepton sector can help explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe. CALIOPE, or CP Aberrant Leptons in ortho-Positronium Experiment, is a proposed experiment which aims to measure CP violating angular correlations in the gamma-rays emitted in the decay of ortho-Positronium. This experiment will use an existing barrel array of NaI detectors located at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). It will improve over previous searches by increasing angular coverage and systematics. In this talk we will focus the design of the novel electromagnet that will be used in this experiment. This electromagnet design is one of several proposed improvements to decrease the systematics effects of earlier experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144081.

  3. Window defect planar mapping technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, F. R.; Minton, U. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of planar mapping defects in a window having an edge surface and a planar surface. The method is comprised of steps for mounting the window on a support surface. Then a light sensitive paper is placed adjacent to the window surface. A light source is positioned adjacent to the window edge. The window is then illuminated with the source of light for a predetermined interval of time. Defects on the surface of the glass, as well as in the interior of the glass are detected by analyzing the developed light sensitive paper. The light source must be in the form of optical fibers or a light tube whose light transmitting ends are placed near the edge surface of the window.

  4. The 'Formaldehyde Window'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, A. T.

    1981-09-01

    The characteristics obtained by using the absorption line of formaldehyde as a background for a transmitted signal are examined and compared with the Water Hole concept. It is shown that much greater distance may be accessed for a given transmitter power level and that the narrow band characteristics of the formaldehyde line are ideally suited to the transmission of low frequency coded 'calling' signals. It is further shown that two unique harmonic overtones lie above and below the 4830 MHz formaldehyde line, and by using these further aids, a clear and unambiguous interstellar communication system could be established without the background maser noise that would be expected from the use of the Water Hole. It is concluded that the Formaldehyde Window is a viable alternative to the Water Hole concept, with an advantage of being an easily distinguished artifact of intelligence.

  5. Optimal design for passive suspension of a light rail vehicle using constrained multiobjective evolutionary search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Niahn-Chung; Lin, Chun-Liang; Lin, Yu-Chen; Liang, Kuo-Zoo

    2005-07-01

    This research proposes a systematic and effective optimization process for the design of vertical passive suspension of light rail vehicles (LRVs) using new constrained multiobjective evolution algorithms. A multibody dynamic model of the three-car train set is presented and the suspension spring and damping parameters are optimally designed. A new design of the passive suspension is aided by the use of evolution algorithms to attain the best compromise between ride quality and suspension deflections due to irregular gradient tracks. Extensive simulations are performed to verify the proposed design scheme. The preliminary results show that, when the passive suspension is optimized via the proposed approach, a substantial improvement in the vertical ride quality is obtained while keeping the suspension deflections within their allowable clearance when the light rail vehicle runs onto the worst track condition.

  6. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  7. The Development of 6061-Aluminum Windows for the MICE LiquidAbsorber

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Swanson, J.

    2005-08-24

    The thin windows for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) liquid Absorber will be fabricated from 6061-T6-aluminum. The absorber and vacuum vessel thin windows are 300-mm in diameter and are 180 mm thick at the center. The windows are designed for an internal burst pressure of 0.68 MPa (100 psig) when warm. The MICE experiment design calls for changeable windows on the absorber, so a bolted window design was adopted. Welded windows offer some potential advantages over bolted windows when they are on the absorber itself. This report describes the bolted window and its seal. This report also describes an alternate window that is welded directly to the absorber body. The welded window design presented permits the weld to be ground off and re-welded. This report presents a thermal FEA analysis of the window seal-weld, while the window is being welded. Finally, the results of a test of a welded-window are presented.

  8. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  9. INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST CABINET. (NOTE THE MIRRORED PANEL IN THE FORWARD SHUTTER’S LOWER SECTION. DURING THE HAMILTONIAN OCCUPANCY, MIRRORS LIKE THESE WERE USED LIBERALLY THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE’S PUBLIC ROOMS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. The uncrowded window of object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Pelli, Denis G; Tillman, Katharine A

    2009-01-01

    It is now emerging that vision is usually limited by object spacing rather than size. The visual system recognizes an object by detecting and then combining its features. ‘Crowding’ occurs when objects are too close together and features from several objects are combined into a jumbled percept. Here, we review the explosion of studies on crowding—in grating discrimination, letter and face recognition, visual search, selective attention, and reading—and find a universal principle, the Bouma law. The critical spacing required to prevent crowding is equal for all objects, although the effect is weaker between dissimilar objects. Furthermore, critical spacing at the cortex is independent of object position, and critical spacing at the visual field is proportional to object distance from fixation. The region where object spacing exceeds critical spacing is the ‘uncrowded window’. Observers cannot recognize objects outside of this window and its size limits the speed of reading and search. PMID:18828191

  11. A preliminary design and implementation of the low-thrust simulation and trajectory search program (LOWTRAJ)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of one phase of research conducted for the JPL Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Navigation Software System development program. It deals only with the problem of designing the flight quality trajectory program, which is a major subset of the entire navigation software system. In this phase of research (breadboard development phase), attempts were made to assess the SEP trajectory software functional requirements, to investigate the program design method satisfying these requirements, to identify the primary anticipated problem areas, and to provide solutions to these problem areas. These efforts culminated in the development of a compact breadboard program. A functional description and the mathematical formulation of the program are presented.

  12. Navigating the Internet: Evaluating Gopher Clients for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonardo, Angela; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the criteria that end users might employ when evaluating a gopher client, particularly for the Windows environment. Topics include cost and availability, help features, functionality, viewing, searching, navigating, bookmarks, retrieving and displaying files, robustness, and gopher clients available via FTP (file transfer…

  13. Integrated smart electrochromic windows for energy saving and storage applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong; Jin, Xiujuan; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-18

    A self-powered electrochromic smart window with tunable transmittance driven by dye-sensitized solar cells has been designed, which also acts as a photocharged electrochromic supercapacitor with high areal capacitance and reversible color changes.

  14. A Sampled Literature Review of Design-Based Learning Approaches: A Search for Key Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; van Eijck, Michiel; Jochems, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Design-based learning (DBL) is an educational approach grounded in the processes of inquiry and reasoning towards generating innovative artifacts, systems and solutions. The approach is well characterized in the context of learning natural sciences in secondary education. Less is known, however, of its characteristics in the context of higher…

  15. Project OASIS: The Design of a Signal Detector for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, S. (Editor); Dixon, R. (Editor); Healy, T. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    An 8 million channel spectrum analyzer (MCSA) was designed the meet to meet the needs of a SETI program. The MCSA puts out a very large data base at very high rates. The development of a device which follows the MCSA, is presented.

  16. Evolutionary computing for the design search and optimization of space vehicle power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, M.; Klimeck, G.; Hanks, D.

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary computing has proven to be a straightforward and robust approach for optimizing a wide range of difficult analysis and design problems. This paper discusses the application of these techniques to an existing space vehicle power subsystem resource and performance analysis simulation in a parallel processing environment.

  17. Interpreting clinical trial results by deductive reasoning: In search of improved trial design.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven; Mihaljević, Slobodan

    2017-10-01

    Clinical trial results are often interpreted by inductive reasoning, in a trial design-limited manner, directed toward modifications of the current clinical practice. Deductive reasoning is an alternative in which results of relevant trials are combined in indisputable premises that lead to a conclusion easily testable in future trials. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Search for Pedagogical Dynamism--Design Patterns and the Unselfconscious Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouasher, Agata; Lodge, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    An apparent paradigm shift has created increased impetus to offer higher education across multiple delivery platforms. Utilising technology can support design and delivery for enhanced learning, albeit with additional pressures on academic workloads, affecting the ability to deliver quality formal education that meets the needs of individuals and…

  19. Three Design Principles of Language: The Search for Parsimony in Redundancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekhuizen, Barend; Bod, Rens; Zuidema, Willem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present three design principles of language--experience, heterogeneity and redundancy--and present recent developments in a family of models incorporating them, namely Data-Oriented Parsing/Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing. Although the idea of some form of redundant storage has become part and parcel of parsing technologies and…

  20. In Search of a Voice: Rural HIV Prevention Campaigns Designed for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Roger

    HIV/AIDS are affecting increasingly complex, more diverse populations, particularly communities of color. Despite National prevention efforts designed to speak to marginal experience, these communities continue to be disproportionately affected, especially in rural areas of the country which are difficult to access with communication about HIV. A…

  1. The Search for Pedagogical Dynamism--Design Patterns and the Unselfconscious Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouasher, Agata; Lodge, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    An apparent paradigm shift has created increased impetus to offer higher education across multiple delivery platforms. Utilising technology can support design and delivery for enhanced learning, albeit with additional pressures on academic workloads, affecting the ability to deliver quality formal education that meets the needs of individuals and…

  2. Three Design Principles of Language: The Search for Parsimony in Redundancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekhuizen, Barend; Bod, Rens; Zuidema, Willem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present three design principles of language--experience, heterogeneity and redundancy--and present recent developments in a family of models incorporating them, namely Data-Oriented Parsing/Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing. Although the idea of some form of redundant storage has become part and parcel of parsing technologies and…

  3. Computer aided design: Buildings and building systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of computer analyses in architectural and engineering studies of buildings and associated building systems. Topics include analyses of structural members under various load conditions, heating and cooling system design, seismic evaluations, and economic factors. Specific software packages are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. A Sampled Literature Review of Design-Based Learning Approaches: A Search for Key Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; van Eijck, Michiel; Jochems, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Design-based learning (DBL) is an educational approach grounded in the processes of inquiry and reasoning towards generating innovative artifacts, systems and solutions. The approach is well characterized in the context of learning natural sciences in secondary education. Less is known, however, of its characteristics in the context of higher…

  5. Evaluating a Telewriter System To Enhance Audio-Teleconferencing: A Qualitative Search for Instructional Design Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shale, Doug; Garrison, D. Randy

    An audioteleconferencing system enhanced with a microcomputer-based telewriting system was used for the delivery of an introductory statistics course designed for home study which was offered by Athabasca University. From the instructor's point of view, the telewriter system made supporting the delivery of the statistics course much easier and…

  6. Pregnancy as a Window to Future Cardiovascular Health: Design and Implementation of the nuMoM2b Heart Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Haas, David M.; Ehrenthal, Deborah B.; Koch, Matthew A.; Catov, Janet M.; Barnes, Shannon E.; Facco, Francesca; Parker, Corette B.; Mercer, Brian M.; Bairey-Merz, C. Noel; Silver, Robert M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Hoffman, Matthew K.; Grobman, William A.; Greenland, Philip; Wing, Deborah A.; Saade, George R.; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C.; Reddy, Uma M.; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Burwen, Dale R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study-Monitoring Mothers-to-Be (nuMoM2b) Heart Health Study (HHS) was designed to investigate the relationships between adverse pregnancy outcomes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The ongoing nuMoM2b-HHS, which started in 2013, is a prospective follow-up of the nuMoM2b cohort, which included 10,038 women recruited between 2010 and 2013 from 8 centers across the United States who were initially observed over the course of their first pregnancies. In this report, we detail the design and study procedures of the nuMoM2b-HHS. Women in the pregnancy cohort who consented to be contacted for participation in future studies were approached at 6-month intervals to ascertain health information and to maintain ongoing contact. Two to 5 years after completion of the pregnancy documented in the nuMoM2b, women in the nuMoM2b-HHS were invited to an in-person study visit. During this visit, they completed psychosocial and medical history questionnaires and had clinical measurements and biological specimens obtained. A subcohort of participants who had objective assessments of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy were asked to repeat this investigation. This unique prospective observational study includes a large, geographically and ethnically diverse cohort, rich depth of phenotypic information about adverse pregnancy outcomes, and clinical data and biospecimens from early in the index pregnancy onward. Data obtained from this cohort will provide mechanistic and clinical insights into how data on a first pregnancy can provide information about the potential development of subsequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26825925

  7. Pregnancy as a Window to Future Cardiovascular Health: Design and Implementation of the nuMoM2b Heart Health Study.

    PubMed

    Haas, David M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Koch, Matthew A; Catov, Janet M; Barnes, Shannon E; Facco, Francesca; Parker, Corette B; Mercer, Brian M; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Silver, Robert M; Wapner, Ronald J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Hoffman, Matthew K; Grobman, William A; Greenland, Philip; Wing, Deborah A; Saade, George R; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C; Reddy, Uma M; Pemberton, Victoria L; Burwen, Dale R

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study-Monitoring Mothers-to-Be (nuMoM2b) Heart Health Study (HHS) was designed to investigate the relationships between adverse pregnancy outcomes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The ongoing nuMoM2b-HHS, which started in 2013, is a prospective follow-up of the nuMoM2b cohort, which included 10,038 women recruited between 2010 and 2013 from 8 centers across the United States who were initially observed over the course of their first pregnancies. In this report, we detail the design and study procedures of the nuMoM2b-HHS. Women in the pregnancy cohort who consented to be contacted for participation in future studies were approached at 6-month intervals to ascertain health information and to maintain ongoing contact. Two to 5 years after completion of the pregnancy documented in the nuMoM2b, women in the nuMoM2b-HHS were invited to an in-person study visit. During this visit, they completed psychosocial and medical history questionnaires and had clinical measurements and biological specimens obtained. A subcohort of participants who had objective assessments of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy were asked to repeat this investigation. This unique prospective observational study includes a large, geographically and ethnically diverse cohort, rich depth of phenotypic information about adverse pregnancy outcomes, and clinical data and biospecimens from early in the index pregnancy onward. Data obtained from this cohort will provide mechanistic and clinical insights into how data on a first pregnancy can provide information about the potential development of subsequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Two-Band, Low-Loss Microwave Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael; Franco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A window for a high-sensitivity microwave receiving system allows microwave radiation to pass through to a cryogenically cooled microwave feed system in a vacuum chamber, while keeping ambient air out of the chamber and helping to keep the interior of the chamber cold. The microwave feed system comprises a feed horn and a low-noise amplifier, both of which are required to be cooled to a temperature of 15 K during operation. The window is designed to exhibit very little microwave attenuation in two frequency bands: 8 to 9 GHz and 30 to 40 GHz. The window is 15 cm in diameter. It includes three layers (see figure): 1) The outer layer is made of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film 0.025 mm thick. This layer serves primarily to reflect and absorb solar ultraviolet radiation to prolong the life of the underlying main window layer, which is made of a polyimide that becomes weakened when exposed to ultraviolet. The poly(tetrafluoroethylene) layer also protects the main window layer against abrasion. Moreover, the inherent hydrophobicity of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) helps to prevent the highly undesirable accumulation of water on the outer surface. 2) The polyimide main window layer is 0.08 mm thick. This layer provides the vacuum seal for the window. 3) A 20-mm-thick layer of ethylene/ propylene copolymer foam underlies the main polyimide window layer. This foam layer acts partly as a thermal insulator: it limits radiational heating of the microwave feed horn and, concomitantly, limits radiational cooling of the window. This layer has high compressive strength and provides some mechanical support for the main window layer, reducing the strength required of the main window layer. The ethylene/propylene copolymer foam layer is attached to an aluminum window ring by means of epoxy. The outer poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film and the main polyimide window layer are sandwiched together and pressed against the window ring by use of a bolted clamp ring. The window has been found to

  9. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  10. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  11. Earth Observation through Cupola Windows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-22

    ISS028-E-028792 (22 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses a camera at a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station. A blue and white part of Earth is visible through the windows.

  12. Earth Observation through Cupola Windows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-22

    ISS028-E-028791 (22 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses a camera at a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station. A blue and white part of Earth is visible through the windows.

  13. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS J. Brendan Baum, Civilian, USAF AFIT...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author...WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of

  14. Design of dual action antibiotics as an approach to search for new promising drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tevyashova, A. N.; Olsufyeva, E. N.; Preobrazhenskaya, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the latest achievements in the design of dual action antibiotics — heterodimeric (chimeric) structures based on antibacterial agents of different classes (fluoroquinolones, anthracyclines, oxazolidines, macrolides and so on). Covalent binding can make the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these molecules more predictable and improve the penetration of each component into the cell. Consequently, not only does the drug efficacy increase owing to inhibition of two targets but also the resistance to one or both antibiotics can be overcome. The theoretical grounds of elaboration, design principles and methods for the synthesis of dual action antibiotics are considered. The structures are classified according to the type of covalent spacer (cleavable or not) connecting the moieties of two agents. Dual action antibiotics with a spacer that can be cleaved in a living cell are considered as dual action prodrugs. Data on the biological action of heterodimeric compounds are presented and structure-activity relationships are analyzed. The bibliography includes 225 references.

  15. Design Principles of Regulatory Networks: Searching for the Molecular Algorithms of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wendell A.; Lee, Connie M.; Tang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in biology is to understand how complex molecular networks in the cell execute sophisticated regulatory functions. Here we explore the idea that there are common and general principles that link network structures to biological functions, principles that constrain the design solutions that evolution can converge upon for accomplishing a given cellular task. We describe approaches for classifying networks based on abstract architectures and functions, rather than on the specific molecular components of the networks. For any common regulatory task, can we define the space of all possible molecular solutions? Such inverse approaches might ultimately allow the assembly of a design table of core molecular algorithms that could serve as a guide for building synthetic networks and modulating disease networks. PMID:23352241

  16. Design principles of regulatory networks: searching for the molecular algorithms of the cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wendell A; Lee, Connie M; Tang, Chao

    2013-01-24

    A challenge in biology is to understand how complex molecular networks in the cell execute sophisticated regulatory functions. Here we explore the idea that there are common and general principles that link network structures to biological functions, principles that constrain the design solutions that evolution can converge upon for accomplishing a given cellular task. We describe approaches for classifying networks based on abstract architectures and functions, rather than on the specific molecular components of the networks. For any common regulatory task, can we define the space of all possible molecular solutions? Such inverse approaches might ultimately allow the assembly of a design table of core molecular algorithms that could serve as a guide for building synthetic networks and modulating disease networks.

  17. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  18. Tuning the chemosensory window

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shanshan; Mackay, Trudy FC

    2010-01-01

    Accurate perception of chemical signals from the environment is critical for the fitness of most animals. Drosophila melanogaster experiences its chemical environment through families of chemoreceptors that include olfactory receptors, gustatory receptors and odorant binding proteins. Its chemical environment, however, changes during its life cycle and the interpretation of chemical signals is dependent on dynamic social and physical surroundings. Phenotypic plasticity of gene expression of the chemoreceptor repertoire allows flies to adjust the chemosensory window through which they “view” their world and to modify the ensemble of expressed chemoreceptor proteins in line with their developmental and physiological state and according to their needs to locate food and oviposition sites under different social and physical environmental conditions. Furthermore, males and females differ in their expression profiles of chemoreceptor genes. Thus, each sex experiences its chemical environment via combinatorial activation of distinct chemoreceptor ensembles. The remarkable phenotypic plasticity of the chemoreceptor repertoire raises several fundamental questions. What are the mechanisms that translate environmental cues into regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression? How are gustatory and olfactory cues integrated perceptually? What is the relationship between ensembles of odorant binding proteins and odorant receptors? And, what is the significance of co-regulated chemoreceptor transcriptional networks? PMID:20305396

  19. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  20. EEG/ERP adaptive noise canceller design with controlled search space (CSS) approach in cuckoo and other optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ahirwal, M K; Kumar, Anil; Singh, G K

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the migration of adaptive filtering with swarm intelligence/evolutionary techniques employed in the field of electroencephalogram/event-related potential noise cancellation or extraction. A new approach is proposed in the form of controlled search space to stabilize the randomness of swarm intelligence techniques especially for the EEG signal. Swarm-based algorithms such as Particles Swarm Optimization, Artificial Bee Colony, and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm with their variants are implemented to design optimized adaptive noise canceler. The proposed controlled search space technique is tested on each of the swarm intelligence techniques and is found to be more accurate and powerful. Adaptive noise canceler with traditional algorithms such as least-mean-square, normalized least-mean-square, and recursive least-mean-square algorithms are also implemented to compare the results. ERP signals such as simulated visual evoked potential, real visual evoked potential, and real sensorimotor evoked potential are used, due to their physiological importance in various EEG studies. Average computational time and shape measures of evolutionary techniques are observed 8.21E-01 sec and 1.73E-01, respectively. Though, traditional algorithms take negligible time consumption, but are unable to offer good shape preservation of ERP, noticed as average computational time and shape measure difference, 1.41E-02 sec and 2.60E+00, respectively.

  1. A CLIPS/X-window interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, Kym Jason

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of an interface between the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert system development environment and the graphic user interface development tools of the X-Window system are described. The underlying basis of the CLIPS/X-Window is a client-server model in which multiple clients can attach to a single server that interprets, executes, and returns operation results, in response to client action requests. Implemented in an AIX (UNIX) operating system environment, the interface has been successfully applied in the development of graphics interfaces for production rule cooperating agents in a knowledge-based computer aided design (CAD) system. Initial findings suggest that the client-server model is particularly well suited to a distributed parallel processing operational mode in a networked workstation environment.

  2. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows' Platforms.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Philip C; Turner, Charles F

    1998-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today.

  3. A simple image display application for windows.

    PubMed

    Conrad, G R

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple application for displaying low-to-moderate resolution digital images under the Windows operating environment. The display of scintigraphic images was of special interest, and for this reason the program was designed to show sequences of images and to account for broad ranges of pixel values. In order to function under a variety of Windows versions, the program was developed using the 16-bit Microsoft C +2 compiler and targeted for Windows 3.1 enhanced. It was tested with Trionix images for nuclear medicine and Siemens for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). The resulting application, called SID, successfully read Magnetom, Somatom, Trionix, and Interfile images of dimension 512 or less on Intel-based Windows PCs with 256 color SVGA-compatible (Super Video Graphics Adapters) video hardware. Early applications of the program included remote monitoring of image studies, resident review of teaching cases, review of research images, and preparation of educational materials. This article describes the features, operation, and potential applications of SID.

  4. An acoustic window for sustainable buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian; Brocklesby, Martin; Li, Zhemin; Oldham, David J.

    2005-04-01

    Encouraging the use of natural ventilation is an important tendency in the green building movement, but opening windows can often cause noise problems. This research develops a window system which allows natural ventilation while reducing noise transmission. The core idea is to create a ventilation path by staggering two layers of glass and using micro-perforated absorbers (MPA) along the path created to reduce noise. The MPA are made from transparent materials so that daylighting is relatively unaffected. Starting with a brief introduction of the MPA theory and its application in ducts, the paper presents a series of numerical simulations using finite element method based software FEMLAB, and experiment results measured between a semi-anechoic chamber and a reverberation chamber. Performance in acoustics, ventilation and daylighting are all taken into account. A basic window configuration is first considered, studying the effectiveness of various window parameters. A number of strategic designs are then examined, including external hoods and louvers in the sound path. There is generally a good agreement between simulation and measurement, and the noise reduction can be as good as a single glazing, with air movement to achieve occupant comfort, rather than just for minimum air exchange. [Work supported by EPSRC.

  5. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  6. Window survivability in endoatmospheric environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, Stewart B.; Majeski, Judith A.; Mills, J. S.

    1993-06-01

    An optical seeker window has been shown to survive hypersonic, endoatmospheric environments such as those encountered during Theater Defense or National Missile Defense engagements. The two periods most critical to the window are shroud removal and the subsequent cooling during acquisition and homing. The loads encountered during shroud removal are predicted by applying scaling functions to wind tunnel data. A nonlinear dynamic transient stress analysis is shown to match the wind tunnel strain measurements. The predicted stresses are then input into a Weibull statistical method to predict the probability of window survival during shroud separation. After the shroud is away, the window requires cooling to prevent excessive distortion caused by rapid heating. Analyses show that deflections of the window are small. The thermally induced stresses are low compared to stresses during shroud removal.

  7. High-Reliability Waveguide Vacuum/Pressure Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Hanson, Theodore R.; Long, Ezra M.; Montanez, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) uses commercial waveguide windows on the output waveguide of Ka-band (32 GHz) low-noise amplifiers. Mechanical failure of these windows resulted in an unacceptable loss in tracking time. To address this issue, a new Ka-band WR-28 waveguide window has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The window uses a slab of low-loss, low-dielectric constant foam that is bonded into a 1/2-wave-thick waveguide/flange. The foam is a commercially available, rigid, closed-cell polymethacrylimide. It has excellent electrical properties with a dielectric constant of 1.04, and a loss tangent of 0.01. It is relatively strong with a tensile strength of 1 MPa. The material is virtually impermeable to helium. The finished window exhibits a leak rate of less than 3x10(exp -3)cu cm/s with helium. The material is also chemically resistant and can be cleaned with acetone. The window is constructed by fabricating a window body by brazing a short length of WR-28 copper waveguide into a standard rectangular flange, and machining the resulting part to a thickness of 4.6 mm. The foam is machined to a rectangular shape with a dimension of 7.06x3.53 mm. The foam is bonded into the body with a two-part epoxy. After curing, the excess glue and foam are knife-trimmed by hand. The finished window has a loss of less than 0.08 dB (2%) and a return loss of greater than 25 dB at 32 GHz. This meets the requirements for the DSN application. The window is usable for most applications over the entire 26-to-40-GHz waveguide band. The window return loss can be tuned to a required frequency by var y in g the thickness of the window slightly. Most standard waveguide windows use a thin membrane of material bonded into a recess in a waveguide flange, or sandwiched between two flanges with a polymer seal. Designs using the recessed window are prone to mechanical failure over time due to constraints on the dimensions of the recess that allow the bond to fail. Designs using the

  8. Window box collectors for Squirrel Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, B.J.

    1981-05-01

    A prototype thermosyphoning collector was built and installed in the windows of a house in Pittsburgh. Testing of the collectors revealed an efficiency of 35% and a payback period of 10 years. The prototype was redesigned and tested under a DOE grant. The final design of the collector is presented, but only a small amount of data was taken to begin the evaluation of the units. The use of thermal shutters is also included. (BCS)

  9. The CMS forward calorimeter prototype design studies and Ω$0\\atop{C}$ search at E781 experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Ayan, Ahmet Sedat

    2004-05-01

    In the fit part, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward calorimeter design studies are presented. The forward calorimeter consists of quartz fibers embedded in a steel absorber. Radiation damage studies of the quartz fiber and the absorber as well as the results of the first pre-production prototype PPP-I are presented. In the second part, the Ω$0\\atop{C}$ search studies at the SELEX (E781) experiment at FermiLab are presented. 107 ± 22 Ω$0\\atop{C}$ events are observed in three decay modes. The relative branching ratio (Ω$0\\atop{C}$ → Ω-π-π+π+)/β(Ω$0\\atop{C}$ {yields} Ω-π+) is measured as 2.00 ± 0.45(stat) ± 0.32(sys).

  10. Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for First Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentuch, Erin; Scott, Alan; Abraham, Roberto; Barton, Elizabeth; Bershady, Matthew; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Crampton, David; Doyon, René; Eikenberry, Steve; Gladders, Mike; Glazebrook, Karl; Jenson, Joe; Julian, Jeff; Julian, Roger; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Loop, David; Raines, Nick; Rowlands, Neil; Smith, J. D.

    2008-07-01

    The Flamingos-2 Tandem Tunable filter is a tunable, narrow-band filter, consisting of two Fabry-Perot etalons in series, capable of scanning to any wavelength from 0.95 to 1.35 microns with a spectral resolution of R~800. It is an accessory mode instrument for the near-IR Flamingos-2 imaging-spectrograph designed for the Gemini South 8m Observatory and will be fed through the upcoming Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics feed. The primary science goal of the F2T2 filter is to perform a ground-based search for the first star forming regions in the universe at redshifts of 7 < z < 11. The construction of the F2T2 filter is complete and it is currently in its calibration and commissioning phases. In this proceeding, we describe the calibration and performance of the instrument.

  11. Development of a window protection assembly for a shuttle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, O. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A window environmental protection assembly developed for the shuttle infrared leeside temperature experiment is described. The assembly consists of a carbon phenolic composite window mount which contains two silicon windows, a fibrous environmental protection plug to protect the windows during launch operations and ascent heating, a release mechanism used to jettison the plug just prior to atmospheric entry, and two pin puller mechanisms which retain the plug. The plug is released from the window mount assemblies using pneumatic pin pullers and separation springs in the release mechanism. The assembly was designed and tested to withstand the severe mechanical and thermal environments which could be experienced at the top of the shuttle orbiter vertical stabilizer during the ascent, on-orbit, and entry periods of the shuttle trajectory.

  12. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  13. Window Area and Development Drive Spatial Variation in Bird-Window Collisions in an Urban Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.; McKay, Kelly J.; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0–52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used

  14. Evolutionary computing for the design search and optimization of space vehicle power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Klimeck, Gerhard; Hanks, David; Hua, Hook

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary computing has proven to be a straightforward and robust approach for optimizing a wide range of difficult analysis and design problems. This paper discusses the application of these techniques to an existing space vehicle power subsystem resource and performance analysis simulation in a parallel processing environment. Out preliminary results demonstrate that this approach has the potential to improve the space system trade study process by allowing engineers to statistically weight subsystem goals of mass, cost and performance then automatically size power elements based on anticipated performance of the subsystem rather than on worst-case estimates.

  15. Design of single phase liquid argon detectors for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastler, Daniel E.

    2012-05-01

    Within our current understanding of the makeup of the universe, dark matter makes up 25% of the total energy and over 80% of the matter in the universe. Little is known about the makeup of dark matter, but its existence has been indirectly measured using the rotation curves of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and the Cosmic Microwave Background. To gain a greater understanding of this component of the universe, direct detection of dark matter is a major objective in particle astrophysics. One popular candidate for dark matter is the weakly interacting massive particle, or WIMP. The allowed rate of interaction between a WIMP and normal matter is extremely low, requiring new detection technologies with greater sensitivity to be explored. Though several experiments have already been conducted, no direct detection experiment has unambiguously identified a dark matter signal. This work explores the use of noble liquids, in a single liquid phase design, to detect single scatters of dark matter particles. The goal of current experiments is to investigate matter-dark-matter interaction cross-sections down to 10--45cm2. With that in mind, the MiniCLEAN detector has been designed with a 500 kg liquid argon detector volume and will be viewed by a spherical 4pi configuration of 92 photo-multiplier tubes. In order to determine the ability for single phase noble liquid to detect nuclear recoils from dark matter, several R&D experiments have been performed. These experiments undertook the measurement of how dark-matter-like nuclear recoils and background-like electronic recoils behave in liquid argon. In addition to reviewing the measurements of pulse shape discrimination and other noble liquid properties, my measurement of the scintillation efficiency is described. The scintillation efficiency characterizes the differing energy responses for nuclear and electron recoils. This was the first measurement of the scintillation efficiency in liquid argon for nuclear recoils over a wide

  16. Criteria for Comparing Children's Web Search Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    Presents criteria for evaluating and comparing Web search tools designed for children. Highlights include database size; accountability; categorization; search access methods; help files; spell check; URL searching; links to alternative search services; advertising; privacy policy; and layout and design. (LRW)

  17. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or approved...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or approved...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.404 - Standard for egress windows and devices for use in manufactured homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standard for egress windows and... SAFETY STANDARDS Testing § 3280.404 Standard for egress windows and devices for use in manufactured homes... section is to establish the requirements for the design, construction, and installation of windows...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or...

  3. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  4. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A.M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A.I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mocchiutti, E.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Picozza, P.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons + positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approx. 0.01 deg (E(sub gamma) > 100 GeV), the energy resolution approx. 1% (E(sub gamma) > 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approx 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  5. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  6. Three design principles of language: the search for parsimony in redundancy.

    PubMed

    Beekhuizen, Barend; Bod, Rens; Zuidema, Willem

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we present three design principles of language - experience, heterogeneity and redundancy--and present recent developments in a family of models incorporating them, namely Data-Oriented Parsing/Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing. Although the idea of some form of redundant storage has become part and parcel of parsing technologies and usage-based linguistic approaches alike, the question how much of it is cognitively realistic and/or computationally optimally efficient is an open one. We argue that a segmentation-based approach (Bayesian Model Merging) combined with an all-subtrees approach reduces the number of rules needed to achieve an optimal performance, thus making the parser more efficient. At the same time, starting from unsegmented wholes comes closer to the acquisitional situation of a language learner, and thus adds to the cognitive plausibility of the model.

  7. Design and performance of the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mocchiutti, E.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Picozza, P.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Yurkin, Yu. T.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.; Zirakashvili, V. N.

    2013-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons + positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is ~0.01° (Eγ > 100 GeV), the energy resolution ~1% (Eγ > 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor ~106. GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  8. Sound transmission loss of windows on high speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumei; Xiao, Xinbiao; Thompson, David; Squicciarini, Giacomo; Wen, Zefeng; Li, Zhihui; Wu, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The window is one of the main components of the high speed train car body structure through which noise can be transmitted. To study the windows’ acoustic properties, the vibration of one window of a high speed train has been measured for a running speed of 250 km/h. The corresponding interior noise and the noise in the wheel-rail area have been measured simultaneously. The experimental results show that the window vibration velocity has a similar spectral shape to the interior noise. Interior noise source identification further indicates that the window makes a contribution to the interior noise. Improvement of the window's Sound Transmission Loss (STL) can reduce the interior noise from this transmission path. An STL model of the window is built based on wave propagation and modal superposition methods. From the theoretical results, the window's STL property is studied and several factors affecting it are investigated, which provide indications for future low noise design of high speed train windows.

  9. Laser induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Hurst, P.A.; Heggins, D.D.; Steele, W.A.; Bumpas, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    Laser-induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large ({le}61 cm dia) fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in Nova and Beamlet lasers. If the elastic stored energy in the lens is high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces (implosion). Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: elastic stored energy (tensile stress), ratio of window thickness to flaw depth, and secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments were conducted on 15-cm dia fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. Results, combined with window failure data on Beamlet and Nova, were used to develop design criteria for a ``fail-safe`` lens (that may catastrophically fracture but not implode). Specifically, the window must be made thick enough so that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi (3.4 MPa) and the thickness/critical flaw size is less than 6. The air leak through the window fracture and into the vacuum must be rapid enough to reduce the load on the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments ``lock`` in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase, leading to further (i.e. secondary) crack growth.

  10. Conformal ALON® and spinel windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Smith, Mark; Ramisetty, Mohan; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2017-05-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft based reconnaissance systems are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. ALON consists primarily of aluminum and oxygen, similar to that of alumina, with a small amount of nitrogen added to help stabilize the cubic gamma-AlON phase. ALON's chemical similarity to alumina, translates into a robust manufacturing process. This ease of processing has allowed Surmet to produce ALON windows and domes in a wide variety of geometries and sizes. Spinel (MgAl2O4) contains equal molar amounts of MgO and Al2O3, and is a cubic material, that transmits further into the Infrared than ALON. Spinel is produced via powder processing techniques similar to those used to produce ALON. Surmet is now applying the lessons learned with ALON to produce conformal spinel windows and domes as well.

  11. 14. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. WINDOWS HAVE WHITE TERRA COTTA SILLS, HEADS AND MULLIONS. ARCHES ARE OF TERRA COTTA INCLUDING ORNAMENTATION ABOVE THE 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CIRCULAR ORNAMENTATIONS BETWEEN ARCHES ARE TERRA COTTA PAINTED IN BRONZE COLOR. LOUVERS ON THE WINDOWS ARE NOT PART OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGN. THIS IS THE FRONT ELEVATION. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Blast-Resistant Window System (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    both the window frame and the window panels via automotive -glass adhesive and steel bolts. Approximate numerical modeling of this anchorage is...MAT_LAMINATED_GLASS Window frame adhesive Structural Urethane adhesive Constraint CONTACT_TIED_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE Window panel adhesive Structural Urethane ... adhesive Constraint CONTACT_TIED_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE 33 Table 3. Models analyzed in the design-parameter sensitivity study System identification

  13. Thermal, structural, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.M. ); Phillips, W. )

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology have made it possible to produce thin free-standing diamond foils that can be used as the window material in high heat load, synchrotron beamlines. Numerical simulations suggest that these windows can offer an attractive and at times the only altemative to beryllium windows for use in third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, as are the microstructure characteristics bearing on diamond's performance in this role. Analytic and numerical results are also presented to provide a basis for the design and testing of such windows.

  14. Professional and Regulatory Search

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  15. Water bubble in front of JEM window

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-20

    View of water bubble formed in front of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) window. The JEM Exposed Facility (JEF) is visible in the background through the window and reflected in the water. Scratches visible on the window.

  16. WAIS-IV administration errors: effects of altered response requirements on Symbol Search and violation of standard surface-variety patterns on Block Design.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Swopes-Willhite, Nicole; Franklin, Cassi; Kreiner, David S

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized a sample of 50 college students to assess the possibility that responding to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Symbol Search subtest items with an "x" instead of a "single slash mark" would affect performance. A second sample of 50 college students was used to assess the impact on WAIS-IV Block Design performance of presenting all the items with only red surfaces facing up. The modified Symbol Search and Block Design administrations yielded mean scaled scores and raw scores that did not differ significantly from mean scores obtained with standard administrations. Findings should not be generalized beyond healthy, well-educated young adults.

  17. Optimal design of groundwater remediation systems using a probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q.; Wu, J.; Qian, J.

    2013-12-01

    This study develops a new probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (PMOFHS) for optimal design of groundwater remediation system under uncertainty associated with the hydraulic conductivity of aquifers. The PMOFHS integrates the previously developed deterministic multi-objective optimization method, namely multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (MOFHS) with a probabilistic Pareto domination ranking and probabilistic niche technique to search for Pareto-optimal solutions to multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy hydrogeological environment arising from insufficient hydraulic conductivity data. The PMOFHS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to identify the optimal groundwater remediation system of a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem involving two objectives: (i) minimization of the total remediation cost through the engineering planning horizon, and (ii) minimization of the percentage of mass remaining in the aquifer at the end of the operational period, which uses the Pump-and-Treat (PAT) technology to clean up contaminated groundwater. Also, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The MC analysis is taken to each Pareto solutions for every K realization. Then the statistical mean and the upper and lower bounds of uncertainty intervals of 95% confidence level are calculated. The MC analysis results show that all of the Pareto-optimal solutions are located between the upper and lower bounds of the MC analysis. Moreover, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) between the Pareto-optimal solutions by the PMOFHS and the average values of optimal solutions by the MC analysis are 0.0204 for the first objective and 0.0318 for the second objective, quite smaller than those RMSEs between the results by the existing probabilistic multi-objective genetic algorithm (PMOGA) and the MC analysis, 0.0384 and 0.0397, respectively. In

  18. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  19. Single Project Replaces District's Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The towns of Maplewood and South Orange (New Jersey) earmarked over $1 million, raised from a bond issue, to replace with thermal aluminum-framed units the 2400 worn out windows in eight 50-year-old schools. (Author)

  20. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  1. Response of spacecraft window materials to hypervelocity projectile impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the response of window materials to hypervelocity projectile impact. Window impact damage is characterized according to the nature and extent of surface and internal damage. Analysis of the test data indicates that, for single-pane specimens, the extent of the damage to the test specimens can be written as functions of the impact parameters of the original projectile and the geometric and material properties of the projectile/ window system. These functions can be used to perform parameter-sensitivity studies and to evaluate hypothetical design applications and configurations.

  2. A double vacuum window mechanism for space-borne applications.

    PubMed

    Zilic, K; Aboobaker, A; Aubin, F; Geach, C; Hanany, S; Jarosik, N; Milligan, M; Sagiv, I

    2017-04-01

    We present a vacuum window mechanism that is useful for applications requiring two different vacuum windows in series, with one of them movable and resealable. Such applications include space borne instruments that can benefit from a thin vacuum window at low ambient pressures but must also have an optically open aperture at atmospheric pressures. We describe the implementation and successful operation with the E and B experiment balloon-borne payload, a millimeter-wave instrument designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  3. Precision temperature gradient measurements on window glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikk, G.; Petrie, W.

    1977-01-01

    Surface temperature gradients were measured with miniature thermocouples installed in a 58.5 cm (23-inch) square window. Test measurements at 25 locations were made under vacuum and with the window operating in radiant heat transfer mode. The analysis of thermocouple design and installation is presented along with a lead wire routing scheme to allow for both differential and absolute temperature measurements while using a minimum number of signal feedthru paths through the test chamber wall. Typical test data and operational precautions are presented along with the accuracy analysis for installation effects and measurement effects to support differential temperature measurement precision values of + or - 0.06 C RMS + or - 0.1 F RMS).

  4. High power windows for WR650 waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Mircea Stirbet; Robert Rimmer; Thomas Elliott; Edward Daly; Katherine Wilson; Lynn Vogel; Haipeng Wang; Brian Carpenter; Karl Smith; Thomas Powers; Michael Drury; Robert Nichols; G. Davis

    2007-06-01

    Based on the robust, pre-stressed planar window concept successfully tested for PEP II and LEDA, a new design for planar ceramic windows to be used with WR650 waveguide fundamental power couplers at 1300 MHz or 1500 MHz has been developed. These windows should operate in pulsed or CW mode and sustain at least 100 kW average power levels. This paper describes an overview of the simulations performed to match the ceramics in WR650 waveguides, design details, as well as the RF measurements and performance assessed by RF power tests on several high power windows manufactured at JLAB. Funding Agency: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177, and by The Office of Naval Research under contract to the Dept. of Energy.

  5. High-Power Ka-Band Window and Resonant Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2006-11-29

    A stand-alone 200 MW rf test station is needed for carrying out development of accelerator structures and components for a future high-gradient multi-TeV collider, such as CLIC. A high-power rf window is needed to isolate the test station from a structure element under test. This project aimed to develop such a window for use at a frequency in the range 30-35 GHz, and to also develop a high-power resonant ring for testing the window. During Phase I, successful conceptual designs were completed for the window and the resonant ring, and cold tests of each were carried out that confirmed the designs.

  6. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  7. A PC-Windows-Based program for geostatistical modeling application

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.G.; Yang, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a technically advanced, user-friendly, PC-Windows{sup TM} based reservoir simulation tool (SIMTOOLS) that allows construction of realistic reservoir models using a geostatistical approach. This PC-Windows based product has three application tools: Digitizing, mapping, and geostatistics. It has been designed primarily to enable reservoir engineers to apply the geostatistical gridding technique in mapping and reservoir simulation practices.

  8. Analysis of cavity and window for THz gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Alaria, Mukesh Kumar; Mukherjee, P.; Rao, R.R.; Sinha, A.K. E-mail: aksinha@ceeri.ernet.in

    2011-07-01

    In this paper study of cavity and window has been carried out using Ansoft HFSS for Terahertz Gyrotron. Eigen mode analysis of the cavity has been carried out at 1 THz. An idea about the operating modes in the cavity of the Gyrotron and obtained the simulated Eigen frequency and field pattern of the modes. The design of window for 1 THz Gyrotron has also been carried out using HFSS. The simulated results have also been compared with ST microwave studio. (author)

  9. Successive Searching: User Searches during Information Seeking (SIG USE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda

    2000-01-01

    Presents a session abstract that included speakers discussing current studies in successive searching during the information seeking process. Highlights include mediated successive searching; end-user successive searching; designing information retrieval systems to support successive searching; and search histories for user support in legal…

  10. Design Conference for the Evaluation of the Talent Search Program: Synthesis of Major Themes and Commissioned Papers Prepared for the Conference (Washington, D.C., September 30, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report gathers papers prepared for a design conference for the evaluation of the Federal Talent Search Program, an early intervention program to identify gifted and talented financially needy students and connect them with discretionary grants for higher education. An introductory paper synthesizes major conference themes. These include: (1)…

  11. The wide window of face detection

    PubMed Central

    Hershler, Orit; Golan, Tal; Bentin, Shlomo; Hochstein, Shaul

    2010-01-01

    Faces are detected more rapidly than other objects in visual scenes and search arrays, but the cause for this face advantage has been contested. In the present study, we found that under conditions of spatial uncertainty, faces were easier to detect than control targets (dog faces, clocks and cars) even in the absence of surrounding stimuli, making an explanation based only on low-level differences unlikely. This advantage improved with eccentricity in the visual field, enabling face detection in wider visual windows, and pointing to selective sparing of face detection at greater eccentricities. This face advantage might be due to perceptual factors favoring face detection. In addition, the relative face advantage is greater under flanked than non-flanked conditions, suggesting an additional, possibly attention-related benefit enabling face detection in groups of distracters. PMID:20884486

  12. Laser Window Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    coating supplier;:, must not only be produced in the original coating but must be retained after the film is exposed to its use...34■- —- ■ ■ - —- ’ ..^—-■■- -■■ ■- _ ..,. gg^. pf^’KCT^pwwi’ri^wiraiire^wji^^ PBN-74-794 Film 2 mm Film Hü 52.5mm 20 mm Fig« 1 Substrate and Coating Design... COATED SUBSTRATES OBTAIN TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OBTAIN ATR SPECTRA , FILM ft SUBSTRATES MICROSCOPIC INSPECTION

  13. A review of electrochromic window performance factors

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubin, M.; Lee, E.S.; Sullivan, R.; Finlayson, E.; Hopkins, D.

    1994-04-01

    The performance factors which will influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windows are reviewed. A set of data representing the optical properties of existing and foreseeable electrochromic window devices was generated. The issue of reflective versus absorbing electrochromics was explored. This data was used in the DOE 2.1 building energy model to calculate the expected energy savings compared to conventional glazings. The effects of several different control strategies were tested. Significant energy and peak electric demand benefits were obtained for some electrochromic types. Use of predictive control algorithms to optimize cooling control may result in greater energy savings. Initial economic results considering annual savings, cooling equipment cost savings, and electrochromic window costs are presented. Calculations of thermal and visual comfort show additional benefits from electrochromics but more work is needed to quantify their importance. The design freedom and aesthetic possibilities of these dynamic glazings should provide additional market benefits, but their impact is difficult to assess at this time. Ultimately, a full assessment of the market viability of electrochromics must consider the impacts of all of these issues.

  14. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  15. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  16. Casing window milling with abrasive fluid jet

    SciTech Connect

    Vestavik, O.M.; Fidtje, T.H.; Faure, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for through tubing re-entry drilling of multilateral wells has a large potential for increasing hydrocarbon production and total recovery. One of the bottle-necks of this technology is initiation of the side-track by milling a window in the casing downhole. A new approach to this problem has been investigated in a joint industry project. An experimental set-up has been built for milling a 4 inch window in a 7 inch steel casing at surface in the laboratory. A specially designed bit developed at RIF using abrasive jet cutting technology has been used for the window milling. The bit has an abrasive jet beam which is always directed in the desired side-track direction, even if the bit is rotating uniformly. The bit performs the milling with a combined mechanical and hydraulic jet action. The method has been successfully demonstrated. The experiments has shown that the window milling can be performed with very low WOB and torque, and that only small side forces are required to perform the operation. Casing milling has been performed without a whipstock, a cement plug has been the only support for the tool. The tests indicate that milling operations can be performed more efficiently with less time and costs than what is required with conventional techniques. However, the method still needs some development of the downhole motor for coiled tubing applications. The method can be used both for milling and drilling giving the advantage of improved rate of penetration, improved bit life and increased horizontal reach. The method is planned to be demonstrated downhole in the near future.

  17. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  18. Fast implementation of window-based methods for stereo correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammad Shorif; Son, Tran Thai; Mita, Seiichi

    2003-11-01

    Stereo correspondence is a common tool in computer or robot vision, with numerous applications, such as determination of three-dimensional depth information of objects for virtual reality, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, using a pair of left and right images from a stereo camera system. Computation time is an important factor in estimating dense disparity for the above applications. For of a pixel in the left image, its correspondence has to be searched in the right image based on epipolar line and maximum disparity search range. The intensity of a pixel alone in the left image does not have sufficient discriminatory power to determine its correspondence uniquely from the right image, thus other pixels in its neighborhood comprising a window is used for accurate estimation. In window-based approaches, this correspondence or disparity is conventionally determined based on matching windows of pixels by using sum of square differences, sum of absolute differences, or normalized correlation techniques. With a view to reduce the computation time, we propose a fast algorithm where it is not necessary to compute the window costs for all candidate pixels in the right image within the search range. To determine the correspondence of a pixel in the left image we just compute the window costs for candidate pixels in the right image whose intensities are different within a certain value to the intensity of the pixel in the left image. We applied our proposal to standard stereo images and found that we can easily reduce the computation time of about 30% with almost no degradation of accuracy.

  19. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  20. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  1. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  2. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  3. Cupola windows during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-17

    ISS022-E-066963 (17 Feb. 2010) --- This image is among the first taken through a first of its kind ?bay window? on the International Space Station, the seven-windowed Cupola. The image shows the coast of Algeria featuring (in the Cupola?s round window) an area between the cities of Dellys and Algiers. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 28mm lens setting. The Cupola, which a week and half ago was brought up to the orbital outpost by the STS-130 crew on the space shuttle Endeavour, will house controls for the station robotics and will be a location where crew members can operate the robotic arms and monitor other exterior activities.

  4. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-12-15

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking.

  5. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Trotter, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  6. WINCADRE INORGANIC (WINDOWS COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed in...

  7. WINCADRE INORGANIC (WINDOWS COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed in...

  8. Window Treatment Phase I and Other Energy II Conservation Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Philip E.

    Six different energy-saving treatments for large window areas were tested by Tompkins-Cortland Community College (TCCC) to coordinate energy saving with building design. The TCCC building has an open space design with 33,000 square feet of external glass and other features causing heating problems and high energy costs. Phase I of the…

  9. Window Treatment Phase I and Other Energy II Conservation Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Philip E.

    Six different energy-saving treatments for large window areas were tested by Tompkins-Cortland Community College (TCCC) to coordinate energy saving with building design. The TCCC building has an open space design with 33,000 square feet of external glass and other features causing heating problems and high energy costs. Phase I of the…

  10. Mechanical charactization of sonar window materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S.J.; Groves, S.E.; Harwood, P.J.; Sanchez, R.J.

    1996-03-25

    The three-dimensional mechanical behavior of thick Spectra/epoxy sonar window materials containing various special materials is summarized in this report. Three different materials, which were fabricated by two companies known as `A` and `B` were received from the Naval Warfare Center. The three materials designated `A with microspheres (A micron),` `A without microspheres (A),` and `B` were measured for all properties. The total number of tests was reduced through the assumption that the two orthogonal, in-place directions were identical. Consequently, these materials should have only six independent elastic variables. The measured constants and strengths are given.

  11. Spatial Indexing for Data Searching in Mobile Sensing Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchao; De, Suparna; Wang, Wei; Moessner, Klaus; Palaniswami, Marimuthu S

    2017-06-18

    Data searching and retrieval is one of the fundamental functionalities in many Web of Things applications, which need to collect, process and analyze huge amounts of sensor stream data. The problem in fact has been well studied for data generated by sensors that are installed at fixed locations; however, challenges emerge along with the popularity of opportunistic sensing applications in which mobile sensors keep reporting observation and measurement data at variable intervals and changing geographical locations. To address these challenges, we develop the Geohash-Grid Tree, a spatial indexing technique specially designed for searching data integrated from heterogeneous sources in a mobile sensing environment. Results of the experiments on a real-world dataset collected from the SmartSantander smart city testbed show that the index structure allows efficient search based on spatial distance, range and time windows in a large time series database.

  12. Spatial Indexing for Data Searching in Mobile Sensing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuchao; De, Suparna; Wang, Wei; Moessner, Klaus; Palaniswami, Marimuthu S.

    2017-01-01

    Data searching and retrieval is one of the fundamental functionalities in many Web of Things applications, which need to collect, process and analyze huge amounts of sensor stream data. The problem in fact has been well studied for data generated by sensors that are installed at fixed locations; however, challenges emerge along with the popularity of opportunistic sensing applications in which mobile sensors keep reporting observation and measurement data at variable intervals and changing geographical locations. To address these challenges, we develop the Geohash-Grid Tree, a spatial indexing technique specially designed for searching data integrated from heterogeneous sources in a mobile sensing environment. Results of the experiments on a real-world dataset collected from the SmartSantander smart city testbed show that the index structure allows efficient search based on spatial distance, range and time windows in a large time series database. PMID:28629156

  13. Quantum Search and Beyond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-02

    solution of certain problems for which the communication needs do not dominate. A similar situation prevails in the quantum world. Quantum teleportation and...REPORT Quantum Search and Beyond 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Ten years ago, the quantum search algorithm was designed to provide a way...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS quantum searching - partial quantum searching, fixed-point quantum

  14. User Data Package - Energy-Efficient Windows and Window Coverings for Naval Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    This should be evaluated using cost vs . savings analysis, as shown in the UDP. " It is recommended that window installation be performed by qualified and...1 1.2 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN............................................ 2 2. FUNCTION AND PERFORMANCE OF WINDOWS AND WINDOW ...113 Appendix D - ( Performance Data for Some Whole Window Units Without Window Coverings

  15. Search Help

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  16. The boundaries of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): design of the searching clinical COPD onset (SOON) study.

    PubMed

    Labarca, Gonzalo; Bustamante, Andrea; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Díaz, Rodrigo; Huete, Álvaro; Mac Nab, Paul; Mendoza, Laura; Leppe, Jaime; Lisboa, Carmen; Saldías, Fernando; Díaz, Orlando

    2017-08-11

    Clinical onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the point at which the disease is first identifiable by physicians. It is a poorly defined stage which seems to include both mild spirometric and non-spirometric disease, and could be described as early grade COPD, for practical purposes. While dyspnoea; chronic bronchitis and CT imaging evidence of emphysema and airway disease may be present very early, the lone significance of dyspnoea, the most relevant symptom in COPD in identifying these individuals, has been scarcely assessed.The Searching Clinical COPD Onset (SOON) Study was designed primarily to detect clinical, physiological and structural differences between dyspnoeic and non-dyspnoeic individuals with early grade COPD. It is hypothesised that presence of dyspnoea in early disease may identify a subtype of individuals with reduced exercise capacity, notwithstanding of their spirometry results. In addition, dyspnoeic individuals will share worse quality of life, lower physical activity, greater lung hyperinflation greater emphysema and airway thickness and reduced peripheral muscle mass than their non-dyspnoeic counterpart. SOON is a monocentric study, with a cross sectional design aimed at obtaining representative samples of current or ex-smoker-adults aged ≥45 and ≤80 years. Two hundred and forty participants will be enrolled into four strata, according to normal spirometry or mild spirometric obstruction and presence or not of dyspnoea modified Medical Research Council score ≥1. The primary outcome will be the difference between dyspnoeic and non-dyspnoeic individuals on the 6-min walk test performance, regardless of their spirometry results. To account for the confounding effect of heart failure on dyspnoea, stress echocardiography will be also performed. Secondary outcomes will include clinical (quality of life, physical activity), physiological (exercise testing) and structural characteristics (emphysema, airway disease and

  17. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  18. Closing the Windows on Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Norman

    1995-01-01

    The rapid adoption of graphic user interface (GUI), as indicated by Microsoft's Windows95 and the Internet's increased use of graphics, is threatening information technology opportunities for people with disabilities. Recent legislation requires that schools provide access to computers and information technology, and producers of Mosaic are…

  19. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  20. Closing the Windows on Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Norman

    1995-01-01

    The rapid adoption of graphic user interface (GUI), as indicated by Microsoft's Windows95 and the Internet's increased use of graphics, is threatening information technology opportunities for people with disabilities. Recent legislation requires that schools provide access to computers and information technology, and producers of Mosaic are…

  1. The Benefits of Aluminum Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses benefits of aluminum windows for college construction and renovation projects, including that aluminum is the most successfully recycled material, that it meets architectural glass deflection standards, that it has positive thermal energy performance, and that it is a preferred exterior surface. (EV)

  2. VIS-IR transmitting windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, S. S.; Chin, G. D.; Villalobos, G.; Sanghera, J. S.; Aggarwal, I. D.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed two unique materials with excellent properties for various military and commercial applications in the UV-Vis-IR wavelength range. These materials are: an amorphous Barium Gallo-Germanate (BGG) glass and a polycrystalline Magnesium Aluminate Spinel. The BGG glass is made using traditional glass melting techniques, and was developed as a low cost alternative to the currently used window materials. Large prototype windows have been fabricated for a Navy reconnaissance program. BGG windows have been successfully tested for environmental ruggedness (MIL-F-48616) and rain erosion durability up to 300 mph. BGG glass is currently under development and evaluation for High Energy Laser (HEL) applications. A new process has been developed to sinter spinel to clear transparency with very high yields. This process has been used to make various sizes and shapes (flats and domes) and is readily scalable to industrial sizes to produce large windows & domes for various applications. NRL has also developed modified BGG glasses, which are compatible with Spinel and ALON substrates for bonding.

  3. The Benefits of Aluminum Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses benefits of aluminum windows for college construction and renovation projects, including that aluminum is the most successfully recycled material, that it meets architectural glass deflection standards, that it has positive thermal energy performance, and that it is a preferred exterior surface. (EV)

  4. Fruit Floating at Cupola Window

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-12

    ISS038-E-029073 (12 Jan. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Attached to the Harmony node, the Orbital Sciences Corp. Cygnus commercial cargo craft, which brought the fresh fruit, is visible at center.

  5. comets (Constrained Optimization of Multistate Energies by Tree Search): A Provable and Efficient Protein Design Algorithm to Optimize Binding Affinity and Specificity with Respect to Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hallen, Mark A; Donald, Bruce R

    2016-05-01

    Practical protein design problems require designing sequences with a combination of affinity, stability, and specificity requirements. Multistate protein design algorithms model multiple structural or binding "states" of a protein to address these requirements. comets provides a new level of versatile, efficient, and provable multistate design. It provably returns the minimum with respect to sequence of any desired linear combination of the energies of multiple protein states, subject to constraints on other linear combinations. Thus, it can target nearly any combination of affinity (to one or multiple ligands), specificity, and stability (for multiple states if needed). Empirical calculations on 52 protein design problems showed comets is far more efficient than the previous state of the art for provable multistate design (exhaustive search over sequences). comets can handle a very wide range of protein flexibility and can enumerate a gap-free list of the best constraint-satisfying sequences in order of objective function value.

  6. 24 CFR 3280.403 - Standard for windows and sliding glass doors used in manufactured homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Manufactured Housing, except the exterior and interior pressure tests must be conducted at the design wind... design wind loads specified in § 3280.305(c)(1). (1) All such windows and doors must show evidence of... least twice per year. (f) Protection of primary window and sliding glass door openings in high wind...

  7. Optical Window Materials For Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Robert H.

    1989-09-01

    Optical window materials were investigated for infrared sensor systems used in observing ground targets from a hypersonic-glide vehicle. The equilibrium temperature of the window in the glide region depends on the emissivity and varied between 1,370 and 2,250 K. The high temperatures showed that a protective cover over the window is required during the entire glide region of the trajectory. Ejection of the window cover at 70-kft altitude in the terminal region was assumed, resulting in maximum window temperatures of 565 K and 592 K for magnesium oxide and diamond windows, respectively, both 0.8-in thick. The window temperatures for germanium and sapphire were also calculated. Thermal shock, thermal expansion, the effects of the window radiation on the infrared detectors and methods to reduce the hot window problem were examined.

  8. New machining method of high precision infrared window part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haicheng; Su, Ying; Xu, Zengqi; Guo, Rui; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xuanmin

    2016-10-01

    Most of the spherical shell of the photoelectric multifunctional instrument was designed as multi optical channel mode to adapt to the different band of the sensor, there were mainly TV, laser and infrared channels. Without affecting the optical diameter, wind resistance and pneumatic performance of the optical system, the overall layout of the spherical shell was optimized to save space and reduce weight. Most of the shape of the optical windows were special-shaped, each optical window directly participated in the high resolution imaging of the corresponding sensor system, and the optical axis parallelism of each sensor needed to meet the accuracy requirement of 0.05mrad.Therefore precision machining of optical window parts quality will directly affect the photoelectric system's pointing accuracy and interchangeability. Processing and testing of the TV and laser window had been very mature, while because of the special nature of the material, transparent and high refractive rate, infrared window parts had the problems of imaging quality and the control of the minimum focal length and second level parallel in the processing. Based on years of practical experience, this paper was focused on how to control the shape and parallel difference precision of infrared window parts in the processing. Single pass rate was increased from 40% to more than 95%, the processing efficiency was significantly enhanced, an effective solution to the bottleneck problem in the actual processing, which effectively solve the bottlenecks in research and production.

  9. Window performance and building energy use: Some technical options for increasing energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    1985-11-01

    Window system design and operation has a major impact on energy use in buildings as well as on occupants' thermal and visual comfort. Window performance will be a function of optical and thermal properties, window management strategies, climate and orientation, and building type and occupancy. In residences, heat loss control is a primary concern, followed by sun control in more southerly climates. In commercial buildings, the daylight provided by windows may be the major energy benefits but solar gain must be controlled so that increased cooling loads do not exceed daylighting savings. Reductions in peak electrical demand and HVAC system size may also be possible in well-designed daylighted buildings.

  10. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  11. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  12. CSAR (Combat, Search and Rescue) Aide: Design Requirements for a Combat Search and Rescue Decision Support System for Joint Rescue Coordination Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    basically left out of the loop. In command post exercises (CPXs), there are no aircrews. Consequently, the objective is the training and/or evaluation of...understanding of the user. Adaptive design is the most likely way to get operations research out of the hip pocket of the three- and four- star ...review of last few functions • choose help level, have hot key for help, • layered help: l»what to do now or options; 2=more detail on what user

  13. Multiobjective Vehicle Routing Problems With Simultaneous Delivery and Pickup and Time Windows: Formulation, Instances, and Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahai; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, C L Philip; Zheng, Zibin

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates a practical variant of the vehicle routing problem (VRP), called VRP with simultaneous delivery and pickup and time windows (VRPSDPTW), in the logistics industry. VRPSDPTW is an important logistics problem in closed-loop supply chain network optimization. VRPSDPTW exhibits multiobjective properties in real-world applications. In this paper, a general multiobjective VRPSDPTW (MO-VRPSDPTW) with five objectives is first defined, and then a set of MO-VRPSDPTW instances based on data from the real-world are introduced. These instances represent more realistic multiobjective nature and more challenging MO-VRPSDPTW cases. Finally, two algorithms, multiobjective local search (MOLS) and multiobjective memetic algorithm (MOMA), are designed, implemented and compared for solving MO-VRPSDPTW. The simulation results on the proposed real-world instances and traditional instances show that MOLS outperforms MOMA in most of instances. However, the superiority of MOLS over MOMA in real-world instances is not so obvious as in traditional instances.

  14. Thermo-mechanical failure criteria for x-ray windows and filters and comparison with experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-07-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream of the window to filter out the soft x-rays to protect the window from overheating and failing. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. Because the window is a vacuum separator, understanding its potential structural failure under thermal load is very important. Current structural failure models for the brazed windows and filters under thermal stresses are not very accurate. Existing models have been carefully examined and found to be inconsistent with the actual failure modes of windows tested. Due to the thinness of the filter/window, the most likely failure mode is thermal buckling. In fact, recent synchrotron tests conducted in Japan on window failures bear out this position. In this paper, failure criteria for filters/windows are proposed, and analyses are performed and compared with the experimental results from various sources. A consistent result is found between the analysis and reported experiments. A series of additional analyses based on the proposed failure criteria is also carried out for filter and window designs for the third generation synchrotron beamline front ends. Comparative results are presented here.

  15. RFRCDB-siRNA: improved design of siRNAs by random forest regression model coupled with database searching.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Wu, Haonan; Da, Yao; Sang, Fei; Wei, Jiawei; Sun, Xiao; Lu, Zuhong

    2007-09-01

    Although the observations concerning the factors which influence the siRNA efficacy give clues to the mechanism of RNAi, the quantitative prediction of the siRNA efficacy is still a challenge task. In this paper, we introduced a novel non-linear regression method: random forest regression (RFR), to quantitatively estimate siRNAs efficacy values. Compared with an alternative machine learning regression algorithm, support vector machine regression (SVR) and four other score-based algorithms [A. Reynolds, D. Leake, Q. Boese, S. Scaringe, W.S. Marshall, A. Khvorova, Rational siRNA design for RNA interference, Nat. Biotechnol. 22 (2004) 326-330; K. Ui-Tei, Y. Naito, F. Takahashi, T. Haraguchi, H. Ohki-Hamazaki, A. Juni, R. Ueda, K. Saigo, Guidelines for the selection of highly effective siRNA sequences for mammalian and chick RNA interference, Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (2004) 936-948; A.C. Hsieh, R. Bo, J. Manola, F. Vazquez, O. Bare, A. Khvorova, S. Scaringe, W.R. Sellers, A library of siRNA duplexes targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway: determinants of gene silencing for use in cell-based screens, Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (2004) 893-901; M. Amarzguioui, H. Prydz, An algorithm for selection of functional siRNA sequences, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 316 (2004) 1050-1058) our RFR model achieved the best performance of all. A web-server, RFRCDB-siRNA (http://www.bioinf.seu.edu.cn/siRNA/index.htm), has been developed. RFRCDB-siRNA consists of two modules: a siRNA-centric database and a RFR prediction system. RFRCDB-siRNA works as follows: (1) Instead of directly predicting the gene silencing activity of siRNAs, the service takes these siRNAs as queries to search against the siRNA-centric database. The matched sequences with the exceeding the user defined functionality value threshold are kept. (2) The mismatched sequences are then processed into the RFR prediction system for further analysis.

  16. Analytical method to calculate window heating effects on IR seeker performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Edward F.

    1994-09-01

    In the development of infrared seeker systems, window heating effects that result from missile flight aerodynamics are critical design considerations. For typical launch scenarios, window temperature rises rapidly during the missile's initial launch phase and usually reaches temperatures in excess of 300 degree(s)C by flight termination. This paper formulates an analytical approach for calculating window emittance and radiance on the seeker's focal plane as determined by window temperature profile, spectral transmission band, window physical parameters, and optical seeker design. Radiance levels on the seeker's detector array are calculated for two window materials, sapphire and gallium phosphide, that efficiently transmit in the spectral bands from 3.0 to 4.0 microns and 3.0 to 5.0 microns.

  17. Windows in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.; Tacconi-Garman, Lowell Evan; Boulanger, Francois; Okumura, Koryo

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were twofold: (1) to study the IRAS emission levels in the vicinity of Baade's Window and in other optically transparent regions near the Galactic Center; and (2) to study the IRAS emission levels along sightlines in the Milky Way that exhibit very little CO emission. Tests were attempted to see whether the optically transparent 'windows' near the Galactic center can be identified (as FIR-weak regions) in the IRAS data base; and if so, whether the CO weak regions found elsewhere in the Milky Way represent similarly FIR weak and thus optically transparent sightlines through the Galaxy. The CO weak regions were also targeted in an effort to study the diffuse intercloud dust and its warming by the interstellar radiation field.

  18. A method for the design and development of medical or health care information websites to optimize search engine results page rankings on Google.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Suzanne; Cummins, Niamh Maria; Hannigan, Ailish; Shannon, Bill; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter

    2013-08-27

    The Internet is a widely used source of information for patients searching for medical/health care information. While many studies have assessed existing medical/health care information on the Internet, relatively few have examined methods for design and delivery of such websites, particularly those aimed at the general public. This study describes a method of evaluating material for new medical/health care websites, or for assessing those already in existence, which is correlated with higher rankings on Google's Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs). A website quality assessment (WQA) tool was developed using criteria related to the quality of the information to be contained in the website in addition to an assessment of the readability of the text. This was retrospectively applied to assess existing websites that provide information about generic medicines. The reproducibility of the WQA tool and its predictive validity were assessed in this study. The WQA tool demonstrated very high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95) between 2 independent users. A moderate to strong correlation was found between WQA scores and rankings on Google SERPs. Analogous correlations were seen between rankings and readability of websites as determined by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores. The use of the WQA tool developed in this study is recommended as part of the design phase of a medical or health care information provision website, along with assessment of readability of the material to be used. This may ensure that the website performs better on Google searches. The tool can also be used retrospectively to make improvements to existing websites, thus, potentially enabling better Google search result positions without incurring the costs associated with Search Engine Optimization (SEO) professionals or paid promotion.

  19. Low-Absorption Laser Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    Halides 20 AB^rWACT (Continue on reverse side II necessary mnd Identity by block number) This semiannual report summarizes work by NRL under ARPA...20375, under ARPA Order 3006. The program was coordinated by Dr, P. H. Klein of NRL, and monitored by Dr. C. M. Stickley and CAPT II. Winsor of ARPA...of lowloss laser- window materials. This work, under ARPA Order 3066, is a direct outgrowth of that begun under ARPA Order 2031. (The two

  20. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.