Science.gov

Sample records for designing primary health

  1. Designing primary health care teams for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Reisman, A; Duran, L

    1983-01-01

    A time-honored industrial engineering technique, job evaluation, which was developed to set rates for manual labor, was used in the design of new teams for delivering primary health care in Latin America. The technique was used both in writing job descriptions for new allied health personnel and in designing the curriculums needed to train the personnel. PMID:6856744

  2. 76 FR 68198 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... reviewed continuously by BHPr. The majority of the requests come from the Primary Care Offices (PCOs) in... that come from other sources are referred to the PCOs for their review and concurrence. In addition... recommendations. Annually, lists of designated HPSAs are provided to all PCOs, state medical and dental...

  3. Designing a valid randomized pragmatic primary care implementation trial: the my own health report (MOHR) project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a pressing need for greater attention to patient-centered health behavior and psychosocial issues in primary care, and for practical tools, study designs and results of clinical and policy relevance. Our goal is to design a scientifically rigorous and valid pragmatic trial to test whether primary care practices can systematically implement the collection of patient-reported information and provide patients needed advice, goal setting, and counseling in response. Methods This manuscript reports on the iterative design of the My Own Health Report (MOHR) study, a cluster randomized delayed intervention trial. Nine pairs of diverse primary care practices will be randomized to early or delayed intervention four months later. The intervention consists of fielding the MOHR assessment – addresses 10 domains of health behaviors and psychosocial issues – and subsequent provision of needed counseling and support for patients presenting for wellness or chronic care. As a pragmatic participatory trial, stakeholder groups including practice partners and patients have been engaged throughout the study design to account for local resources and characteristics. Participatory tasks include identifying MOHR assessment content, refining the study design, providing input on outcomes measures, and designing the implementation workflow. Study outcomes include the intervention reach (percent of patients offered and completing the MOHR assessment), effectiveness (patients reporting being asked about topics, setting change goals, and receiving assistance in early versus delayed intervention practices), contextual factors influencing outcomes, and intervention costs. Discussion The MOHR study shows how a participatory design can be used to promote the consistent collection and use of patient-reported health behavior and psychosocial assessments in a broad range of primary care settings. While pragmatic in nature, the study design will allow valid comparisons to answer

  4. Designing a valid randomized pragmatic primary care implementation trial: the my own health report (MOHR) project.

    PubMed

    Krist, Alex H; Glenn, Beth A; Glasgow, Russell E; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Chambers, David A; Fernandez, Maria E; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Kessler, Rodger; Ory, Marcia G; Phillips, Siobhan M; Ritzwoller, Debra P; Roby, Dylan H; Rodriguez, Hector P; Sabo, Roy T; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri N; Stange, Kurt C

    2013-06-25

    There is a pressing need for greater attention to patient-centered health behavior and psychosocial issues in primary care, and for practical tools, study designs and results of clinical and policy relevance. Our goal is to design a scientifically rigorous and valid pragmatic trial to test whether primary care practices can systematically implement the collection of patient-reported information and provide patients needed advice, goal setting, and counseling in response. This manuscript reports on the iterative design of the My Own Health Report (MOHR) study, a cluster randomized delayed intervention trial. Nine pairs of diverse primary care practices will be randomized to early or delayed intervention four months later. The intervention consists of fielding the MOHR assessment--addresses 10 domains of health behaviors and psychosocial issues--and subsequent provision of needed counseling and support for patients presenting for wellness or chronic care. As a pragmatic participatory trial, stakeholder groups including practice partners and patients have been engaged throughout the study design to account for local resources and characteristics. Participatory tasks include identifying MOHR assessment content, refining the study design, providing input on outcomes measures, and designing the implementation workflow. Study outcomes include the intervention reach (percent of patients offered and completing the MOHR assessment), effectiveness (patients reporting being asked about topics, setting change goals, and receiving assistance in early versus delayed intervention practices), contextual factors influencing outcomes, and intervention costs. The MOHR study shows how a participatory design can be used to promote the consistent collection and use of patient-reported health behavior and psychosocial assessments in a broad range of primary care settings. While pragmatic in nature, the study design will allow valid comparisons to answer the posed research question, and

  5. Designing for Risk Assessment Systems for Patient Triage in Primary Health Care: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Background This literature review covers original journal papers published between 2011 and 2015. These papers review the current status of research on the application of human factors and ergonomics in risk assessment systems’ design to cope with the complexity, singularity, and danger in patient triage in primary health care. Objective This paper presents a systematic literature review that aims to identify, analyze, and interpret the application of available evidence from human factors and ergonomics to the design of tools, devices, and work processes to support risk assessment in the context of health care. Methods Electronic search was performed on 7 bibliographic databases of health sciences, engineering, and computer sciences disciplines. The quality and suitability of primary studies were evaluated, and selected papers were classified according to 4 classes of outcomes. Results A total of 1845 papers were retrieved by the initial search, culminating in 16 selected for data extraction after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality and suitability evaluation. Conclusions Results point out that the study of the implications of the lack of understanding about real work performance in designing for risk assessment in health care is very specific, little explored, and mostly focused on the development of tools. PMID:27528543

  6. Designing Excellence and Quality Model for Training Centers of Primary Health Care: A Delphi Method Study

    PubMed Central

    TABRIZI, Jafar-Sadegh; FARAHBAKHSH, Mostafa; SHAHGOLI, Javad; RAHBAR, Mohammad Reza; NAGHAVI-BEHZAD, Mohammad; AHADI, Hamid-Reza; AZAMI-AGHDASH, Saber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excellence and quality models are comprehensive methods for improving the quality of healthcare. The aim of this study was to design excellence and quality model for training centers of primary health care using Delphi method. Methods: In this study, Delphi method was used. First, comprehensive information were collected using literature review. In extracted references, 39 models were identified from 34 countries and related sub-criteria and standards were extracted from 34 models (from primary 39 models). Then primary pattern including 8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards was developed as a Delphi questionnaire and evaluated in four stages by 9 specialists of health care system in Tabriz and 50 specialists from all around the country. Results: Designed primary model (8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards) were concluded with 8 criteria, 45 sub-criteria, and 192 standards after 4 stages of evaluations by specialists. Major criteria of the model are leadership, strategic and operational planning, resource management, information analysis, human resources management, process management, costumer results, and functional results, where the top score was assigned as 1000 by specialists. Functional results had the maximum score of 195 whereas planning had the minimum score of 60. Furthermore the most and the least sub-criteria was for leadership with 10 sub-criteria and strategic planning with 3 sub-criteria, respectively. Conclusion: The model that introduced in this research has been designed following 34 reference models of the world. This model could provide a proper frame for managers of health system in improving quality. PMID:26576350

  7. Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, J M

    2014-01-01

    The Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, was designated as a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care (POHC) in 2011. This article aimed to describe the following: (1) the background for this nomination, (2) the WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC, its terms of reference and 5 activities, (3) the primary health care concept as it was established in Alma-Ata, (4) the oral health situation in Kuwait and in the Middle-East region and, finally, (5) how POHC policy should be implemented in Kuwait and this region. It can be concluded that, because the caries experience is very high in Kuwait and in the other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region, good POHC programmes should be designed and implemented in this region. The Faculty of Dentistry will strengthen its research tradition and as a WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC will try to collect information and experience from POHC in this region and exchange ideas between POHC experts in this region on how these programmes could be further developed. This will happen according to the terms of reference and activity plans of the WHO Collaborating Centre for POHC approved by the WHO Global Oral Health Programme.

  8. Children's Health and Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools and Homes in Portugal-Study Design.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Ramos, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Pereira, Cristiana; Teixeira, João Paulo; Fernandes, Eduardo de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the research project "On the Contribution of Schools to Children's Overall Indoor Air Exposure" is to study associations between adverse health effects, namely, allergy, asthma, and respiratory symptoms, and indoor air pollutants to which children are exposed to in primary schools and homes. Specifically, this investigation reports on the design of the study and methods used for data collection within the research project and discusses factors that need to be considered when designing such a study. Further, preliminary findings concerning descriptors of selected characteristics in schools and homes, the study population, and clinical examination are presented. The research project was designed in two phases. In the first phase, 20 public primary schools were selected and a detailed inspection and indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements including volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), bacteria, fungi, temperature, and relative humidity were conducted. A questionnaire survey of 1600 children of ages 8-9 years was undertaken and a lung function test, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), and tear film stability testing were performed. The questionnaire focused on children's health and on the environment in their school and homes. One thousand and ninety-nine questionnaires were returned. In the second phase, a subsample of 68 children was enrolled for further studies, including a walk-through inspection and checklist and an extensive set of IAQ measurements in their homes. The acquired data are relevant to assess children's environmental exposures and health status.

  9. Prevalence of Work-Related Asthma in Primary Health Care: Study Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Rabell-Santacana, Ventura; Panadès-Valls, Rafael; Vila-Rigat, Rosa; Hernandez-Huet, Enric; Sivecas-Maristany, Joan; Blanché-Prat, Xavier; Prieto, Gemma; Muñoz, Laura; Torán, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Background : Occupational Asthma (OA) is the most frequent origin of occupational respiratory diseases in industrialized countries and accounts for between 5% and 25% of asthmatic patients. The correct and early diagnosis of OA is of great preventive and socio-economic importance. However, few studies exist on OA’s prevalence in Catalonia and in Spain and those affected are mainly treated by the public health services and not by the occupational health services, which are private. Objective : To determine the prevalence of OA in patients diagnosed with asthma in the Primary Healthcare system and to evaluate the socio-economic impact of OA in the Primary Healthcare system. Methods/Design : We will carry out an observational, transversal and multi-center study in the Primary Healthcare Service in the Barcelona region (Catalonia, Spain), with 385 asthmatic workers aged between 16 and 64 who are currently working or have been working in the past. We will confirm the asthma diagnosis in each patient, and those meeting the inclusion criteria will be asked to answer a questionnaire that aims to link asthma to the patient’s past employment history. The resulting diagnosis will be of either occupational asthma, work-aggravated asthma or common asthma. We will also collect socio-demographic information about the patients, about their smoking status, their exposure outside of the workplace, their work situation at the onset of the symptoms, their employment history, their symptoms of asthma, their present and past medical asthma treatment, and, in order to estimate the economic impact in the Primary Healthcare system, where they have been attended to and treated. Prevalence will link OA or work-aggravated asthma to the total of patients participating in the study with a asthma diagnosis. Discussion : The results will show the prevalence of OA and work-aggravated asthma, and shall provide valuable information to set out and apply the necessary personal and technical

  10. 78 FR 38718 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... on-line application and review system. Requests that come from other sources are referred to the PCOs... their comments and recommendations. Annually, lists of designated HPSAs are made available to all...

  11. Improving Awareness of Health Hazards Associated with Air Pollution in Primary School Children: Design and Test of Didactic Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Annalaura; Casini, Beatrice; Donzelli, Gabriele; Verani, Marco; Bruni, Beatrice; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonetta, Sara; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Villarini, Milena; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Zagni, Licia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    One of the objectives of the MAPEC-Life project is raising children's awareness on air quality and its health effects. To achieve this goal, we designed didactic tools for primary school students, including leaflets with more information for teachers, a cartoon, and three educational videogames. The tools were then tested with 266 children who…

  12. Improving Awareness of Health Hazards Associated with Air Pollution in Primary School Children: Design and Test of Didactic Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Annalaura; Casini, Beatrice; Donzelli, Gabriele; Verani, Marco; Bruni, Beatrice; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonetta, Sara; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Villarini, Milena; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Zagni, Licia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    One of the objectives of the MAPEC-Life project is raising children's awareness on air quality and its health effects. To achieve this goal, we designed didactic tools for primary school students, including leaflets with more information for teachers, a cartoon, and three educational videogames. The tools were then tested with 266 children who…

  13. Nutrition in primary health care: using a Delphi process to design new interdisciplinary services.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Paula; Dietrich, Linda; Davidson, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    A modified Delphi process was used to identify key features of interdisciplinary nutrition services, including provider roles and responsibilities for Ontario Family Health Networks (FHNs), a family physician-based type of primary care. Twenty-three representatives from interested professional organizations, including three FHN demonstration sites, completed a modified Delphi process. Participants reviewed evidence from a systematic literature review, a patient survey, a costing analysis, and key informant interview results before undertaking the Delphi process. Statements describing various options for services were developed at an in-person meeting, which was followed by two rounds of e-mail questionnaires. Teleconference discussions were held between rounds. An interdisciplinary model with differing and complementary roles for health care providers emerged from the process. Additional key features addressing screening for nutrition problems, health promotion and disease prevention, team collaboration, planning and evaluation, administrative support, access to care, and medical directives/delegated acts were identified. Under the proposed model, the registered dietitian is the team member responsible for managing all aspects of nutrition services, from needs assessment to program delivery, as well as for supporting all providers' nutrition services. The proposed interdisciplinary nutrition services model merits evaluation of cost, effectiveness, applicability, and sustainability in team-based primary care service settings.

  14. Prevalence of Work-Related Asthma in Primary Health Care: Study Rationale and Design.

    PubMed

    Rabell-Santacana, Ventura; Panadès-Valls, Rafael; Vila-Rigat, Rosa; Hernandez-Huet, Enric; Sivecas-Maristany, Joan; Blanché-Prat, Xavier; Prieto, Gemma; Muñoz, Laura; Torán, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Occupational Asthma (OA) is the most frequent origin of occupational respiratory diseases in industrialized countries and accounts for between 5% and 25% of asthmatic patients. The correct and early diagnosis of OA is of great preventive and socio-economic importance. However, few studies exist on OA's prevalence in Catalonia and in Spain and those affected are mainly treated by the public health services and not by the occupational health services, which are private. To determine the prevalence of OA in patients diagnosed with asthma in the Primary Healthcare system and to evaluate the socio-economic impact of OA in the Primary Healthcare system. We will carry out an observational, transversal and multi-center study in the Primary Healthcare Service in the Barcelona region (Catalonia, Spain), with 385 asthmatic workers aged between 16 and 64 who are currently working or have been working in the past. We will confirm the asthma diagnosis in each patient, and those meeting the inclusion criteria will be asked to answer a questionnaire that aims to link asthma to the patient's past employment history. The resulting diagnosis will be of either occupational asthma, work-aggravated asthma or common asthma. We will also collect socio-demographic information about the patients, about their smoking status, their exposure outside of the workplace, their work situation at the onset of the symptoms, their employment history, their symptoms of asthma, their present and past medical asthma treatment, and, in order to estimate the economic impact in the Primary Healthcare system, where they have been attended to and treated. Prevalence will link OA or work-aggravated asthma to the total of patients participating in the study with a asthma diagnosis. The results will show the prevalence of OA and work-aggravated asthma, and shall provide valuable information to set out and apply the necessary personal and technical measures, either in the public or in the occupational health

  15. Achieving appropriate design for developing world heath care: the case of a low-cost autoclave for primary health clinics.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hallie S; Tao, Gregory D; Winter, Amos

    2012-01-01

    In developing world health clinics, incidence of surgical site infection is 2 to 10 times higher than in developed world hospitals. This paper identifies lack of availability of appropriately designed, low-cost autoclaves in developing world health clinics as a major contributing factor to the dramatic gap in surgical site infection rates. The paper describes the process of developing a low-cost autoclave that addresses the unique challenges faced by developing world primary health clinics and discusses how appropriateness of design was determined. The resulting pressure cooker-based autoclave design was fabricated and tested against the CDC specifications. Twelve partnering clinics in Nepal trialed these autoclaves from July until December 2012.

  16. Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Mehus, Christopher J.; Hawkins, J. David; Boat, Thomas; McCabe, Mary Ann; Barkin, Shari; Perrin, Ellen C.; Metzler, Carol W.; Prado, Guillermo; Tait, V. Fan; Brown, Randall; Beardslee, William

    2017-01-01

    Family-focused prevention programs have been shown to effectively reduce a range of negative behavioral health outcomes but have had limited reach. Three key barriers must be overcome to expand the reach of family-focused prevention programs and thereby achieve a significant public health impact. These barriers are: (1) current social norms and perceptions of parenting programs; (2) concerns about the expertise and legitimacy of sponsoring organizations to offer parenting advice; and (3) a paucity of stable, sustainable funding mechanisms. Primary healthcare settings are well positioned to overcome these barriers. Recent changes within health care make primary care settings an increasingly favorable home for family-focused prevention and suggest possibilities for sustainable funding of family-focused prevention programs. This paper discusses the existing advantages of primary care settings and lays out a plan to move toward realizing the potential public health impact of family-focused prevention through widespread implementation in primary healthcare settings. PMID:27498167

  17. Flexible design should be primary goal.

    PubMed

    2008-09-01

    At "Rebuilding the NHS", a recent Health Service Journal conference in London, Daryl Murphy, a partner at leading architect and health planning specialist for the primary and community care sectors Murphy Philipps, explained how the Department of Health's (DH's) forthcoming HBN 11-01 Health Building Note sets out a "less prescriptive approach" to the design of new primary care and community healthcare facilities.

  18. Primary health care models

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; French, Reta; McCulloch, Amy; Clendinning, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the knowledge and perceptions of fourth-year medical students regarding the new models of primary health care (PHC) and to ascertain whether that knowledge influenced their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting The Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario in London. Participants Fourth-year medical students graduating in 2009 who indicated family medicine as a possible career choice on their Canadian Residency Matching Service applications. Methods Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted between January and April of 2009. Data were analyzed using an iterative and interpretive approach. The analysis strategy of immersion and crystallization assisted in synthesizing the data to provide a comprehensive view of key themes and overarching concepts. Main findings Four key themes were identified: the level of students’ knowledge regarding PHC models varied; the knowledge was generally obtained from practical experiences rather than classroom learning; students could identify both advantages and disadvantages of working within the new PHC models; and although students regarded the new PHC models positively, these models did not influence their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Conclusion Knowledge of the new PHC models varies among fourth-year students, indicating a need for improved education strategies in the years before clinical training. Being able to identify advantages and disadvantages of the PHC models was not enough to influence participants’ choice of specialty. Educators and health care policy makers need to determine the best methods to promote and facilitate knowledge transfer about these PHC models. PMID:22518904

  19. Primary health care.

    PubMed

    Kitai, A

    1986-07-01

    Development of primary care in Japan in still relatively unorganized and unstructured. As mentioned above, the author describes some strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese primary care system. In addressing the weaknesses the following suggestions are offered for the Japanese primary care delivery system: Increase the number of emergency rooms for all day, especially on holidays and at night. Introduce an appointment system. Introduce an open system of hospitals. Coordinate with public hospitals and primary care clinics. Organize the referral system between private practitioners and community hospitals. Increase the number of paramedical staff. Strengthen group practice among primary care physicians. Increase the establishment of departments of primary care practice with government financial incentives to medical schools and teaching hospitals. Develop a more active and direct teaching role for primary care practice or family practice at undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. Improve and maintain present health insurance payment method, shifting from quantity of care to quality and continuity of care. Introduce formal continuing education. Introduce formal training programs of primary care and strengthen ambulatory care teaching programs.

  20. e-Vita: design of an innovative approach to COPD disease management in primary care through eHealth application.

    PubMed

    Talboom-Kamp, E P W A; Verdijk, N A; Blom, C M G; Harmans, L M; Talboom, I J S H; Numans, M E; Chavannes, N H

    2016-08-16

    COPD is a highly complex disease to manage as patients show great variation in symptoms and limitations in daily life. In the last decade self-management support of COPD has been introduced as an effective method to improve quality and efficiency of care, and to reduce healthcare costs. Despite the urge to change the organisation of health care and the potential of eHealth to support this, large-scale implementation in daily practice remains behind, especially in the Netherlands. We designed a multilevel study, called e-Vita, to investigate different organisational implementation methods of a self-management web portal to support and empower patients with COPD in three different primary care settings. Using a parallel cohort design, the clinical effects of the web portal will be assessed using an interrupted times series (ITS) study design and measured according to changes in health status with the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). The different implementations and net benefits of self-management through eHealth on clinical outcomes will be evaluated from human, organisational, and technical perspectives. To our knowledge this is the first study to combine different study designs that enable simultaneous investigation of clinical effects, as well as effects of different organisational implementation methods whilst controlling for confounding effects of the organisational characteristics. We hypothesize that an implementation with higher levels of personal assistance, and integrated in an existing care program will result in increased use of and satisfaction with the platform, thereby increasing health status and diminishing exacerbation and hospitalisation. NTR4098 (31-07-2013).

  1. e-Vita: design of an innovative approach to COPD disease management in primary care through eHealth application.

    PubMed

    Talboom-Kamp, E P W A; Verdijk, N A; Blom, C M G; Harmans, L M; Talboom, I J S H; Numans, M E; Chavannes, N H

    2016-08-17

    COPD is a highly complex disease to manage as patients show great variation in symptoms and limitations in daily life. In the last decade self-management support of COPD has been introduced as an effective method to improve quality and efficiency of care, and to reduce healthcare costs. Despite the urge to change the organisation of health care and the potential of eHealth to support this, large-scale implementation in daily practice remains behind, especially in the Netherlands. We designed a multilevel study, called e-Vita, to investigate different organisational implementation methods of a self-management web portal to support and empower patients with COPD in three different primary care settings. Using a parallel cohort design, the clinical effects of the web portal will be assessed using an interrupted times series (ITS) study design and measured according to changes in health status with the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). The different implementations and net benefits of self-management through eHealth on clinical outcomes will be evaluated from human, organisational, and technical perspectives. To our knowledge this is the first study to combine different study designs that enable simultaneous investigation of clinical effects, as well as effects of different organisational implementation methods whilst controlling for confounding effects of the organisational characteristics. We hypothesize that an implementation with higher levels of personal assistance, and integrated in an existing care program will result in increased use of and satisfaction with the platform, thereby increasing health status and diminishing exacerbation and hospitalisation. NTR4098 (31-07-2013).

  2. Cluster randomized trials utilizing primary care electronic health records: methodological issues in design, conduct, and analysis (eCRT Study).

    PubMed

    Gulliford, Martin C; van Staa, Tjeerd P; McDermott, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Charlton, Judith; Dregan, Alex

    2014-06-11

    There is growing interest in conducting clinical and cluster randomized trials through electronic health records. This paper reports on the methodological issues identified during the implementation of two cluster randomized trials using the electronic health records of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Two trials were completed in primary care: one aimed to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infection; the other aimed to increase physician adherence with secondary prevention interventions after first stroke. The paper draws on documentary records and trial datasets to report on the methodological experience with respect to research ethics and research governance approval, general practice recruitment and allocation, sample size calculation and power, intervention implementation, and trial analysis. We obtained research governance approvals from more than 150 primary care organizations in England, Wales, and Scotland. There were 104 CPRD general practices recruited to the antibiotic trial and 106 to the stroke trial, with the target number of practices being recruited within six months. Interventions were installed into practice information systems remotely over the internet. The mean number of participants per practice was 5,588 in the antibiotic trial and 110 in the stroke trial, with the coefficient of variation of practice sizes being 0.53 and 0.56 respectively. Outcome measures showed substantial correlations between the 12 months before, and after intervention, with coefficients ranging from 0.42 for diastolic blood pressure to 0.91 for proportion of consultations with antibiotics prescribed, defining practice and participant eligibility for analysis requires careful consideration. Cluster randomized trials may be performed efficiently in large samples from UK general practices using the electronic health records of a primary care database. The geographical dispersal of trial sites presents a difficulty for

  3. Association between women veterans' experiences with VA outpatient health care and designation as a women's health provider in primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Lori A; Trentalange, Mark; Murphy, Terrence E; Brandt, Cynthia; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Maisel, Natalya C; Wright, Steven M; Gaetano, Vera S; Allore, Heather; Skanderson, Melissa; Reyes-Harvey, Evelyn; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rose, Danielle; Haskell, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Women veterans comprise a small percentage of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users. Prior research on women veterans' experiences with primary care has focused on VA site differences and not individual provider characteristics. In 2010, the VA established policy requiring the provision of comprehensive women's health care by designated women's health providers (DWHPs). Little is known about the quality of health care delivered by DWHPs and women veterans' experience with care from these providers. Secondary data were obtained from the VA Survey of Healthcare Experience of Patients (SHEP) using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) patient-centered medical home (PCMH) survey from March 2012 through February 2013, a survey designed to measure patient experience with care and the DWHPs Assessment of Workforce Capacity that discerns between DWHPs versus non-DWHPs. Of the 28,994 surveys mailed to women veterans, 24,789 were seen by primary care providers and 8,151 women responded to the survey (response rate, 32%). A total of 3,147 providers were evaluated by the SHEP-CAHPS-PCMH survey (40%; n = 1,267 were DWHPs). In a multivariable model, patients seen by DWHPs (relative risk, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04) reported higher overall experiences with care compared with patients seen by non-DWHPs. The main finding is that women veterans' overall experiences with outpatient health care are slightly better for those receiving care from DWHPs compared with those receiving care from non-DWHPs. Our findings have important policy implications for how to continue to improve women veterans' experiences. Our work provides support to increase access to DWHPs at VA primary care clinics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. User-generated quality standards for youth mental health in primary care: a participatory research design using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, André

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5 years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648

  5. Development of Dental Health Knowledge Tests for the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Susan P.

    1981-01-01

    A project was designed to provide evaluation materials for dental health education programs at the primary level. Reliable test instruments that assessed cognitive understanding of dental concepts by primary age children were designed. (JN)

  6. Implementing collaborative primary care for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder: design and sample for a randomized trial in the U.S. military health system.

    PubMed

    Engel, Charles C; Bray, Robert M; Jaycox, Lisa H; Freed, Michael C; Zatzick, Doug; Lane, Marian E; Brambilla, Donald; Rae Olmsted, Kristine; Vandermaas-Peeler, Russ; Litz, Brett; Tanielian, Terri; Belsher, Bradley E; Evatt, Daniel P; Novak, Laura A; Unützer, Jürgen; Katon, Wayne J

    2014-11-01

    War-related trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and suicide are common in US military members. Often, those affected do not seek treatment due to stigma and barriers to care. When care is sought, it often fails to meet quality standards. A randomized trial is assessing whether collaborative primary care improves quality and outcomes of PTSD and depression care in the US military health system. The aim of this study is to describe the design and sample for a randomized effectiveness trial of collaborative care for PTSD and depression in military members attending primary care. The STEPS-UP Trial (STepped Enhancement of PTSD Services Using Primary Care) is a 6 installation (18 clinic) randomized effectiveness trial in the US military health system. Study rationale, design, enrollment and sample characteristics are summarized. Military members attending primary care with suspected PTSD, depression or both were referred to care management and recruited for the trial (2592), and 1041 gave permission to contact for research participation. Of those, 666 (64%) met eligibility criteria, completed baseline assessments, and were randomized to 12 months of usual collaborative primary care versus STEPS-UP collaborative care. Implementation was locally managed for usual collaborative care and centrally managed for STEPS-UP. Research reassessments occurred at 3-, 6-, and 12-months. Baseline characteristics were similar across the two intervention groups. STEPS-UP will be the first large scale randomized effectiveness trial completed in the US military health system, assessing how an implementation model affects collaborative care impact on mental health outcomes. It promises lessons for health system change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Transforming health systems based on primary care].

    PubMed

    Durán-Arenas, Luis; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Granados-García, Víctor; Martínez-Valverde, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Access to health services is a social basic determinant of health in Mexico unlike what happens in developed countries. The demand for health services is focused on primary care, but the design meets only the supply of hospital care services. So it generates a dissonance between the needs and the effective design of health services. In addition, the term affiliation refers to population contributing or in the recruitment process, that has been counted as members of these social security institutions (SS) and Popular Insurance (SP). In the case of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) three of four contributors are in contact with health services; while in the SP, this indicator does not exist. Moreover, the access gap between health services is found in the health care packages so that members of the SS and SP do not have same type of coverage. The question is: which model of health care system want the Mexicans? Primary care represents the first choice for increasing the health systems performance, as well as to fulfill their function of social protection: universal access and coverage based on needs, regardless whether it is a public or private health insurance. A central aspect for development of this component is the definition of the first contact with the health system through the creation of a primary health care team, led by a general practitioner as the responsible of a multidisciplinary health team. The process addresses the concepts of primary care nursing, consumption of inputs (mainly medical drugs), maintenance and general services. Adopting a comprehensive strategy that will benefit all Mexicans equally and without discrimination, this primary care system could be financed with a total operating cost of approximately $ 22,809 million by year.

  8. Design and implementation of monitoring and evaluation of health care system: The paradigm of primary health care services users in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Pierrakos; Charalampos, Platis; Dimitrios, Iracleous P.

    2017-09-01

    The factors that contribute and outline the perceived satisfaction of the primary health care system in Greece are presented and analysed. A model correlate all these factors and a prediction tool is used to demonstrate how they influence in the overall result. The study is based in a sample taken by stratified random sampling and covers a period of recent four years.

  9. [Design and validation of a questionnaire on attitudes to prevention and health promotion in primary care (CAPPAP)].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Fernández-Salazar, Serafín; del-Pino-Casado, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    To develop and validate a questionnaire to measure attitudes towards prevention and health promotion. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. Primary Health Care (autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain). 282 professionals (nurses and doctors) belonging to the Public Health System. Content validation by experts, ceiling effects and floor effects, correlation between items, internal consistency, stability and exploratory factor analysis. The 56 items of the tool (CAPPAP) obtained, including those from the review of other tools and the contributions of the experts, were grouped into 5 dimensions. The percentage of expert agreement was over 70% on all items, and a high concordance between prevention and promotion item was obtained, thus, duplicates were removed leaving a final tool with 44 items. The internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.888. The test retest indicated concordance from substantial to almost perfect. Exploratory factor analysis identified five factors that accounted for 48.92% of the variance. CAPPAP is a tool that is quick and easy to administer, that is well accepted by professionals, and that has acceptable psychometric results, both globally and at the level of each dimension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating a complex model designed to increase access to high quality primary mental health care for under-served groups: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Dowrick, Christopher; Bower, Peter; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lovell, Karina; Edwards, Suzanne; Lamb, Jonathan; Bristow, Katie; Gabbay, Mark; Burroughs, Heather; Beatty, Susan; Waheed, Waquas; Hann, Mark; Gask, Linda

    2016-02-17

    Many people with mental distress are disadvantaged because care is not available or does not address their needs. In order to increase access to high quality primary mental health care for under-served groups, we created a model of care with three discrete elements: community engagement, primary care training and tailored wellbeing interventions. We have previously demonstrated the individual impact of each element of the model. Here we assess the effectiveness of the combined model in increasing access to and improving the quality of primary mental health care. We test the assumptions that access to the wellbeing interventions is increased by the presence of community engagement and primary care training; and that quality of primary mental health care is increased by the presence of community engagement and the wellbeing interventions. We implemented the model in four under-served localities in North-West England, focusing on older people and minority ethnic populations. Using a quasi-experimental design with no-intervention comparators, we gathered a combination of quantitative and qualitative information. Quantitative information, including referral and recruitment rates for the wellbeing interventions, and practice referrals to mental health services, was analysed descriptively. Qualitative information derived from interview and focus group responses to topic guides from more than 110 participants. Framework analysis was used to generate findings from the qualitative data. Access to the wellbeing interventions was associated with the presence of the community engagement and the primary care training elements. Referrals to the wellbeing interventions were associated with community engagement, while recruitment was associated with primary care training. Qualitative data suggested that the mechanisms underlying these associations were increased awareness and sense of agency. The quality of primary mental health care was enhanced by information gained from our

  11. Support and performance improvement for primary health care workers in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review of intervention design and methods.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Ashwin; Mabey, David C; Chaudhri, Simran; Brown Epstein, Helen-Ann; Lawn, Stephen D

    2017-04-01

    Primary health care workers (HCWs) in low- and middle-income settings (LMIC) often work in challenging conditions in remote, rural areas, in isolation from the rest of the health system and particularly specialist care. Much attention has been given to implementation of interventions to support quality and performance improvement for workers in such settings. However, little is known about the design of such initiatives and which approaches predominate, let alone those that are most effective. We aimed for a broad understanding of what distinguishes different approaches to primary HCW support and performance improvement and to clarify the existing evidence as well as gaps in evidence in order to inform decision-making and design of programs intended to support and improve the performance of health workers in these settings. We systematically searched the literature for articles addressing this topic, and undertook a comparative review to document the principal approaches to performance and quality improvement for primary HCWs in LMIC settings. We identified 40 eligible papers reporting on interventions that we categorized into five different approaches: (1) supervision and supportive supervision; (2) mentoring; (3) tools and aids; (4) quality improvement methods, and (5) coaching. The variety of study designs and quality/performance indicators precluded a formal quantitative data synthesis. The most extensive literature was on supervision, but there was little clarity on what defines the most effective approach to the supervision activities themselves, let alone the design and implementation of supervision programs. The mentoring literature was limited, and largely focused on clinical skills building and educational strategies. Further research on how best to incorporate mentorship into pre-service clinical training, while maintaining its function within the routine health system, is needed. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about coaching in this

  12. Support and performance improvement for primary health care workers in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review of intervention design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Mabey, David C.; Chaudhri, Simran; Brown Epstein, Helen-Ann; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Primary health care workers (HCWs) in low- and middle-income settings (LMIC) often work in challenging conditions in remote, rural areas, in isolation from the rest of the health system and particularly specialist care. Much attention has been given to implementation of interventions to support quality and performance improvement for workers in such settings. However, little is known about the design of such initiatives and which approaches predominate, let alone those that are most effective. We aimed for a broad understanding of what distinguishes different approaches to primary HCW support and performance improvement and to clarify the existing evidence as well as gaps in evidence in order to inform decision-making and design of programs intended to support and improve the performance of health workers in these settings. We systematically searched the literature for articles addressing this topic, and undertook a comparative review to document the principal approaches to performance and quality improvement for primary HCWs in LMIC settings. We identified 40 eligible papers reporting on interventions that we categorized into five different approaches: (1) supervision and supportive supervision; (2) mentoring; (3) tools and aids; (4) quality improvement methods, and (5) coaching. The variety of study designs and quality/performance indicators precluded a formal quantitative data synthesis. The most extensive literature was on supervision, but there was little clarity on what defines the most effective approach to the supervision activities themselves, let alone the design and implementation of supervision programs. The mentoring literature was limited, and largely focused on clinical skills building and educational strategies. Further research on how best to incorporate mentorship into pre-service clinical training, while maintaining its function within the routine health system, is needed. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about coaching

  13. Children's Health in Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayall, Berry; And Others

    Positing the relevance of well-being and social support to educational achievement, this book explores the status of children's health and its importance to the education of young children. A mail questionnaire survey of 1031 of approximately 20,000 Primary Education Schools in England and Wales in the fall of 1993 yielded 620 replies; a response…

  14. Phytotherapy in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949

  15. Primary health care is viable.

    PubMed

    Segall, M

    1987-01-01

    'Selective primary health care' and other recent vertical health strategies have been justified on the grounds that the broad primary health care (PHC) approach cannot be afforded by developing countries in the present constrained economic circumstances. This judgement is too sweeping. A simulated case example is presented, starting with baseline health expenditure data that are representative of the situation in many developing countries. It is assumed that real economic growth occurs and that government funding of health care is allowed to grow in parallel. Two annual growth rates are considered: 2 and 5 per cent. Two restrictive conditions are applied: none of the main health services is subjected to absolute cuts; and, additional funds from existing or new sources of finance are not considered. It is shown that, even with slow growth rates, substantial increases in the funding of priority (rural and PHC) services can be achieved if the growth in expenditures of lower-priority services is curtailed. Also, savings from improved health service efficiency can be channelled to priority services. The message is that the PHC approach is viable even with slow economic growth. What is required is the technical capacity to identify and plan resource flows in the health sector, and the political will to effect resource allocations according to PHC priorities. A strategic policy like PHC should not be 'adjusted' out of effective existence because of reversible economic problems. Rather, actions should be taken to reverse the adverse economic environment. International health-related agencies should continue to support countries to develop national health systems based on PHC, and should campaign for reforms in the world economy to create at least the minimum economic conditions necessary for PHC implementation.

  16. An Educational Resource on Water and Health as a Teaching Aid in French Primary Schools--Part II: Design and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savanovitch, Chantal; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    An educational resource on water and health, using an approach focused on health education and environmental health education, was developed to help teachers in the classroom. The implementation of health education programs in French primary schools is explained. Three specific objectives were identified, targeting 3rd, 4th, and 5th year pupils:…

  17. Health promotion and primary health care: examining the discourse.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    The health promotion discourse is comprised of assumptions about health and health care that are compatible with primary health care. An examination of the health promotion discourse illustrates how assumptions of health can help to inform primary health care. Despite health promotion being a good fit for primary health care, this analysis demonstrates that the scope in which it is being implemented in primary health care settings is limited. The health promotion discourse appears largely compatible with primary health care-in theory and in the health care practices that follow. The aim of this article is to contribute to the advancement of theoretical understanding of the health promotion discourse, and the relevance of health promotion to primary health care.

  18. [Comprehensive primary care and segmented health systems in South America].

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Ligia; Almeida, Patty Fidelis de

    2017-10-02

    The article analyzes recent reforms in primary health care in the South American countries, discussing the scope and challenges for establishing comprehensive primary health care in the region's health systems. The data sources were case studies conducted in 12 countries, and the analytical lines were the strategic components in the design and implementation of primary health care: national policy approaches, characteristics of financing, organization and provision, and the workforce in primary health care. The crosscutting analysis from a comparative perspective provides an overview of primary health care in the region's countries and highlights convergences and asymmetries. A common trait is the recovery of the expanded definition of primary health care with family and community components, a territorial base, multidisciplinary team, incorporation of community health workers, and social participation. Implementation revealed heterogeneities in the advances and contradictions in the models. Insufficient supply of physicians, difficulties in provision and physician retention in remote and peripheral areas, as well as in primary health care itself, precarious employment relations, and absence of career plans are common problems, and there have been recent initiatives in government intervention to direct the workforce to the public system. Segmentation of the supply of primary health care converges with the segmentation of social protection in the various countries, through maintenance of social insurance or selective and targeted insurance or coverage by private health insurance, and persistent exclusion of populations from the right to health. The article argues that implementation of comprehensive primary health care is conditioned by the prevailing modalities of social protection in health.

  19. Primary prevention of childhood obesity through counselling sessions at Swedish child health centres: design, methods and baseline sample characteristics of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting pre-school children and their families in primary health care settings. The aims are to describe the design and methodology of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised controlled trial, assess the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire, and describe the baseline characteristics of the eligible young children and their mothers. Methods/Design The PRIMROSE trial targets first-time parents and their children at Swedish child health centres (CHC) in eight counties in Sweden. Randomisation is conducted at the CHC unit level. CHC nurses employed at the participating CHC received training in carrying out the intervention alongside their provision of regular services. The intervention programme, starting when the child is 8-9 months of age and ending at age 4, is based on social cognitive theory and employs motivational interviewing. Primary outcomes are children’s body mass index and waist circumference at four years. Secondary outcomes are children’s and mothers’ eating habits (assessed by a food frequency questionnaire), and children’s and mothers’ physical activity (measured by accelerometer and a validated questionnaire), and mothers’ body mass index and waist circumference. Discussion The on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75.9%) responded to the validated physical activity and food frequency questionnaire at baseline (i.e., before the first intervention session, or, for children in the control

  20. Exposure of health workers in primary health care to glutaraldehyde

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to avoid proliferation of microorganisms, cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation in health centres is of utmost importance hence reducing exposure of workers to biological agents and of clients that attend these health centres to potential infections. One of the most commonly-used chemical is glutaraldehyde. The effects of its exposure are well known in the hospital setting; however there is very little information available with regards to the primary health care domain. Objective To determine and measure the exposure of health workers in Primary Health Care Centres. Environmental to glutaraldehyde and staff concentration will be measured and compared with regulated Occupational Exposure Limits. Methods/Design Observational, cross-sectional and multi-centre study. The study population will be composed of any health professionals in contact with the chemical substance that work in the Primary Health Care Centres in the areas of Barcelonès Nord, Maresme, and Barcelona city belonging to the Catalan Institute of Health. Data will be collected from 1) Glutaraldhyde consumption from the previous 4 years in the health centres under study. 2) Semi-structured interviews and key informants to gather information related to glutaraldehyde exposure. 3) Sampling of the substance in the processes considered to be high exposure. Discussion Although glutaraldehyde is extensively used in health centres, scientific literature only deals with certain occupational hazards in the hospital setting. This study attempts to take an in-depth look into the risk factors and environmental conditions that exist in the primary care workplace with exposure to glutaraldehyde. PMID:24180250

  1. Putting population health into practice through primary health care.

    PubMed

    Neuwelt, Pat; Matheson, Don; Arroll, Bruce; Dowell, Anthony; Winnard, Doone; Crampton, Peter; Sheridan, Nicolette Fay; Cumming, Jacqueline

    2009-02-27

    The introduction of the Primary Health Care Strategy has offered opportunities to take a population health approach to the planning and delivery of primary health care. The lack of a common understanding of population health between primary care and public health has been the prompt for a group of academics and practitioners to join forces and produce this statement on a population health approach to primary care, through primary health care. This paper takes the position that the features of a population health approach (such as a concern for equity, community participation, teamwork and attention to the determinants of health) enhance general practice care rather than undermine it. We conclude that the contribution of the health sector towards population health goals can be achieved through collaboration between GPs, nurses, other primary health care workers, and communities, together with health promotion and public health practitioners. Finding common language and understanding is an important step towards improving that collaboration.

  2. How to strengthen primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pratyush

    2016-01-01

    Realization of health care as primary objective is necessary to strengthen primary health care (PHC). There is a need to build financial viable and sustainable PHC based on rational principles to fulfill the goals of providing quality health services on an affordable and equitable basis and also ensuring fiscal prudence. Health-care leadership, innovations in primary care, family medicine specialists, and effective and accountable health governance are the key steps toward our goal. PMID:28217580

  3. Association between Women Veterans’ Experiences with VA Outpatient Healthcare and Designation as a Women’s Health Provider in Primary Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Lori A.; Trentalange, Mark; Murphy, Terrence E.; Brandt, Cynthia; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Maisel, Natalya C.; Wright, Steven M.; Gaetano, Vera S.; Allore, Heather; Skanderson, Melissa; Reyes-Harvey, Evelyn; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Rose, Danielle; Haskell, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background Women Veterans comprise a small percentage of VA healthcare users. Prior research on women Veterans’ experiences with primary care has focused on VA site differences and not individual provider characteristics. In 2010, the VA established policy requiring the provision of comprehensive women’s healthcare by designated women’s health providers (DWHPs). Little is known about the quality of healthcare delivered by DWHPs and women Veterans’ experience with care from these providers. Methods Secondary data were obtained from the VA Survey of Healthcare Experience of Patients (SHEP) using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) patient-centered medical home (PCMH) survey from March 2012 through February 2013, a survey designed to measure patient experience with care and the DWHPs Assessment of Workforce Capacity (DAWC) that discerns between DWHPs versus non-DWHPs. Findings Of the 28,994 surveys mailed to women Veterans, 24,789 were seen by primary care providers and 8,151 women responded to the survey (response rate 32%). A total of 3,147 providers were evaluated by the SHEP-CAHPS-PCMH survey (40%; n=1,267 were DWHPs). In a multivariable model, patients seen by DWHPs (RR=1.02 95% CI=1.01−1.04) reported higher overall experiences with care compared to patients seen by non-DWHPs. Conclusions The main finding is that women Veterans’ overall experiences with outpatient healthcare are slightly better for those receiving care from DWHPs compared to those receiving care from non-DWHPs. Our findings have important policy implications for how to continue to improve women Veterans’ experiences. Our work provides support to increase access to DWHPs at VA primary care clinics. PMID:25442706

  4. Establishment of primary health care in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Birt, C A

    1990-08-01

    Basic demographic and epidemiological data relevant to health problems in Vietnam are described in this paper. Existing health service arrangements are referred to, with particular emphasis on the strategy for development of primary health care. The establishment of the paediatric centre in Ho Chi Minh City is reported, and examples of its valuable work in primary health care development are described.

  5. Commissioning services and Primary Health Networks.

    PubMed

    Booth, Mark; Boxall, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Commissioning is set to become a stronger feature in the Australian health system as Primary Health Networks embrace it as a tool for improving population health outcomes. International experience shows that developing into a commissioning organisation is not always easy. Drawing on international experiences of commissioning, as well as those from the Australian hospital sector, will help smooth the path for Primary Health Networks.

  6. Primary prevention of childhood obesity through counselling sessions at Swedish child health centres: design, methods and baseline sample characteristics of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Döring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M; Andersson, Elina Scheers; Bohman, Benjamin; Westin, Maria; Magnusson, Margaretha; Larsson, Christel; Sundblom, Elinor; Willmer, Mikaela; Blennow, Margareta; Heitmann, Berit L; Forsberg, Lars; Wallin, Sanna; Tynelius, Per; Ghaderi, Ata; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-04-09

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting pre-school children and their families in primary health care settings. The aims are to describe the design and methodology of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised controlled trial, assess the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire, and describe the baseline characteristics of the eligible young children and their mothers. The PRIMROSE trial targets first-time parents and their children at Swedish child health centres (CHC) in eight counties in Sweden. Randomisation is conducted at the CHC unit level. CHC nurses employed at the participating CHC received training in carrying out the intervention alongside their provision of regular services. The intervention programme, starting when the child is 8-9 months of age and ending at age 4, is based on social cognitive theory and employs motivational interviewing. Primary outcomes are children's body mass index and waist circumference at four years. Secondary outcomes are children's and mothers' eating habits (assessed by a food frequency questionnaire), and children's and mothers' physical activity (measured by accelerometer and a validated questionnaire), and mothers' body mass index and waist circumference. The on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75.9%) responded to the validated physical activity and food frequency questionnaire at baseline (i.e., before the first intervention session, or, for children in the control group, before they reached 10 months of age). The

  7. Improving treatment of depression in primary health care: a case study of obstacles to perform a clinical trial designed to implement practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Richter-Sundberg, Linda; Nyström, Monica Elisabeth; Krakau, Ingvar; Sandahl, Christer

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate factors contributing to the failure of a randomized clinical trial designed to implement and test clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of depression in primary health care (PHC). Although the occurrence of depression is increasing globally, many patients with depression do not receive optimal treatment. Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of depression, which aim to establish evidence-based clinical practice in health care, are often underused and in need of operationalization in and adaptation to clinical praxis. This study explores a failed clinical trial designed to implement and test treatment of depression in PHC in Sweden. Qualitative case study methodology was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants from the clinical trial researcher group and 11 health care professionals at five PHC units. Additionally, archival data (ie, documents, email correspondence, reports on the clinical trial) from the years 2007-2010 were analysed. The study identified barriers to the implementation of the clinical trial in the project characteristics, the medical professionals, the patients, and the social network, as well as in the organizational, economic and political context. The project increased staff workload and created tension as the PHC culture and the research activities clashed (eg, because of the systematic use of questionnaires and changes in scheduling and planning of patient visits). Furthermore, there was a perception that the PHC units' management did not sufficiently support the project and that the project lacked basic incentives for reaching a sustainable resolution. Despite efforts by the project managers to enhance and support implementation of the innovation, they were unable to overcome these barriers. The study illustrates the complexity and barriers of performing clinical trials in the PHC.

  8. Does the design and implementation of proven innovations for delivering basic primary health care services in rural communities fit the urban setting: the case of Ghana's Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS).

    PubMed

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Phillips, James F; Aikins, Moses; Arhin, Doris Afua; Schmitt, Margaret; Nwameme, Adanna U; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Binka, Fred N

    2014-04-01

    Rapid urban population growth is of global concern as it is accompanied with several new health challenges. The urban poor who reside in informal settlements are more vulnerable to these health challenges. Lack of formal government public health facilities for the provision of health care is also a common phenomenon among communities inhabited by the urban poor. To help ameliorate this situation, an innovative urban primary health system was introduced in urban Ghana, based on the milestones model developed with the rural Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) system. This paper provides an overview of innovative experiences adapted while addressing these urban health issues, including the process of deriving constructive lessons needed to inform discourse on the design and implementation of the sustainable Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) model as a response to urban health challenges in Southern Ghana. This research was conducted during the six-month pilot of the urban CHPS programme in two selected areas acting as the intervention and control arms of the design. Daily routine data were collected based on milestones initially delineated for the rural CHPS model in the control communities whilst in the intervention communities, some modifications were made to the rural milestones. The findings from the implementation activities revealed that many of the best practices derived from the rural CHPS experiment could not be transplanted to poor urban settlements due to the unique organizational structures and epidemiological characteristics found in the urban context. For example, constructing Community Health Compounds and residential facilities within zones, a central component to the rural CHPS strategy, proved inappropriate for the urban sector. Night and weekend home visit schedules were initiated to better accommodate urban residents and increase coverage. The breadth of the disease burden of the urban residents also requires a

  9. Does the design and implementation of proven innovations for delivering basic primary health care services in rural communities fit the urban setting: the case of Ghana’s Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urban population growth is of global concern as it is accompanied with several new health challenges. The urban poor who reside in informal settlements are more vulnerable to these health challenges. Lack of formal government public health facilities for the provision of health care is also a common phenomenon among communities inhabited by the urban poor. To help ameliorate this situation, an innovative urban primary health system was introduced in urban Ghana, based on the milestones model developed with the rural Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) system. This paper provides an overview of innovative experiences adapted while addressing these urban health issues, including the process of deriving constructive lessons needed to inform discourse on the design and implementation of the sustainable Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) model as a response to urban health challenges in Southern Ghana. Methods This research was conducted during the six-month pilot of the urban CHPS programme in two selected areas acting as the intervention and control arms of the design. Daily routine data were collected based on milestones initially delineated for the rural CHPS model in the control communities whilst in the intervention communities, some modifications were made to the rural milestones. Results The findings from the implementation activities revealed that many of the best practices derived from the rural CHPS experiment could not be transplanted to poor urban settlements due to the unique organizational structures and epidemiological characteristics found in the urban context. For example, constructing Community Health Compounds and residential facilities within zones, a central component to the rural CHPS strategy, proved inappropriate for the urban sector. Night and weekend home visit schedules were initiated to better accommodate urban residents and increase coverage. The breadth of the disease burden of the urban

  10. The Health Centre Concept in Primary Health Care. Public Health in Europe 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Robert

    This report discusses world-wide efforts to provide health services in centers that are outside institutions and provide ambulatory care in the patient's home. Emergency services, although a form of primary care, are dealt with only to the extent that they are part of an organization designed to provide general primary care, but not where they are…

  11. Primary prevention protects public health.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    It is widely accepted that epidemiological data provide the only reliable evidence of a carcinogenic effect in humans, but epidemiology is unable to provide early warning of a cancer risk. The experimental approach to carcinogenicity can ascertain and predict potential cancer risks to humans in time for primary prevention to be successful. Unfortunately, only in rare instances were experimental data considered sufficiently convincing per se to stimulate the adoption of preventive measures. The experimental testing of environmental agents is the second line of defense against potential human carcinogens. The first line is the testing of synthesized agents, be these pesticides, medical drugs, or industrial chemical/physical agents, at the time of their development. We do not know, however, how many substances have been prevented from entering the environment because most tests are carried out by commercial or private laboratories and results are rarely released. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sequence of events of the carcinogenesis process will eventually lead to a more accurate characterization and quantification of risks. However, the ways that mechanistic data have been used lately for evaluating evidence of carcinogenicity have not necessarily meant that the evaluations were more closely oriented toward public health. A tendency has surfaced to dismiss the relevance of long-term carcinogenicity studies. In the absence of absolute certainty, rarely if ever reached in biology, it is essential to adopt an attitude of responsible caution, in line with the principles of primary prevention, the only one that may prevent unlimited experimentation on the entire human species.

  12. Rainbows: a primary health care initiative for primary schools.

    PubMed

    Munns, Ailsa; Forde, Karen A; Krouzecky, Miriam; Shields, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Within the current Australian health system is the understanding of a need to change from the predominate biomedical model to incorporate a comprehensive primary health care centred approach, embracing the social contexts of health and wellbeing. Recent research investigated the benefits of the primary health care philosophy and strategies in relation to the Rainbows programme which addresses grief and loss in primary school aged students in Western Australia. A multidisciplinary collaboration between the Western Australian Departments of Health and Education enabled community school health nurse coordinators to train teacher facilitators in the implementation of Rainbows, enabling support for students and their parents. The results of this qualitative study indicate that all participants regard Rainbows as effective, with many perceived benefits to students and their families.

  13. Strengthening the delivery of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease care at primary health-care facilities: study design of a cluster randomized controlled trial in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Amir; Ahmed, Maqsood; Anil, Shirin; Walley, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory diseases, namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), account for one-fourth of the patients at the primary health-care (PHC) facilities in Pakistan. Standard care practices to manage these diseases are necessary to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate associated with non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Objective To develop and measure the effectiveness of operational guidelines and implementation materials, with sound scientific evidence, for expanding lung health care, especially asthma and COPD through PHC facilities already strengthened for tuberculosis (TB) care in Pakistan. Design A cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms (intervention and control), with qualitative and costing study components, is being conducted in 34 clusters; 17 clusters per arm (428 asthma and 306 COPD patients), in three districts in Pakistan from October 2014 to December 2016. The intervention consists of enhanced case management of asthma and COPD patients through strengthening of PHC facilities. The main outcomes to be measured are asthma and COPD control among the registered cases at 6 months. Cluster- and individual-level analyses will be done according to intention to treat. Residual confounding will be addressed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models for asthma and COPD control, respectively. The trial is registered with ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN 17409338). Conclusions Currently, only about 20% of the estimated prevalent asthma and COPD cases are being identified and reported through the respective PHC network. Lung health care and prevention has not been effectively integrated into the core PHC package, although a very well-functioning TB program exists at the PHC level. Inclusion of these diseases in the already existent TB program is expected to increase detection rates and care for asthma and COPD. PMID:26578109

  14. Exercise-referral scheme to promote physical activity among hypertensive patients: design of a cluster randomized trial in the Primary Health Care Units of Mexico's Social Security System.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; García-Peña, Carmen; Salmerón, Jorge; Salgado-de-Snyder, Velia Nelly; Vázquez-Cabrer, Gabriel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-07-09

    Although the benefits of physical activity (PA) on to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases are well known, strategies to help increase the levels of PA among different populations are limited. Exercise-referral schemes have emerged as one effective approach to promote PA; however, there is uncertainty about the feasibility and effectiveness of these schemes in settings outside high-income countries. This study will examine the effectiveness of a scheme to refer hypertensive patients identified in Primary Health Care facilities (PHCU) of the Mexican social security institution to a group PA program offered in the same institution. We will describe the methods of a cluster randomized trial study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise referral scheme to increasing physical activity in hypertensive patients compared to a non-referral scheme. Four PHCU were selected for the study; the PHCU will take part as the unit of randomization and sedentary hypertensive patients as the unit of assessment. 2 PHCU of control group (GC) will provide information to hypertensive patients about physical activity benefits and ways to increase it safely. 2 PHCU of intervention group (IG) will refer patients to sports facilities at the same institution, to follow a group-based PA program developed to increase the PA levels with a designed based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory. To evaluate the effects of the intervention as well as short-term maintenance of the intervention's effects, PA will be assessed at baseline, at 24 and 32 weeks of follow-up.The main outcome will be the difference before and after intervention in the percentage of participants meeting recommended levels of PA between and within intervention and control groups. PA will be measured through self-report and with objective measure by accelerometer. This study will allow us to evaluate a multidisciplinary effort to link the primary care and community-based areas of the same

  15. Health is primary: Family medicine for America's health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert L; Pugno, Perry A; Saultz, John W; Tuggy, Michael L; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Hoekzema, Grant S; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Weida, Jane A; Peterson, Lars E; Hughes, Lauren S; Kruse, Jerry E; Puffer, James C

    2014-10-01

    More than a decade ago the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, American Board of Family Medicine, Association of Departments of Family Medicine, Association of Family Practice Residency Directors, North American Primary Care Research Group, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine came together in the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) to launch a series of strategic efforts to "renew the specialty to meet the needs of people and society," some of which bore important fruit. Family Medicine for America's Health was launched in 2013 to revisit the role of family medicine in view of these changes and to position family medicine with new strategic and communication plans to create better health, better health care, and lower cost for patients and communities (the Triple Aim). Family Medicine for America's Health was preceded and guided by the development of a family physician role definition. A consulting group facilitated systematic strategic plan development over 9 months that included key informant interviews, formal stakeholder surveys, future scenario testing, a retreat for family medicine organizations and stakeholder representatives to review strategy options, further strategy refinement, and finally a formal strategic plan with draft tactics and design for an implementation plan. A second communications consulting group surveyed diverse stakeholders in coordination with strategic planning to develop a communication plan. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians joined the effort, and students, residents, and young physicians were included. The core strategies identified include working to ensure broad access to sustained, primary care relationships; accountability for increasing primary care value in terms of cost and quality; a commitment to helping reduce health care disparities; moving to comprehensive payment and away from fee-for-service; transformation of training; technology to support

  16. Health Is Primary: Family Medicine for America’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert L.; Pugno, Perry A.; Saultz, John W.; Tuggy, Michael L.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Hoekzema, Grant S.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Weida, Jane A.; Peterson, Lars E.; Hughes, Lauren S.; Kruse, Jerry E.; Puffer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE More than a decade ago the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, American Board of Family Medicine, Association of Departments of Family Medicine, Association of Family Practice Residency Directors, North American Primary Care Research Group, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine came together in the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) to launch a series of strategic efforts to “renew the specialty to meet the needs of people and society,” some of which bore important fruit. Family Medicine for America’s Health was launched in 2013 to revisit the role of family medicine in view of these changes and to position family medicine with new strategic and communication plans to create better health, better health care, and lower cost for patients and communities (the Triple Aim). METHODS Family Medicine for America’s Health was preceded and guided by the development of a family physician role definition. A consulting group facilitated systematic strategic plan development over 9 months that included key informant interviews, formal stakeholder surveys, future scenario testing, a retreat for family medicine organizations and stakeholder representatives to review strategy options, further strategy refinement, and finally a formal strategic plan with draft tactics and design for an implementation plan. A second communications consulting group surveyed diverse stakeholders in coordination with strategic planning to develop a communication plan. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians joined the effort, and students, residents, and young physicians were included. RESULTS The core strategies identified include working to ensure broad access to sustained, primary care relationships; accountability for increasing primary care value in terms of cost and quality; a commitment to helping reduce health care disparities; moving to comprehensive payment and away from fee-for-service; transformation of

  17. Air pollution is associated with primary health care visits for asthma in Sweden: A case-crossover design with a distributed lag non-linear model.

    PubMed

    Taj, Tahir; Jakobsson, Kristina; Stroh, Emilie; Oudin, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution can increase the symptoms of asthma and has an acute effect on the number of emergency room visits and hospital admissions because of asthma, but little is known about the effect of air pollution on the number of primary health care (PHC) visits for asthma. To investigate the association between air pollution and the number of PHC visits for asthma in Scania, southern Sweden. Data on daily PHC visits for asthma were obtained from a regional healthcare database in Scania, which covers approximately half a million people. Air pollution data from 2005 to 2010 were obtained from six urban background stations. We used a case-crossover study design and a distributed lag non-linear model in the analysis. The air pollution levels were generally within the EU air quality guidelines. The mean number of daily PHC visits for asthma was 34. The number of PHC visits increased by 5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.91-6.25%) with every 10µg m(-3) increase in daily mean NO2 lag (0-15), suggesting that daily air pollution levels are associated with PHC visits for asthma. Even though the air quality in Scania between 2005 and 2010 was within EU's guidelines, the number of PHC visits for asthma increased with increasing levels of air pollution. This suggests that as well as increasing hospital and emergency room visits, air pollution increases the burden on PHC due to milder symptoms of asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary Health Care and Narrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John W

    2015-01-01

    Primary health care has received a lot of attention since the Alma Ata Conference, convened by the World Health Organization in 1978. Key to the strategy to improve health care outlined at the Alma Ata conference is citizen participation in every phase of service delivery. Although the goals of primary health care have not been achieved, the addition of narrative medicine may facilitate these ends. But a new epistemology is necessary, one that is compatible with narrative medicine, so that local knowledge is elevated in importance and incorporated into the planning, implementation, and evaluation of health programs. In this way, relevant, sustainable, and affordable care can be provided. The aim of this article is to discuss how primary health care might be improved through the introduction of narrative medicine into planning primary health care delivery. PMID:26222094

  19. Teaching Primary Health Care: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzina, Paul; Keogh, Johann J.; Keogh, Mariana

    1998-01-01

    Nursing and radiology students (n=15) at the University of Malta who completed an interdisciplinary module on primary health care reported they found the theoretical material applicable to practice; the module enabled them to learn about their potential role in primary health care. (SK)

  20. Teaching Primary Health Care: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzina, Paul; Keogh, Johann J.; Keogh, Mariana

    1998-01-01

    Nursing and radiology students (n=15) at the University of Malta who completed an interdisciplinary module on primary health care reported they found the theoretical material applicable to practice; the module enabled them to learn about their potential role in primary health care. (SK)

  1. Improving mental health through primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Dowrick, C

    1992-01-01

    The government white paper Health of the nation has highlighted mental health as a key issue for the next decade. Primary care is being encouraged to take a leading role in developing effective services for people with mental health problems. This paper reviews current research on key aspects of mental health in adults: the prevalence of mental health problems, improving detection and management of mental health problems, the role of counselling, and communication between primary and secondary care. Recommendations are made for initiatives in both research and service development. PMID:1457175

  2. The Hillbrow Primary Health Care Project.

    PubMed

    Rawat, H

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the Hillbrow Primary Health Care Project for Health Personnel Education and Primary Health Care in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. The project aims to influence health by forming a partnership between the community, the services and training institutions, and appropriate health personnel education. The partnership also aims to develop and implement comprehensive primary health care services in Hillbrow, targeted to the needs of the underserved. The goal is to empower the community to promote health and participate in the management of health services in order to improve community-based training of health personnel. The partners included the University of Witwatersrand and the B.G. Alexandra Nursing College, its faculty, and its medical and nursing students. Other service partners include the Greater Johannesburg Transitional Metropolitan Council's Directorate of Health, Housing, and Urbanization and Departments of Community Health and Environmental Health. 45% of the governing group are community members from various community organizations. The needs assessment identified priority areas as women's health, environmental health, youth, and the elderly and disabled. The community needs pre and postnatal and delivery services. Citizens needs to be mobilized around environmental health issues in the inner city and the education of environmental health officers. Youth need a center with sports facilities. The project's future efforts will include establishment of an effective governance structure, program boundaries and strategies, and the means for long-term sustainability.

  3. Primary health care in India--plans.

    PubMed

    Saigal, M D

    1982-09-01

    In India a draft Health Policy has been formulated with the following objectives: to improve and expand the health care delivery system to make primary health care services available to each individual; to make people conscious of their health needs and to encourage their involvement and participation in the planning and implementation of the health programs; to improve the standards of environmental sanitation and personal hygiene leading to reduction in the incidence of diseases and a healthier life; to improve maternal and child health services and to create such services; to control and eradicate common communicable and infectious desease; and to lower by about 50% maternal and infant mortality rates and other mortality rates. To achieve the general objectives, it is proposed to use certain specific indicators to plan and monitor the health programs. The indicators proposed, which are outlined, fall into the categories of health status indicators and indicators for provision of health services. The main objective of primary health care will be to provide better health care services to the rural areas and urban slums. The population will be encouraged both individually and collectively to participate in the development of health. The government and the medical profession will help the people to realize their responsibility by providing a large band of health volunteers from among the community itself to take care of the basic health needs of the community. There will be a more equitable distribution of health resources, and, to correct past imbalances, preferential allocations will be made for developing health facilities in rural areas. The primary emphasis will be on preventive, promotive, and rehabilitative aspects of health which will be integrated with functions and responsibilities of all these institutions which currently are providing only curative services. In providing primary health care, full advantage will be taken of the traditional methods and

  4. Anthropometric evaluation for primary school furniture design.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne W Y; Wong, Thomas K S

    2007-03-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms are one of the top ten health problems among schoolchildren in Hong Kong. Whether or not these symptoms are related to school furniture has yet to be determined and published data on furniture size are lacking. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the design of furniture in schools is appropriate for children's anthropometry. A total of 214 volunteer subjects were recruited. This constituted 90% of the total number of primary 5 and 6 students in the studied school (i.e. those aged 10 and 13 years). The data collected included demographic information, data on perceived health and posture and body and furniture measurements. The girls' BMI was lower than that of the boys. The girls had longer lower limbs and wider hip breadth measurements in the standing position. This was similar in the sitting position. Almost none of the subjects had a chair with an appropriate seat height. Seat depth was found appropriate for large groups of students whether or not a large or small chair was used. Recommendations on the sizes of chairs and desks for boys and girls are discussed.

  5. [Renewing primary health care in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Montenegro, Hernán; Nebot Adell, Carme; Etienne, Carissa

    2007-01-01

    At the 2003 meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the PAHO Member States issued a mandate to strengthen primary health care (Resolution CD44. R6). The mandate led in 2005 to the document "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO [World Health Organization]," and it culminated in the Declaration of Montevideo, an agreement among the governments of the Region of the Americas to renew their commitment to primary health care (PHC). Scientific data have shown that PHC, regarded as the basis of all the health systems in the Region, is a key component of effective health systems and can be adapted to the range of diverse social, cultural, and economic conditions that exist. The new, global health paradigm has given rise to changes in the population's health care needs. Health services and systems must adapt to address these changes. Building on the legacy of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in 1978 in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), PAHO proposes a group of strategies critical to adopting PHC-based health care systems based on the principles of equity, solidarity, and the right to the highest possible standard of health. The main objective of the strategies is to develop and/or strengthen PHC-based health systems in the entire Region of the Americas. A substantial effort will be required on the part of health professionals, citizens, governments, associations, and agencies. This document explains the strategies that must be employed at the national, subregional, Regional, and global levels.

  6. The origins of primary health care and selective primary health care.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2004-11-01

    I present a historical study of the role played by the World Health Organization and UNICEF in the emergence and diffusion of the concept of primary health care during the late 1970s and early 1980s. I have analyzed these organizations' political context, their leaders, the methodologies and technologies associated with the primary health care perspective, and the debates on the meaning of primary health care. These debates led to the development of an alternative, more restricted approach, known as selective primary health care. My study examined library and archival sources; I cite examples from Latin America.

  7. The ORIGINS of Primary Health Care and SELECTIVE Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Cueto, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    I present a historical study of the role played by the World Health Organization and UNICEF in the emergence and diffusion of the concept of primary health care during the late 1970s and early 1980s. I have analyzed these organizations’ political context, their leaders, the methodologies and technologies associated with the primary health care perspective, and the debates on the meaning of primary health care. These debates led to the development of an alternative, more restricted approach, known as selective primary health care. My study examined library and archival sources; I cite examples from Latin America. PMID:15514221

  8. Integrated Behavioral Health in Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Wanjiku F M; Hostutler, Cody A; Schwartz, Billie S; Mautone, Jennifer A

    2016-12-01

    There are multiple barriers to accessing high quality, evidence-based behavioral health care for children and adolescents, including stigma, family beliefs, and the significant paucity of child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although equal access continues to be an unmet need in the USA, there is growing recognition that integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care have the potential to reduce health disparities and improve service utilization. In a joint position paper, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) highlighted the multiple benefits of children receiving initial behavioral health screening, assessment, and evidence-based behavioral health treatments in the medical home. The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of the literature related to integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care. Specifically, innovative models of integrated behavioral health care are discussed.

  9. Why health improves: defining the issues concerning 'comprehensive primary health care' and 'selective primary health care'.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, S B; Walt, G

    1986-01-01

    What is the impact of technology on improving the life situations of people, especially the poor? How is this impact analyzed in terms of health improvements? These questions are paramount in the minds of health planners as they pursue national policies of primary health care, a policy popularized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and accepted by over 150 governments at Alma Ata in 1978. The purpose of this paper is to explore these questions in depth. It begins by giving the background to the debate, then examines the origins of two concepts which have dominated the field, those of 'primary health care' and 'selective primary health care.' On this basis it suggests areas of differences in the two concepts and discusses the policy and practical implications of confusing the two approaches. The paper suggests that the differences are firstly who controls the outcome of technological interventions and the perceived time frame in which plans can be carried out.

  10. Integration of Oral Health into Primary Health Care System: Views of Primary Health Care Workers in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Adeniyi, Abiola

    2014-01-01

    The limited access to oral health care in developing countries can be greatly improved by integrating oral health into the Primary Health Care (PHC) system. This study was designed to assess the views of PHC workers on integrating oral health care into the PHC system. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two selected local government areas of Lagos State. The instrument contained three sections assessing sociodemographic features, knowledge of common oral diseases and views on integration of oral health into PHC respectively. The mean knowledge score was 7.75 (SD=±1.81), while 60.4% of the respondents had average knowledge scores. Educational status (P=0.018) and designation (P=0.033) were significantly related to the mean knowledge scores. There was no significant difference in the oral health knowledge of the various cadres (P=0.393). Majority (85.4%) of the respondents were willing to include oral health education in their job schedule and 82% believed they needed more training on oral health. The knowledge of the respondents on the causes of the common oral diseases was deficient. Oral health education should be included in the future curriculum of these personnel. PMID:28299117

  11. Primary Mental Health Care in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper outlines selected differences between the United States and Latin America health care systems as they relate to primary mental health care. It notes that historically both the United States and Latin America have relied on custodial psychiatric hospitals. The alternative of community care for psychiatric patients is described as it is…

  12. Primary Mental Health Care in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper outlines selected differences between the United States and Latin America health care systems as they relate to primary mental health care. It notes that historically both the United States and Latin America have relied on custodial psychiatric hospitals. The alternative of community care for psychiatric patients is described as it is…

  13. Health Education for Special Children: Primary TMR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Linda; And Others

    Intended for teachers and administrators in special education, the curriculum guide offers information on planning a health education program for trainable mentally handicapped children at the primary level. Sections preceding the actual guide include information on specific goals of and elements necessary for a successful health education…

  14. Health Education for Special Children: Primary EMR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Linda; And Others

    Intended for teachers and administrators in special education, the curriculum guide offers information on planning a health education program for primary level educable mentally retarded students. Sections preceding the actual guide include information on specific goals of and elements necessary for a successful health education program, the…

  15. Climate change and primary health care.

    PubMed

    Blashki, Grant; McMichael, Tony; Karoly, David J

    2007-12-01

    Climate change and rising average global temperatures threaten to disrupt the physical, biological and ecological life support systems on which human health depends. This article overviews the evidence for human induced climate change, the predicted health impacts, and the role of primary health care professionals in managing these impacts. Climate change has substantial potential health effects. These include heat stress related to heatwaves; injuries related to extreme weather events such as storms, fires and floods; infectious disease outbreaks due to changing patterns of mosquito borne and water borne diseases; poor nutrition from reduced food availability and affordability; the psychosocial impact of drought; and the displacement of communities. Primary health care has an important role in preparing for and responding to these climate change related threats to human health.

  16. Community health workers and primary health care in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Quillian, J P

    1993-01-01

    Community participation and utilization of community health workers (CHWs) are essential components of the primary health care model. The success of CHWs is dependent on their training and subsequent community support. Community-prepared nurses are ideal CHW educators. A training program for CHWs was implemented in Honduras emphasizing the principles of adult learning and problem-based learning. Following a 4-month program of training a primary health care clinic was opened and managed by CHWs for a population over 10,000. Approximately 80% of local health problems were managed by the CHWs proving that well-trained CHWs can have a significant impact on the delivery of health care.

  17. [Health needs and masculinities: primary health care services for men].

    PubMed

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Figueiredo, Wagner dos Santos; Gomes, Romeu; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Pinheiro, Thiago Félix; Machin, Rosana; Silva, Geórgia Sibele Nogueira da; Valença, Otávio

    2010-05-01

    This study deals with the relations between masculinities and health care, approaching the recognition of health needs among male users of primary health care and the responses by the services. The study is part of a larger research project in four Brazilian States, with a convenience sample of eight health services. Ethnographic observation was compared with semi-structured interviews with 182 health care users from 15 to 65 years of age and 72 health professionals. Thematic analysis of the ethnographic records and interviews was based on gender references and studies on health work. The findings show how medicalization of health needs affects users, professionals, and services, disguising issues related to masculinity. Primary care focuses mainly on women, thereby reproducing gender inequalities in health services operations and professional performance, with women receiving disciplined care and men receiving insufficient attention and care.

  18. The new Australian Primary Health Networks: how will they integrate public health and primary care?

    PubMed

    Booth, Mark; Hill, Graham; Moore, Michael J; Dalla, Danielle; Moore, Michael G; Messenger, Anne

    2016-01-28

    On 1 July 2015, the Australian Government established 31 new Primary Health Networks (PHNs), following a review by its former Chief Medical Officer, John Horvath, of 61 Medicare Locals created under the previous Labor administration. The Horvath review recommended, among other things, that new, larger primary health organisations be established to reduce fragmentation of care by integrating and coordinating health services, supporting the role of general practice, and leveraging and administering health program funding. The two main objectives of the new PHNs, as stated on the Department of Health's website, are "increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services for patients, particularly those at risk of poor health outcomes, and improving coordination of care to ensure patients receive the right care in the right place at the right time". Below are three viewpoints, commissioned for this primary health care themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice, from the Australian Government Department of Health, the Public Health Association of Australia and a Sydney-based PHN. We asked the authors to focus particularly on how the newly established networks might help to integrate public health within the primary health care landscape. Our authors have pointed out the huge overlap between public health and primary care and looked at evidence showing the great benefits for health systems of collaboration between the two. Challenges ahead include a possible government focus on delivery of 'frontline' medical services, which may come at the expense of population health, and the complexity of dealing with all primary health care stakeholders, including health professionals, Local Health Districts, nongovernment organisations, research institutions and local communities.

  19. [Evolution of primary health care in Spain].

    PubMed

    Martínez Riera, José Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Coinciding with the celebration of the 35th anniversary of the journal of nursing, invented in 1977, conducted a systematic review of all issues published (371) to identify items (222) and news (94) related to primary care health. Events are arranged temporarily and refer to accompanying the evolution of primary care model. The Analysis Shows the evolution of primary care, since its inception in 1978, has been reflected in the type of articles and the content of news published, be an excellent indicator of its development and contribution for the nurses.

  20. Primary Principals' Leadership Styles, School Organizational Health and Workplace Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cemaloglu, Necati

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationships between leadership styles of primary school principals and organizational health and bullying. Design/methodology/approach: Two hypotheses were formulated in relation to the research. Three instruments were used--a multi-level questionnaire for measuring leadership, an…

  1. Primary Principals' Leadership Styles, School Organizational Health and Workplace Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cemaloglu, Necati

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationships between leadership styles of primary school principals and organizational health and bullying. Design/methodology/approach: Two hypotheses were formulated in relation to the research. Three instruments were used--a multi-level questionnaire for measuring leadership, an…

  2. Curriculum Design in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Colby, Holly; Juhlmann, Anne; Johaningsmeir, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    While health care providers are knowledgeable of health conditions and of the information patients need to make appropriate health decisions and follow health providers' recommendations, they lack information about adult teaching and learning and appropriate curriculum design. Adult educators can contribute more sophisticated skills in program…

  3. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  4. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-01-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  5. Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Amy M.; Collins, Laura; Dugdale, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Depression is one of the more common diagnoses encountered in primary care, and primary care in turn provides the majority of care for patients with depression. Many approaches have been tried in efforts to improve the outcomes of depression management. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Washington (UW) Neighborhood Clinics and the UW Department of Psychiatry in implementing a collaborative care approach to integrating the management of anxiety and depression in the ambulatory primary care setting. This program was built on the chronic care model, which utilizes a team approach to caring for the patient. In addition to the patient and the primary care provider (PCP), the team included a medical social worker (MSW) as care manager and a psychiatrist as team consultant. The MSW would manage a registry of patients with depression at a clinic with several PCPs, contacting the patients on a regular basis to assess their status, and consulting with the psychiatrist on a weekly basis to discuss patients who were not achieving the goals of care. Any recommendation (eg, a change in medication dose or class) made by the psychiatrist was communicated to the PCP, who in turn would work with the patient on the new recommendation. This collaborative care approach resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients who achieved care plan goals. The authors believe this is an effective method for health systems to integrate mental health services into primary care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:81–87) PMID:26348355

  6. Primary care mental health workers: role expectations, conflict and ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bower, Peter; Jerrim, Sophie; Gask, Linda

    2004-07-01

    A number of professionals are involved in mental health in primary care. The NHS Plan proposed the introduction of a new professional, the primary care mental health worker (PCMHW), to improve care in this setting. The present study was conducted to examine pilot PCMHW-type roles currently in existence, to explore staff expectations concerning the new PCMHW role and to consider the issues relating to roles in primary care mental health that are raised by this new worker. The study used a case study design, and involved qualitative interviews with 46 managers and clinicians from primary care and specialist mental health services, including pilot PCMHW-type roles. The key findings were as follows: The pilot PCMHW-type roles were almost exclusively related to client work, whereas respondents had far wider role expectations of the new PCMHWs, relating to perceived gaps in current service provision. This highlights the potential for role conflict. Secondly, there was disagreement and ambiguity among some respondents as to the nature of the new PCMHW's role in client work, and its relationship with the work undertaken by other mental health professionals such as counsellors, psychologists and nurses. Given that multiple professionals are involved in mental health care in primary care, issues relating to roles are likely to be crucial in the effective implementation of the new PCMHWs.

  7. Health Activities for Primary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This manual targets new and second-year Peace Corps volunteers, presenting health lessons and activities for primary school students in Thailand. Each section of the manual outlines basic technical information about the topic, contains several detailed lesson plans, and lists quick activities that can be carried out at schools. Songs and recipes…

  8. Primary health care: from aspiration to achievement.

    PubMed

    Diallo, I; Molouba, R; Sarr, L C

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of Senegal's response to the Bamako Initiative, aimed at strengthening primary health care. The experience gained is of broad interest since the basic principles involved are the same everywhere. Of particular importance are users' financial contributions and improved organization and management.

  9. Occupational Health Services Integrated in Primary Health Care in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Masoud; Ezzatian, Reza; Farshad, Asghar; Sokooti, Maryam; Tabibi, Ramin; Colosio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    A healthy workforce is vital for maintaining social and economic development on a global, national and local level. Around half of the world's people are economically active and spend at least one third of their time in their place of work while only 15% of workers have access to basic occupational health services. According to WHO report, since the early 1980s, health indicators in Iran have consistently improved, to the extent that it is comparable with those in developed countries. In this paper it was tried to briefly describe about Health care system and occupational Health Services as part of Primary Health care in Iran. To describe the health care system in the country and the status of occupational health services to the workers and employers, its integration into Primary Health Care (PHC) and outlining the challenges in provision of occupational health services to the all working population. Iran has fairly good health indicators. More than 85 percent of the population in rural and deprived regions, for instance, have access to primary healthcare services. The PHC centers provide essential healthcare and public-health services for the community. Providing, maintaining and improving of the workers' health are the main goals of occupational health services in Iran that are presented by different approaches and mostly through Workers' Houses in the PHC system. Iran has developed an extensive network of PHC facilities with good coverage in most rural areas, but there are still few remote areas that might suffer from inadequate services. It seems that there is still no transparent policy to collaborate with the private sector, train managers or provide a sustainable mechanism for improving the quality of services. Finally, strengthening national policies for health at work, promotion of healthy work and work environment, sharing healthy work practices, developing updated training curricula to improve human resource knowledge including occupational health

  10. Primary health care according to African requirements.

    PubMed

    Botha, H P

    1983-08-01

    African conditions and circumstances present specific challenges to health service providers. These conditions have implications for primary health care (PHC), including problems of communication (geographical, educational and cultural), maldistribution of health manpower, political unrest and wars. Local PHC services must compete with the prestige of and faith in the hospitals. Manpower training should be stressed at all levels of education of all medical and paramedical personnel. The status of PHC in the Republic of South Africa is now well recognized, and provision of the required services has a high priority.

  11. Project Design Concept Primary Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation (TFRSO), Project W-3 14 was established to provide upgrades that would improve the reliability and extend the system life of portions of the waste transfer, electrical, ventilation, instrumentation and control systems for the Hanford Site Tank Farms. An assessment of the tank farm system was conducted and the results are documented in system assessment reports. Based on the deficiencies identified in the tank farm system assessment reports, and additional requirements analysis performed in support of the River Protection Project (RPP), an approved scope for the TFRSO effort was developed and documented in the Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), WHC-SD-W314-RPT-003, Rev. 4. The USSR establishes the need for the upgrades and identifies the specific equipment to be addressed by this project. This Project Design Concept (PDC) is in support of the Phase 2 upgrades and provides an overall description of the operations concept for the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems. Actual specifications, test requirements, and procedures are not included in this PDC. The PDC is a ''living'' document, which will be updated throughout the design development process to provide a progressively more detailed description of the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems design. The Phase 2 upgrades to the Primary Ventilation Systems shall ensure that the applicable current requirements are met for: Regulatory Compliance; Safety; Mission Requirements; Reliability; and Operational Requirements.

  12. Quality indicators for primary care mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Shield, T; Campbell, S; Rogers, A; Worrall, A; Chew-Graham, C; Gask, L

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To identify a generic set of face valid quality indicators for primary care mental health services which reflect a multi-stakeholder perspective and can be used for facilitating quality improvement. Design: Modified two-round postal Delphi questionnaire. Setting: Geographical spread across Great Britain. Participants: One hundred and fifteen panellists representing 11 different stakeholder groups within primary care mental health services (clinical psychologist, health and social care commissioner, community psychiatric nurse, counsellor, general practitioner, practice nurse/district nurse/health visitor, psychiatrist, social worker, carer, patient and voluntary organisations). Main outcome measures: Face validity (median rating of 8 or 9 on a nine point scale with agreement by all panels) for assessing quality of care. Results: A maximum of 334 indicators were rated by panels in the second round; 26% were rated valid by all panels. These indicators were categorised into 21 aspects of care, 11 relating to general practices and 10 relating to health authorities or primary care groups/trusts. There was variation in the total number of indicators rated valid across the different panels. Overall, GPs rated the lowest number of indicators as valid (41%, n=138) and carers rated the highest number valid (91%, n=304). Conclusions: The quality indicators represent consensus among key stakeholder groups in defining quality of care within primary care mental health services. These indicators could provide a guide for primary care organisations embarking on quality improvement initiatives in mental health care when addressing national targets and standards relating to primary care set out in the National Service Framework for Mental Health for England. Although many of the indicators relate to parochial issues in UK service delivery, the methodology used in the development of the indicators could be applied in other settings to produce locally relevant indicators

  13. Design and Multi-Country Validation of Text Messages for an mHealth Intervention for Primary Prevention of Progression to Hypertension in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Zavala-Loayza, J Alfredo; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Kanter, Rebecca; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Martinez, Homero

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) has been posited to contribute to the reduction in health gaps and has shown fast and widespread growth in developing countries. This growth demands understanding of, and preparedness for, local cultural contexts. Objective To describe the design and validation of text messages (short message service, SMS) that will be used for an mHealth behavioral change intervention to prevent hypertension in three Latin American countries: Argentina, Guatemala, and Peru. Methods An initial set of 64 SMS text messages were designed to promote healthy lifestyles among individuals in different stages of behavior change, addressing four key domains: salt and sodium intake, fruit and vegetable intake, consumption of high fat and sugar foods, and physical activity. The 64 SMS text messages were organized into nine subsets for field validation. In each country 36 people were recruited, half of them being male. Of the participants, 4 per country evaluated each subset of SMS text messages, which contained between 6 and 8 SMS text messages regarding different key domains and stages of change. The understanding and appeal of each SMS text message was assessed using a 7-item questionnaire. The understanding and appeal ratings were used to reach a final set of 56 SMS text messages. Results Overall, each of the 64 SMS text messages received a total of 12 evaluations (4 per country). The majority of evaluations—742 out of a total of 767 (96.7%) valid responses—revealed an adequate understanding of the key idea contained in the SMS text message. On a scale from 1 to 10, the average appeal score was 8.7 points, with a range of 4 to 10 points. Based on their low scores, 8 SMS text messages per country were discarded. Once the final set of 56 SMS text messages was established, and based on feedback obtained in the field, wording and content of some SMS text messages were improved. Of the final set, 9, 8, and 16 of the SMS text messages were improved based on

  14. Primary Health Networks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    PubMed

    Couzos, Sophia; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Page, Priscilla

    2016-04-04

    The Australian Government has established that the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is a priority for the newly established 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs). Efforts to reduce the high hospitalisation rates of Aboriginal people will require PHNs to build formal participatory structures with Aboriginal health organisations to support best practice service models. There are precedents as to how PHNs can build formal partnerships with Aboriginal community controlled health services (ACCHSs), establish an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander steering committee to guide strategic plan development, and work towards optimising comprehensive primary care. All health services within PHN boundaries can be supported to systematically and strategically improve their responsiveness to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people by assessing systems of care, adopting best practice models, embedding quality assurance activity, and participating in performance reporting. PHNs can be guided to adopt an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-specific quality improvement framework, agree to local performance measures, review specialist and other outreach services to better integrate with primary health care, enhance the cultural competence of services, and measure and respond to progress in reducing potentially preventable hospitalisations. Through collaborations and capacity building, PHNs can transition certain health services towards greater Aboriginal community control. These proposals may assist policy makers to develop organisational performance reporting on PHN efforts to close the gap in Aboriginal health disparity.

  15. [Clinical bioethics for primary health care].

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, L

    2013-01-01

    The clinical decision making process with ethical implications in the area of primary healthcare differs from other healthcare areas. From the ethical perspective it is important to include these issues in the decision making model. This dissertation explains the need for a process of bioethical deliberation for Primary Healthcare, as well as proposing a method for doing so. The decision process method, adapted to this healthcare area, is flexible and requires a more participative Healthcare System. This proposal involves professionals and the patient population equally, is intended to facilitate the acquisition of responsibility for personal and community health.

  16. Primary health care nurses' promotion of involuntary migrant families' health.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, K; Fridlund, B; Arvidsson, B

    2010-06-01

    Involuntary migrant families in cultural transition face a number of challenges to their health and to family cohesion. Primary health care nurses (PHCNs) therefore play a vital role in the assessment and promotion of their health. The aim of this study was to describe the promotion of health in involuntary migrant families in cultural transition as conceptualized by Swedish PHCNs. Interviews were conducted with 34 strategically chosen PHCNs covering the entire range of the primary health care sector in two municipalities of Southern Sweden. A contextual approach with reference to phenomenography was used in interpreting the data. There are three qualitatively different descriptive categories epitomizing the characteristics of the PHCNs' promotion of health: (1) an ethnocentric approach promoting physical health of the individual, (2) an empathic approach promoting mental health of the individual in a family context, and (3) a holistic approach empowering the family to function well in everyday life. For nurses to promote involuntary migrant families'health in cultural transition, they need to adopt a holistic approach. Such an approach demands that nurses cooperate with other health care professionals and community authorities, and practise family-focused nursing; it also demands skills in intercultural communication paired with cultural self-awareness in interacting with these families. Adequate knowledge regarding these skills should therefore be included in the education of nurses, both at under- and at post-graduate level.

  17. Consumer payment patterns for primary health care services in low-income communities of Rio de Janeiro: implications for designing service financing schemes.

    PubMed

    Lassner, K J; Parker, B R; Ribeiro, C A; Smarzaro, M S

    1987-01-01

    Primary health care (PHC) services are now recognized as a mainstay of development in low-income regions of the world. Yet, in many of these areas, economic conditions that include a burgeoning international debt, precipitous drops in the prices of raw materials, expanding population bases, and faltering currency rates, make the effective financing of PHC services an issue requiring the most immediate attention. A potentially valuable source of assistance in such endeavors is data on consumers' payment patterns for PHC services, and on socioeconomic conditions within their communities. The Centro de Pesquisas de Assistência Integrada à Mulher e à Criança (CPAIMC), the principal private source of PHC in Rio de Janeiro, has collected these type of data for nine low-income communities (LICs) within the Greater Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region. The current paper interfaces these data with previously developed solutions to address the problem of financing PHC services within the nine LICs. The solutions were recommended by a methodology developed and implemented by two of the authors. Results indicate that the consumer payment pattern and socioeconomic data support the methodology's recommendations and, more importantly, may be used to improve the effectiveness of those recommendations. Examples are provided and implications discussed.

  18. Primary Care, Self-rated Health, and Reductions in Social Disparities in Health

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Leiyu; Starfield, Barbara; Politzer, Robert; Regan, Jerri

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which good primary-care experience attenuates the adverse association of income inequality with self-reported health. Data Sources Data for the study were drawn from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sponsored 1996–1997 Community Tracking Study (CTS) Household Survey and state indicators of income inequality and primary care. Study Design Cross-sectional, mixed-level analysis on individuals with a primary-care physician as their usual source of care. The analyses were weighted to represent the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the continental United States. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Principal component factor analysis was used to explore the structure of the primary-care indicators and examine their construct validity. Income inequality for the state in which the community is located was measured by the Gini coefficient, calculated using income distribution data from the 1996 current population survey. Stratified analyses compared proportion of individuals reporting bad health and feeling depressed with those with good and bad primary-care experiences for each of the four income-inequality strata. A set of logistic regressions were performed to examine the relation between primary-care experience, income inequality, and self-rated health. Principal Findings Good primary-care experience, in particular enhanced accessibility and continuity, was associated with better self-reported health both generally and mentally. Good primary-care experience was able to reduce the adverse association of income inequality with general health although not with mental health, and was especially beneficial in areas with highest income inequality. Socioeconomic status attenuated, but did not eliminate, the effect of primary-care experience on health. In conclusion, good primary-care experience is associated not only with improved self-rated overall and mental health but also with reductions in disparities between more- and less

  19. Community participation to design rural primary healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper explores how community participation can be used in designing rural primary healthcare services by describing a study of Scottish communities. Community participation is extolled in healthcare policy as useful in planning services and is understood as particularly relevant in rural settings, partly due to high social capital. Literature describes many community participation methods, but lacks discussion of outcomes relevant to health system reconfiguration. There is a spectrum of ideas in the literature on how to design services, from top-down standard models to contextual plans arising from population health planning that incorporates community participation. This paper addresses an evidence gap about the outcomes of using community participation in (re)designing rural community health services. Methods Community-based participatory action research was applied in four Scottish case study communities in 2008–10. Data were collected from four workshops held in each community (total 16) and attended by community members. Workshops were intended to produce hypothetical designs for future service provision. Themes, rankings and selections from workshops are presented. Results Community members identified consistent health priorities, including local practitioners, emergency triage, anticipatory care, wellbeing improvement and health volunteering. Communities designed different service models to address health priorities. One community did not design a service model and another replicated the current model despite initial enthusiasm for innovation. Conclusions Communities differ in their receptiveness to engaging in innovative service design, but some will create new models that fit in a given budget. Design diversity indicates that context influences local healthcare planning, suggesting community participation impacts on design outcomes, but standard service models maybe useful as part of the evidence in community participation discussions

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of primary health care personnel concerning mental health problems in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ignacio, L L; de Arango, M V; Baltazar, J; Busnello, E D; Climent, C E; Elhakim, A; Farb, M; Guèye, M; Harding, T W; Ibrahim, H H; Murthy, R S; Wig, N N

    1983-01-01

    A semi-structured interview for assessing the knowledge and attitude of health workers concerning mental health problems was applied in seven developing country areas within the context of a World Health Organization coordinated collaborative study. The results indicate a lack of basic mental health training associated with a failure to recognize mental health problems, restricted knowledge concerning psychotropic drug therapy, and an inability to visualize practical forms of mental health care which could be introduced at primary care level. The results were used to design appropriate training programs, and the observations will be repeated to assess the effectiveness of training. PMID:6881406

  1. Primary health care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Buch, E

    1989-01-01

    Even though most countries have committed to primary health care (PHC), South Africa, a middle-income country, has an inadequate PHC system. The poor system has roots in the colonial period and apartheid reinforces this system. Race, class, and place of residence determine the type of health care individuals receive. South Africa falls far short of all 5 principles of PHC. Just 12% of the health budget goes to 40% of the population who live in the homelands which shows the inequitable distribution of health care resources and inadequate quality health care for all. Similarly, South Africa has not altered its communication and education techniques to improve preventive and promotive health services. It has not implemented any successful national campaigns such as a campaign against diarrhea deaths. South Africa does not make good use of available appropriate technology such as breast feeding, oral rehydration, refrigeration, and the ventilated improved pit latrine which lead to health for all. People in South Africa discuss community participation but it is not likely to occur without general political democracy. Some people have made local attempts at community participation but they tend to use inflexible means and request either cash or contributions in kind from people who have little. The elite in South Africa has not recognized the need to correct socioeconomic inequalities. The Population Development Plan Programme among white farmer-owners has showed some support for a multisectoral approach to improve health care, however. For example, it acknowledges that non-health-care interventions such as better salaries, literacy, and living conditions, lead to better health. The Department of National Health has discussed improved coordination of the budget to allow priority determination of national PHD and manpower plans. Nongovernmental organizations are beginning to use the PHC approach instead of the charitable approach.

  2. A design thinking approach to primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lisa A; Porter, Alison G; Pelligrini, Vincent A; Schnatz, Peter F; Jiang, Xuezhi; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Hall, Janet E; Verbiest, Sarah; Olmstead, Jill; Fair, Ryan; Falorni, Alberto; Persani, Luca; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Mehta, Khanjan; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2017-03-01

    Most clinicians are not prepared to provide integrated personal care to address all the clinical needs of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Design thinking is an engineering methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems operation. Here we articulate the need for a seamlessly integrated mobile health system to support genomic research as well as patient care. We also review the pathophysiology and management of primary ovarian insufficiency. Molecular understanding regarding the pathogenesis is essential to developing strategies for prevention, earlier diagnosis, and appropriate management of the disorder. The syndrome is a chronic disorder characterized by oligo/amenorrhea and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years. There may be significant morbidity due to: 1) depression and anxiety related to the loss of reproductive hormones and infertility; 2) associated autoimmune adrenal insufficiency or hypothyroidism; and 3) reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of cardiovascular disease related to estrogen deficiency. Approximately 5% to 10% of women with primary ovarian insufficiency conceive and have a child. Women who develop primary ovarian insufficiency related to a premutation in FMR1 are at risk of having a child with fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. In most cases of spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency no environmental exposure or genetic mechanism can be identified. As a rare disease, the diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency presents special challenges. Connecting patients and community health providers in real time with investigators who have the requisite knowledge and expertise would help solve this dilemma.

  3. [Community health in primary health care teams: a management objective].

    PubMed

    Nebot Adell, Carme; Pasarin Rua, Maribel; Canela Soler, Jaume; Sala Alvarez, Clara; Escosa Farga, Alex

    2016-12-01

    To describe the process of development of community health in a territory where the Primary Health Care board decided to include it in its roadmap as a strategic line. Evaluative research using qualitative techniques, including SWOT analysis on community health. Two-steps study. Primary care teams (PCT) of the Catalan Health Institute in Barcelona city. The 24 PCT belonging to the Muntanya-Dreta Primary Care Service in Barcelona city, with 904 professionals serving 557,430 inhabitants. Application of qualitative methodology using SWOT analysis in two steps (two-step study). Step 1: Setting up a core group consisting of local PCT professionals; collecting the community projects across the territory; SWOT analysis. Step 2: From the needs identified in the previous phase, a plan was developed, including a set of training activities in community health: basic, advanced, and a workshop to exchange experiences from the PCTs. A total of 80 team professionals received specific training in the 4 workshops held, one of them an advanced level. Two workshops were held to exchange experiences with 165 representatives from the local teams, and 22 PCTs presenting their practices. In 2013, 6 out of 24 PCTs have had a community diagnosis performed. Community health has achieved a good level of development in some areas, but this is not the general situation in the health care system. Its progression depends on the management support they have, the local community dynamics, and the scope of the Primary Health Care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Traditional health practitioners as primary health care workers.

    PubMed

    Hoff, W

    1997-01-01

    The author conducted a field study in 1993 to evaluate the effectiveness of four projects that were training traditional health practitioners (THPs) to provide primary health care (PHC) services in Ghana, Mexico, and Bangladesh. The study, funded by a grant from the World Health Organization, Division of Strengthening Health Services, concluded that incorporating trained THPs in PHC programmes can be cost effective in providing essential and culturally relevant health services to communities. The main objective of the study was to evaluate how effective the training projects were and to determine what impacts they might have upon the communities served. A qualitative field evaluation was performed using data collected from project documents, observations, and field interviews with a selection of health agency staff, THPs, and community members. A summary of results is presented from the four field studies. For details refer to the full report.

  5. Mental health stigma and primary health care decisions.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Mittal, Dinesh; Reaves, Christina M; Haynes, Tiffany F; Han, Xiaotong; Morris, Scott; Sullivan, Greer

    2014-08-15

    People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal experience with mental illness and mental health care. In this study, 166 health care providers (42.2% primary care, 57.8% mental health practice) from the Veteran׳s Affairs (VA) medical system completed measures of stigma characteristics, expected adherence, and subsequent health decisions (referral to a specialist and refill pain prescription) about a male patient with schizophrenia who was seeking help for low back pain due to arthritis. Research participants reported comfort with previous mental health interventions. Path analyses showed participants who endorsed stigmatizing characteristics of the patient were more likely to believe he would not adhere to treatment and hence, less likely to refer to a specialist or refill his prescription. Endorsement of stigmatizing characteristics was inversely related to comfort with one׳s previous mental health care. Implications of these findings will inform a program meant to enhance VA provider attitudes about people with mental illness, as well as their health decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary health care and the Midwest flood disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, C; Killam, P P; Gaston, M H; Stinson, N

    1994-01-01

    The Midwest flood disaster of 1993 ravaged communities across a 9-State area. Homes were destroyed, roads closed, and services disrupted. Economic costs, including loss of revenue from farming and loss of jobs, are estimated at more than $1 billion. Even as people continue to rebuild their lives 1 year later, renewed flooding has occurred in some areas. A community-based primary health care system can be described as a system of services that (a) offers all members of a family continuous, comprehensive, quality health services throughout their lives; (b) includes case management and coordinated referrals to other related services when necessary; (c) is usually provided by family practitioners, general internists, general pediatricians, obstetricians-gynecologists, nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and physician assistants; and (d) has community involvement in the development and management of the system to assure that it meets the changing needs and the diversity of the people it is designed to serve. This paper uses the floods to describe the impact of a disaster on primary health care services and primary health care systems. This includes changes in the demand for services (as evidenced by the frequency and type of patient visits) and the ability of the system to respond to these changes. The effect of a disaster on access to primary health care is discussed. PMID:7938379

  7. Optimizing the Primary Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes in Primary Health Care

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-18

    Interprofessional Relations; Primary Health Care/Organization & Administration; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/Prevention & Control; Primary Prevention/Methods; Risk Reduction Behavior; Randomized Controlled Trial; Life Style

  8. Brazilian community health agents and qualitative primary healthcare information.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Margareth S; Pinto, Rogério Meireles; Galhego-Garcia, Wilson; da Cunha, Zeilma; Cordeiro, Hésio A; Fagundes-Filho, Francisco E; Pinho, Mônica A L; Voet, Susan M V; Talbot, Yves; Caldas, Rodrigo S; de Souza, Thiago J; Costa, Edwaldo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore female community health agents' views about the value of recording qualitative information on contextual health issues they observe during home visits, data that are not officially required to be documented for the Brazilian System of Primary Healthcare Information. The study was conducted in community primary healthcare centres located in the cities of Araçatuba and Coroados (state of São Paulo) and Rio de Janeiro (state of Rio de Janeiro), Brazil. The design was a qualitative, exploratory study. The purposeful sampling criteria were being female, with a minimum of three years of continuous service in the same location. Data collection with 62 participants was conducted via 11 focus groups (in 2007 and 2008). Audio files were transcribed and submitted to the method of thematic analysis. Four themes guided the analysis: working with qualitative information and undocumented observation; reflecting on qualitative information; integrating/analysing quantitative and qualitative information; and information-sharing with agents and family health teams. In 2010, 25 community health agents verified the final interpretation of the findings. Participants valued the recording of qualitative, contextual information to expand understanding of primary healthcare issues and as an indicator of clients' improved health behaviour and health literacy. While participants initiated the recording of additional health information, they generally did not inform the family health team about these findings. They perceived that team members devalued this type of information by considering it a reflection of the clientele's social conditions or problems beyond the scope of medical concerns. Documentation of qualitative evidence can account for the effectiveness of health education in two ways: by improving preventative care, and by amplifying the voices of underprivileged clients who live in poverty to ensure the most appropriate and best quality primary

  9. Improving Health Promotion Using Quality Improvement Techniques in Australian Indigenous Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Nikki; O’Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers. PMID:27066470

  10. Improving Health Promotion Using Quality Improvement Techniques in Australian Indigenous Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers.

  11. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  12. Health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers' views on health, health promotion, health assets and deficits: qualitative study in seven Spanish regions.

    PubMed

    Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Berenguera, Anna; Coma-Auli, Núria; Pombo-Ramos, Haizea; March, Sebastià; Asensio-Martínez, Angela; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Mora-Simón, Sara; Martínez-Andrés, Maria; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2017-06-13

    Although some articles have analysed the definitions of health and health promotion from the perspective of health-care users and health care professionals, no published studies include the simultaneous participation of health-care users, primary health care professionals and key community informants. Understanding the perception of health and health promotion amongst these different stakeholders is crucial for the design and implementation of successful, equitable and sustainable measures that improve the health and wellbeing of populations. Furthermore, the identification of different health assets and deficits by the different informants will generate new evidence to promote healthy behaviours, improve community health and wellbeing and reduce preventable inequalities. The objective of this study is to explore the concept of health and health promotion and to compare health assets and deficits as identified by health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers with the ultimate purpose to collect the necessary data for the design and implementation of a successful health promotion intervention. A descriptive-interpretive qualitative research was conducted with 276 participants from 14 primary care centres of 7 Spanish regions. Theoretical sampling was used for selection. We organized 11 discussion groups and 2 triangular groups with health-care users; 30 semi-structured interviews with key community informants; and 14 discussion groups with primary health care workers. A thematic content analysis was carried out. Health-care users and key community informants agree that health is a complex, broad, multifactorial concept that encompasses several interrelated dimensions (physical, psychological-emotional, social, occupational, intellectual, spiritual and environmental). The three participants' profiles consider health promotion indispensable despite defining it as complex and vague. In fact, most health-care users admit to having

  13. [The scientific entertainer in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Santos, José Manuel; Lapetra, José

    2012-09-01

    The scientific method is capable of being applied in primary care. In this article we defend the role of the "scientific entertainer "as strategic and necessary in achieving this goal. The task has to include playful and light-hearted content. We explore some words in English that may help us to understand the concept of "scientific entertainer" from a semantic point of view (showman, master of ceremonies, entrepreneur, go-between) also in Spanish language (counsellor, mediator, methodologist) and finally in Latin and Greek (tripalium, negotium, chronos, kairos). We define the clinical, manager or research health-worker who is skilled in primary care as a "primarylogist". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Classifying health problems in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Bentsen, Bent Guttorm

    1976-01-01

    In ordinary general practice, and in medical research, the problems encountered must be labelled. The Characteristics and classification of the labels used are discussed in this paper. Some different classification systems are discussed including that of the Royal College of General Practitioners. The need for one international classification system is stressed. The World Organisation of National Colleges and Academies of General Practice (WONCA) has now approved an International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care, which was accepted by all countries during the sixth World Conference on General Practice in November 1974. PMID:1053266

  15. Utilizing education infrastructure for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Hope, R; Carter, C A; Rai, I M

    1988-01-01

    Sahar Matha Secondary School and Ghoretar Health Post serve approximately 30,000 people living in scattered communities over the steep foothills of the Himalaya in East Nepal. A pilot health education and sanitation project was implemented with the objectives of giving the secondary school students the knowledge and skills necessary for building domestic pit latrines in their villages. It was hoped that the students could be motivated to create enough awareness of the need for domestic pit latrines so that latrines would continue to be built after the pilot phase of the project. At the end of the 4 week building period there were 150 completed domestic pit latrines and 45 pits or partially complete latrines. Seeing pit latrine in Ghoretar at the school and health post had not been enough to motivate people to build their own domestic pit latrine. It seemed that people could understand the convenience of privacy in an area where there was no jungle cover, but did not appreciate the hygiene reasons for using pit latrines. It is now planned to extend the project into the 19 schools which feed the 2ndarty school, with the 2ndary school boy and girl scouts taking the health messages to the primary schools. Particular attention will be given to the teaching of modes disease transmission. So that the villagers can use their latrines hygienically.

  16. Experience of Behvarzes (Iranian primary healthcare providers) from giving primary health services in health houses

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahrokh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary healthcare (PHC) providers play a major role in provision of public health in rural areas in Iran. They are considered as the key elements of health development in rural population. There is limited research on clarification of their experiences from provision of health services in their working conditions. This study aimed to clarify the experience of PHC providers from working conditions in giving primary health services in health houses (district branches of rural health care centers). Materials and Methods: This is a content analysis qualitative study, conducted through personal and group interviews with 12 health workers working in health care centers in rural areas in Isfahan province, 2010. Sampling continued until data saturation. Data were analyzed through conventional content analysis and constant comparative method. Results: Data analysis led to extraction of 11 categories, and finally, four themes of “ignoring the rights,” “causing tension in working climate,” “pressure or overload of expectations beyond the power,” and “occupational worn out” were yielded from the categories. These themes reveal the concepts and nature of PHC providers’ experiences from giving health care at health houses as the first level of PHC centers. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the PHC providers work in a tense condition in health houses. Although they devote themselves to the health of society members, their own health is neglected. Policy makers and authorities should amend working conditions of PHC providers through modification of resources and making supportive and collaborative strategies to improve the quality of services and promote the health level of the service receivers. PMID:27512699

  17. Nurse Practitioners and Men's Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Rosu, Marina B; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T

    2017-09-01

    Though life expectancy sex differences are decreasing in many Western countries, men experience higher mortality rates at all ages. Men are often reluctant to seek medical care because health help-seeking is strongly linked to femininity, male weakness, and vulnerability. Many men are also more likely to access emergency care services in response to injury and/or severe pain instead of engaging primary health care (PHC) services. Nurse practitioners are well positioned to increase men's engagement with PHC to waylay the pressure on emergency services and advance the well-being of men. This article demonstrates how nurse practitioners can work with men in PHC settings to optimize men's self-health and illness prevention and management. Four recommendations are discussed: (1) leveling the hierarchies, (2) talking it through, (3) seeing diversity within patterns, and (4) augmenting face-to-face PHC services. In terms of leveling the hierarchies nurse practitioners can engage men in effectual health decision making. Within the interactions detailed in the talking it through section are strategies for connecting with male patients and mapping their progress. In terms of seeing diversity with in patterns and drawing on the plurality of masculinities, nurse practitioners are encouraged to adapt a variety of age sensitive assessment tools to better intervene and guide men's self-health efforts. Examples of community and web based men's health resources are shared in the augmenting face-to-face PHC services section to guide the work of nurse practitioners. Overall, the information and recommendations shared in this article can proactively direct the efforts of nurse practitioners working with men.

  18. The missing link – the role of primary care in global health

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mala; Pilot, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of primary care in the context of global health. Universal health coverage is a key priority for WHO and its member states, and provision of accessible and safe primary care is recognised as essential to meet this important international policy goal. Nevertheless, more than three decades after Alma Ata, the provision of primary health care remains inadequate, indicating that primary care has not received the priority it deserves, in many parts of the world. This is despite the proven health benefits that result from access to comprehensive primary health care. We highlight some examples of good practice and discuss the relevance of primary care in the context of health equity and cost-effectiveness. Challenges that influence the success of primary care include the availability of a qualified workforce, financing and system design and quality assurance and patient safety. PMID:24560266

  19. Sexual health in primary health care - a qualitative study of nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Klaeson, Kicki; Hovlin, Lina; Guvå, Hanna; Kjellsdotter, Anna

    2017-06-01

    To illuminate nurses' experiences and opportunities to discuss sexual health with patients in primary health care. Sexual health is a concept associated with many taboos, and research shows that nurses feel uncomfortable talking to patients about sexual health and therefore avoid it. This avoidance forms a barrier between patient and nurse which prevents nurses from giving satisfactory health care to patients. A qualitative descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine nurses in primary health care in Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. During the analysis phase, five subcategories and two main categories were identified. The two main categories were as follows: 'factors that influence nurses' opportunities of talking to patients about sexual health' and 'nurses' experiences of talking to patients about sexual health'. Social norms in society were an obstacle for health professionals' opportunities to feel comfortable and act professionally. The nurses' personal attitude and knowledge were of great significance in determining whether they brought up the topic of sexual health or not. The nurses found it easier to bring up the topic of sexual health with middle-aged men with, for example, diabetes. One reason for this is that they found it easier to talk to male patients. A further reason is the fact that they had received training in discussing matters of sexual health in relation to diabetes and other conditions affecting sexual health. Nurses in primary care express the necessity of additional education and knowledge on the subject of sexual health. The healthcare organisation must be reformed to put focus on sexual health. Guidelines for addressing the topic of sexual health must be implemented to establish conditions that will increase nurse's knowledge and provide them with the necessary tools for discussing sexual health with patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evidence for integrating eye health into primary health care in Africa: a health systems strengthening approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of unmet eye care needs in sub-Saharan Africa is compounded by barriers to accessing eye care, limited engagement with communities, a shortage of appropriately skilled health personnel, and inadequate support from health systems. The renewed focus on primary health care has led to support for greater integration of eye health into national health systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate available evidence of integration of eye health into primary health care in sub-Saharan Africa from a health systems strengthening perspective. Methods A scoping review method was used to gather and assess information from published literature, reviews, WHO policy documents and examples of eye and health care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Findings were compiled using a health systems strengthening framework. Results Limited information is available about eye health from a health systems strengthening approach. Particular components of the health systems framework lacking evidence are service delivery, equipment and supplies, financing, leadership and governance. There is some information to support interventions to strengthen human resources at all levels, partnerships and community participation; but little evidence showing their successful application to improve quality of care and access to comprehensive eye health services at the primary health level, and referral to other levels for specialist eye care. Conclusion Evidence of integration of eye health into primary health care is currently weak, particularly when applying a health systems framework. A realignment of eye health in the primary health care agenda will require context specific planning and a holistic approach, with careful attention to each of the health system components and to the public health system as a whole. Documentation and evaluation of existing projects are required, as are pilot projects of systematic approaches to interventions and application of best practices

  1. [Primary health care product defined by health professionals and users].

    PubMed

    Pujol Ribera, Enriqueta; Gené Badia, Joan; Sans Corrales, Mireia; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Pasarín Rua, María Isabel; Iglesias-Pérez, Begoña; Casajuana-Brunet, Josep; Escaramis-Babiano, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    To identify the components of the primary health care (PHC) product defined by health professionals and users in order to establish indicators for evaluation. Qualitative methodology was used with group techniques: a nominal group (health professionals) and focus groups (users). The study was performed in PHC centers in Catalonia (Spain). There were 7 groups: a) family physicians and pediatricians; b) nurses and social workers; c) staff from admissions units and customer services; d) other medical specialists; e) users; f) managers, pharmacists, pharmacologists, and technicians. Participants responded to the question: "Which features should be evaluated in the services that should be provided by PHC?". A content analysis was performed. Textual data were broken down into units and then grouped into categories, following analogy criteria. The interpretative context of the research team was taken into account. Health professionals and users identified 4 dimensions of the PHC product, coinciding with its basic attributes: a) access to services; b) coordination and continuity of the PHC teams with other levels of healthcare; c) relationship between health professionals and users, and d) scientific-technical quality of the PHC teams and the portfolio of services. Equity, satisfaction and efficiency appeared as keystones in all the components of the product identified. There was broad agreement in the product definition among health professionals and users. The relationship between health professionals and patients was a key element in all groups. The four dimensions should be included in the evaluation of PHC teams.

  2. The Effect of Integration of Self-Management Web Platforms on Health Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management in Primary Care (e-Vita Study): Interrupted Time Series Design.

    PubMed

    Talboom-Kamp, Esther Pwa; Verdijk, Noortje A; Kasteleyn, Marise J; Harmans, Lara M; Talboom, Irvin Jsh; Looijmans-van den Akker, Ingrid; van Geloven, Nan; Numans, Mattijs E; Chavannes, Niels H

    2017-08-16

    Worldwide nearly 3 million people die from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) every year. Integrated disease management (IDM) improves quality of life for COPD patients and can reduce hospitalization. Self-management of COPD through eHealth is an effective method to improve IDM and clinical outcomes. The objective of this implementation study was to investigate the effect of 3 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease eHealth programs applied in primary care on health status. The e-Vita COPD study compares different levels of integration of Web-based self-management platforms in IDM in 3 primary care settings. Patient health status is examined using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). The parallel cohort design includes 3 levels of integration in IDM (groups 1, 2, 3) and randomization of 2 levels of personal assistance for patients (group A, high assistance, group B, low assistance). Interrupted time series (ITS) design was used to collect CCQ data at multiple time points before and after intervention, and multilevel linear regression modeling was used to analyze CCQ data. Of the 702 invited patients, 215 (30.6%) registered to a platform. Of these, 82 participated in group 1 (high integration IDM), 36 in group 1A (high assistance), and 46 in group 1B (low assistance); 96 participated in group 2 (medium integration IDM), 44 in group 2A (high assistance) and 52 in group 2B (low assistance); also, 37 participated in group 3 (no integration IDM). In the total group, no significant difference was found in change in CCQ trend (P=.334) before (-0.47% per month) and after the intervention (-0.084% per month). Also, no significant difference was found in CCQ changes before versus after the intervention between the groups with high versus low personal assistance. In all subgroups, there was no significant change in the CCQ trend before and after the intervention (group 1A, P=.237; 1B, P=.991; 2A, P=.120; 2B, P=.166; 3, P=.945). The e-Vita eHealth-supported COPD

  3. The Effect of Integration of Self-Management Web Platforms on Health Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management in Primary Care (e-Vita Study): Interrupted Time Series Design

    PubMed Central

    Verdijk, Noortje A; Kasteleyn, Marise J; Harmans, Lara M; Talboom, Irvin JSH; Looijmans-van den Akker, Ingrid; van Geloven, Nan; Numans, Mattijs E; Chavannes, Niels H

    2017-01-01

    Background Worldwide nearly 3 million people die from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) every year. Integrated disease management (IDM) improves quality of life for COPD patients and can reduce hospitalization. Self-management of COPD through eHealth is an effective method to improve IDM and clinical outcomes. Objectives The objective of this implementation study was to investigate the effect of 3 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease eHealth programs applied in primary care on health status. The e-Vita COPD study compares different levels of integration of Web-based self-management platforms in IDM in 3 primary care settings. Patient health status is examined using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). Methods The parallel cohort design includes 3 levels of integration in IDM (groups 1, 2, 3) and randomization of 2 levels of personal assistance for patients (group A, high assistance, group B, low assistance). Interrupted time series (ITS) design was used to collect CCQ data at multiple time points before and after intervention, and multilevel linear regression modeling was used to analyze CCQ data. Results Of the 702 invited patients, 215 (30.6%) registered to a platform. Of these, 82 participated in group 1 (high integration IDM), 36 in group 1A (high assistance), and 46 in group 1B (low assistance); 96 participated in group 2 (medium integration IDM), 44 in group 2A (high assistance) and 52 in group 2B (low assistance); also, 37 participated in group 3 (no integration IDM). In the total group, no significant difference was found in change in CCQ trend (P=.334) before (–0.47% per month) and after the intervention (–0.084% per month). Also, no significant difference was found in CCQ changes before versus after the intervention between the groups with high versus low personal assistance. In all subgroups, there was no significant change in the CCQ trend before and after the intervention (group 1A, P=.237; 1B, P=.991; 2A, P=.120; 2B, P=.166; 3, P

  4. Enhancing Primary Health Care Services for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Finlayson, J.; Cooper, S.-A.; Allan, L.; Robinson, N.; Burns, E.; Martin, G.; Morrison, J.

    2005-01-01

    Primary health care teams have an important part to play in addressing the health inequalities and high levels of unmet health needs experienced by people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Practice nurses have an expanding role within primary health care teams. However, no previous studies have measured their attitudes, knowledge, training…

  5. Enhancing Primary Health Care Services for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Finlayson, J.; Cooper, S.-A.; Allan, L.; Robinson, N.; Burns, E.; Martin, G.; Morrison, J.

    2005-01-01

    Primary health care teams have an important part to play in addressing the health inequalities and high levels of unmet health needs experienced by people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Practice nurses have an expanding role within primary health care teams. However, no previous studies have measured their attitudes, knowledge, training…

  6. Organizational scope of practice: assessing the primary care and public health activities of health centers and health departments in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Wright, Brad; Ugwi, Patience; Nice, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to understand how Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and local health departments (LHDs) address their shared mission of improving population health by determining the scope of primary care and public health activities each provides in their community. A brief mail survey was designed and fielded among executive directors at all 14 FQHCs in Iowa, and 13 LHDs in Iowa representing counties with and without an FQHC. This survey contained a mixture of questions adapted from previously validated primary care and public health survey instruments. Using survey responses, each FQHC and LHD was given 2 scores (each ranging from 0-100) measuring the extent of their primary care and public health activities, respectively. The overall response rate was 85.2%; the response rate was 78.6% within FQHCs and 91.7% within LHDs. Overall, FQHCs had higher scores (73.8%) compared to LHDs (27.3%) on total primary care services, while both LHDs (79.3%) and FQHCs (70.9%) performed particularly well on public health services. FQHCs and LHDs in Iowa address a variety of public health and primary care issues, including but not limited to screening for chronic diseases, nutrition counseling, immunizations, and behavioral health. However, FQHCs provide a higher amount of primary care services and nearly as many public health services when compared to LHDs. In a value-based health care delivery system, integrating to improve population health is a wise strategy to maximize efficiency, but this will require maximizing coordination and minimizing duplication of services across different types of safety net providers.

  7. Health system challenges to integration of mental health delivery in primary care in Kenya- perspectives of primary care health workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into primary care by generic health system weakness. Methods Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for primary care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). Results These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health system weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information system, district level supervision to primary care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to

  8. A primary health care project in Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C; Tan, Y K

    1982-03-01

    A joint pilot project between the Ministry of Health and the Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, to test the value of village aides in extending the health care system into isolated Iban communities was begun in May 1979 in the Entabai District of Sarawak. A group of 15 village aides consisting of 11 traditional Iban manangs (medicine men) and 4 youths were trained to provide primary health care including simple curative care, preventive care, and to assist in the detection of malaria. Evaluation carreid out 2 years later showed the following. With regard to curative care, the village aides were each, on the average, treating 70.6 patients/month, the most common complaint being headache (30.4%), which along with abdominal pain, constipation, bodyache, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, worm infections, cough, and sore throat, accounted for 89% of all illnesses seen by them. Subsequent to the introduction of village aides in the project area, the number of seriously ill patients requiring admission to the rest beds of the klinik desa dropped by 43.8% and the number of emergency referrals to the backup divisional hospitals fell by 46.1% showing that patients were coming to the klink desa for treatment at an earlier stage. The 11 traditional Iban manangs, who had recently received training had, on their own accord, drastically reduced the use of traditional Iban modes of therapy in preference for modern medicine. During the 24 months immediately after the introduction of village aides into Entabai, 9 gravity feed water supply systems together with related health packages advocating general cleanliness, the use of latrines, and fences were affected, whereas only 6 such systems were installed in the previous 24 months, indicating that it is likely that the village aides were of some assistance in mobilizing the community with respect to self-help efforts. During the same period, the majority of longhouses in the area successfully established a number

  9. Strengthening integrated primary health care in Sofala, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large increases in health sector investment and policies favoring upgrading and expanding the public sector health network have prioritized maternal and child health in Mozambique and, over the past decade, Mozambique has achieved substantial improvements in maternal and child health indicators. Over this same period, the government of Mozambique has continued to decentralize the management of public sector resources to the district level, including in the health sector, with the aim of bringing decision-making and resources closer to service beneficiaries. Weak district level management capacity has hindered the decentralization process, and building this capacity is an important link to ensure that resources translate to improved service delivery and further improvements in population health. A consortium of the Ministry of Health, Health Alliance International, Eduardo Mondlane University, and the University of Washington are implementing a health systems strengthening model in Sofala Province, central Mozambique. Description of implementation The Mozambique Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnership focuses on improving the quality of routine data and its use through appropriate tools to facilitate decision making by health system managers; strengthening management and planning capacity and funding district health plans; and building capacity for operations research to guide system-strengthening efforts. This seven-year effort covers all 13 districts and 146 health facilities in Sofala Province. Evaluation design A quasi-experimental controlled time-series design will be used to assess the overall impact of the partnership strategy on under-5 mortality by examining changes in mortality pre- and post-implementation in Sofala Province compared with neighboring Manica Province. The evaluation will compare a broad range of input, process, output, and outcome variables to strengthen the plausibility that the partnership strategy led

  10. Smartphone threshold audiometry in underserved primary health-care contexts.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Josefin; Swanepoel, De Wet; Carel Myburgh, Hermanus; Laurent, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To validate a calibrated smartphone-based hearing test in a sound booth environment and in primary health-care clinics. A repeated-measure within-subject study design was employed whereby air-conduction hearing thresholds determined by smartphone-based audiometry was compared to conventional audiometry in a sound booth and a primary health-care clinic environment. A total of 94 subjects (mean age 41 years ± 17.6 SD and range 18-88; 64% female) were assessed of whom 64 were tested in the sound booth and 30 within primary health-care clinics without a booth. In the sound booth 63.4% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dB HL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 80.6% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.6 dB ± 9.9 SD. In primary health-care clinics 13.7% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dBHL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 92.9% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.0 dB ± 7.1 SD. Accurate air-conduction audiometry can be conducted in a sound booth and without a sound booth in an underserved community health-care clinic using a smartphone.

  11. [Burnout syndrome in primary health care professionals].

    PubMed

    Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Laport, Tamires Jordão; Menezes, Vinicius de Paula; Medeiros, Priscila Bonfante; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2014-12-01

    Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low occupational performance, which may occur among health professionals. This article evaluates burnout among workers in Primary Health Care (PHC) in three small towns in the Zona da Mata Mineira. The study analyzes associations by logistic regression between burnout, socioeconomic, and demographic aspects of work. A total of 149 professionals were selected, 107 of these responded to all questionnaires. To measure burnout, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used and to characterize the professional, a questionnaire assessing three different issues - namely individual and sociodemographic aspects and team area coverage - was used. 101 professionals were classified with positive indication for burnout. The variables present in the backward stepwise logistic regression model positively associated with indicative of burnout were: being younger than the population average (> 29.5 years) and use of drugs, including sedatives, tranquilizers and sleeping pills. The results contribute to the identification of factors associated with burnout and therefore highlight the need for more detailed investigation.

  12. Leadership for primary health care research.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, David

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, I have put together a new theory of leadership. This paper describes its four propositions, which are consistent with the research literature but which lead to conclusions that are not commonly held and seldom put into practice. The first proposition is a model describing the territory of leadership that is different from either the Leadership Qualities Framework, 2006 or the Medical Leadership Competency Framework, 2010, both of which have been devised specifically for the NHS (National Health Service). The second proposition concerns the ill-advised attempt of individuals to become expert in all aspects of leadership: complete in themselves. The third suggests how personality and capability are related. The fourth embraces and recommends the notion of complementary differences among leaders. As the NHS seeks increasing leadership effectiveness, these propositions may need to be considered and their implications woven into the fabric of NHS leader selection and development. Primary Health Care research, like all fields of collective human endeavour, is eminently in need of sound leadership and the same principles that facilitate sound leadership in other fields is likely to be relevant to research teams.

  13. [Study of primary care health needs through family health diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, Laura Pilar; Vladislavovna Doubova, Svetlana; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Villa-Barragán, Juan Pablo; Constantino-Casas, Patricia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2006-10-31

    To assess the health needs of the eligible public population of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Observational, descriptive, transversal study. Family Medicine Unit number 8 of the IMSS, in the city of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A sample of 1200 families using multi-stage sampling, between October 1999 and March 2000. The designed and validated questionnaire on "Family health diagnosis" was used. A 19.2% of the families had a very low socio-economic level, and 14.9% of subjects were not entitled to Social Security. Functional illiteracy in at least one member was found in 12.6% of the families. According to the family Apgar, 93% of families were functional and two-thirds of the families were classified as nuclear. About 51.1% and 36.9% of women used programs for detection of cervical/uterine and breast cancer, respectively. Only 25% of the adult population underwent the detection tests for diabetes mellitus and hypertension and 10.9% had a chronic disease. 56.4% of families considered the quality of health care good, and only 18.13% were satisfied with the care received. Identification of health needs through diagnosis of family health is useful as a basis for establishing a hierarchy of problems as well as for developing health programs that may facilitate greater equity in attention.

  14. Adult community health-promoting interventions in primary health care: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    March, Sebastià; Torres, Elena; Ramos, María; Ripoll, Joana; García, Atanasio; Bulilete, Oana; Medina, David; Vidal, Clara; Cabeza, Elena; Llull, Micaela; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne; Aranda, José Manuel; Sastre, Silvia; Llobera, Joan

    2015-07-01

    To examine evidence on the effectiveness of health-promoting community interventions carried out in primary health care. Systematic review of originals and systematic reviews of health-promoting community interventions with the participation of primary health care. A working definition of community activities was used in the inclusion criteria. Databases searched up to 2013: PUBMED, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of SCIENCE, IBECS, IME, and PSICODOC. No restrictions on year of publication or design. Articles were reviewed by separate researchers to identify risks of bias. Fifty-one articles published between 1966 and 2013 were included: 11 systematic reviews and 40 originals that described 39 community interventions. There is evidence on the effectiveness of community interventions in reducing cardiovascular risk factors, encouraging physical exercise, preventing falls and improving self-care among chronic patients compared with usual individual care. The effectiveness of some interventions increases when the community is involved in their development. Most assessments show positive results despite design limitations. The community approach may be more effective than the individual in usual preventive interventions in primary care. There is a lack of evidence on many community interventions in primary care and further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... initial designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN), which is established by the Secretary of... Network (NFN), which combines the two, along with the portions of the Interstate System not designated as...

  16. Strengthening integrated primary health care in Sofala, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sherr, Kenneth; Cuembelo, Fatima; Michel, Cathy; Gimbel, Sarah; Micek, Mark; Kariaganis, Marina; Pio, Alusio; Manuel, João Luis; Pfeiffer, James; Gloyd, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Large increases in health sector investment and policies favoring upgrading and expanding the public sector health network have prioritized maternal and child health in Mozambique and, over the past decade, Mozambique has achieved substantial improvements in maternal and child health indicators. Over this same period, the government of Mozambique has continued to decentralize the management of public sector resources to the district level, including in the health sector, with the aim of bringing decision-making and resources closer to service beneficiaries. Weak district level management capacity has hindered the decentralization process, and building this capacity is an important link to ensure that resources translate to improved service delivery and further improvements in population health. A consortium of the Ministry of Health, Health Alliance International, Eduardo Mondlane University, and the University of Washington are implementing a health systems strengthening model in Sofala Province, central Mozambique. The Mozambique Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnership focuses on improving the quality of routine data and its use through appropriate tools to facilitate decision making by health system managers; strengthening management and planning capacity and funding district health plans; and building capacity for operations research to guide system-strengthening efforts. This seven-year effort covers all 13 districts and 146 health facilities in Sofala Province. A quasi-experimental controlled time-series design will be used to assess the overall impact of the partnership strategy on under-5 mortality by examining changes in mortality pre- and post-implementation in Sofala Province compared with neighboring Manica Province. The evaluation will compare a broad range of input, process, output, and outcome variables to strengthen the plausibility that the partnership strategy led to health system improvements and subsequent population

  17. Primary health care: making Alma-Ata a reality.

    PubMed

    Walley, John; Lawn, Joy E; Tinker, Anne; de Francisco, Andres; Chopra, Mickey; Rudan, Igor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Robert E

    2008-09-13

    The principles agreed at Alma-Ata 30 years ago apply just as much now as they did then. "Health for all" by the year 2000 was not achieved, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015 will not be met in most low-income countries without substantial acceleration of primary health care. Factors have included insufficient political prioritisation of health, structural adjustment policies, poor governance, population growth, inadequate health systems, and scarce research and assessment on primary health care. We propose the following priorities for revitalising primary health care. Health-service infrastructure, including human resources and essential drugs, needs strengthening, and user fees should be removed for primary health-care services to improve use. A continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health services, including family planning, is needed. Evidence-based, integrated packages of community and primary curative and preventive care should be adapted to country contexts, assessed, and scaled up. Community participation and community health workers linked to strengthened primary-care facilities and first-referral services are needed. Furthermore, intersectoral action linking health and development is necessary, including that for better water, sanitation, nutrition, food security, and HIV control. Chronic diseases, mental health, and child development should be addressed. Progress should be measured and accountability assured. We prioritise research questions and suggest actions and measures for stakeholders both locally and globally, which are required to revitalise primary health care.

  18. Approaches to primary health care in the Commonwealth Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E J; Kumar, A K; Standard, K L

    1981-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a brief review of the health problems of the Commonwealth Caribbean and of the primary care activities being implemented to solve them. Special attention is given to programs which develop new categories of health workers and direct health manpower toward learning a technology appropriate to the conditions in which they work. These programs enable the health worker and allied health personnel to adapt their roles and functions accordingly and thus provide quality health care within limited resources. The main programs are: development of new categories of health workers such as the community health aide and the nurse practitioner; education and training of allied health personnel; the training of primary health care physicians. An account is also given of primary health care in Jamaica and in the smaller territories of the Caribbean.

  19. Primary Health Care in Canada: Systems in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Context: During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged. Methods: This policy analysis examines primary health care reform efforts in Canada during the last decade, drawing on descriptive information from published and gray literature and from a series of semistructured interviews with informed observers of primary health care in Canada. Findings: Primary health care in Canada has entered a period of potentially transformative change. Key initiatives include support for interprofessional primary health care teams, group practices and networks, patient enrollment with a primary care provider, financial incentives and blended-payment schemes, development of primary health care governance mechanisms, expansion of the primary health care provider pool, implementation of electronic medical records, and quality improvement training and support. Conclusions: Canada's experience suggests that primary health care transformation can be achieved voluntarily in a pluralistic system of private health care delivery, given strong government and professional leadership working in concert. PMID:21676023

  20. Exercise-referral scheme to promote physical activity among hypertensive patients: design of a cluster randomized trial in the Primary Health Care Units of Mexico’s Social Security System

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the benefits of physical activity (PA) on to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases are well known, strategies to help increase the levels of PA among different populations are limited. Exercise-referral schemes have emerged as one effective approach to promote PA; however, there is uncertainty about the feasibility and effectiveness of these schemes in settings outside high-income countries. This study will examine the effectiveness of a scheme to refer hypertensive patients identified in Primary Health Care facilities (PHCU) of the Mexican social security institution to a group PA program offered in the same institution. Methods and design We will describe the methods of a cluster randomized trial study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise referral scheme to increasing physical activity in hypertensive patients compared to a non-referral scheme. Four PHCU were selected for the study; the PHCU will take part as the unit of randomization and sedentary hypertensive patients as the unit of assessment. 2 PHCU of control group (GC) will provide information to hypertensive patients about physical activity benefits and ways to increase it safely. 2 PHCU of intervention group (IG) will refer patients to sports facilities at the same institution, to follow a group-based PA program developed to increase the PA levels with a designed based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory. To evaluate the effects of the intervention as well as short-term maintenance of the intervention’s effects, PA will be assessed at baseline, at 24 and 32 weeks of follow-up. The main outcome will be the difference before and after intervention in the percentage of participants meeting recommended levels of PA between and within intervention and control groups. PA will be measured through self-report and with objective measure by accelerometer. Discussion This study will allow us to evaluate a multidisciplinary effort to link the primary

  1. Factors shaping intersectoral action in primary health care services.

    PubMed

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Labonte, Ron; Javanparast, Sara; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael

    2014-12-01

    To examine case studies of good practice in intersectoral action for health as one part of evaluating comprehensive primary health care in six sites in South Australia and the Northern Territory. Interviews with primary health care workers, collaborating agency staff and service users (Total N=33); augmented by relevant documents from the services and collaborating partners. The value of intersectoral action for health and the importance of partner relationships to primary health care services were both strongly endorsed. Factors facilitating intersectoral action included sufficient human and financial resources, diverse backgrounds and skills and the personal rewards that sustain commitment. Key constraining factors were financial and time limitations, and a political and policy context which has become less supportive of intersectoral action; including changes to primary health care. While intersectoral action is an effective way for primary health care services to address social determinants of health, commitment to social justice and to adopting a social view of health are constrained by a broader health service now largely reinforcing a biomedical model. Effective organisational practices and policies are needed to address social determinants of health in primary health care and to provide a supportive context for workers engaging in intersectoral action. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Metrics for assessing improvements in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Stange, Kurt C; Etz, Rebecca S; Gullett, Heidi; Sweeney, Sarah A; Miller, William L; Jaén, Carlos Roberto; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2014-01-01

    Metrics focus attention on what is important. Balanced metrics of primary health care inform purpose and aspiration as well as performance. Purpose in primary health care is about improving the health of people and populations in their community contexts. It is informed by metrics that include long-term, meaning- and relationship-focused perspectives. Aspirational uses of metrics inspire evolving insights and iterative improvement, using a collaborative, developmental perspective. Performance metrics assess the complex interactions among primary care tenets of accessibility, a whole-person focus, integration and coordination of care, and ongoing relationships with individuals, families, and communities; primary health care principles of inclusion and equity, a focus on people's needs, multilevel integration of health, collaborative policy dialogue, and stakeholder participation; basic and goal-directed health care, prioritization, development, and multilevel health outcomes. Environments that support reflection, development, and collaborative action are necessary for metrics to advance health and minimize unintended consequences.

  3. Prayer for Health and Primary Care: Results From the 2002 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joanne E.; Saper, Robert B.; Rosen, Amy K.; Welles, Seth L.; Culpepper, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prayer for health (PFH) is common; in 2002, 35% of US adults prayed for their health. We examined the relationship of PFH and primary care visits, with a special focus on African American women, using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods We used chi-square analyses to compare the demographic (age group, gender, race, region, marital status, educational level, ethnicity) and health-related covariates (alcohol use, smoking status, and selected medical conditions) between individuals who did and did not pray for their health in the past year. Univariate associations between PFH and visit to primary care provider (PCP), with Mantel-Haenszel adjustment for confounding, were determined. Multivariate regression was used to determine independent factors associated with PFH and PCP visit, with SUDAAN to adjust for the clustered survey design. Results Subjects who prayed were more likely to be female, older than 58, Black, Southern, separated, divorced or widowed, and nondrinkers. Subjects who prayed were also more likely to have seen a PCP within the past year. Black women who prayed were also more likely to see a PCP. Conclusions These findings suggest that people who pray for their health do so in addition to, not instead of, seeking primary care. This finding is maintained but with a smaller effect size, in Black women. PMID:18830839

  4. [The Articulator of Primary Health Care Program: an innovative proposal for qualification of Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    Doricci, Giovanna Cabral; Guanaes-Lorenzi, Carla; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa

    2017-06-01

    In 2009, the Secretary of State for Health of Sao Paulo created a Program with a view to qualify the primary care in the state. This proposal includes a new job function, namely the articulator of primary care. Due to the scarcity of information about the practice of these new professionals in the scientific literature, this article seeks to analyze how articulators interpret their function and how they describe their daily routines. Thirteen articulators were interviewed. The interviews were duly analyzed by qualitative delineation. The results describe three themes: 1)Roles of the articulator: technical communicator and political advisor; 2) Activities performed to comply with the expected roles, examples being diagnosis of the municipalities, negotiation of proposals, participation in meetings, visits to municipalities; and 3) Challenges of the role, which are configured as challenges to the health reform process, examples being the lack of physical and human resources, activities of professionals in the medical-centered model, among others. The conclusion drawn is that the Program has great potential to provide input for the development and enhancement of Primary Care. Nevertheless, there are a series of challenges to be overcome, namely challenges to the context per se.

  5. Primary health care and public health: foundations of universal health systems.

    PubMed

    White, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health systems, built on a foundation of primary health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health systems as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health systems from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health systems around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and primary health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health systems, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education systems of all nations wishing to achieve a health system that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable.

  6. Evaluation of a health promotion program in children: Study protocol and design of the cluster-randomized Baden-Württemberg primary school study [DRKS-ID: DRKS00000494

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing prevalences of overweight and obesity in children are known problems in industrialized countries. Early prevention is important as overweight and obesity persist over time and are related with health problems later in adulthood. "Komm mit in das gesunde Boot - Grundschule" is a school-based program to promote a healthier lifestyle. Main goals of the intervention are to increase physical activity, decrease the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, and to decrease time spent sedentary by promoting active choices for healthy lifestyle. The program to date is distributed by 34 project delivery consultants in the state of Baden-Württemberg and is currently implemented in 427 primary schools. The efficacy of this large scale intervention is examined via the Baden-Württemberg Study. Methods/Design The Baden-Württemberg Study is a prospective, stratified, cluster-randomized, and longitudinal study with two groups (intervention group and control group). Measurements were taken at the beginning of the academic years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. Efficacy of the intervention is being assessed using three main outcomes: changes in waist circumference, skinfold thickness and 6 minutes run. Stratified cluster-randomization (according to class grade level) was performed for primary schools; pupils, teachers/principals, and parents were investigated. An approximately balanced number of classes in intervention group and control group could be reached by stratified randomization and was maintained at follow-up. Discussion At present, "Komm mit in das Gesunde Boot - Grundschule" is the largest school-based health promotion program in Germany. Comparative objective main outcomes are used for the evaluation of efficacy. Simulations showed sufficient power with the existing sample size. Therefore, the results will show whether the promotion of a healthier lifestyle in primary school children is possible using a relatively low effort within a school-based program

  7. Noise in Primary Schools: Implications for Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various plan forms for primary schools analyzes school activities in terms of their acoustic characteristics. The acoustic properties of different teaching spaces and the extent to which these meet the needs of the various types of activity are discussed. (Author/MLF)

  8. 78 FR 75442 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... extending the deadline and comment period for the Designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN...) and the establishment of the complete National Freight Network (NFN), and to solicit comments on...

  9. Health care, the California primary, and the 1992 election.

    PubMed

    Blendon, R J; Szalay, U S; Altman, D E; Chervinsky, G

    1992-01-01

    Voters in the June 2 last-in-the-nation California primary indicated that candidates' character, experience, and leadership ability have become more significant than their stands on such issues as health reform. However, among substantive campaign issues, health care ranked second, behind the economy. That is consistent with previous poll results from New Hampshire, the nation's first primary state.

  10. Interdisciplinary Education for Primary Health Care Team Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, David A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses historical background of the primary health care team and key questions about team delivery, reviews past experiences in interdisciplinary education for primary care, lists guidelines for future educational experiences, and presents a model for the realistic implementation of these concepts in any health science center. (Author/JT)

  11. Electronic Health Record Challenges, Workarounds, and Solutions Observed in Practices Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Maribel; Davis, Melinda; Fernald, Doug; Gunn, Rose; Dickinson, Perry; Cohen, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the electronic health record (EHR)-related experiences of practices striving to integrate behavioral health and primary care using tailored, evidenced-based strategies from 2012 to 2014; and the challenges, workarounds and initial health information technology (HIT) solutions that emerged during implementation. This was an observational, cross-case comparative study of 11 diverse practices, including 8 primary care clinics and 3 community mental health centers focused on the implementation of integrated care. Practice characteristics (eg, practice ownership, federal designation, geographic area, provider composition, EHR system, and patient panel characteristics) were collected using a practice information survey and analyzed to report descriptive information. A multidisciplinary team used a grounded theory approach to analyze program documents, field notes from practice observation visits, online diaries, and semistructured interviews. Eight primary care practices used a single EHR and 3 practices used 2 different EHRs, 1 to document behavioral health and 1 to document primary care information. Practices experienced common challenges with their EHRs' capabilities to 1) document and track relevant behavioral health and physical health information, 2) support communication and coordination of care among integrated teams, and 3) exchange information with tablet devices and other EHRs. Practices developed workarounds in response to these challenges: double documentation and duplicate data entry, scanning and transporting documents, reliance on patient or clinician recall for inaccessible EHR information, and use of freestanding tracking systems. As practices gained experience with integration, they began to move beyond workarounds to more permanent HIT solutions ranging in complexity from customized EHR templates, EHR upgrades, and unified EHRs. Integrating behavioral health and primary care further burdens EHRs. Vendors, in cooperation with

  12. Health Careers Education for Rural Primary Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    International and national studies have reported that health professionals who grew up in a rural area are more likely to return to work in a rural area than their urban raised counterparts. The chronic severe shortage of health professionals in rural and remote Australia has meant inequitable health care for rural and remote communities and a…

  13. Health Careers Education for Rural Primary Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    International and national studies have reported that health professionals who grew up in a rural area are more likely to return to work in a rural area than their urban raised counterparts. The chronic severe shortage of health professionals in rural and remote Australia has meant inequitable health care for rural and remote communities and a…

  14. The secondary importance of primary health care in South Cameroon.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, S

    1982-12-01

    Primary health care in Cameroon meets with serious obstacles. The state gives it a low priority in its budget and over-all policy. The health institutions are rarely active in this field. Institutions which do practice some primary health care are usually foreign. The villagers, finally, are little interested. They insist only on improvement of curative services and material life conditions. The conclusion is that primary health care is regarded as something of secondary importance. First comes a better life. The research for this paper was conducted in 1980 in the South of Cameroon.

  15. Mental health training of primary care physicians: an outcome study.

    PubMed

    Jones, L R; Badger, L W; Ficken, R P; Leeper, J D; Anderson, R L

    1988-01-01

    It is well documented that primary care physicians encounter many patients in their practices who suffer psychiatric morbidity, especially affective, anxiety and substance abuse disorders. These physicians have been unable to effectively address the needs of these patients, over half of whom receive care exclusively in the primary care sector. Five years after implementing a curriculum to train family practice physicians to assume a comprehensive psychiatric role with patients in their practices, the authors undertook an outcome evaluation. The focus was on psychiatric disorder recognition, diagnosis, documentation, and management, including referral. It was hoped that biopsychosocial and community mental health orientations emphasized during training would be incorporated into the subsequent primary care practices of physicians in the study. In the research design, physician-generated diagnoses were compared with DIS/DSM-III diagnoses; physician interviews and chart audits enabled processes of care delivery to be evaluated. Unexpectedly, physicians were not found to assume an appropriately active or comprehensive mental health role in their practices following the training intervention. Of ninety-four DIS-generated diagnoses in the study population of fifty-one patients, 79 percent were unrecognized. Patients were assumed to function well emotionally, and psychiatric dimensions of patient complaints were not examined in the majority of cases. The physicians did diagnose and treat a number of patients with mental symptoms who were not identified by the DIS. These patients had high, but sub-diagnostic, DIS symptom counts. Most received a diagnosis of adjustment disorder in response to medical illness. Though this finding underscores shortcomings of present psychiatric nosology when applied in the general medical setting, the foremost consideration was the large number of DIS-identified patients with serious psychopathology, needing active assessment and intervention

  16. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  17. Providing primary health care through integrated microfinance and health services in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Kimberley H; Leatherman, Sheila

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous burdens of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries. The poor are at particular risk, with lower access to health care and higher rates of avoidable mortality. Integrating health-related services with microfinance has been shown to improve health knowledge, behaviors, and access to appropriate health care. However, limited evidence is available on effects of fully integrating clinical health service delivery alongside microfinance services through large scale and sustained long-term programs. Using a conceptual model of health services access, we examine supply- and demand-side factors in a microfinance client population receiving integrated services. We conduct a case study using data from 2010 to 2012 of the design of a universal screening program and primary care services provided in conjunction with microfinance loans by Pro Mujer, a women's development organization in Latin America. The program operates in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. We analyze descriptive reports and administrative data for measures related to improving access to primary health services and management of chronic diseases. We find provision of preventive care is substantial, with an average of 13% of Pro Mujer clients being screened for cervical cancer each year, 21% receiving breast exams, 16% having a blood glucose measurement, 39% receiving a blood pressure measurement, and 46% having their body mass index calculated. This population, with more than half of those screened being overweight or obese and 9% of those screened having elevated glucose measures, has major risk factors for diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease without intervention. The components of the Pro Mujer health program address four dimensions of healthcare access: geographic accessibility, availability, affordability, and acceptability. Significant progress has been made to meet basic

  18. Primary Health Care That Works: The Costa Rican Experience.

    PubMed

    Pesec, Madeline; Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Karlage, Ami; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Bitton, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    Long considered a paragon among low- and middle-income countries in its provision of primary health care, Costa Rica reformed its primary health care system in 1994 using a model that, despite its success, has been generally understudied: basic integrated health care teams. This case study provides a detailed description of Costa Rica's innovative implementation of four critical service delivery reforms and explains how those reforms supported the provision of the four essential functions of primary health care: first-contact access, coordination, continuity, and comprehensiveness. As countries around the world pursue high-quality universal health coverage to attain the Sustainable Development Goals, Costa Rica's experiences provide valuable lessons about both the types of primary health care reforms needed and potential mechanisms through which these reforms can be successfully implemented.

  19. [Social inequalities in health and primary care. SESPAS Report 2012].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Santaolaya Cesteros, María; Campos Esteban, Pilar

    2012-03-01

    The health system is a social determinant of health. Although not the most important determinant of health, the health system's potential contribution to reducing social inequalities in health should not be underestimated. Due to its characteristics, primary health care is well placed to attain equity in health. To make progress in achieving this goal, the main measures to be considered are the removal of barriers to access to services, the provision of care proportionate to need, and engagement in intersectoral work. This article reviews the background and framework for action to tackle social inequalities in health and provides a summary of the primary health care actions that could help to reduce social inequalities in health and are mentioned in the most important national and international documents on health policy. We hope to stimulate debate, promote research in the field and encourage implementation. The proposals are grouped in the following five intervention lines: information systems; participation; training; intersectoral work; and reorientation of health care. Each intervention is ordered according to its targets (population and civil society; primary health team; health center and health area management; and health policy decision-makers).

  20. Health benefits of primary care social work for adults with complex health and social needs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Jules; Mercer, Stewart W; Harris, Fiona M

    2016-04-05

    The prevalence of complex health and social needs in primary care patients is growing. Furthermore, recent research suggests that the impact of psychosocial distress on the significantly poorer health outcomes in this population may have been underestimated. The potential of social work in primary care settings has been extensively discussed in both health and social work literature and there is evidence that social work interventions in other settings are particularly effective in addressing psychosocial needs. However, the evidence base for specific improved health outcomes related to primary care social work is minimal. This review aimed to identify and synthesise the available evidence on the health benefits of social work interventions in primary care settings. Nine electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2015 and seven primary research studies were retrieved. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Although there is no definitive evidence for effectiveness, results suggest a promising role for primary care social work interventions in improving health outcomes. These include subjective health measures and self-management of long-term conditions, reducing psychosocial morbidity and barriers to treatment and health maintenance. Although few rigorous study designs were found, the contextual detail and clinical settings of studies provide evidence of the practice applicability of social work intervention. Emerging policy on the integration of health and social care may provide an opportunity to develop this model of care.

  1. Socio-economic correlates of functional health literacy among patients of primary health care in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Toçi, E; Burazeri, G; Kamberi, H; Jerliu, N; Sørensen, K; Brand, H

    2014-09-01

    Functional health literacy (FHL) has been related to individual characteristics, ill-health and disease knowledge. However, the information about FHL in Kosovo is very limited and thus the aim of this study was to assess the demographic and socio-economic correlates of FHL among users of primary health care in Kosovo, a postconflict country in the Western Balkans. Cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo between November 2012-February 2013, including a representative sample of 1035 consecutive primary care users aged ≥18 years (60% females; overall mean age: 44.3 ± 16.9 years; overall response rate: 86%). Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was used to assess FHL. General linear model and logistic regression were used to assess the association of TOFHLA score with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Overall, four out of five participants exhibited inadequate or marginal FHL in this Kosovo sample. FHL score was independently and inversely related to age, but positively associated with educational attainment and being in a situation other than unemployed. Limited or marginal FHL was very common among primary care users in Kosovo and considerably higher than in the neighbouring Serbia. The low health literacy levels in Kosovo may provide an additional barrier towards achievement of health care goals. There is a need to design and implement suitable and effective educational and health system interventions in the Kosovo context. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Service evaluation of an educational intervention to improve sexual health services in primary care implemented using a step-wedge design: analysis of chlamydia testing and diagnosis rate changes.

    PubMed

    Town, Katy; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Ricketts, Ellie J; Hartney, Thomas; Nardone, Anthony; Folkard, Kate A; Charlett, Andre; Dunbar, J Kevin

    2016-08-02

    Providing sexual health services in primary care is an essential step towards universal provision. However they are not offered consistently. We conducted a national pilot of an educational intervention to improve staff's skills and confidence to increase chlamydia testing rates and provide condoms with contraceptive information plus HIV testing according to national guidelines, known as 3Cs&HIV. The effectiveness of the pilot on chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates in general practice was evaluated. The pilot was implemented using a step-wedge design over three phases during 2013 and 2014 in England. The intervention combined educational workshops with posters, testing performance feedback and continuous support. Chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates in participating general practices during the control and intervention periods were compared adjusting for seasonal trends in chlamydia testing and differences in practice size. Intervention effect modification was assessed for the following general practice characteristics: chlamydia testing rate compared to national median, number of general practice staff employed, payment for chlamydia screening, practice urban/rurality classification, and proximity to sexual health clinics. The 460 participating practices conducted 26,021 tests in the control period and 18,797 tests during the intervention period. Intention-to-treat analysis showed no change in the unadjusted median tests and diagnoses per month per practice after receiving training: 2.7 vs 2.7; 0.1 vs 0.1. Multivariable negative binomial regression analysis found no significant change in overall testing or diagnoses post-intervention (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.07, P = 0.72; 0.98 CI 0.84-1.15, P = 0.84, respectively). Stratified analysis showed testing increased significantly in practices where payments were in place prior to the intervention (IRR 2.12 CI 1.41-3.18, P < 0.001) and in practices with 6

  3. Health communication in primary health care -a case study of ICT development for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Amina Jama; Olander, Ewy; Eriksén, Sara; Haglund, Bo Ja

    2013-01-30

    Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health communication channel could facilitate

  4. Health communication in primary health care -A case study of ICT development for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. Methods A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Conclusions Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health

  5. Intertester reliability of shoulder complaints diagnoses in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Storheil, Benny; Klouman, Elise; Holmvik, Stian; Emaus, Nina; Fleten, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Objective Shoulder complaints are frequently encountered in general practice, but precise diagnosing is challenging. This study investigated agreement of shoulder complaints diagnoses between clinicians in a primary health care setting. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Four primary health care clinicians used patients’ history and functional examination of the shoulder by selective tissue tension techniques (STTs), to diagnose shoulder complaints. Subjects 62 patients, aged 18–75 years. Main outcome measure Reliability of diagnoses was assessed by observed intertester agreement and Cohen’s kappa. A total of 372 diagnostic pairs were available for intertester comparisons. Results Six diagnoses were assigned by all clinicians; supraspinatus-, infraspinatus-, subscapularis-tendinopathies; chronic subacromial bursitis; glenohumeral capsulitis, and acromioclavicular joint lesion. The observed agreement on these diagnoses ranged from 0.84 for glenohumeral capsulitis to 0.97 for acromioclavicular joint lesion. Kappa scores were 0.46 (95% CI 0.33, 0.58) for chronic subacromial bursitis; 0.53 (95% CI 0.34, 0.68), 0.59 (95% CI 0.47, 0.70), and 0.68 (95% CI 0.53, 0.82) for infraspinatus -, supraspinatus -, and subscapularis-tendinopathy, respectively. For glenohumeral capsulitis and acromioclavicular lesion kappa scores were 0.66 (95% CI 0.57, 0.73) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.61, 0.90). Kappa scores were higher for individual diagnoses than for individual tests, except for limitation in passive abduction (0.70, 95% CI 0.62, 0.78) and passive lateral rotation (0.66, 95% CI 0.57, 0.73). Conclusions Although experienced clinicians showed substantial intertester agreement, precise diagnoses of shoulder complaints in primary health care remain a challenge. The present results call for further research on refined diagnoses of shoulder complaints. Key Points Based on medical history and a systematic functional examination by selective tissue tension techniques (STTs), we

  6. Health promotion and disease prevention in general practice and primary care: a scoping study.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Stephen; Hann, Alison; Kendall, Sally; Gillam, Steve

    2017-08-11

    This paper reports the findings of a scoping review on the organisation and delivery of health improvement activities in general practice and the primary healthcare team. The project was designed to examine who delivers these interventions, where they are located, what approaches are developed in practices and how individual practices and the primary healthcare team organise such public health activities and how these contribute to health improvement. Our focus was on health promotion and prevention activities and aimed to identify the current extent of knowledge about the health improvement activities in general practice and the wider primary healthcare team. Many of the research studies reviewed had some details about the type, process, location or who provided the intervention. Little attention is paid in the literature to examining the impact of the organisational context on the way services are delivered or how this affects the effectiveness of health improvement interventions in general practice. We found that the focus of attention is mainly on individual prevention approaches with practices engaging in both primary and secondary prevention. Although many GPs do not take a population approach and focus on individual patients some do see health promotion as an integral part of practice - whether as individual approaches to primary or secondary health improvement or as a practice-based approach to improving the health of their patients. Based on our analysis we conclude that there is insufficient good evidence to support many of the health improvement interventions undertaken in general practice and primary care.

  7. [National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012: design and coverage].

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Franco-Núñez, Aurora; Villalpando, Salvador; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel

    2013-01-01

    To describe the design and population coverage of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (NHNS 2012). The design of the NHNS 2012 is reported, as a probabilistic population based survey with a multi-stage and stratified sampling, as well as the sample inferential properties, the logistical procedures, and the obtained coverage. Household response rate for the NHNS 2012 was 87%, completing data from 50,528 households, where 96 031 individual interviews selected by age and 14,104 of ambulatory health services users were also obtained. The probabilistic design of the NHNS 2012 as well as its coverage allowed to generate inferences about health and nutrition conditions, health programs coverage, and access to health services. Because of their complex designs, all estimations from the NHNS 2012 must use the survey design: weights, primary sampling units, and stratus variables.

  8. Optical design study for NASA's spherical primary optical telescope (SPOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Joseph M.

    2004-10-01

    Several of NASA's future space telescopes project teams have chosen or are considering segmented primary mirrors as a part of their architecture. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) design employs a 6.5-meter conic primary mirror constructed of 18 hexagonal segments, where each hex is one of three off-axis surface profiles corresponding to its radial distance to the parent mirror axis. Other future mission concepts such as SAFIR (Single Aperture Far-Infra Red) and SUVO (Space Ultra Violet Optical telescope) are considering even larger segmented primary mirrors. The goal of the Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT) project discussed in this paper is to investigate the option of a spherical primary mirror for such future large aperture NASA missions. Ground-based telescopes such as the Hobby-Eberly have realized this design option, and the current baseline design for ESO's OWL project incorporates a 100-meter segmented spherical primary mirror. While the benefits of fabricating large numbers of identical spherical surface segments are obvious, the optical design for the telescope becomes more complex in order to correct the significant aberration resulting from a spherical primary surface. This paper briefly surveys design approaches of spherical primary telescopes. Image based performance comparisons are made, and examples are presented.

  9. Primary health care trading companies for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Soeters, R; Nzala, S

    1994-01-01

    A programme of comprehensive primary health care in Zambia has been accompanied by the emergence of autonomous, non-profit trading and production companies that sell health-related goods to communities and health institutions and find markets for locally produced good.

  10. Primary care behavioral health: ethical issues in military settings.

    PubMed

    Dobmeyer, Anne C

    2013-03-01

    The rapid expansion of integrated behavioral health care in primary care medical settings introduces a number of ethical challenges faced by teams of health professionals from different disciplines. As military health care settings have increasingly implemented primary care behavioral health models of service delivery, distinct ethical dilemmas have emerged. This article examines two of these ethical issues, competence and multiple relationships, through presentation of clinical scenarios in military integrated primary care settings. Relevant professional ethical guidelines for psychologists, social workers, and physicians are examined. Recommendations for the ethical practice of primary care behavioral health, as well as suggestions for future development of professional ethical guidelines, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Collaboration Between Mental Health Services and Primary Care: The Bologna Project

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, Domenico; Leggieri, Giuseppe; Menchetti, Marco; Ferrari, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    Overview: Management of anxiety and depressive disorders within the community necessitates collaboration between mental health services and primary care. While cooperative projects do exist in many countries, Italy's National Health System does not have a program designed to address this issue. In Bologna, a cooperative project arose as a spontaneous undertaking between mental health professionals and primary care physicians. A model of collaboration was designed specifically for the Italian National Health System, consisting of a network of primary care liaison services (PCLSs) instituted within the community mental health services. PCLSs are managed by a staff of specially trained mental health care professionals and are designed to facilitate communication between physicians, and they provide continual and multifaceted support consisting of diagnostic assessment and focused clinical intervention. PCLSs also provide formal consultation-liaison meetings and a telephone consultation service designed to promote communication and enrich diagnostic assessment and treatment. Discussion: PCLSs are innovative, not only because they represent one of the first collaborative efforts in Italy to date, but also because of their innovative design, which is specific for the Italian National Health System. Overall, the project yielded a good result. Primary care physicians utilized the service extensively, and together with psychiatric personnel were satisfied with the outcome. These results, when compared with the traditional separation between the 2 services, are encouraging. Our model could be adapted for most communities in Italy, but must be preceded by shared recognition of local need. PMID:15014669

  12. Learning and Change in the Redesign of a Primary Health Care Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, John; Dunston, Roger; Solomon, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an account of learning and change in the redesign of a primary health-care initiative in a large metropolitan city in Australia. Design/Methodology/ Approach: The paper is based on research exploring the place and role of learning in the re-making of health professional practices in a major New South Wales…

  13. Learning and Change in the Redesign of a Primary Health Care Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, John; Dunston, Roger; Solomon, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an account of learning and change in the redesign of a primary health-care initiative in a large metropolitan city in Australia. Design/Methodology/ Approach: The paper is based on research exploring the place and role of learning in the re-making of health professional practices in a major New South Wales…

  14. Organisation of Prevention in Primary Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report examines the possiblities of increasing the amount of preventive work being carried out by primary care workers in European communities. Before making practical recommendations about promoting prevention, an analysis is presented of the main present day problems. These center on the environment (not only physical but also social and…

  15. Health Professions and Primary Care Reinvestment Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2009-09-25

    Senate - 09/25/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Navy primary and secondary batteries: Design and manufacturing guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    The best practices for the specification, design, and manufacture of primary and secondary batteries most commonly used in military applications are provided. The scope was limited to lead-acid batteries (excluding submarine batteries), nickel-cadmium batteries, dry cell, thermal cells, and lithium cells (primaries only). Silver-Zinc batteries, secondary and primary, were purposely excluded since they represent a small portion of the military procurement and require a special treatment of their manufacture and quality assurance best practices.

  17. Integrated primary health care: Finnish solutions and experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Simo

    2009-01-01

    Background Finland has since 1972 had a primary health care system based on health centres run and funded by the local public authorities called ‘municipalities’. On the world map of primary health care systems, the Finnish solution claims to be the most health centre oriented and also the widest, both in terms of the numbers of staff and also of different professions employed. Offering integrated care through multi-professional health centres has been overshadowed by exceptional difficulties in guaranteeing a reasonable access to the population at times when they need primary medical or dental services. Solutions to the problems of access have been found, but they do not seem durable. Description of policy practice During the past 10 years, the health centres have become a ground of active development structural change, for which no end is in sight. Broader issues of municipal and public administration structures are being solved through rearranging primary health services. In these rearrangements, integration with specialist services and with social services together with mergers of health centres and municipalities are occurring at an accelerated pace. This leads into fundamental questions of the benefits of integration, especially if extensive integration leads into the threat of the loss of identity for primary health care. Discussion This article ends with some lessons to be learned from the situation in Finland for other countries. PMID:19590612

  18. Primary Health Care: care coordinator in regionalized networks?

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Patty Fidelis; dos Santos, Adriano Maia

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO OBJECTIVE To analyze the breadth of care coordination by Primary Health Care in three health regions. METHODS This is a quantitative and qualitative case study. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews with municipal, regional and state managers were carried out, besides a cross-sectional survey with the administration of questionnaires to physicians (74), nurses (127), and a representative sample of users (1,590) of Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) in three municipal centers of health regions in the state of Bahia. RESULTS Primary Health Care as first contact of preference faced strong competition from hospital outpatient and emergency services outside the network. Issues related to access to and provision of specialized care were aggravated by dependence on the private sector in the regions, despite progress observed in institutionalizing flows starting out from Primary Health Care. The counter-referral system was deficient and interprofessional communication was scarce, especially concerning services provided by the contracted network. CONCLUSIONS Coordination capacity is affected both by the fragmentation of the regional network and intrinsic problems in Primary Health Care, which poorly supported in its essential attributes. Although the health regions have common problems, Primary Health Care remains a subject confined to municipal boundaries. PMID:28099663

  19. Engaging primary healthcare nurses in men's health education: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rizio, Taletha A; Thomas, Wendy J; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Many countries have identified a need for targeted men's health promotion within primary health care as part of broader men's health policy. Primary health care nurses are well placed to deliver such services but may lack the requisite skills. The aim of this study was to pilot the delivery phase of an education program and evaluate a train-the-trainer approach for delivering men's health education to primary health care nurses. The 8-h train-the-trainer workshop was designed to equip nurses to deliver men's health education workshops to peers. Surveys of facilitators (n = 18) and peer workshop participants (n = 98) evaluated their level of confidence in men's health and knowledge and skills in men's health promotion. After completing the train-the-trainer workshop, most facilitators expressed confidence (92%), and all indicated sufficient knowledge and access to resources to deliver a peer workshop. All agreed that the module was sufficiently flexible to suit their local setting. Following the peer education workshop, facilitators and workshop participants reported high levels of confidence and knowledge in men's health promotion. This pilot evaluation suggests train-the-trainer is an effective model to deliver men's health education across a range of settings, with a flexible approach to raising awareness and improving the skills of primary health care nurses in men's health promotion.

  20. Primary care in Cuba: a public health approach.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K A; Swanson, J M; Gill, A E; Walter, C

    1995-01-01

    Cuba's primary health care model is presented. Unlike ambulatory care services, which are but one component of primary care, Cuba's model is a comprehensive public health approach that meets the World Health Organization's definition of primary care. The history of the development of Cuba's model is presented, including an update on the innovative neighborhood/home clinics. Achievements in health outcomes as a result of Cuba's model and the consequences for women's health care are discussed. Examples are presented of the effects on health care delivery of the economic hardship that Cuba has experienced since 1991 as a result of the loss of 85% of its trade with the former Soviet Union and the intensified U.S. embargo. A critique of Cuba's model concludes the article.

  1. Comparing Two Models of Integrated Behavioral Health Programs in Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Germán, Miguelina; Rinke, Michael L; Gurney, Brittany A; Gross, Rachel S; Bloomfield, Diane E; Haliczer, Lauren A; Colman, Silvie; Racine, Andrew D; Briggs, Rahil D

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how to design, staff, and evaluate the feasibility of 2 different models of integrated behavioral health programs in pediatric primary care across primary care sites in the Bronx, NY. Results suggest that the Behavioral Health Integration Program model of pediatric integrated care is feasible and that hiring behavioral health staff with specific training in pediatric, evidence-informed behavioral health treatments may be a critical variable in increasing outcomes such as referral rates, self-reported competency, and satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating mental health into primary health care in Zambia: a care provider's perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the 1991 reforms of the health system in Zambia, mental health is still given low priority. This is evident from the fragmented manner in which mental health services are provided in the country and the limited budget allocations, with mental health services receiving 0.4% of the total health budget. Most of the mental health services provided are curative in nature and based in tertiary health institutions. At primary health care level, there is either absence of, or fragmented health services. Aims The aim of this paper was to explore health providers' views about mental health integration into primary health care. Methods A mixed methods, structured survey was conducted of 111 health service providers in primary health care centres, drawn from one urban setting (Lusaka) and one rural setting (Mumbwa). Results There is strong support for integrating mental health into primary health care from care providers, as a way of facilitating early detection and intervention for mental health problems. Participants believed that this would contribute to the reduction of stigma and the promotion of human rights for people with mental health problems. However, health providers felt they require basic training in order to enhance their knowledge and skills in providing health care to people with mental health problems. Recommendations It is recommended that health care providers should be provided with basic training in mental health in order to enhance their knowledge and skills to enable them provide mental health care to patients seeking help at primary health care level. Conclusion Integrating mental health services into primary health care is critical to improving and promoting the mental health of the population in Zambia. PMID:20653981

  3. Primary Health Care Evaluation: the view of clients and professionals about the Family Health Strategy1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Simone Albino; Baitelo, Tamara Cristina; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the attributes of primary health care as for access; longitudinality; comprehensiveness; coordination; family counseling and community counseling in the Family Health Strategy, triangulating and comparing the views of stakeholders involved in the care process. Method: evaluative research with a quantitative approach and cross-sectional design. Data collected using the Primary Care Assessment Tool for interviews with 527 adult clients, 34 health professionals, and 330 parents of children up to two years old, related to 33 family health teams, in eleven municipalities. Analysis conducted in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, with a confidence interval of 95% and error of 0.1. Results: the three groups assessed the first contact access - accessibility with low scores. Professionals evaluated with a high score the other attributes. Clients assigned low score evaluations for the attributes: community counseling; family counseling; comprehensiveness - services rendered; comprehensiveness - available services. Conclusions: the quality of performance self-reported by the professionals of the Family Health Strategy is not perceived or valued by clients, and the actions and services may have been developed inappropriately or insufficiently to be apprehended by the experience of clients. PMID:26487150

  4. Counselling for mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care.

    PubMed

    Bower, Peter; Knowles, Sarah; Coventry, Peter A; Rowland, Nancy

    2011-09-07

    The prevalence of mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care is high. Counselling is a potential treatment for these patients, but there is a lack of consensus over the effectiveness of this treatment in primary care. To assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling for patients with mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care. To update the review, the following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis (CCDAN) trials registers (to December 2010), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (to May 2011). Randomised controlled trials of counselling for mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care. Data were extracted using a standardised data extraction sheet by two reviewers. Trials were rated for quality by two reviewers using Cochrane risk of bias criteria, to assess the extent to which their design and conduct were likely to have prevented systematic error. Continuous measures of outcome were combined using standardised mean differences. An overall effect size was calculated for each outcome with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous data from different measuring instruments were transformed into a standard effect size by dividing mean values by standard deviations. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to test the robustness of the results. Economic analyses were summarised in narrative form. There was no assessment of adverse events. Nine trials were included in the review, involving 1384 randomised participants. Studies varied in risk of bias, although two studies were identified as being at high risk of selection bias because of problems with concealment of allocation. All studies were from primary care in the United Kingdom and thus comparability was high. The analysis found significantly greater clinical effectiveness in the counselling group compared with usual care in terms of mental health outcomes in the

  5. Primary Health Care: Comparing Public Health Nursing Models in Ireland and Norway

    PubMed Central

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia; Day, Mary Rose

    2013-01-01

    Health of populations is determined by a multitude of contextual factors. Primary Health Care Reform endeavors to meet the broad health needs of populations and remains on international health agendas. Public health nurses are key professionals in the delivery of primary health care, and it is important for them to learn from global experiences. International collaboration is often facilitated by academic exchanges. As a result of one such exchange, an international PHN collaboration took place. The aim of this paper is to analyse the similarities and differences in public health nursing in Ireland and Norway within the context of primary care. PMID:23606956

  6. Clients’ Satisfaction with Primary Health Care in Muscat

    PubMed Central

    Albalushi, Rima M; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Kolahi, Ali-Asghar

    2012-01-01

    Background: To measure clients’ satisfaction with primary health care in the capital of Oman, Muscat, and also to identify the factors affecting their satisfaction. Methods: Through a cross-sectional study in health centers, 400 participants during the period from November 2009 to February 2010 were interviewed about their satisfaction degree with the primary health care services and setting. Four urban primary health care clinics from Muscat were selected randomly. Six domains of satisfaction including accessibility to services, continuity of care, humaneness of staff, comprehensiveness of care, provision of health education, and effectiveness of services were calculated from selected variables. The mean score of each area were calculated and then divided by the number of items in each area. Finally satisfaction areas were ranked based on recent criteria. Results: Mean age was 29.5 years (SD = 9.37) for male and 26.01 years (SD = 7.12) for female participants. All the areas were suitable and only continuity of care had negative score. The ranked areas of satisfaction were as humanness of staff, effectiveness of services, access to services, provision of health educational materials, comprehensiveness of care, continuity of care. Conclusions: Primary health care were accepted as a suitable strategy for providing health care among clients of urban health centers of Muscat. It can be recommended to other countries to use this as a choice for health care provision. PMID:23112898

  7. The effect of problem-based learning in patient education after an event of CORONARY heart disease – a randomised study in PRIMARY health care: design and methodology of the COR-PRIM study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though there is convincing evidence that self-care, such as regular exercise and/or stopping smoking, alters the outcomes after an event of coronary heart disease (CHD), risk factors remain. Outcomes can improve if core components of secondary prevention programmes are structurally and pedagogically applied using adult learning principles e.g. problem-based learning (PBL). Until now, most education programs for patients with CHD have not been based on such principles. The basic aim is to discover whether PBL provided in primary health care (PHC) has long-term effects on empowerment and self-care after an event of CHD. Methods/Design A randomised controlled study is planned for patients with CHD. The primary outcome is empowerment to reach self-care goals. Data collection will be performed at baseline at hospital and after one, three and five years in PHC using quantitative and qualitative methodologies involving questionnaires, medical assessments, interviews, diaries and observations. Randomisation of 165 patients will take place when they are stable in their cardiac condition and have optimised cardiac medication that has not substantially changed during the last month. All patients will receive conventional care from their general practitioner and other care providers. The intervention consists of a patient education program in PHC by trained district nurses (tutors) who will apply PBL to groups of 6–9 patients meeting on 13 occasions for two hours over one year. Patients in the control group will not attend a PBL group but will receive home-sent patient information on 11 occasions during the year. Discussion We expect that the 1-year PBL-patient education will improve patients’ beliefs, self-efficacy and empowerment to achieve self-care goals significantly more than one year of standardised home-sent patient information. The assumption is that PBL will reduce cardiovascular events in the long-term and will also be cost-effective compared to

  8. Inside the hidden mental health network. Examining mental health care delivery of primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Jones, L R; Badger, L W; Ficken, R P; Leeper, J D; Anderson, R L

    1987-07-01

    Mental disorder diagnoses among 51 patients, made by a group of 20 family physicians, were compared with diagnoses generated by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). Processes of diagnosis, decision making, and treatment planning were then examined through structured physician interviews and chart audits. In this study, 75 of 94 DIS diagnoses (79%) were undetected. During interview and chart audit, the physicians were found to have consistently underestimated, misinterpreted, or neglected psychiatric aspects of care among a majority of patients in the study. These physicians had all satisfactorily completed a psychiatry curriculum designed for family physicians. Analysis of these results suggests that a mental health role is often not integrated into primary care practice, regardless of physician performance during psychiatric training experiences. Assumption of this role appears to be state dependent on involvement with a psychiatric treatment setting. Primary care practice patterns do not seem to result in application of appropriate skills and therapeutic attitudes to detect, diagnose, and correctly manage the majority of mental disorders that occur. The need is reaffirmed for active collaboration between mental health professional and primary care providers in training and in incorporation of psychiatric skills into primary care practice.

  9. Health Professions and Primary Care Reinvestment Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2009-09-25

    09/25/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S9870-9871) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Education of nurses for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Aksayan, S

    1994-01-01

    The preparation of nurses in Turkey for the tasks of the health-for-all strategy has been under way for a number of years. The difficulties encountered, notably in the areas of planning and the training of teachers, together with the approaches to solving them, are outlined below.

  11. Training managers for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Kekki, P

    1994-01-01

    The University of Helsinki has devised a powerful in-service training course for managers of health centres. By working together at the University and their own centres on setting objectives, analysing data and solving problems, the participants greatly enhance their management and teamwork skills.

  12. Providing Perinatal Mental Health Services in Pediatric Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Ayelet; Stafford, Brian; Buchholz, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    After birth, newborns and their caregivers are seen routinely and frequently in pediatric primary care settings. The close succession of visits in the first few months of life puts pediatric primary care professionals in a unique position to enhance infant mental health by developing strong relationships with caregivers, supporting babies and…

  13. Mental Health Education in Three Primary Care Specialities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, James J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of the mental health components of residency training in traditional internal medicine, primary care internal medicine, and family practice were examined. Internal medicine programs relied on the consultation method and in-patient facilities, and used the psychiatrist as the primary teacher. Evaluation of the outcome of…

  14. Providing Perinatal Mental Health Services in Pediatric Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Ayelet; Stafford, Brian; Buchholz, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    After birth, newborns and their caregivers are seen routinely and frequently in pediatric primary care settings. The close succession of visits in the first few months of life puts pediatric primary care professionals in a unique position to enhance infant mental health by developing strong relationships with caregivers, supporting babies and…

  15. Supporting primary health care nurse practitioners’ transition to practice

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan-Bentz, Maureen; Humbert, Jennie; Cragg, Betty; Legault, Frances; Laflamme, Célyne; Bailey, P.H.; Doucette, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine role transition and support requirements for nurse practitioner (NP) graduates in their first year of practice from the perspectives of the NPs and coparticipants familiar with the NPs’ practices; and to make recommendations for practice, education, and policy. DESIGN Descriptive qualitative design informed by focused ethnography and narrative analysis using semistructured, in-depth, qualitative interviews. SETTING Primary health care (PHC) settings in Ontario in which NPs worked. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-three NPs who had graduated from the Ontario Primary Health Care Nurse Practitioner program, and 21 coparticipants including family physicians, NPs, and managers who were familiar with the NPs’ practices. METHODS Anglophone and francophone NPs in their first year of practice in PHC settings were contacted by e-mail or letter. Participating NPs nominated colleagues in the workplace who could comment on their practice. Interviews were conducted within the first 3 months, at 6 months, and at 12 months of the NPs’ first year of practice and were transcribed verbatim and coded. Job descriptions and organizational charts demonstrating the NPs’ organization positions were also analyzed. The researchers collaboratively analyzed the interviews using a systematic data analysis protocol. MAIN FINDINGS Familiarity of colleagues and employers with the NP role and scope of practice was an important element in successful NP role transition. Lack of preparation for integrating NPs into clinical settings and lack of infrastructure, orientation, mentorship, and awareness of the NP role and needs made the transition difficult for many. One-third of the NPs had changed employment, identifying interprofessional conflict or problems with acceptance of their role in new practice environments as reasons for the change. CONCLUSION The transition of NP graduates in Ontario was complicated by the health care environment being ill-prepared to receive them owing to

  16. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Effects on Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Zanocco, Kyle A; Yeh, Michael W

    2017-03-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of chronic hypercalcemia. With the advent of routine calcium screening, the classic presentation of renal and osseous symptoms has been largely replaced with mild, asymptomatic disease. In hypercalcemia caused by PHPT, serum parathyroid hormone levels are either high, or inappropriately normal. A single-gland adenoma is responsible for 80% of PHPT cases. Less frequent causes include 4-gland hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma. Diminished bone mineral density and nephrolithiasis are the major current clinical sequelae. Parathyroidectomy is the only definitive treatment for PHPT, and in experienced hands, cure rates approach 98%.

  17. Effectiveness of the Health Complex Model in Iranian primary health care reform: the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Hassanzadeh, Roya; Zakeri, Akram; Abedi, Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background Iranian traditional primary health care (PHC) system, although proven to be successful in some areas in rural populations, suffers major pitfalls in providing PHC services in urban areas especially the slum urban areas. The new government of Iran announced a health reform movement including the health reform in PHC system of Iran. The Health Complex Model (HCM) was chosen as the preferred health reform model for this purpose. Methods This paper aims to report a detailed research protocol for the assessment of the effectiveness of the HCM in Iran. An adaptive controlled design is being used in this research. The study is planned to measure multiple endpoints at the baseline and 2 years after the intervention. The assessments will be done both in a population covered by the HCM, as intervention area, and in control populations covered by the traditional health care system as the control area. Discussion Assessing the effectiveness of the HCM, as the Iranian PHC reform initiative, could help health system policy makers for future decisions on its continuation or modification. PMID:27784996

  18. Towards understanding governance issues in integration of mental health into primary health care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mugisha, James; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Kigozi, Fred N

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing burden of mental illness in low income countries. The situation is further worsened by the high poverty levels in these countries, resulting in difficult choices for their health sectors as regards to responding to the burden of mental health problems. In Uganda, integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) has been adopted as the most vital strategy for ensuring mental health service delivery to the general population. To identify governance related factors that promote/or hinder integration of mental health into PHC in Uganda. A qualitative research design was adopted at national and district level. A total of 18 Key informant interviews were conducted at both levels. Content thematic analysis was the main method of data analysis. There were positive gains in working on relevant laws and policies. However, both the mental health law and policy are still in draft form. There is also increased responsiveness/participation of key stakeholders; especially at national level in the planning and budgeting for mental health services. This however seems to be a challenge at both district and community level. In terms of efficiency, human resources, finances, medicines and technologies constitute a major drawback to the integration of mental health into PHC. Ethics, oversight, information and monitoring functions though reported to be in place, become weaker at the district level than at national level due to limited finances, human resources gaps and limited technical capacity. Other governance related issues are also reported in this study. There is some progress especially in the legal and policy arena to support integration of mental health into PHC in Uganda. However, adequate resources are still required to facilitate the effective functioning of all governance pillars that make integration of mental health into PHC feasible in Uganda.

  19. [Mental health in primary attention: needed constitution of competences].

    PubMed

    Neves, Hilton Giovani; Lucchese, Roselma; Munari, Denize Bouttelet

    2010-01-01

    The family/people integrally attention is one of health services and professionals challenges, creating spaces for metal health in the primary level health attention. The aim of this study is to reflect about the constitution necessity of new knowledges/dones to the mental health at the primary attention, taking as perspective the competence referential. Essay developed since the historical assumptions ascertains that contextualize the Family Health Strategy and its interfaces with the psychosocial principles and some nurse background implications since the competence development theoretical intentions. We consider that reality transformation, with the health attention improvement asks for knowledges/dones constitution that attends to the psychosocial attention and the Unique Health System rules.

  20. [Primary health care: challenges for implementation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Osorio, Alexandra; Vélez Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    A development process, marked by the re-appearance of the primary health care as the core of health systems, has emerged in Latin America. Governments have made a commitment to renew this strategy as the basis of their health systems. However, these health systems are mainly faced with re-introducing equity values, and there are common challenges such as providing the health systems with trained human resources in sufficient numbers, overcoming the fragmentation/segmentation of the systems, ensuring financial sustainability, improving governance, quality of care and information systems, expanding coverage, preparing to face the consequences of an aging population, the changing epidemiological profile, and increase in the response capacity of the public health system. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive view of the progress and challenges of the inclusion of primary care health systems in Latin American countries.

  1. The structural quality of Tanzanian primary health facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, L.; Magomi, M.; Mkangaa, E.

    1995-01-01

    Structural quality is a key element in the quality of care provided at the primary level, which aims to offer health care interventions of proven efficacy. This assessment of the structural quality of Tanzanian primary health services indicated serious weaknesses in the available physical infrastructure, as well as supervision and other support, both for government and nongovernmental services and for dispensary and first referral-level services. Addressing these weaknesses is likely to require some additional funding and review of the functions of different groups of health care facilities within the primary care system. Although district health management teams have an important role to play in tackling the weaknesses, the existing division of management responsibilities indicates that they can only do so with the support of the regional and national levels of the health management structure. Study methods might be adapted to facilitate improved supervision and management. PMID:7704920

  2. Tuberculosis diagnosis: primary health care or emergency medical services?

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Scatolin, Beatriz Estuque; Wysocki, Anneliese Domingues; Beraldo, Aline Ale; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Scatena, Lúcia Marina; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess primary health care and emergency medical services performance for tuberculosis diagnosis. METHODS Cross-sectional study were conducted with 90 health professionals from primary health care and 68 from emergency medical services, in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. A structured questionnaire based on an instrument of tuberculosis care assessment was used. The association between health service and the variables of structure and process for tuberculosis diagnosis was assessed by Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test (both with 5% of statistical significance) and multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS Primary health care was associated with the adequate provision of inputs and human resources, as well as with the sputum test request. Emergencial medical services were associated with the availability of X-ray equipment, work overload, human resources turnover, insufficient availability of health professionals, unavailability of sputum collection pots and do not request sputum test. In both services, tuberculosis diagnosis remained as a physician's responsibility. CONCLUSIONS Emergencial medical services presented weaknesses in its structure to identify tuberculosis suspects. Gaps on the process were identified in both primary health care and emergencial medical services. This situation highlights the need for qualification of health services that are the main gateway to health system to meet sector reforms that prioritize the timely diagnosis of tuberculosis and its control. PMID:24626553

  3. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  4. Moving toward universal access to health and universal health coverage: a review of comprehensive primary health care in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Larye, Stephanie; Goede, Hedwig; Barten, Francoise

    2015-06-01

    To provide an overview of comprehensive primary health care (CPHC) development and implementation in Suriname in peer-reviewed literature. Building on work funded by the Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program/People's Health Movement, the authors searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and POPLINE for articles focused on CPHC within the Surinamese context. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts and then jointly reviewed the selected abstracts. The final selection was completed using a data extraction form. The initial search resulted in 1 556 abstracts. The initial review identified 58 articles. Only three of the 58 articles met the inclusion criteria for the final review. The three selected articles provided partial overviews of CPHC in Suriname and examples of its implementation, with a focus on the service delivery network in the interior of the country, which was designed to improve rural access to basic health care services by training community members as service providers. They also included examples of how preparations for health reform in Suriname in the late 1990s and early 2000s, influenced by global neoliberal reforms, led to expectations that disparities in health status, design of health system components, and service provision related to differences in power and historical context (e.g., the influence of medical professionals, political parties/ethnic groups, and wealthier populations concentrated in urban areas) would be addressed. Given the focus on primary health care in the Americas and the notable developments that have occurred in Surinamese health policy and health care, particularly in health care reform, the paucity of published research on CPHC in Suriname was an unexpected finding that may be partly due to prioritizing research on disease control rather than health policy and systems research. The limited amount of scientific literature on this topic 1) prevents clear understanding of CPHC development and

  5. [Chronicity and primary care: the role of prison health].

    PubMed

    Morral-Parente, R

    2015-01-01

    The Prison Primary Health Care Teams in Catalonia have been integrated into the Catalan Health Institute. This integration shall facilitate¹ training and updating, while eliminating the existing differences between the health services belonging to prison institutions and those of the Catalan Health Service. It shall enable team work and coordination between Primary Health Care Teams in the community and the PHCTs in prisons within the same geographical area by sharing ongoing training, multi-sector work teams and territory-based relations, thereby facilitating continuance in care and complete and integrated treatment of chronicity. The existing information systems in Primary Health Care and the shared clinical history in Catalonia are key factors for this follow up process. Support tools for clinical decision making shall also be shared, which shall contribute towards an increase in quality and clinical safety. These tools include electronic clinical practice guides, therapeutic guides, prescription alert systems, etc. This shall be an opportunity for Prison Health Care Teams to engage in teaching and research, which in turn shall have an indirect effect on improvements in health care quality and the training of professionals in this sector. The critical factor for success is the fact that a unique chronicity health care model shall be shared, where measures for health promotion prevention can be taken, along with multi-sector monitoring of pathologies and with health care information shared between professionals and levels throughout the patient's life, both in and out of the prison environment.

  6. Advancing primary care to promote equitable health: implications for China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    China is a country with vast regional differences and uneven economic development, which have led to widening gaps between the rich and poor in terms of access to healthcare, quality of care, and health outcomes. China's healthcare reform efforts must be tailored to the needs and resources of each region and community. Building and strengthening primary care within the Chinese health care system is one way to effectively address health challenges. This paper begins by outlining the concept of primary care, including key definitions and measurements. Next, results from a number of studies will demonstrate that primary care characteristics are associated with savings in medical costs, improvements in health outcomes and reductions in health disparities. This paper concludes with recommendations for China on successfully incorporating a primary care model into its national health policy, including bolstering the primary care workforce, addressing medical financing structures, recognizing the importance of evidence-based medicine, and looking to case studies from countries that have successfully implemented health reform. PMID:22264309

  7. Teamwork in primary care mental health: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Eloise; Hewison, Alistair

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports a policy analysis conducted to examine the potential impact of recent mental health policy on team working in Primary Care Mental Health in England. An analysis of relevant policy documents was conducted. From an original selection of 49 documents, 15, which had significant implications for Primary Care Mental Health Teams, were analysed thematically. There were no clear guidelines or objectives for Primary Care Mental Health Teams evident from the policy analysis. Collaborative working was advocated, yet other elements in the policies were likely to prevent this occurring. There was a lack of clarity concerning the role and function of new professions within Primary Care Mental Health Teams, adding further uncertainty to an already confused situation. This uncertainty has the potential to reinforce professional barriers and increase the current difficulties with team working. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING MANAGERS: An analysis of recent policy contributes to our understanding of the context of care. The lack of clarity in current health policy presents a significant challenge for those managing primary care mental health teams. Team working is likely to improve if targets, processes and responsibilities are made clearer.

  8. Implementing the role of the primary care mental health worker: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    England, Elizabeth; Lester, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Background Primary care mental health workers are a new role recently introduced into primary care in England to help manage patients with common mental health problems. Aim To explore the views of GPs, primary care teams and patients on the value and development of the new role of primary care mental health workers in practice. Design of study Qualitative study. Setting The Heart of Birmingham Primary Care Teaching Trust in the West Midlands, UK. Method Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews involving seven primary care mental health workers, 21 patients and 11 focus groups involving 38 members of primary care teams were held with six teams with a worker. Two teams asked for the worker to be removed. Six practice managers also took part in the study. Results A number of different approaches were used to implement this new role. Strategies that incorporated the views of primary care trust senior management, primary care teams and workers' views appeared most successful. Rapid access to a healthcare professional at times of stress and the befriending role of the worker were also highly valued. Workers felt that their role left them professionally isolated at times. A number of workers described tension around ownership of the role. Conclusion Primary care mental health workers appear to provide a range of skills valued by patients and the primary care teams and can increase patient access and choice in this area of health care. Successful implementation strategies highlighted in this study may be generalisable to other new roles in primary care. PMID:17359607

  9. The Australian experiment: how primary health care organizations supported the evolution of a primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system.

  10. Design of the School Health Education Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Walter J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The nation's public schools can systematically promote the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for good health. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services contracted to evaluate the School Health Curriculum Project and three other approaches. The design, implementation, and benefits of the School Health Education Evaluation (SHEE) are…

  11. Implementing a teenage health service in primary care.

    PubMed

    Green, Elizabeth; Larcombe, J; Horbury, I

    The health of teenagers is currently a priority of the NHS, with many schemes and projects being developed. There are documented difficulties for teenagers in accessing health care, especially within general practice. This article describes the development and evaluation of a tailor-made clinic in the primary care setting.

  12. Oral health in the context of primary care in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Antonio C; Moysés, Simone T; Werneck, Renata I; Moysés, Samuel J

    2013-10-01

    This article presents an integrative literature review that analyses the advances and challenges in oral health care of the Brazilian primary health care system, based on a political agenda that envisages re-organising the unified health system (SistemaÚnico de Saúde - SUS). It is presumed that the actions suggested by the Alma-Ata Conference of 1978 are still up-to-date and relevant when adapted to the situation in Brazil. Several studies and policies are reviewed, including works demonstrating the importance of primary care as an organising platform in an integrated health-care network, Brazil's strategy for reorganising the primary care network known as the Family Health Strategy, and the National Oral Health Policy. This review discusses results obtained over the last twenty years, with special attention paid to changes in oral health-care practices, as well as the funding of action programmes and assistance cover. The conclusion is that oral healthcare in the Brazilian primary health care system has advanced over the past decades; however, serious obstacles have been experienced, especially with regard to the guarantee of universal access to services and funding. The continuous efforts of public managers and society should focus on the goal of achieving universal coverage for all Brazilians. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Primary health care in Turkey: a passing fashion?

    PubMed

    Tatar, M; Tatar, F

    1997-09-01

    The Alma-Ata Declaration has long been regarded as a watershed in the health policy arena. The global goal of the World Health Organization, 'Health for All by the Year 2000' through primary health care, has attracted many countries both in the developed and the developing world and commitments to this end have been made at every level. However, albeit this consensus on the paper, a common and explicit definition of the concept has not been reached yet. This paper aims at discussing various definitions of primary health care that emerged after the Declaration and also presenting a case study from Turkey, a country that advocates primary health care in her recent health policy reform attempts. After setting the conceptual framework for discussion the Turkish case is presented by using research carried out among Turkish policy-makers at different levels of the State apparatus. It has been concluded that application of primary health care principles as defined in the broad definition of the concept requires major changes or rather shake-ups in Turkey. These areas are outlined briefly at the end of the paper.

  14. Assessing Health Literacy in Diverse Primary Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Renee L.

    2010-01-01

    Patient health literacy skills are critical to effective healthcare communication and safe care delivery in primary care settings. Methods and strategies to identify patient health literacy (HL) capabilities and provider/staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding HL must be known before addressing provider/staff communication skills.…

  15. Primary Mental Health Care in Disasters: Armero, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper focuses on the mental health consequences of the disaster in Armero, Colombia which resulted from a volcanic eruption and mudslide, and highlights the role of the primary care worker in delivering mental health care to disaster victims. Eight characteristics of disasters that are closely related to their psychopathogenetic potential…

  16. Assessing Health Literacy in Diverse Primary Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Renee L.

    2010-01-01

    Patient health literacy skills are critical to effective healthcare communication and safe care delivery in primary care settings. Methods and strategies to identify patient health literacy (HL) capabilities and provider/staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding HL must be known before addressing provider/staff communication skills.…

  17. Integration of traditional birth attendants into primary health care.

    PubMed

    Isenalumbe, A E

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation of domiciliary midwifery services in a suburban area of Benin City, Nigeria, revealed that mothers liked them mainly because of the provision for home delivery. The integration of traditional birth attendants into organized health care was considered desirable by both mothers and the midwifery staff. Domiciliary midwifery services are recommended as a means of integrating traditional birth attendants into primary health care.

  18. A normative approach to the definition of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Parker, A W; Walsh, J M; Coon, M

    1976-01-01

    Primary care is the subject of many pronouncements and many recommendations for change in the literature on health care organization and delivery. Heretofore, there has been no attempt to assess the degree of agreement on the meaning of the term. This paper reports on a normative process used to construct 92 statements about important elements of primary care, and to rank these statements according to their relative degrees of importance in primary care. Three panels--nationally recognized "experts" on primary care, consumers, and public health nurses and social workers--participated in the development as well as the ranking of the statements. The rankings of the national experts are discussed in detail, and brief comparisons are made with the rankings of the consumer and public health worker panels. Experts gave a high ranking to the statements concerned directly with medical services and their linkages. All gave attention to equality and patient dignity. Consumers stressed the need to improve access to primary care services. Public health workers emphasized improvement in both access and the quality of the relationship between patients and providers. The overall findings suggest that increasing the base of participation in primary care planning may bring greater attention to patient defined needs, and that broadening of medical care objectives from medical care to a more inclusive health care is not imminent.

  19. Dynamic analysis and design of the SIRTF primary mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Ralph M.; Vukobratovich, Daniel; Pollard, L. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The criteria and considerations for the design of the support system for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) primary mirror are presented. A flexural-gimbal-baseplate design for the 0.5 m primary mirror was developed. Preliminary studies have indicated that this design may be further improved by replacing the flexures by a post-gimbal system wherein the gimbal design accomodates both the cryogenic cool down effects, the dynamic launch loads, and manufacturing tolerance effects. Additionally, a prestressed baseplate concept had evolved and was presented for the full scale 1.0 m mirror. However, preliminary design studies indicate that this concept will not be required, and the post-gimbal-baseplate design similar to the 0.5 m alternate support system will meet the cryogenic cool down, dynamic launch load criteria, and manufacturing tolerance effects.

  20. Knowledge of Maternal and Newborn Care Among Primary Level Health Workers in Kapilvastu District of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, D; Paudel, R; Gautam, K; Gautam, S; Upadhyaya, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher maternal and neonatal deaths are common in low- and middle-income countries; due to less access to skilled help. Adequate knowledge and skills on maternal and newborn care (MNC) of community health workers can improve maternal and newborn health. Aims: To identify the knowledge of primary level health workers on some components of MNC. Subjects and Methods: Respondents were selected using simple random sampling method. For collecting the data, enumerators visited health institutions for 2 months from 1st October to 31st November 2012, and structured interview schedule was used to gather the information. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of one hundred and thirty-seven primary level health workers in Kapilvastu district, Nepal. The Chi-square test was employed to examine the association between the knowledge of health workers on MNC and designation and work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: In a total of 137 primary level health workers, more than half 53.2% (73/137) were senior auxiliary health workers/health assistant. Health workers having correct knowledge on contents of MNC were-registration 32.1% (44/137), major components of antenatal care 57.7% (79/137), danger signs of pregnancy 39.4% (54/137), five cleans 59.1% (81/137), postnatal health problems 54.0% (74/137), majority to health action to newborn care, newborn bath and meaning of exclusive breastfeeding. There was a statistical association between designation of health workers and above-mentioned components of MNC (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The differentials in the knowledge of MNC among primary level health suggest improving knowledge of the grass root level health workers with appropriate training and development programs. PMID:27144073

  1. Knowledge about COPD among users of primary health care services

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Maria Conceição de Castro Antonelli Monteiro; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora Carmo; Jardim, Jose R; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Minamisava, Ruth; Gondim, Heicilainy Del Carlos; Velasco, Flávia Castro; Penhavel, Maria Vitoria Carmo

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often underdiagnosed, which might be attributable to a lack of knowledge about the disease among the general population. The objective of this study was to evaluate COPD-related knowledge among primary care users in an urban area in Brazil. Methods This study was carried out at primary care clinics (PCCs), including 12 general PCCs and 26 family health PCCs, in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. Between May 2013 and February 2014, we interviewed 674 PCC users, applying a questionnaire designed to assess COPD-related knowledge. Satisfactory knowledge of COPD was defined as knowing at least two of its symptoms and that smoking is a risk factor for the disease. Results Of the 674 users interviewed, only 9.2% recognized the term “COPD”, 75.1% recognized the term “emphysema”, and 15.7% did not recognize either term. We found that recognizing either term was associated with a higher level of education (P<0.001). The prevalence of satisfactory knowledge of COPD was 16.2%, and having such knowledge was associated with being over 60 years of age. The COPD symptom known by the greatest proportion of users (70.6%) was dyspnea, and most (87.5%) knew that smoking is a risk factor, whereas only a few (4.9%) knew that exposure to wood smoke is also a risk factor. The most frequently cited sources of knowledge were the media (43.1%) and a relative with COPD (36.4%). Conclusion Most of the PCC users evaluated did not know the term “COPD” but were familiar with the term “emphysema”. The level of basic knowledge about the disease was low in this population. These results should alert health care administrators to the need for interventions aimed at increasing the diagnosis rate and thus promoting the early treatment of COPD. PMID:25565794

  2. Opportunities and challenges to promoting oral health in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Gill, P; Chestnutt, I G; Channing, D

    2009-09-01

    Inequalities in oral health in areas of socio-economic disadvantage are well recognised. As children spend a considerable proportion of their lives in education, schools can play a significant role in promoting children's health and oral health. However, to what extent schools are able to do this is unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate opportunities and challenges to promoting oral health in primary schools. A purposive sample of 20 primary schools from socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Cardiff, UK were selected to participate in this qualitative study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with head teachers or their nominated deputies. General awareness of health and oral health was good, with all schools promoting the consumption of fruit, water and milk and discouraging products such as carbonated drinks and confectionaries. Health promotion schemes wereimplemented primarily to improve the health of the children, although schools felt they also offered the potential to improve classroom behaviour and attendance. However, oral health was viewed as a separate entity to general health and perceived to be inadequately promoted. Successful health promotion schemes were also influenced by the attitudes of headteachers. Most schools had no or limited links with local dental services and, or oral health educators, although such input, when it occurred, was welcomed and highly valued. Knowledge of how to handle dental emergencies was limited and only two schools operated toothbrushing schemes, although all expressed an interest in such programmes. This study identified a positive predisposition to promoting health in primary schools. The challenge for the dental team, however, is to promote and integrate oral health into mainstream health promotion activities in schools. The paper also makes recommendations for further research.

  3. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  4. Integrative medicine: enhancing quality in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Grace, Sandra; Higgs, Joy

    2010-09-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is an emerging model of health care in Australia. However, little is known about the contribution that IM makes to the quality of health care. The aim of the research was to understand the contribution IM can make to the quality of primary care practices from the perspectives of consumers and providers of IM. This interpretive research used hermeneutic phenomenology to understand meanings and significance that patients and practitioners attach to their experiences of IM. Various qualitative research techniques were used: case studies; focus groups; and key informant interviews. Data sets were generated from interview transcripts and field notes. Data analysis consisted of repeatedly reading and examining the data sets for what they revealed about experiences of health care and health outcomes, and constantly comparing these to allow themes and patterns to emerge. The setting for this research was Australian IM clinics where general medical practitioners and CAM practitioners were co-located. From the perspective of patients and practitioners, IM: (1) provided authentically patient-centered care; (2) filled gaps in treatment effectiveness, particularly for certain patient populations (those with complex, chronic health conditions, those seeking an alternative to pharmaceutical health care, and those seeking health promotion and illness prevention); and (3) enhanced the safety of primary health care (because IM retained a general medical practitioner as the primary contact practitioner and because IM used strategies to increase disclosure of treatments between practitioners). According to patients and practitioners, IM enhanced the quality of primary health care through its provision of health care that was patient-centered, effective (particularly for chronic health conditions, nonpharmaceutical treatments, and health promotion) and safe.

  5. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  6. Behavioral Health and the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) Initiative: findings from the 2014 CPC behavioral health survey.

    PubMed

    Zivin, Kara; Miller, Benjamin F; Finke, Bruce; Bitton, Asaf; Payne, Perry; Stowe, Edith C; Reddy, Ashok; Day, Timothy J; Lapin, Pauline; Jin, Janel L; Sessums, Laura L

    2017-08-29

    Incorporating behavioral health care into patient centered medical homes is critical for improving patient health and care quality while reducing costs. Despite documented effectiveness of behavioral health integration (BHI) in primary care settings, implementation is limited outside of large health systems. We conducted a survey of BHI in primary care practices participating in the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative, a four-year multi-payer initiative of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). We sought to explore associations between practice characteristics and the extent of BHI to illuminate possible factors influencing successful implementation. We fielded a survey that addressed six substantive domains (integrated space, training, access, communication and coordination, treatment planning, and available resources) and five behavioral health conditions (depression, anxiety, pain, alcohol use disorder, and cognitive function). Descriptive statistics compared BHI survey respondents to all CPC practices, documented the availability of behavioral health providers, and primary care and behavioral health provider communication. Bivariate relationships compared provider and practice characteristics and domain scores. One hundred sixty-one of 188 eligible primary care practices completed the survey (86% response rate). Scores indicated basic to good baseline implementation of BHI in all domains, with lowest scores on communication and coordination and highest scores for depression. Higher scores were associated with: having any behavioral health provider, multispecialty practice, patient-centered medical home designation, and having any communication between behavioral health and primary care providers. This study provides useful data on opportunities and challenges of scaling BHI integration linked to primary care transformation. Payment reform models such as CPC can assist in BHI promotion and development.

  7. [Humanization policy in primary health care: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Junges, Jose Roque

    2013-12-01

    To analyze humanization practices in primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System according to the principles of the National Humanization Policy. A systematic review of the literature was carried out, followed by a meta-synthesis, using the following databases: BDENF (nursing database), BDTD (Brazilian digital library of theses and dissertations), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to nursing and allied health literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean health care sciences literature), MedLine (International health care sciences literature), PAHO (Pan-American Health Care Organization Library) and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online). The following descriptors were used: Humanization; Humanizing Health Care; Reception: Humanized care: Humanization in health care; Bonding; Family Health Care Program; Primary Care; Public Health and Sistema Único de Saúde (the Brazilian public health care system). Research articles, case studies, reports of experiences, dissertations, theses and chapters of books written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published between 2003 and 2011, were included in the analysis. Among the 4,127 publications found on the topic, 40 studies were evaluated and included in the analysis, producing three main categories: the first referring to the infrastructure and organization of the primary care service, made clear the dissatisfaction with the physical structure and equipment of the services and with the flow of attendance, which can facilitate or make difficult the access. The second, referring to the health work process, showed issues about the insufficient number of professionals, fragmentation of the work processes, the professional profile and responsibility. The third category, referring to the relational technologies, indicated the reception, bonding, listening, respect and dialog with the service users. Although many practices were cited as humanizing they do not produce changes in the health services because of the

  8. Humanization policy in primary health care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Junges, José Roque

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze humanization practices in primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System according to the principles of the National Humanization Policy. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was carried out, followed by a meta-synthesis, using the following databases: BDENF (nursing database), BDTD (Brazilian digital library of theses and dissertations), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to nursing and allied health literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean health care sciences literature), MedLine (International health care sciences literature), PAHO (Pan-American Health Care Organization Library) and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online). The following descriptors were used: Humanization; Humanizing Health Care; Reception: Humanized care: Humanization in health care; Bonding; Family Health Care Program; Primary Care; Public Health and Sistema Único de Saúde (the Brazilian public health care system). Research articles, case studies, reports of experiences, dissertations, theses and chapters of books written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published between 2003 and 2011, were included in the analysis. RESULTS Among the 4,127 publications found on the topic, 40 studies were evaluated and included in the analysis, producing three main categories: the first referring to the infrastructure and organization of the primary care service, made clear the dissatisfaction with the physical structure and equipment of the services and with the flow of attendance, which can facilitate or make difficult the access. The second, referring to the health work process, showed issues about the insufficient number of professionals, fragmentation of the work processes, the professional profile and responsibility. The third category, referring to the relational technologies, indicated the reception, bonding, listening, respect and dialog with the service users. CONCLUSIONS Although many practices were cited as humanizing they do not produce changes

  9. Health Center Professional Programs and Primary Care Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Aysola, Jaya; Groves, DaShawn; Hicks, LeRoi S

    2016-01-01

    Background Current policy promotes health center professional training and pipeline programs as solutions to bolster primary care workforce in shortage areas, despite the paucity of evidence. Methods We analyzed data from US health centers we surveyed from March to June 2010, merged with federal health center data, to estimate associations between health center training and pipeline programs and provider recruitment and retention. Results Of the 976 surveyed, 391 health centers responded. Health centers with career ladder programs compared to those without had higher adjusted rates of no/minimal difficulty in recruitment of primary care providers. (17.6% vs. 10.6%; p=.01) and close to double the adjusted rates of reporting no/minimal difficulty in retention of primary care providers (39.4% vs. 21.2%; p=.0001). Discussion There remains a need for further evaluation of health professional programs in order to expand models, such as career ladder programs, that demonstrate effectiveness in improving the primary care workforce in shortage areas. PMID:27891532

  10. Providing primary health care with non-physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C

    1984-04-01

    The definition of primary health care is basically the same, but the wide variety of concepts as to the form and type of worker required is largely due to variations in economic, demographic, socio-cultural and political factors. Whatever form it takes, in many parts of the developing world, it is increasingly clear that primary health care must be provided by non-physicians. The reasons for this trend are compelling, yet it is surprisingly opposed by the medical profession in many a developing country. Nonetheless, numerous field trials are being conducted in a variety of situations in several countries around the world. Non-physician primary health care workers vary from medical assistants and nurse practitioners to aide-level workers called village mobilizers, village volunteers, village aides and a variety of other names. The functions, limitations and training of such workers will need to be defined, so that an optimal combination of skills, knowledge and attitudes best suited to produce the desired effect on local health problems may be attained. The supervision of such workers by the physician and other health professionals will need to be developed in the spirit of the health team. An example of the use of non-physicians in providing primary health care in Sarawak is outlined.

  11. Would primary health care workers give appropriate dietary advice after cholesterol screening?

    PubMed Central

    Francis, J.; Roche, M.; Mant, D.; Jones, L.; Fullard, E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the dietary knowledge of primary health care workers and on their ability to apply this knowledge in practice. A total of 128 primary health care workers (53 general practitioners and 61 nurses) in 12 practices and 14 primary care facilitators were surveyed by questionnaire between December 1987 and June 1988. All of the practices were participating in a project to promote prevention in primary care and offered health checks designed to identify and deal with cardiovascular risk factors. The questionnaire focused on issues related to managing patients with moderate hypercholesterolaemia. The results of the study showed some important gaps in the health workers' knowledge--for example, only 91 understood that dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids as a proportion of total fat intake should be increased in a diet designed to reduce serum lipid concentrations. Appreciable gaps in their ability to give practical and appropriate dietary advice were also identified: 35 gave advice that would have led to the patient losing weight (although his history indicated that he was not overweight), and 27 gave only negative advice, offering no suggestions about substituting healthy foods for unhealthy ones. The demand for primary health care workers to give dietary advice is increasing and is likely to increase further if a national screening programme for hypercholesterolaemia is recommended. The results of this survey point to a need for improved nutritional education and training in dietary counselling for general practitioners, nurses, and primary care facilitators. PMID:2503154

  12. Internal Motivation, Perceived Health Competency, and Health Literacy in Primary and Secondary Cancer Prevention

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui Sug; Oh, Hyung Won

    2016-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify associations of internal motivation, perceived health competency, and health literacy with primary and secondary cancer prevention. Methods: A telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 2,700, 30-69 year olds, proportionally extracted from Gangwon Province, South Korea. The dependent variables were actions in primary and secondary prevention and the explanatory variables were 13 questions in three areas: internal motivation (4 items), perceived health competency (4 items), and health literacy (5 items). Result: Multiple linear regression analysis showed that internal motivation, perceived health competency, and health literacy positively impacted primary prevention after controlling for gender and age. As internal motivation, perceived health competency, and perceived literacy increased by 1 point, primary prevention scores increased by 0.11, 0.11, and 0.07 points, respectively. In addition, logistic regression results for secondary prevention showed that health literacy had a positive impact on secondary behavior. As health literacy increased by 1 point, the odds ratio of the practice of secondary prevention was 1.4 times higher. Conclusion: This study suggests that primary and secondary prevention of cancer are significantly related to intrinsic motivation factors, perceived health competency, and actual health literacy. Health literacy concepts that cover the capacity of health management in comprehensive areas need to be applied to education and promotion for improvement of primary and secondary prevention of cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Primary and managed care. Ingredients for health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Bindman, A B

    1994-01-01

    The use of primary and managed care is likely to increase under proposed federal health care reform. I review the definition of primary care and primary care physicians and show that this delivery model can affect access to medical care, the cost of treatment, and the quality of services. Because the use of primary care is often greater in managed care than in fee-for-service, I compare the two insurance systems to further understand the delivery of primary care. Research suggests that primary care can help meet the goal of providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality care, but that changes in medical education and marketplace incentives will be needed to encourage students and trained physicians to enter this field. PMID:7941522

  14. Collaborative team-based health promotion in a primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Douglas; Kallio, Matt; Humphries, Serena; Mueen, Madiha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess a primary care–based, physician-led physical activity program for primary care patients. Design Initial assessment of a physical activity program for feasibility, patient satisfaction, and effectiveness. Setting A primary care network in Edmonton, Alta. Participants Patients from the primary care network. Intervention The MOVE program is a primary care–based, physician-led physical activity program for primary care patients, collaboratively offered by an FP and a kinesiologist. Main outcome measures Six-minute walk test and patient survey results. Results Patients reported considerable benefits to participating in the MOVE program. Improvements in 6-minute walk test results were observed over 2 months (587 vs 653 m, P < .001). Conclusion Being involved in innovative primary care–based health promotion activities is a way for FPs to achieve success in changing patients’ behaviour. PMID:28209704

  15. Rebuilding Family Relationship Competencies as a Primary Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Oppenheim, David; Kirstein, Judith L.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present Relationship Competence Training (RCT), which is an organized conceptual framework developed by them for assessing a family's ability to mobilize their relational support in times of distress. RTC is a process of studying family relationship patterns and how these patterns influence family health. The RTC model is described as a method of promoting mental health as a part of everyday family health, which is suitable for health care providers working in a wide variety of environments who have in common the desire to offer continuity and value in promoting the health of the families under their care. RCT provides an empathic way of dealing with the “compassion fatigue” that health care providers often experience when managing complex family health issues in constantly changing and quality-strained primary health care environments. PMID:15014744

  16. Health system challenges to integration of mental health delivery in primary care in Kenya--perspectives of primary care health workers.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Okeyo, Stephen; Aruwa, Julyan; Kingora, James; Jenkins, Ben

    2013-09-30

    Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into primary care by generic health system weakness. Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for primary care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health system weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information system, district level supervision to primary care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to the detriment of other

  17. Community Health Risk Assessment of Primary Aluminum Smelter Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Larivière, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary aluminum production is an industrial process with high potential health risk for workers. We consider in this article how to assess community health risks associated with primary aluminum smelter emissions. Methods: We reviewed the literature on health effects, community exposure data, and dose–response relationships of the principal hazardous agents emitted. Results: On the basis of representative measured community exposure levels, we were able to make rough estimates on health risks associated with specific agents and categorize these as none, low, medium, or high. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake a rough-estimate community Health Risk Assessment for individual smelters on the basis of information available in the epidemiological literature and local community exposure data. PMID:24806724

  18. The strategy, cost, and progress of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Boland, R G; Young, M E

    1982-01-01

    Since the 1978 Alma-Alta International Conference on Primary Health Care, investments in primary health care projects throughout the world have been increasing. However, with the exception of China, no national projects have demonstrated the ability to provide longterm comprehensive primary health care in conditions of chronic proverty with local resources. Programs in China, Cuba, and Tanzania have achieved primary health care coverage for 100% of their populations. These countries have in common strong governments that have been able to implement radical changes in the health system. Individual freedoms in these societies have been restricted in favor of improved health. Programs in Nigeria, India, and Afghanistan have been less successful, although some progress has been made in projects using external funds, inspite of a strong committment by the governments. Efforts to reorganize the health care system have lacked needed political strength. Currently, these systems have resulted in less than complete coverage, without the prospect of attaining acceptable levels of infant mortality, life expectancy and net population growth. Economic, political, and cultural costs may be high as for example, national security or traditional practices are traded to achieve primary health care with 100% coverage. WHO has devised a global strategy which, when translated into operational policies will need to address several unresolved issues. These include recognizing that the goal of comprehensive primary health care may not be justified given the lack of progress to date and that effective, selective primary health care focused on nutrition, immunization, control of endemic diseases, and health education may be a more realistic goal; and that a system of international social security may be an effective means of assuring that the poorest countries are able to provide care. In addition, questions concerning continued funding of programs that can never be locally funded, the role

  19. Why primary care practices should become digital health information hubs for their patients.

    PubMed

    Baird, Aaron; Nowak, Samantha

    2014-11-25

    Two interesting health care trends are currently occurring: 1) patient-facing technologies, such as personal health records, patient portals, and mobile health apps, are being adopted at rapid rates, and 2) primary care, which includes family practice, is being promoted as essential to reducing health care costs and improving health care outcomes. While these trends are notable and commendable, both remain subject to significant fragmentation and incentive misalignments, which has resulted in significant data coordination and value generation challenges. In particular, patient-facing technologies designed to increase care coordination, often fall prey to the very digital fragmentation issues they are supposed to overcome. Additionally, primary care providers are treating patients that may have considerable health information histories, but generating a single view of such multi-source data is nearly impossible. We contribute to this debate by proposing that primary care practices become digital health information hubs for their patients. Such hubs would offer health data coordination in a medically professional setting with the benefits of expert, trustworthy advice coupled with active patient engagement. We acknowledge challenges including: costs, information quality and provenance, willingness-to-share information and records, willingness-to-use (by both providers and patients), primary care scope creep, and determinations of technical and process effectiveness. Even with such potential challenges, we strongly believe that more debate is needed on this topic prior to full implementation of various health information technology incentives and reform programs currently being designed and enacted throughout the world. Ultimately, if we do not provide a meaningful way for the full spectrum of health information to be used by both providers and patients, especially early in the health care continuum, effectively improving health outcomes may remain elusive. We view

  20. Workforce requirements for a primary oral health care system.

    PubMed

    van Palenstein Helderman, W; Mikx, F; Truin, G J; Hoang, T H; Pham, H L

    2000-12-01

    To present the case for a primary health care (PHC) approach for dental care in Vietnam, and thereby contribute to a better understanding of the oral health problems that exist in many developing countries. Information was obtained in Vietnam through discussions with dental and medical authorities of provincial health offices, educational institutions, hospitals, health centres and schools and by collecting data from record books and reports. Dentistry lacks a PHC strategy and consequently urgent oral care and oral disease prevention and control are not available for the majority of the population in Vietnam. The curriculum of dental students and dental auxiliaries is not adequately directed to the oral health needs of the population. The present number of dental personnel is too low. A basic oral health care package (BOHCP) advocated by the WHO which could be incorporated into primary health services at sub-district level and in the school dental service would be most suitable to meet the oral health needs of the population in Vietnam. The oral health education component of the BOHCP may have more impact when it is conducted in close collaboration with non-dental health personnel and lay persons. The curriculum of dental personnel should be adjusted to meet the requirements of their future tasks. Dental auxiliaries, provided they are well trained can carry out the BOHCP. Consequently, there is a large need for this type of dental personnel in Vietnam.

  1. Attitudes of Primary Care Health Workers Towards Mental Health Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mosaku, Kolawole S; Wallymahmed, Akhtar H

    2017-02-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of mental health services into primary health services; however attitude of primary health care workers is one barrier to this. A cross sectional survey using the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) was done. One hundred and twenty primary care workers were randomly selected from three local government areas. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyses. The results showed that most primary health care workers hold a benevolent (mean = 2.47, SD = 0.52) attitude towards the mentally ill. Workers with 10 years or more experience tend to have less authoritarian (t = 3.19, p = 0.01) and less social restrictive (t = 3.90, p = 0.01) attitudes towards the mentally ill. There were no significant differences in attitude by gender, marital status, or designation of health care workers. The study showed that primary care workers have attitudes similar to that seen in the general population.

  2. Australian academic primary health-care careers: a scoping survey.

    PubMed

    Barton, Christopher; Reeve, Joanne; Adams, Ann; McIntyre, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the academic primary health-care workforce in Australia and to provide some insight into research capacity in academic primary health care following changes to funding for this sector. A convenience sample of individuals self-identifying as working within academic primary health care (n=405) completed an anonymous online survey. Respondents were identified from several academic primary health-care mailing lists. The survey explored workforce demographics, clarity of career pathways, career trajectories and enablers/barriers to 'getting in' and 'getting on'. A mix of early career (41%), mid-career (25%) and senior academics (35%) responded. Early career academics tended to be female and younger than mid-career and senior academics, who tended to be male and working in 'balanced' (teaching and research) roles and listing medicine as their disciplinary background. Almost three-quarters (74%) indicated career pathways were either 'completely' or 'somewhat unclear', irrespective of gender and disciplinary backgrounds. Just over half (51%) had a permanent position. Males were more likely to have permanent positions, as were those with a medical background. Less than half (43%) reported having a mentor, and of the 57% without a mentor, more than two-thirds (69%) would like one. These results suggest a lack of clarity in career paths, uncertainty in employment and a large number of temporary (contract) or casual positions represent barriers to sustainable careers in academic primary health care, especially for women who are from non-medicine backgrounds. Professional development or a mentoring program for primary health-care academics was desired and may address some of the issues identified by survey respondents.

  3. Team effectiveness in academic primary health care teams.

    PubMed

    Delva, Dianne; Jamieson, Margaret; Lemieux, Melissa

    2008-12-01

    Primary health care is undergoing significant organizational change, including the development of interdisciplinary health care teams. Understanding how teams function effectively in primary care will assist training programs in teaching effective interprofessional practices. This study aimed to explore the views of members of primary health care teams regarding what constitutes a team, team effectiveness and the factors that affect team effectiveness in primary care. Focus group consultations from six teams in the Department of Family Medicine at Queen's University were recorded and transcribed and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes. Twelve themes were identified that related to the impact of dual goals/obligations of education and clinical/patient practice on team relationships and learners; the challenges of determining team membership including nonattendance of allied health professionals except nurses; and facilitators and barriers to effective team function. This study provides insight into some of the challenges of developing effective primary care teams in an academic department of family medicine. Clear goals and attention to teamwork at all levels of collaboration is needed if effective interprofessional education is to be achieved. Future research should clarify how best to support the changes required for increasingly effective teamwork.

  4. Primary Health Care: A Necessity in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Resource limited countries continue to be plagued with rising prevalence of malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS as well as other emerging diseases despite the huge financial support provided by bilateral and multilateral agencies to combat these diseases. While progress may have been made in reducing the global burden caused by these diseases on one hand, there has also been a weakening of the primary health care facility on the other hand which was the hallmark to the Alma Ata declaration of 1978. More attention has been placed on our global health needs while the diverse health needs of every community have been neglected. This fatal neglect at the community level highlights the need for the provision of specialize primary health care (PHC) facilities which should not only be affordable, accessible and available, but be appropriate to the priority health needs of the community, especially at the rural level. Hence specialized PHC facilities will be tailored to meet the most pressing health needs of the communities it covers among other diseases. Consequently, this innovative approach will not only strengthen the primary health care system by improving wellbeing especially at the rural level but will also improve the outcome of vertical program at communities where it is most needed. PMID:28299106

  5. Using systems science for population health management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Kong, Nan; Lawley, Mark A; Pagán, José A

    2014-10-01

    Population health management is becoming increasingly important to organizations managing and providing primary care services given ongoing changes in health care delivery and payment systems. The objective of this study is to show how systems science methodologies could be incorporated into population health management to compare different interventions and improve health outcomes. The New York Academy of Medicine Cardiovascular Health Simulation model (an agent-based model) and data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to evaluate a lifestyle program that could be implemented in primary care practice settings. The program targeted Medicare-age adults and focused on improving diet and exercise and reducing weight. The simulation results suggest that there would be significant reductions projected in the proportion of the Medicare-age population with diabetes after the implementation of the proposed lifestyle program for a relatively long term (3 and 5 years). Similar results were found for the subpopulations with high cholesterol, but the proposed intervention would not have a significant effect in the proportion of the population with hypertension over a time period of <5 years. Systems science methodologies can be useful to compare the health outcomes of different interventions. These tools can become an important component of population health management because they can help managers and other decision makers evaluate alternative programs in primary care settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Integrating primary care with occupational health services: a success story.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Karen; Strasser, Patricia B

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the process used by a large U.S. manufacturing company to successfully integrate full-service primary care centers at two locations. The company believed that by providing employees with health promotion and disease prevention services, including screening, early diagnosis, and uncomplicated illness treatment, its health care costs could be significantly reduced while saving employees money. To accurately demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of adding primary care to existing occupational health services, a thorough financial analysis projected the return on investment (ROI) of the program. Decisions were made about center size, the scope of services, and staffing. A critical part of the ROI analysis involved evaluating employee health claim data to identify the actual cost of health care services for each center and the projected costs if the services were provided on-site. The pilot initiative included constructing two on-site health center facilities staffed with primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, physical therapists, and other health care professionals. Key outcome metrics from the pilot clinics exceeded goals in three of four categories. In addition, clinic use after 12 months far exceeded benchmarks for similar clinics. Most importantly, the pilot clinics were operating with a positive cash flow within the first year and demonstrated an increasingly positive ROI. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Revitalizing primary health care--another utopian goal?

    PubMed

    Marahatta, Sujan B

    2010-01-01

    The quest for greater efficiency, fairness and responsiveness to the expectation of the people that system serve have brought about three generations of health system reforms in the twentieth century. The first generation saw the founding of national health care systems and extension to middle income nations of social insurance systems in the 1940s and 1950s. By the late 1960s the rising costs of hospital based care, its usage by better off, inaccessibility by the poor and rural population of even the most basic services heralded second generation reforms promoting primary health care as a means of achieving the affordable universal coverage. It included the best public health strategy that is prevention and the highest ethical principle of public health that is equity. It was expected the best system for reaching households with essential and affordable care, and the best route towards universal coverage. The primary health care approach though adopted universally did not materialize its notion of translating ethos of Health for All by 2000. Overall, primary health care movement by the end of 20th century became lifeless. Since the Declaration of Alma-Ata, fundamental changes have occurred affecting health service delivery, such as economic development and financing approaches, globalization of trade and knowledge, and the shift to privatization. This is the time to develop a new vision, taking into consideration the many changes affecting global health and the strategic developments in health of recent years. With this recognition, the third generation of reforms now underway in many countries is driven by the idea of responding more to demand, assuring access for the poor and emphasizing financing rather than just provision within the public sector. The key concern is: how to translate ethos of revitalizing in the reality. Otherwise the revitalizing concept will turn into utopian goal so like HFA by 2000 strategy.

  8. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    PubMed

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  9. Facility type and primary care performance in sub-district health promotion hospitals in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kitreerawutiwong, Nithra; Jordan, Sue; Hughes, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor and middle-income Thai people rely heavily on primary care health services. These are staffed by a range of professionals. However, it is unknown whether the performance of primary care varies according to the staffing and organization of local service delivery units. Tambon (sub-district) health promotion hospitals (THPHs) were introduced in 2009 to upgrade the services offered by the previous health centres, but were faced with continuing shortages of doctors and nurses. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) designated three categories of THPH, defined according to whether they were regularly staffed by a medical practitioner, a qualified nurse or non-clinical public health officers. This study aimed to compare the performance of primary care offered by the three different types of primary care facilities in one public health region of Northern Thailand (Public Health Region 2). Methods A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2013. Data were collected on accessibility, continuity, comprehensiveness, co-ordination and community orientation of care from 825 patients attending 23 primary care facilities. These were selected to include the three officially-designated types of Tambon (sub-district) health promotion hospitals (THPHs) led by medical, nursing or public health personnel. Survey scores were compared in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results THPHs staffed only by public health officers achieved the highest performance score (Mean = 85.14, SD. = 7.30), followed by THPHs staffed by qualified nurses (Mean = 82.86, SD. = 7.06). THPHs staffed by a doctor on rotation returned the lowest scores (Mean = 81.63, SD. = 7.22). Conclusions Differences in overall scores resulted mainly from differences in reported accessibility, continuity, and comprehensiveness of care, rather than staff skill-mix per se. Policy on quality improvement should therefore focus on improving performance in these areas. PMID:28339494

  10. Facility type and primary care performance in sub-district health promotion hospitals in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kitreerawutiwong, Nithra; Jordan, Sue; Hughes, David

    2017-01-01

    Poor and middle-income Thai people rely heavily on primary care health services. These are staffed by a range of professionals. However, it is unknown whether the performance of primary care varies according to the staffing and organization of local service delivery units. Tambon (sub-district) health promotion hospitals (THPHs) were introduced in 2009 to upgrade the services offered by the previous health centres, but were faced with continuing shortages of doctors and nurses. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) designated three categories of THPH, defined according to whether they were regularly staffed by a medical practitioner, a qualified nurse or non-clinical public health officers. This study aimed to compare the performance of primary care offered by the three different types of primary care facilities in one public health region of Northern Thailand (Public Health Region 2). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2013. Data were collected on accessibility, continuity, comprehensiveness, co-ordination and community orientation of care from 825 patients attending 23 primary care facilities. These were selected to include the three officially-designated types of Tambon (sub-district) health promotion hospitals (THPHs) led by medical, nursing or public health personnel. Survey scores were compared in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. THPHs staffed only by public health officers achieved the highest performance score (Mean = 85.14, SD. = 7.30), followed by THPHs staffed by qualified nurses (Mean = 82.86, SD. = 7.06). THPHs staffed by a doctor on rotation returned the lowest scores (Mean = 81.63, SD. = 7.22). Differences in overall scores resulted mainly from differences in reported accessibility, continuity, and comprehensiveness of care, rather than staff skill-mix per se. Policy on quality improvement should therefore focus on improving performance in these areas.

  11. Health promotion interventions to address climate change using a primary health care approach: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rae; Hassall, John; Chaplin, Sue; Congues, Janet; Bajayo, Rachael; Mason, Wendy

    2011-12-01

    This project explored the literature in which key concepts in primary health care and health promotion are overtly applied to the problem of climate change. This paper contains a discussion of the literature relevant to health promotion principles and intervention strategies for addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation in the primary health care sector. The concept of primary health care is that used by the World Health Organization, based on the Declaration of Alma Ata and often referred to as comprehensive primary health care to differentiate it from primary medical care. This was a review of literature identified in electronic databases using two sets of search terms. Set A consisted of 'climate change or global warming or greenhouse effect' and set B consisted of 11 key concepts in primary health care and health promotion, for example community resilience, health promotion, social change, food security and economic development. Relevant literature was identified at the intersection of search term A with a term from set B. A search was completed for each set B term. This paper reports a discussion of major categories of health promotion interventions, namely health communication, community building and settings approaches and uses examples drawn from literature on community resilience and summer heat. These interventions are all applicable to the primary health care sector. There is a small literature on health promotion interventions for climate change mitigation and adaptation but it is incomplete and scattered across many sources. An important area for further research is to link the logic of service provision in primary health care to the logic of mitigation and adaptation in a changing environment. Interventions that link the logic must also link diverse services to provide coherent action on local and domestic scales, the scales at which primary health care acts. Another research gap is in regard to institutional change in the primary health

  12. [Health education in primary school: Alicante city (Spain) teachers' opinions].

    PubMed

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; García de la Hera, Manuela; La Parra, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the opinions of primary school teachers about health activities carried out in schools in Alicante city (Spain). An exploratory study was conducted through qualitative content analysis. Three focus groups were conducted with 25 primary school teachers (14 women and 11 men) working in 14 public and 7 private schools in the city of Alicante. Participants were asked about the health activities carried on in their schools. Teachers distinguished between health education activities promoted by the school and those included in external programmes promoted by public and private institutions. External programmes were considered as impositions, lacking continuity and chosen according to passing fads. Although teachers demonstrated a more positive attitude towards activities arising from their own initiative, they identified health education as a secondary task. Teachers considered that improving their own health education training and promoting the involvement of parents, health professionals and public institutions were the most appropriate ways to promote health education in the school. Teachers showed a more positive opinion and greater commitment towards health activities that complement and facilitate their teaching tasks. Their didactic programme and opinion should be taken into account to maximise the efficiency of the health promotion and education activities promoted by external organisations. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Social constructionism in primary health care: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Cadoná, Eliane; Scarparo, Helena

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to analyze scientific articles in order to investigate how researchers in the area of Social Constructionism define "health" in Primary Health Care. An integrative review of the literature was conducted along with a decision to concentrate on those works with narrative experiences and research studies. The database researched was the Brazilian Virtual Health Library, with experiences in the scope of Primary Health Care. The effectiveness of this step resulted in 12 articles. Data were analyzed and discussed based on the perspectives of social constructionism, which generated two central themes. They were: citizenship exercises - promoting health in collective spaces; health practices - overcoming the dichotomies and absolute truths. This study revealed the relevance of the notion of shared responsibility on meanings of health contained in the texts analyzed. The researchers claim that it is possible to expand health practices into collective action to facilitate ongoing dialogue between health users and workers. However, the dominance of biomedical discourse is criticized by the researchers, because that paradigm still promotes practices of care focused on illness.

  14. Managing Alcohol Use Disorder in Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; O'Donnell, Amy; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-09-14

    The aim of this study is to summarise the current literature on both the impact and the implementation of primary health care-based screening and advice programmes to reduce heavy drinking, as an evidence-based component of managing alcohol use disorder in primary health care. Systematic reviews of reviews find conclusive evidence for the impact of primary health care delivered screening and brief advice programmes in reducing heavy drinking. The content, length of advice and which profession delivers the advice seems less important than the actual encounter between provider and patient. Despite the global burden of disease due to heavy drinking and the evidence that this can be reduced by screening and brief advice programmes delivered in primary health care, such programmes remain poorly implemented. Were such programmes widely implemented, there would be substantial health and productivity gains. Systematic reviews and international studies indicate that improved implementation requires tailoring of training and programme content to match the needs of providers, training and ongoing support and embedding of programmes within local community support, championed by local leaders. The next stage of implementation and scale-up of evidence-based screening and brief advice programmes should take place embedded within supportive local community action, with appropriate research to demonstrate impact.

  15. Monkey's health service: an evaluation of the implementation of resources designed to support the learning of primary school-aged children in England about healthy lifestyles and NHS services.

    PubMed

    Medforth, Nicholas; Timpson, Hannah; Greenop, Daz; Lavin, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The National Health Service Institute for Innovation and Improvement was established to help the NHS to improve healthcare by rapidly developing and disseminating knowledge and evidence about new ways of working. One example is the Emergency and Urgent Care Pathway for Children and Young People which focused on providing high quality and safe healthcare for children and young people requiring urgent or emergency treatment for the most common illnesses and injuries. Monkey's Guide to Healthy Living and NHS Services was developed to increase awareness of acute health services in primary school-aged children. This free resource was posted to every primary school in England. A process and impact evaluation was undertaken to explore how the resource was being utilized during 2013-2014. A small number of in-depth case studies were developed involving classroom-based observations and teacher interviews along with a much larger online survey which was emailed to all primary schools in England. On the whole, the resource was viewed as useful, engaging, and informative; with children, teachers, and other professionals particularly valuing the monkey puppet, video clips, and teacher resources. The National Evaluation highlighted that most respondents integrated the materials into the curriculum, used them as a one-off lesson, or developed their own innovative and strategic approaches to make the best use of the resources; almost two-thirds of schools who responded to the survey felt the resources led to pupils knowing about the available NHS services and healthy lifestyles; over half felt pupils were now more informed about the most appropriate services to use.

  16. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

  17. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

  18. Information requested about organ donation in primary health care centers.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; Conesa, C; Ramírez, P; Sánchez, J; Sánchez, E; Ramos, F; Parrilla, P

    2006-10-01

    Information provided by primary care workers about organ donation significantly affects the attitude of the general public. The objective of this study was to evaluate information about donation requested by the general public in health centers in an autonomous community (region) of Spain and to find out how many workers provided relevant information. A random sample was taken and stratified by sex, job category, and geographical location (six health areas of our autonomous regional community, 45 municipal councils), among primary care health workers in order to obtain a total of 428 respondents in 34 primary care centers. A study was undertaken of information requested and provided about organ donation and transplantation. The chi square test was applied and differences were considered significant at levels of P < .05. Forty-three percent (n=185) of the workers surveyed indicated that information had been requested from them about organ donation and transplantation. This request for information was much greater from physicians than from the other types of workers (P = .015). Furthermore, 54% of primary care health workers (n=229) reported having provided information about donation, especially physicians (64%), with this being mainly favorable. Information had also been provided by nurses (59%) and ancillary staff (34%). Information requested from primary care health workers by the general public about organ donation and transplantation is increasing when we compare it to data from previous years. Around half of primary care workers have offered information about transplantation. Therefore, it is fundamental that these workers have adequate and correct information to provide patients and families.

  19. Readying the workforce: evaluation of VHA's comprehensive women's health primary care provider initiative.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Natalya C; Haskell, Sally; Hayes, Patricia M; Balasubramanian, Vidhya; Torgal, Anupama; Ananth, Lakshmi; Saechao, Fay; Iqbal, Samina; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Frayne, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Veterans Health Administration (VHA) primary care providers (PCPs) often see few women, making it challenging to maintain proficiency in women's health (WH). Therefore, VHA in 2010 established Designated WH Providers, who would maintain proficiency in comprehensive WH care and be preferentially assigned women patients. To evaluate early implementation of this national policy. At each VHA health care system (N=140), the Women Veterans Program Manager completed a Fiscal Year 2012 workforce capacity assessment (response rate, 100%), representing the first time the national Designated WH Provider workforce had been identified. Assessment data were linked to administrative data. Of all VHA PCPs, 23% were Designated WH Providers; 100% of health care systems and 83% of community clinics had at least 1 Designated WH Provider. On average, women veterans comprised 19% (SD=27%) of the patients Designated WH Providers saw in primary care, versus 5% (SD=7%) for Other PCPs (P<0.001). For women veterans using primary care (N=313,033), new patients were less likely to see a Designated WH Provider than established women veteran patients (52% vs. 64%; P<0.001). VHA has achieved its goal of a Designated WH Provider in every health care system, and is approaching its goal of a Designated WH Provider at every hospital/community clinic. Designated WH Providers see more women than do Other PCPs. However, as the volume of women patients remains low for many providers, attention to alternative approaches to maintaining proficiency may prove necessary, and barriers to assigning new women patients to Designated WH Providers merit attention.

  20. General practitioners’ views on leadership roles and challenges in primary health care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Spehar, Ivan; Sjøvik, Hege; Karevold, Knut Ivar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Frich, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore general practitioners’ (GPs) views on leadership roles and leadership challenges in general practice and primary health care. Design We conducted focus groups (FGs) with 17 GPs. Setting Norwegian primary health care. Subjects 17 GPs who attended a 5 d course on leadership in primary health care. Results Our study suggests that the GPs experience a need for more preparation and formal training for the leadership role, and that they experienced tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognized the need to take on leadership roles in primary care, but their lack of leadership training and credentials, and the way in which their practices were organized and financed were barriers towards their involvement. Conclusions GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role and note a lack of leadership training and awareness. There is a need for a more structured educational and career path for GPs, in which doctors are offered training and preparation in advance. Key points Little is known about doctors’ experiences and views about leadership in general practice and primary health care. Our study suggests that: There is a lack of preparation and formal training for the leadership role. GPs experience tensions between the clinical and leadership role. GPs recognize leadership challenges at a system level and that doctors should take on leadership roles in primary health care. PMID:28277051

  1. Community care in practice: social work in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, M; Millward, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the establishment of social work within primary health care settings in Great Britain, following the passage of the National Health Service and Community Care Act in 1990. Although the improvement of relationships between social workers and primary health care teams has been promoted for a number of years, the advent of formal policies for community care has made this a priority for both social services and health. This paper presents interim findings from the evaluation of three pilot projects in Nottinghamshire, Great Britain. These findings are analysed from three linked perspectives. The first is the extent to which structures and organisations have worked effectively together to promote the location of social workers within health care settings. The second is the impact of professional and cultural factors on the work of the social worker in these settings. The third is the effect of interpersonal relationships on the success of the project. The paper will conclude that there is significant learning from each of these perspectives which can be applied to the future location of social workers to primary health care.

  2. Experience of Primary Care among Homeless Individuals with Mental Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chrystal, Joya G.; Glover, Dawn L.; Young, Alexander S.; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L.; Johnson, Nancy K.; Pollio, David E.; Holt, Cheryl L.; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J.; Kim, Theresa A.; Daigle, Shanette G.; Steward, Jocelyn L.; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons’ needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers. PMID:25659142

  3. Experience of primary care among homeless individuals with mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, Joya G; Glover, Dawn L; Young, Alexander S; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L; Johnson, Nancy K; Pollio, David E; Holt, Cheryl L; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J; Kim, Theresa A; Daigle, Shanette G; Steward, Jocelyn L; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons' needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers.

  4. [Implementing health surveillance at the primary care level].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cátia Martins; Casanova, Angela Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibilities of re-orienting work processes at the primary care level in the light of the concepts and pre-suppositions of the health surveillance system. In addition, it presents some key concepts that could help putting into operation a health surveillance system at the local level. One of these concepts is the idea of the territory as a privileged space of primary care, helping to define and identify health needs. The study further emphasizes the heuristic value of integrating knowledge and practices in the various fields of health care so as to ensure a broader vision of problems and comprehensive health care. Finally, it analyzes the contributions from epidemiological, environmental, and health surveillance for consolidating health surveillance into a system not only limited to these three areas of action. Integrated actions of epidemiological, sanitary, and environmental surveillance can favor risk management and allow for innovative and more effective answers to the demands emerging from the health area. In addition, the local teams can acquire practical experience in internal and inter-sectorial actions which, though their importance is recognized in theory, were rarely put into practice.

  5. [A valid proposal to focus attention on primary health].

    PubMed

    Aurelius, S

    1990-10-01

    Local Systems of Health (SILOS) evolved as a response to the Alma Ata Declaration to integrate strategies for primary health care (PHC) at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of all national health systems. PHC contains 3 basic concepts: 1) that health is a fundamental right of all human beings; 2) that all governments have the obligation of providing health services to all, irregardless of people's financial status; and 3) citizens, individuals and communities in the aggregate are responsible for their own health. SILOS through Ministries of Health provide the vehicle for spreading PHC and are based on the following: 1) decentralization and disaggregation; 2) community participation and social mobilization; 3) intersectorial coordination; 4) adjustments in finances; 5) development of new models of attention; 6) integration of preventive with curative strategies; 7) strengthening administrative capabilities; and 8) training health personnel. It is recommended that social and community-based organizations maintain their independence from the government's administrative system while respecting those organizations already in place.

  6. A theory-based primary health care intervention for women who have left abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Merritt-Gray, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen; Wuest, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence is a significant global health problem, few tested interventions have been designed to improve women's health and quality of life, particularly beyond the crisis of leaving. The Intervention for Health Enhancement After Leaving is a comprehensive, trauma informed, primary health care intervention, which builds on the grounded theory Strengthening Capacity to Limit Intrusion and other research findings. Delivered by a nurse and a domestic violence advocate working collaboratively with women through 6 components (safeguarding, managing basics, managing symptoms, cautious connecting, renewing self, and regenerating family), this promising intervention is in the early phases of testing.

  7. Primary Care and Public Health Services Integration in Brazil’s Unified Health System

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Yu, Gary; Penido, Cláudia; Schmidt, Clecy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between transdisciplinary collaboration, evidence-based practice, and primary care and public health services integration in Brazil’s Family Health Strategy. We aimed to identify practices that facilitate service integration and evidence-based practice. Methods. We collected cross-sectional data from community health workers, nurses, and physicians (n = 262). We used structural equation modeling to assess providers’ service integration and evidence-based practice engagement operationalized as latent factors. Predictors included endorsement of team meetings, access to and consultations with colleagues, familiarity with community, and previous research experience. Results. Providers’ familiarity with community and team meetings positively influenced evidence-based practice engagement and service integration. More experienced providers reported more integration and engagement. Physicians reported less integration than did community health workers. Black providers reported less evidence-based practice engagement than did Pardo (mixed races) providers. After accounting for all variables, evidence-based practice engagement and service integration were moderately correlated. Conclusions. Age and race of providers, transdisciplinary collaboration, and familiarity with the community are significant variables that should inform design and implementation of provider training. Promising practices that facilitate service integration in Brazil may be used in other countries. PMID:22994254

  8. Integrating primary health care and mental health services--a successful rural linkage.

    PubMed Central

    Prindaville, G M; Sidwell, L H; Milner, D E

    1983-01-01

    The local delivery of human services is currently receiving national emphasis. The expectation is that community-based services shall be provided with a minimum of duplication and with maximum efficiency, achieved partly by interdisciplinary and interorganizational cooperation. This emphasis was appropriately facilitated in the mid-1970s through the availability of the Mental Health Initiative grants. The grants, initiated by the Bureau of Community Health Services in conjunction with the National Institute of Mental Health, Public Health Service, promoted the increased availability of mental health services through formal linkages between community mental health centers and primary health care programs. One such successful linkage was between a small primary health care center and a nonfederally funded, multicounty, mental health center in northwest Illinois. Initiated in September 1980, the services of the linkage project included direct clinical mental health services delivered at the primary health care center site, consultation and education activities, and the coordination of interagency services. The project patients differed from the general clients of the mental health center in demographic characteristics, source of referral, and diagnoses. The key elements in successful linkages and the achievement of goals are analyzed. The experience of the linkage project is relevant to the 1980s. The project was prematurely ended after 14 months. Reduction in Federal funds severely cut support for the primary health care center, and the depressed local economy could not match the withdrawn Federal funds. PMID:6828640

  9. Public health nurses' primary health care practice: strategies for fostering citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Aston, Megan; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Edwards, Nancy; Young, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    Citizen participation is heralded as a critical element of community health programs that emphasize empowerment and health promotion strategies. Although there is a growing body of research on public health nurses' primary health care practice, few studies have described how public health nurses foster citizen participation. This article presents findings from an interpretive qualitative study of public health nurses' perceptions of their role in fostering citizen participation in an eastern Canadian province at a time of significant health care restructuring. The findings from this study clearly profile public health nurses as integral to the practice of fostering citizen participation.

  10. Role of Primary Health Care in Ensuring Access to Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Sambala, Evanson Z; Sapsed, Susan; Mkandawire, Mercy L

    2010-01-01

    To examine ways of ensuring access to health services within the framework of primary health care (PHC), since the goal of PHC to make universal health care available to all people has become increasingly neglected amid emerging themes of globalization, trade, and foreign policy. From a public health point of view, we argue that the premise of PHC can unlock barriers to health care services and contribute greatly to determining collective health through the promotion of universal basic health services. PHC has the most sophisticated and organized infrastructure, theories, and political principles, with which it can deal adequately with the issues of inequity, inequality, and social injustice which emerge from negative economic externalities and neo-liberal economic policies. Addressing these issues, especially the complex social and political influences that restrict access to medicines, may require the integration of different health initiatives into PHC. Based on current systems, PHC remains the only conventional health delivery service that can deal with resilient public health problems adequately. However, to strengthen its ability to do so, we propose the revitalization of PHC to incorporate scholarship that promotes human rights, partnerships, research and development, advocacy, and national drug policies. The concept of PHC can improve access; however, this will require the urgent interplay among theoretical, practical, political, and sociological influences arising from the economic, social, and political determinants of ill health in an era of globalization. PMID:20564760

  11. Effects of a Psychological Intervention in a Primary Health Care Center for Caregivers of Dependent Relatives: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Mora-Simon, Sara; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Perez-Penaranda, Anibal; Losada-Baltar, Andres; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC), the effect of a psychological intervention in mental health among caregivers (CGs) of dependent relatives. Design and Methods: Randomized multicenter, controlled clinical trial. The 125 CGs included in the trial were receiving health care in PHC. Inclusion criteria: Identifying…

  12. Effects of a Psychological Intervention in a Primary Health Care Center for Caregivers of Dependent Relatives: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Mora-Simon, Sara; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Perez-Penaranda, Anibal; Losada-Baltar, Andres; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC), the effect of a psychological intervention in mental health among caregivers (CGs) of dependent relatives. Design and Methods: Randomized multicenter, controlled clinical trial. The 125 CGs included in the trial were receiving health care in PHC. Inclusion criteria: Identifying…

  13. An Ethnographically Informed Participatory Design of Primary Healthcare Information Technology in a Developing Country Setting.

    PubMed

    Shidende, Nima Herman; Igira, Faraja Teddy; Mörtberg, Christina Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Ethnography, with its emphasis on understanding activities where they occur, and its use of qualitative data gathering techniques rich in description, has a long tradition in Participatory Design (PD). Yet there are limited methodological insights in its application in developing countries. This paper proposes an ethnographically informed PD approach, which can be applied when designing Primary Healthcare Information Technology (PHIT). We use findings from a larger multidisciplinary project, Health Information Systems Project (HISP) to elaborate how ethnography can be used to facilitate participation of health practitioners in developing countries settings as well as indicating the importance of ethnographic approach to participatory Health Information Technology (HIT) designers. Furthermore, the paper discusses the pros and cons of using an ethnographic approach in designing HIT.

  14. Evaluation of Health Educator Consults in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Stacia; Lopez, Patricia; McKee, M. Diane; Deen, Darwin; Fornari, Alice; Fletcher, Jason; Blank, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to evaluate a primary care obesity prevention intervention, targeting low-income minority parents in the USA. The first objective is to describe the barriers to behavior change experienced by families. The second objective is to understand the types of strategies that were used by the health educator to empower families to…

  15. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…

  16. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…

  17. Shared Learning for Primary Health Care Teams: A Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, Elizabeth; Allison, Althea

    1997-01-01

    A simulated learning exercise based on genograms was used with professionals in multidisciplinary primary health-care teams. Evaluation supported the importance of a positive learning environment, constructive use of personal and professional experiences, learner control, intellectual challenge and relevance, and reflection and debriefing. (SK)

  18. Primary health care in rural areas: an agenda for research.

    PubMed Central

    DeFriese, G H; Ricketts, T C

    1989-01-01

    The confluence of forces slowing the growth of the physician supply despite a continued shortage of primary care physicians, the encouragement of competitive medical practices that centralize resources in larger places, and the changing of the rural population's character to one of more dependence on medical care may bring on another "rural health crisis" in the decade ahead. PMID:2645252

  19. Evaluation of Health Educator Consults in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Stacia; Lopez, Patricia; McKee, M. Diane; Deen, Darwin; Fornari, Alice; Fletcher, Jason; Blank, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to evaluate a primary care obesity prevention intervention, targeting low-income minority parents in the USA. The first objective is to describe the barriers to behavior change experienced by families. The second objective is to understand the types of strategies that were used by the health educator to empower families to…

  20. Teaching Strategies for Primary Health Care. A Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durana, Ines

    This book is intended to assist teachers, practitioners, and administrators to develop programs for training nonphysician, primary health care workers in Third World countries. It contains the instructional context of a comprehensive training program, organized into chapters and presented in outline form. Learning strategies follow each section of…

  1. Health Education for Special Children: Primary ED-LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Linda; And Others

    Intended for teachers and administrators in special education, the curriculum guide offers information on planning a health education program for emotionally disturbed or learning disabled children at the primary level. Sections preceding the actual guide include information on specific goals of and elements necessary for a successful health…

  2. Reducing the health consequences of opioid addiction in primary care.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sarah; Eiserman, Julie; Beletsky, Leo; Stancliff, Sharon; Bruce, R Douglas

    2013-07-01

    Addiction to prescription opioids is prevalent in primary care settings. Increasing prescription opioid use is largely responsible for a parallel increase in overdose nationally. Many patients most at risk for addiction and overdose come into regular contact with primary care providers. Lack of routine addiction screening results in missed treatment opportunities in this setting. We reviewed the literature on screening and brief interventions for addictive disorders in primary care settings, focusing on opioid addiction. Screening and brief interventions can improve health outcomes for chronic illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Similarly, through the use of screening and brief interventions, patients with addiction can achieve improved health outcome. A spectrum of low-threshold care options can reduce the negative health consequences among individuals with opioid addiction. Screening in primary care coupled with short interventions, including motivational interviewing, syringe distribution, naloxone prescription for overdose prevention, and buprenorphine treatment are effective ways to manage addiction and its associated risks and improve health outcomes for individuals with opioid addiction.

  3. Barriers and facilitators of adolescent behavioral health in primary care: Perceptions of primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Bitar, George W; Springer, Paul; Gee, Robert; Graff, Chad; Schydlower, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Several major policy reports describe the central role of primary care in improving the delivery of behavioral health care services to children and adolescents. Although primary care providers are uniquely positioned to provide these services, numerous obstacles hinder the integration of these services, including time, clinic management and organization issues, training, and resources. Although many of these obstacles have been described in the literature, few studies have investigated these issues from the first-person perspective of front-line providers. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to provide an in-depth description of primary care providers' attitudes and perceptions of adolescent behavioral health care across a diversity of primary care settings (i.e., Federally Qualified Health Center [FQHC], FQHC-Look Alike, school-based, military). Sixteen focus groups were conducted at 5 primary care clinics. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the focus group data. Obstacles to integration are presented as well as strategies to overcome these challenges, using training and education, working groups, and community collaboratives.

  4. Primary prevention of type 2 diabetes: integrative public health and primary care opportunities, challenges and strategies

    PubMed Central

    Green, Lawrence W; Brancati, Frederick L; Albright, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes imposes a large and growing burden on the public’s health. This burden, combined with the growing evidence for primary prevention from randomized controlled trials of structured lifestyle programs leads to recommendations to include caloric reduction, increased physical activity and specific assistance to patients in problem solving to achieve modest weight loss as well as pharmacotherapy. These recommendations demand exploration of new ways to implement such primary prevention strategies through more integrated community organization, medical practice and policy. The US experience with control of tobacco use and high blood pressure offers valuable lessons for policy, such as taxation on products, and for practice in a variety of settings, such as coordination of referrals for lifestyle supports. We acknowledge also some notable exceptions to their generalizability. This paper presents possible actions proposed by an expert panel, summarized in Table 1 as recommendations for immediate action, strategic action and research. The collaboration of primary care and public health systems will be required to make many of these recommendations a reality. This paper also provides information on the progress made in recent years by the Division of Diabetes Translation at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to implement or facilitate such integration of primary care and public health for primary prevention. PMID:22399542

  5. Integrating Primary Care Into Community Mental Health Centers: Impact on Utilization and Costs of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Krupski, Antoinette; West, Imara I; Scharf, Deborah M; Hopfenbeck, James; Andrus, Graydon; Joesch, Jutta M; Snowden, Mark

    2016-11-01

    This evaluation was designed to assess the impact of providing integrated primary and mental health care on utilization and costs for outpatient medical, inpatient hospital, and emergency department treatment among persons with serious mental illness. Two safety-net, community mental health centers that received a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Primary and Behavioral Health Care Integration (PBHCI) grant were the focus of this study. Clinic 1 had a ten-year history of providing integrated services whereas clinic 2 began integrated services with the PBHCI grant. Difference-in-differences (DID) analyses were used to compare individuals enrolled in the PBHCI programs (N=373, clinic 1; N=389, clinic 2) with propensity score-matched comparison groups of equal size at each site by using data obtained from medical records. Relative to the comparison groups, a higher proportion of PBHCI clients used outpatient medical services at both sites following program enrollment (p<.003, clinic 1; p<.001, clinic 2). At clinic 1, PBHCI was also associated with a reduction in the proportion of clients with an inpatient hospital admission (p=.04) and a trend for a reduction in inpatient hospital costs per member per month of $217.68 (p=.06). Hospital-related cost savings were not observed for PBHCI clients at clinic 2 nor were there significant differences between emergency department use or costs for PBHCI and comparison groups at either clinic. Investments in PBHCI can improve access to outpatient medical care for persons with severe mental illness and may also curb hospitalizations and associated costs in more established programs.

  6. The integration of occupational therapy into primary care: a multiple case study design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For over two decades occupational therapists have been encouraged to enhance their roles within primary care and focus on health promotion and prevention activities. While there is a clear fit between occupational therapy and primary care, there have been few practice examples, despite a growing body of evidence to support the role. In 2010, the province of Ontario, Canada provided funding to include occupational therapists as members of Family Health Teams, an interprofessional model of primary care. The integration of occupational therapists into this model of primary care is one of the first large scale initiatives of its kind in North America. The objective of the study was to examine how occupational therapy services are being integrated into primary care teams and understand the structures supporting the integration. Methods A multiple case study design was used to provide an in-depth description of the integration of occupational therapy. Four Family Health Teams with occupational therapists as part of the team were identified. Data collection included in-depth interviews, document analyses, and questionnaires. Results Each Family Health Team had a unique organizational structure that contributed to the integration of occupational therapy. Communication, trust and understanding of occupational therapy were key elements in the integration of occupational therapy into Family Health Teams, and were supported by a number of strategies including co-location, electronic medical records and team meetings. An understanding of occupational therapy was critical for integration into the team and physicians were less likely to understand the occupational therapy role than other health providers. Conclusion With an increased emphasis on interprofessional primary care, new professions will be integrated into primary healthcare teams. The study found that explicit strategies and structures are required to facilitate the integration of a new professional group

  7. Mobile health data collection at primary health care in Ethiopia: a feasible challenge.

    PubMed

    Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Moser, Albine; Spigt, Mark; Yebyo, Henock; Little, Alex; Dinant, GeertJan; Blanco, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility assessment of mobile health (mHealth) data collection at primary health care in Ethiopia. A total of 14 health workers were recruited from 12 primary health care facilities to use smartphones, installed with customized data collection application and electronic maternal health care forms for assessing pregnant women's health for 6 months. Qualitative approaches comprising in-depth interviews and field notes were used to document the users' perception and experience in using the application and forms. All health workers had never had previous exposure to smartphones and electronic forms, but they got used to them easily. Over 6 months, all health workers completed a total of 952 patient records using the forms on smartphones. Health workers' acceptability and demand for the application and forms were high. In introducing the application, nontechnical challenges were more difficult to solve than technical challenges. Introducing an mHealth application at primary health care for routine collection of health data relevant to maternal health at a small scale was feasible. Nonetheless, implementing a system of assigning unique and consistent patient identifier, standardization of health services, and improving mobile network coverage would be prerequisites for scaled-up usage of such an application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Replicating Impact of a Primary School HIV Prevention Programme: Primary School Action for Better Health, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, E.; Mungwete, R.; Jayeoba, O.

    2014-01-01

    School-based programmes to combat the spread of HIV have been demonstrated to be effective over the short-term when delivered on a small scale. The question addressed here is whether results obtained with small-scale delivery are replicable in large-scale roll-out. Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH), a programme to train teachers to…

  9. Replicating Impact of a Primary School HIV Prevention Programme: Primary School Action for Better Health, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, E.; Mungwete, R.; Jayeoba, O.

    2014-01-01

    School-based programmes to combat the spread of HIV have been demonstrated to be effective over the short-term when delivered on a small scale. The question addressed here is whether results obtained with small-scale delivery are replicable in large-scale roll-out. Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH), a programme to train teachers to…

  10. Physician Satisfaction With Integrated Behavioral Health in Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Hine, Jeffrey F; Grennan, Allison Q; Menousek, Kathryn M; Robertson, Gail; Valleley, Rachel J; Evans, Joseph H

    2017-04-01

    As the benefits of integrated behavioral health care services are becoming more widely recognized, this study investigated physician satisfaction with ongoing integrated psychology services in pediatric primary care clinics. Data were collected across 5 urban and 6 rural clinics and demonstrated the specific factors that physicians view as assets to having efficient access to a pediatric behavioral health practitioner. Results indicated significant satisfaction related to quality and continuity of care and improved access to services. Such models of care may increase access to care and reduce other service barriers encountered by individuals and their families with behavioral health concerns (ie, those who otherwise would seek services through referrals to traditional tertiary care facilities).

  11. Mental health services in Army primary care: the need for a collaborative health care agenda.

    PubMed

    Engel, C C; Kroenke, K; Katon, W J

    1994-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that more than half of mentally ill patients in the United States receive their psychiatric care exclusively in primary care settings. This fraction may be even higher in the military due to concern over possible occupational repercussions resulting from use of specialty psychiatric care and specialist shortages. Collaboration between generalists and mental health care specialists could potentially improve mental health care delivery and reduce psychiatric disability for a large segment of the Army population who have a psychiatric disorder but may not seek specialty care. Collaborative efforts can reinforce military generalists' essential gate-keeping function, thereby decreasing unnecessary medical utilization and health care costs. The authors review the problems associated with mental health care delivery in primary care and provide examples of collaborative models previously studied or currently being explored. A four-part Army Primary Care-Mental Health Services Agenda is proposed, consisting of: (1) coordinated research including primary care-mental health services research and community-based epidemiologic studies; (2) formation of a primary care-mental health services advisory committee for aiding with policy and program development; (3) graduate and continuing medical education in primary care-mental health services emphasizing interdisciplinary collaborative skills; and (4) clinical implementation of feasible collaborative interdisciplinary mental health care models adapted to the range of unique Army primary care settings. The main goal of the Army Primary Care-Mental Health Services Agenda is to improve access to Army mental health care in the most efficacious and cost-effective way and to help minimize the organizational impact of disability related to psychosocial distress.

  12. Gamified Design for Health Workshop.

    PubMed

    Giunti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Increasing lifespans for chronic disease sufferers means a population of young patients who require lifestyle intervention from an early age. For multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, social problems begin with the decline of cognitive skills and their quality of life is affected. In this workshop, organizers will propose participants to work on different gamification design approachs to solve MS patients' engagement problem. Participants will obtain skills that can be extrapolated to other conditions that require patients change to adopt a different behavior. At the end, participants will present their proposed gamification design and discuss and comment each solution, assessing potential unintended outcomes and advantages.

  13. Mental Health of Children and Youth: The Important Role of Primary Care Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Primary pediatric and adolescent health care providers are confronted every day with youngsters who have substantial mental health and psychosocial concerns. These caregivers are in a unique position to help deal with such concerns and transform how the nation thinks about and addresses the mental health of young people. This brief highlights ways…

  14. Primary health care in the mental health workplace: insights from the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Dean, Suzanne; Webster, Sue; Walter, Garry; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta

    2014-06-01

    In Australia, Primary Health Care and the mental health sector have always shared a philosophy. In 1978, Primary Health Care was first put forward as a strategy to improve "health for all." Recently, the Australian Government included mental health as a national health priority, identifying six strategies consistent with a Primary Health Care approach to address the mental health of all Australians. Throughout this time, Primary Health Care has been highlighted in all models of care. However, in reality, it appears that in mental health services, mental health nurses, despite good intentions, are not delivering care in a planned or systematised way and that much needs to be done to further improve the situation for individuals accessing the health care system. Services currently focus on those identified as seriously mentally unwell; in order to really make an impact it is argued that services should be broader, offered to the population at large and, further, that the emphasis on case work at an individual level should be changed to an approach that considers prevention, maintenance, and follow-up as well as crisis intervention. This article reflects the Australian experience and offers some insights from that experience.

  15. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context  The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective  To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy  SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results  The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions  This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402

  16. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2014-04-01

    The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Electronic health record functionality needed to better support primary care

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H; Beasley, John W; Crosson, Jesse C; Kibbe, David C; Klinkman, Michael S; Lehmann, Christoph U; Fox, Chester H; Mitchell, Jason M; Mold, James W; Pace, Wilson D; Peterson, Kevin A; Phillips, Robert L; Post, Robert; Puro, Jon; Raddock, Michael; Simkus, Ray; Waldren, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) must support primary care clinicians and patients, yet many clinicians remain dissatisfied with their system. This article presents a consensus statement about gaps in current EHR functionality and needed enhancements to support primary care. The Institute of Medicine primary care attributes were used to define needs and meaningful use (MU) objectives to define EHR functionality. Current objectives remain focused on disease rather than the whole person, ignoring factors such as personal risks, behaviors, family structure, and occupational and environmental influences. Primary care needs EHRs to move beyond documentation to interpreting and tracking information over time, as well as patient-partnering activities, support for team-based care, population-management tools that deliver care, and reduced documentation burden. While stage 3 MU's focus on outcomes is laudable, enhanced functionality is still needed, including EHR modifications, expanded use of patient portals, seamless integration with external applications, and advancement of national infrastructure and policies. PMID:24431335

  18. Primary care prescribing psychologists in the Indian Health Service.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Earl; Tulkin, Steven R

    2012-12-01

    Some of the largest health care disparities are those related to services for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), who show significantly greater prevalence for diabetes, coronary heart disease, smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol use, depression, and PTSD than the general population. Given the recognition of the behavioral components of all of these conditions, the Indian Health Service, the federal agency responsible for providing comprehensive health care services to AI/ANs, has been focusing on increasing the integration of behavior health and primary care. One innovation has been to hire prescribing psychologists on primary care teams. This paper describes the role of a prescribing psychologist on three treatment teams at an IHS facility in Montana. Prescribing psychologists in the Indian Health Service can serve as valuable members of comprehensive care teams, providing exceptional wrap-around care for some of our most vulnerable and underserved citizens. This model could be an example of how a prescribing psychologist could contribute to primary care clinics in a variety of other settings.

  19. A renewed focus on primary health care: revitalize or reframe?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The year 2008 celebrated 30 years of Primary Health Care (PHC) policy emerging from the Alma Ata Declaration with publication of two key reports, the World Health Report 2008 and the Report of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Both reports reaffirmed the relevance of PHC in terms of its vision and values in today's world. However, important challenges in terms of defining PHC, equity and empowerment need to be addressed. This article takes the form of a commentary reviewing developments in the last 30 years and discusses the future of this policy. Three challenges are put forward for discussion (i) the challenge of moving away from a narrow technical bio-medical paradigm of health to a broader social determinants approach and the need to differentiate primary care from primary health care; (ii) The challenge of tackling the equity implications of the market oriented reforms and ensuring that the role of the State in the provision of welfare services is not further weakened; and (iii) the challenge of finding ways to develop local community commitments especially in terms of empowerment. These challenges need to be addressed if PHC is to remain relevant in today's context. The paper concludes that it is not sufficient to revitalize PHC of the Alma Ata Declaration but it must be reframed in light of the above discussion. PMID:20673329

  20. Primary oral health care: a missing link in public health in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Basharat, S; Shaikh, B T

    2016-12-12

    In Pakistan, the limited availability of oral health care and the high level of unmet oral health care needs are well documented. The recorded prevalence of dental caries is 50-70% and that of oral cancer is among the highest in the world. Although oral health care has been declared to be part of the primary health care system, oral health disparities between rich and poor, and emerging problems of access to and use of appropriate care have never been addressed, reflecting a lack of awareness among both patients and health system decisionmakers. Oral cancer screening and atraumatic restorative treatment for tooth decay could be included in a basic package of oral care that does not require qualified dental surgeons. This article develops an argument, based on literature review and an analysis of the health system in Pakistan, for how a basic oral health programme could be an accessible, affordable and acceptable component of the primary health care system.

  1. The role of public health in providing primary care for the medically underserved.

    PubMed Central

    Sundwall, D N; Tavani, C

    1991-01-01

    Strategies designed to meet the health care needs of Americans should include the issues of access as well as financing. And primary care and clinical preventive services should receive as much national attention as acute care and long-term care. The public health system at the Federal, State, and local levels with its mandate to assure conditions in which people can be healthy must also be incorporated into the national debate. Publicly funded infrastructures for delivering primary health care have become a significant element of assuring access at the community level. This paper examines the expanding role of public health in assuring access to the delivery of primary health care and clinical preventive services to vulnerable populations within the larger issue of who should have access to care and how it should be made available. Special attention is paid to the part played by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the Public Health Service, which, in the Federal fiscal year that began on October 1, 1989, administered some $1.8 billion worth of programs for health care of targeted populations and for the support of training in the health professions. PMID:1899936

  2. In search of a perennial philosophy for behavioral health integration in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mauksch, Larry B; Fogarty, Colleen T

    2016-06-01

    The "perennial philosophy," a concept religious scholars have studied for centuries, represents a search for the values, themes, and constructs that transcend individual religions. Can we who develop and disseminate behavioral health integration in primary care step back from individual models to identify our perennial philosophy? If so, what are the components? What does the evidence tell us? What do we need to learn? Four case examples are presented which represent many patients seen by both of us-a family therapist and a family physician-over our combined 55 years of collaborative practice within integrated primary care settings. Can these patients be cared for in a primary care setting? Our experience provides a simple answer-yes. However, providing care for this range of patients requires variability in team configurations, frequency of visits, lengths of relationships, and interventional strategies. Is there a perennial philosophy of how to design and implement the integration of behavioral health in primary care? We think there should be. we highlight a recent publication from the Eugene S. Farley, Jr. Health Policy Center, entitled "Core Competencies For Behavioral Health Providers Working In Primary Care." The authors purposefully transcend models in delineating eight core competencies. Embedded within these competencies are common or perennial factors. These factors may guide our field going forward, helping us avoid "religious" divisions, seek to understand diverse designs, and embrace integration of models to meet the needs of the populations and teams we serve. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Metals and Disease: A Global Primary Health Care Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Stern, Penny; Dawood, Ismail; Cheema, Sohaila

    2011-01-01

    Metals are an important and essential part of our daily lives. Their ubiquitous presence and use has not been without significant consequences. Both industrial and nonindustrial exposures to metals are characterized by a variety of acute and chronic ailments. Underreporting of illnesses related to occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals including metals is of concern and presents a serious challenge. Many primary care workers rarely consider occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals in their clinical evaluation. Their knowledge and training in the evaluation of health problems related to such exposures is inadequate. This paper presents documented research findings from various studies that have examined the relationship between metal exposures and their adverse health effects both in developing and developed countries. Further, it provides some guidance on essential elements of a basic occupational and environmental evaluation to health care workers in primary care situations. PMID:22007209

  4. [A model for resource allocation in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Raña K, Javier; Ferrer O, Juan-Carlos; Bedregal G, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Resource allocation in primary health care is a worldwide issue. In Chile, the state allocates resources to city halls using a mechanism called "per capita". However, each city hall distributes these resources according to the historical expenses of each health center. None of these methods considers the epidemiological and demographic differences in demand. This article proposes a model that allocates resources to health centers in an equitable, efficient and transparent fashion. The model incorporates two types of activities; those that are programmable, whose demand is generated by medical teams and those associated to morbidity, generated by patients. In the first case the health promotion, prevention and control activities are programmed according to the goals proposed by health authorities. In the second case, the utilization rates are calculated for different sociodemographic groups. This model was applied in one of the most populated communities of Metropolitan Santiago and proved to increase efficiency and transparency in resource allocation.

  5. Primary Oral Health Care in India: Vision or Dream?

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kotumachagi S; Javanaiah, Nagarathna; Shantappa, Shruti; Srivastava, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary approach to dental caries management in children focuses on prevention than treatment. Pediatricians, general dentists and pediatric dentists must be involved in a detailed preventive program, which includes prenatal counselling, treatment of expectant mothers at risk for dental caries, infant oral health care and the establishment of the dental home, so that dental disease can be prevented in infants, starting at a young age. Various health care system and organizations in India must join together to promote oral health care for all the children and specially focused toward children from disadvantaged background and children with special health care needs. How to cite this article Suresh KS, Kumar P, Javanaiah N, Shantappa S, Srivastava P. Primary Oral Health Care in India: Vision or Dream? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):228-232. PMID:27843255

  6. Nurse practitioner caseload in primary health care: Scoping review.

    PubMed

    Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Donald, Faith; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Rayner, Jennifer; Valaitis, Ruta; Carter, Nancy; Miller, Patricia A; Landry, Véronique; Harbman, Patricia; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee; McKinlay, R James; Ziegler, Erin; Boesveld, Sarah; Lamb, Alyson

    2016-10-01

    To identify recommendations for determining patient panel/caseload size for nurse practitioners in community-based primary health care settings. Scoping review of the international published and grey literature. The search included electronic databases, international professional and governmental websites, contact with experts, and hand searches of reference lists. Eligible papers had to (a) address caseload or patient panels for nurse practitioners in community-based primary health care settings serving an all-ages population; and (b) be published in English or French between January 2000 and July 2014. Level one testing included title and abstract screening by two team members. Relevant papers were retained for full text review in level two testing, and reviewed by two team members. A third reviewer acted as a tiebreaker. Data were extracted using a structured extraction form by one team member and verified by a second member. Descriptive statistics were estimated. Content analysis was used for qualitative data. We identified 111 peer-reviewed articles and grey literature documents. Most of the papers were published in Canada and the United States after 2010. Current methods to determine panel/caseload size use large administrative databases, provider work hours and the average number of patient visits. Most of the papers addressing the topic of patient panel/caseload size in community-based primary health care were descriptive. The average number of patients seen by nurse practitioners per day varied considerably within and between countries; an average of 9-15 patients per day was common. Patient characteristics (e.g., age, gender) and health conditions (e.g., multiple chronic conditions) appear to influence patient panel/caseload size. Very few studies used validated tools to classify patient acuity levels or disease burden scores. The measurement of productivity and the determination of panel/caseload size is complex. Current metrics may not capture

  7. Designing effective written health education materials: considerations for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tammy; Worrall, Linda

    2004-10-07

    Written health education materials can only be effective if they can be read, understood, and remembered by patients. The purpose of this article was to review the literature about features that should be incorporated into written health education materials to maximize their effectiveness, identify where there is consensus and debate about which features should be incorporated, and develop recommendations that health professionals can use when reviewing their existing materials and designing new materials. Literature review of published research and education articles. There is a large number of features that need to be considered when designing written health education materials so that they are suitable for the target audience and effective. Although there is consensus about the majority of features that should be included, further research is needed to explore the contribution of certain features, such as illustrations, to the effectiveness of written materials and the effect of well-designed written materials on patient outcomes. Health professionals need to provide their patients with written health education materials that are patient-orientated and designed according to the best practice principles in written health education material design.

  8. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  9. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Edward F.; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  10. Simplified Analysis Methods for Primary Load Designs at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The use of simplified (reference stress) analysis methods is discussed and illustrated for primary load high temperature design. Elastic methods are the basis of the ASME Section III, Subsection NH primary load design procedure. There are practical drawbacks with this approach, particularly for complex geometries and temperature gradients. The paper describes an approach which addresses these difficulties through the use of temperature-dependent elastic-perfectly plastic analysis. Correction factors are defined to address difficulties traditionally associated with discontinuity stresses, inelastic strain concentrations and multiaxiality. A procedure is identified to provide insight into how this approach could be implemented but clearly there is additional work to be done to define and clarify the procedural steps to bring it to the point where it could be adapted into code language.

  11. Primary care mental health: a new frontier for psychology.

    PubMed

    Gunn, William B; Blount, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    The medical system in this country is divided into primary care and specialty care. Mental health is for the most part a specialty service dependent on referrals, often from primary care providers. The authors propose a new model where psychologists work in collaboration with primary care medical teams. This integrated, coordinated model enables psychologists to help patients they would not otherwise see in a mental health system. Examples of patients in this category are seniors, those with somatizing disorders, and those experiencing the challenges of dealing with a chronic illness. This model also enables psychologists to provide consultation to the medical teams. In this article, the authors discuss the world of the primary care medical team and present the rationale for integration or collaboration. They describe the barriers to collaborative practices and ways to overcome these barriers. Finally, they present practical strategies that psychologists can use on a regular basis to increase their collaboration with primary care. These strategies can be used by those who work in colocated practices as well as those who work in separate locations.

  12. Living with schizophrenia: Health-related quality of life among primary family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lee, Chun-Te; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2017-09-07

    To examine influencing factors of health-related quality of life in primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia receiving inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation services. Families, particularly primary family caregivers, have become more important than ever in mental health care. Yet, research on health-related quality of life among primarily family caregivers is limited. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 122 primary family caregivers participated in the study. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way analysis of variance and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Primary family caregivers who were parents, older, less educated, and had a lower monthly household income, increased affiliate stigma and decreased quality of family-centred care experienced poor health-related quality of life. Particularly, monthly household income, affiliate stigma and quality of family-centred care appeared to be the most critical determinants of health-related quality of life. Efforts to enhance satisfaction of life should focus on reducing affiliate stigma as well as increasing monthly household income and strengthening the quality of family-centred care. Findings may assist in the development of culturally integrated rehabilitation programmes to decrease affiliate stigma and increase family engagement as a means of promoting quality of life for primary family caregivers living with people who have schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mental health care: how can Family Health teams integrate it into Primary Healthcare?

    PubMed

    Gryschek, Guilherme; Pinto, Adriana Avanzi Marques

    2015-10-01

    Mental health is one of the responsibilities of Brazil's Family Health system. This review of literature sought to understand what position Mental Health occupies in the practice of the Family Health Strategy. A search was made of the scientific literature in the database of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde), for the keywords: 'Mental Health'; 'Family Health'; 'Primary Healthcare'. The criteria for inclusion were: Brazilian studies from 2009 through 2012 that contributed to understanding of the following question: "How to insert Mental health care into the routine of the Family Health Strategy?" A total of 11 articles were found, which identified difficulties and strategies of the professionals in Primary Healthcare in relation to mental health. Referral, and medicalization, were common practices. Matrix Support is the strategy of training and skill acquisition for teams that enables new approaches in mental health in the context of Primary healthcare. It is necessary for Management of the Health System to take an active role in the construction of healthcare networks in mental health.

  14. Perceptions of health managers and professionals about mental health and primary care integration in Rio de Janeiro: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Athié, Karen; Menezes, Alice Lopes do Amaral; da Silva, Angela Machado; Campos, Monica; Delgado, Pedro Gabriel; Fortes, Sandra; Dowrick, Christopher

    2016-09-30

    Community-based primary mental health care is recommended in low and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Health System has been restructuring primary care by expanding its Family Health Strategy. Due to mental health problems, psychosocial vulnerability and accessibility, Matrix Support teams are being set up to broaden the professional scope of primary care. This paper aims to analyse the perceptions of health professionals and managers about the integration of primary care and mental health. In this mixed-method study 18 health managers and 24 professionals were interviewed from different primary and mental health care services in Rio de Janeiro. A semi-structured survey was conducted with 185 closed questions ranging from 1 to 5 and one open-ended question, to evaluate: access, gateway, trust, family focus, primary mental health interventions, mental health records, mental health problems, team collaboration, integration with community resources and primary mental health education. Two comparisons were made: health managers and professionals' (Mann-Whitney non-parametric test) and health managers' perceptions (Kruskall-Wallis non parametric-test) in 4 service designs (General Traditional Outpatients, Mental Health Specialised Outpatients, Psychosocial Community Centre and Family Health Strategy)(SPSS version 17.0). Qualitative data were subjected to Framework Analysis. Firstly, health managers and professionals' perceptions converged in all components, except the health record system. Secondly, managers' perceptions in traditional services contrasted with managers' perceptions in community-based services in components such as mental health interventions and team collaboration, and converged in gateway, trust, record system and primary mental health education. Qualitative data revealed an acceptance of mental health and primary care integration, but a lack of communication between institutions. The Mixed Method demonstrated that interviewees consider mental

  15. How an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service improved access to mental health care.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Julie; Askew, Deborah; Foley, Wendy; Duthie, Deb; Shuter, Patricia; Combo, Michelle; Clements, Lesley-Ann

    2015-06-06

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience higher levels of psychological distress and mental ill health than their non-Indigenous counterparts, but underuse mental health services. Interventions are required to address the structural and functional access barriers that cause this underuse. In 2012, the Southern Queensland Centre of Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care employed a psychologist and a social worker to integrate mental health care into its primary health care services. This research study examines the impact of this innovation. A mixed-method research design was used whereby a series of qualitative open-ended interviews were conducted with 7 psychology clients, 5 social work clients, the practice dietician, and the social worker and psychologist. General practitioners, practice nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers and receptionists participated in 4 focus groups. Key themes were identified, discussed, refined and agreed upon by the research team. Occasions of service by the psychologist and social worker were reviewed and quantitative data presented. Clients and staff were overwhelmingly positive about the inclusion of a psychologist and a social worker as core members of a primary health care team. In one-year, the psychologist and social worker recorded 537 and 447 occasions of service respectively, and referrals to a psychologist, psychiatrist, mental health worker or counsellor increased from 17% of mental health clients in 2010 to 51% in 2012. Increased access by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to mental health care was related to three main themes: (1) Responsiveness to community needs; (2) Trusted relationships; and (3) Shared cultural background and understanding. The holistic nature and cultural safety of the primary health care service, its close proximity to where most people lived and the existing trusted relationships were identified as key factors in decreasing barriers to access

  16. [Multiple comorbidities from the perspective of primary care health professionals].

    PubMed

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Elorriaga, Koldo Piñera; Pereira, Carolina Rodríguez; Martínez, Amaia García; Gabilondo, Mikel Ayala

    2014-06-01

    To explore the perception of primary care health professionals in the Basque Country (Spain) of multiple comorbidities and their influence on clinical practice and the organization of health services. Qualitative study based on interviews, a storytelling workshop and cocreation. The autonomous community of the Basque Country. Primary care in the Basque health system. Fourteen health professionals: 6 specialists in family medicine, 3 hospital specialists (internal medicine, pneumology, and geriatrics), 4 nurses, and 1 community pharmacist. A qualitative, exploratory study was carried out, based on a cocreation workshop (12 participants) and 10 interviews with health professionals. The research was performed between February and June 2013. All interviews and the group workshop were audio recorded and some were video recorded. The emerging dominant themes were as follows: a) the challenges posed by multiple comorbidities for a "disease-centered" health system; b) the manifestation of these challenges in daily clinical practice in aspects such as the patient-health professional relationship, clinical decision-making, polypharmacy management, and coordination between healthcare settings; c) the barriers to the appropriate care of these patients: training, decision-making tools, lack of time, etc.; and d) the question of the most appropriate professional competencies and profiles. The increase in multiple comorbidities is a reality that worries primary care professionals, who express the need for adequate training, decision-making tools and support in daily clinical practice dealing with the most frequent situations and combinations of multiple comorbidities. The most effective approach to these problems requires a shift in the healthcare model toward an integrated view of the patient, a transition from a paternalist approach to a more proactive approach, and the development of healthcare integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainability in Primary Care and Mental Health Integration Projects in Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ford, James H.; Krahn, Dean; Oliver, Karen Anderson; Kirchner, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore staff perceptions about sustainability, commitment to change, participation in change process, and information received about the change project within the Veterans Administration Primary Care and Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) initiative and to examine differences from the Veterans Health Administration Mental Health Systems Redesign (MHSR) initiative. Data Sources Surveys of change team members involved in the Veterans Affairs PC-MHI and MHSR initiatives. Study Design One-way analysis of variance examined the relationship between commitment, participation and information, and sustainability. Differences in PC-MHI sustainability were explored by location and job classification. Staff sustainability perceptions were compared with MHSR results. Principal Findings Sustainability differed by staff discipline. Difference between MHSR and PC-MHI existed by job function and perceptions about the change benefits. Participation in the change process and information received about the change process were positively correlated with sustainability. Staff commitment to change was positively associated with staff perceptions about the benefits of change and staff attitudes toward change. Conclusions Sustainability is an important part of organizational change efforts. Change complexity seems to influence perception about sustainability and impacts staff perceptions about the benefits of change. These perceptions seem to be driven by the information received and opportunities to participate in the change process. Further research is needed to understand how information and participation influence sustainability and affect employee commitment to change. PMID:23011071

  18. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  19. Can health care teams improve primary care practice?

    PubMed

    Grumbach, Kevin; Bodenheimer, Thomas

    2004-03-10

    In health care settings, individuals from different disciplines come together to care for patients. Although these groups of health care personnel are generally called teams, they need to earn true team status by demonstrating teamwork. Developing health care teams requires attention to 2 central questions: who is on the team and how do team members work together? This article chiefly focuses on the second question. Cohesive health care teams have 5 key characteristics: clear goals with measurable outcomes, clinical and administrative systems, division of labor, training of all team members, and effective communication. Two organizations are described that demonstrate these components: a private primary care practice in Bangor, Me, and Kaiser Permanente's Georgia region primary care sites. Research on patient care teams suggests that teams with greater cohesiveness are associated with better clinical outcome measures and higher patient satisfaction. In addition, medical settings in which physicians and nonphysician professionals work together as teams can demonstrate improved patient outcomes. A number of barriers to team formation exist, chiefly related to the challenges of human relationships and personalities. Taking small steps toward team development may improve the work environment in primary care practices.

  20. Comprehensive primary health care under neo-liberalism in Australia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Sanders, David; Labonté, Ronald; Lawless, Angela; Javanparast, Sara

    2016-11-01

    This paper applies a critical analysis of the impact of neo-liberal driven management reform to examine changes in Australian primary health care (PHC) services over five years. The implementation of comprehensive approaches to primary health care (PHC) in seven services: five state-managed and two non-government organisations (NGOs) was tracked from 2009 to 2014. Two questions are addressed: 1) How did the ability of Australian PHC services to implement comprehensive PHC change over the period 2009-2014? 2) To what extent is the ability of the PHC services to implement comprehensive PHC shaped by neo-liberal health sector reform processes? The study reports on detailed tracking and observations of the changes and in-depth interviews with 63 health service managers and practitioners, and regional and central health executives. The documented changes were: in the state-managed services (although not the NGOs) less comprehensive service coverage and more focus on clinical services and integration with hospitals and much less development activity including community development, advocacy, intersectoral collaboration and attention to the social determinants. These changes were found to be associated with practices typical of neo-liberal health sector reform: considerable uncertainty, more directive managerial control, budget reductions and competitive tendering and an emphasis on outputs rather than health outcomes. We conclude that a focus on clinical service provision, while highly compatible with neo-liberal reforms, will not on its own produce the shifts in population disease patterns that would be required to reduce demand for health services and promote health. Comprehensive PHC is much better suited to that task.

  1. Designing the primary mirror support for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijenhuis, Jan; Heijmans, Jeroen; den Breeje, Remco; Hazelebach, René; de Vreugd, Jan; Crowcombe, Will; Naron, Daniel; Fritz, Erik; Borghi, Guiseppe; Navarro, Ramon; Sillari, Luca; Sambenedetto, Enrico; Eder, Josef; Kamphues, Fred

    2016-08-01

    Described is the M1 segment support, as designed by TNO in the period 2015-2016. The design has significantly changed and improved compared to the earlier designs. During the period 2009-2010 prototypes for the primary mirror support of the E-ELT have been developed. These have been extensively tested by ESO. Design improvement were found to be necessary, especially in the field of manufacturability and maintainability. Furthermore, the technical performance had to improve in specific areas as well. This has evolved into a new specifications which have resulted in a new design for the segment support structure. The design rules that have led to the prototype design have been maintained but the implementation has been much improved. Also considerable improvement has been obtained with respect to the dynamic behavior. Accessibility and visibility on all parts and subsystems has changed such that everything is now clearly visible. Despite the increased performance no mass increase has been recorded meaning that more efficient use has been made of the material. The active means to influence the segment shape by use of the warping harness has been completely redesigned. A very important quality that has been achieved is simplicity. Hence a minimum amount of components is used. Reliability and safety are other aspects that have been greatly improved compared to the prototypes. The design for the M1 segment support provides a solution that not only performs to specification but one that can be operated in a telescope environment, all 798 of them.

  2. Community governance in primary health care: towards an international Ideal Type.

    PubMed

    Meads, Geoffrey; Russell, Grant; Lees, Amanda

    2016-05-27

    Against a global background of increased resource management responsibilities for primary health care agencies, general medical practices, in particular, are increasingly being required to demonstrate the legitimacy of their decision making in market oriented environments. In this context a scoping review explores the potential utility for health managers in primary health care of community governance as a policy concept. The review of recent research suggests that applied learning from international health systems with enhanced approaches to public and patient involvement may contribute to meeting this requirement. Such approaches often characterise local health systems in Latin America and North West Europe where innovative models are beginning to respond effectively to the growing demands on general practice. The study design draws on documentary and secondary data analyses to identify common components of community governance from the countries in these regions, supplemented by other relevant international studies and sources where appropriate. Within a comprehensive framework of collaborative governance the components are aggregated in an Ideal Type format to provide a point of reference for possible adaptation and transferable learning across market oriented health systems. Each component is illustrated with international exemplars from recent organisational practices in primary health care. The application of community governance is considered for the particular contexts of GP led Clinical Commissioning Groups in England and Primary Health Networks in Australia. Some components of the Ideal Type possess potentially powerful negative as well as positive motivational effects, with PPI at practice levels sometimes hindering the development of effective local governance. This highlights the importance of careful and competent management of the growing resources attributed to primary health care agencies, which possess an increasingly diverse range of non

  3. Telementoring Primary Care Clinicians to Improve Geriatric Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Elisa; Hasselberg, Michael; Conwell, Yeates; Weiss, Linda; Padrón, Norma A; Tiernan, Erin; Karuza, Jurgis; Donath, Jeremy; Pagán, José A

    2017-01-20

    Health care delivery and payment systems are moving rapidly toward value-based care. To be successful in this new environment, providers must consistently deliver high-quality, evidence-based, and coordinated care to patients. This study assesses whether Project ECHO(®) (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) GEMH (geriatric mental health)-a remote learning and mentoring program-is an effective strategy to address geriatric mental health challenges in rural and underserved communities. Thirty-three teleECHO clinic sessions connecting a team of specialists to 54 primary care and case management spoke sites (approximately 154 participants) were conducted in 10 New York counties from late 2014 to early 2016. The curriculum consisted of case presentations and didactic lessons on best practices related to geriatric mental health care. Twenty-six interviews with program participants were conducted to explore changes in geriatric mental health care knowledge and treatment practices. Health insurance claims data were analyzed to assess changes in health care utilization and costs before and after program implementation. Findings from interviews suggest that the program led to improvements in clinician geriatric mental health care knowledge and treatment practices. Claims data analysis suggests that emergency room costs decreased for patients with mental health diagnoses. Patients without a mental health diagnosis had more outpatient visits and higher prescription and outpatient costs. Telementoring programs such as Project ECHO GEMH may effectively build the capacity of frontline clinicians to deliver high-quality, evidence-based care to older adults with mental health conditions and may contribute to the transformation of health care delivery systems from volume to value.

  4. Mental Health Services in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Primary Health Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhenyu; Huang, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Faqin; Abdullah, Abu S; Nie, Guanghui; Feng, Qiming; Wei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the challenges that primary health care providers faced in the process of delivering mental healthcare and assess their attitudes towards patients with mental health problems. In-depth interviews were conducted among 42 primary health care providers in two counties of Guangxi province, China. All interviews were audio-recorded and analyzed thematically. Primary health care providers in both counties faced the same difficulties: lack of professional knowledge, fear of patients' attack, more extra work, and less subsidies. However, most of primary health care providers (30/42) were still willing to do mental healthcare management. All the interviewees considered that communication skills with patients and their family members, proper attitude (without discrimination), and the professional knowledge of mental health are required. There are still several participants (15/42) who showed negative attitude toward mental disorders. Nearly all the respondents (39/42) emphasized the importance of increasing their income or subsidies by the government. This qualitative study provides insights into mental health services in rural communities of Guangxi and identified issues that could be considered in engaging primary health care providers in the management of mental disorders.

  5. Prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Bracco, Mário M; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Mielke, Gregore Iven; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assessment of prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units within Brazil’s health system. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on telephone interviews with managers of primary care units. Of a total 42,486 primary health care units listed in the Brazilian Unified Health System directory, 1,600 were randomly selected. Care units from all five Brazilian macroregions were selected proportionally to the number of units in each region. We examined whether any of the following five different types of health promotion programs was available: physical activity; smoking cessation; cessation of alcohol and illicit drug use; healthy eating; and healthy environment. Information was collected on the kinds of activities offered and the status of implementation of the Family Health Strategy at the units. RESULTS Most units (62.0%) reported having in place three health promotion programs or more and only 3.0% reported having none. Healthy environment (77.0%) and healthy eating (72.0%) programs were the most widely available; smoking and alcohol use cessation were reported in 54.0% and 42.0% of the units. Physical activity programs were offered in less than 40.0% of the units and their availability varied greatly nationwide, from 51.0% in the Southeast to as low as 21.0% in the North. The Family Health Strategy was implemented in most units (61.0%); however, they did not offer more health promotion programs than others did. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed that most primary care units have in place health promotion programs. Public policies are needed to strengthen primary care services and improve training of health providers to meet the goals of the agenda for health promotion in Brazil. PMID:25372175

  6. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  7. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors.

  8. Children's Mental Health as a Primary Care and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Tolan, Patrick H.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the serious crisis in mental health care for children in the United States, this article proposes as a priority for psychology a comprehensive approach that treats mental health as a primary issue in child health and welfare. Consistent with the principles of a system of care and applying epidemiological, risk-development, and intervention-research findings, this approach emphasizes 4 components: easy access to effective professional clinical services for children exhibiting disorders; further development and application of sound prevention principles for high-risk youths; support for and access to short-term intervention in primary care settings; and greater recognition and promotion of mental health issues in common developmental settings and other influential systems. Integral to this approach is the need to implement these components simultaneously and to incorporate family-focused, culturally competent, evidence-based, and developmentally appropriate services. This comprehensive, simultaneous, and integrated approach is needed to achieve real progress in children's mental health in this country. PMID:16173893

  9. Management audit for Primary Health Care Facilities in Plateau State.

    PubMed

    Lawan, M U; Abubakar, I S; Zoakah, A I

    2009-01-01

    The health care system in Nigeria has been developed at three levels, the extension of health care to all people has been an objective of all National Health Systems for many years since the Alma - Ata conference on Primary Health Care (PHC) in 1978. Decades after the take off of PHC in all parts of this country, the goal of health for all and beyond is still far from being attained. The management activities of Primary Health Care Facilities in Plateau State were investigated. A multistage sampling method was used to select 30 PHC facilities from 10 randomly selected LGAs out of the 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Plateau State. All the heads, the secretaries and the chief matrons of the selected facilities were interviewed using self-administered structured questionnaires. Responses were scored using a dichotomous scale and categorized into poor, fair, good and excellent performances, and analyzed using Epi info 2.3.05 2003 statistical software. Out of the 90 workers interviewed, 68.9% were females and 85.6% were married. Seventy four point four percent of the respondents were between 30-44 years of age, and 43.3% of the workers worked at the Basic Health Clinics (BHCs) while 20% of them worked in Comprehensive Health Centre (CHCs). Up to 40% of the LGAs had poor management performance, while the remaining 60% performed only fairly. Overall, PHC facilities in Langtang north did better in management of their facilities, while Shendam LGA scored least in management performance. In this study, no significant difference in scores of the various management activities between the LGAs was observed (F = 7.084, p > 0.05). However, a statistically significant difference in scores of management activities between the various types of PHC facilities was observed (F = 2.81, p < 0.05). The management staff in most of the primary health care facilities lack resources at their disposal and this hinders the efficient and effective running of the facilities. Lack of

  10. [Health status hygienic assessment of primary military education establishment pupils].

    PubMed

    Avshits, I V; Shirinskiĭ, V A

    2010-01-01

    During a comprehensive study, the investigators have made a hygienic assessment of an academic process and the actual nutrition of military school pupils, revealed the specific features of functioning of the body's major systems in adolescents at a closed primary military education establishment, studied the body's adaptive reactions to a combination of factors during study, and hygienically evaluated the pupils' health. Their health has been shown to improve at a closed education establishment according to the basic parameters of the body's functional status and nonspecific resistance, physical development. Specific recommendations are proposed to correct daily diets for pupils of primary military education establishments in order to bring the actual nutrition of cadets in compliance with the standard physiological requirements for this group of pupils.

  11. Single motherhood and mental health: implications for primary prevention

    PubMed Central

    Avison, W R

    1997-01-01

    In this issue (page 639) Dr. Ellen L. Lipman and colleagues show that single motherhood is associated with an increased risk of affective disorder and poverty and with increased rates of mental health services utilization. These findings have important implications for primary prevention interventions that focus on the social determinants of family health. Studies have shown that higher levels of psychological distress among single mothers are more closely related to their exposure to stressors than to their personal vulnerability to stress. Research has also shown that the stresses that affect single-parent families are greater in degree but not in kind than those that affect other families. Therefore, intervention programs that address the needs of all families are preferable to those that target specific types of families. Community-based primary prevention programs can promote the well-being of all families by improving the social and economic conditions in which they live. PMID:9068572

  12. Digital Media for Primary Health Care in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Johannes; Tuttle-Weidinger, Linda; Reckwitz, Luise

    2017-01-01

    Primary health care (PHC) is currently being improved in all developed industries. The aim is to make healthcare more patient-centered and close to the patient's place of residence. In addition to the organizational and interdisciplinary reorientation, the use of digital media is increasingly being emphasized. Through literature research and an online survey among Austrian doctors and general practitioners, the current and future challenges for the use of digital media in networked and regional primary health care were identified and prioritized. It becomes clear that basic functions like documentation, communication and coordination in the individual medical practice are at the forefront. In the future it will be necessary to support regional and interprofessional networking through digital media.

  13. Universal Health Coverage and Primary Healthcare: Lessons From Japan

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    A recent editorial by Naoki Ikegami has proposed three key lessons from Japan’s experience of achieving virtually universal coverage with primary healthcare services: the need to integrate the existing providers of primary healthcare services into the organised health system; the need to limit government commitments to finance hospital services and the need to empower providers of primary healthcare to influence decisions that influence their livelihoods. Although the context of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) differs in many ways from Japan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the lesson that short-term initiatives to achieve universal coverage need to be complemented by an understanding of the factors influencing long-term change management remains highly relevant.

  14. Designing Payment for Collaborative Care for Depression in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Ettner, Susan L; Bruce, Martha L; Solberg, Leif I; Unützer, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design a bundled case rate for Collaborative Care for Depression (CCD) that aligns incentives with evidence-based depression care in primary care. Data Sources A clinical information system used by all care managers in a randomized controlled trial of CCD for older primary care patients. Study Design We conducted an empirical investigation of factors accounting for variation in CCD resource use over time and across patients. CCD resource use at the patient-episode and patient-month levels was measured by number of care manager contacts and direct patient contact time and analyzed with count data (Poisson or negative binomial) models. Principal Findings Episode-level resource use varies substantially with patient's time in the program. Monthly use declines sharply in the first 6 months regardless of treatment response or remission status, but it remains stable afterwards. An adjusted episode or monthly case rate design better matches payment with variation in resource use compared with a fixed design. Conclusions Our findings lend support to an episode payment adjusted by number of months receiving CCD and a monthly payment adjusted by the ordinal month. Nonpayment tools including program certification and performance evaluation and reward systems are needed to fully align incentives. PMID:21609327

  15. Design development of graphite primary structures enables SSTO success

    SciTech Connect

    Biagiotti, V.A.; Yahiro, J.S.; Suh, D.E.; Hodges, E.R.; Prior, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphite composite wing and a graphite composite intertank primary structure for application toward Single-Stage to Orbit space vehicles such as those under development in NASA{close_quote}s X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program. The trade study and designs are based on a Rockwell vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) wing-body RLV vehicle. Northrop Grumman{close_quote}s approach using a building block development technique is described. Composite Graphite/Bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) material characterization test results are presented. Unique intertank and wing composite subcomponent test article designs are described and test results to date are presented. Wing and intertank Full Scale Section Test Article (FSTA) objectives and designs are outlined. Trade studies, supporting building block testing, and FSTA demonstrations combine to develop graphite primary structure composite technology that enables developing X-33/RLV design programs to meet critical SSTO structural weight and operations performance criteria. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Improving Primary Health Care in Chronic Musculoskeletal Conditions through Digital Media: The PEOPLE Meeting.

    PubMed

    Li, Linda C; Cott, Cheryl; Jones, C Allyson; Badley, Elizabeth M; Davis, Aileen M

    2013-03-08

    tailoring digital media interventions. Other priorities included: (1) studying barriers and ethical issues associated with the use of digital media to optimize MSK health and self-management, (2) improving the design of digital media tools for providing "just-in-time" health information to patients and health professionals, and (3) advancing knowledge on the effectiveness of new and existing digital media interventions. We anticipate that the results of this meeting will be a catalyst for future research projects and new cross-sector research partnerships. Our next step will be to seek feedback on the research priorities from our collaborators and other potential partners in primary health care.

  17. Primary adherence to antidepressant prescriptions in primary health care: a population-based study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Freccero, Carl; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Ji, Jianguang

    2016-01-01

    Medical adherence is important in the treatment of depression. Primary medical adherence, i.e. patients collecting their newly prescribed medications from pharmacies, is very different depending on the drug prescribed To assess the rate of primary medical adherence in patients prescribed antidepressants and to identify characteristics that make patients less likely to pick up prescriptions. An observational study was performed using primary health care data from Sweden on patients who were prescribed antidepressants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine differences in pick-up rate according to patient characteristics. Pick-up rate, defined as collection of a prescription within 30 days. A total of 11 624 patients received an antidepressant prescription during the study period, and the overall pick-up rate was 85.1%. The pick-up rate differed according to country of birth: individuals born in the Middle East and other countries outside Europe had lower primary medical adherence than Swedes, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 0.58 and 0.67, respectively. Patients at ages 64-79 years had a higher pick-up rate compared with those aged 25-44 years (OR 1.71). Divorced patients had a lower rate compared with married patients (OR 0.80). Immigrants from the Middle East and other countries outside Europe and younger and divorced patients had lower primary medical adherence, which calls for clinical attention and preventive measures. KEY POINTS Primary medical adherence is important in the treatment of depression. Are patient characteristics associated with primary medical adherence? The overall primary medical adherence rate was 85%. The rate differed by country of birth, age at diagnosis of depression, and marital status. Clinical attention is needed in patients who do not pick up their antidepressants.

  18. Developing Tomorrow's Integrated Community Health Systems: A Leadership Challenge for Public Health and Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Welton, William E.; Kantner, Theodore A.; Katz, Sheila Moriber

    1997-01-01

    As the nation's health system moves away from earlier models to one grounded in population health and market-based systems of care, new challenges arise for public health professionals, primary care practitioners, health plan and institutional managers, and community leaders. Among the challenges are the need to develop creative concepts of organization and accountability and to assure that dynamic, system-oriented structures support the new kind of leadership that is required. Developing tomorrow's integrated community health systems will challenge the leadership skills and integrative abilities of public health professionals, primary care practitioners, and managers. These leaders and their new organizations must, in turn, assume increased accountability for improving community health. PMID:9184684

  19. Oral health technicians in Brazilian primary health care: potentials and constraints.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Dulce Maria Lucena de; Tomita, Nilce Emy; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Martins, Cleide Lavieri; Frazão, Paulo

    2014-07-01

    Different perspectives on the role of mid-level workers in health care might represent a constraint to health policies. This study aimed to investigate how different agents view the participation of oral health technicians in direct activities of oral healthcare with the goal of understanding the related symbolic dispositions. Theoretical assumptions related to inter-professional collaboration and conflicts in the field of healthcare were used for this analysis. A researcher conducted 24 in-depth interviews with general dental practitioners, oral health technicians and local managers. The concepts of Pierre Bourdieu supported the data interpretation. The results indicated inter-professional relations marked by collaboration and conflict that reflect an action space related to different perspectives of primary care delivery. They also unveiled the symbolic devices related to the participation of oral health technicians that represent a constraint to the implementation of oral health policy, thus reducing the potential of primary health care in Brazil.

  20. Behavioral Health Integration in Health Care Settings: Lessons Learned from a Pediatric Hospital Primary Care System.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Leandra; Long, Melissa; Marschall, Donna; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Bokor, Brooke; Rhodes, Hope; Crumpton, Howard; Weissman, Mark; Beers, Lee

    2017-09-19

    Behavioral health integration within primary care has been evolving, but literature traditionally focuses on smaller scale efforts. We detail how behavioral health has been integrated across a large, urban pediatric hospital system's six primary care clinics (serving over 35,000 children annually and insured predominately through Medicaid) and discuss strategies for success in sustaining and expanding efforts to achieve effective integration of behavioral health into primary care. In a time span of 3 years, the clinics have implemented routine, universal behavioral health screening at well child visits, participated in a 15-month behavioral health screening quality improvement learning collaborative, and integrated the work of psychologists and psychiatrists. Additional work remains to be done in improving family engagement, further expanding services, and ensuring sustainability.

  1. [Primary Health Care in the coordination of health care networks: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Silva, Patricia Costa Dos Santos; Peruhype, Rarianne Carvalho; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    Health systems organized in health care networks and coordinated by Primary Health Care can contribute to an improvement in clinical quality with a positive impact on health outcomes and user satisfaction (by improving access and resolubility) and a reduction in the costs of local health systems. Thus, the scope of this paper is to analyze the scientific output about the evidence, potential, challenges and prospects of Primary Health Care in the coordination of Health Care Networks. To achieve this, the integrative review method was selected covering the period between 2000 and 2011. The databases selected were Medline (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online), Lilacs (Latin American Literature in Health Sciences) and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online). Eighteen articles fulfilled the selection criteria. It was seen that the potential impacts of primary care services supersede the inherent weaknesses. However, the results revealed the need for research with a higher level of classification of the scientific evidence about the role of Primary Healh Care in the coordination of Health Care Networks.

  2. [Primary health care as an instrument of development in Mexico].

    PubMed

    José, M V; Kumate, J; Barnard, A

    1989-01-01

    A Primary Health Care (PHC) score is obtained by averaging thirteen indicators of PHC of each state of Mexico with data of 1985. Some correlations between the PHC score with other indicators of development, such as education and urbanism, are analyzed. The socioeconomic and educational status of women impinge directly in the processes of PHC. Based upon results of basic research some features of coverage and selectivity of PHC strategies are analyzed.

  3. [Homosexuality and adolescence. A primary health care center holistic view].

    PubMed

    Leyva Moral, Juan Manuel

    2006-09-01

    In spite of the fact that homosexuality has existed since time immemorial, homosexuality continues to be a taboo topic for many people. When time comes for a youth to reveal his/her sexual identify to his/her family many young homosexuals experience duress during this process which may have physical and psychological consequences for those youths. Therefore, it is important that all primary health care team members be capable to identify this process in order to apply the most appropriate measures.

  4. Study protocol: national research partnership to improve primary health care performance and outcomes for Indigenous peoples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Strengthening primary health care is critical to reducing health inequity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Audit and Best practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE) project has facilitated the implementation of modern Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) approaches in Indigenous community health care centres across Australia. The project demonstrated improvements in health centre systems, delivery of primary care services and in patient intermediate outcomes. It has also highlighted substantial variation in quality of care. Through a partnership between academic researchers, service providers and policy makers, we are now implementing a study which aims to 1) explore the factors associated with variation in clinical performance; 2) examine specific strategies that have been effective in improving primary care clinical performance; and 3) work with health service staff, management and policy makers to enhance the effective implementation of successful strategies. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in Indigenous community health centres from at least six States/Territories (Northern Territory, Western Australia, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland and Victoria) over a five year period. A research hub will be established in each region to support collection and reporting of quantitative and qualitative clinical and health centre system performance data, to investigate factors affecting variation in quality of care and to facilitate effective translation of research evidence into policy and practice. The project is supported by a web-based information system, providing automated analysis and reporting of clinical care performance to health centre staff and management. Discussion By linking researchers directly to users of research (service providers, managers and policy makers), the partnership is well placed to generate new knowledge on effective strategies for improving the quality of primary health care and

  5. Optimization of the National Ignition Facility primary shield design

    SciTech Connect

    Annese, C.E.; Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E.; Miller, W.F.; Latkowski, J.; Lee, J.D.; Soran, P.; Tobin, M.L.

    1993-10-01

    Minimum cost design concepts of the primary shield for the National Ignition laser fusion experimental Facility (NIF) are searched with the help of the optimization code SWAN. The computational method developed for this search involves incorporating the time dependence of the delayed photon field within effective delayed photon production cross sections. This method enables one to address the time-dependent problem using relatively simple, time-independent transport calculations, thus significantly simplifying the design process. A novel approach was used for the identification of the optimal combination of constituents that will minimize the shield cost; it involves the generation, with SWAN, of effectiveness functions for replacing materials on an equal cost basis. The minimum cost shield design concept was found to consist of a mixture of polyethylene and low cost, low activation materials such as SiC, with boron added near the shield boundaries.

  6. A Conceptual Framework for Evaluation of Public Health and Primary Care System Performance in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jahanmehr, Nader; Rashidian, Arash; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Farzadfar, Farshad; Shariati, Mohammad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Sari, Ali Akbari; Mesdaghinia, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of this study was to design a conceptual framework, according to the policies and priorities of the ministry of health to evaluate provincial public health and primary care performance and to assess their share in the overall health impacts of the community. Methods: We used several tools and techniques, including system thinking, literature review to identify relevant attributes of health system performance framework and interview with the key stakeholders. The PubMed, Scopus, web of science, Google Scholar and two specialized databases of Persian language literature (IranMedex and SID) were searched using main terms and keywords. Following decision-making and collective agreement among the different stakeholders, 51 core indicators were chosen from among 602 obtained indicators in a four stage process, for monitoring and evaluation of Health Deputies. Results: We proposed a conceptual framework by identifying the performance area for Health Deputies between other determinants of health, as well as introducing a chain of results, for performance, consisting of Input, Process, Output and Outcome indicators. We also proposed 5 dimensions for measuring the performance of Health Deputies, consisting of efficiency, effectiveness, equity, access and improvement of health status. Conclusion: The proposed Conceptual Framework illustrates clearly the Health Deputies success in achieving best results and consequences of health in the country. Having the relative commitment of the ministry of health and Health Deputies at the University of Medical Sciences is essential for full implementation of this framework and providing the annual performance report. PMID:25946937

  7. The temporal association of excessive health expenditure with suicidal ideation among primary income earners: a cross-sectional design using the Korean Welfare Panel Survey (KoWePS)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Jae Woo; Jang, Sung-in; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu; Ihm, Tae Hwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Excessive health expenditure (EHE) is a global issue for households suffering from high-cost medical conditions, low incomes and limited insurance coverage. After the international financial crisis of 2008, EHE became a social problem in developed countries. Such economic crisis might induce severe mental stress, resulting in suicidal ideation. Methods We used the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KoWePS) from 2011 to 2013 and selected primary income earners, who were defined as practical and economic representatives of households; the total number of analysed samples was 4247 of 5717 households in the database. We only included households that had never experienced EHE before 2011. To examine the temporal relationship between EHE and suicidal ideation, we conducted a logistic regression analysis. Results Among 4247 participants, 146 (3.4%) experienced suicidal ideation, whereas 4101 (96.6%) did not. One scale of depression score (OR=1.28, CI 1.23 to 1.34, p<0.001) was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Such ideation was influenced to a greater extent by a recent EHE above 10% of disposable income (OR=1.91, CI 1.16 to 3.15, p=0.012) than by either a remote EHE (OR=1.29, CI 0.71 to 2.32) or one in 2011 and 2012 (OR=1.67, CI 1.01 to 2.78, p=0.048). Conclusions In this study, more recent EHE resulted in more suicidal ideation. In conclusion, we suggest that recent household EHE might be considered as an important factor to prevent suicidal ideation and to improve the mental health of individuals. PMID:26082463

  8. Designing an intervention to prevent suicide: PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Martha L.; Pearson, Jane L.

    1999-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem with greatest risk in the very old. This paper describes an approach to reducing the risk of suicide by intervening on depression in elderly primary care patients. Depression is an appropriate target for an intervention as it is highly prevalent in primary care, is a strong risk factor for suicide, and is more often than not inadequately treated. PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial) is a National institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded collaborative study that is testing this approach to suicide risk prevention in 18 primary care practices in the United States. PROSPECT'S intervention of “guideline management” introduces a health specialist into the primary care setting to help physicians provide “on-time, on-target” treatment and long-term management of late-life depression following structured clinical guidelines. The effectiveness of the intervention in reducing suicidal risk and depression is evaluated by following a representative sample of older patients identified using a 2-stage design. PMID:22033641

  9. Screening for Behavioral Health Conditions in Primary Care Settings: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Marshall, Tina; Downey Piscopo, Kathryn; Korsen, Neil; Lynch, Sean; Karnell, Lucy H; Moran, Garrett E; Daniels, Allen S; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma

    2017-09-25

    Mounting evidence indicates that early recognition and treatment of behavioral health disorders can prevent complications, improve quality of life, and help reduce health care costs. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify and evaluate publicly available, psychometrically tested tools that primary care physicians (PCPs) can use to screen adult patients for common mental and substance use disorders such as depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders. We followed the Institute of Medicine (IOM) systematic review guidelines and searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments databases to identify literature addressing tools for screening of behavioral health conditions. We gathered information on each tool's psychometrics, applicability in primary care, and characteristics such as number of items and mode of administration. We included tools focused on adults and the most common behavioral health conditions; we excluded tools designed for children, youth, or older adults; holistic health scales; and tools screening for serious but less frequently encountered disorders, such as bipolar disorder. We identified 24 screening tools that met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen tools were subscales stemming from multiple-disorder assessments or tools that assessed more than one mental disorder or more than one substance use disorder in a single instrument. Nine were ultra-short, single-disorder tools. The tools varied in psychometrics and the extent to which they had been administered and studied in primary care settings. Tools stemming from the Patient Health Questionnaire had the most testing and application in primary care settings. However, numerous other tools could meet the needs of primary care practices. This review provides information that PCPs can use to select appropriate tools to incorporate into a screening protocol.

  10. Feeding, feedback and sustenance of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Rohde, J E; Northrup, R S

    1988-01-01

    The neglect of nutrition in primary health care is widespread despite the severity of malnutrition in the world today. Some of the reasons for this situation include a lack of definition, i.e. nutrition is considered a continuous daily need, not a health intervention; it is often a difficult task to solicit participation from the mothers; nutrition is often not an acutely felt need, thus there is no demand; nutrition requires continuous action on a daily basis, but produces no visible results; and finally actions aimed at malnutrition or even its prevention often do not seem to work. Nutrition interventions often do not work because the interventions come too late, often when permanent stunting of the child's growth has already occurred. Since inadequate nutrition can not be seen in the early stages, growth monitoring can be used as a feedback mechanism to stimulate appropriate feeding responses. For a mother to become involved in growth monitoring 4 elements are necessary: 1) she must be aware of the problem or situation, 2) she must be motivated to respond, 3) she must have the knowledge and skills of how to feed, what to feed, and when to feed, and 4) She must have the means to act, i.e. food must be available to give the child. Many growth monitoring programs have failed because the mother was not involved, and never perceives the problem, therefore she never acts. If growth monitoring is integrated into the primary health care system, it also becomes a regular time for health education in other topics. Disease and death are more often found in children who are malnourished, thus primary health care interventions are likely to be more effective in the presence of effective nutrition interventions.

  11. Primary health care approach: how did it evolve?

    PubMed

    Walt, G; Vaughan, P

    1982-10-01

    The authors outline some of the important factors that shaped the primary health care (PHC) approach. First, theories about development changed; rather than concentrating on physical growth and industry in the belief that as the economy grew benefits would spread to poorer groups, it become politically unacceptable to tolerate large differences in health care between the rich and the poor. Second, there was increasing concern about population growth in a world of finite resources and about the political instability of rapidly growing populations. These elements led to a trend against vertical family planning services, and towards integrated maternal and child health services with a family planning component; the perspective became child spacing rather than limitation. A 3rd factor was the trend away from technological medical solutions to more concern with social, psychological, behavioral, and economic factors. There was concern about western medical models being imposed on developing countries. In the 1960s Maurice King emphasized the need to provide basic health services in the community; community involvement was the 4th factor behind PHC. China, Cuba, Vietnam, and Tanzania all had successful community based PHC programs based on the idea that health was integral to development. These successes combined with the differences between rural and urban health status gave the impulse to the PHC approach. The 5th influence was the World Health Organization (WHO) and international agencies which emphasized that health was linked to development; in 1975 WHO launched the idea of health for all by the year 2000 with the strategy of the setting of minimum targets for food consumption, clothing, housing, and provision of water, sanitation, education, health, and public transport services. WHO and UNICEF called a meeting in Alma Ata, USSR in 1978 as a culmination of all of these efforts.

  12. Exploring the feasibility of new Dutch mental health policy within a large primary health care centre: a case study.

    PubMed

    Magnée, Tessa; de Beurs, Derek P; Kok, Thomas Y; Verhaak, Peter F

    2017-09-07

    A reform of Dutch mental health care aimed to substitute care from specialized care to general practice. Since 1 January 2014, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) are no longer allowed to refer patients without a psychiatric disorder to mental health care. Patients with non-complex psychological problems should be treated within general practice. To explore the feasibility of the Dutch mental health policy. We conducted an observational case study in a primary health care centre in 2014. The health care centre was a convenience sample; the participating GPs reorganized mental health care in line with the upcoming policy, and invited the researchers to monitor their referrals. We assessed how many patients with mental health problems (n = 408) were allocated to policy-concordant treatment. Additionally, 137 patients (33%) completed a follow up assessment on mental health problems 3 months after baseline. The majority of the patients were allocated to treatment in line with the policy. Almost half of the patients (42%) were treated in a setting that was exactly policy-concordant, while the other half (47%) was treated in a setting that was even less specialized than was allowed. In general, patients showed improvement after 3 months, regardless of (non) policy-concordant treatment. Attrition rate after 3 months was high, probably due to the practical study design. There is potential for substitution of mental health care. Since the studied health care centre was specialized in mental health care, further research should explore if similar results can be found in other general practices.

  13. Improving Primary Health Care in Chronic Musculoskeletal Conditions through Digital Media: The PEOPLE Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Cott, Cheryl; Jones, C Allyson; Badley, Elizabeth M; Davis, Aileen M

    2013-01-01

    indicated that this information is necessary for tailoring digital media interventions. Other priorities included: (1) studying barriers and ethical issues associated with the use of digital media to optimize MSK health and self-management, (2) improving the design of digital media tools for providing “just-in-time” health information to patients and health professionals, and (3) advancing knowledge on the effectiveness of new and existing digital media interventions. Conclusions We anticipate that the results of this meeting will be a catalyst for future research projects and new cross-sector research partnerships. Our next step will be to seek feedback on the research priorities from our collaborators and other potential partners in primary health care. PMID:23612113

  14. The ethics of complex relationships in primary care behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Jeff; Runyan, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Primary care settings are particularly prone to complex relationships that can be ethically challenging. This is due in part to three of the distinctive attributes of primary care: a whole family orientation; team-based care; and a longitudinal care delivery model. In addition, the high patient volume of primary care means that the likelihood of encountering ethically challenging relationships is probably greater than in a specialty setting. This article argues that one ethical standard of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010, Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct, www.apa.org/ethics/code) (10.02, Therapy Involving Couples or Families) should be revised to better accommodate the work of psychologists in primary care. The corresponding Principles of Medical Ethics from the American Medical Association (AMA, 2012, Code of medical ethics: Current opinions with annotations, 2012-2013, Washington, DC: Author), most notably the principle regarding a physician's duty to "respect the rights of patients, colleagues, and other health professionals as well as safeguard privacy" are also noted. In addition, the article details how the three attributes of primary care often result in complex relationships, and provides suggestions for handling such relationships ethically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Mental health care roles of non-medical primary health and social care services.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Penny

    2009-02-01

    Changes in patterns of delivery of mental health care over several decades are putting pressure on primary health and social care services to increase their involvement. Mental health policy in countries like the UK, Australia and New Zealand recognises the need for these services to make a greater contribution and calls for increased intersectoral collaboration. In Australia, most investment to date has focused on the development and integration of specialist mental health services and primary medical care, and evaluation research suggests some progress. Substantial inadequacies remain, however, in the comprehensiveness and continuity of care received by people affected by mental health problems, particularly in relation to social and psychosocial interventions. Very little research has examined the nature of the roles that non-medical primary health and social care services actually or potentially play in mental health care. Lack of information about these roles could have inhibited development of service improvement initiatives targeting these services. The present paper reports the results of an exploratory study that examined the mental health care roles of 41 diverse non-medical primary health and social care services in the state of Victoria, Australia. Data were collected in 2004 using a purposive sampling strategy. A novel method of surveying providers was employed whereby respondents within each agency worked as a group to complete a structured survey that collected quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously. This paper reports results of quantitative analyses including a tentative principal components analysis that examined the structure of roles. Non-medical primary health and social care services are currently performing a wide variety of mental health care roles and they aspire to increase their involvement in this work. However, these providers do not favour approaches involving selective targeting of clients with mental disorders.

  16. The Role of the Community Health Educator on the Primary Health Care Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Patricia A.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most neglected consumer groups has been the migrant and rural poor populations scattered through the farming regions of the country. The Colorado Migrant Health Program is a valuable means of providing primary health services to migrant farmworkers. (JN)

  17. The Role of the Community Health Educator on the Primary Health Care Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Patricia A.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most neglected consumer groups has been the migrant and rural poor populations scattered through the farming regions of the country. The Colorado Migrant Health Program is a valuable means of providing primary health services to migrant farmworkers. (JN)

  18. Access to primary health care for Australian young people: service provider perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Melissa; Bernard, Diana; Booth, Michael; Quine, Susan; Alperstein, Garth; Usherwood, Tim; Bennett, David

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To adequately address the complex health needs of young people, their access to services, and the quality of services received, must be improved. AIMS: To explore the barriers to service provision for young people and to identify the training needs of primary healthcare service providers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. DESIGN OF STUDY: A cross-sectional, qualitative study of the perspectives of a range of health service providers. SETTING: A range of primary healthcare organisations across NSW. METHODS: Samples of general practitioners (GPs), youth health workers, youth health coordinators, and community health centre staff were drawn from urban and rural clusters across NSW. Focus groups and interviews were used to identify barriers to service provision and the training needs of service providers. Data were tape recorded, transcribed, and analysed. RESULTS: Barriers to service provision among GPs and community health centre staff included inadequate time, flexibility, skills, and confidence in working with young people, and poor linkages with other relevant services. Training needs included better knowledge of and skills in adolescent health requirements, working with adolescents, and working with other services. Barriers to service provision for youth health workers and coordinators included lack of financial resources and infrastructure. There were few linkages between groups of service providers. CONCLUSION: Models of service provision that allow stronger linkages between service providers, sufficient time for consultation with young people, adequate training and support of health professionals, and flexibility of service provision, including outreach, should be explored and evaluated. PMID:14960219

  19. Perceived role of primary care physicians in Nova Scotia's reformed health care system. Qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Sangster, L. M.; McGuire, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine primary care physicians' perceptions of their role in a reformed health system. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING: Province of Nova Scotia. PARTICIPANTS: Purposefully selected sample of 14 practising primary care physicians. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: Participants identified seven aspects of their role: primarily, diagnosis and treatment of patient's medical problems; then coordination, counseling, education, advocacy, disease prevention, and gatekeeping. The range of activities and degree of responsibility assumed by participants, however, varied. Factors affecting role perception fell into three categories: philosophical view of health and medicine, willingness to collaborate, and practical realities. Participants differed in their understanding of primary health care and their overall vision of the health system. Remuneration policies and concerns about sharing accountability were factors preventing an integrated, collaborative approach to care. Personal, patient, and structural realities also limited physicians' roles. CONCLUSIONS: This sample of primary care physicians had diverse perceptions of their role. Results of this study could provide information for identifying issues that need to be addressed to facilitate changes taking place in the health care system. PMID:10889862

  20. Primary care physician's attitude towards the German e-health card project--determinants and implications.

    PubMed

    Ernstmann, Nicole; Ommen, Oliver; Neumann, Melanie; Hammer, Antje; Voltz, Raymond; Pfaff, Holger

    2009-06-01

    In Germany e-health cards will be distributed nationwide to over 80 million patients. Given the impending mandatory introduction of the e-health technology, the objective of this study was to examine the determinants of primary care physicians' acceptance of the technological innovation. The study was conducted prior to the introduction of the e-health cards. A questionnaire survey was carried out addressing primary care physicians from different fields. The reduction of medication error rates and the improvement of communication between medical caregivers are central aspects of the perceived usefulness. Primary care physicians rate their involvement in the process of the development of the technology and their own IT expertise concerning the technological innovation as rather low. User involvement and IT expertise can explain 46 % of the variance of perceived usefulness of the e-health card. User involvement plays a crucial role in the adoption of the German e-health card. Primary care physician's perspective should be represented in the process of developing and designing the technology.

  1. Health promotion in pediatric primary care: importance of health literacy and communication practices.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Jones, V Faye; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Ryan, Lesa; Wilkerson-McMahon, Mandie

    2013-12-01

    Health literacy has been shown to predict health behaviors and outcomes above the effects of education or socioeconomic status. Much remains unknown about the health literacy of parents and the role it plays in children's health outcomes or in health disparities. The current study explored the health communication needs and health literacy indicators in a diverse sample of parents (n = 75) to identify potential areas for future interventions. The sample consisted of parents of children 18 to 36 months old who were visiting 3 different pediatric medical offices, 2 of which served low-income families and 1 located in an affluent suburb. When comparisons were made between 2 educational attainment groups, there were variations in indicators of health literacy and health communication needs. These data can be used to guide the development of interventions by primary care providers to improve parent education.

  2. The Thai-Australian Health Alliance: developing health management capacity and sustainability for primary health care services.

    PubMed

    Briggs, D S; Tejativaddhana, P; Cruickshank, M; Fraser, J; Campbell, S

    2010-11-01

    There have been recent calls for a renewed worldwide focus on primary health care. The Thai-Australian Health Alliance addresses this call by developing health care management capability in primary health care professionals in rural Thailand. This paper describes the history and current activities of the Thai-Australian Health Alliance and its approaches to developing health care management capacity for primary care services through international collaborations in research, education and training over a sustained time period. The Alliance's approach is described herein as a distributed network of practices with access to shared knowledge through collaboration. Its research and education approaches involve action research, multi-methods projects, and evaluative studies in the context of workshops and field studies. WHO principles underpin this approach, with countries sharing practical experiences and outcomes, encouraging leadership and management resource networks, creating clearing houses/knowledge centres, and harmonising and aligning partners with their country's health systems. Various evaluations of the Alliance's activities have demonstrated that a capacity building approach that aligns researchers, educators and health practitioners in comparative and reflective activities can be effective in transferring knowledge and skills among a collaboration's partners. Project participants, including primary health care practitioners, health policy makers and academics embraced the need to acquire management skills to sustain primary care units. Participants believe that the approaches described herein were crucial to developing the management skills needed of health care professionals for rural and remote primary health care. The implementation of this initiative was challenged by pre-existing low opinions of the importance of the management role in health care, but with time the Alliance's activities highlighted for all the importance of health care management

  3. Primary Care Patients’ Perspectives of Barriers and Enablers of Primary Prevention and Health Promotion—A Meta-Ethnographic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Conejo-Cerón, Sonia; Fernández, Ana; Berenguera, Anna; Martínez-Andrés, María; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Motrico, Emma; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Bellón, Juan A.; Rubio-Valera, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary care (PC) patients have difficulties in committing to and incorporating primary prevention and health promotion (PP&HP) activities into their long-term care. We aimed to re-interpret, for the first time, qualitative findings regarding factors affecting PC patients' acceptance of PP&HP activities. Methods and Findings A meta-ethnographic synthesis was generated following electronic and manual searches that retrieved 29 articles. Papers were reviewed and translated to produce a re-interpretation of the extracted concepts. The factors affecting PC patients' receptiveness to PP&HP activities were framed in a four-level ecological model (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional and environment and society). Intrapersonal factors (patients' beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, skills, self-concept, motivation and resources) were the most numerous, with almost 25 different factors. Public health education to modify erroneous beliefs and values regarding PP&HP could encourage a transition to healthier lifestyles. Health care professionals' abilities to communicate and involve patients in the decision-making process can act as facilitators. Biopsychosocial training (with emphasis on communication skills) for health professionals must start with undergraduates. Increased consultation time, the use of reminders, follow-up visits and tools for communicating risk and motivating patients could be applied at the intrapersonal level. Collaborative care involving other health professionals (nutritionists or psychotherapists) and family and community stakeholders (teachers or gym trainers) was important in developing healthier habits. Patients also cited barriers related to the built environment and socioeconomic difficulties that highlighted the need for policies promoting social justice and equity. Encouraging PP&HP using social marketing strategies and regulating media to control its impact on health were also cited. Only the perspectives of PC patients in the

  4. Primary care patients' perspectives of barriers and enablers of primary prevention and health promotion-a meta-ethnographic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Conejo-Cerón, Sonia; Fernández, Ana; Berenguera, Anna; Martínez-Andrés, María; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Motrico, Emma; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Bellón, Juan A; Rubio-Valera, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Primary care (PC) patients have difficulties in committing to and incorporating primary prevention and health promotion (PP&HP) activities into their long-term care. We aimed to re-interpret, for the first time, qualitative findings regarding factors affecting PC patients' acceptance of PP&HP activities. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was generated following electronic and manual searches that retrieved 29 articles. Papers were reviewed and translated to produce a re-interpretation of the extracted concepts. The factors affecting PC patients' receptiveness to PP&HP activities were framed in a four-level ecological model (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional and environment and society). Intrapersonal factors (patients' beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, skills, self-concept, motivation and resources) were the most numerous, with almost 25 different factors. Public health education to modify erroneous beliefs and values regarding PP&HP could encourage a transition to healthier lifestyles. Health care professionals' abilities to communicate and involve patients in the decision-making process can act as facilitators. Biopsychosocial training (with emphasis on communication skills) for health professionals must start with undergraduates. Increased consultation time, the use of reminders, follow-up visits and tools for communicating risk and motivating patients could be applied at the intrapersonal level. Collaborative care involving other health professionals (nutritionists or psychotherapists) and family and community stakeholders (teachers or gym trainers) was important in developing healthier habits. Patients also cited barriers related to the built environment and socioeconomic difficulties that highlighted the need for policies promoting social justice and equity. Encouraging PP&HP using social marketing strategies and regulating media to control its impact on health were also cited. Only the perspectives of PC patients in the context of chronic conditions were

  5. Design considerations for mental health facilities.

    PubMed

    Willis, V J

    1980-07-01

    The design environment of mental health facilities can facilitate the human interactions essential to treatment and can help in meeting clients' basic needs for safety and security, for self-esteem, and for the development of interpersonal and social skills. To determine the factors in the design of interior spaces that optimize clients' response to therapy, the author made a study of six Indiana community mental health centers. Drawing on that study and other sources, she presents design recommendations for mental health facilities for such areas as reception and admission areas, corridors and stairwells, therapists' offices, inpatient rooms, and dayrooms. Other discussions cover the relation of color, visual patterning, and light, and the selection of materials and finishes.

  6. Risk levels for suffering a traffic injury in primary health care. The LESIONAT* project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Literature shows that not only are traffic injuries due to accidents, but that there is also a correlation between different chronic conditions, the consumption of certain types of drugs, the intake of psychoactive substances and the self perception of risk (Health Belief Model) and the impact/incidence of traffic accidents. There are few studies on these aspects in primary health care. The objectives of our study are: Main aim: To outline the distribution of risk factors associated with Road Traffic Injuries (RTI) in a driving population assigned to a group of primary health care centres in Barcelona province. Secondly, we aim to study the distribution of diverse risk factors related to the possibility of suffering an RTI according to age, sex and population groups, to assess the relationship between these same risk factors and self risk perception for suffering an RTI, and to outline the association between the number of risk factors and the history of reported collisions. Methods/Design Design: Cross-sectional, multicentre study. Setting: 25 urban health care centres. Study population: Randomly selected sample of Spanish/Catalan speakers age 16 or above with a medical register in any of the 25 participating primary health care centres. N = 1540. Unit of study: Basic unit of care, consisting of a general practitioner and a nurse, both of whom caring for the same population (1,500 to 2,000 people per unit). Instruments of measurement: Data collection will be performed using a survey carried out by health professionals, who will use the clinical registers and the information reported by the patient during the visit to collect the baseline data: illnesses, medication intake, alcohol and psychoactive consumption, and self perception of risk. Discussion We expect to obtain a risk profile of the subjects in relation to RTI in the primary health care field, and to create a group for a prospective follow-up. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier

  7. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  8. The Quality Assurance Project: introducing quality improvement to primary health care in less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, D D; Heiby, J R; Hatzell, T A

    1991-01-01

    Persistently excessive morbidity and mortality rates in less developed countries (LDCs) served by primary health care systems suggest that the quality of services is inadequate. The PRICOR project, sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development, has designed and implemented methods for quality assessment and problem solving in LDC health systems. After developing comprehensive lists of essential activities and tasks, similar to practice parameters, for seven child survival interventions, PRICOR supported comprehensive quality assessment studies in twelve LDC countries. The studies, yielding over 6000 observations of health worker-client encounters, indicated highly prevalent, serious program deficiencies in areas including diagnosis, treatment, patient education and supervision. To facilitate corrective action, PRICOR assisted managers in conducting operations research to resolve priority problems revealed by the assessments. The recently initiated Quality Assurance Project is building on PRICOR techniques in designing and implementing sustainable continuous quality improvement programs for LDC health systems.

  9. Primary Health Care Reform in Portugal: Portuguese, modern and innovative.

    PubMed

    Biscaia, André Rosa; Heleno, Liliana Correia Valente

    2017-03-01

    The 2005 Portuguese primary health care (CSP) reform was one of the most successful reforms of the country's public services. The most relevant event was the establishment of Family Health Units (USF): voluntary and self-organized multidisciplinary teams that provide customized medical and nursing care to a group of people. Then, the remaining realms of CSP were reorganized with the establishment of Health Center Clusters (ACeS). Clinical governance was implemented aiming at achieving health gains by improving quality and participation and accountability of all. This paper aims to characterize the 2005 reform of Portuguese CSP with an analysis of its systemic and local realms. This is a case study of a CSP reform of a health system with documentary analysis and description of one of its facilities. This reform was Portuguese, modern and innovative. Portuguese by not breaking completely with the past, modern because it has adhered to technology and networking, and innovative because it broke with the traditional hierarchized model. It fulfilled the goal of a reform: it achieved improvements with greater satisfaction of all and health gains.

  10. [Ten years after "privatization" in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Marković, Biserka Bergman; Katić, Milica; Milaković, Sanja Blazeković; Petric, Dragomir

    2007-02-01

    Ten years after the privatization in primary health care its disadvantages have been noticed making it less quality and consequently increasing the costs of total health care of the patient. Current organization makes family practitioners inaccessible to the patient during a part of the day. Emergency health care and hospital emergency services are ever more burdened with the work that should be done by family practitioners, thus becoming hardly accessible in emergencies. Medical nurses are mostly occupied with administrative work, family practitioners are partly doing the work that should be done by nurses, while clinical specialists are doing the job of family practitioners. They all work a lot but they do the jobs that should not be in their domain and that are much under the level of their education. Health care becomes ineffective, below-quality and expensive. It is necessary to redefine the tasks of all health care participants starting from family practitioners, and to redefine the role of medical center. Solving the legal position of family practitioners working in "lease", introduction of the combined form of payment in family practice, and the possibility of interacting association of physicians could help eliminate the problems and promote the quality of health care.

  11. Psychiatric assessment and screening for the elderly in primary care: design, implementation, and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Robert C.; Boné, Blanca; Reid, M. Cary; Adelman, Ronald D.; Breckman, Risa; Goralewicz, Ronald; Palombo, Marlena; Stern, Amy; Shengelia, Rouzi; Teresi, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We describe the design and implementation of a psychiatric collaborative care model in a University-based geriatric primary care practice. Initial results of screening for anxiety and depression are reported. Methods and Materials Screens for anxiety and depression were administered to practice patients. A mental health team, consisting of a psychiatrist, mental health nurse practitioner and social worker, identified patients who on review of screening and chart data warranted evaluation or treatment. Referrals for mental health interventions were directed to members of the mental health team, primary care physicians at the practice, or community providers. Results Subjects (N=1505) comprised 38.2% of the 3940 unique patients seen at the practice during the 4-year study period. 37.1% (N=555) screened positive for depression, 26.9 % (N=405) for anxiety, and 322 (21.4%) screened positive for both. Any positive score was associated with age (p<0.033), female gender (p<0.006), and a non-significant trend toward living alone (p<0.095). 8.87% had suicidal thoughts. Conclusions Screening captured the most affectively symptomatic patients, including those with suicidal ideation, for intervention. The partnering of mental health professionals and primary care physicians offers a workable model for addressing the scarcity of expertise in geriatric psychiatry. PMID:25954771

  12. The maze and the minotaur: mental health in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Hirdes, Alice; Scarparo, Helena Beatriz Kochenborger

    2015-02-01

    The article aims to discuss the issue of integration of mental health in primary care by matrix support in mental health. We point out the main barriers in the use of this work method, as well as the facilitating factors of the matrix support of mental health in primary care. The first are within the scope of epistemological specificities, professional issues and management in the political and ideological dimensions. Among the second, we highlight: the care for people with mental disorders in the territory; the reduction of stigma and discrimination; the development of new skills for professionals in primary care; reduction of costs; simultaneous treatment of physical and mental illness, which often overlap; the possibility of incorporating mental health care in a perspective of extended clinical service using an inter/transdisciplinary approach.

  13. Patient-centered primary health care: synergy potential for health systems strengthening.

    PubMed

    Stender, S C; Christensen, A

    2013-10-01

    The ultimate goal of government health systems is to provide highly effective equitable services that save lives and reduce morbidity and mortality. The pressure to conform to duplicative global and donor initiatives compounds existing challenges to health systems strengthening such as shortages of human resources for health, weak supply chains, inadequate laboratory services and parallel data management systems. This article illustrates how primary health care, as the point of entry into the health care system for the majority of individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, should be strengthened to ensure that individuals and their communities receive essential, holistic care.

  14. [Traffic accidents: a health problem in primary care].

    PubMed

    Blanquer, J J; Rapa, M; Melchor, A; Jiménez, T; Adam, A; Mulet, M J

    1993-09-15

    To discover the prevalence and most relevant epidemiological characteristics of the victims of traffic accidents which occur in our health area. Hospital Casualty department (HC), Health area 19, Alcoy. This was an observational, crossover study, based on the collection of data from all those patients who had been brought into the HC for attention because of a traffic accident and who were attended between October 1, 1990 and September 31, 1991. During the study period a total of 1,111 traffic accident victims were attended. Their average age was 26.62 (SD +/- 15.95), with 69.6% being men and 30.2% women. 60.7% of the victims were attended on non-working days or the eve of a non-working day. 44.5% of those involved in accidents were in four-wheeled vehicles; 40% on two-wheeled vehicles and 11.1% of the victims were pedestrians. Injuries were light in 73.3% of cases; moderate in 15.9% and in the other 8.8% serious, grave or critical. 43.7% of the total had the accident in an urban area and 40.9% on the open road. The high prevalence of victims of accidents (8.3 per 1000 inhabitants) observed in our health area can be explained by the type of study. It is vital to obtain valid information of the real importance of this health problem. The primary care doctor must take preventive action concerning traffic accidents: a) through full studies of traffic accident levels among primary care centre users; b) primary preventive action, through the spreading of information on norms of safety; and c) secondary and tertiary prevention, by means of effective and efficacious outpatient emergency measures, as well as a thorough rehabilitation of accident victims.

  15. Cost recovery of NGO primary health care facilities: a case study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC), a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Given the current maternal and child mortality in Bangladesh and the challenges to addressing health-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets the financial sustainability of such facilities is crucial. Methods The study was designed as a case study covering a single facility. The methodology was based on the 'ingredient approach' using the allocation techniques by inpatient and outpatient services. Cost recovery of the facility was estimated from the provider's perspective. The value of capital items was annualized using 5% discount rate and its market price of 2004 (replacement value). Sensitivity analysis was done using 3% discount rate. Results The cost recovery ratio of the BRAC primary care facility was 59%, and if excluding all capital costs, it increased to 72%. Of the total costs, 32% was for personnel while drugs absorbed 18%. Capital items were17% of total costs while operational cost absorbed 12%. Three-quarters of the total cost was variable costs. Inpatient services contributed 74% of total revenue in exchange of 10% of total utilization. An average cost per patient was US$ 10 while it was US$ 67 for inpatient and US$ 4 for outpatient. Conclusion The cost recovery of this NGO primary care facility is important for increasing its financial sustainability and decreasing donor dependency, and achieving universal health coverage in a developing country setting. However, for improving the cost recovery of the health facility, it needs to increase utilization, efficient

  16. Cost recovery of NGO primary health care facilities: a case study in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Ahmed, Shakil

    2010-06-09

    Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC), a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Given the current maternal and child mortality in Bangladesh and the challenges to addressing health-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets the financial sustainability of such facilities is crucial. The study was designed as a case study covering a single facility. The methodology was based on the 'ingredient approach' using the allocation techniques by inpatient and outpatient services. Cost recovery of the facility was estimated from the provider's perspective. The value of capital items was annualized using 5% discount rate and its market price of 2004 (replacement value). Sensitivity analysis was done using 3% discount rate. The cost recovery ratio of the BRAC primary care facility was 59%, and if excluding all capital costs, it increased to 72%. Of the total costs, 32% was for personnel while drugs absorbed 18%. Capital items were17% of total costs while operational cost absorbed 12%. Three-quarters of the total cost was variable costs. Inpatient services contributed 74% of total revenue in exchange of 10% of total utilization. An average cost per patient was US$ 10 while it was US$ 67 for inpatient and US$ 4 for outpatient. The cost recovery of this NGO primary care facility is important for increasing its financial sustainability and decreasing donor dependency, and achieving universal health coverage in a developing country setting. However, for improving the cost recovery of the health facility, it needs to increase utilization, efficient planning, resource allocation and their

  17. Privacy by design in personal health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Anders

    2015-06-01

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  18. Using the tidal model of mental health recovery to plan primary health care for women in residential substance abuse recovery.

    PubMed

    Young, Brenda B

    2010-09-01

    Women currently are 30% of the substance abuse recovery population in North America and have gender specific treatment needs as they enter the difficult work of recovery. Important among women's specific needs as they enter recovery is the need for a focus on primary health care. Few models designed to guide the provision of health care for this population are available in the literature. The Tidal Model of Mental Health Recovery and Reclamation is based on the concept of nursing as "caring with" persons in the experience of distress. Given the emphasis in this model on developing a partnership between caregiver and client, it is especially appropriate for women in recovery for substance abuse. The Tidal Model, integrated with the United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services' CSAT model for comprehensive alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse treatment, is used to guide planning for delivery of primary health care in a residential women's substance abuse recovery center in the Midwest. This article describes the Tidal Model, and identifies how the model can improve the delivery of primary care to women in residential substance abuse treatment. Strategies for implementation of the model are proposed. Evaluation and outcome criteria are identified.

  19. Primary Health Care: care coordinator in regionalized networks?

    PubMed

    Almeida, Patty Fidelis de; Santos, Adriano Maia Dos

    2016-12-22

    To analyze the breadth of care coordination by Primary Health Care in three health regions. This is a quantitative and qualitative case study. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews with municipal, regional and state managers were carried out, besides a cross-sectional survey with the administration of questionnaires to physicians (74), nurses (127), and a representative sample of users (1,590) of Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) in three municipal centers of health regions in the state of Bahia. Primary Health Care as first contact of preference faced strong competition from hospital outpatient and emergency services outside the network. Issues related to access to and provision of specialized care were aggravated by dependence on the private sector in the regions, despite progress observed in institutionalizing flows starting out from Primary Health Care. The counter-referral system was deficient and interprofessional communication was scarce, especially concerning services provided by the contracted network. Coordination capacity is affected both by the fragmentation of the regional network and intrinsic problems in Primary Health Care, which poorly supported in its essential attributes. Although the health regions have common problems, Primary Health Care remains a subject confined to municipal boundaries. Analisar o alcance da coordenação do cuidado pela Atenção Primária à Saúde em três regiões de saúde. Trata-se de estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa. Foram realizadas 31 entrevistas semiestruturadas com gestores municipais, regionais e estaduais e estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários para médicos (74), enfermeiros (127) e amostra representativa de usuários (1.590) da Estratégia Saúde da Família em três municípios-sede de regiões de saúde do estado da Bahia. A função de porta de entrada preferencial pela Atenção Primária à Saúde deparava-se com forte concorrência de servi

  20. [An experience of collaboration between primary health care and mental health care in La Ribera Department of Health (Valencia, Spain)].

    PubMed

    Morera-Llorca, Miquel; Romeu-Climent, José Enrique; Lera-Calatayud, Guillem; Folch-Marín, Blanca; Palop-Larrea, Vicente; Vidal-Rubio, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health problems among patients attending primary care, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Sound training of primary care physicians in how to manage mental health problems is needed to reduce the health, economic and social impact associated with these disorders. Among other elements, there is a need for cooperation between primary care physicians and mental health services. Distinct models are available for such collaboration. In 2006, our health department started a collaboration between these two levels of heath care, using a liaison model. Delays until the first specialist visit were reduced and satisfaction among health professionals increased, although these results should be interpreted with caution. Evidence has recently accumulated on the usefulness of the collaborative model, but evaluation of this model and extrapolation of its results are complex. We intend to evaluate our model more thoroughly, similar to other projects in our environment.

  1. Designing for interaction quality in health telematics.

    PubMed

    Stephanidis, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on emerging Human Computer Interaction (HCI) challenges in the context of Health Telematics. Specifically, assumptions in traditional approaches to product and process quality are discussed, in order to unfold the reasons behind the loose and partial insight offered to the design of technology for the broadest possible end-user population. The premises of "Universal Design" are briefly discussed and the concept of "User Interfaces for All" is presented, as an articulation of Universal Design in the area of HCI. Following this, the paper discusses how such a perspective improves upon conventional methods and tools for HCI design and presents some of its relative merits in the context of Health Telematics.

  2. Strategies for Primary Care Stakeholders to Improve Electronic Health Records (EHRs).

    PubMed

    Olayiwola, J Nwando; Rubin, Ashley; Slomoff, Theo; Woldeyesus, Tem; Willard-Grace, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The use of electronic health records (EHRs) and the vendors that develop them have increased exponentially in recent years. While there continues to emerge literature on the challenges EHRs have created related to primary care provider satisfaction and workflow, there is sparse literature on the perspective of the EHR vendors themselves. We examined the role of EHR vendors in optimizing primary care practice through a qualitative study of vendor leadership and developers representing 8 companies. We found that EHR vendors apply a range of strategies to elicit feedback from their clinical users and to engage selected users in their development and design process, but priorities are heavily influenced by the macroenvironment and government regulations. To improve the "marriage" between primary care and the EHR vendor community, we propose 6 strategies that may be most impactful for primary care stakeholders seeking to influence EHR development processes.

  3. Instructional design strategies for health behavior change.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, Mable B

    2005-01-01

    To help health educators build upon the best of different health behavior change theories, this paper offers a unified set of instructional design strategies for health education interventions. This set draws upon the recommendations of Rosenstock (Health Belief Model), Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory), and Dearing (Diffusion Theory), and uses a modified Events of Instruction framework (adapted from Robert Gagne): gain attention (convey health threats and benefits), present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy-to-understand and do), provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate), elicit performance and provide feedback (to enhance trialability, develop proficiency and self-efficacy), enhance retention and transfer (provide social supports and deliver behavioral cues). Sample applications of these strategies are provided. A brief review of research on adolescent smoking prevention enables consideration of the frequency with which these strategies are used, and possible patterns between strategy use and behavioral outcomes.

  4. Designing online health services for patients.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Bradley H; Slack, Warner V

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly interacting with their healthcare system through online health services, such as patient portals and telehealth programs. Recently, Shabrabani and Mizrachi provided data outlining factors that are most important for users or potential users of these online services. The authors conclude convincingly that while online health services have great potential to be helpful to their users, they could be better designed. As patients and their families play an increasingly active role in their health care, online health services should be made easier for them to use and better suited to their health-related needs. Further, the online services should be more welcoming to people of all literacy levels and from all socioeconomic backgrounds.

  5. An experiment in primary health care in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Agboatwalla, M; Akram, D S

    1995-10-01

    The Health Education and Literacy Project (HELP) set up a primary health care (PHC) project in the urban slum of Naleem Colony in Karachi, Pakistan, in 1992. The project integrated preventive health, literacy, sanitation, and income generation. Its focus was the community health worker (CHW). Its motto was self-sustainability. A rotating fund allowed the community to contribute towards maintaining the CHW. A community grass-roots organization had administrative control of the project. Researchers had conducted a baseline survey and one year later a knowledge, attitude, and practices survey of 150 households that had received health education and of 150 other households that did not receive health education. The two groups were located in geographically distinct areas. At follow-up, the intervention group consistently was more likely to have good hygienic health practices than the control group (garbage covered, garbage disposal in the garbage drum, washing hands before feeding, and wash hands and child after defecation; p 0.05). Mothers in the intervention group were significantly more likely to know about the vaccinations children needed than those in the control group (for all vaccinations, 76% vs. 21%; p 0.0001). They were also more likely to know how to make oral rehydration solution (ORS) at home than their counterparts (65% vs. 15%). Among intervention mothers, 27% of their children had had diarrhea and 92% of the mothers had used ORS during an episode of diarrhea. The knowledge of correct dietary sources of protein among the intervention group improved significantly between baseline and follow-up (23% vs. 55%; p 0.05), while it did not for the controls (23% vs. 30%; p 0.05). These findings suggest that the project was on the right track towards overall community development by providing health education, sanitation, literacy, and income generation services to the people of the squatter settlement.

  6. Georeferenced and secure mobile health system for large scale data collection in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sa, Joao H G; Rebelo, Marina S; Brentani, Alexandra; Grisi, Sandra J F E; Iwaya, Leonardo H; Simplicio, Marcos A; Carvalho, Tereza C M B; Gutierrez, Marco A

    2016-10-01

    Mobile health consists in applying mobile devices and communication capabilities for expanding the coverage and improving the effectiveness of health care programs. The technology is particularly promising for developing countries, in which health authorities can take advantage of the flourishing mobile market to provide adequate health care to underprivileged communities, especially primary care. In Brazil, the Primary Care Information System (SIAB) receives primary health care data from all regions of the country, creating a rich database for health-related action planning. Family Health Teams (FHTs) collect this data in periodic visits to families enrolled in governmental programs, following an acquisition procedure that involves filling in paper forms. This procedure compromises the quality of the data provided to health care authorities and slows down the decision-making process. To develop a mobile system (GeoHealth) that should address and overcome the aforementioned problems and deploy the proposed solution in a wide underprivileged metropolitan area of a major city in Brazil. The proposed solution comprises three main components: (a) an Application Server, with a database containing family health conditions; and two clients, (b) a Web Browser running visualization tools for management tasks, and (c) a data-gathering device (smartphone) to register and to georeference the family health data. A data security framework was designed to ensure the security of data, which was stored locally and transmitted over public networks. The system was successfully deployed at six primary care units in the city of Sao Paulo, where a total of 28,324 families/96,061 inhabitants are regularly followed up by government health policies. The health conditions observed from the population covered were: diabetes in 3.40%, hypertension (age >40) in 23.87% and tuberculosis in 0.06%. This estimated prevalence has enabled FHTs to set clinical appointments proactively, with the aim of

  7. Future orientation and health quality of life in primary care: vitality as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C; Sirois, Fuschia M

    2015-07-01

    Temporal perspective, including views about future goals, may influence motivational processes related to health. An adaptive sense of future orientation is linked to better health, but little research has examined potential underlying factors, such as vitality. In a sample of 101 primary care patients, we examined whether belief in the changeability of the future was related to mental and physical energization and, in turn, to health-related quality of life. Participants were working, uninsured primary care patients, who completed self-report measures of future orientation, vitality, and health-related quality of life. Mediation models, covarying age, sex, and race/ethnicity indicated that vitality significantly mediated the association between future orientation and the outcomes of general health, mental health, social functioning, bodily pain, and role limitations due to emotional and physical reasons. Vitality exerted an indirect-only effect on the relation between future orientation and physical functioning. Our findings suggest that adaptive beliefs about the future may promote, or allow access to, physical and mental energy and, in turn, may result in better mental and physical health functioning. Individual-level and public health interventions designed to promote future orientation and vitality may beneficially influence quality of life and well-being.

  8. Resource dependency and community participation in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Zakus, J D

    1998-01-01

    Great hope is accorded to community participation in health. A large number of potential benefits are attributed to participatory processes, including better addressing community needs through more locally adapted organizational processes and improvement in health outcomes. To this end, many governments around the world have adopted policies and programmes of community participation as part of their strategy to implement primary health care services. In Mexico this is, in great part, realized through the module programme of the Ministry of Health. A module is characterized by various village based health posts (casas de salud), each operated by a community volunteer and associated with a health committee, all of which are supervised by a nurse from a nearby health centre. The southern Mexican state of Oaxaca was chosen for a study of the module programme (during the period 1987-1992) to gain a better understanding of how organizational processes impact on the implementation and outcomes of community participation programmes in large institutions (i.e. the Ministry of Health). The resource dependency perspective formed the basis for the theoretical framework used. Some 75 towns and villages were visited and about 170 health related personnel from all over the state were interviewed to obtain data on the operation and impact of the module programme. As predicted by resource dependency theory, which postulates that organizations will react to pressures in their external environment to secure the resources needed for survival, the findings of this research led to the conclusion that the Ministry of Health had co-opted the resources of the communities it was involving in the module programme in order to meet its policy objectives, especially those related to expanding service coverage. Community participation in the module programme was found to have been implemented entirely for its utility in supplying resources and not for democratic or intrinsic values. This

  9. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted under Health Guides . ... needs. How do I find the names of health care providers? You should first make a list of ...

  10. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted under Health Guides . ... needs. How do I find the names of health care providers? Here are some ways to find a ...

  11. Defining a Role for the Health Educator in the Primary Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Bill; Carlton, Mary A.

    1978-01-01

    The need for a role definition for health educators in primary health care programs is discussed. A program in diabetic education is offered as an illustration of health educator involvement in health care delivery. (MJB)

  12. Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront. PMID:21569490

  13. The slow agonizing birth of primary health care services.

    PubMed

    Glatthaar, E

    1992-10-01

    Although the need for a network of effective primary health care (PHC) services which are affordable, accessible, acceptable, and available to all was recognized by an international conference at Alma Ata in 1978, countries are far from realizing this goal. The necessary knowledge, experience, and other resources are, however, available in South Africa to provide wide-scale primary health care to the national population. The world leader of PHC in the 1940s, South Africa has models of successful PHC services, but it continues to struggle toward implementation. Resources continue to be wasted on meetings to draft PHC strategies and related seminars as a result of politics, vested interests, unwillingness to cooperate and share, bureaucracy, territorialism, ad hoc decisions, and uncoordinated planning and implementation. Moreover, approaches to PHC are fragmented and PHC continues to not be understood by many health workers, decision makers, and academics. A unified commitment and determination on all fronts, immediate decisions on funding, coordinated implementations, and the rapid deployment of the variety of mobile clinic services are called for to successfully implement PHC in South Africa.

  14. Community-oriented primary care: a model for public health nursing.

    PubMed

    Cashman, S B; Bushnell, F K; Fulmer, H S

    2001-06-01

    The American Public Health Association defines public health nursing as the "practice of promoting and protecting the health of populations using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences." In 1993, celebrating the centennial anniversary of its founding, nurse leaders recognized systemic changes have required nurses to function in clinical, illness-oriented roles rather than in their more traditional community and public health roles. With nurses' public health skills atrophying, these leaders urged members of the profession to eschew specialization and return to their generalist roots founded on the principles of community-based prevention and health promotion. Soon the Public Health Functions Project, designed in part to identify skills and curriculum needs of an array of practicing public health workers, examined the public health nursing profession. Its recommendations seek to ensure that public health nurses are trained to respond to current challenges that face public health. In this essay, we describe how a fellowship program that predated this national project by almost a decade anticipated the recommendations for shaping public health nursing by enrolling midcareer nurses in a program that taught the principles and practice of community-oriented primary care. Such principles represent a merger of clinical care with population health sciences; its more recent expressions teach clinicians to work as partners with communities to identify and address health problems. In reporting on this program, we show how nurses in practice can embrace their generalist roots, meet current challenges, and play a lead role in realizing the nation's goals for the year 2010. These aims incorporate recent recommendations for preparing public health nurses for change in the health care system.

  15. Replicating impact of a primary school HIV prevention programme: primary school action for better health, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, E; Mungwete, R; Jayeoba, O

    2014-08-01

    School-based programmes to combat the spread of HIV have been demonstrated to be effective over the short-term when delivered on a small scale. The question addressed here is whether results obtained with small-scale delivery are replicable in large-scale roll-out. Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH), a programme to train teachers to deliver HIV-prevention education in upper primary-school grades in Kenya demonstrated positive impact when tested in Nyanza Province. This article reports pre-, 10-month post- and 22-month post-training results as PSABH was delivered in five additional regions of the country. A total of 26 461 students from 110 primary schools in urban and rural, middle- and low-income settings participated in this repeated cross-sectional study. Students ranged in age from 11 to 16 years, were predominantly Christian (10% Muslim), and the majority were from five different ethnic groups. Results demonstrated positive gains in knowledge, self-efficacy related to changes in sexual behaviours and condom use, acceptance of HIV+ students, endorsement of HIV-testing and behaviours to post-pone sexual debut or decrease sexual activity. These results are as strong as or stronger than those demonstrated in the original impact evaluation conducted in Nyanza Province. They support the roll-out of the programme across Kenyan primary schools.

  16. [Levers in Primary Health Care - Identifying Strategic Success Factors for Improved Primary Care in Upper Austria].

    PubMed

    Kriegel, J; Rebhandl, E; Reckwitz, N; Hockl, W

    2016-12-01

    Current and projected general practitioner (GP) and primary care in Austria shows structural and process inadequacies in the quality as well as assurance of healthcare supply. The aim is therefore to develop solution- and patient-oriented measures that take patient-related requirements and medical perspectives into account. Using an effect matrix, subjective expert and user priorities were ascertained, cause and effect relationships were examined, and an expanded circle of success for the optimization of GP and primary care in Upper Austria was developed. Through this, the relevant levers for target-oriented development and optimization of the complex system of GP and primary care in Upper Austria were identified; these are training to become general practitioners, entrepreneurs as well as management and coordination. It is necessary to further adapt the identified levers conceptually and operationally in a targeted approach. This is to be achieved by means of the primary health care (PHC) concept as well as management tools and information and communication technologies (ICT) associated with it. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. A situational analysis of ocular health promotion in the South African primary health-care system.

    PubMed

    Sithole, Hlupheka Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    South Africa has a serious burden of avoidable blindness and visual impairment, which may be due to poor ocular health promotional policies and programs or implementation. Therefore, this paper sought to critically analyse the South African primary health-care policies and programs, to identify the components of ocular health promotional policies and programs as well as how they are currently being implemented and to suggest areas that can be improved in order to minimise the burden of blindness and visual impairment. Triangulated quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in the study. Questionnaire and interviews were used to solicit data from national and provincial managers of different health directorates. Eye-care managers from each province also completed the questionnaire. Furthermore, relevant health policy and program documents from national and provincial departments of health were studied to identify areas relating to ocular health promotion. The study found varying degrees of implementation of various ocular health promotional activities in the provinces with the majority of respondents (62 per cent) indicating that ocular health promotion was not part of their responsibility and another 81 per cent revealing that vision screening does not form part of their health promotional programs. It further revealed a lack of a dedicated directorate for ocular health-care issues and the absence of an integrated ocular health promotional policy. Ocular health promotional activities were absent in other provinces. This may be a major contributing factor to poor ocular health promotion in South Africa and hence, the high prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that an integrated ocular health promotional model (directorate and policies) be developed and be part of the South African primary health-care system. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  18. Predictors of Adolescents’ Health- promoting Behaviors Guided by Primary Socialization Theory

    PubMed Central

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parents and peers on adolescents’ health-promoting behaviors, framed by Primary Socialization Theory. Design and Method Longitudinal data collected annually from 1,081 rural youth (mean age = 17 ±.7; 43.5% males; 44% Hispanic) and once from their parents were analyzed using generalized linear models. Results Parental monitoring and adolescent’s religious commitment significantly predicted all health-promoting behaviors (nutrition, physical activity, safety, health practices awareness, stress management). Other statistically significant predictors were parent’s responsiveness and health-promoting behaviors. Peer influence predicted safety and stress management. Practice Implications Nurses may facilitate adolescents’ development of health-promoting behaviors through family-focused interventions. PMID:24094123

  19. Introducing quality management into primary health care services in Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Omaswa, F.; Burnham, G.; Baingana, G.; Mwebesa, H.; Morrow, R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, a national quality assurance programme was established in Uganda to strengthen district-level management of primary health care services. Within 18 months both objective and subjective improvements in the quality of services had been observed. In the examples documented here, there was a major reduction in maternal mortality among pregnant women referred to Jinja District Hospital, a reduction in waiting times and increased patient satisfaction at Masaka District Hospital, and a marked reduction in reported cases of measles in Arua District. Beyond these quantitative improvements, increased morale of district health team members, improved satisfaction among patients, and greater involvement of local government in the decisions of district health committees have been observed. At the central level, the increased coordination of activities has led to new guidelines for financial management and the procurement of supplies. District quality management workshops followed up by regular support visits from the Ministry of Health headquarters have led to a greater understanding by central staff of the issues faced at the district level. The quality assurance programme has also fostered improved coordination among national disease-control programmes. Difficulties encountered at the central level have included delays in carrying out district support visits and the failure to provide appropriate support. At the district level, some health teams tackled problems over which they had little control or which were overly complex; others lacked the management capacity for problem solving. PMID:9185368

  20. Academic medicine: a key partner in strengthening the primary care infrastructure via teaching health centers.

    PubMed

    Rieselbach, Richard E; Crouse, Byron J; Neuhausen, Katherine; Nasca, Thomas J; Frohna, John G

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, a worsening shortage of primary care physicians, along with structural deficiencies in their training, threaten the primary care system that is essential to ensuring access to high-quality, cost-effective health care. Community health centers (CHCs) are an underused resource that could facilitate rapid expansion of the primary care workforce and simultaneously prepare trainees for 21st-century practice. The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program, currently funded by the Affordable Care Act, uses CHCs as training sites for primary-care-focused graduate medical education (GME).The authors propose that the goals of the THCGME program could be amplified by fostering partnerships between CHCs and teaching hospitals (academic medical centers [AMCs]). AMCs would encourage their primary care residency programs to expand by establishing teaching health center (THC) tracks. Modifications to the current THCGME model, facilitated by formal CHC and academic medicine partnerships (CHAMPs), would address the primary care physician shortage, produce physicians prepared for 21st-century practice, expose trainees to interprofessional education in a multidisciplinary environment, and facilitate the rapid expansion of CHC capacity.To succeed, CHAMP THCs require a comprehensive consortium agreement designed to ensure equity between the community and academic partners; conforming with this agreement will provide the high-quality GME necessary to ensure residency accreditation. CHAMP THCs also require a federal mechanism to ensure stable, long-term funding. CHAMP THCs would develop in select CHCs that desire a partnership with AMCs and have capacity for providing a community-based setting for both GME and health services research.

  1. Key elements of high-quality practice organisation in primary health care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Lisa; Janamian, Tina; Jackson, Claire L

    2014-08-04

    To identify elements that are integral to high-quality practice and determine considerations relating to high-quality practice organisation in primary care. A narrative systematic review of published and grey literature. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Emerald Insight, PsycInfo, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service website, Google Scholar) were searched in November 2013 and used to identify articles published in English from 2002 to 2013. Reference lists of included articles were searched for relevant unpublished articles and reports. Data were configured at the study level to allow for the inclusion of findings from a broad range of study types. Ten elements were most often included in the existing organisational assessment tools. A further three elements were identified from an inductive thematic analysis of descriptive articles, and were noted as important considerations in effective quality improvement in primary care settings. Although there are some validated tools available to primary care that identify and build quality, most are single-strategy approaches developed outside health care settings. There are currently no validated organisational improvement tools, designed specifically for primary health care, which combine all elements of practice improvement and whose use does not require extensive external facilitation.

  2. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: a Review Featuring a Women's Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Marchioni Beery, Renée M.; Vaziri, Haleh; Forouhar, Faripour

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are two major types of chronic cholestatic liver disease. Each disorder has distinguishing features and variable progression, but both may ultimately result in cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The following offers a review of PBC and PSC, beginning with a general overview of disease etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical features, natural course, and treatment. In addition to commonly associated manifestations of fatigue, pruritus, and fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, select disease-related topics pertaining to women's health are discussed including metabolic bone disease, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular risk, and pregnancy-related issues influencing maternal disease course and birth outcomes. This comprehensive review of PBC and PSC highlights some unique clinical considerations in the care of female patients with cholestatic liver disease. PMID:26357630

  3. Preparing the Workforce for Behavioral Health and Primary Care Integration.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jennifer; Cohen, Deborah J; Davis, Melinda; Gunn, Rose; Blount, Alexander; Pollack, David A; Miller, William L; Smith, Corey; Valentine, Nancy; Miller, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    To identify how organizations prepare clinicians to work together to integrate behavioral health and primary care. Observational cross-case comparison study of 19 U.S. practices, 11 participating in Advancing Care Together, and 8 from the Integration Workforce Study. Practices varied in size, ownership, geographic location, and experience delivering integrated care. Multidisciplinary teams collected data (field notes from direct practice observations, semistructured interviews, and online diaries as reported by practice leaders) and then analyzed the data using a grounded theory approach. Organizations had difficulty finding clinicians possessing the skills and experience necessary for working in an integrated practice. Practices newer to integration underestimated the time and resources needed to train and organizationally socialize (onboard) new clinicians. Through trial and error, practices learned that clinicians needed relevant training to work effectively as integrated care teams. Training efforts exclusively targeting behavioral health clinicians (BHCs) and new employees were incomplete if primary care clinicians (PCCs) and others in the practice also lacked experience working with BHCs and delivering integrated care. Organizations' methods for addressing employees' need for additional preparation included hiring a consultant to provide training, sending employees to external training programs, hosting residency or practicum training programs, or creating their own internal training program. Onboarding new employees through the development of training manuals; extensive shadowing processes; and protecting time for ongoing education, mentoring, and support opportunities for new and established clinicians and staff were featured in these internal training programs. Insufficient training capacity and practical experience opportunities continue to be major barriers to supplying the workforce needed for effective behavioral health and primary care integration

  4. Health information technology workforce needs of rural primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Skillman, Susan M; Andrilla, C Holly A; Patterson, Davis G; Fenton, Susan H; Ostergard, Stefanie J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed electronic health record (EHR) and health information technology (HIT) workforce resources needed by rural primary care practices, and their workforce-related barriers to implementing and using EHRs and HIT. Rural primary care practices (1,772) in 13 states (34.2% response) were surveyed in 2012 using mailed and Web-based questionnaires. EHRs or HIT were used by 70% of respondents. Among practices using or intending to use the technology, most did not plan to hire new employees to obtain EHR/HIT skills and even fewer planned to hire consultants or vendors to fill gaps. Many practices had staff with some basic/entry, intermediate and/or advanced-level skills, but nearly two-thirds (61.4%) needed more staff training. Affordable access to vendors/consultants who understand their needs and availability of community college and baccalaureate-level training were the workforce-related barriers cited by the highest percentages of respondents. Accessing the Web/Internet challenged nearly a quarter of practices in isolated rural areas, and nearly a fifth in small rural areas. Finding relevant vendors/consultants and qualified staff were greater barriers in small and isolated rural areas than in large rural areas. Rural primary care practices mainly will rely on existing staff for continued implementation and use of EHR/HIT systems. Infrastructure and workforce-related barriers remain and must be overcome before practices can fully manage patient populations and exchange patient information among care system partners. Efforts to monitor adoption of these skills and ongoing support for continuing education will likely benefit rural populations. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, J; Yousuf, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally This paper describes the application of primary health care principles in the Islamic Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It arose from a doctoral supervisory experience on a joint programme for women students, operating between a British and Saudi Arabian University. The research looked at nutritional advice given by diploma-level nurses to pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Saudi Arabia. The supervisor supported research that drew on internationally recognized trends in nursing research (the reflexive learner) whilst attending to local requirements and conventions of the culture. The student was encouraged explicitly to site the research within the framework of Islamic teaching and Saudi culture. The Qur'an was used as an overarching framework within which the tenets of primary health care were explored. This was seen to be crucial in addressing World Health Organisation and the International Council of Nurses' views on contextualizing nursing for the greatest benefit of the population. This was of particular relevance in Saudi Arabia where research carried out in the community by women is novel, and as yet there are no nurse theorists from within Saudi culture.

  6. Family functioning style and health: opportunities for health prevention in primary care.

    PubMed

    García-Huidobro, Diego; Puschel, Klaus; Soto, Gabriela

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between family and health has not been studied in detail in primary care. To evaluate the association between family functioning style and health problems among families receiving primary care. Cross-sectional study in an underserved primary care clinic in Santiago, Chile. Families registered at the Juan Pablo II Primary Care Clinic in Santiago, Chile from 2006 to 2010 formed the study sample. Each family selected an adult family member to answer a questionnaire to provide data on: family sociodemographics; health problems among family members; and the family functioning style, as assessed with the Family Functioning Style Scale (FFSS). The t-test was used to assess differences in family functioning styles between families with and without health problems, and analysis of variance was used to study the relationship between the family functioning style and the number of health problems present. A total of 6202 families, comprising 25 037 people, were assessed. The following diseases and conditions were examined: in children--asthma or recurrent bronchitis, delayed development, enuresis or encopresis, behavioural problems, overweight; in adolescents and adults--teenage pregnancy, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, major depression, alcohol or drug abuse, and frailty. Families with health problems had a significantly lower FFSS score than families without health conditions. Mental health diseases had the strongest association with family functioning style. An inverse relationship between the number of health problems and the FFSS score was also observed. A better family functioning style was associated with a lower prevalence of health problems in families. Bases for further research considering the family as a target for clinical interventions are provided.

  7. Health profiles of foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2016-06-14

    The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care. Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters. More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public

  8. Design Optimization of Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Eric B.

    2014-03-06

    Sensor networks drive decisions. Approach: Design networks to minimize the expected total cost (in a statistical sense, i.e. Bayes Risk) associated with making wrong decisions and with installing maintaining and running the sensor network itself. Search for optimal solutions using Monte-Carlo-Sampling-Adapted Genetic Algorithm. Applications include structural health monitoring and surveillance.

  9. Staff Perspectives on the Use of a Computer-Based Concept for Lifestyle Intervention Implemented in Primary Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlfjord, Siw; Johansson, Kjell; Bendtsen, Preben; Nilsen, Per; Andersson, Agneta

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff experiences of the use of a computer-based concept for lifestyle testing and tailored advice implemented in routine primary health care (PHC). Design: The design of the study was a cross-sectional, retrospective survey. Setting: The study population consisted of staff at nine PHC units in the…

  10. Staff Perspectives on the Use of a Computer-Based Concept for Lifestyle Intervention Implemented in Primary Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlfjord, Siw; Johansson, Kjell; Bendtsen, Preben; Nilsen, Per; Andersson, Agneta

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff experiences of the use of a computer-based concept for lifestyle testing and tailored advice implemented in routine primary health care (PHC). Design: The design of the study was a cross-sectional, retrospective survey. Setting: The study population consisted of staff at nine PHC units in the…

  11. 78 FR 28896 - Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... COMMISSION Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components... Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components,'' in which there are no substantive... loading combinations for metal primary reactor containment system components. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  12. Functional health literacy among primary health care users in transitional Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Kamberi, Haxhi; Hysa, Bajram; Toçi, Ervin; Jerliu, Naim; Qirjako, Gentiana; Burazeri, Genc

    2013-01-01

    Adequate functional health literacy is considered as a basic prerequisite for a proper health-seeking behavior of adult individuals. Our aim was to assess the levels and socioeconomic correlates of functional health literacy among adult primary care users in transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in November 2012-February 2013 including a representative sample of 1035 primary health care users aged > or = 18 years (60% females; overall mean age: 44.3 +/- 16.9 years; overall response rate: 86%). The cross-culturally adapted long version of TOFHLA test (an instrument assessing reading comprehension and numerical abilities) was used to assess functional health literacy among study participants. TOFHLA scores range between 0-100 with higher scores implying better functional health literacy. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the association of functional health literacy with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Mean score of the functional health literacy was significantly higher among younger participants, in men, in highly educated individuals and participants with better self-reported income level. Our findings indicate that vulnerable socioeconomic individuals exhibit lower functional health literacy levels in post-war Kosovo. Health care professionals and particularly policy makers in Kosovo must be aware of the excess risk among the low socioeconomic groups and should tailor intervention programs accordingly.

  13. Electronic health records and support for primary care teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A.; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Methods Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. Results EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Discussion Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. Conclusions EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. PMID:25627278

  14. Reinventing Veterans Health Administration: focus on primary care.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Brent; Levesque, Odette; Perlin, Jonathan B; Rick, Cathy; Schectman, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Can we improve access in primary care without compromising the quality of care? The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how timely access to primary care can be achieved without compromising the quality of the care being delivered. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is an integrated healthcare system that has implemented change to improve primary care access to the veterans it serves, while not only maintaining but also actually improving the quality of care. Many healthcare executives are struggling with achieving desirable access to care and continuity of care. To confront this problem, many large and small practices have initiated an approach known as advanced clinic access, open access, or same-day scheduling, introduced by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). This approach has increasingly been used to reduce waits and delays in primary care without adding resources. To measure quality of care, specific performance measures were developed to quantify the effectiveness of primary care in VHA. Although it was initially viewed with concern and suspicion and was seen as a symptom of unnecessary micromanagement, healthcare team members were encouraged to use performance feedback as an opportunity for systems improvement as well as self-assessment and performance improvement for the team. All quality data are posted quarterly on VHA's internal web site, providing visible accountability at all levels of the organization. Clinical workflow redesign leads to reduced wait times without compromising quality of care. These large system improvements are applicable to large and small organizations looking to tackle change through the use of a collaborative model.

  15. Electronic health records and support for primary care teamwork.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Ann S; Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2015-03-01

    Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  16. Impact of a Mental Health Based Primary Care Program on Quality of Physical Health Care.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Joshua; Leckman-Westin, Emily; Yu, Hao; Han, Bing; Pritam, Riti; Guarasi, Diana; Horvitz-Lennon, Marcela; Scharf, Deborah M; Pincus, Harold A; Finnerty, Molly T

    2017-09-07

    We examine the impact of mental health based primary care on physical health treatment among community mental health center patients in New York State using propensity score adjusted difference in difference models. Outcomes are quality indicators related to outpatient medical visits, diabetes HbA1c monitoring, and metabolic monitoring of antipsychotic treatment. Results suggest the program improved metabolic monitoring for patients on antipsychotics in one of two waves, but did not impact other quality indicators. Ceiling effects may have limited program impacts. More structured clinical programs to may be required to achieve improvements in quality of physical health care for this population.

  17. Readiness of Health Centers and Primary Hospitals for the Implementation of Proposed Health Insurance Schemes in Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abazinab, Sabit; Woldie, Mirkuzie; Alaro, Tesfamichael

    2016-09-01

    In response to the 2005 World Health Assembly, many low income countries developed different healthcare financing mechanisms with risk pooling stategy to ensure universal coverage of health services. Accordingly, service availability and readiness of the health system to bear the responsibility of providing service have critical importance. The objective of this study was to assess service availability and readiness of health centers and primary hospitals to bear the responsibility of providing service for the members of health insurance schemes. A facility based cross sectional study design with quantitative data collection methods was employed. Of the total 18 districts in Jimma Zone, 6(33.3%) districts were selected randomly. In the selected districts, there were 21 functional public health facilities (health centers and primary hospitals) which were included in the study. Data were collected by interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated by using SPSS version 20.0. Prior to data collection, ethical clearance was obtained. Among the total 21 public health facilities surveyed, only 38.1% had all the categories of health professionals as compared to the national standards. The majority, 85.2%, of the facilities fulfilled the criteria for basic equipment, but 47.7% of the facilities did not fulfill the criteria for infection prevention supplies. Moreover, only two facilities fulfilled the criteria for laboratory services, and 95.2% of the facilities had no units/departmenst to coordinate the health insurance schemes. More than nine out of ten facilities did not fulfill the criteria for providing healthcare services for insurance beneficiaries and are not ready to provide general services according to the standard. Hence, policy makers and implementers should devise strategies to fill the identified gaps for successful and sustainable implementation of the proposed insurance scheme.

  18. Diabetes Connect: Developing a Mobile Health Intervention to Link Diabetes Community Health Workers with Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Cherrington, Andrea L.; Agne, April A.; Lampkin, Yolanda; Birl, Annie; Shelton, Tanya C.; Guzman, Alfredo; Willig, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Community Health Worker (CHW) interventions can help improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. There is limited evidence on how to effectively integrate CHW programs with primary care efforts. Mobile health technology (mHealth) can connect CHWs to members of the healthcare team and enhance care. We tested a model for the integration of a CHW delivered mHealth intervention to improve diabetes self-management. Seventy-two African American patients with diabetes were followed using the mHealth tool. This project partnered an academic institution, a safety-net clinic, and African American churches. The integration of mHealth technology into CHW programs was successfully achieved and readily accepted. PMID:26353025

  19. Incorporating Yoga Therapy into Primary Care: The Casey Health Institute.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alyson; Williams, Laurie; Pappas-Sandonas, Mary; Touchton-Leonard, Katharine; Fogel, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of health conditions, and yoga is a popular CAM modality. Over the past few decades, yoga has become incorporated into hundreds of healthcare facilities, most commonly in large university medical centers. While research has shown yoga to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving outcomes in chronic health conditions, most patients seek yoga therapy on their own, as few primary care practitioners have incorporated yoga therapy into their practices. The purpose of this article is to describe the efforts of the Casey Health Institute to incorporate yoga therapy into their primary care integrative medicine center. At Casey Health, a full-time Clinical Yoga Specialist works alongside the physicians, nurses, and CAM providers in delivering care to a wide variety of patients. The majority of referrals to yoga therapy have been for pain-related musculoskeletal conditions, as well as hypertension, headaches, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Most patients attend weekly 60-minute individual sessions, and the Clinical Yoga Specialist stays in touch with the patient between appointments via telephone and email. T h e Clinical Yoga Specialist has become an integral part of Casey Health, participating in collaborative medical appointments in which two CAM practitioners provide simultaneous treatments to a patient. She also participates in the clinic's ongoing weight loss program. The Clinical Yoga Specialist spends one morning each week "floating" in the clinic, when she is on-call to the practitioners to assist in treatment and/or to introduce a yoga therapy experience to the patients. These brief interventions introduce the patients to the therapeutic benefits of yoga, while simultaneously demonstrating yoga's effectiveness to the healthcare providers. Casey Health has developed a unique teacher training program whose faculty includes senior Iyengar yoga teachers as well as physicians

  20. Closing the health equity gap: evidence-based strategies for primary health care organizations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence shows that enhancement of primary health care (PHC) services for disadvantaged populations is essential to reducing health and health care inequities. However, little is known about how to enhance equity at the organizational level within the PHC sector. Drawing on research conducted at two PHC Centres in Canada whose explicit mandates are to provide services to marginalized populations, the purpose of this paper is to discuss (a) the key dimensions of equity-oriented services to guide PHC organizations, and (b) strategies for operationalizing equity-oriented PHC services, particularly for marginalized populations. Methods The PHC Centres are located in two cities within urban neighborhoods recognized as among the poorest in Canada. Using a mixed methods ethnographic design, data were collected through intensive immersion in the Centres, and included: (a) in-depth interviews with a total of 114 participants (73 patients; 41 staff), (b) over 900 hours of participant observation, and (c) an analysis of key organizational documents, which shed light on the policy and funding environments. Results Through our analysis, we identified four key dimensions of equity-oriented PHC services: inequity-responsive care; trauma- and violence-informed care; contextually-tailored care; and culturally-competent care. The operationalization of these key dimensions are identified as 10 strategies that intersect to optimize the effectiveness of PHC services, particularly through improvements in the quality of care, an improved 'fit' between people's needs and services, enhanced trust and engagement by patients, and a shift from crisis-oriented care to continuity of care. Using illustrative examples from the data, these strategies are discussed to illuminate their relevance at three inter-related levels: organizational, clinical programming, and patient-provider interactions. Conclusions These evidence- and theoretically-informed key dimensions and

  1. Prevention of mental handicaps in children in primary health care.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, P. M.

    1991-01-01

    Some 5-15% of children aged 3 to 15 years in both developing and developed countries suffer from mental handicaps. There may be as many as 10-30 million severely and about 60-80 million mildly or moderately mentally retarded children in the world. The conditions causing mental handicaps are largely preventable through primary health care measures in developing countries. Birth asphyxia and birth trauma are the leading causes of mental handicaps in developing countries where over 1.2 million newborns die each year from moderate or severe asphyxia and an equal number survive with severe morbidity due to brain damage. The other preventable or manageable conditions are: infections such as tuberculous and pyogenic meningitides and encephalopathies associated with measles and whooping cough; severe malnutrition in infancy; hyperbilirubinaemia in the newborn; iodine deficiency; and iron deficiency anaemia in infancy and early childhood. In addition, recent demographic and socioeconomic changes and an increase in the number of working mothers tend to deprive both infants and young children of stimulation for normal development. To improve this situation, the primary health care approach involving families and communities and instilling the spirit of self-care and self-help is indispensable. Mothers and other family members, traditional birth attendants, community health workers, as well as nurse midwives and physicians should be involved in prevention and intervention activities, for which they should be trained and given knowledge and skills about appropriate technologies such as the risk approach, home-based maternal record, partograph, mobilogram (kick count), home-risk card, icterometer, and mouth-to-mask or bag and mask resuscitation of the newborn. Most of these have been field-tested by WHO and can be used in the home, the health centre or day care centres to detect and prevent the above-mentioned conditions which can cause mental handicap. PMID:1786628

  2. Determinants of Health and Pediatric Primary Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andrew F; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Cox, Joanne E; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Grace, Aimee M; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri E; Lobach, Katherine S; Ma, Christine T; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberly D; Sadof, Matthew D; Shah, Anita N; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-03-01

    More than 20% of children nationally live in poverty. Pediatric primary care practices are critical points-of-contact for these patients and their families. Practices must consider risks that are rooted in poverty as they determine how to best deliver family-centered care and move toward action on the social determinants of health. The Practice-Level Care Delivery Subgroup of the Academic Pediatric Association's Task Force on Poverty has developed a roadmap for pediatric providers and practices to use as they adopt clinical practice redesign strategies aimed at mitigating poverty's negative impact on child health and well-being. The present article describes how care structures and processes can be altered in ways that align with the needs of families living in poverty. Attention is paid to both facilitators of and barriers to successful redesign strategies. We also illustrate how such a roadmap can be adapted by practices depending on the degree of patient need and the availability of practice resources devoted to intervening on the social determinants of health. In addition, ways in which practices can advocate for families in their communities and nationally are identified. Finally, given the relative dearth of evidence for many poverty-focused interventions in primary care, areas that would benefit from more in-depth study are considered. Such a focus is especially relevant as practices consider how they can best help families mitigate the impact of poverty-related risks in ways that promote long-term health and well-being for children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Electronic screening for mental health in rural primary care: implementation.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Sarah P; Mahone, Irma H; Zerull, Lisa M; Guerlain, Stephanie; Akan, Doruk; Hauenstein, Emily; Schorling, John

    2009-03-01

    The goals of this study were to develop a computer-based electronic screening tool (eScreening) and determine the feasibility of implementing eScreening for rural users of primary care. This descriptive pilot adapted existing screening measures for depression and alcohol abuse to a portable computer-based format and examined the feasibility of its adoption and use. This was a three-step design using convenience samples for (1) a focus group with providers, (2) usability testing with selected rural patients using the computerized touch screen, and (3) implementing the touch screen platform with a small sample in primary care to determine feasibility. This paper reports on Phase III, which assessed consumer response to eScreening.

  4. Mental Health Technologies: Designing With Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Ben; Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Jones, Gabrielle; Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Collin, Philippa

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the promise of e-mental and well-being interventions, little supporting literature exists to guide their design and the evaluation of their effectiveness. Both participatory design (PD) and design thinking (DT) have emerged as approaches that hold significant potential for supporting design in this space. Each approach is difficult to definitively circumscribe, and as such has been enacted as a process, a mind-set, specific practices/techniques, or a combination thereof. At its core, however, PD is a design research tradition that emphasizes egalitarian partnerships with end users. In contrast, DT is in the process of becoming a management concept tied to innovation with strong roots in business and education. From a health researcher viewpoint, while PD can be reduced to a number of replicable stages that involve particular methods, techniques, and outputs, projects often take vastly different forms and effective PD projects and practice have traditionally required technology-specific (eg, computer science) and domain-specific (eg, an application domain, such as patient support services) knowledge. In contrast, DT offers a practical off-the-shelf toolkit of approaches that at face value have more potential to have a quick impact and be successfully applied by novice practitioners (and those looking to include a more human-centered focus in their work). Via 2 case studies we explore the continuum of similarities and differences between PD and DT in order to provide an initial recommendation for what health researchers might reasonably expect from each in terms of process and outcome in the design of e-mental health interventions. We suggest that the sensibilities that DT shares with PD (ie, deep engagement and collaboration with end users and an inclusive and multidisciplinary practice) are precisely the aspects of DT that must be emphasized in any application to mental health provision and that any technology development process must

  5. Apple HealthKit and Health App: Patient Uptake and Barriers in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    North, Frederick; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2016-07-01

    The Apple (Cupertino, CA) HealthKit is a new telemonitoring platform that promises to make it easier for patients and healthcare institutions to collect, transmit, and store data from devices that monitor common conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. To assess the potential use for this platform in primary care, we need to know how many Apple Healthkit users there are and if they have conditions that could benefit from telemonitoring. We examined patients in the Mayo Clinic primary care practice in Rochester, MN, who registered to connect to their Mayo Clinic medical record with Apple HealthKit. We used the primary care registry to identify users with chronic conditions of diabetes, hypertension, asthma, and depression. We also examined users for recent measurements of blood pressure, glucose, hemoglobin A1C, and cholesterol. Of 98,151 patients there were 503 registrants of HealthKit. There were 95 (19%) who had hypertension, 37 (7.4%) who had diabetes, 125 (25%) who had depression, and 56 (11%) who had asthma. Overall, there were 245 (49%) who had readily telemonitorable conditions. Almost half of primary care Apple HealthKit registrants have conditions that could benefit from telemonitoring. This pre-installed telemonitoring platform, available on every new iPhone(®) (Apple), can be used to monitor a significant number of primary care patients. However, it also has continued provider and informatics barriers that need to be addressed.

  6. National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Mohammad Salim; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ahmed, Ashfaq

    2013-11-22

    The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker.

  7. National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. Methods SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. SWOT analysis Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Conclusion Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker. PMID:24268037

  8. Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. Results A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. Conclusion The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of strategy for policy makers

  9. Did Massachusetts Health Reform Affect Veterans Affairs Primary Care Use?

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Hebert, Paul L; Batten, Adam; Nelson, Karin M; Fihn, Stephan D; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2016-09-20

    Massachusetts Health Reform (MHR), implemented in 2006, introduced new health insurance options that may have prompted some veterans already enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA) to reduce their reliance on VA health services. This study examined whether MHR was associated with changes in VA primary care (PC) use. Using VA administrative data, we identified 147,836 veterans residing in Massachusetts and neighboring New England (NE) states from October 2004 to September 2008. We applied difference-in-difference methods to compare pre-post changes in PC use among Massachusetts and other NE veterans. Among veterans not enrolled in Medicare, VA PC use was not significantly different following MHR for Massachusetts veterans relative to other NE veterans. Among VA-Medicare dual enrollees, MHR was associated with an increase of 24.5 PC visits per 1,000 veterans per quarter (p = .048). Despite new non-VA health options through MHR, VA enrollees continued to rely on VA PC. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. STRUCTURAL AND HIDDEN BARRIERS TO A LOCAL PRIMARY HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE: AUTONOMY, DECISIONS ABOUT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, AND THE CENTRALITY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF POWER

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Christopher R.; Hansberry, Shantisha T.; Arrieta, Martha I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine a local primary health care infrastructure and the reality of primary health care from the perspective of residents of a small, urban community in the southern United States. Methodology/approach: Data derive from 13 semi-structured focus groups, plus three semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed inductively consistent with a grounded theory approach. Findings: Structural barriers to the local primary health care infrastructure include transportation, clinic and appointment wait time, and co-payments and health insurance. Hidden barriers consist of knowledge about local health care services, non-physician gatekeepers, and fear of medical care. Community residents have used home remedies and the emergency department at the local academic medical center to manage these structural and hidden barriers. Research limitations/implications: Findings might not generalize to primary health care infrastructures in other communities, respondent perspectives can be biased, and the data are subject to various interpretations and conceptual and thematic frameworks. Nevertheless, the structural and hidden barriers to the local primary health care infrastructure have considerably diminished the autonomy community residents have been able to exercise over their decisions about primary health care, ultimately suggesting that efforts concerned with increasing the access of medically underserved groups to primary health care in local communities should recognize the centrality and significance of power. Originality/value: This study addresses a gap in the sociological literature regarding the impact of specific barriers to primary health care among medically underserved groups. PMID:24532864

  11. Perceived Risk of Mental Health Problems in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Azevedo, Maria João; Alves, Sara; Duarte, Mafalda; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Molloy, William

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  12. Perceived Risk of Mental Health Problems in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Azevedo, Maria João; Alves, Sara; Duarte, Mafalda; O’Caoimh, Rónán; Molloy, William

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83–2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41–1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42–2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes. PMID:26635600

  13. The public health leadership certificate: a public health and primary care interprofessional training opportunity.

    PubMed

    Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia.

  14. Organizational interventions improving access to community-based primary health care for vulnerable populations: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Khanassov, Vladimir; Pluye, Pierre; Descoteaux, Sarah; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Russell, Grant; Gunn, Jane; Levesque, Jean-Frederic

    2016-10-10

    Access to community-based primary health care (hereafter, 'primary care') is a priority in many countries. Health care systems have emphasized policies that help the community 'get the right service in the right place at the right time'. However, little is known about organizational interventions in primary care that are aimed to improve access for populations in situations of vulnerability (e.g., socioeconomically disadvantaged) and how successful they are. The purpose of this scoping review was to map the existing evidence on organizational interventions that improve access to primary care services for vulnerable populations. Scoping review followed an iterative process. Eligibility criteria: organizational interventions in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; aiming to improve access to primary care for vulnerable populations; all study designs; published from 2000 in English or French; reporting at least one outcome (avoidable hospitalization, emergency department admission, or unmet health care needs).

  15. Investigating referral pathways from primary care to consumer health organisations.

    PubMed

    Young, Charlotte E; Mutch, Allyson J; Boyle, Frances M; Dean, Julie H

    2010-01-01

    While chronic disease places an increasing burden on Australia's primary care system it is unrealistic to expect GPs to meet the range of support needs experienced by patients managing chronic conditions. Consumer health organisations (CHO) have the potential to augment clinical care by providing a variety of supportive services; however, they are underutilised by patients and GPs. This qualitative study investigates GPs' knowledge and perceptions of CHO and their contributions to chronic disease care. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 10 GPs. Overall, participants demonstrated clear understanding of the role of CHO in chronic disease management, but a critical finding was the way GPs' view of their own chronic care role appears to influence referral practices. GPs operating in a traditional role were less likely to refer to CHO than those who had adopted a chronic care approach. A second key finding related to GPs' views of Diabetes Australia. All GPs identified this organisation as an important referral point, providing some reassurance that CHO can be integrated into the primary care sector. Further research is needed to determine how the 'definite advantages' associated with Diabetes Australia can be used to extend GP referral and enhance the health system's integration of other CHO.

  16. Subjective Well-Being among Primary Health Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ozcakir, Alis; Oflu Dogan, Fatma; Cakir, Yakup Tolga; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status. Methods A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42) and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants. Results In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction. Conclusion Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction. PMID:25486293

  17. Subjective well-being among primary health care patients.

    PubMed

    Ozcakir, Alis; Oflu Dogan, Fatma; Cakir, Yakup Tolga; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status. A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42) and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants. In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction. Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

  18. Integrating mental health into primary care within the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Post, Edward P; Metzger, Maureen; Dumas, Patricia; Lehmann, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been undertaking a major transformational program of integrating collaborative mental health resources into primary care settings. Key components of the program include colocated collaborative care provided by mental health professionals; care management; and blended programs that combine elements of these two components, whose functions are highly complementary to each other. The program has grown since 2007 from an initiative implementing pilot programs at participating facilities, to a routine expectation of primary care within all VHA medical centers and large community-based outpatient clinics. The national program office supports this VHA initiative in multiple ways, including technical assistance to sites, program and policy development, dissemination of informational tools to facilitate continuous quality improvement, education and training, and partnerships with other existing and emerging VHA programs such as postdeployment health clinics and the patient-centered medical home.

  19. Health information technology in primary health care in developing countries: a literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Maia, Maria de Fatima Santos

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the debate and initiatives concerning the use of information technology (IT) in primary health care in developing countries. The literature from 1992-2002 was identified from searches of the MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database (LILACS), Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. The search identified 884 references, 350 of which were classified according to the scheme described by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). For the analysis of advantages, problems and perspectives of IT applications and systems, 52 articles were selected according to their potential contribution to the primary health-care processes in non-developed countries. These included: 10 on electronic patient registries (EPR), 22 on process and programmatic action evaluation and management systems (PPAEM) and 20 on clinical decision-support systems (CDS). The main advantages, limitations and perspectives are discussed. PMID:15640923

  20. Health care reform and care at the behavioral health--primary care interface.

    PubMed

    Druss, Benjamin G; Mauer, Barbara J

    2010-11-01

    The historic passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in March 2010 offers the potential to address long-standing deficits in quality and integration of services at the interface between behavioral health and primary care. Many of the efforts to reform the care delivery system will come in the form of demonstration projects, which, if successful, will become models for the broader health system. This article reviews two of the programs that might have a particular impact on care on the two sides of that interface: Medicaid and Medicare patient-centered medical home demonstration projects and expansion of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration program that colocates primary care services in community mental health settings. The authors provide an overview of key supporting factors, including new financing mechanisms, quality assessment metrics, information technology infrastructure, and technical support, that will be important for ensuring that initiatives achieve their potential for improving care.

  1. Empirical evidence of recall bias for primary health care visits.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Natasha Kareem; Watts, Jennifer J

    2015-09-15

    While it is common for an economic evaluation of health care to rely on trial participants for self-reported health service utilisation, there is variability in the accuracy of this data due to potential recall bias. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of recall bias in self-reported primary health care general practitioner (GP) visits following inpatient rehabilitation over a 12 month period. This report is a secondary analysis from a larger randomised control trial of an economic evaluation of additional Saturday inpatient rehabilitation. Participants were adults who had been discharged into the community following admission to an acute general rehabilitation hospital. Participants were asked to recall primary health care visits, including community GP visits, via a telephone questionnaire which was administered at 6 and 12 months following discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Participants were asked to recall health service utilisation over each preceding 6 month period. The self-reported data were compared to equivalent claims data from the national insurer, over the same period. 751 participants (75% of the full trial) with a mean age of 74 years (SD 13) were included in this analysis. Over the 12 month period following discharge from rehabilitation there was an under-reporting of 14% in self-reported health service utilisation for GP visits compared to national insurer claims data over the same period. From 0 to 6 months following discharge from rehabilitation, there was an over-reporting of self-reported GP visits of 35% and from 7 to 12 months there was an under-reporting of self-reported GP visits of 36%, compared to national insurer claims data over the same period. 46% of patients reported the same or one number difference in self-reported GP visits between the 0 to 6 and the 7 to 12 month periods. Based on these findings we recommend that an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial for an elderly adult rehabilitation population

  2. Development and piloting of a plan for integrating mental health in primary care in Sehore district, Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Shrivastava, Sanjay; Murhar, Vaibhav; Samudre, Sandesh; Ahuja, Shalini; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background The large treatment gap for mental disorders in India underlines the need for integration of mental health in primary care. Aims To operationalise the delivery of the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Plan interventions for priority mental disorders and to design an integrated mental healthcare plan (MHCP) comprising packages of care for primary healthcare in one district. Method Mixed methods were used including theory of change workshops, qualitative research to develop the MHCP and piloting of specific packages of care in a single facility. Results The MHCP comprises three enabling packages: programme management, capacity building and community mobilisation; and four service delivery packages: awareness for mental disorders, identification, treatment and recovery. Challenges were encountered in training primary care workers to improve identification and treatment. Conclusions There are a number of challenges to integrating mental health into primary care, which can be addressed through the injection of new resources and collaborative care models. PMID:26447172

  3. Health care policy and community pharmacy: implications for the New Zealand primary health care sector.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Shaw, John

    2010-06-25

    The aim of our paper is to expose the challenges primary health care reform is exerting on community pharmacy and other groups. Our paper is underpinned by the notion that a broad understanding of the issues facing pharmacy will help facilitate engagement by pharmacy and stakeholders in primary care. New models of remuneration are required to deliver policy expectations. Equally important is redefining the place of community pharmacy, outlining the roles that are mooted and contributions that can be made by community pharmacy. Consistent with international policy shifts, New Zealand primary health care policy outlines broad directives which community pharmacy must respond to. Policymakers are calling for greater integration and collaboration, a shift from product to patient-centred care; a greater population health focus and the provision of enhanced cognitive services. To successfully implement policy, community pharmacists must change the way they think and act. Community pharmacy must improve relationships with other primary care providers, District Health Boards (DHBs) and Primary Health Organisations (PHOs). There is a requirement for DHBs to realign funding models which increase integration and remove the requirement to sell products in pharmacy in order to deliver services. There needs to be a willingness for pharmacy to adopt a user pays policy. General practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) need to be aware of the training and skills that pharmacists have, and to understand what pharmacists can offer that benefits their patients and ultimately general practice. There is also a need for GPs and PNs to realise the fiscal and professional challenges community pharmacy is facing in its attempt to improve pharmacy services and in working more collaboratively within primary care. Meanwhile, community pharmacists need to embrace new approaches to practice and drive a clearly defined agenda of renewal in order to meet the needs of health funders, patients

  4. [Workers in primary health care and partner violence against women].

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Provecho, Ana Belén; Broco-Barredo, Manuel; Alcalá-Ponce de León, Teresa; Rivera-Álvarez, Araceli; Jiménez Trujillo, Isabel; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Health Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of primary care. Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi(2) to compare the answers. Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.

  5. How decentralisation influences the retention of primary health care workers in rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abimbola, Seye; Olanipekun, Titilope; Igbokwe, Uchenna; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Ihebuzor, Nnenna; Aina, Muyi

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, the shortage of health workers is worst at the primary health care (PHC) level, especially in rural communities. And the responsibility for PHC – usually the only form of formal health service available in rural communities – is shared among the three tiers of government (federal, state, and local governments). In addition, the responsibility for community engagement in PHC is delegated to community health committees. Objective This study examines how the decentralisation of health system governance influences retention of health workers in rural communities in Nigeria from the perspective of health managers, health workers, and people living in rural communities. Design The study adopted a qualitative approach, and data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The multi-stakeholder data were analysed for themes related to health system decentralisation. Results The results showed that decentralisation influences the retention of rural health workers in two ways: 1) The salary of PHC workers is often delayed and irregular as a result of delays in transfer of funds from the national to sub-national governments and because one tier of government can blame failure on another tier of government. Further, the primary responsibility for PHC is often left to the weakest tier of government (local governments). And the result is that rural PHC workers are attracted to working at levels of care where salaries are higher and more regular – in secondary care (run by state governments) and tertiary care (run by the federal government), which are also usually in urban areas. 2) Through community health committees, rural communities influence the retention of health workers by working to increase the uptake of PHC services. Community efforts to retain health workers also include providing social, financial, and accommodation support to health workers. To encourage health workers to stay, communities also

  6. Diagnosis of compliance of health care product processing in Primary Health Care 1

    PubMed Central

    Roseira, Camila Eugenia; da Silva, Darlyani Mariano; Passos, Isis Pienta Batista Dias; Orlandi, Fabiana Souza; Padoveze, Maria Clara; de Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: identify the compliance of health care product processing in Primary Health Care and assess possible differences in the compliance among the services characterized as Primary Health Care Service and Family Health Service. Method: quantitative, observational, descriptive and inferential study with the application of structure, process and outcome indicators of the health care product processing at ten services in an interior city of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Results: for all indicators, the compliance indices were inferior to the ideal levels. No statistically significant difference was found in the indicators between the two types of services investigated. The health care product cleaning indicators obtained the lowest compliance index, while the indicator technical-operational resources for the preparation, conditioning, disinfection/sterilization, storage and distribution of health care products obtained the best index. Conclusion: the diagnosis of compliance of health care product processing at the services assessed indicates that the quality of the process is jeopardized, as no results close to ideal levels were obtained at any service. In addition, no statistically significant difference in these indicators was found between the two types of services studied. PMID:27878220

  7. Integrating oral health into primary health care--experiences in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    van Palenstein Helderman, W; Mikx, F; Begum, A; Adyatmaka, A; Bajracharya, M; Kikwilu, E; Rugarabamu, P

    1999-08-01

    When primary health care (PHC) was developed and implemented in developing countries, oral health was not included. The present consequences are marked disparities in the distribution of oral health care, since conventional dentistry can only serve relatively few people and at high costs. Oral health care is virtually non-existent in rural areas of most developing countries where more than 80 per cent of the population live. More recently, community based oral health programmes have been initiated in some countries to fill the gap. These programmes give more emphasis on oral health promotion and on the prevention of oral diseases than on treatment of its consequences, since history has shown that the latter is ineffective in preventing oral diseases. Unfortunately, most of these oral health programmes have been implemented next to the existing PHC system and hence they face enormous management, logistic and financial problems, which seriously threaten their sustainability. This paper presents a proposal to counteract the problems that many countries face in developing an adequate primary oral health care (POHC) service.

  8. Effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the move to community care and increased involvement of generalist health care providers in mental health, the need for health service partnerships has been emphasised in mental health policy. Within existing health system structures the active strategies that facilitate effective partnership linkages are not clear. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. Studies of analytic, descriptive and qualitative designs from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted to examine what service linkages have been used in studies of collaboration in primary mental health care. Findings from the randomised trials were tabulated to show the proportion that demonstrated clinical, service delivery and economic benefits. Results A review of 119 studies found ten linkage types. Most studies used a combination of linkage types and so the 42 RCTs were grouped into four broad linkage categories for meaningful descriptive analysis of outcomes. Studies that used multiple linkage strategies from the suite of "direct collaborative activities" plus "agreed guidelines" plus "communication systems" showed positive clinical (81%), service (78%) and economic (75%) outcomes. Most evidence of effectiveness came from studies of depression. Long term benefits were attributed to medication concordance and the use of case managers with a professional background who received expert supervision. There were fewer randomised trials related to collaborative care of people with psychosis and there were almost none related to collaboration with the wider human service sectors. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality or attempt to weight findings according to power or effect size. Conclusion There is

  9. Stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes among primary health workers and community health volunteers in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutiso, Victoria N; Musyimi, Christine W; Nayak, Sameera S; Musau, Abednego M; Rebello, Tahilia; Nandoya, Erick; Tele, Albert K; Pike, Kathleen; Ndetei, David M

    2017-09-01

    The study was conducted in rural Kenya and assessed stigma in health workers from primary health facilities. This study compared variations in stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes between primary health workers (HWs) and community health volunteers (CHVs). Participants ( n = 44 HWs and n = 60 CHVs) completed the self-report Mental Health Knowledge Schedule and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale, along with sociodemographic questions. Multiple regression models were used to assess predictors of mental health knowledge and stigmatizing behaviors. HWs had significantly higher mean mental health knowledge scores than CHVs, p < .001, and significantly higher mean positive attitudes scores than CHVs, p = .042. When controlling for relevant covariates, higher positive attitudes was the only significant predictor of higher mental health knowledge, and self-rating of sense of belonging to the community and mental health knowledge remained the main predictors of positive attitudes. Results suggest that stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes are associated, and interventions should target these areas with health workers. There is scope for intervention to increase knowledge and positive attitudes for individuals who feel a strong sense of community belonging. Future studies should test feasible ways to reduce stigma in this population.

  10. Grounded Theory of Barriers and Facilitators to Mandated Implementation of Mental Health Care in the Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Benzer, Justin K.; Beehler, Sarah; Miller, Christopher; Burgess, James F.; Sullivan, Jennifer L.; Mohr, David C.; Meterko, Mark; Cramer, Irene E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. There is limited theory regarding the real-world implementation of mental health care in the primary care setting: a type of organizational coordination intervention. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory to conceptualize the potential causes of barriers and facilitators to how local sites responded to this mandated intervention to achieve coordinated mental health care. Methods. Data from 65 primary care and mental health staff interviews across 16 sites were analyzed to identify how coordination was perceived one year after an organizational mandate to provide integrated mental health care in the primary care setting. Results. Standardized referral procedures and communication practices between primary care and mental health were influenced by the organizational factors of resources, training, and work design, as well as provider-experienced organizational boundaries between primary care and mental health, time pressures, and staff participation. Organizational factors and provider experiences were in turn influenced by leadership. Conclusions. Our emergent theory describes how leadership, organizational factors, and provider experiences affect the implementation of a mandated mental health coordination intervention. This framework provides a nuanced understanding of the potential barriers and facilitators to implementing interventions designed to improve coordination between professional groups. PMID:22900158

  11. Unravelling the concept of consumer preference: implications for health policy and optimal planning in primary care.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michele M; Earl, Peter E; Haines, Terry P; Mitchell, Geoffrey K