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Sample records for desperate times call

  1. Desperate times call for desperate measures: benefits and costs of toxin-antitoxin systems.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Rita; Tamman, Hedvig

    2017-02-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci were first described as killing systems for plasmid maintenance. The surprisingly abundant presence of TA loci in bacterial chromosomes has stimulated an extensive research in the recent decade aimed to understand the biological importance of these potentially deadly systems. Accumulating evidence suggests that the evolutionary success of genomic TA systems could be explained by their ability to increase bacterial fitness under stress conditions. While TA systems remain quiescent under favorable growth conditions, the toxins can be activated in response to stress resulting in growth suppression and development of stress-tolerant dormant state. Yet, several studies suggest that the TA-mediated stress protection is costly and traded off against decreased fitness under normal growth conditions. Here, we give an overview of the fitness benefits of the chromosomal TA systems, and discuss the costs of TA-mediated stress protection.

  2. Fogarty Maneuver to Restore Coronary Flow in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Desperate Times Call for Desperate Measures.

    PubMed

    Larralde, Mark J; Afzal, Ashwad; Brener, Sorin J

    2016-01-01

    Nonatherosclerotic embolism is a rare cause (4%-7%) of coronary occlusion in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, approximately half of which occur in inadequately anticoagulated patients with prosthetic valves. We report a rare case of a patient with severe rheumatic heart disease and 3 mechanical valves presenting with STEMI that was successfully managed by Fogarty maneuver thrombus extraction after failed thrombus aspiration and balloon angioplasty. A 56-year-old woman presented with an acute anterior STEMI and Killip class III heart failure. She had severe rheumatic heart disease with mechanical tricuspid, mitral and aortic valve prostheses, and atrial fibrillation on warfarin anticoagulation. The international normalized ratio on admission was 1.1. Emergency coronary angiography revealed normal right and circumflex coronary arteries and a total occlusion in the mid left anterior descending artery with a meniscus appearance. Multiple attempts at thrombus aspiration and balloon angioplasty failed to restore flow in the left anterior descending artery. Ultimately, a Fogarty maneuver using a compliant balloon inflated at a low pressure was performed successfully, removing the thrombus into the guiding catheter. There was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 and near-normal myocardial blush at the end of the procedure. Signs and symptoms of heart failure resolved quickly.

  3. Exciting Times Call for Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    Brain science already has much to contribute to education and will become even more important in the future. Brain research is not going away; it is increasing and will continue to do so. As such, educators need better tools to deal with it. In this article, the author argues that educators desperately need new understandings, new ways to think…

  4. Exciting Times Call for Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    Brain science already has much to contribute to education and will become even more important in the future. Brain research is not going away; it is increasing and will continue to do so. As such, educators need better tools to deal with it. In this article, the author argues that educators desperately need new understandings, new ways to think…

  5. Call bell requests, call bell response time, and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Roszell, Sheila; Jones, Cheryl B; Lynn, Mary R

    2009-01-01

    Based in the center of nursing activity, the nurse call system has potential to gather basic data such as the number of calls and the response time. Analyzing this information may shed light on performance and patient satisfaction. This study used a correlational design to examine results from a patient satisfaction survey administered at discharge in relation to the number of call bell requests from the patient's room and call bell response time.

  6. Postoperative telephone calls: timing is everything.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Jane

    2009-07-01

    Having nurses contact same-day surgical patients by telephone early in the patients' recovery process may help guide recovery, but there are no guidelines as to the best time to make these calls. A convenience sample of 77 patients undergoing same-day knee arthroscopy surgery at a large health care center in the northeastern United States was recruited to examine the best time for telephone follow-up by a nurse. Overall patient experiences and teaching-learning needs also were investigated through open-ended questions. Findings suggest that continuous contact by nurses in the recovery period helped patients discuss and process the surgical experience. Telephone calls may be the most helpful to patients between 12 and 24 hours after surgery.

  7. Call progress time measurement in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnabish, Bhumip

    1999-11-01

    Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

  8. Desperately seeking synergy.

    PubMed

    Goold, M; Campbell, A

    1998-01-01

    Corporate executives have strong biases in favor of synergy, and those biases can lead them into ill-advised attempts to force business units to cooperate--even when the ultimate benefits are unclear. But executives can separate the real opportunities from the mirages, say Michael Goold and Andrew Campbell. They simply need to take a more disciplined approach to synergy. These biases take four forms. First comes the synergy bias, which leads executives to overestimate the benefits and underestimate the costs of synergy. Then comes the parenting bias, a belief that synergy will be captured only by cajoling or compelling business units to cooperate. The parenting bias is usually accompanied by the skills bias--the assumption that whatever know-how is required to achieve synergy will be available within the organization. Finally, executives fall victim to the upside bias, which causes them to concentrate so hard on the potential benefits of synergy that they overlook the possible downside risks. In combination, these four biases make synergy seem more attractive and more easily achievable than it truly is. As a result, corporate executives often launch initiatives that ultimately waste time and money and sometimes even severely damage their businesses. To avoid such failures, executives need to subject all synergy opportunities to a clear-eyed analysis that clarifies the benefits to be gained, examines the potential for corporate involvement, and takes into account the possible downsides. Such a disciplined approach will inevitably mean that fewer initiatives will be launched. But those that are pursued will be far more likely to deliver substantial gains.

  9. Desperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    A student's education is as good as the teacher who provides it. People are insane to put students into the care of teachers who are not cared for themselves; in doing this they drive quality teachers away from the profession, and those who stay shudder to remember those dark Novembers. In this article, the author recounts her first year of…

  10. 29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-call time. 785.17 Section 785.17 Labor Regulations... On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on call on the employer's premises or so close thereto that he cannot use the time effectively for his own purposes is working while “on call”....

  11. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D

    1990-01-01

    For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife

  12. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  13. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ninad B.; Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

  14. Wireless cellular networks with Pareto-distributed call holding times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Dagnino, Ramon M.; Takagi, Hideaki

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest in providing internet to mobile users. For instance, NTT DoCoMo in Japan deploys an important mobile phone network with that offers the Internet service, named 'i-mode', to more than 17 million subscribers. Internet traffic measurements show that the session duration of Call Holding Time (CHT) has probability distributions with heavy-tails, which tells us that they depart significantly from the traffic statistics of traditional voice services. In this environment, it is particularly important to know the number of handovers during a call for a network designer to make an appropriate dimensioning of virtual circuits for a wireless cell. The handover traffic has a direct impact on the Quality of Service (QoS); e.g. the service disruption due to the handover failure may significantly degrade the specified QoS of time-constrained services. In this paper, we first study the random behavior of the number of handovers during a call, where we assume that the CHT are Pareto distributed (heavy-tail distribution), and the Cell Residence Times (CRT) are exponentially distributed. Our approach is based on renewal theory arguments. We present closed-form formulae for the probability mass function (pmf) of the number of handovers during a Pareto distributed CHT, and obtain the probability of call completion as well as handover rates. Most of the formulae are expressed in terms of the Whittaker's function. We compare the Pareto case with cases of $k(subscript Erlang and hyperexponential distributions for the CHT.

  15. Near Real-Time Call Detail Record ETL Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochinwala, Munir; Panagos, Euthimios

    Telecommunication companies face significant business challenges as they strive to reduce subscriber churn and increase average revenue per user (ARPU) by offering new services and incorporating new functionality into existing services. The increased number of service offerings and available functionality result in an ever growing volume of call detail records (CDRs). For many services (e.g., pre-paid), CDRs need to be processed and analyzed in near real-time for several reasons, including charging, on-line subscriber access to their accounts, and analytics for predicting subscriber usage and preventing fraudulent activity. In this paper, we describe the challenges associated with near real-time extract, transform, and load (ETL) of CDR data warehouse flows for supporting both the operational and business intelligence needs of telecommunication services, and we present our approach to addressing these challenges.

  16. Enhancing real-time flight simulation execution by intercepting Run-Time Library calls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinbachs, Namejs

    1993-01-01

    Standard operating system input-output (I/O) procedures impose a large time penalty on real-time program execution. These procedures are generally invoked by way of Run-Time Library (RTL) calls. To reduce the time penalty, as well as add flexibility, a technique has been developed to dynamically intercept these calls. The design and implementation of this technique, as applied to FORTRAN WRITE statements, are described. Measured performance gains using this RTL intercept technique are on the order of 1000 percent.

  17. Enhancing real-time flight simulation execution by intercepting Run-Time Library calls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinbachs, Namejs

    1993-01-01

    Standard operating system input-output (I/O) procedures impose a large time penalty on real-time program execution. These procedures are generally invoked by way of Run-Time Library (RTL) calls. To reduce the time penalty, as well as add flexibility, a technique has been developed to dynamically intercept these calls. The design and implementation of this technique, as applied to FORTRAN WRITE statements, are described. Measured performance gains using this RTL intercept technique are on the order of 1000 percent.

  18. A "No Prescriptives, Please" Proposal Postscript: When Desperate Times Require Desperate Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel H.; Levin, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    We appreciate the thoughtful reactions of our colleagues to the "no prescriptives, please" proposal of Robinson et al. (2013), as well as the opportunity to respond to them. For the most part, our colleagues seem to agree that a problem exists in terms of unwarranted recommendations for practice appearing too often in educational…

  19. A "No Prescriptives, Please" Proposal Postscript: When Desperate Times Require Desperate Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel H.; Levin, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    We appreciate the thoughtful reactions of our colleagues to the "no prescriptives, please" proposal of Robinson et al. (2013), as well as the opportunity to respond to them. For the most part, our colleagues seem to agree that a problem exists in terms of unwarranted recommendations for practice appearing too often in educational…

  20. Desperate Times, Desperate Measures: Executive Powers, Individual Rights, and Guantanamo Bay Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Jason L.; Barbieri, Kyle T.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent past, and especially since September 11, 2001, many democratic nations have been forced to deal with the threat of attacks on their land. Former U.S. President George W. Bush famously labeled this challenge the "War on Terror." Examining how nations address this issue offers a golden opportunity for social studies teachers…

  1. Desperate Times, Desperate Measures: Executive Powers, Individual Rights, and Guantanamo Bay Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Jason L.; Barbieri, Kyle T.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent past, and especially since September 11, 2001, many democratic nations have been forced to deal with the threat of attacks on their land. Former U.S. President George W. Bush famously labeled this challenge the "War on Terror." Examining how nations address this issue offers a golden opportunity for social studies teachers…

  2. Critical conversations: a call for a nonprocedural "time out".

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Niraj L; Fox, Michael; Sharpe, Bradley A; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Blegen, Mary; Wachter, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Communication failures are an ongoing threat to patient safety. Procedural "time outs" were developed as a method to enhance communication and mitigate patient harm. Nonprocedural settings generate equal risks for communication failure, yet lack a similar communication tool or practice that can be applied, particularly with a patient-driven focus. Rapidly changing clinical states and care plans are common in the hospital setting, placing patients at risk for adverse events. Certain junctures allow for the highest potential of patient harm-at the time of admission, at a change in clinical condition, and at the time of discharge. Direct communication among healthcare providers at these junctures, which we have dubbed Critical Conversations, can provide an opportunity to clarify plans of care, address or anticipate concerns, and foster greater teamwork. Information exchanged during Critical Conversations includes a combination of checklist-type items and more open-ended questions but they ultimately create a structure and expectation for communication. Integration of Critical Conversations into practice requires provider education and buy-in, as well as expectations for them to occur. Monitoring adherence, capturing stories of success, and demonstrating effectiveness may enhance implementation and continuous improvement in the process. Communication tools designed to reduce the likelihood of patient harm remain a focus of patient safety efforts. Critical Conversations are an innovative communication tool, intervention, and policy that potentially limits communication failures at critical junctures to ensure high quality and safe patient care. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  3. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G; Waters, D A

    2000-01-01

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing their frequency, and measured the auditory thresholds from the A1 cells of the moths. Knowing the auditory responses of the moth we tested three predictions. (i) The ranking of the audibility of unmanipulated calls to the moths should be predictable from their temporal and/or frequency structure. This was supported. (ii) Doubling the duration of the calls should increase their audibility by ca. 3 dB for all species. Their audibility did indeed increase by 2.1-3.5 dB. (iii) Reducing the frequency of the calls would increase their audibility for all species. Reducing the frequency had small effects for the two bat species which used short duration (2.7-3.6 ms) calls. However, the relatively long-duration (50 ms), largely constant-frequency calls of R. hipposideros increased in audibility by 21.6 dB when their frequency was halved. Time and frequency changes influence the audibility of calls to tympanate moths in different ways according to call design. Large changes in frequency and time had relatively small changes on the audibility of calls for short, largely broadband calls. Channelling energy into the second harmonic of the call substantially decreased the audibility of calls for bats which use long-duration, constant-frequency components in echolocation calls. We discuss our findings in the contexts of the evolution of both bat echolocation call design and the potential responses of insects which hear ultrasound. PMID:11467425

  4. Time Series Analysis of Sound Data on Interactive Calling Behavior of Japanese Tree Frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horai, Shunsuke; Aihara, Ikkyu; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    We have analyzed time series data of sound on interactive calling behavior of two male Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica Nihon-Ama-Gaeru). First, we have extracted two time series data mainly corresponding to respective frogs from the single time series data of calls of two frogs by the free and cross-platform sound editor Audacity. Then, we have quantitatively analyzed timing and inter-call intervals of respective frogs. Finally, we have characterized nonstationarily temporal change of the interactive calling behavior of two frogs by analysis of the cross recurrence plot. The results have shown that a pair of male frogs called in almost anti-phase synchronization after a short-term period of nearly in-phase synchronization, which implies existence of complex interactive calling behavior of two male frogs.

  5. Exploring the relationship between patient call-light use rate and nurse call-light response time in acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Larson, Janet L

    2011-03-01

    Patient call-light usage and nurse responsiveness to call lights are two intertwined concepts that could affect patients' safety during hospital stays. Little is known about the relationship between call-light usage and call-light response time. Consequently, this exploratory study examined the relationship between the patient-initiated call-light use rate and the nursing staff's average call-light response time in a Michigan community hospital. It used hospital archived data retrieved from the call-light tracking system for the period from February 2007 through June 2008. Curve estimation regression and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results showed that the call-light response time was not affected by the total nursing hours or RN hours. The nurse call-light response time was longer when the patient call-light use rate was higher and the average length of stay was shorter. It is likely that a shorter length of stay contributes to the nursing care activity level on the unit because it is associated with a higher frequency of patient admissions/discharges and treatment per patient-day. This suggests that the nursing care activity level on the unit and number of call-light alarms could affect nurse call-light response time, independently of the number of nurses available to respond.

  6. Exploring the relationship between patient call-light use rate and nurse call-light response time in acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Larson, Janet L

    2011-04-01

    Patient call-light usage and nurse responsiveness to call lights are two intertwined concepts that could affect patients' safety during hospital stays. Little is known about the relationship between call-light usage and call-light response time. Consequently, this exploratory study examined the relationship between the patient-initiated call-light use rate and the nursing staff's average call-light response time in a Michigan community hospital. It used hospital archived data retrieved from the call-light tracking system for the period from February 2007 through June 2008. Curve estimation regression and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results showed that the call-light response time was not affected by the total nursing hours or RN hours. The nurse call-light response time was longer when the patient call-light use rate was higher and the average length of stay was shorter. It is likely that a shorter length of stay contributes to the nursing care activity level on the unit because it is associated with a higher frequency of patient admissions/discharges and treatment per patient-day. This suggests that the nursing care activity level on the unit and number of call-light alarms could affect nurse call-light response time, independently of the number of nurses available to respond.

  7. A national census of ambulance response times to emergency calls in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Breen, N.; Woods, J.; Bury, G.; Murphy, A.; Brazier, H.

    2000-01-01

    Background—Equity of access to appropriate pre-hospital emergency care is a core principle underlying an effective ambulance service. Care must be provided within a timeframe in which it is likely to be effective. A national census of response times to emergency and urgent calls in statutory ambulance services in Ireland was undertaken to assess current service provision. Methods—A prospective census of response times to all emergency and urgent calls was carried out in the nine ambulance services in the country over a period of one week. The times for call receipt, activation, arrival at and departure from scene and arrival at hospital were analysed. Crew type, location of call and distance from ambulance base were detailed. The type of incident leading to the call was recorded but no further clinical information was gathered. Results—2426 emergency calls were received by the services during the week. Fourteen per cent took five minutes or longer to activate (range 5–33%). Thirty eight per cent of emergencies received a response within nine minutes (range 10–47%). Only 4.5% of emergency calls originating greater than five miles from an ambulance station were responded to within nine minutes (range 0–10%). Median patient care times for "on call" crews were three times longer than "on duty" crews. Conclusion—Without prioritised use of available resources, inappropriately delayed responses to critical incidents will continue. Recommendations are made to improve the effectiveness of emergency medical service utilisation. PMID:11104237

  8. The Forebrain Song System Mediates Predictive Call Timing in Female and Male Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Benichov, Jonathan I.; Benezra, Sam E.; Vallentin, Daniela; Globerson, Eitan; Long, Michael A.; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The dichotomy between vocal learners and non-learners is a fundamental distinction in the study of animal communication. Male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are vocal learners that acquire a song resembling their tutors’, whereas females can only produce innate calls. The acoustic structure of short calls, produced by both males and females, is not learned. However, these calls can be precisely coordinated across individuals. To examine how birds learn to synchronize their calls, we developed a vocal robot that exchanges calls with a partner bird. Because birds answer the robot with stereotyped latencies, we could program it to disrupt each bird’s responses by producing calls that are likely to coincide with the bird’s. Within minutes, the birds learned to avoid this disruptive masking (jamming) by adjusting the timing of their responses. Notably, females exhibited greater adaptive timing plasticity than males. Further, when challenged with complex rhythms containing jamming elements, birds dynamically adjusted the timing of their calls in anticipation of jamming. Blocking the song system cortical output dramatically reduced the precision of birds’ response timing and abolished their ability to avoid jamming. Surprisingly, we observed this effect in both males and females, indicating that the female song system is functional rather than vestigial. We suggest that descending forebrain projections, including the song-production pathway, function as a general-purpose sensorimotor communication system. In the case of calls, it enables plasticity in vocal timing to facilitate social interactions, whereas in the case of songs, plasticity extends to developmental changes in vocal structure. PMID:26774786

  9. A global call for action to combat antimicrobial resistance: can we get it right this time?

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Marc; Matsoso, Malebona Precious

    2014-06-17

    World Health Organization resolution WHA67.25 'Combating antimicrobial resistance including antibiotic resistance' urges member states 'to develop or strengthen national plans, strategies and international collaboration for the containment of antimicrobial resistance'. Such calls have been heard before. What is different this time, how do we break the mould to ensure that significant international change occurs, and how is South Africa positioning itself to respond to the call? This editorial looks at ways to approach the problem.

  10. Desperation and other affective states in suicidal patients.

    PubMed

    Hendin, Herbert; Maltsberger, John T; Haas, Ann Pollinger; Szanto, Katalin; Rabinowicz, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Data collected from 26 therapists who were treating patients when they died by suicide were used to identify intense affective states in such patients preceding the suicide. Eleven therapists provided comparable data on 26 patients they had treated who were seriously depressed but not suicidal. Although the two groups had similar numbers diagnosed with MDD, the suicide patients showed a significantly higher total number of intense affects in addition to depression. The acute affective state most associated with a suicide crisis was desperation. Hopelessness, rage, abandonment, self-hatred, and anxiety were also significantly more frequently evidenced in the suicide patients.

  11. Time-frequency and advanced frequency estimation techniques for the investigation of bat echolocation calls.

    PubMed

    Kopsinis, Yannis; Aboutanios, Elias; Waters, Dean A; McLaughlin, Steve

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, techniques for time-frequency analysis and investigation of bat echolocation calls are studied. Particularly, enhanced resolution techniques are developed and/or used in this specific context for the first time. When compared to traditional time-frequency representation methods, the proposed techniques are more capable of showing previously unseen features in the structure of bat echolocation calls. It should be emphasized that although the study is focused on bat echolocation recordings, the results are more general and applicable to many other types of signal.

  12. Expediting Time from Symptoms to Medical Contact Utilizing a Telemedicine Call Center.

    PubMed

    Leshem-Rubinow, Eran; Assa, Eyal Ben; Shacham, Yacov; Zatelman, Avivit; Oren-Shamir, Ayelet; Malov, Nomi; Golovner, Michal; Roth, Arie

    2015-10-01

    No definitive solution has been forthcoming for the often dangerously long interval between symptom onset and seeking medical care in the prehospital setting. We examined the implementation of telemedicine technology and characterization of its utilizers for its efficacy in reducing this possibly life-threatening time lag. A retrospective observational study was performed on the working database of an operational telemedicine facility that included all subscribers. Time-to-contact measurements throughout 2012 were retrieved from its medical files, and data on age, gender, medical history, and main complaint were analyzed. Throughout 2012, 22,274 of a total of 46,556 calls (47.8%) were made ≤60 min from symptom onset. It is important that 26.9% of all calls (12,522/46,556) were made in <15 min. Significantly more males (10,794/22,229 [49%]) contacted in ≤60 min compared with females (11,480/24,327 [47%], p<0.03). Subjects <60 years of age (2,889/5,717 [51%]) called earlier than those >60 years (19,386/40,839 [47%], p<0.001). Patients with prior resuscitation and/or myocardial infarction contacted significantly more rapidly than those with other cardiac diseases. Over one-half of patients with cardiac complaints contacted the call center ≤60 min from symptom onset, as did those who suffered physical trauma, but not patients with gastrointestinal symptoms or pain elsewhere. A telemedicine system with rapid accessibility to a professional call center and prompt triage thereafter could be an additional promising strategy for shortening the interval between symptom onset and call for medical assistance. Implementation of a widespread telemedicine infrastructure may bridge the unmet gap between occurrence of symptoms to initiation of medical treatment.

  13. Bullying May Be Fueled by the Desperate Need to Belong

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Marion K.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have a fundamental need to belong, for ongoing positive interactions with others who provide companionship and caring (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Children may hit, exclude, or harass others electronically because when their own needs for belongingness are threatened, or when they want to enhance their own status, they lash out and hurt others in the way they think will be most painful, by engaging in behaviors that undermine the target’s sense of belongingness. For reasons discussed below, children and adolescents might be especially vulnerable to desperate needs for belongingness. Viewing bullying as motivated by the need to belong has profound implications for prevention and intervention programs to reduce bullying. PMID:26236056

  14. Improving patient care over weekends by reducing on-call work load and better time management.

    PubMed

    Gardezi, Syed Anjum Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Royal College of Physicians states that "handover, particularly of temporary 'on-call' responsibility, has been identified as a point at which errors are likely to occur."[1] Working a weekend on-call covering medical wards is often busy and stressful for all junior doctors. The high volume of routine and unplanned tasks make the situation even worse. In Nevill Hall hospital Abergavenny, we measured the workload on a junior doctor for medical ward cover on weekends by counting the number of times he/she was bleeped for routine tasks. Initial study demonstrated that on average 30-40% of time on a long day shift was spent on jobs which could have been done on the preceding Friday. The "FRIDAYS" checklist was introduced for clinical staff (particularly junior doctors) to identify these jobs. According to this model, all the junior doctors were encouraged to review: F: Phlebotomy R: Rewriting drug charts I: IV fluids D: discharge summaries A: Antibiotic review Y: Yellow book/Warfarin dose S: Status of resuscitation and escalation plans before leaving the wards on Friday afternoon. This implementation successfully showed reduction in weekend workload, allowing the ward cover to be focused on care and safety of comparatively sick patients while at the same time reducing the stress for the on-call team.

  15. Wheels-Off Time Uncertainty Impact on Benefits of Early Call for Release Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palopo, Kee; Chatterji, Gano B.; Almog, Noam

    2017-01-01

    Arrival traffic scenarios with 808 flights from 173 airports to Houston George Bush International airport are simulated to determine if Call For Release flights can receive a benefit in terms of less delay over other flights by scheduling prior to gate pushback (look-ahead in time) as opposed to at gate pushback. Call for Release flights are departures that require approval from Air Route Traffic Control Center prior to release. Realism is brought to the study by including gate departure delay and taxi-out delay uncertainties for the 77 major U. S. airports. Gate departure delay uncertainty is assumed to increase as a function of look-ahead time. Results show that Call For Release flights from an airport within the freeze horizon (a region surrounding the arrival airport) can get an advantage over other flights to a capacity constrained airport by scheduling prior to gate pushback, provided the wheels-off time uncertainty with respect to schedule is controlled to a small value, such as within a three-minute window. Another finding of the study is that system delay, measured as the sum of arrival delays, is smaller when flights are scheduled in the order of arrival compared to in the order of departure. Because flights from airports within the freeze horizon are scheduled in the order of departure, an increase in the number of internal airports with a larger freeze horizon increases system delay. Delay in the given scenario was found to increase by 126% (from 13.8 hours to 31.2 hours) as freeze horizon was increased from 30-minutes to 2-hours in the baseline scenario.

  16. Rapid differentiation of mycobacteria by simplex real-time PCR with melting temperature calling analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Yin, X; Wang, Q

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a rapid, simple and cost-effective method for the differentiation of Mycobacterium species. A total of 80 clinical mycobacterial isolates belonging to 12 different species and 16 reference strains of 16 different species were differentiated by the simplex real-time PCR coupled with melting temperature calling analysis. By comparing their melting profiles with those of the reference strains, all clinical mycobacterial isolates were differentiated as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex or nontuberculous mycobacteria, and the latter were further divided into five groups. In comparison with 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer sequencing method as the gold standard method, both sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 100% when it was used for the differentiation between Myco. tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria. The simplex real-time PCR coupled with melting temperature calling analysis could be an alternative method for the differentiation between Myco. tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Rapid differentiation of mycobacteria could shorten the diagnostic time of mycobacterial diseases. It is also helpful for achieving optimal therapy and appropriate patient management. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Improving patient care over weekends by reducing on-call work load and better time management

    PubMed Central

    Gardezi, Syed Anjum Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Royal College of Physicians states that “handover, particularly of temporary ‘on-call’ responsibility, has been identified as a point at which errors are likely to occur.”[1] Working a weekend on-call covering medical wards is often busy and stressful for all junior doctors. The high volume of routine and unplanned tasks make the situation even worse. In Nevill Hall hospital Abergavenny, we measured the workload on a junior doctor for medical ward cover on weekends by counting the number of times he/she was bleeped for routine tasks. Initial study demonstrated that on average 30–40% of time on a long day shift was spent on jobs which could have been done on the preceding Friday. The “FRIDAYS” checklist was introduced for clinical staff (particularly junior doctors) to identify these jobs. According to this model, all the junior doctors were encouraged to review: F: Phlebotomy R: Rewriting drug charts I: IV fluids D: discharge summaries A: Antibiotic review Y: Yellow book/Warfarin dose S: Status of resuscitation and escalation plans before leaving the wards on Friday afternoon. This implementation successfully showed reduction in weekend workload, allowing the ward cover to be focused on care and safety of comparatively sick patients while at the same time reducing the stress for the on-call team. PMID:26734257

  18. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  19. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  20. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  1. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  2. Medical Innovation in a Children's Hospital: 'Diseases desperate grown by desperate appliance are relieved, or not at all'.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Vic; Turnham, Helen; Brierley, Joe

    2017-09-05

    A balance needs to be struck between facilitating compassionate access to innovative treatments for those in desperate need, and the duty to protect such vulnerable individuals from the harms of untested/unlicensed treatments. We introduced a principle-based framework (2009) to evaluate such requests and describe its application in the context of recently evolved UK, US and European regulatory processes. 24 referrals (20 individual; four group) were received by our quaternary children's hospital Clinical Ethics Committee (CEC) over the 5-year period (2011-16). The CEC-rapid response group evaluated individual cases within 48-hours; the main referrers being haematology/oncology, immunology or transplant services (14). Most requests were for drug/vaccine/pre-trial access (13) or biological/cellular therapies (8). The majority of individual requests were approved (19/20); neutral or negative opinions were given in 5, including 3 group requests. Recently evolved regulatory processes share common criteria and conditions to our framework including: demonstration of clinical need; sound scientific basis with lack of viable alternative; risks-benefit/best interests evaluation; arrangements for fully informed consent; no compromise of arrangements to test treatment for licensing purposes; consideration of resource implications. There are differences between individual processes and with our framework, with respect to procedures, scope, application format, costs and obligation to make available all outcome data. Our experience has emphasized the need for an independent, principled, consistent, fair and transparent response to the increasing demand for innovative treatment on a compassionate basis. We believe that there is a need for harmonization of the recent proliferation of regulation and legislation in this area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Thrifty genes for obesity and the metabolic syndrome--time to call off the search?

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2006-05-01

    Over the last 50 years there has been a major epidemic of obesity and associated co-morbidities, the so-called 'metabolic syndrome', mostly in the western world but with an increasingly global dimension. The development of such chronic diseases has a strong genetic component, yet the timescale of their increase cannot reflect a population genetic change. Consequently, the most accepted model is that obesity and its sequelae are a result of a gene-environment interaction, an ancient genetic selection to deposit fat efficiently that is maladaptive in modern society. Why we have this genetic predisposition has been a matter of much speculation. Following the seminal contribution of Neel, there has been a broad consensus that over evolutionary time we have been exposed to regular periods of famine, during which fatter individuals would have enjoyed a selective advantage by their greater survival. Consequently, individuals with genes promoting the efficient deposition of fat during periods between famines ('thrifty genes') would be favoured. In the modern environment this genetic predisposition prepares us for a famine that never comes, and an epidemic of obesity with all the attendant chronic illnesses follows. In this review I present details of the evidence supporting the famine hypothesis and then show that this idea has five fundamental flaws. In essence, famines are a relatively modern phenomenon and occur only about once every 100-150 years. Consequently, most human populations have only experienced at most 100 famine events in their evolutionary history. Famines involve increases in total mortality that only rarely exceed 10% of the population. Moreover, most people in famines die of disease rather than starvation and the age distribution of mortality during famine would not result in differential mortality between lean and obese individuals. A simple genetic model shows that famines provide insufficient selective advantage over an insufficient time period for a

  4. Geographic-time distribution of ambulance calls in Singapore: utility of geographic information system in ambulance deployment (CARE 3).

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus E H; Ng, Faith S P; Overton, Jerry; Yap, Susan; Andresen, Derek; Yong, David K L; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, V

    2009-03-01

    Pre-hospital ambulance calls are not random events, but occur in patterns and trends that are related to movement patterns of people, as well as the geographical epidemiology of the population. This study describes the geographic-time epidemiology of ambulance calls in a large urban city and conducts a time demand analysis. This will facilitate a Systems Status Plan for the deployment of ambulances based on the most cost effective deployment strategy. An observational prospective study looking at the geographic-time epidemiology of all ambulance calls in Singapore. Locations of ambulance calls were spot mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. Ambulance response times were mapped and a demand analysis conducted by postal districts. Between 1 January 2006 and 31 May 2006, 31,896 patients were enrolled into the study. Mean age of patients was 51.6 years (S.D. 23.0) with 60.0% male. Race distribution was 62.5% Chinese, 19.4% Malay, 12.9% Indian and 5.2% others. Trauma consisted 31.2% of calls and medical 68.8%. 9.7% of cases were priority 1 (most severe) and 70.1% priority 2 (moderate severity). Mean call receipt to arrival at scene was 8.0 min (S.D. 4.8). Call volumes in the day were almost twice those at night, with the most calls on Mondays. We found a definite geographical distribution pattern with heavier call volumes in the suburban town centres in the Eastern and Southern part of the country. We characterised the top 35 districts with the highest call volumes by time periods, which will form the basis for ambulance deployment plans. We found a definite geographical distribution pattern of ambulance calls. This study demonstrates the utility of GIS with despatch demand analysis and has implications for maximising the effectiveness of ambulance deployment.

  5. Changes in How Students Use and Are Called Homophobic Epithets over Time: Patterns Predicted by Gender, Bullying, and Victimization Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Mereish, Ethan H.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested for changes in how students used and were called homophobic epithets as they progressed through high school. Boys used and were called these epithets with increased frequency over time, whereas girls reported decreases on both. Distinct gender socialization processes may contribute to these different patterns for…

  6. Automatic recognition of fin and blue whale calls for real-time monitoring in the St. Lawrence.

    PubMed

    Mouy, Xavier; Bahoura, Mohammed; Simard, Yvan

    2009-12-01

    Monitoring blue and fin whales summering in the St. Lawrence Estuary with passive acoustics requires call recognition algorithms that can cope with the heavy shipping noise of the St. Lawrence Seaway and with multipath propagation characteristics that generate overlapping copies of the calls. In this paper, the performance of three time-frequency methods aiming at such automatic detection and classification is tested on more than 2000 calls and compared at several levels of signal-to-noise ratio using typical recordings collected in this area. For all methods, image processing techniques are used to reduce the noise in the spectrogram. The first approach consists in matching the spectrogram with binary time-frequency templates of the calls (coincidence of spectrograms). The second approach is based on the extraction of the frequency contours of the calls and their classification using dynamic time warping (DTW) and the vector quantization (VQ) algorithms. The coincidence of spectrograms was the fastest method and performed better for blue whale A and B calls. VQ detected more 20 Hz fin whale calls but with a higher false alarm rate. DTW and VQ outperformed for the more variable blue whale D calls.

  7. 'Resuscitation' of extremely preterm and/or low-birth-weight infants - time to 'call it'?

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, various methods have been used to revive apparently stillborn infants; many were of dubious efficacy and had the potential to cause harm. Based largely on studies of acutely asphyxiated term animal models, clinical assessment and positive pressure ventilation have become the cornerstones of neonatal resuscitation over the last 40 years. Over the last 25 years, care of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room has evolved from a policy of indifference to one of increasingly aggressive support. The survival of these infants has improved considerably in recent years; this has not, however, necessarily been due to more aggressive resuscitation. Urban myths have evolved that all extremely preterm infants died before they were intubated, and that all such infants need to immediately intubated or they will quickly die. This has never been true. Clinical assessment of infants at birth is subjective. Also, many techniques used to support preterm infants at birth have not been well studied and there is evidence that they may be harmful. It may thus be argued that many of our well-intentioned resuscitation interventions are of dubious efficacy and have the potential to cause harm. 'Resuscitation' is an emotive term which means 'restoration of life'. Death, thankfully, is a rare presentation in the delivery room. Therefore, concerning neonatal 'resuscitation', it is time to 'call it' something else. This will allow us to dispassionately distinguish preterm infants who are dead, or nearly dead, from those who are merely at high risk of parenchymal lung disease. We may then be able to refine our interventions and determine what methods of support benefit these infants most. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Association Between Survival and Time of Day for Rapid Response Team Calls in a National Registry.

    PubMed

    Churpek, Matthew Michael; Edelson, Dana P; Lee, Ji Yeon; Carey, Kyle; Snyder, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    Decreased staffing at nighttime is associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized patients. Rapid response teams were developed to decrease preventable harm by providing additional critical care resources to patients with clinical deterioration. We sought to determine whether rapid response team call frequency suffers from decreased utilization at night and how this is associated with patient outcomes. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected registry database. National registry database of inpatient rapid response team calls. Index rapid response team calls occurring on the general wards in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Medical Emergency Team database between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed. None. The primary outcome was inhospital mortality. Patient and event characteristics between the hours with the highest and lowest mortality were compared, and multivariable models adjusting for patient characteristics were fit. A total of 282,710 rapid response team calls from 274 hospitals were included. The lowest frequency of calls occurred in the consecutive 1 AM to 6:59 AM period, with 266 of 274 (97%) hospitals having lower than expected call volumes during those hours. Mortality was highest during the 7 AM hour and lowest during the noon hour (18.8% vs 13.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.41 [1.31-1.52]; p < 0.001). Compared with calls at the noon hour, those during the 7 AM hour had more deranged vital signs, were more likely to have a respiratory trigger, and were more likely to have greater than two simultaneous triggers. Rapid response team activation is less frequent during the early morning and is followed by a spike in mortality in the 7 AM hour. These findings suggest that failure to rescue deteriorating patients is more common overnight. Strategies aimed at improving rapid response team utilization during these vulnerable hours may improve patient outcomes.

  9. Calling Behavior, Copulation Time, and Reproductive Compatibility of Corn-Strain Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Esteban, Samuel; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A

    2017-08-01

    The calling behavior, mating time, and the reproductive compatibility of virgin adults of fall armyworms, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were studied in this work. Larvae were collected on maize (Zea mays L.) from six states located on the Pacific coast (Chiapas, Michoacán, and Sinaloa), on the Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan), and in central Mexico (Morelos). Before the experiments, insects were reared under laboratory conditions for one generation. We recorded the age at which females called for the first time, the onset time of calling, the duration of calling, the onset time of copulation, and the duration of copulation. The calling rhythms of the six populations were dissimilar. Females from all populations began to call in the second or third scotophase. The time for onset of calling and the duration of calling were significantly different among the S. frugiperda populations studied. Spodoptera frugiperda pairs from Sinaloa, Veracruz, Yucatan, and Morelos started to copulate earlier than the pairs from Chiapas and Michoacán. Pairs from Veracruz and Yucatan copulated longer than those from Michoacán, Morelos, Chiapas, and Sinaloa. Our crossing experiment using females and males from the six populations showed that individuals from different populations could copulate and produce fertile offspring. Thus, although the S. frugiperda populations showed variability in the timing of reproduction, the populations were not reproductively incompatible, which indicated that geographic distance has not led to reproductive isolation in corn-strain populations of S. frugiperda in Mexico. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Living in hope and desperate for a miracle: NICU nurses perceptions of parental anguish.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The birth of an extremely premature baby is a tragedy, and it is only natural that the parents will rely on the spiritual and religious beliefs that guide the rest of their lives. At this difficult time, parents with strong religious beliefs will hope for divine intervention and pray for a miracle. This paper outlines the difficulties experienced by neonatal nurses when caring for an extremely premature baby whose parents hold on to hope and their belief in divine intervention and a miracle. Data were collected via a questionnaire to Australian neonatal nurses and semi-structured interviews with 24 neonatal nurses in NSW, Australia. A qualitative approach was used to analyse the data. The theme of "hoping for a miracle" was captured by two sub-themes "praying for a miracle" and "oscillating between hope and despair". For some families, the hope of divine intervention seemed all consuming, and the nurses were witness to the desperation and disappointment of families when a miracle was not forthcoming.

  11. Calibrating passive acoustic monitoring: correcting humpback whale call detections for site-specific and time-dependent environmental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Campbell, Greg S; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of accounting for environmental effects on passive underwater acoustic monitoring results. The situation considered is the reduction in shipping off the California coast between 2008-2010 due to the recession and environmental legislation. The resulting variations in ocean noise change the probability of detecting marine mammal vocalizations. An acoustic model was used to calculate the time-varying probability of detecting humpback whale vocalizations under best-guess environmental conditions and varying noise. The uncorrected call counts suggest a diel pattern and an increase in calling over a two-year period; the corrected call counts show minimal evidence of these features.

  12. Ambulance call-outs and response times in Birmingham and the impact of extreme weather and climate change.

    PubMed

    Thornes, John Edward; Fisher, Paul Anthony; Rayment-Bishop, Tracy; Smith, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Although there has been some research on the impact of extreme weather on the number of ambulance call-out incidents, especially heat waves, there has been very little research on the impact of cold weather on ambulance call-outs and response times. In the UK, there is a target response rate of 75% of life threatening incidents (Category A) that must be responded to within 8 min. This paper compares daily air temperature data with ambulance call-out data for Birmingham over a 5-year period (2007-2011). A significant relationship between extreme weather and increased ambulance call-out and response times can clearly be shown. Both hot and cold weather have a negative impact on response times. During the heat wave of August 2003, the number of ambulance call-outs increased by up to a third. In December 2010 (the coldest December for more than 100 years), the response rate fell below 50% for 3 days in a row (18 December-20 December 2010) with a mean response time of 15 min. For every reduction of air temperature by 1°C there was a reduction of 1.3% in performance. Improved weather forecasting and the take up of adaptation measures, such as the use of winter tyres, are suggested for consideration as management tools to improve ambulance response resilience during extreme weather. Also it is suggested that ambulance response times could be used as part of the syndromic surveillance system at the Health Protection Agency.

  13. Effect of the number of request calls on the time from call to hospital arrival: a cross-sectional study of an ambulance record database in Nara prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanaki, Nao; Yamashita, Kazuto; Kunisawa, Susumu; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Japan, ambulance staff sometimes must make request calls to find hospitals that can accept patients because of an inadequate information sharing system. This study aimed to quantify effects of the number of request calls on the time interval between an emergency call and hospital arrival. Design and setting A cross-sectional study of an ambulance records database in Nara prefecture, Japan. Cases A total of 43 663 patients (50% women; 31.2% aged 80 years and over): (1) transported by ambulance from April 2013 to March 2014, (2) aged 15 years and over, and (3) with suspected major illness. Primary outcome measures The time from call to hospital arrival, defined as the time interval from receipt of an emergency call to ambulance arrival at a hospital. Results The mean time interval from emergency call to hospital arrival was 44.5 min, and the mean number of requests was 1.8. Multilevel linear regression analysis showed that ∼43.8% of variations in transportation times were explained by patient age, sex, season, day of the week, time, category of suspected illness, person calling for the ambulance, emergency status at request call, area and number of request calls. A higher number of request calls was associated with longer time intervals to hospital arrival (addition of 6.3 min per request call; p<0.001). In an analysis dividing areas into three groups, there were differences in transportation time for diseases needing cardiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons and orthopaedists. Conclusions The study revealed 6.3 additional minutes needed in transportation time for every refusal of a request call, and also revealed disease-specific delays among specific areas. An effective system should be collaboratively established by policymakers and physicians to ensure the rapid identification of an available hospital for patient transportation in order to reduce the time from the initial emergency call to hospital arrival. PMID:27940625

  14. Quiet Desperation, Secret Melancholy: Polemos and Passion in Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary scenes of democracy and education exemplify a real scepticism about the point of political participation, and by implication about one's place in society in relation to others. What is called for is a recovery of desire "per se"--of people's desire to say what they "want" to say and their desire to participate in the creation of the…

  15. Desperation Postchemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Metastatic Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Carver, Brett S

    2015-08-01

    Patients with persistently elevated serum tumor markers should be monitored for marker kinetics and evaluated for nonviable cancer causes of marker elevation. Desperation postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is performed in select patients following second-line chemotherapy. Adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy is not indicated in patients following second-line chemotherapy.

  16. Effect of anomalous pulse timing on call discrimination by females of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor): behavioral correlates of neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joshua J; Huth, Kenneth; Hunce, Raymond; Lentine, Brandon

    2010-06-15

    Research has demonstrated that certain midbrain neurons of anurans 'count' interpulse intervals (IPIs). Some neurons fire after exposure to fewer intervals than do others. Counting can be reset to zero if an IPI falls outside the cell's tolerance range. We tested female gray treefrogs for behavioral correlates of these neural response patterns using phonotaxis tests in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanistic bases of female responses to calls. For example, previous work demonstrated females often prefer longer to shorter pulsed advertisement calls, even when the former occur at lower rates. Call attractiveness can also be reduced when pulse duration and timing have been manipulated experimentally or disrupted by acoustic interference. In this study, female responses were consistent with neural data, emphasizing the importance of IPIs. Females discriminated in favor of calls with normal interpulse timing relative to those in which a single IPI was too long or too short. Our data suggest that neural resetting of interval counting by inappropriate intervals may more strongly influence females than reduced firing in response to such intervals on an individual basis. Data also suggest a transition point between 125 ms and 175 ms at which an interval between pulse strings is treated as an interval between calls.

  17. Calling for a rapid recognition and response program for stroke in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Renyu

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we provide evidences indicating that a a rapid recognition and response program based on FAST (face, Arm, Speech, Time) for stroke suitable for China is desperately needed. PMID:28105445

  18. A Call to Action: To Improve the Quality of Full-Time Virtual Charter Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Currently, more than 180,000 students attend 135 full-time virtual charter schools in 23 states and the District of Columbia. While some students do well in a full-time virtual charter school environment, too many of these schools are not providing a quality educational program to the vast majority of their students, while enrolling too many who…

  19. Supporting Students in Military Families during Times of Transition: A Call for Awareness and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout their time in school, students in military families face many challenging periods of transition, which include deployments, relocations, and the family's separation from the military. During these transitions, students in military families may be especially susceptible to social, emotional, and academic challenges both in their home…

  20. Dyscalculia ? Maths Difficulties. An Analysis of Conflicting Positions at a Time That Calls for Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's notion of field, the Scandinavian field of maths pedagogy occurs at a time characterised by increasing inclusion efforts in primary school. Various stakeholders in maths pedagogy are arguing about what should be done about pupils who perform poorly in mathematics and what causes their difficulties. Four analytical positions are…

  1. Supporting Students in Military Families during Times of Transition: A Call for Awareness and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout their time in school, students in military families face many challenging periods of transition, which include deployments, relocations, and the family's separation from the military. During these transitions, students in military families may be especially susceptible to social, emotional, and academic challenges both in their home…

  2. Dyscalculia ? Maths Difficulties. An Analysis of Conflicting Positions at a Time That Calls for Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's notion of field, the Scandinavian field of maths pedagogy occurs at a time characterised by increasing inclusion efforts in primary school. Various stakeholders in maths pedagogy are arguing about what should be done about pupils who perform poorly in mathematics and what causes their difficulties. Four analytical positions are…

  3. A Full-Time Nurse for Every School: A Call to Action to Make It Happen.

    PubMed

    Nikpour, Jacqueline; Hassmiller, Susan

    2017-09-01

    In June 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics released its new policy statement recommending a full-time registered nurse in every school building. Indeed, increasing attention is being focused on school nursing, in part due to recent legislation, including the Affordable Care Act, the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act, and the Every Student Succeeds Act. Advocating for nursing practice within an education setting presents unique challenges in terms of changing the common perception of school nurses, variances in funding streams for school nursing, and the ability to link health outcomes with educational outcomes. The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale for a school nurse in every building along with presenting action steps that individual and groups of school nurses can utilize to advocate for a full-time registered nurse in every school.

  4. Reducing time spent by junior doctors on call performing routine tasks at weekends

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Wadah; Lin, Simeng

    2013-01-01

    At the Northern General Hospital, there are sixteen medical wards, spread over approximately half a mile. Weekend care for inpatients on these wards is provided by a team of four junior doctors, of different levels of training. We undertook a quality improvement project to reduce the amount of time junior doctors spent performing routine tasks at weekends. This may increase their available time for direct patient care. The study was performed over a period of nine weeks on two medical wards - Diabetes & Endocrine (W1) and Care of the Elderly Rehabilitation (W2). We monitored the bleeps received by the covering junior doctors during the weekend daytime shifts from the two study wards. We noted that a proportion of bleeps were routine tasks that could have been performed during weekday working hours. We also noted that W2 recorded fewer bleeps than W1 ward. This seemed to be because W2 batched junior doctors' jobs together. Firstly, we attempted to reduce the amount of routine work left undone each weekend. We provided a poster to remind Junior Doctors to complete such work during the week. Secondly, on W1 we replicated the job-batching system already in place on W2. A Doctors' Book was introduced in which nursing staff recorded the tasks that needed doing. This saved them from having to bleep the doctor repeatedly. The two changes resulted in a reduction in the number of bleeps generated by each ward and the number of visits required by the Junior Doctors to W1. Simple changes can reduce the amount of time junior doctors spend performing routine work at weekends. We implemented two such changes and achieved a reduction in the number of bleeps experienced by junior doctors and the number of times they had to return to one ward. PMID:26734161

  5. Effect of the number of request calls on the time from call to hospital arrival: a cross-sectional study of an ambulance record database in Nara prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Nao; Yamashita, Kazuto; Kunisawa, Susumu; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2016-12-09

    In Japan, ambulance staff sometimes must make request calls to find hospitals that can accept patients because of an inadequate information sharing system. This study aimed to quantify effects of the number of request calls on the time interval between an emergency call and hospital arrival. A cross-sectional study of an ambulance records database in Nara prefecture, Japan. A total of 43 663 patients (50% women; 31.2% aged 80 years and over): (1) transported by ambulance from April 2013 to March 2014, (2) aged 15 years and over, and (3) with suspected major illness. The time from call to hospital arrival, defined as the time interval from receipt of an emergency call to ambulance arrival at a hospital. The mean time interval from emergency call to hospital arrival was 44.5 min, and the mean number of requests was 1.8. Multilevel linear regression analysis showed that ∼43.8% of variations in transportation times were explained by patient age, sex, season, day of the week, time, category of suspected illness, person calling for the ambulance, emergency status at request call, area and number of request calls. A higher number of request calls was associated with longer time intervals to hospital arrival (addition of 6.3 min per request call; p<0.001). In an analysis dividing areas into three groups, there were differences in transportation time for diseases needing cardiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons and orthopaedists. The study revealed 6.3 additional minutes needed in transportation time for every refusal of a request call, and also revealed disease-specific delays among specific areas. An effective system should be collaboratively established by policymakers and physicians to ensure the rapid identification of an available hospital for patient transportation in order to reduce the time from the initial emergency call to hospital arrival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  6. Female circumcision: desperately seeking a space for women.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Toubia, N

    1990-04-01

    Female Circumcision (FC) is "the total or partial cutting away of the female external genital organs." There are 3 types of FC: 1) Sunna where the foreskin of the clitoris is removed; 2) excision which involved removal of a part or all of the clitoris with a part or all of the labia minora; and 3) infibulation or pharaonic circumcision (the most severe type) which includes excision and removal of the labia majora only leaving a small hole to allow the exit of urine and menstrual fluid. FC carries the high risk of HIV infection because it is often practiced without anesthesia and with either a razor blade or a knife. The damages go beyond the physical--they include long-term side effects on women's physical and psychological health. The international battle against FC includes a series of legislative and political acts: 1) In 1946 the British Colonial government made one of the earliest efforts of its kind by making pharaonic circumcision in Sudan a felony and punishable by imprisonment; 2) In 1959 Egypt passed a law making circumcision illegal; 3) In 1977 the Special Committee of Non- Governmental Organizations on Human Rights of the United Nations in collaboration with WHO and UNICEF organized a sub-committee to investigate the status of women in 20 African countries and published a report; 4) In 1979 WHO held a conference in Sudan entitled "The Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children" whose outcomes were published in a report; 5) In 1980 WHO forbade the practice of FC; 6) In 1984 a Pan-African seminar was held in Dakar, Senegal that established the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Practices Affecting Women and Children (IAC); 7) In 1985 the UN Nairobi Conference on The Women's Decade passed resolutions against FC; 8) In 1988 the 39th Assembly of the WHO/Africa Region passed a resolution calling for the abolition of female sexual mutilation. Presidents of several African countries have condemned FC including Benin, Burkina Faso

  7. Association between tobacco plain packaging and Quitline calls: a population-based, interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Young, Jane M; Stacey, Ingrid; Dobbins, Timothy A; Dunlop, Sally; Dessaix, Anita L; Currow, David C

    2014-01-20

    To investigate whether the introduction of tobacco plain packaging in Australia from 1 October 2012 was associated with a change in the number of calls to the smoking cessation helpline, Quitline, and to compare this with the impact of the introduction of graphic health warnings from 1 March 2006. Whole-of-population interrupted time-series analysis in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory between 1 March 2005 and October 2006 for the comparator, graphic health warnings, and October 2011 and April 2013 for the intervention of interest, tobacco plain packaging. Weekly number of calls to the Quitline, after adjusting for seasonal trends, anti-tobacco advertising, cigarette costliness and the number of smokers in the community. There was a 78% increase in the number of calls to the Quitline associated with the introduction of plain packaging (baseline, 363/week; peak, 651/week [95% CI, 523-780/week; P < 0.001]). This peak occurred 4 weeks after the initial appearance of plain packaging and has been prolonged. The 2006 introduction of graphic health warnings had the same relative increase in calls (84%; baseline, 910/week; peak, 1673/week [95% CI, 1383-1963/week; P < 0.001]) but the impact of plain packaging has continued for longer. There has been a sustained increase in calls to the Quitline after the introduction of tobacco plain packaging. This increase is not attributable to anti-tobacco advertising activity, cigarette price increases nor other identifiable causes. This is an important incremental step in comprehensive tobacco control.

  8. Probability distributions for locations of calling animals, receivers, sound speeds, winds, and data from travel time differences.

    PubMed

    Spiesberger, John L

    2005-09-01

    A new nonlinear sequential Monte Carlo technique is used to estimate posterior probability distributions for the location of a calling animal, the locations of acoustic receivers, sound speeds, winds, and the differences in sonic travel time between pairs of receivers from measurements of those differences, while adopting realistic prior distributions of the variables. Other algorithms in the literature appear to be too inefficient to yield distributions for this large number of variables (up to 41) without recourse to a linear approximation. The new technique overcomes the computational inefficiency of other algorithms because it does not sequentially propagate the joint probability distribution of the variables between adjacent data. Instead, the lower and upper bounds of the distributions are propagated. The technique is applied to commonly encountered problems that were previously intractable such as estimating how accurately sound speed and poorly known initial locations of receivers can be estimated from the differences in sonic travel time from calling animals, while explicitly modeling distributions of all the variables in the problem. In both cases, the new technique yields one or two orders of magnitude improvements compared with initial uncertainties. The technique is suitable for accurately estimating receiver locations from animal calls.

  9. Desperately seeking data: knowledge base-database links.

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, G.; Johnson, S. B.; Clayton, P. D.

    1993-01-01

    Linking a knowledge-based system (KBS) to a clinical database is a difficult task, but critical if such systems are to achieve widespread use. The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center's clinical event monitor provides alerts, interpretations, research screening, and quality assurance functions for the center. Its knowledge base consists of Arden Syntax Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). The knowledge base was analyzed in order to quantify the use and impact of KBS-database links. The MLM data slot, which contains the definition of these links, had almost as many statements (5.8 vs. 8.8, ns with p = 0.15) and more tokens (122 vs. 76, p = 0.037) than the logic slot, which contains the actual medical knowledge. The data slot underwent about twice as many modifications over time as the logic slot (3.0 vs. 1.6 modifications/version, p = 0.010). Database queries and updates accounted for 97.2% of the MLM's total elapsed execution time. Thus, KBS-database links consume substantial resources in an MLM knowledge base, in terms of coding, maintenance, and performance. PMID:8130552

  10. Planning for Desperate Climate Intervention: can it Make Sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The three National Academies of the United States, working together, authored a comprehensive report in 1992 titled: Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. The authors discussed various possible methods of geoengineering to mitigate the adverse climate effects of the slow, steady buildup of greenhouse gasses in the Earth's atmosphere. Subsequently far less expensive, clever designs were developed by inventors such as Bill Gates and his collaborators, and these have been patented. Many of the techniques in this geoengineering proposition were commonly considered as methods of selectively polluting the upper atmosphere to block the solar luminosity, and hence they met with staunch resistance from the international scientific community. At the time, these geoengineering approaches were proposed as a method of countering the slow steady increase of the earth's temperature that was assumed to be a consequence of the increase in concentration of atmospheric molecules that contain carbon, such as CO2 and CH4. Such intentional intervention in a system as complex as the earth's atmosphere was considered by most scientists, including the authors, as reckless. Within this paper, we propose that the less expensive of these geoengineering plans be reconsidered, but that such a system never be deployed or tested at scale unless a genuine climate runaway condition arises in the future. The more economically compelling approaches should be further tested at the `lab bench' level, and in small laboratory-scale tests, and simulations. A comprehensive plan should be developed to manufacture the required materials at scale and to finalize the design of the necessary system, but no such deployment should be entered into at this time. The many risks of an intense, sudden release of greenhouse gasses, mainly methane and carbon dioxide from geologic sources, are reviewed briefly herein. We consider it only prudent to develop an economical

  11. House calls.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Brian K; Tatum, Paul E

    2011-04-15

    House calls provide a unique perspective on patients' environment and health problems. The demand for house calls is expected to increase considerably in future decades as the U.S. population ages. Although study results have been inconsistent, house calls involving multidisciplinary teams may reduce hospital readmissions and long-term care facility stays. Common indications for house calls are management of acute or chronic illnesses, and palliative care. Medicare beneficiaries must meet specific criteria to be eligible for home health services. The INHOMESSS mnemonic provides a checklist for components of a comprehensive house call. In addition to performing a clinical assessment, house calls may involve observing the patient performing daily activities, reconciling medication discrepancies, and evaluating home safety. House calls can be integrated into practice with careful planning, including clustering house calls by geographic location and coordinating visits with other health care professionals and agencies.

  12. On Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness of using emergency call boxes for establishing a safe campus environment allowing for more immediate response to emergencies. Technology's influence on the future of campus call boxes is highlighted. (GR)

  13. Mainstream media and the social determinants of health in Canada: is it time to call it a day?

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2011-06-01

    This article explores the dearth of coverage of the social determinants of health by the Canadian mainstream media. It is argued that this neglect is primarily a reflection of political and economic societal structures that has been associated with increasing corporate control of the mainstream media. Applying a critical political economy lens, it is argued that the barriers to having the Canadian mainstream media report on the social determinants of health are so numerous that it may indeed be 'time to call it a day' in regard to having them assist in the dissemination of social determinants of health findings. Recognizing this reality should spur the development of alternative means of communicating with the public in order to develop a citizens' movement to create health-promoting public policy. Recent dissemination efforts related to the Social Determinants of Health: The Canadian Facts provide an example of how this might be accomplished.

  14. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity.

  15. A call to strengthen the global strategy against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: the time is now.

    PubMed

    Lo, Nathan C; Addiss, David G; Hotez, Peter J; King, Charles H; Stothard, J Russell; Evans, Darin S; Colley, Daniel G; Lin, William; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Raso, Giovanna; Bendavid, Eran; Bogoch, Isaac I; Fenwick, Alan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Molyneux, David; Utzinger, Jürg; Andrews, Jason R

    2017-02-01

    In 2001, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed the landmark WHA 54.19 resolution for global scale-up of mass administration of anthelmintic drugs for morbidity control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, which affect more than 1·5 billion of the world's poorest people. Since then, more than a decade of research and experience has yielded crucial knowledge on the control and elimination of these helminthiases. However, the global strategy has remained largely unchanged since the original 2001 WHA resolution and associated WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy. In this Personal View, we highlight recent advances that, taken together, support a call to revise the global strategy and guidelines for preventive chemotherapy and complementary interventions against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. These advances include the development of guidance that is specific to goals of morbidity control and elimination of transmission. We quantify the result of forgoing this opportunity by computing the yearly disease burden, mortality, and lost economic productivity associated with maintaining the status quo. Without change, we estimate that the population of sub-Saharan Africa will probably lose 2·3 million disability-adjusted life-years and US$3·5 billion of economic productivity every year, which is comparable to recent acute epidemics, including the 2014 Ebola and 2015 Zika epidemics. We propose that the time is now to strengthen the global strategy to address the substantial disease burden of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

  16. Obesity and cell-free DNA "no calls": is there an optimal gestational age at time of sampling?

    PubMed

    Livergood, Mary C; LeChien, Kay A; Trudell, Amanda S

    2017-04-01

    Cell-free DNA screen failures or "no calls" occur in 1-12% of samples and are frustrating for both clinician and patient. The rate of "no calls" has been shown to have an inverse relationship with gestational age. Recent studies have shown an increased risk for "no calls" among obese women. We sought to determine the optimal gestational age for cell-free DNA among obese women. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent cell-free DNA at a single tertiary care center from 2011 through 2016. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for a "no call" were determined for each weight class and compared to normal-weight women. The predicted probability of a "no call" with 95% confidence intervals were determined for each week of gestation for normal-weight and obese women and compared. Among 2385 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 105 (4.4%) had a "no call". Compared to normal-weight women, the adjusted odds ratio of a "no call" increased with increasing weight class from overweight to obesity class III (respectively: adjusted odds ratio, 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-4.42 to adjusted odds ratio, 8.55; 95% confidence interval, 4.16-17.56). A cut point at 21 weeks was identified for obesity class II/III women at which there is no longer a significant difference in the probability of a "no call" for obese women compared to normal weight women. From 8-16 weeks, there is a 4.5% reduction in the probability of a "no call" for obesity class II/III women (respectively: 14.9%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-20.78 and 10.4%; 95% confidence interval, 7.20-13.61; Ptrend < .01). The cut point of 21 weeks for optimal sampling of cell-free DNA limits reproductive choices. However, a progressive fall in the probability of a "no call" with advancing gestational age suggests that delaying cell-free DNA for obese women is a reasonable strategy to reduce the probability of a "no call". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Desperate Housewives: An Analysis of the Characterisations of Female Gamblers Portrayed in Gambling Movies in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtsuka, Keis; Chan, Chi Chuen

    2009-01-01

    This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in…

  18. A call center primer.

    PubMed

    Durr, W

    1998-01-01

    Call centers are strategically and tactically important to many industries, including the healthcare industry. Call centers play a key role in acquiring and retaining customers. The ability to deliver high-quality and timely customer service without much expense is the basis for the proliferation and expansion of call centers. Call centers are unique blends of people and technology, where performance indicates combining appropriate technology tools with sound management practices built on key operational data. While the technology is fascinating, the people working in call centers and the skill of the management team ultimately make a difference to their companies.

  19. A Call to Action for Research in Digital Learning: Learning without Limits of Time, Place, Path, Pace…or Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Cathy; Sessums, Christopher; Drexler, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a call for rethinking our approach to research in digital learning. It plots a path founded in social trends and advances in education. A brief review of these trends and advances is followed by discussion of what flattened research might look like at scale. Scaling research in digital learning is crucial to advancing understanding…

  20. Desperately seeking sociology: nursing student perceptions of sociology on nursing courses.

    PubMed

    Edgley, Alison; Timmons, Stephen; Crosbie, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present the findings of a qualitative study exploring the perceptions of students confronted by a requirement to learn sociology within a nursing curriculum. Those teaching sociology have a variety of explanations (more or less desperate), seeking to justify its place on the nursing curriculum. While there may be no resolution to the debate, the dispute thus far, has largely been between sociology and nursing academics. Absent from this debate are the voices of students 'required' to learn both nursing and sociology. What do students make of this contested territory? When students are trying to learn their trade, and know how to practice safely and efficaciously what do they make of the sociological imagination? How realistic is it to expect students to grasp both the concrete and practical with the imaginative and critical? Findings from this qualitative, focus group study suggest that students do indeed find learning sociology within a nursing curriculum "unsettling". It would seem that students cope in a number of ways. They fragment and compartmentalise knowledge(s); they privilege the interception of experiential learning on the path between theory and practice; and yet they appear to employ sociological understanding to account for nursing's gendered and developing professional status.

  1. Changing the Consultant On Calls From a Daily to Weekly Rotation System Reduces Time to Theater for Patients With Hip Fracture to Improve Quality of Care

    PubMed Central

    Gokaraju, Kishan; Singh, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether changing the consultant on-call schedule resulted in a reduction in time to theater for patients presenting with a hip fracture. Summary Background Data: Guidelines in the United Kingdom state that patients presenting with a neck of femur fracture should ideally be operated on the day of or the day after admission. However, there is a best practice tariff in the United Kingdom persuading trusts to operate on elderly patients with hip fracture within 36 hours of admission. Differing formats of daily trauma operating lists and varying consultant on-call schedules have the potential to affect a trusts ability to successfully meet such demands. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed whether changing the on-call schedule from a system where the on-call consultant is changed on a daily basis to one which changes weekly resulted in a reduction in time to theater for such patients and an increase in best practice tariffs paid. Results: With the initial rotation system, the average time to theater for a fractured neck of femur was 44 hours 46 minutes, with 44.7% of patients having a time to surgery of less than 36 hours. Patients in the modified system underwent surgery with an average time to theater of 32 hours 19 minutes. In 71.7% of these patients, time to surgery was less than 36 hours. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that changing the schedule to permit a consultant to have a 7-day period of trauma on call at a time instead of only 1 day dramatically reduced the time to theater for patients with hip fracture. This significantly reduced the number of these cases done outside 36 hours and increased trust financial reward. PMID:25360334

  2. Worker productivity and ventilation rate in a call center: Analyses of time-series data for a group of workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Price, Phillip; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Federspiel, Cliff; Liu, Gang; Lahiff, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies, increased ventilation rates and reduced indoor carbon dioxide concentrations have been associated with improvements in health at work and increased performance in work-related tasks. Very few studies have assessed whether ventilation rates influence performance of real work. This paper describes part one of a two-part analysis from a productivity study performed in a call center operated by a health maintenance organization. Outside air ventilation rates were manipulated, indoor air temperatures, humidities, and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored, and worker performance data for advice nurses, with 30-minute resolution, were analyzed via multivariate linear regression to look for an association of performance with building ventilation rate, or with indoor carbon dioxide concentration (which is related to ventilation rate per worker). Results suggest that the effect of ventilation rate on worker performance in this call center was very small (probably less than 1%) or nil, over most of the range of ventilation rate experienced during the study (roughly 12 L s{sup -1} to 48 L s{sup -1} per person). However, there is some evidence suggesting performance improvements of 2% or more when the ventilation rate per person is very high, as indicated by indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations exceeding outdoor concentrations by less than 75 ppm.

  3. Impacts of extreme heat on emergency medical service calls in King County, Washington, 2007-2012: relative risk and time series analyses of basic and advanced life support.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Miriam M; Isaksen, Tania Busch; Stubbs, Benjamin A; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-28

    Exposure to excessive heat kills more people than any other weather-related phenomenon, aggravates chronic diseases, and causes direct heat illness. Strong associations between extreme heat and health have been identified through increased mortality and hospitalizations and there is growing evidence demonstrating increased emergency department visits and demand for emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study is to build on an existing regional assessment of mortality and hospitalizations by analyzing EMS demand associated with extreme heat, using calls as a health metric, in King County, Washington (WA), for a 6-year period. Relative-risk and time series analyses were used to characterize the association between heat and EMS calls for May 1 through September 30 of each year for 2007-2012. Two EMS categories, basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS), were analyzed for the effects of heat on health outcomes and transportation volume, stratified by age. Extreme heat was model-derived as the 95th (29.7 °C) and 99th (36.7 °C) percentile of average county-wide maximum daily humidex for BLS and ALS calls respectively. Relative-risk analyses revealed an 8 % (95 % CI: 6-9 %) increase in BLS calls, and a 14 % (95 % CI: 9-20 %) increase in ALS calls, on a heat day (29.7 and 36.7 °C humidex, respectively) versus a non-heat day for all ages, all causes. Time series analyses found a 6.6 % increase in BLS calls, and a 3.8 % increase in ALS calls, per unit-humidex increase above the optimum threshold, 40.7 and 39.7 °C humidex respectively. Increases in "no" and "any" transportation were found in both relative risk and time series analyses. Analysis by age category identified significant results for all age groups, with the 15-44 and 45-64 year old age groups showing some of the highest and most frequent increases across health conditions. Multiple specific health conditions were associated with increased risk of an EMS call including abdominal

  4. Elderly patients are at high risk of night-time admission to the intensive care unit following a rapid response team call.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, K; Flabouris, A; Thompson, C; Seppelt, I

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that elderly patients (age ≥65 years) are less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit following a rapid response team call and have high hospital mortality rates. This study has shown that elderly patients have a significantly higher probability of being admitted to an intensive care unit following a rapid response team call at night than during the day. However, at no time are they at greater risk than younger patients of incomplete vital sign recording, a failure to escalate care for acute deterioration or mortality.

  5. Software for real-time localization of baleen whale calls using directional sonobuoys: A case study on Antarctic blue whales.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian S; Calderan, Susannah; Gillespie, Douglas; Weatherup, Graham; Leaper, Russell; Collins, Kym; Double, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Directional frequency analysis and recording (DIFAR) sonobuoys can allow real-time acoustic localization of baleen whales for underwater tracking and remote sensing, but limited availability of hardware and software has prevented wider usage. These software limitations were addressed by developing a module in the open-source software PAMGuard. A case study is presented demonstrating that this software provides greater efficiency and accessibility than previous methods for detecting, localizing, and tracking Antarctic blue whales in real time. Additionally, this software can easily be extended to track other low and mid frequency sounds including those from other cetaceans, pinnipeds, icebergs, shipping, and seismic airguns.

  6. Technology Usage among Community College Faculty in First-Time-in-College Classes: A Call to Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology in higher education has played an increasingly dramatic role, particularly on community college campuses, with emphasis on how to provide better services to students via the use of technology. This report examines the challenge for faculty teaching first-time-in-college (FTIC) classes at El Centro College of the Dallas County Community…

  7. Technology Usage among Community College Faculty in First-Time-in-College Classes: A Call to Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology in higher education has played an increasingly dramatic role, particularly on community college campuses, with emphasis on how to provide better services to students via the use of technology. This report examines the challenge for faculty teaching first-time-in-college (FTIC) classes at El Centro College of the Dallas County Community…

  8. Early infant diagnosis of HIV in Myanmar: call for innovative interventions to improve uptake and reduce turnaround time.

    PubMed

    Thiha, Soe; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Philip, Sairu; Aung, Thet Ko; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; War, May Wint; Oo, Htun Nyunt

    2017-01-01

    In collaboration with the national AIDS program, early infant diagnosis (EID) is implemented by Integrated HIV Care (IHC) program through its anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centers across 10 cities in five states and regions of Myanmar. Blood samples from the ART centers are sent using public transport to a centralized PCR facility. Among HIV-exposed babies <9 months at enrolment into IHC program (2013-15), to describe the EID cascade (enrolment, sample collection for PCR, result receipt by mother, HIV diagnosis and ART initiation) and factors associated with delayed (>8 weeks of age) or no blood sample collection for EID. Retrospective cohort study involving record review. A predictive poisson regression model with robust variance estimates was fitted for risk factors of delayed or no sample collection. Of 1349 babies, 523 (39%) of the babies' mothers were on ART before pregnancy. Timely uptake of EID (<8 weeks of age) was 47% (633/1349); sample collection was delayed in 27% (367/1349) and not done in 26% (349/1349) babies. Among samples collected (n = 1000), 667 results were received by the mother; 52 (5%) were HIV-infected; among them 42 (81%) were initiated on ART. Median (IQR) turnaround time from sample collection to result receipt by mother and time to initiate ART from result receipt by mother was 7 (4,12) and 8.5 (6,16) weeks, respectively. Mothers not on ART before pregnancy and distance of ART center from PCR facility (more than 128 km) were the risk factors of delayed or no sample collection. Improving provision of ART to mothers (through universal 'test and treat') is urgently required, which has the potential to improve the timely uptake of EID as well. Interventions to reduce turnaround times, like point of care EID testing and/or systematic use of mobile technology to communicate results, are needed.

  9. Early infant diagnosis of HIV in Myanmar: call for innovative interventions to improve uptake and reduce turnaround time

    PubMed Central

    Thiha, Soe; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Philip, Sairu; Aung, Thet Ko; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; War, May Wint; Oo, Htun Nyunt

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In collaboration with the national AIDS program, early infant diagnosis (EID) is implemented by Integrated HIV Care (IHC) program through its anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centers across 10 cities in five states and regions of Myanmar. Blood samples from the ART centers are sent using public transport to a centralized PCR facility. Objectives: Among HIV-exposed babies <9 months at enrolment into IHC program (2013–15), to describe the EID cascade (enrolment, sample collection for PCR, result receipt by mother, HIV diagnosis and ART initiation) and factors associated with delayed (>8 weeks of age) or no blood sample collection for EID. Methods: Retrospective cohort study involving record review. A predictive poisson regression model with robust variance estimates was fitted for risk factors of delayed or no sample collection. Results: Of 1349 babies, 523 (39%) of the babies’ mothers were on ART before pregnancy. Timely uptake of EID (<8 weeks of age) was 47% (633/1349); sample collection was delayed in 27% (367/1349) and not done in 26% (349/1349) babies. Among samples collected (n = 1000), 667 results were received by the mother; 52 (5%) were HIV-infected; among them 42 (81%) were initiated on ART. Median (IQR) turnaround time from sample collection to result receipt by mother and time to initiate ART from result receipt by mother was 7 (4,12) and 8.5 (6,16) weeks, respectively. Mothers not on ART before pregnancy and distance of ART center from PCR facility (more than 128 km) were the risk factors of delayed or no sample collection. Conclusions: Improving provision of ART to mothers (through universal ‘test and treat’) is urgently required, which has the potential to improve the timely uptake of EID as well. Interventions to reduce turnaround times, like point of care EID testing and/or systematic use of mobile technology to communicate results, are needed. PMID:28574336

  10. Can mobile technology improve response times of junior doctors to urgent out-of-hours calls? A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Herrod, P J J; Barclay, C; Blakey, J D

    2014-04-01

    The Hospital at Night system has been widely adopted to manage Out-of-Hours workload. However, it has the potential to introduce delays and corruption of information. The introduction of newer technologies to replace landlines, pagers and paper may ameliorate these issues. To establish if the introduction of a Hospital at Night system supported by a wireless taskflow system affected the escalation of high Early Warning Scores (EWSs) to medical attention, and the time taken to medical review. Prospective 'pre and post' observational study in a teaching hospital in the UK. Review of observation charts and medical records, and data extraction from the electronic taskflow system. The implementation of a technology-supported Hospital at Night system was associated with a significant decrease in time to documentation of initial review in those who were reviewed. However, there was no change in the proportion of those with a high EWS that were reviewed, and throughout the study a majority of patients with high EWSs were not reviewed in accordance with guidelines. Introduction of a Hospital at Night system supported by mobile technology appeared to improve the transfer of information, but did not affect the nursing decision whether to escalate abnormal findings.

  11. A call for an urgent ban on E-cigarettes in India--a race against time.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta

    2015-06-01

    Being the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world and with more than 65% of its population below the age of 35, India would face electronic cigarettes (ECs) as an enormous public health challenge in future. In the absence of established facilities for tobacco cessation in the country, ECs may provide an additional opportunity for the industry to project itself as a harm-reduction crusader. Regulating ECs as tobacco products or as drugs is not a prudent option in the Indian context. Banning ECs seems to be the most plausible approach at present. However, in the long run, India should be open to new research. More significantly, policy makers in India should be wary of the lead time before a ban is implemented-a shorter intervening period could ensure that a well-established, better politically connected and more defiant EC industry, aggressively promoting ECs to Indian youth, never becomes a reality.

  12. Emergency department visits, ambulance calls, and mortality associated with an exceptional heat wave in Sydney, Australia, 2011: a time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From January 30-February 6, 2011, New South Wales was affected by an exceptional heat wave, which broke numerous records. Near real-time Emergency Department (ED) and ambulance surveillance allowed rapid detection of an increase in the number of heat-related ED visits and ambulance calls during this period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the excess heat-related and all-cause ED visits and ambulance calls, and excess all-cause mortality, associated with the heat wave. Methods ED and ambulance data were obtained from surveillance and administrative databases, while mortality data were obtained from the state death registry. The observed counts were compared with the average counts from the same period from 2006/07 through 2009/10, and a Poisson regression model was constructed to calculate the number of excess ED visits, ambulance and deaths after adjusting for calendar and lag effects. Results During the heat wave there were 104 and 236 ED visits for heat effects and dehydration respectively, and 116 ambulance calls for heat exposure. From the regression model, all-cause ED visits increased by 2% (95% CI 1.01-1.03), all-cause ambulance calls increased by 14% (95% CI 1.11-1.16), and all-cause mortality increased by 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22). Those aged 75 years and older had the highest excess rates of all outcomes. Conclusions The 2011 heat wave resulted in an increase in the number of ED visits and ambulance calls, especially in older persons, as well as an increase in all-cause mortality. Rapid surveillance systems provide markers of heat wave impacts that have fatal outcomes. PMID:22273155

  13. The effectiveness of a statewide trauma call center in reducing time to definitive care for severely injured patients.

    PubMed

    Porter, Austin; Wyrick, Deidre; Bowman, Stephen M; Recicar, John; Maxson, Robert Todd

    2014-04-01

    The state of Arkansas developed and implemented a comprehensive inclusive trauma system in July 2010. The Arkansas Trauma Communication Center (ATCC) is a central component in the system, designed to facilitate both scene transports and interfacility transfers within the state. The first 18 months of operations were examined to evaluate the relationship between ATCC use and emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) at sending facilities for patients who require urgent care. ATCC data were linked to the Arkansas Trauma Registry using unique identifiers. Patients younger than 15 years were excluded from the analysis. Patients older than 15 years with significant injury requiring interfacility transfer were the study population. Significant injury was defined as those with hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg) or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 9 at the sending facility or Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 16 or greater at the definitive care facility. This cohort was stratified by the use of the ATCC, and ED LOS was determined. The study population who met the inclusion criteria was 856; 632 (74%) of whom used the ATCC and 224 (26%) did not use the ATCC for interfacility transfers. There were no statistically significant differences noted between these two groups regarding ISS, systolic blood pressure, and GCS score. The ATCC was associated with a 21-minute reduction in the ED LOS at the sending facility when controlling for all other factors. (p = 0.005). In the first 18 months following inception, the ATCC has been effective in expediting the transfer process and thus reducing the time to definitive care for severely injured patients. ATCC use has improved since inception and is now a contract deliverable for trauma hospitals based on these early results. Therapeutic study, level III.

  14. Community socioeconomic status and prehospital times in acute stroke and transient ischemic attack: do poorer patients have longer delays from 911 call to the emergency department?

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Lindsell, Christopher J; Broderick, Joseph P; Flaherty, Matthew L; Woo, Daniel; Ewing, Irene; Schmit, Pam; Moomaw, Charles; Alwell, Kathleen; Pancioli, Arthur; Jauch, Edward; Khoury, Jane; Miller, Rosie; Schneider, Alexander; Kissela, Brett M

    2006-06-01

    Timely access to medical treatment is critical for patients with acute stroke because acute therapies must be given very quickly after symptom onset. We examined the effect of socioeconomic status on prehospital delays in stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients within a large, biracial population. By screening all local hospital ICD-9 codes 430 to 436, all stroke and TIA patients were identified during the calendar year of 1999. Cases must have used emergency medical services (EMS), lived at home, had their stroke at home, and had documented times of the 911 call and arrival to the emergency department. Socioeconomic status was estimated using economic data regarding the geocoded home residence census tract. Only 38% of stroke and TIA patients used EMS. There were 978 cases of stroke and TIA included in this analysis. The mean times were call to arrival on scene 6.5 minutes, on-scene time 14.1 minutes, and transport time 13.1 minutes. Lower community socioeconomic status was associated with all 3 EMS time intervals; however, all time differences were small: the largest difference was 5 minutes. Within our population, living in a poorer area does not appear to delay access to acute care for stroke in a clinically significant way. We did find small, statistically significant delays in prehospital times that were associated with poorer communities, black race, and increasing age. However, delays related to public recognition of stroke symptoms, and limited use of 911, are likely much more important than these small delays that occur with EMS systems.

  15. When lawyers call clinicians.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H

    2010-07-01

    Every psychiatrist, psychologist, and psychotherapist gets calls from attorneys from time to time, often with a request involving a patient. Patients sometimes ask their clinicians to become involved in their legal matters. Such calls and requests may sound straightforward, but they are often misleading, incomplete, or misunderstood. One should avoid being reflexively "helpful" when a lawyer calls or a patient makes such a special request. There may be no obligation to respond, or to respond immediately, although subpoenas must not be ignored; promptly contacting an appropriate supervisor, facility risk manager, malpractice insurance carrier, or one's own attorney is often the best course of action. Office staff such as secretaries and receptionists should also be trained and cautioned regarding the principles discussed here.

  16. Prolonged sedentary time and physical activity in workplace and non-work contexts: a cross-sectional study of office, customer service and call centre employees.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Alicia A; Healy, Genevieve N; Winkler, Elisabeth; Clark, Bronwyn K; Gardiner, Paul A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2012-10-26

    To examine sedentary time, prolonged sedentary bouts and physical activity in Australian employees from different workplace settings, within work and non-work contexts. A convenience sample of 193 employees working in offices (131), call centres (36) and customer service (26) was recruited. Actigraph GT1M accelerometers were used to derive percentages of time spent sedentary (<100 counts per minute; cpm), in prolonged sedentary bouts (≥20 minutes or ≥30 minutes), light-intensity activity (100-1951 cpm) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ≥1952 cpm). Using mixed models adjusted for confounders, these were compared for: work days versus non-work days; work hours versus non-work hours (work days only); and, across workplace settings. Working hours were mostly spent sedentary (77.0%, 95%CI: 76.3, 77.6), with approximately half of this time accumulated in prolonged bouts of 20 minutes or more. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in all outcomes between workdays and non-work days, and, on workdays, between work- versus non-work hours. Results consistently showed "work" was more sedentary and had less light-intensity activity, than "non-work". The period immediately after work appeared important for MVPA. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in all sedentary and activity outcomes occurring during work hours across the workplace settings. Call-centre workers were generally the most sedentary and least physically active at work; customer service workers were typically the least sedentary and the most active at work. The workplace is a key setting for prolonged sedentary time, especially for some occupational groups, and the potential health risk burden attached requires investigation. Future workplace regulations and health promotion initiatives for sedentary occupations to reduce prolonged sitting time should be considered.

  17. Prolonged sedentary time and physical activity in workplace and non-work contexts: a cross-sectional study of office, customer service and call centre employees

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine sedentary time, prolonged sedentary bouts and physical activity in Australian employees from different workplace settings, within work and non-work contexts. Methods A convenience sample of 193 employees working in offices (131), call centres (36) and customer service (26) was recruited. Actigraph GT1M accelerometers were used to derive percentages of time spent sedentary (<100 counts per minute; cpm), in prolonged sedentary bouts (≥20 minutes or ≥30 minutes), light-intensity activity (100–1951 cpm) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ≥1952 cpm). Using mixed models adjusted for confounders, these were compared for: work days versus non-work days; work hours versus non-work hours (work days only); and, across workplace settings. Results Working hours were mostly spent sedentary (77.0%, 95%CI: 76.3, 77.6), with approximately half of this time accumulated in prolonged bouts of 20 minutes or more. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in all outcomes between workdays and non-work days, and, on workdays, between work- versus non-work hours. Results consistently showed “work” was more sedentary and had less light-intensity activity, than “non-work”. The period immediately after work appeared important for MVPA. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in all sedentary and activity outcomes occurring during work hours across the workplace settings. Call-centre workers were generally the most sedentary and least physically active at work; customer service workers were typically the least sedentary and the most active at work. Conclusion The workplace is a key setting for prolonged sedentary time, especially for some occupational groups, and the potential health risk burden attached requires investigation. Future workplace regulations and health promotion initiatives for sedentary occupations to reduce prolonged sitting time should be considered. PMID:23101767

  18. Geoethics disgraced by Copernicus in its desperate act of covering up for the IPCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, Nils-Axel

    2014-05-01

    All my life I have put observational facts in the centre. This is what Leonardo da Vinci called "to read the book of mother Earth". For a geologist this is very natural because this is the core of the geological profession. The IPCC, on the other hand, put all credits on models and scenarios. One of its founders and its first president, Bert Bolin, at a debate in the Geophysical Society of Sweden in 2001, admitted (quotation): "you can order whatever scenario you wish". With this as a background, we can put a recent action by Copernicus at a test with respect to geoethics and normal decency. The idea that the planetary motions affect and control the solar variability is old, but in the stage of an unproven hypothesis. In recent years major advancements have occurred and in 2013, it seemed that time was ripe for a major, multi-authored, reinvestigation. Therefore, a Special Issue of Pattern Recognition in Physics was devoted to: "Pattern in solar variability, their planetary origin and terrestrial impacts". The volume includes 12 separate research papers and General Conclusions, co-authored by 19 prominent scientists. Indeed, they agreed that the driving factor of solar variability must emerge from the planetary beat on the Sun, and by that its emission of luminosity and Solar Wind both factors of which affect the Earth-Moon system. This may be held as a benchmark event in our understanding of the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction. Furthermore, they noted two implications of this: partly that the old hypothesis was now lifted to a firm theory, maybe even a new paradigm, and partly that we are on our way into a new grand solar minimum which "sheds serious doubts on the issue of a continued, even accelerated, warming as claimed by the IPCC". "We were alarmed by the second implication", Martin Rasmussen, VD of Copernicus, stated, and took the unbelievable decision immediately to close down the entire journal. This happened on January 17 without any discussion

  19. Depression, desperation, and suicidal ideation in college students: results from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention College Screening Project at Emory University.

    PubMed

    Garlow, Steven J; Rosenberg, Jill; Moore, J David; Haas, Ann P; Koestner, Bethany; Hendin, Herbert; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine suicidal ideation and depression in undergraduate college students who participated in the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention-sponsored College Screening Project at Emory University. The principal measure of depressive symptoms was the nine-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional questions were focused on current suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and episodes of deliberate self-harm and on symptoms of anxiety and distress. Seven hundred and twenty-nine students participated over a 3-school-year interval (2002-2005). Most notably, 11.1% of the students endorsed current (past 4 weeks) suicidal ideation and 16.5% had a lifetime suicide attempt or self-injurious episode. Students with current suicidal ideation had significantly higher depression symptom severity than those without suicidal ideation (t = -9.34, df = 706, P<.0001, d = 1.9), and 28.5% of the students with PHQ-9 scores of 15 or higher reported suicidal ideation compared to 5.7% of those with lower scores (chi(2) = 56.29, df = 1, P<.0001, two-tailed). Suicidal ideation was prominently associated with symptoms of desperation (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.6, P<.001). The vast majority of students with moderately severe to severe depression (85%) or current suicidal ideation (84%) were not receiving any psychiatric treatment at the time of assessment. These results suggest that there is a strong relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in college students, and that suicidal feelings and actions are relatively common in this group. This underscores the need to provide effective mental health outreach and treatment services to this vulnerable population. As this analysis was based on data collected at a single institution, the results may not be representative of all college students or young adults.

  20. Desperately seeking targets: the ethics of routine HIV testing in low-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Stuart; Behets, Frieda

    2006-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic, and responses to it, have exposed clear political, social and economic inequities between and within nations. The most striking manifestations of this inequity is access to AIDS treatment. In affluent nations, antiretroviral treatment is becoming the standard of care for those with AIDS, while the same treatment is currently only available for a privileged few in most resource-poor countries. Patients without sufficient financial and social capital -- i.e., most people with AIDS -- die each day by the thousands. Recent AIDS treatment initiatives such as the UNAIDS and WHO "3 by 5" programme aim to rectify this symptom of global injustice. However, the success of these initiatives depends on the identification of people in need of treatment through a rapid and massive scale-up of HIV testing. In this paper, we briefly explore key ethical challenges raised by the acceleration of HIV testing in resource-poor countries, focusing on the 2004 policy of routine ("opt-out") HIV testing recommended by UNAIDS and WHO. We suggest that in settings marked by poverty, weak health-care and civil society infrastructures, gender inequalities, and persistent stigmatization of people with HIV/AIDS, opt-out HIV-testing policies may become disconnected from the human rights ideals that first motivated calls for universal access to AIDS treatment. We leave open the ethical question of whether opt-out policies should be implemented, but we recommend that whenever routine HIV-testing policies are introduced in resource-poor countries, that their effect on individuals and communities should be the subject of empirical research, human-rights monitoring and ethical scrutiny. PMID:16501715

  1. [Who is Called "Schizophrenic"?].

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Kaladjian, Arthur; Besnier, Nathalie; Cermolacce, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Someone is called "schizophrenic" when suffering from a disorder described in 1911, for the first time by a Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in a book entitled "Dementia Praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien". In this book, Bleuler proposes a two-faced approach: one centered on the disease, the other on the person. Bleuler's main contribution was to show the importance of the latter in the determinism of clinical pictures and illness course, thus opening the way to more anthropological approaches to the schizophrenic self. Taking these approaches into account, at a time when naturalistic models of the illness are prevailing, is far from being of no consequence, as far as the effectiveness of our therapeutic actions is at issue.

  2. "I Know I'm Unlovable": Desperation, Dislocation, Despair, and Discourse on the Academic Job Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Failure, according to the academic canonical narrative, is anything other than a tenure-track professorship. The academic job hunt is fraught with unknowns: a time of fear, hope, and despair. This personal narrative follows the author's three-year journey from doctoral candidate, to visiting assistant professor, to the unemployment line. Using a…

  3. "I Know I'm Unlovable": Desperation, Dislocation, Despair, and Discourse on the Academic Job Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Failure, according to the academic canonical narrative, is anything other than a tenure-track professorship. The academic job hunt is fraught with unknowns: a time of fear, hope, and despair. This personal narrative follows the author's three-year journey from doctoral candidate, to visiting assistant professor, to the unemployment line. Using a…

  4. The Effects of Fog on the Surface Energy Balance of McCall Glacier, Alaska: Combining Time-Lapse Photography with Weather Station Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiskoot, H.; Fox, T. A.; Nolan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic moisture and cloudiness are increasing as a result of progressively ice free northern ocean waters and a poleward shift of storm tracks. If clouds are "perhaps the largest uncertainty in our understanding of climate change", fog may be the apex of this uncertainty. While higher clouds enhance ice sheet melt, it is unclear how fog affects glacier energy balance. We present a first systematic analysis of the influence of fog on surface energy balance components of McCall Glacier, Brooks Range, Alaska, where fog is partly advected from the Beaufort Sea and partly moisture-sourced over the Alaska North Slope. We analysed four melt-seasons (2011-2014) of half-hour time-lapse images, for which we classified fog frequency, extent, height, and concurrent cloud conditions. Of the 16343 images, 4220 have fog, most frequently in July/August and afternoons. In ¼ of fog observations >75% of the ablation zone is under thick fog. Here, we focus on the effect of fog on temperature and shortwave radiation, using hourly data from a lower weather station, often within the fog, and an upper station, mostly above the fog. We present multi-day case studies comparing the sites under a variety of fog conditions; and long-term multi-year fog/no fog comparisons for the period 15 Jun - 15 Aug in which we control for cloud cover. Case studies allowed us to select exemplary circumstances, analyse all components, and find compounding effects. Long-term comparisons show that both under clear and cloudy conditions fog reduces temperature on average by 2°C, with a 0.5°C greater effect at the lower station, and a maximum reduction of 4.5°C. Under clear/scattered cloud conditions fog reduces shortwave radiation on average by 45 Wm-2 at the lower and 5 Wm-2 at the upper station; under broken/overcast conditions on average 55 and 25 Wm-2. Maximum reduction at the lower station is 150 and 370 Wm-2 under broken/overcast and clear/scattered conditions; at the upper station it is <110 Wm-2

  5. Worker productivity and ventilation rate in a call center: Analyses of time-series data for a group of registered nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Price, Phillip; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas; Dibartolomeo, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the relationship of ventilation rates with the performance of advice nurses working in a call center. Ventilation rates were manipulated; temperatures, humidities, and CO{sub 2} concentrations were monitored; and worker performance data, with 30-minute resolution, were collected. Multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the association of worker performance with indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration (which increases with decreasing ventilation rate per worker) and with building ventilation rate. Results suggest that the effect of ventilation rate on worker performance in this call center was very small (probably less than 1%) or nil, over most of the range of ventilation rate (roughly 12 L s{sup -1} to 48 L s{sup -1} per person). However, there is some evidence of worker performance improvements of 2% or more when the indoor CO{sub 2} concentration exceeded the outdoor concentration by less than 75 ppm.

  6. Desperately seeking consistency: Student nurses' experiences and expectations of academic supervision.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Lesley; Barrett, David

    2017-01-01

    Academic supervision - the support available to students when writing assignments - is a fundamental element in the provision of support within nurse education. Not only can it underpin high levels of academic achievement, but it also has a role in enhancing the retention of students. Despite its importance, there is little investigation of undergraduate academic supervision within the nursing literature. To explore students' experiences and expectations of academic supervision as part of an undergraduate programme of nurse education. A qualitative approach to explore student perceptions. The research was undertaken at a Higher Education Institution in the United Kingdom. The institution offers undergraduate nurse education programmes to approximately 800 students. Eight pre-registration nursing students from a Bachelor of Science programme participated in a focus group interview. All were in the first semester of their final year. Data were collected using focus group interviewing, based around a semistructured question framework. The focus groups explored students' expectations and previous experiences of academic supervision. The focus group was recorded, responses were transcribed and thematic analysis was undertaken to identify key findings. Three themes were identified from the data: relationship with supervisor, variation between supervisors, and the link between supervision and marking. Overall, students identified frustration with variability in the provision of academic supervision. Effective academic supervision depends on a strong relationship between student and supervisor - something that can be difficult to achieve if supervision is only for a short period of time. Equally, students crave a consistent approach to supervision, in terms of both the amount and content of feedback. Students are able to identify and articulate a clear link between effective supervision and academic achievement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of Automated Notification and Customer Service Call Centers for Timely and Accurate Reporting of Critical Values: A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liebow, Edward B.; Derzon, James H.; Fontanesi, John; Favoretto, Alessandra M.; Baetz, Rich Ann; Shaw, Colleen; Thompson, Pamela; Mass, Diana; Christenson, Robert; Epner, Paul; Snyder, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of automatic notification methods and consider evidence-based recommendations for best practices in improving the timeliness and accuracy of critical value reporting. Results 196 bibliographic records were identified, with nine meeting review inclusion criteria. Four studies examined automated notification systems and five assessed call center performance. Average improvement from implementing automated notification systems is d = 0.42 (95% CI = 0.2 – 0.62) while the average odds ratio for call centers is OR = 22.1 (95% CI = 17.1 – 28.6). Conclusions The evidence, though suggestive, is not sufficient to make a recommendation for or against using automated notification systems as a best practice to improve the timeliness and accuracy of critical value reporting in an in-patient care setting. Call centers, however, are effective in improving the timeliness and accuracy of critical value reporting in an in-patient care setting, and are recommended as an “evidence-based best practice.” PMID:22750773

  8. Amid Focus on Affordability, A Call to See HEIs as "Laboratories" Where Getting It Right the First Time Matters Less than Learning from Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCiccio, Albert

    2014-01-01

    People are familiar with the Greek concept of "chronos", or chronological time, of which there is not enough. Perhaps everyone should embrace the other Greek concept of time: "kairos," or the "right time," the time when something remarkable is about to happen. The author believes that now is the right time for higher…

  9. Amid Focus on Affordability, A Call to See HEIs as "Laboratories" Where Getting It Right the First Time Matters Less than Learning from Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCiccio, Albert

    2014-01-01

    People are familiar with the Greek concept of "chronos", or chronological time, of which there is not enough. Perhaps everyone should embrace the other Greek concept of time: "kairos," or the "right time," the time when something remarkable is about to happen. The author believes that now is the right time for higher…

  10. Desperately Seeking a System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Linda; Light, Jane

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a public library consortium jettisoned the Request for Proposal (RFP) process and used library staff, with some assistance from consultants, to evaluate new automation systems based on software demonstrations and Requests for Quotations (RFQ). The RFQ and RFP processes are compared. A sidebar article describes the financing plan.…

  11. Desperate for Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    A fourth grade teacher relates her experience with a female student who was sexually abused by her father, and whose mother was prosecuted for narcotics violations. The student's relations with classmates, academic performance, and response to counseling are discussed. (IAH)

  12. Desperately seeking aliens.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, B W

    2001-02-22

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable--elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  13. Desperate for Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    A fourth grade teacher relates her experience with a female student who was sexually abused by her father, and whose mother was prosecuted for narcotics violations. The student's relations with classmates, academic performance, and response to counseling are discussed. (IAH)

  14. Desperately seeking aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Brian W.

    2001-02-01

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable - elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  15. Note to Budget Cutters: The Arts Are Good Business--Multiple Studies Point to Arts Education as an Important Economic Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    They say desperate times call for desperate measures. But in this time of economic uncertainty, the desperate cutting of budgets for arts funding and, by extension, all types of arts education, including music, is not prudent. That is the consensus of several national and local studies, which converge on a single point--that the arts actually can…

  16. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  17. Compare Gene Calls

    SciTech Connect

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-07-05

    Compare Gene Calls (CGC) is a Python code used for combining and comparing gene calls from any number of gene callers. A gene caller is a computer program that predicts the extends of open reading frames within genomes of biological organisms.

  18. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  19. The Power of CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C., Ed.

    The book provides an overview of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) written by specialists in specific areas of electronic media. Its nine chapters include: "The Power of the Computer in Language Education" (Martha C. Pennington); "Elements of CALL Methodology: Development, Evaluation, and Implementation" (Philip L. Hubbard); "Second…

  20. A Study to Determine The Best Way, Within Existing Constraints, to Minimize Lost Training Time Due to Recruit Sick Call at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    lengthens the waiting time for personnel at sick call, and adds to the workload of the healthcare providers. Since the malingerer shows definite gain...1974: 452-457 Tompkins, RK. "The Role of Medical Audit in the Definition of the Quality of Patient Care Rendered by Physician Assistants.* Quality...in the Definition of the Quality of Patient Care Rendered by Physician Assistants. Quality Assurance of Medical Care. (DHEW Pub No. [HSM] 73-7021

  1. Calling in the Feds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Corkin F.

    1995-01-01

    A Georgia superintendent (and former teacher) angered board and community members by calling in federal authorities to help eliminate de facto segregation in two schools serving 1,200 students. At issue were a discriminatory track system and unintegrated cheerleading teams. Sidebars explain the U.S. Education Department's Office for Civil Rights…

  2. A Call for Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), speaks about the national testing of teachers and calls for the creation of a new and better national examination for new teachers. While members of the AFT have a few differences with some of the current reform proposals, the AFT in general supports the overwhelming majority…

  3. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  4. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  5. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  6. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  7. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  8. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  9. Probabilistic priority assessment of nurse calls.

    PubMed

    Ongenae, Femke; Myny, Dries; Dhaene, Tom; Defloor, Tom; Van Goubergen, Dirk; Verhoeve, Piet; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2014-05-01

    Current nurse call systems are very static. Call buttons are fixed to the wall, and systems do not account for various factors specific to a situation. We have developed a software platform, the ontology-based Nurse Call System (oNCS), which supports the transition to mobile and wireless nurse call buttons and uses an intelligent algorithm to address nurse calls. This algorithm dynamically adapts to the situation at hand by taking the profile information of staff and patients into account by using an ontology. This article describes a probabilistic extension of the oNCS that supports a more sophisticated nurse call algorithm by dynamically assigning priorities to calls based on the risk factors of the patient and the kind of call. The probabilistic oNCS is evaluated through implementation of a prototype and simulations, based on a detailed dataset obtained from 3 nursing departments of Ghent University Hospital. The arrival times of nurses at the location of a call, the workload distribution of calls among nurses, and the assignment of priorities to calls are compared for the oNCS and the current nurse call system. Additionally, the performance of the system and the parameters of the priority assignment algorithm are explored. The execution time of the nurse call algorithm is on average 50.333 ms. Moreover, the probabilistic oNCS significantly improves the assignment of nurses to calls. Calls generally result in a nurse being present more quickly, the workload distribution among the nurses improves, and the priorities and kinds of calls are taken into account.

  10. Call it worm sleep

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F.; Raizen, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans stops feeding and moving during a larval transition stage called lethargus and following exposure to cellular stressors. These behaviors have been termed “sleep-like states”. We argue that these behaviors should instead be called “sleep”. Sleep during lethargus is similar to sleep regulated by circadian timers in insects and mammals, and sleep in response to cellular stress is similar to sleep induced by sickness in other animals. Sleep in mammals and Drosophila shows molecular and functional conservation with C. elegans sleep. The simple neuroanatomy and powerful genetic tools of C. elegans have yielded insights into sleep regulation and hold great promise for future research into sleep regulation and function. PMID:26747654

  11. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  12. Taking Aim at AYP Called Timely, Risky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    The Obama administration's proposal to revamp the signature yardstick used to measure schools' progress under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is being seen as a bold step toward revising a key feature of the law, even as questions loom about how a new system would work. Under the plan, adequate yearly progress (AYP)--the…

  13. A Call to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2006-01-01

    Imam Yahya Hendi came from afar--the occupied Palestinian Territories--to become, in 1999, the first full-time Muslim chaplain serving at a university in the United States. He is now the chaplain at Georgetown University. Rumee Ahmed, appointed earlier this year as Brown University's first Muslim chaplain, had a significantly shorter trip, moving…

  14. A Call to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2006-01-01

    Imam Yahya Hendi came from afar--the occupied Palestinian Territories--to become, in 1999, the first full-time Muslim chaplain serving at a university in the United States. He is now the chaplain at Georgetown University. Rumee Ahmed, appointed earlier this year as Brown University's first Muslim chaplain, had a significantly shorter trip, moving…

  15. A Call to Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancker, William P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reminisces the time he went to Georgetown University to interview Dr. James Alatis and compares the career of Dr. Alatis with his own. The first comparison is that Dr. Alatis and the author both have taught in their home country, the United States, and in other countries. Second, Dr. Alatis and the author are both…

  16. Calling all students!!!

    PubMed

    Marshall, Audrey

    2012-03-01

    'Dissertations into Practice' is a new regular feature in the Health Information and Libraries Journal, which aims to encourage students to write for publication. The idea is that students will write an extended abstract of their health-related dissertations, outlining the methods used and commenting on the implications for practice. Co-written with their dissertation or workplace supervisor, this feature will provide a safe environment for students to see their writing in print, possibly for the first time, while ensuring that invaluable research reaches a wider audience than might otherwise be the case.

  17. Call Me Sisyphus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    four or fi ve times as much as we did in the 1950s. … These are production costs. Development costs have grown even more.” Stark’s article...never quite get the traction necessary to introduce a large- scale eff ect and must settle for occasional, individual successes, which are seldom (if...conquering. … Failure may be inevitable, but giving up is not an option.” When it comes to meaningful large- scale reform, fail- ure may indeed be

  18. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  19. A desperate poor country: History and settlement patterning on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.; Crass, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is twofold: first, to example historical trends and settlement patterning through time within the boundaries of the present-day Savannah River Site (SRS), and second, to establish a framework for future investigations of historic period occupation in the study area. Settlement patterns are defined as the distribution of archaeological sites across a landscape. Settlement patterning is a response to widely held cultural needs; therefore, it offers a strategic starting point for the functional interpretation of archaeological cultures. The analysis of settlement patterns if useful because it is practical, it shows the spatial dimension of the man-environment interrelationship that is relative to the technological level of the settlement's inhabitants, and it can yield concrete clues regarding social organization.

  20. [Desperately seeking decentralisation: Mexican health policies in two periods of reform: the 1920s-30s and the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Birn, Anne-Emannuelle

    2005-01-01

    This article compares public health policy reforms in Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s with subsequent reforms initiated in the 1980s. The attempts at decentralization in the 1920s-30s were supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, which was interested in the formation of local cooperative health units. In the 1980s, the aim of the Mexican government and international financial agencies, such as the Inter-American Development Bank, was to reduce public spending (as part of "structural adjustment" policies). One of the hypotheses of this article is that, in the end, the public health reforms were unable to overcome the limitations imposed by Mexico's political centralization and longstanding inequities in public spending. At the same time, one of the unforeseen achievements of these reforms was an increase in local capabilities to demand a better distribution of social services.

  1. Calling dynamics and call synchronization in a local group of unison bout callers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas L; Jones, Russell L; Ratnam, Rama

    2014-01-01

    In many species of chorusing frogs, callers can rapidly adjust their call timing with reference to neighboring callers so as to maintain call rate while minimizing acoustic interference. The rules governing the interactions, in particular, who is listening to whom are largely unknown, presumably influenced by distance between callers, caller density, and intensities of interfering calls. We report vocal interactions in a unison bout caller, the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea). Using a microphone array, we monitored bouts from a local group of six callers embedded in a larger chorus. Data were analyzed in a 21-min segment at the peak of the chorus. Callers within this group were localized and their voices were separated for analysis of spatio-temporal interactions. We show that callers in this group: (1) synchronize with one another, (2) prefer to time their calls antiphonally, almost exactly at one-third and two-thirds of the call intervals of their neighbors, (3) tolerate call collision when antiphonal calling is not possible, and (4) perform discrete phase-hopping between three preferred phases when tracking other callers. Further, call collision increases and phase-locking decreases, with increasing inter-caller spacing. We conclude that the precise phase-positioning, phase-tracking, and phase-hopping minimizes acoustic jamming while maintaining chorus synchrony.

  2. Desperately Seeking Special Ed Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    It's no secret that the dearth of special education teachers has created huge headaches for district human resources departments, especially in suburban and rural areas. In addition to insufficient numbers of candidates applying for special education jobs, retention of special education teachers is an ever-greater problem, as research indicates…

  3. Desperately Seeking Special Ed Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    It's no secret that the dearth of special education teachers has created huge headaches for district human resources departments, especially in suburban and rural areas. In addition to insufficient numbers of candidates applying for special education jobs, retention of special education teachers is an ever-greater problem, as research indicates…

  4. A History of Commitment in CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan

    The evolution of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is examined, focusing on what has changed and what has not changed much during that time. A variety of changes are noted: the development of multimedia capabilities, color, animation, and technical improvement of audio and video quality; availability of databases, better fit between…

  5. Calling behaviour under climate change: geographical and seasonal variation of calling temperatures in ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Llusia, Diego; Márquez, Rafael; Beltrán, Juan F; Benítez, Maribel; do Amaral, José P

    2013-09-01

    Calling behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent and critical for sexual selection and reproduction in a variety of ectothermic taxa, including anuran amphibians, which are the most globally threatened vertebrates. However, few studies have explored how species respond to distinct thermal environments at time of displaying calling behaviour, and thus it is still unknown whether ongoing climate change might compromise the performance of calling activity in ectotherms. Here, we used new audio-trapping techniques (automated sound recording and detection systems) between 2006 and 2009 to examine annual calling temperatures of five temperate anurans and their patterns of geographical and seasonal variation at the thermal extremes of species ranges, providing insights into the thermal breadths of calling activity of species, and the mechanisms that enable ectotherms to adjust to changing thermal environments. All species showed wide thermal breadths during calling behaviour (above 15 °C) and increases in calling temperatures in extremely warm populations and seasons. Thereby, calling temperatures differed both geographically and seasonally, both in terrestrial and aquatic species, and were 8-22 °C below the specific upper critical thermal limits (CTmax ) and strongly associated with the potential temperatures of each thermal environment (operative temperatures during the potential period of breeding). This suggests that calling behaviour in ectotherms may take place at population-specific thermal ranges, diverging when species are subjected to distinct thermal environments, and might imply plasticity of thermal adjustment mechanisms (seasonal and developmental acclimation) that supply species with means of coping with climate change. Furthermore, the thermal thresholds of calling at the onset of the breeding season were dissimilar between conspecific populations, suggesting that other factors besides temperature are needed to trigger the onset of reproduction. Our

  6. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  7. CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2005-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

  8. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and O3) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged <15 years at 19pm, while temperature was hottest at 13pm. The hourly heat-ambulance calls relationships were non-linear for all groups, with thresholds between 27 °C and 31 °C. The associations appeared immediately, and lasted for about 24 h. There were no significant modification effect by sex and age. The findings suggest that hot hourly temperatures (>27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Making CALL Work: Towards Normalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Andrea; Bax, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The aim of CALL practitioners is to work towards a state where computers are fully integrated into pedagogy, a state of "normalisation." This article draws on a qualitative research study into two EFL settings to discuss obstacles to normalisation and ways of overcoming them. It identifies a number of key features which appear to be significant in…

  10. Formative Considerations Using Integrative CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Philip; Shaver, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses technical and learning issues relating to a formative implementation of a computer assisted language learning (CALL) browser-based intermediate Russian program. Instruction took place through a distance education implementation and in a grouped classroom using a local-area network. Learners indicated the software was clear, motivating,…

  11. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  12. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  13. When to Call Your Pediatrician

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Medical Home > When to Call Your Pediatrician Family Life Listen ... nonprescription drugs, inhalers, supplements, vitamins, herbal products, or home ... These are especially helpful if your child has an injury that may require a tetanus ...

  14. Close Call: Breaking the Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Contrary to a rule to never teach students to lead climb, an instructor taught several youth to lead climb at a parent's request. These students planned to pursue rock climbing on their own after they left school, and preparing them was deemed a safety precaution. Analysis of this "close call" offers guidelines for introducing students…

  15. The So-Called Face

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    The so-called Face on Mars can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this NASA Mars Odyssey image. This 3-km long knob was first imaged by NASA Viking spacecraft in the 1970 and to some resembled a face carved into the rocks of Mars.

  16. The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Sherwin E.; Gaskin, Pamela S.; Byer, David; Cadogan, W. L.; Brathwaite, Andrew; Nielsen, Anders L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System) instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%). Nineteen (19%) percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (P = 0.01). Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made. PMID:23198147

  17. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  18. OnlineCall: fast online parameter estimation and base calling for illumina's next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Das, Shreepriya; Vikalo, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing platforms are becoming increasingly cost-effective and capable of providing enormous number of reads in a relatively short time. However, their accuracy and read lengths are still lagging behind those of conventional Sanger sequencing method. Performance of next-generation sequencing platforms is fundamentally limited by various imperfections in the sequencing-by-synthesis and signal acquisition processes. This drives the search for accurate, scalable and computationally tractable base calling algorithms capable of accounting for such imperfections. Relying on a statistical model of the sequencing-by-synthesis process and signal acquisition procedure, we develop a computationally efficient base calling method for Illumina's sequencing technology (specifically, Genome Analyzer II platform). Parameters of the model are estimated via a fast unsupervised online learning scheme, which uses the generalized expectation-maximization algorithm and requires only 3 s of running time per tile (on an Intel i7 machine @3.07GHz, single core)-a three orders of magnitude speed-up over existing parametric model-based methods. To minimize the latency between the end of the sequencing run and the generation of the base calling reports, we develop a fast online scalable decoding algorithm, which requires only 9 s/tile and achieves significantly lower error rates than the Illumina's base calling software. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the proposed online parameter estimation scheme efficiently computes tile-dependent parameters, which can thereafter be provided to the base calling algorithm, resulting in significant improvements over previously developed base calling methods for the considered platform in terms of performance, time/complexity and latency. A C code implementation of our algorithm can be downloaded from http://www.cerc.utexas.edu/OnlineCall/.

  19. OnlineCall: fast online parameter estimation and base calling for illumina's next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shreepriya; Vikalo, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Next-generation DNA sequencing platforms are becoming increasingly cost-effective and capable of providing enormous number of reads in a relatively short time. However, their accuracy and read lengths are still lagging behind those of conventional Sanger sequencing method. Performance of next-generation sequencing platforms is fundamentally limited by various imperfections in the sequencing-by-synthesis and signal acquisition processes. This drives the search for accurate, scalable and computationally tractable base calling algorithms capable of accounting for such imperfections. Results: Relying on a statistical model of the sequencing-by-synthesis process and signal acquisition procedure, we develop a computationally efficient base calling method for Illumina's sequencing technology (specifically, Genome Analyzer II platform). Parameters of the model are estimated via a fast unsupervised online learning scheme, which uses the generalized expectation–maximization algorithm and requires only 3 s of running time per tile (on an Intel i7 machine @3.07GHz, single core)—a three orders of magnitude speed-up over existing parametric model-based methods. To minimize the latency between the end of the sequencing run and the generation of the base calling reports, we develop a fast online scalable decoding algorithm, which requires only 9 s/tile and achieves significantly lower error rates than the Illumina's base calling software. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the proposed online parameter estimation scheme efficiently computes tile-dependent parameters, which can thereafter be provided to the base calling algorithm, resulting in significant improvements over previously developed base calling methods for the considered platform in terms of performance, time/complexity and latency. Availability: A C code implementation of our algorithm can be downloaded from http://www.cerc.utexas.edu/OnlineCall/ Contact: hvikalo@ece.utexas.edu Supplementary information

  20. Heterospecific Acoustic Interference: Effects on Calling in Oophaga pumilio

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stefanie; Parada, Humberto; Narins, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Call rate suppression is a common short-term solution for avoiding acoustic interference in animals. It has been widely documented between and within frog species, but the effects of non-anuran calling on frog vocalizations is less well known. Heterospecific acoustic interference on the calling of Oophaga pumilio (Bauer, 1994) (formerly Dendrobates pumilio) males was studied in a lowland, wet tropical forest in SE Nicaragua. Acoustic playback experiments were conducted to characterize the responses of O. pumilio males to interfering calls of cicadas, two species of crickets and a sympatric dendrobatid frog, Phyllobates lugubris. Call rate, call bout duration, percent of time calling, dominant frequency and latency to first-call were analyzed. Significant call rate suppression was observed during all stimulus playbacks, yet no significant differences were found in spontaneous call rates during pre- and post-playback trials. Dominant frequency significantly decreased after P. lugubris playback and first-call latency significantly decreased in response to both cicada and tree cricket playbacks. These results provide robust evidence that O. pumilio males can dynamically modify their calling pattern in unique ways, depending on the source of the heterospecific acoustic interference. PMID:20953296

  1. Calling at a cost: elevated nestling calling attracts predators to active nests

    PubMed Central

    Haff, Tonya M.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Begging by nestling birds has been used to test evolutionary models of signalling but theory has outstripped evidence. Eavesdropping predators potentially impose a cost on begging that ensures signal honesty, yet little experimental evidence exists for such a cost at active nests because the use of artificial nests, long playback bouts and absence of parents may have exaggerated costs. We broadcast short periods (1 h) of either nestling vocalizations or background noise at active white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, nests. Nestlings called naturally during both treatments, allowing us to test whether elevated calling increases risk, a key but rarely tested assumption of evolutionary models. Predators visited nests exclusively during periods of elevated calling. Furthermore, playbacks affected neither adult visits nor nestling activity, suggesting that calling alone attracted predators. Adults gave alarm calls and nestlings usually called less when predators approached nests. Predation risk to broods is, therefore, likely to fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, depending on nestling hunger and whether adults or young have detected predators. This study confirms a present-day cost of nestling begging, demonstrates that this cost can be incurred over short periods and supports the importance of parent–offspring antipredator strategies in reducing predation risk. PMID:21288937

  2. Calling at a cost: elevated nestling calling attracts predators to active nests.

    PubMed

    Haff, Tonya M; Magrath, Robert D

    2011-08-23

    Begging by nestling birds has been used to test evolutionary models of signalling but theory has outstripped evidence. Eavesdropping predators potentially impose a cost on begging that ensures signal honesty, yet little experimental evidence exists for such a cost at active nests because the use of artificial nests, long playback bouts and absence of parents may have exaggerated costs. We broadcast short periods (1 h) of either nestling vocalizations or background noise at active white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, nests. Nestlings called naturally during both treatments, allowing us to test whether elevated calling increases risk, a key but rarely tested assumption of evolutionary models. Predators visited nests exclusively during periods of elevated calling. Furthermore, playbacks affected neither adult visits nor nestling activity, suggesting that calling alone attracted predators. Adults gave alarm calls and nestlings usually called less when predators approached nests. Predation risk to broods is, therefore, likely to fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, depending on nestling hunger and whether adults or young have detected predators. This study confirms a present-day cost of nestling begging, demonstrates that this cost can be incurred over short periods and supports the importance of parent-offspring antipredator strategies in reducing predation risk. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  3. Call to Restore Mesopotamian Marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Call to restore Mesopotamian marshlands When the current military conflict in Iraq has concluded, a rehabilitation of that country should include a full assessment and action plan for restoring the marshlands of Mesopotamia, the United Nations Environment Programme said on 22 March. The marshlands, also known as the Fertile Crescent, could disappear within three to five years, according to UNEP. UNEP Executive Director Klaus Toepfer said the loss of the marshlands ``is an environmental catastrophe for this region and underscores the huge pressures facing wetlands and freshwater ecosystems across the world.''

  4. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Surveys of calling amphibians in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Batie, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians have received increased attention in recent years from the scientific community and general public alike. Many populations throughout the world have declined, or have been extirpated, often without an apparent cause. Concern about the status of amphibians has translated into a growing interest in systematic and statistically sound monitoring programs. Several extensive efforts to monitor populations of calling amphibians are in place, and more are under development. Necessary for the design of appropriate surveys is an understanding of the behavior, especially vocalization, of the various species, and how it varies by geographic location and environmental conditions. In 1995 we conducted roadside surveys of calling amphibians along 44 routes in North Dakota. We describe results of that survey, with special attention given to variables that influence detectability of calling amphibians. Unlike similar studies, we accounted for the amount of time observers spent listening for amphibians under different conditions. We found that the optimal conditions for a single survey for North Dakota in that year would be in early June, between the hours of 2300 and 0130, with ambient temperatures above 13 deg. C, and with no rain and little or no wind or moonlight. Multiple surveys in a year would yield better results, of course, especially for the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), which is most active earlier in the season. Studies such as ours should be replicated in space and time to ensure a well-designed survey.

  6. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.; Fuzessery, Zoltan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations, or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  7. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing.

  8. Antismoking television advertising and socioeconomic variations in calls to Quitline

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Wakefield, Melanie; Spittal, Matt; Durkin, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the socioeconomic variations in call rates to the Quitline (Victoria, Australia) and in the impact of anti‐tobacco television advertising on call rates. Design The outcome measure was the number of calls to the Quitline in Victoria for each week for each socioeconomic group for the period January 2001 to March 2004. Socioeconomic status (SES) was derived from the caller's postcode using the Index of Socioeconomic Disadvantage provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The exposure measure was weekly Target Audience Rating Points (TARPs, a standard measure of television advertising weight) for anti‐tobacco advertising broadcast in Victoria over the same period. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the interaction of SES and TARPs in their effect on the number of Quitline calls. Results SES and call rates were positively associated. Adjusted call rate was 57% (95% CI 45% to 69%) higher in the highest than the lowest SES quintile. SES differences in call rates were stable over time. In the study period, the effect of the presence or increasing levels of antismoking TARPs on call rates did not vary across categories of SES. Conclusions In the study period, different SES groups had a similar level of responsiveness to antismoking television advertisements, at least as measured by the rate of calls to the Quitline. However, the present media campaigns are not likely to diminish SES differences in call rates, and more needs to be done to encourage disadvantaged groups to call the Quitline. PMID:17372288

  9. Antismoking television advertising and socioeconomic variations in calls to Quitline.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Wakefield, Melanie; Spittal, Matt; Durkin, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    To assess the socioeconomic variations in call rates to the Quitline (Victoria, Australia) and in the impact of anti-tobacco television advertising on call rates. The outcome measure was the number of calls to the Quitline in Victoria for each week for each socioeconomic group for the period January 2001 to March 2004. Socioeconomic status (SES) was derived from the caller's postcode using the Index of Socioeconomic Disadvantage provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The exposure measure was weekly Target Audience Rating Points (TARPs, a standard measure of television advertising weight) for anti-tobacco advertising broadcast in Victoria over the same period. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the interaction of SES and TARPs in their effect on the number of Quitline calls. SES and call rates were positively associated. Adjusted call rate was 57% (95% CI 45% to 69%) higher in the highest than the lowest SES quintile. SES differences in call rates were stable over time. In the study period, the effect of the presence or increasing levels of antismoking TARPs on call rates did not vary across categories of SES. In the study period, different SES groups had a similar level of responsiveness to antismoking television advertisements, at least as measured by the rate of calls to the Quitline. However, the present media campaigns are not likely to diminish SES differences in call rates, and more needs to be done to encourage disadvantaged groups to call the Quitline.

  10. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that the...

  11. Calling 911! What role does the pediatrician play?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Devin; Kunkov, Sergey; Kaplan, Carl; Crain, Ellen F

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare admission rates and medical interventions among children whose caregivers called their child's primary care provider (PCP) before taking an ambulance to the pediatric emergency department (PED) versus those who did not. This was a prospective cohort study of patients brought to an urban, public hospital PED via emergency medical system (EMS). Children were included if the caregiver called 911 to have them transported via EMS and was present in the PED. The main variable was whether the child's PCP was called before EMS utilization. Study outcomes were medical interventions, such as intravenous line insertion or laboratory tests, and hospital admission. χ Test and logistic regression were used to evaluate the relationship of the main variable to the study outcomes. Six hundred fourteen patients met inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Five hundred eighty-five patients (95.3%) were reported to have a PCP. Seventy-four caregivers (12.1%) called their child's PCP before calling EMS. Two hundred seventy-seven patients (45.1%) had medical interventions performed; of these, 42 (15.2%) called their PCP (P = 0.03). Forty-two patients (6.8%) were admitted; among these, 14 (33.3%) called their PCP (P < 0.01). Adjusting for triage level, patients whose caregiver called the PCP before calling EMS were 3.2 times (95% confidence interval, 1.9-5.2 times) more likely to be admitted and 1.7 times (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9 times) more likely to have a medical intervention compared with patients whose caregivers did not call their child's PCP. Children were more likely to be admitted or require a medical intervention if their caregiver called their PCP before calling EMS. The availability of a PCP for telephone triage may help to optimize EMS utilization.

  12. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that...

  13. Impact of Hurricane Ike on Texas poison center calls.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2009-10-01

    On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas, resulting in the mandatory evacuation of 8 counties before landfall and the declaration of disaster areas in 29 counties afterward. This study evaluated whether Hurricane Ike affected the pattern of Texas poison center calls. Texas poison center calls received from the disaster area counties were identified for 3 time periods: August 12 to September 10, 2008 (preevacuation), September 11 to 13, 2008 (evacuation and hurricane landfall), and September 14 to 30, 2008 (postevacuation). For selected types of calls, the mean daily call volume during time periods 2 and 3 was compared with a baseline range (BR) derived from the mean daily call volume during time period 1. During the evacuation and landfall period, gasoline exposure calls were higher than expected (mean 3, BR -1 to 2). During the postevacuation period, higher than expected numbers of calls were observed for gasoline exposures (mean 5, BR -1 to 2) and carbon monoxide exposures (mean 3, BR -1-1). During an evacuation, certain calls such as those involving gasoline exposures may increase. After a hurricane, calls such as those involving carbon monoxide and gasoline exposures may increase.

  14. Glucocorticoid and androgen signaling pathways diverge between advertisement calling and non-calling fish.

    PubMed

    Genova, Rachel M; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Knapp, Rosemary; Fergus, Daniel; Bass, Andrew H

    2012-09-01

    Behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms of social vocalization in teleost fish are influenced by the glucocorticoid cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT). The relative abundance of both 11kT, which binds to androgen receptors (ARα, ARβ), and cortisol, which binds to glucocorticoid receptors (GR-1, GR-2), is regulated by 11β-hydroxylase (11βH) that converts 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and testosterone to 11β-OH-testosterone, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) that converts cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone and 11β-OH-testosterone to 11kT. In midshipman fish, we tested the hypothesis that plasma steroid levels, mRNA abundance for 11βH and 11βHSD in the vocal muscle and testis (known site of 11kT synthesis), and mRNA abundances for ARs and GRs in vocal muscle, would differ between males that did or did not recently produce 'hum' advertisement calls. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that non-calling male vocal muscle had significantly higher mRNA levels for all receptors except ARα, and a strong trend for higher 11βHSD; 11βH was similar to that in calling males. Calling males had higher plasma and testis 11kT, but lower plasma cortisol, levels. Testis enzyme levels did not differ between male groups, although calling males showed a positive linear correlation between plasma 11kT and testis 11βHSD mRNA levels, consistent with testis being the main source of plasma 11kT. We propose that higher vocal muscle 11βHSD levels in non-calling males reflect increased local conversion of elevated cortisol to cortisone, providing protection from cortisol-related toxicity, while increased receptor expression in non-calling males functions as a preparatory mechanism for meeting the physiological demands of future vocalization.

  15. Interactivity in CALL Courseware Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskill, Carla

    1987-01-01

    Three elements to be considered in computer-assisted language instruction courseware design are: (1) environment; (2) visuals; and (3) timing. Computer-generated environments must be dynamic, flexible, challenging, and engaging. Visuals must be easily readable, uncluttered, consistently laid out. Program time should be balanced with real time.…

  16. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  17. Consumer Experiences Calling Toll-Free Corporate Hotlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Charles L.; Smart, Denise T.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that dimensions that contribute to caller satisfaction (of toll-free corporate hotlines) included operator characteristics such as knowledge, courtesy, and interest; specific behaviors such as apologizing for a problem, thanking the consumer for calling, and encouraging them to call again; and reducing time placed on "hold." (SR)

  18. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  19. Sleep Quality of Call Handlers Employed in International Call Centers in National Capital Region of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Raja, J D; Bhasin, S K

    2016-10-01

    Call center sector in India is a relatively new and fast growing industry driving employment and growth in modern India today. Most international call centers in National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi operate at odd work hours corresponding to a time suitable fortheir international customers. The sleep quality of call handlers employed in these call centers is in jeopardy owing to their altered sleep schedule. To assess the sleep quality and determine its independent predictors among call handlers employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted on 375 call handlers aged 18-39 years employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. Sleep quality was assessed using Athens Insomnia scale along with a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 24.6 (SD 2.4) years. 78% of participants were male. 83.5% of respondents were unmarried. 44.3% of call handlers were cigarette smokers. Physical ailments were reported by 37% call handlers. 77.6% of call handlers had somesuspicion of insomnia or suspected insomnia; the rest had no sleep problem. Smoking, poor social support, heavy workload, lack of relaxation facility at office, and prolonged travel time to office were independent predictors of sleep quality (p<0.05). Call handlers have to compromise upon their sleep owing to the contemporary work settings in call centers. Safeguarding their health becomes an occupational health challenge to public health specialists.

  20. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  1. Computer-assisted scheduling of radiology resident call.

    PubMed

    Larson, T C; Larson, S L; Harle, T S

    1986-05-01

    The difficulties inherent in assigning an entire residency group fair and equivalent daily call prompted the development of a computerized scheduling program at The University of Texas at Houston. Written in COBOL, the program is run on a CDC mainframe computer. Logic parameters restrict the number and frequency of calls per month, and each resident is coded for five available call types at two university hospitals. The foundation of the program's operation is an arbitrary point scale applied to each call type determined by its difficulty and time commitment. Residents' point totals each month are roughly balanced within a prescribed range, with call exchanges made by the computer if necessary. The computer-generated schedules are flexible and equitable, require little manual correction, and save time for the chief resident and the residency secretary.

  2. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  3. Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, David

    2005-01-01

    When a teacher gives their time to a student, it is more significant to that student than anything else one could do for him or her. Music teachers deal with time all the time. Someone once said that "time is like money: we never have enough." This may seem true; however, time is not like money. One can make more money, but one cannot "make time."…

  4. The association between advertising and calls to a tobacco quitline.

    PubMed

    Mosbaek, Craig H; Austin, Donald F; Stark, Michael J; Lambert, Lori C

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the cost effectiveness of different types of television and radio advertisements and the time of day in which advertisements were placed in generating calls to the Oregon tobacco quitline. Cost effectiveness was measured by cost per call, calculated as the cost of advertising divided by the number of quitline calls generated by that advertising. Advertising was bought in one-week or two-week blocks and included 27 daytime television buys, 22 evening television buys and 31 radio buys. Cost effectiveness varied widely by medium, time of day and advertisement used. Daytime television was seven times more cost effective than evening television and also more cost effective than radio. The most effective advertisements at generating quitline calls were real life testimonials by people who lost family members to tobacco and advertisements that deal practically with how to quit. Placement of television advertisements during the day versus the evening can increase an advertisement's effectiveness in generating calls to a quitline. Some advertising messages were more effective than others in generating calls to a quitline. Quitline providers can apply findings from previous research when planning media campaigns. In addition, call volume should be monitored in order to assess the cost effectiveness of different strategies to promote use of the quitline.

  5. The association between advertising and calls to a tobacco quitline

    PubMed Central

    Mosbaek, Craig H; Austin, Donald F; Stark, Michael J; Lambert, Lori C

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the cost effectiveness of different types of television and radio advertisements and the time of day in which advertisements were placed in generating calls to the Oregon tobacco quitline. Design Cost effectiveness was measured by cost per call, calculated as the cost of advertising divided by the number of quitline calls generated by that advertising. Advertising was bought in one‐week or two‐week blocks and included 27 daytime television buys, 22 evening television buys and 31 radio buys. Results Cost effectiveness varied widely by medium, time of day and advertisement used. Daytime television was seven times more cost effective than evening television and also more cost effective than radio. The most effective advertisements at generating quitline calls were real life testimonials by people who lost family members to tobacco and advertisements that deal practically with how to quit. Conclusions Placement of television advertisements during the day versus the evening can increase an advertisement's effectiveness in generating calls to a quitline. Some advertising messages were more effective than others in generating calls to a quitline. Quitline providers can apply findings from previous research when planning media campaigns. In addition, call volume should be monitored in order to assess the cost effectiveness of different strategies to promote use of the quitline. PMID:18048626

  6. Space Time Physics and Fractality: Festschrift in honour of Mohamed El Naschie on the occasion of his 60th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibel, Peter; Ord, Garnet; Rössler, Otto

    2005-01-01

    Space and Time are the prison bars of reality. Space Time Physics and Fractality is an attempt to tunnel through the rigidity of it all -- by turning everything into dust or smoke. These two ancient traditions are brought together here for the first time -- in the spirit of Democritus and Anaxagoras. Mohamed El Naschie, the sexagenarian, is the "dust dragon". The book contains papers by people who are infected by the same virus of desperately wanting to understand, and represents an incomparable breakthrough.

  7. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public: Federal...

  8. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  9. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  10. "That's why they call it practice".

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Colleen T; Mauksch, Larry B

    2014-12-01

    The authors discuss how, as their residency family medicine practices are transforming into Patient-Centered Medical Homes, they are witnessing shifting expectations for everyone: medical assistant, faculty and resident physician, licensed practical nurse, behavioral health clinician. At all levels of experience and expertise, they are called on to change. In the health care context, "practice" has multiple meanings. Practice, in the sense of "the clinical scope of work we do every day" corresponds to Merriam Webster's first definition of the word, "to be professionally engaged in" or "to do or perform often, customarily, or habitually." In this editorial, the authors call upon their colleagues to recognize the second definition of "practice" and build in opportunities to "train by repeated exercises" within day to day clinical activity. By this they mean, build in mechanisms to prompt reflection on your work, every day, seeking and incorporating feedback from others on your team. Effective primary care systems protect time for practice and learning. These organizations demonstrate "adaptive reserve," consisting of action and reflection cycles, facilitative leadership, a learning culture, the ability to improvise, and effective relationships and communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Medical resident driving simulator performance following a night on call.

    PubMed

    Ware, J Catesby; Risser, Mathew R; Manser, Thomas; Karlson, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    This study compared driving simulation performance after night call and after being off call in 22 medical residents and 1 medical student in a prospective within-subjects counterbalanced design. The results demonstrated an unexpected interaction between call and sex wherein men performed more poorly after night call than women as measured by lane variance and crash frequency. Secondary measures, including caffeine, actigraphy, and subjective total sleep time, did not differ between men and women. Collectively, results of this study and others suggest that medical residents are at risk when driving after a night on call and support the need for resident education to address sleep needs, consequences of sleep disruption, postcall recovery sleep, and countermeasures that may reduce residents' driving risks.

  12. SNP calling by sequencing pooled samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Performing high throughput sequencing on samples pooled from different individuals is a strategy to characterize genetic variability at a small fraction of the cost required for individual sequencing. In certain circumstances some variability estimators have even lower variance than those obtained with individual sequencing. SNP calling and estimating the frequency of the minor allele from pooled samples, though, is a subtle exercise for at least three reasons. First, sequencing errors may have a much larger relevance than in individual SNP calling: while their impact in individual sequencing can be reduced by setting a restriction on a minimum number of reads per allele, this would have a strong and undesired effect in pools because it is unlikely that alleles at low frequency in the pool will be read many times. Second, the prior allele frequency for heterozygous sites in individuals is usually 0.5 (assuming one is not analyzing sequences coming from, e.g. cancer tissues), but this is not true in pools: in fact, under the standard neutral model, singletons (i.e. alleles of minimum frequency) are the most common class of variants because P(f) ∝ 1/f and they occur more often as the sample size increases. Third, an allele appearing only once in the reads from a pool does not necessarily correspond to a singleton in the set of individuals making up the pool, and vice versa, there can be more than one read – or, more likely, none – from a true singleton. Results To improve upon existing theory and software packages, we have developed a Bayesian approach for minor allele frequency (MAF) computation and SNP calling in pools (and implemented it in a program called snape): the approach takes into account sequencing errors and allows users to choose different priors. We also set up a pipeline which can simulate the coalescence process giving rise to the SNPs, the pooling procedure and the sequencing. We used it to compare the performance of snape to that

  13. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...--whether the call is significantly delayed, the called party's phone never rings, the caller hears false..., as well as aiding consumers and industry by adopting a rule prohibiting false ring signaling. In the... of 1934, as amended (the Act); Established a Rural Call Completion Task Force to investigate...

  14. Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

  15. Bird calls: their potential for behavioral neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Birdsongs are always part of larger set of sound signals. Every bird uses a repertoire of calls for communication. Calls are shorter and simpler than songs, with a much larger range of functions. Whereas songs are specialized for application in reproduction and territoriality, calls also serve such functions as signaling about food, maintaining social cohesion, contact calls, synchronizing and coordinating flight, and the resolution of aggressive and sexual conflicts. Alarm calls of various kinds are a major component, including distress, mobbing, and hawk alarm calls. Call repertoires vary greatly in size, up to 20 or so distinct call types. Rough estimates for songbirds range between 5 and 10, but some birds, especially galliforms, may have twice as many. Call usage is often sexually dimorphic and commonly varies seasonally and with physiological state. Most calls appear to be innate, but more and more examples of developmental plasticity in bird calls are emerging. Some display well-defined local dialects. A case is made for the value to avian behavioral neurobiology of including bird calls in studies of the psychophysics and sensory physiology of signal perception. They may also help to extend the range of neurobiological investigations of the song system to include circuitry controlling such functionally related behaviors as aggression and reproduction.

  16. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding...

  17. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  18. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  19. 20 CFR 702.313 - Informal conferences; how called; when called.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal conferences; how called; when called... Adjudication Procedures Action by District Directors § 702.313 Informal conferences; how called; when called. Informal conferences may be called upon not less than 10 days' notice to the parties, unless the...

  20. Bonobos Extract Meaning from Call Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Zanna; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system. PMID:21556149

  1. Want change? Call your representative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2011-07-01

    During my tenure as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, which began in September 2010 and continues until November 2011, my time has been shared between working with the U.S. House of Representatives Natural Resource Committee Democratic staff and in the office of Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass., ranking Democrat on the committee). I appreciate getting to work with staff, fellows, and interns who inspire me, make me laugh, and know their issues cold. Much of my work on the committee is related to fish, wildlife, oceans, lands, and water issues and is directly related to my background in ecology and evolutionary biology (I studied zebra ecology and behavior in Kenya). My assignments have included asking the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) about why it has not changed the allowed usage of certain pesticides that the National Marine Fisheries Service has found to jeopardize the recovery of endangered Pacific salmon; helping to identify research needs and management options to combat the swiftly spreading and catastrophic white nose syndrome in North American bats; and inquiring as to whether a captive-ape welfare bill, if passed without amendment, could thwart development of a vaccine to stop the Ebola virus from continuing to cause mass mortality in endangered wild apes.

  2. [Calling and mating behaviors of bamboo shoot borer Kumasia kumaso].

    PubMed

    Shu, Jin-Ping; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Deng, Shun; Wang, Hao-Jie

    2012-12-01

    The calling and mating behaviors of Kumasia kumaso were studied in laboratory at (25 1) degrees C and (60 +/- 10) % RH under a cycle 14 L:10 D photo period, and the EAG response of male K. kumaso to female K. kumaso sex gland extracts was also tested. The calling and mating behaviors of K. kumaso could only be observed in scotophase. The females began calling at the first scotophase following emergence, and the peak of calling occurred during the second scotophase and decreased thereafter. The calling of the females commenced 0-4 h after dark, reached the maximum between the 5th and the 7th hour of the scotophase, and terminated during the last 1-2.5 h of the scotophase. Moth age had significant effects on the calling patterns. With increasing moth age, the onset time of calling advanced gradually, and the mean number of calling bouts as well as the calling length per bout had a gradual increase from calling day 1 to day 4 but decreased on day 5. The peak time and terminated time of calling advanced with increasing moth age. The mating of K. kumaso adults initiated during the first scotophase and terminated till the 5th scotophase following emergence, and the peak of mating was observed during the second scotophase. The peak of mating was observed 5.5-7.0 h after dark, and advanced with increasing moth age. Moth age affected the mean onset time of mating and the copulation duration significantly. With increasing moth age, the mean onset time of mating advanced, and the copulation duration decreased. Sex ratio had significant effects on the mating behavior as well. Treatment 2 female:1 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but an earlier onset time of mating and shorter copulation duration, as compared with treatment 1 female:1 male. The results of EAG test indicated that the male adults showed a significant EAG response to the sex gland extracts of 2-day-old virgin females.

  3. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

  4. It's time to answer the wake-up call.

    PubMed

    Muller-Smith, P

    1996-04-01

    The dramatic change in the work world of every industry including health care is creating anxiety and stress among workers. According to many authors, this is merely the tip of the iceberg in relation to what will come. The way we must do our work is changing at breakneck speed. Resisting it will not stop it, fearing it will not help. Learning to respond quickly and recognizing that technology will only replace the routine and systematic processes can restore the energy necessary to meet the challenges ahead.

  5. Air Base Defense: Different Times Call for Different Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    squadrons, and they were returned home. 70 S.J. Christaldi, Operation Safe Side, http://www.vspa.com/ phan -rang-christaldi-safeside-1967.htm, (accessed on...William W. Momyer to HQ AF. Available at: http://www.vspa.com/ phan - rang-safeside-final-report-1967.htm (accessed on 12 August 2006), 2. 179 Fox, 152...at http://www.vspa.com/ phan - rang-christaldi-safeside-1967.htm, [accessed 24 June 2006]. 104 Cohen, William S. “Personal Accountability for Force

  6. Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, Erin Marie

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales

  7. Age related decline in female lar gibbon great call performance suggests that call features correlate with physical condition.

    PubMed

    Terleph, Thomas A; Malaivijitnond, S; Reichard, U H

    2016-01-05

    White-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) are small Asian apes known for living in stable territories and producing loud, elaborate vocalizations (songs), often in well-coordinated male/female duets. The female great call, the most conspicuous phrase of the repertoire, has been hypothesized to function in intra-sexual territorial defense. We therefore predicted that characteristics of the great call would correlate with a caller's physical condition, and thus might honestly reflect resource holding potential (RHP). Because measurement of RHP is virtually impossible for wild animals, we used age as a proxy, hypothesizing that great call climaxes are difficult to produce and maintain over time, and that older adults will therefore perform lower quality great calls than young adults. To test this we analyzed the great call climaxes of 15 wild lar gibbon females at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand and 2 captive females at Leo Conservation Center, Greenwich, CT. Findings show that call climaxes correlate with female age, as young animals (n = 8, mean age: 12.9 years) produced climaxes with a higher frequency range (delta F0), maximum F0 frequency and duty cycle than old animals (n = 9, mean age: 29.6 years). A permuted discriminant function analysis also correctly classified calls by age group. During long song bouts the maximum F0 frequency of great call climaxes' also decreased. Additional data support the hypothesis that short high notes, associated with rapid inhalation as an individual catches its breath, reflect increased caller effort. Older females produced more high notes than younger females, but the difference only approached statistical significance, suggesting that calling effort may be similar across different ages. Finally, for the first time in this species, we measured peak intensity of calls in captive females. They were capable of producing climaxes in excess of 100 dB at close range (2.7 m). Age and within-bout differences in the lar gibbon

  8. Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Eldridge, Brandy M.; Steger, Michael F.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Research on work as a calling is limited by measurement concerns. In response, the authors introduce the multidimensional Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Brief Calling scale (BCS), instruments assessing presence of, and search for, a calling. Study 1 describes CVQ development using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis…

  9. Disentangling the Link between Perceiving a Calling and Living a Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Autin, Kelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may…

  10. When They Talk about CALL: Discourse in a Required CALL Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates preservice teachers' discourse about CALL in a required CALL class which combines theory and practice. Thirty-three students in a Linguistics MA program CALL course were observed over a 10-week quarter. For all of these students, it was their first formal exposure to CALL as a discipline. Communication in the class…

  11. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  12. Vocal complexity influences female responses to gelada male calls

    PubMed Central

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that inter-sexual selection drives the evolution of complex vocal communication in birds, but parallel lines of evidence are almost entirely absent in mammals. This dearth of evidence, particularly among primates, limits our understanding of the link between sociality and vocal complexity. Here, we use a playback experiment to quantify how wild female geladas (Theropithecus gelada) respond to three call types that are ‘derived’ (i.e., unique to geladas) and made by males during various affiliative contexts. These derived calls appeared to be highly salient and preferable to females: they looked longer towards and spent more time in proximity to playbacks of male vocal sequences containing one of the derived calls than to sequences containing only common and less elaborate ‘grunt’ calls. Our results provide the first experimental evidence for vocal elaboration as a male-specific strategy to maintain social bonds with females in non-human primates. PMID:26790770

  13. Telephone calls postdischarge from hospital to home: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hand, Kristin E; Cunningham, Regina S

    2014-02-01

    The oncology population is particularly affected by hospital readmissions because hospitalized patients with cancer often have complex needs. The complexity and diversity of care requirements create substantial challenges in planning for appropriate postdischarge support. Implementing postdischarge telephone calls in the population of patients with cancer could offer a low-cost intervention to address the complex needs of patients during the transition from hospital to home. The goal of the current literature review is to provide an understanding about postdischarge telephone calls in patients with cancer. Findings from this review support the notion that discharge phone calls could improve care continuity for patients transitioning from hospital to home. The literature review outlines information related to telephone call content, timing, and structure for healthcare systems that want to use a postdischarge telephone intervention for patients with cancer. However, additional research is needed to develop and test cancer-specific protocols.

  14. A CALL for Improved School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard; Kelley, Carolyn; Shaw, James

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a formative assessment that provides feedback to schools on the research-based leadership practices necessary to improve teaching and learning. Instead of focusing on an individual leader, CALL measures leadership practices in tasks carried out by actors across the school and…

  15. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  16. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  17. The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S

    1998-01-01

    In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation calling results in a female being mated by many males, thus promoting competition at the level of sperm (sperm competition hypothesis). In this paper, I give results from the first experimental study to test these hypotheses. Playback was used to examine the function of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Although rank did not affect lone males' likelihood of approaching copulation calls, when playbacks were given to pairs of males only the higher ranking individual approached. Moreover, females were mated significantly sooner after playback of their copulation call than after playback of a control stimulus. These results suggest that the copulation calls of female Barbary macaques play a key role in affecting patterns of male reproductive behaviour, not only providing an indirect mechanism of female choice, but also promoting sperm competition by reducing the interval between copulations. Potential fitness benefits of inciting male-male competition at these two levels are discussed. PMID:9523431

  18. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... facilities-based originating long distance providers to record and retain data on call completion rates to... originating long-distance voice service providers to collect data on call answer rates, and to report those... allow the Commission to monitor the performance of long-distance telephone service providers in order to...

  19. Kindness Curbs Kids' Name-Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxon, Rebekah

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the impact of name-calling towards the student's academic performance and emotions and cites some measures on how should teachers address this problem in order to facilitate effective learning among students. Psychologists recognize that name-calling and other forms of verbal bullying and harassment are more…

  20. CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy, Ed.; Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Essays on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include: "Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Environments" (Joy Egbert, Chin-chi Chao, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "Theory and Research Interaction via Computers" (Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Classroom Practice: Creating Interactive CALL Activities" (Joy Egbert); "CALL…

  1. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ. WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ. WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  2. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ. WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ. WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  3. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  4. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  5. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  6. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calling in. 401.64 Section 401.64 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every...

  7. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  8. Applying Pedagogical Principles to CALL Courseware Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, David H.

    This paper on the application of principles to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) first clarifies the the relationships between the capabilities of the computer (and computer-controlled technology) and the main approaches to second language learning. Fourteen common types of CALL programs are briefly reviewed. A "relational" classification…

  9. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  10. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

  11. Evaluation of CALL: Initial Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allum, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary learning theory suggests that productive recall should strengthen learning of new vocabulary items (Nation, 2001). CALL can provide both the opportunities for productive recall and the feedback to motivate repeated efforts to reproduce new items. The latter capability appears to give CALL some advantages over paper-based exercises, in…

  12. A CALL for Improved School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard; Kelley, Carolyn; Shaw, James

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a formative assessment that provides feedback to schools on the research-based leadership practices necessary to improve teaching and learning. Instead of focusing on an individual leader, CALL measures leadership practices in tasks carried out by actors across the school and…

  13. Integrated Language Skills CALL Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin; Agawa, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The importance of a structured learning framework or interrelated frameworks is the cornerstone of a solid English as a foreign language (EFL) computer-assisted language learning (CALL) curriculum. While the benefits of CALL are widely promoted in the literature, there is often an endemic discord separating theory and practice. Oftentimes the…

  14. Bat echolocation calls: Orientation to communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, M. Brock

    2004-05-01

    Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.

  15. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  16. A desperate poor country: History and settlement patterning on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Savannah River Archaeological Research Papers 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.; Crass, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this monograph is twofold: first, to example historical trends and settlement patterning through time within the boundaries of the present-day Savannah River Site (SRS), and second, to establish a framework for future investigations of historic period occupation in the study area. Settlement patterns are defined as the distribution of archaeological sites across a landscape. Settlement patterning is a response to widely held cultural needs; therefore, it offers a strategic starting point for the functional interpretation of archaeological cultures. The analysis of settlement patterns if useful because it is practical, it shows the spatial dimension of the man-environment interrelationship that is relative to the technological level of the settlement`s inhabitants, and it can yield concrete clues regarding social organization.

  17. Calling by concluding sentinels: coordinating cooperation or revealing risk?

    PubMed

    Hollén, Linda I; Bell, Matthew B V; Russell, Alexis; Niven, Fraser; Ridley, Amanda R; Radford, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    Efficient cooperation requires effective coordination of individual contributions to the cooperative behaviour. Most social birds and mammals involved in cooperation produce a range of vocalisations, which may be important in regulating both individual contributions and the combined group effort. Here we investigate the role of a specific call in regulating cooperative sentinel behaviour in pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor). 'Fast-rate chuck' calls are often given by sentinels as they finish guard bouts and may potentially coordinate the rotation of individuals as sentinels, minimising time without a sentinel, or may signal the presence or absence of predators, regulating the onset of the subsequent sentinel bout. We ask (i) when fast-rate chuck calls are given and (ii) what effect they have on the interval between sentinel bouts. Contrary to expectation, we find little evidence that these calls are involved in regulating the pied babbler sentinel system: observations revealed that their utterance is influenced only marginally by wind conditions and not at all by habitat, while observations and experimental playback showed that the giving of these calls has no effect on inter-bout interval. We conclude that pied babblers do not seem to call at the end of a sentinel bout to maximise the efficiency of this cooperative act, but may use vocalisations at this stage to influence more individually driven behaviours.

  18. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Wright, Genevieve S; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  19. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

  20. The development of a malignant tumor is due to a desperate asexual self-cloning process in which cancer stem cells develop the ability to mimic the genetic program of germline cells

    PubMed Central

    Vinnitsky, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no explanation why the development of almost all types of solid tumors occurs sharing a similar scenario: (1) creation of a cancer stem cell (CSC), (2) CSC multiplication and formation of a multicellular tumor spheroid (TS), (3) vascularization of the TS and its transformation into a vascularized primary tumor, (4) metastatic spreading of CSCs, (5) formation of a metastatic TSs and its transformation into metastatic tumors, and (6) potentially endless repetition of this cycle of events. The above gaps in our knowledge are related to the biology of cancer and specifically to tumorigenesis, which covers the process from the creation of a CSC to the formation of a malignant tumor and the development of metastases. My Oncogerminative Theory of Tumorigenesis considers tumor formation as a dynamic self-organizing process that mimics a self-organizing process of early embryo development. In the initial step in that process, gene mutations combined with epigenetic dysregulation cause somatic cells to be reprogrammed into CSCs, which are immortal pseudo-germline cells. Mimicking the behavior of fertilized germline cells, the CSC achieves immortality by passing through the stages of its life-cycle and developing into a pseudo-blastula-stage embryo, which manifests in the body as a malignant tumor. In this view, the development of a malignant tumor from a CSC is a phenomenon of developmental biology, which we named a desperate asexual self-cloning event. The theory explains seven core characteristics of malignant tumors: (1) CSC immortality, (2) multistep development of a malignant tumor from a single CSC, (3) heterogeneity of malignant tumor cell populations, (4) metastatic spread of CSCs, (5) invasive growth, (6) malignant progression, and (7) selective immune tolerance toward cancer cells. The Oncogerminative Theory of Tumorigenesis suggests new avenues for discovery of revolutionary therapies to treat, prevent, and eradicate cancer. PMID:28232878

  1. Test Procedures for Toll Call Certification Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-07

    REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED (U) Test Procedures for Toll CallFia Se86-Ar7 Certification AlternativesFiaSe86-Ar7 6. PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER 1. AUTHOR(e...toll call sampling is to use the toll call 21 a a C3a En L~a cmaL-a Lna ac C3 a cc u _3 to a- aa aL 4r C14 I Lo a_ V ’ Iara a D r- w U 4 c * a I’ aDUJ

  2. Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Audience effects arise when the signaling behavior of animals is affected by the presence of others. Whilst this phenomenon has been documented in numerous animal species, very little research has addressed what effect the listening audience has in the mating context. In this article we discuss our recent findings that the production of chimpanzee copulation calls is effected by the presence of potentially eavesdropping females and males. We relate these results to understanding the function of primate copulation calls in addition to what more they can tell us about the cognitive processes underlying primate call production. PMID:19641752

  3. Arginine vasotocin promotes calling behavior and call changes in male túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Kime, Nicole M; Whitney, Tina K; Davis, Ellen S; Marler, Catherine A

    2007-01-01

    In the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, males alter calling behavior with changes in their social environment, adding 'chucks' to their advertisement calls in response to the calls of conspecific males. Other studies demonstrate that adding chucks increases the attractiveness of calls to females but also increases the risk of bat predation. In the current study, subcutaneous injections of the neuropeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) significantly increased chuck production in male túngara frogs. The effects of AVT on chuck production did not depend on the presence of playback stimuli, suggesting that AVT increased either the males' general motivation to produce chucks or their responsiveness to the calls of distant males. Injections of AVT also increased the probability that males would call and decreased the latency to call after injection, supporting the hypothesis that AVT influences motivation to call. Finally, AVT inhibited a drop in call rate after the termination of a playback stimulus and increased call rate at a lower dose of AVT. The effects of AVT on chucks and call rate appear to be independent of each other, as there was no correlation between change in chuck production and change in call rate in individual males. We conclude that AVT may play an important role in socially-mediated call changes that result from competition for mates. The behavioral changes induced by AVT might increase a male's attractiveness to females, and also may be consistent with an aggressive response to another túngara frog male. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Why and when citizens call for emergency help: an observational study of 211,193 medical emergency calls.

    PubMed

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Østergaard, Doris; Viereck, Søren; Overton, Jerry; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy

    2015-11-04

    A medical emergency call is citizens' access to pre-hospital emergency care and ambulance services. Emergency medical dispatchers are gatekeepers to provision of pre-hospital resources and possibly hospital admissions. We explored causes for access, emergency priority levels, and temporal variation within seasons, weekdays, and time of day for emergency calls to the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen in a two-year study period (December 1(st), 2011 to November 30(th), 2013). Descriptive analysis was performed for causes for access and emergency priority levels. A Poisson regression model was used to calculate adjusted ratio estimates for the association between seasons, weekdays, and time of day overall and stratified by emergency priority levels. We analyzed 211,193 emergency calls for temporal variation. Of those, 167,635 calls were eligible for analysis of causes and emergency priority level. "Unclear problem" was the most frequent category (19%). The five most common causes with known origin were categorized as "Wounds, fractures, minor injuries" (13%), "Chest pain/heart disease" (11%), "Accidents" (9%), "Intoxication, poisoning, drug overdose" (8%), and "Breathing difficulties" (7%). The highest emergency priority levels (Emergency priority level A and B) were assigned in 81% of calls. In the analysis of temporal variation, the total number of calls peaked at wintertime (26%), Saturdays (16%), and during daytime (39%). The pattern of citizens' contact causes fell into four overall categories: unclear problems, medical problems, intoxication and accidents. The majority of calls were urgent. The magnitude of unclear problems represents a modifiable factor and highlights the potential for further improvement of supportive dispatch priority tools or educational interventions at dispatch centers. Temporal variation was identified within seasons, weekdays and time of day and reflects both system load and disease occurrence. Data on contact patterns

  5. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must not...

  6. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-12-03

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech.

  7. Administrator Bolden Calls Underwater NEEMO Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    From outside their underwater laboratory in Florida, NASA Astronaut and NEEMO 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger and European Space Agency astronaut Timothy Peake took a call from NASA Admini...

  8. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  9. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

  10. President Obama Calls Atlantis and Station Crews

    NASA Image and Video Library

    President Barack Obama called the crews of Atlantis and the International Space Station today, noting that the final shuttle mission also "ushers in an exciting new era to push the frontiers of spa...

  11. Calling cards for DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoyi; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David

    2007-01-01

    Identifying genomic targets of transcription factors is fundamental for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Current technology enables identification of all targets of a single transcription factor, but there is no realistic way to achieve the converse: identification of all proteins that bind to a promoter of interest. We have developed a method that promises to fill this void. It employs the yeast retrotransposon Ty5, whose integrase interacts with the Sir4 protein. A DNA-binding protein fused to Sir4 directs insertion of Ty5 into the genome near where it binds; the Ty5 becomes a “calling card” the DNA-binding protein leaves behind in the genome. We constructed customized calling cards for seven transcription factors of yeast by including in each Ty5 a unique DNA sequence that serves as a “molecular bar code.” Ty5 transposition was induced in a population of yeast cells, each expressing a different transcription factor–Sir4 fusion and its matched, bar-coded Ty5, and the calling cards deposited into selected regions of the genome were identified, revealing the transcription factors that visited that region of the genome. In each region we analyzed, we found calling cards for only the proteins known to bind there: In the GAL1–10 promoter we found only calling cards for Gal4; in the HIS4 promoter we found only Gcn4 calling cards; in the PHO5 promoter we found only Pho4 and Pho2 calling cards. We discuss how Ty5 calling cards might be implemented for mapping all targets of all transcription factors in a single experiment. PMID:17623806

  12. ALG: automated genotype calling of Luminex assays.

    PubMed

    Bourgey, Mathieu; Lariviere, Mathieu; Richer, Chantal; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-05-06

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most commonly used polymorphic markers in genetics studies. Among the different platforms for SNP genotyping, Luminex is one of the less exploited mainly due to the lack of a robust (semi-automated and replicable) freely available genotype calling software. Here we describe a clustering algorithm that provides automated SNP calls for Luminex genotyping assays. We genotyped 3 SNPs in a cohort of 330 childhood leukemia patients, 200 parents of patient and 325 healthy individuals and used the Automated Luminex Genotyping (ALG) algorithm for SNP calling. ALG genotypes were called twice to test for reproducibility and were compared to sequencing data to test for accuracy. Globally, this analysis demonstrates the accuracy (99.6%) of the method, its reproducibility (99.8%) and the low level of no genotyping calls (3.4%). The high efficiency of the method proves that ALG is a suitable alternative to the current commercial software. ALG is semi-automated, and provides numerical measures of confidence for each SNP called, as well as an effective graphical plot. Moreover ALG can be used either through a graphical user interface, requiring no specific informatics knowledge, or through command line with access to the open source code. The ALG software has been implemented in R and is freely available for non-commercial use either at http://alg.sourceforge.net or by request to mathieu.bourgey@umontreal.ca.

  13. 75 FR 34487 - Sunshine Act Meetings (by Conference Call)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings (by Conference Call) DATE AND TIMES: June 25, 2010, 1 p.m.-3 p.m. PLACE: NCD... CONSIDERED: National Summit on Disability Policy 2010. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Mark Quigley...

  14. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  15. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  16. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  17. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  18. Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via System Call Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Jewell, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    The host-based detection of malicious data exfiltration activities is currently a sparse area of research and mostly limited to methods that analyze network traffic or signature based detection methods that target specific processes. In this paper we explore an alternative method to host-based detection that exploits sequences of system calls and new collection methods that allow us to catch these activities in real time. We show that system calls sequences can be found to reach a steady state across processes and users, and explore the viability of new methods as heuristics for profiling user behaviors.

  19. On call: alert or unsafe? A report of the AORN on-call electronic task force.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Trudy A G; Gluesing, Rebecca E; White, Karen Y; Dunkel, Wanda L; Burlingame, Byron L

    2007-10-01

    Research has linked health care providers' long work hours with patient care errors. Perioperative staff members often work extended hours because of long shifts and being on call. AORN's on-call electronic task force conducted a survey of nurses to determine their work load, call scheduling, and experiences related to fatigue. Of the 1,013 respondents, 67.7% said they had experienced effects of sleep deprivation. A follow-up survey revealed that few call programs are in compliance with AORN's recommended practices. Compliant call programs are detailed for adaptation in other perioperative settings.

  20. Calling behavior of spotted owls in Northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Jospeh L. Ganey

    1990-01-01

    I studied the calling behavior of radio-tagged Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in northern Arizona. Owls used a variety of calls, with three call types (Four-note Location Call, Contact Call, and Bark Series) accounting for 86% of calling bouts heard. These calls were used by both sexes, but in significantly different proportions....

  1. The communicative content of the common marmoset phee call during antiphonal calling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; Mandel, Katherine; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    Vocalizations are a dominant means of communication for numerous species, including nonhuman primates. These acoustic signals are encoded with a rich array of information available to signal receivers that can be used to guide species-typical behaviors. Here we examined the communicative content of common marmoset phee calls, the species-typical long distance contact call, during antiphonal calling. This call type has a relatively stereotyped acoustic structure, consisting of a series of long tonal pulses. Analyses revealed that calls could be reliably classified based on the individual identity and social group of the caller. Our analyses did not, however, correctly classify phee calls recorded under different social contexts, though differences were evident along individual acoustic parameters. Further tests of antiphonal calling interactions showed that spontaneously produced phee calls differ from antiphonal phee calls in their peak and end frequency, which may be functionally significant. Overall, this study shows that the marmoset phee call has a rich communicative content encoded in its acoustic structure available to conspecifics during antiphonal calling exchanges. PMID:20549761

  2. Need for recovery among male technical distal on-call workers.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Hardy A; Bültmann, Ute; de Looze, Michiel P; Koolhaas, Wendy; Kantermann, Thomas; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine whether need for recovery differs between workers (i) not on-call, (ii) on-call but not called and (iii) on-call and called, and (2) investigate the associations between age, health, work and social characteristics with need for recovery for the three scenarios (i-iii). Cross-sectional data of N = 169 Dutch distal on-call workers were analysed with multivariate logistic regression. Need for recovery differed significantly between the three scenarios (i-iii), with lowest need for recovery for scenario (i) 'not on-call' and highest need for recovery for scenario (iii) 'on-call and called'. Poor mental health and high work-family interference were associated with higher need for recovery in all three scenarios (i-iii), whereas high work demands was only associated with being on-call (ii and iii). The results suggest that the mere possibility of being called affects the need for recovery, especially in workers reporting poor mental health, high-work demands and work-family interference. Practitioner summary: On-call work is a scarcely studied but demanding working time arrangement. We examined need for recovery and its associations with age, health, work and social characteristics among distal on-call workers. The results suggest that the mere possibility of being called can affect worker well-being and need for recovery.

  3. Call Admission Control Scheme Based on Statistical Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Takayuki; Oki, Eiji; Shiomoto, Kohei

    A call admission control (CAC) scheme based on statistical information is proposed, called the statistical CAC scheme. A conventional scheme needs to manage session information for each link to update the residual bandwidth of a network in real time. This scheme has a scalability problem in terms of network size. The statistical CAC rejects session setup requests in accordance to a pre-computed ratio, called the rejection ratio. The rejection ratio is computed by using statistical information about the bandwidth requested for each link so that the congestion probability is less than an upper bound specified by a network operator. The statistical CAC is more scalable in terms of network size than the conventional scheme because it does not need to keep accommodated session state information. Numerical results show that the statistical CAC, even without exact session state information, only slightly degrades network utilization compared with the conventional scheme.

  4. Characteristics of calls to the Israeli hotline during the Intifada.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Itzhak; Latzer, Yael

    2007-08-01

    The present study examined the help-seeking characteristics of callers to the ten Israeli hotline centers during the Intifada - the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli administered territories. The research method combined quantitative and qualitative analyses of the volunteers' written reports. The quantitative analysis was conducted on a sample of 21,315 structured forms, and the qualitative content analysis was carried out on a sample of 498 verbal descriptions of calls. The quantitative analysis revealed a U-shaped curve illustrating the frequency of Intifada-related calls in relation to the time of the study. The qualitative analysis showed that the main complaints of the callers were focused on direct and masked manifestations of anxiety and feelings of helplessness. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of understanding the unique psychological response to a new kind of stress, as seen from the perspective of calls to a hotline.

  5. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  6. Metabolomics in rheumatic diseases: desperately seeking biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Guma, Monica; Tiziani, Stefano; Firestein, Gary S

    2016-05-01

    Metabolomics enables the profiling of large numbers of small molecules in cells, tissues and biological fluids. These molecules, which include amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides and their metabolites, can be detected quantitatively. Metabolomic methods, often focused on the information-rich analytical techniques of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, have potential for early diagnosis, monitoring therapy and defining disease pathogenesis in many therapeutic areas, including rheumatic diseases. By performing global metabolite profiling, also known as untargeted metabolomics, new discoveries linking cellular pathways to biological mechanisms are being revealed and are shaping our understanding of cell biology, physiology and medicine. These pathways can potentially be targeted to diagnose and treat patients with immune-mediated diseases.

  7. ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: DESPERATELY SEEKING A PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two competing views of ecosystem management have emerged. One is that ecosystem management is another stage in the continual evolution of the basic management paradigm - one that natural resource managers have followed in North America for a century. The other view is that ecosys...

  8. ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: DESPERATELY SEEKING A PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two competing views of ecosystem management have emerged. One is that ecosystem management is another stage in the continual evolution of the basic management paradigm - one that natural resource managers have followed in North America for a century. The other view is that ecosys...

  9. Chancroid - desperate patient makes own diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barnes, P; Chauhan, M

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of chancroid in a white heterosexual man in the United Kingdom. This patient was seen by four separate health services over a period of five weeks with excruciatingly painful penile ulcers. Despite several negative herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction tests and a self-diagnosis of chancroid, he was repeatedly offered multiple courses of aciclovir. This case highlights the need for awareness of alternative diagnoses in persistent cases of genital ulcer disease.

  10. Metabolomics in rheumatic diseases: desperately seeking biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guma, Monica; Tiziani, Stefano; Firestein, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics enables the profiling of large numbers of small molecules in cells, tissues and biological fluids. These molecules, which include amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides and their metabolites, can be detected quantitatively. Metabolomic methods, often focused on the information-rich analytical techniques of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, have potential for early diagnosis, monitoring therapy and defining disease pathogenesis in many therapeutic areas, including rheumatic diseases. By performing global metabolite profiling, also known as untargeted metabolomics, new discoveries linking cellular pathways to biological mechanisms are being revealed and are shaping our understanding of cell biology, physiology and medicine. These pathways can potentially be targeted to diagnose and treat patients with immune-mediated diseases. PMID:26935283

  11. Voice over internet protocol with prepaid calling card solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunadi, Tri

    2001-07-01

    The VoIP technology is growing up rapidly, it has big network impact on PT Telkom Indonesia, the bigger telecommunication operator in Indonesia. Telkom has adopted VoIP and one other technology, Intelligent Network (IN). We develop those technologies together in one service product, called Internet Prepaid Calling Card (IPCC). IPCC is becoming new breakthrough for the Indonesia telecommunication services especially on VoIP and Prepaid Calling Card solutions. Network architecture of Indonesia telecommunication consists of three layer, Local, Tandem and Trunck Exchange layer. Network development researches for IPCC architecture are focus on network overlay hierarchy, Internet and PSTN. With this design hierarchy the goal of Interworking PSTN, VoIP and IN calling card, become reality. Overlay design for IPCC is not on Trunck Exchange, this is the new architecture, these overlay on Tandem and Local Exchange, to make the faster call processing. The nodes added: Gateway (GW) and Card Management Center (CMC) The GW do interfacing between PSTN and Internet Network used ISDN-PRA and Ethernet. The other functions are making bridge on circuit (PSTN) with packet (VoIP) based and real time billing process. The CMC used for data storage, pin validation, report activation, tariff system, directory number and all the administration transaction. With two nodes added the IPCC service offered to the market.

  12. The composition of intern work while on call.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Visotcky, Alexis M; Slagle, Jason M; Tarima, Sergey; Weinger, Matthew B; Schapira, Marilyn M

    2012-11-01

    The work of house staff is being increasingly scrutinized as duty hours continue to be restricted. To describe the distribution of work performed by internal medicine interns while on call. Prospective time motion study on general internal medicine wards at a VA hospital affiliated with a tertiary care medical center and internal medicine residency program. Internal medicine interns. Trained observers followed interns during a "call" day. The observers continuously recorded the tasks performed by interns, using customized task analysis software. We measured the amount of time spent on each task. We calculated means and standard deviations for the amount of time spent on six categories of tasks: clinical computer work (e.g., writing orders and notes), non-patient communication, direct patient care (work done at the bedside), downtime, transit and teaching/learning. We also calculated means and standard deviations for time spent on specific tasks within each category. We compared the amount of time spent on the top three categories using analysis of variance. The largest proportion of intern time was spent in clinical computer work (40 %). Thirty percent of time was spent on non-patient communication. Only 12 % of intern time was spent at the bedside. Downtime activities, transit and teaching/learning accounted for 11 %, 5 % and 2 % of intern time, respectively. Our results suggest that during on call periods, relatively small amounts of time are spent on direct patient care and teaching/learning activities. As intern duty hours continue to decrease, attention should be directed towards preserving time with patients and increasing time in education.

  13. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.

    2017-01-10

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  14. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.

    2017-01-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  15. Speech privacy in customer service call centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    Customer service call centers are a special type of open plan office with different design considerations and different acoustical goals. Workers want a high degree of visual and verbal contact with adjacent members of their team, but customers do not want to hear crosstalk from other conversations. Achieving the correct balance between these conflicting goals is a challenge for the architect and acoustic consultant. This paper will present several case studies of different call centers with acoustic measurements, user comments, and other subjective assessment methods.

  16. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  17. What is this thing called growth?

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1954-01-01

    What is this thing called "growth"? We foresters are constantly thinking in terms of growth. We use growth data to evaluate a forest property. We use them to determine how much we can cut. We use them to weigh the results of a type of cutting.

  18. CALL--Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

  19. CALL--Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

  20. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  1. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to the...

  2. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  3. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  4. Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

  5. Answering the Call of the Wild.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experience during his sabbatical leave of visiting the country about which Jack London wrote in "Call of the Wild" and other books. The journey which was initiated to learn more about the author and gather interesting teaching materials for teaching Literature. (NH)

  6. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history,…

  7. Learner Activities in a Collaborative CALL Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses different research approaches in CALL and makes a case for applying grounded theory (GT) to data gathered from an electronic role-play conducted in L2. The article shows that this method can help gain a better understanding of what learners do when engaged in the task. Through the process of open coding, four…

  8. Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

  9. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history,…

  10. Educational Use of Databases in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the idea that databases are very useful tools for teaching languages over the Internet. Databases in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are commonly used in three ways: for reference sources such as dictionaries, in the management of large websites, and for data processing such as language tests and learners'…

  11. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policy makers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. U.S. Secretary of…

  12. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policy makers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. U.S. Secretary of…

  13. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  14. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  15. Academic Freedom: A Call for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna

    The need for research on academic freedom as it applies to the K-12 level is addressed. The existing literature in the area of academic freedom, while often critical, rhetorical, and prescriptive, never calls for research. Indeed, there are very few examples of research in this area. Two separate ERIC (Educational Research Information Center)…

  16. A Simple Selection System Called "Jobmatch."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheibar, Paul

    1979-01-01

    An automated candidate-job matching system called "Jobmatch" has been implemented at Citibank, in New York City, involving job analysis, performance appraisal techniques, clerical employment, and internal mobility. A job task scale is used by supervisor and employee to determine job and candidate matching through a series of computer…

  17. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  18. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  19. Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

  20. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  1. Becoming a Strategic Language Learner in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines what it means to be a strategic language learner in the context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It looks at the possible roles for language learner strategies at their crucial intersection with language learning technology. We will first consider what language learner strategies have been represented in…

  2. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policymakers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. Secretary of…

  3. Using Software Design Methods in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The phrase "software design" is not one that arouses the interest of many CALL practitioners, particularly those from a humanities background. However, software design essentials are simply logical ways of going about designing a system. The fundamentals include modularity, anticipation of change, generality and an incremental approach. While CALL…

  4. Don't Call It School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    "Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

  5. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  6. Peer support telephone calls for improving health.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jeremy; Caramlau, Isabela O; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Williams, Susan M

    2008-10-08

    Peer support telephone calls have been used for a wide range of health-related concerns. However, little is known about their effects. To assess the effects of peer support telephone calls in terms of physical (e.g. blood pressure), psychological (e.g. depressive symptoms), and behavioural health outcomes (e.g. uptake of mammography) and other outcomes. We searched: The Cochrane Library databases (CENTRAL, DARE, CDSR) (issue 4 2007); MEDLINE (OVID) (January 1966 to December 2007); EMBASE (OVID) (January 1985 to December 2007); CINAHL (Athens) (January 1966 to December 2007), trials registers and reference lists of articles, with no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials of peer support interventions delivered by telephone call. Two review authors independently extracted data. We present results narratively and in tabular format. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity between studies. We included seven studies involving 2492 participants.Peer support telephone calls were associated with an increase in mammography screening, with 49% of women in the intervention group and 34% of women in the control group receiving a mammogram since the start of the intervention (P calls were found to maintain mammography screening uptake for baseline adherent women (P = 0.029).Peer support telephone calls for post myocardial infarction patients were associated at six months with a change in diet in the intervention and usual care groups of 54% and 44% respectively (P = 0.03). In another study for post myocardial infarction patients there were no significant differences between groups for self-efficacy, health status and mental health outcomes.Peer support telephone calls were associated with greater continuation of breastfeeding in mothers at 3 months post partum (P = 0.01).Peer support telephone calls were associated with reduced depressive symptoms in mothers with postnatal depression (Edinburgh

  7. A medical resident post-discharge phone call study.

    PubMed

    Weisman, David S; Bashir, Lubna; Mehta, Anand; Bhatia, Leena; Levine, Stuart M; Mete, Mihriye; Padmore, Jamie S

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have identified the post-discharge period as a time of vulnerability for patients, and an opportunity exists to improve patient care. Adverse drug events are the most common events leading to complications during the post-discharge period. Recent studies have shown that using a scripted medication reconciliation process improves the quality of patient care. Does a phone call from a medical resident within 72 hours after hospital discharge improve patient satisfaction and quality of care? Does this exercise result in improved attitudes and competence for practice-based learning, and improvement and system-based practice of participating residents? This was a prospective randomized study comparing 1 group of patients that received a medication reconciliation phone call from a medical resident within 72 hours after discharge with a control group that did not receive a call. Adult patients aged ≥ 18 years on a medical resident service for ≥ 2 days and being discharged to home were invited to participate. The primary endpoint of the study was patient satisfaction. Secondary endpoints included readmission rates, emergency department visits, follow-up with the primary care provider, and resident attitudes and competence. The primary and secondary endpoints did not reach statistical significance. However, a medication reconciliation error occurred in 48% of patients, and 93% of residents agreed that the phone call was beneficial to patient care. Although patient satisfaction was not improved from this exercise, a follow-up call to patients after hospital discharge can identify otherwise missed medication reconciliation errors. Medical residents found the phone call to be worthwhile and gained valuable insight into their own discharge practices as demonstrated by self-reflection and intended change in discharge practices.

  8. BBCAnalyzer: a visual approach to facilitate variant calling.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Sarah; de Graaf, Aniek O; Dugas, Martin

    2017-02-28

    Deriving valid variant calling results from raw next-generation sequencing data is a particularly challenging task, especially with respect to clinical diagnostics and personalized medicine. However, when using classic variant calling software, the user usually obtains nothing more than a list of variants that pass the corresponding caller's internal filters. Any expected mutations (e.g. hotspot mutations), that have not been called by the software, need to be investigated manually. BBCAnalyzer (Bases By CIGAR Analyzer) provides a novel visual approach to facilitate this step of time-consuming, manual inspection of common mutation sites. BBCAnalyzer is able to visualize base counts at predefined positions or regions in any sequence alignment data that are available as BAM files. Thereby, the tool provides a straightforward solution for evaluating any list of expected mutations like hotspot mutations, or even whole regions of interest. In addition to an ordinary textual report, BBCAnalyzer reports highly customizable plots. Information on the counted number of bases, the reference bases, known mutations or polymorphisms, called mutations and base qualities is summarized in a single plot. By uniting this information in a graphical way, the user may easily decide on a variant being present or not - completely independent of any internal filters or frequency thresholds. BBCAnalyzer provides a unique, novel approach to facilitate variant calling where classical tools frequently fail to call. The R package is freely available at http://bioconductor.org . The local web application is available at Additional file 2. A documentation of the R package (Additional file 1) as well as the web application (Additional file 2) with detailed descriptions, examples of all input- and output elements, exemplary code as well as exemplary data are included. A video demonstrates the exemplary usage of the local web application (Additional file 3). Additional file 3: Supplement_3. Video

  9. On-call work: To sleep or not to sleep? It depends.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sally A; Paterson, Jessica L; Hall, Sarah J; Jay, Sarah M; Aisbett, Brad

    On-call working time arrangements are increasingly common, involve work only in the event of an unpredictable incident and exist primarily outside of standard hours. Like other non-standard working time arrangements, on-call work disrupts sleep and can therefore have negative effects on health, safety and performance. Unlike other non-standard working time arrangements, on-call work often allows sleep opportunities between calls. Any sleep obtained during on-call periods will be beneficial for waking performance. However, there is evidence that sleep while on call may be of substantially reduced restorative value because of the expectation of receiving the call and apprehension about missing the call. In turn, waking from sleep to respond to a call may be associated with temporary increases in performance impairment. This is dependent on characteristics of both the preceding sleep, the tasks required upon waking and the availability and utility of any countermeasures to support the transition from sleep to wake. In this paper, we critically evaluate the evidence both for and against sleeping during on-call periods and conclude that some sleep, even if it is of reduced quality and broken by repeated calls, is a good strategy. We also note, however, that organisations utilising on-call working time arrangements need to systematically manage the likelihood that on-call sleep can be associated with temporary performance impairments upon waking. Given that the majority of work in this area has been laboratory-based, there is a significant need for field-based investigations of the magnitude of sleep inertia, in addition to the utility of sleep inertia countermeasures. Field studies should include working with subject matter experts to identify the real-world impacts of changes in performance associated with sleeping, or not sleeping, whilst on call.

  10. When seconds count: A study of communication variables in the opening segment of emergency calls.

    PubMed

    Penn, Claire; Koole, Tom; Nattrass, Rhona

    2016-02-09

    The opening sequence of an emergency call influences the efficiency of the ambulance dispatch time. The greeting sequences in 105 calls to a South African emergency service were analysed. Initial results suggested the advantage of a specific two-part opening sequence. An on-site experiment aimed at improving call efficiency was conducted during one shift (1100 calls). Results indicated reduced conversational repairs and a significant reduction of 4 seconds in mean call length. Implications for systems and training are derived.

  11. Outsourcing your medical practice call center: how to choose a vendor to ensure regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Medical practices receive hundreds if not thousands of calls every week from patients, payers, pharmacies, and others. Outsourcing call centers can be a smart move to improve efficiency, lower costs, improve customer care, ensure proper payer management, and ensure regulatory compliance. This article discusses how to know when it's time to move to an outsourced call center, the benefits of making the move, how to choose the right call center, and how to make the transition. It also provides tips on how to manage the call center to ensure the objectives are being met.

  12. CALL from the Margins: Effective Dissemination of CALL Research and Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The symbolic location of EUROCALL's 2004 conference in Vienna offered to both new members from Eastern Europe and established members from the West an opportunity to review the relationship between computer assisted language learning (CALL) and language teaching in general. CALL is defined as an "academic field that explores the role of…

  13. Bergland calls action a 'farcical episode'

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Bob Bergland, general manager of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) calls the Senate's failure to pass the rural electric financing plan an inglorious finale to the administration's attempts to keep the bill from on-the-record debate and a vote on the Senate floor. NRECA had led the move to develop a plan to ensure the solvency of the Revolving Fund, which is the major source of financing for North Dakota's and the nation's rural co-ops. The death of S.1300 will mean higher electric rates for consumers in a few years and renewed efforts to dismantle the Rural Electrification Administration (REA). Delays by Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker and others helped to kill the bill in accord with the White House plan for eliminating government involvement in rural electric financing. The 53 Senators who sought a Senate vote say the administration is unfair to rural areas. Bergland calls for unified resistance.

  14. Variant Calling From Next Generation Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nancy F

    2016-01-01

    The use of next generation nucleotide sequencing to discover and genotype small sequence variants has led to numerous insights into the molecular causes of various diseases. This chapter describes the use of freely available software to align next generation sequencing reads to a reference and then to use the resulting alignments to call, annotate, view, and filter small sequence variants. The suggested variant calling workflow includes read alignment with novoalign, the removal of polymerase chain reaction duplicate sequences with samtools or bamUtils, and the detection of variants with Freebayes or bam2mpg software. ANNOVAR is then used to annotate the predicted variants using gene models, population frequencies, and predicted mutation severity, producing variant files which can be viewed and filtered with the variant display tool VarSifter.

  15. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer

    PubMed Central

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Noël, Benjamin; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well. Counterintuitively, assistant referees made fewer errors when they were farther away from the action due to an advantageous (smaller) visual angle on the game action. The pattern held even when we accounted for individual differences in a laboratory-based attentional spread measure of ten of the assistant referees. Our finding that errors are linked to smaller visual angles may explain the complaints of fans in some situations: Those seated directly behind the assistant referee, further from the players, might actually have it easier to make the right call because the relevant players would form a smaller visual angle. PMID:28333996

  16. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer.

    PubMed

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Noël, Benjamin; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well. Counterintuitively, assistant referees made fewer errors when they were farther away from the action due to an advantageous (smaller) visual angle on the game action. The pattern held even when we accounted for individual differences in a laboratory-based attentional spread measure of ten of the assistant referees. Our finding that errors are linked to smaller visual angles may explain the complaints of fans in some situations: Those seated directly behind the assistant referee, further from the players, might actually have it easier to make the right call because the relevant players would form a smaller visual angle.

  17. Calling, Vocational Development, and Well Being: A Longitudinal Study of Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Manuel, R. Stephen; Borges, Nicole J.; Bott, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation of calling to the vocational development and well-being of a sample of medical students. Students were surveyed at two time points: prior to beginning the first year of medical school and prior to beginning the third year of medical school. At each time point, calling moderately correlated with positive…

  18. 16 CFR 308.5 - Pay-per-call service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... language as that principally used in the pay-per-call message, that clearly, in a slow and deliberate... the call is billed on a time-sensitive basis, the preamble shall state the cost per minute and any... charging a caller any amount whatsoever for such a service if the caller hangs up at any time prior to...

  19. 16 CFR 308.5 - Pay-per-call service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... language as that principally used in the pay-per-call message, that clearly, in a slow and deliberate... the call is billed on a time-sensitive basis, the preamble shall state the cost per minute and any... charging a caller any amount whatsoever for such a service if the caller hangs up at any time prior to...

  20. Calling, Vocational Development, and Well Being: A Longitudinal Study of Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Manuel, R. Stephen; Borges, Nicole J.; Bott, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation of calling to the vocational development and well-being of a sample of medical students. Students were surveyed at two time points: prior to beginning the first year of medical school and prior to beginning the third year of medical school. At each time point, calling moderately correlated with positive…

  1. Application of a smartphone nurse call system for nursing care.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Ting; Liu, Yi-Fang; Fu, Zi-Xuan; Liu, Kuang-Chung; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Lin, Chin-Lon; Lin, Pi-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, a patient presses the nurse call button and alerts the central nursing station. This system cannot reach the primary care nurse directly. The aim of this study was to apply a new smartphone system through the cloud system and information technology that linked a smartphone and a mobile nursing station for nursing care service. A smartphone and mobile nursing station were integrated into a smartphone nurse call system through the cloud and information technology for better nursing care. Waiting time for a patient to contact the most responsible nurse was reduced from 3.8 min to 6 s. The average time for pharmacists to locate the nurse for medication problem was reduced from 4.2 min to 1.8 min by the new system. After implementation of the smartphone nurse call system, patients received a more rapid response. This improved patients' satisfaction and reduced the number of complaints about longer waiting time due to the shortage of nurses.

  2. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  3. Communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats: Examination by acoustic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Yoko; Nagato, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    We classified communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus abramus) by acoustic characteristics D. The Japanese pipistrelles emitted communication calls that were completely different from FM echolocation calls. Data showed that in general duration of communication calls was longer than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 1 ms; long CF communication call, 50 ms) and that frequency of commu-nication calls were lower than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 80-40 kHz; long CF communication call, about 14 kHz). Typical classified communication calls were as follows: slightly short CF call (20 ms, 14 kHz), short CF call (5 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long CF call (30 ms, 14 kHz), long CF call (50 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long FM call (15 ms, 30-15 kHz), long FM call (20 ms, 25-15 kHz), complicated FM call (10-50 ms, 25-15 kHz), short intermittent CF call (1 ms, 14 kHz) and noise call (20-100 ms, below 60 kHz). Details will be discussed more specifically. [Research supported by a grant to RCAST at Doshisha Univ. from MEXT and by the Innovative Cluster Creation Project promoted by MEXT.

  4. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  5. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  6. Assessing and Managing Acute Pain: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Jungquist, Carla R; Vallerand, April Hazard; Sicoutris, Corinna; Kwon, Kyung N; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2017-03-01

    : Acute pain, which is usually sudden in onset and time limited, serves a biological protective function, warning the body of impending danger. However, while acute pain often resolves over time with normal healing, unrelieved acute pain can disrupt activities of daily living and transition to chronic pain. This article describes the effects of unrelieved acute pain on patients and clinical outcomes. The authors call on nurses to assess and manage acute pain in accordance with evidence-based guidelines, expert consensus reports, and position statements from professional nursing organizations in order to minimize the likelihood of its becoming chronic.

  7. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the cr-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

  8. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  9. [Emergency calls in the Samu system].

    PubMed

    Barrier, G

    2001-07-01

    The French emergency medical system is public and medical. Named Samu, it is almost entirely managed by anesthesiologists specially trained for emergency medical assistance and advanced medical support. The system comprises a reception and dispatching center for emergency calls, directly connected to police and firemen, but assuring patient confidentiality. This fixed center is managing mobile units which are Medical Intensive Care Ambulances (MICA named Smur in France). The Samu's mission consists in performing urgent individual medical assistance and also medical services for treatment of mass casualties. It is also to find adequate hospital units for the patients, to perform medical transport and to be a consultant for general practitioners in emergency.

  10. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor. Abbreviation: AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine CBO 2-(4-chlorobenzylamino)-2-(4-phenyl)oxazoline CDM chlordimeform Confs number of conformers DIP 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)piperidine Features/Confs total number of features divided by the number of conformers (summed over the entire family of conformers) HBA hydrogen-bond acceptor HBAl hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid HBD hydrogen-bond donor Hp hydrophobic HpAl hydrophobic aliphatic HpAr hydrophobic aromatic mp melting point MTO 2-(3-methyl benzylthio)-2-oxazoline NI negative ionizable NIO 2-(1-naphthylimino)oxazolidine OA octopamine ODA 2-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3,4-oxadiazine

  11. Report calls for Earth science education "revolution"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With just 7% of U.S. high school students taking classes in Earth and space science, in contrast to 88% studying biology, a new report calls for a "revolution" in Earth science education in the nation's schools, from kindergarten through 12th grade.The June 2002 report, "Blueprint for Change, notes that an increased emphasis on the Earth as a system and the expanded use of Internet resources is causing Earth and space science education to undergo "a revolution that is reshaping the nature and content of what is taught."

  12. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

  13. [Headache patient at the emergency call service].

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    Headache is a common symptom, sometimes concealing a severe illness. It is the primary task of the doctor on call to find out whether the headache is a symptom of serious incidence needing diagnosis urgently to prevent death or permanent disability. Dangerous headaches are associated with easily remembered warning signs: sudden onset, the first or worst headache in life, disturbance of consciousness in connection with the headache, onset at age over 50, worsening of headache in the lying position, a neurological deficit associated with the headache, or papilledema.

  14. The variant call format and VCFtools.

    PubMed

    Danecek, Petr; Auton, Adam; Abecasis, Goncalo; Albers, Cornelis A; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark A; Handsaker, Robert E; Lunter, Gerton; Marth, Gabor T; Sherry, Stephen T; McVean, Gilean; Durbin, Richard

    2011-08-01

    The variant call format (VCF) is a generic format for storing DNA polymorphism data such as SNPs, insertions, deletions and structural variants, together with rich annotations. VCF is usually stored in a compressed manner and can be indexed for fast data retrieval of variants from a range of positions on the reference genome. The format was developed for the 1000 Genomes Project, and has also been adopted by other projects such as UK10K, dbSNP and the NHLBI Exome Project. VCFtools is a software suite that implements various utilities for processing VCF files, including validation, merging, comparing and also provides a general Perl API. http://vcftools.sourceforge.net

  15. Towards Agent-Oriented Approach to a Call Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashamalla, Amir Nabil; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    There is more chance of a completed sale if the end customers and relationship managers are suitably matched. This in turn can reduce the number of calls made by a call centre reducing operational costs such as working time and phone bills. This chapter is part of ongoing research aimed at helping a CMC to make better use of its personnel and equipment while maximizing the value of the service it offers to its client companies and end customers. This is accomplished by ensuring the optimal use of resources with appropriate real-time scheduling and load balancing and matching the end customers to appropriate relationship managers. In a globalized market, this may mean taking into account the cultural environment of the customer, as well as the appropriate profile and/or skill of the relationship manager to communicate effectively with the end customer. The chapter evaluates the suitability of a MAS to a call management system and illustrates the requirement analysis phase using i* models.

  16. Hyporheic nutrient transformation - A panacea for river restoration that solves the "Nitrate Time Bomb" ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, S.; Heathwaite, L.; Binley, A.; Kaeser, D.

    2009-04-01

    The river - aquifer interface, also called the ‘hyporheic zone' or ‘interstitial' characterises the area of intensive mixing between groundwater and surface water within the streambed of a river. Its physical conditions, as hydraulic conductivity and residence time, control fluxes and exchange rates between groundwater and surface water. Because of its often steep and dynamic redox gradients, the hyporheic zone can represent an area of high chemical activity. Previous studies described how the transport and redox processes in the hyporheic zone can cause effective nutrient attenuation, e.g. by denitrification. Hence, river regulators and river basin management plans hope for the hyporheic zone to delimit the negative impact, polluted groundwater has for the stream ecological health. The desperation behind such expectations becomes apparent in light of increasing nitrate concentrations in many groundwater aquifers and their long residence times - the so-called "Nitrate Time Bomb". In this study we investigate spatial and temporal patterns of physical streambed characteristics and redox chemical conditions and its controls on nitrogen transport and transformation in the streambed of several English rivers. For the streambed sediments of a 50 - 250 m stream reaches, pore water nitrate and ammonia concentrations were monitored together with common anions, redox conditions, dissolved oxygen levels and rates of groundwater up-welling and surface water mixing in a dense system of nested piezometer for a two year period. The results of this study indicate that hyporheic nutrient transformation can well exceed the usually assumed streambed depths of a few cm and may occur in depths of up to 1 m. Our investigations furthermore detected, that within the research area the hyporheic passage has a spatially very variable impact on the exchange fluxes and nitrogen concentrations and transformation rates in the streambed. Nitrate attenuation due to denitrification was found in

  17. Calls to Florida Poison Control Centers about mercury: Trends over 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Matthew O; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Stephan, Wendy B; Hunter, Candis M; Weisman, Richard S

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this analysis was to contrast trends in exposure-report calls and informational queries (a measure of public interest) about mercury to the Florida Poison Control Centers over 2003-2013. Poison-control specialists coded calls to Florida Poison Control Centers by substance of concern, caller demographics, and whether the call pertained to an exposure event or was an informational query. For the present study, call records regarding mercury were de-identified and provided along with daily total number of calls for statistical analysis. We fit Poisson models using generalized estimating equations to summarize changes across years in counts of daily calls to Florida Poison Control Centers, adjusting for month. In a second stage of analysis, we further adjusted for the total number of calls each day. We also conducted analyses stratified by age of the exposed. There was an overall decrease over 2003-2013 in the number of total calls about mercury [Ratio per year: 0.89, 95% CI: (0.88, 0.90)], and calls about mercury exposure [Ratio per year: 0.84, 95% CI: (0.83, 0.85)], but the number of informational queries about mercury increased over this time [Ratio per year: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.18)]. After adjusting for the number of calls of that type each day (e.g., call volume), the associations remained similar: a ratio of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.89) per year for total calls, 0.85 (0.83, 0.86) for exposure-related calls, and 1.17 (1.14, 1.21) for informational queries. Although, the number of exposure-related calls decreased, informational queries increased over 2003-2013. This might suggest an increased public interest in mercury health risks despite a decrease in reported exposures over this time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictive model for determining the quality of a call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voznak, M.; Rozhon, J.; Partila, P.; Safarik, J.; Mikulec, M.; Mehic, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the predictive model for speech quality estimation is described. This model allows its user to gain the information about the speech quality in VoIP networks without the need of performing the actual call and the consecutive time consuming sound file evaluation. This rapidly increases usability of the speech quality measurement especially in high load networks, where the actual processing of all calls is rendered difficult or even impossible. This model can reach its results that are highly conformant with the PESQ algorithm only based on the network state parameters that are easily obtainable by the commonly used software tools. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether different languages (English, Czech) have an effect on perceived voice quality for the same network conditions and the language factor was incorporated directly into the model.

  19. Energetic cost of calling: general constraints and species-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Ophir, A G; Schrader, S B; Gillooly, J F

    2010-07-01

    The energetic cost of acoustic signalling varies tremendously among species. Understanding factors responsible for this heterogeneity is important for understanding the costs and benefits of signalling. Here, we present a general model, based on well-established principles of bioenergetics, which predicts the energetic cost of call production across species. We test model predictions using an extensive database of resting and calling metabolic rates of insects, amphibians and birds. Results are largely supportive of model predictions. Calling metabolic rates scale predictably with body mass and temperature such that calling and resting metabolic rates are directly proportional to each other. The cost of acoustic signalling is approximately 8 times higher than resting metabolic rate in ectotherms, and approximately 2 times higher in birds. Differences in the increase in metabolic rate during calling are explained by the relative size of species' sound-producing muscles. Combined with published work, we quantify call efficiency and discuss model implications.

  20. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.

  1. CallWall: tracking resident calls to improve clinical utilization of pathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Buck, Thomas P; Connor, Ian M; Horowitz, Gary L; Arnaout, Ramy A

    2011-07-01

    Clinical pathology (CP) laboratories are used for millions of tests each year. These lead to thousands of calls to CP residents. However, although laboratory utilization is a frequent topic of study, clinical utilization--the content of the interactions between clinicians and CP residents--is not. Because it reflects questions about laboratory utilization, clinical utilization could suggest ways to improve both training and care by reducing diagnostic error. To build and implement a secure, scalable Web-based system to allow CP residents at any hospital to track the calls they receive, the interaction's context, and the action taken as a result, with evidence where applicable, and to use this system to report on clinical utilization at a major academic hospital. Entries were analyzed from a nearly year-long period to describe the clinical utilization of CP at a large academic teaching hospital. Sixteen residents logged 847 calls during 10 months, roughly evenly distributed among transfusion medicine, chemistry, microbiology, and hematopathology. Calls covered 94 different analytes in chemistry and 71 different organisms or tests in microbiology. Analysis revealed areas where CP can improve clinical care through educating the clinical services, for example, about ordering Rh immune globulin, testosterone testing, and diagnosis of tick-borne diseases. Documenting calls also highlighted patterns among residents. Clinical utilization is a potentially rich knowledge base for improving patient care and resident training. Our resident call-tracking system is a useful way for measuring clinical utilization and mining it for actionable information.

  2. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2013-08-22

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships.

  3. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Stephan A.; Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

    2013-01-01

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

  4. Begging signals in a mobile feeding system: the evolution of different call types.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Madden, Joah R; Manser, Marta B

    2007-10-01

    In some species, dependent offspring join foraging providers and beg for food. Mobile offspring might benefit from evolving begging signals adapted to the different situations they are exposed to, but this possibility has been ignored. In cooperatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta), dependent offspring use a repertoire of several begging calls when joining foraging adults. We found that these calls can be differentiated on the basis of their acoustic structure and that pups adjusted the use of specific call types according to the social context. Pups continuously gave "repeat" calls when they accompanied foraging adults, and playback of these calls increased provisioning by the adults. When pups saw adults with food, they switched from repeat calls to vigorous "high-pitched" calls; adults also preferred to "feed" loudspeakers broadcasting high-pitched calls rather then loudspeakers broadcasting repeat calls. The elaboration of different begging calls might reflect an adaptation to a situation where dependent young must solicit food from potential feeders while at the same time directing feeders to bring the prey item to themselves and not to another begging pup. Here we show that mobile but dependent offspring adapt to different contexts in a mobile feeding system by using a repertoire of begging calls.

  5. Factors Affecting the Vocational Calling of Laboratory Animal Care and Research Employees

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Gregory P; Markert, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed laboratory animal care and research workers to determine the factors affecting their vocational calling. The survey comprised 56 questions in 4 groups: passion, job stability or happiness, work volition, and demographics. We hypothesized that personnel who worked in the field a longer time, were older, had higher education levels, were involved with AALAS, and in higher positions in their organization were more likely to indicate a calling to the laboratory animal care field. In addition, we hypothesized that job satisfaction and classifying one's job as a calling were positively related to organizational support and work volition. Overall, 44% of respondents categorized their work as at least partially a calling. Those working at a higher level in the position of laboratory animal technician and in the organization were more likely to view their work as a calling. Increasing education level was related to work being a calling. Overall, vocational calling was significantly associated with higher pay, but technicians were the only subgroup where calling and higher pay were significantly related. Vocational calling and job satisfaction were associated with organizational support. For our sample of workers in the animal care field, other factors analyzed were not related to work being considered a calling. Leaders in the field of animal care may find our survey results valuable as they strive to adapt their organization's structure to the perceptions of their workforce with regard to their sense of calling. PMID:27931315

  6. Factors Affecting the Vocational Calling of Laboratory Animal Care and Research Employees.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Gregory P; Markert, Ronald J

    2016-11-01

    We surveyed laboratory animal care and research workers to determine the factors affecting their vocational calling. The survey comprised 56 questions in 4 groups: passion, job stability or happiness, work volition, and demographics. We hypothesized that personnel who worked in the field a longer time, were older, had higher education levels, were involved with AALAS, and in higher positions in their organization were more likely to indicate a calling to the laboratory animal care field. In addition, we hypothesized that job satisfaction and classifying one's job as a calling were positively related to organizational support and work volition. Overall, 44% of respondents categorized their work as at least partially a calling. Those working at a higher level in the position of laboratory animal technician and in the organization were more likely to view their work as a calling. Increasing education level was related to work being a calling. Overall, vocational calling was significantly associated with higher pay, but technicians were the only subgroup where calling and higher pay were significantly related. Vocational calling and job satisfaction were associated with organizational support. For our sample of workers in the animal care field, other factors analyzed were not related to work being considered a calling. Leaders in the field of animal care may find our survey results valuable as they strive to adapt their organization's structure to the perceptions of their workforce with regard to their sense of calling.

  7. Repetition patterns in Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) underwater multiple element calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moors, Hilary B.; Terhune, John M.

    2004-08-01

    Many vocalizations produced by Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) are made up of repeated individual distinct sounds (elements). Patterning of multiple element calls was examined during the breeding season at Casey and Davis, Antarctica. Element and interval durations were measured from 405 calls all >3 elements in length. The duration of the calls (22+/-16.6 s) did not seem to vary with an increasing number of elements (F4,404=1.83,p=0.122) because element and interval durations decreased as the number of elements within a call increased. Underwater vocalizations showed seven distinct timing patterns of increasing, decreasing, or constant element and interval durations throughout the calls. One call type occurred with six rhythm patterns, although the majority exhibited only two rhythms. Some call types also displayed steady frequency changes as they progressed. Weddell seal multiple element calls are rhythmically repeated and thus the durations of the elements and intervals within a call occur in a regular manner. Rhythmical repetition used during vocal communication likely enhances the probability of a call being detected and has important implications for the extent to which the seals can successfully transmit information over long distances and during times of high level background noise. .

  8. Behavioral Context of Call Production by Eastern North Pacific Blue Whales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-25

    pairs occurring in a repeated song sequence; B calls from a different blue whale are also evident; spectrogram parameters: fast Fourier transform (FFT...Acoustic data were viewed in spectrogram form ( fast Fourier transform [FFT] length 1 s, 80% overlap, Hanning window) to de- termine the presence of calls...dura- tion to song A and B units (Table 2), but the intermit - tent timing clearly distinguishes them from song. Whales producing singular calls were

  9. A Call to Arms: Wartime Blood Donor Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jean Cy

    2017-07-06

    To ensure an adequate blood supply, blood collection agencies must design campaigns to recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Such campaigns generally appeal to altruism and humanitarianism, which donors most commonly cite as their reasons for donating. However, large donor registries and the widespread recruitment campaigns that sustain them did not become a necessity until the technology for the collection, storage, and transfusion of blood had advanced to a point that enabled the establishment of transfusion services that could provide large amounts of stored blood to meet high demands. The realization of these milestones was one of the most important medical achievements of the Great War: the desperate need for blood created by war drove earlier adoption of scientific discoveries that might otherwise have been neglected. The medical advances of the Great War in turn enabled the establishment of wide-ranging transfusion services to aid combatants during the Spanish Civil War and Second World War. These services required the support of large civilian donor bases, and donor campaigns tapped into the patriotic feelings of civilians at home. This review will highlight some of the messages and media that were used to recruit blood donors in Spain, Britain, Canada, and the United States during wartime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Call intercalation in dyadic interactions in natural choruses of Johnstone's whistling frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Tárano, Zaida; Carballo, Luisana

    2016-05-01

    Communal signaling increases the likelihood of acoustic interference and impairs mate choice; consequently, mechanisms of interference avoidance are expected. Adjustment of the timing of the calls between signalers, specifically call alternation, is probably the most efficient strategy. For this reason, in the present study we analyzed call timing in dyads of males of E. johnstonei in six natural assemblages. We addressed whether males entrain their calls with those of other males at the assemblage and if they show selective attention in relation to perceived amplitude of the other males' calls, inter-male distance, or intrinsic call features (call duration, period or dominant frequency). We expected males to selectively attend to closer or louder males and/or to those of higher or similar attractiveness for females than themselves, because those would be their strongest competitors. We found that most males intercalated their calls with those of at least one male. In assemblages of 3 individuals, males seemed to attend to a fixed number of males regardless of their characteristics. In assemblages of more than 3 individuals, the perceived amplitude of the call of the neighboring male was higher, and the call periods of the males were more similar in alternating dyads than in the non-alternating ones. At the proximate level, selective attention based on perceived amplitude may relate to behavioral hearing thresholds. Selective attention based on the similarity of call periods may relate to the properties of the call oscillators controlling calling rhythms. At the ultimate level, selective attention may be related to the likelihood of acoustic competition for females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  12. [The so-called "fox tapeworm"].

    PubMed

    Eckert, J; Ammann, R

    1990-01-01

    The so-called "fox tapeworm" (Echinococcus multilocularis), the causative agent of a severe disease in man (alveolar echinococcosis), is presently under public discussion in Switzerland. Therefore, actual information is provided on the life cycle of the parasite, epidemiology, disease in humans, symptomatology, diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis. It is recommended that in endemic regions hunters handling foxes should wear protective gloves, dead foxes should be transported in plastic bags and wild fruits, berries and vegetables should be carefully washed and--if possible--heated to more than 70 degrees C for some minutes prior to consumption. After contact with foxes or other final hosts (dogs, cats) infected with E. multilocularis, persons should be monitored with the highly sensitive and specific Em2-ELISA for serum antibodies aiming at an early diagnosis and treatment of a potential infection.

  13. So-called Spontaneous Human Combustion.

    PubMed

    Levi-Faict, Thierry W; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2011-09-01

    A well-documented case of so-called Spontaneous Human Combustion is reported. Review of the literature shows that these strange observations have been reported since the 17th century, even in famous novels. There are several main features that may lead to help the diagnosis: the vicinity of the body is intact or nearly intact, some parts of the body are turned into ashes (usually the middle third of the body), whereas other parts are intact or nearly intact, burning of the body usually occurs postmortem, the cause of death is usually natural, there is often (but not always) high concentrations of blood alcohol, there is a source of heat near the body. It is indispensable to rule out a homicide by the examination of the body in situ, the autopsy, the toxicological and histopathological samples, the arson assessment, and a thorough police inquiry. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. HealthCall for the smartphone: technology enhancement of brief intervention in HIV alcohol dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking jeopardizes the health of patients in HIV primary care. In alcohol dependent patients in HIV primary care, a technological enhancement of brief intervention, HealthCall administered via interactive voice response (HealthCall-IVR) was effective at reducing heavy drinking. The smartphone offered a technology platform to improve HealthCall. Methods Working with input from patients, technology experts, and HIV clinic personnel, we further developed HealthCall, harnessing smartphone technological capacities (HealthCall-S). In a pilot study, we compared rates of HealthCall-S daily use and drinking outcomes in 41 alcohol dependent HIV-infected patients with the 43 alcohol dependent HIV-infected patients who used HealthCall-IVR in our previous efficacy study. Procedures, clinic, personnel, and measures were largely the same in the two studies, and the two groups of patients were demographically similar (~90% minority). Results Pilot patients used HealthCall-S a median of 85.0% of the 60 days of treatment, significantly greater than the corresponding rate (63.8%) among comparison patients using HealthCall-IVR (p < .001). Mean end-of-treatment drinks per drinking day was similar in the two groups. Patients were highly satisfied with HealthCall-S (i.e., 92% reported that they liked using HealthCall-S). Conclusions Among alcohol dependent patients in HIV primary care, HealthCall delivered via smartphone is feasible, obtains better patient engagement than HealthCall-IVR, and is associated with decreased drinking. In HIV primary care settings, HealthCall-S may offer a way to improve drinking outcomes after brief intervention by extending patient engagement with little additional demands on staff time. PMID:24533631

  15. Detection probability of vocalizing dugongs during playback of conspecific calls.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kotaro; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Shinke, Tomio; Sasamori, Kotoe; Miyauchi, Yukio; Abe, Yuki; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Arai, Nobuaki

    2009-10-01

    Dugongs (Dugong dugon) were monitored using simultaneous passive acoustic methods and visual observations in Thai waters during January 2008. Chirp and trill calls were detected by a towed stereo hydrophone array system. Two teams of experienced observers conducted standard visual observations on the same boat. Comparisons of detection probabilities of acoustic and visual monitoring between two independent observers were calculated. Acoustic and visual detection probabilities were 15.1% and 15.7%, respectively, employing a 300 s matching time interval. When conspecific chirp calls were broadcast from an underwater speaker deployed on the side of the observation boat, the detection probability of acoustic monitoring rose to 19.2%. The visual detection probability was 12.5%. Vocal hot spots characterized by frequent acoustic detection of calls were suggested by dispersion analysis, while dugongs were visually observed constantly throughout the focal area (p<0.001). Passive acoustic monitoring assisted the survey since detection performance similar to that of experienced visual observers was shown. Playback of conspecific chirps appeared to increase the detection probability, which could be beneficial for future field surveys using passive acoustics in order to ensure the attendance of dugongs in the focal area.

  16. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  17. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  18. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  19. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  20. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  1. Taylorism, Targets and the Pursuit of Quantity and Quality by Call Centre Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Peter; Watson, Aileen; Mulvey, Gareth; Taylor, Phil; Gall, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Case studies of four Scottish telephone call centers identified both quantitative (number of calls, average handling time) and qualitative (rapport, company pride) goals or targets set by management. Measurement of target attainment used continuous monitoring and other normative practices. Despite technological advances, the experience of call…

  2. Taylorism, Targets and the Pursuit of Quantity and Quality by Call Centre Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Peter; Watson, Aileen; Mulvey, Gareth; Taylor, Phil; Gall, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Case studies of four Scottish telephone call centers identified both quantitative (number of calls, average handling time) and qualitative (rapport, company pride) goals or targets set by management. Measurement of target attainment used continuous monitoring and other normative practices. Despite technological advances, the experience of call…

  3. Then and Now: Women's Roles in "McCall's Magazine" in 1964 and 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Sheila J.

    A content analysis of women's roles in "McCalls Magazine" in 1964 and 1974 revealed two profiles of a publication that has been dispensing advice and entertainment for wives and mothers since 1876. The recent women's movement first attracted media coverage around 1968, and a study of "McCalls" before and after this time showed…

  4. Call of duty: the effects of phone calls on blood donor motivation.

    PubMed

    Bruhin, Adrian; Goette, Lorenz; Roethlisberger, Adrian; Markovic, Alexander; Buchli, Regula; Frey, Beat M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of interventions aimed at increasing turnout among voluntary blood donors. We use a retrospective natural experiment with all 40,653 donors who were repeatedly invited to blood drives in Zurich, Switzerland, between 2010 and 2013. The intervention is a quasi-randomized phone call informing donors of a current shortage of their blood type. The panel structure of the data allows identification of different types of donors reacting to the phone call. Our analysis reveals two types. Type 1 donors make up 27.1% of the population. They are highly motivated and exhibit a baseline donation rate of 59.4% (p < 0.001). The phone call raises their probability to donate by 9.9% at the upcoming blood drive (p < 0.001). However, the phone call reduces their donation rate by 2.3% (p = 0.003) at each future blood drive. In contrast, the 72.9% of Type 2 donors exhibit a low baseline donation rate of 5.8% (p < 0.001). The phone call raises their probability to donate by 5.8% at the upcoming blood drive (p < 0.001). Moreover, the phone call leads to habit formation in Type 2 donors and increases their donation rate by 2.1% at the next blood drive (p = 0.03). Behavioral interventions are effective at increasing donation rates in the short run. However, they can crowd out the intrinsic motivation of the most motivated donors. Thus, blood donation services should avoid interventions for highly motivated donors and target them at irregular donors. Our results also sound a warning on using other interventions. © 2015 AABB.

  5. Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Nguyen, Kathy T; Martin, Julien G A

    2013-05-07

    Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure.

  6. Twelve years of tracking 52-Hz whale calls from a unique source in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, William A.; Daher, Mary Ann; George, Joseph E.; Rodriguez, David

    2004-12-01

    A unique whale call with 50-52 Hz emphasis from a single source has been tracked over 12 years in the central and eastern North Pacific. These calls, referred to as 52-Hz calls, were monitored and analyzed from acoustic data recorded by hydrophones of the US Navy Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other arrays. The calls were noticed first in 1989, and have been detected and tracked since 1992. No other calls with similar characteristics have been identified in the acoustic data from any hydrophone system in the North Pacific basin. Only one series of these 52-Hz calls has been recorded at a time, with no call overlap, suggesting that a single whale produced the calls. The calls were recorded from August to February with most in December and January. The species producing these calls is unknown. The tracks of the 52-Hz whale were different each year, and varied in length from 708 to 11,062 km with travel speeds ranging from 0.7 to 3.8 km/h. Tracks included (A) meandering over short ranges, (B) predominantly west-to-east movement, and (C) mostly north-to-south travel. These tracks consistently appeared to be unrelated to the presence or movement of other whale species (blue, fin and humpback) monitored year-round with the same hydrophones.

  7. Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Kathy T.; Martin, Julien G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure. PMID:23466987

  8. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Kyle G.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Tegeler, Amy K.

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

  9. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls.

    PubMed

    Horton, Kyle G; Stepanian, Phillip M; Wainwright, Charlotte E; Tegeler, Amy K

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

  10. Referential calls coordinate multi-species mobbing in a forest bird community.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N

    2016-01-01

    Japanese great tits (Parus minor) use a sophisticated system of anti-predator communication when defending their offspring: they produce different mobbing calls for different nest predators (snake versus non-snake predators) and thereby convey this information to conspecifics (i.e. functionally referential call system). The present playback experiments revealed that these calls also serve to coordinate multi-species mobbing at nests; snake-specific mobbing calls attracted heterospecific individuals close to the sound source and elicited snake-searching behaviour, whereas non-snake mobbing calls attracted these birds at a distance. This study demonstrates for the first time that referential mobbing calls trigger different formations of multi-species mobbing parties.

  11. The Relationship of On-Call Work with Fatigue, Work-Home Interference, and Perceived Performance Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Ziebertz, Carla M.; van Hooff, Madelon L. M.; Beckers, Debby G. J.; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between on-call duty exposure (active and total on-call hours a month, number of calls per duty) and employees' experiences of being on-call (stress due to unpredictability, ability to relax during inactive on-call periods, restrictions during on-call duties, on-call work demands, and satisfaction with compensation for on-call duties) on the one hand and fatigue, strain-based and time-based work-home interference (WHI), and perceived on-call performance difficulties (PPD) on the other hand. Methods. Cross-sectional survey data were collected among a large heterogeneous sample of Dutch employees (N = 5437). The final sample consisted of 157 on-call workers (23–69 years, 71% males). Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age and job characteristics). Results. Differences in on-call work exposure were not systematically related to fatigue, WHI, and PPD (all p's >0.50). The experience of being on-call explained a medium proportion of the variation in fatigue and strain-based WHI and a medium to large proportion of the variation in time-based WHI and PPD over and above the control variables. Conclusions. Our results suggest that it is employees' experience of being on-call, especially the experience of stress due to the unpredictability, rather than the amount of exposure, that is related to fatigue, WHI, and perceived on-call performance difficulties. PMID:26558276

  12. The Relationship of On-Call Work with Fatigue, Work-Home Interference, and Perceived Performance Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Ziebertz, Carla M; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Beckers, Debby G J; Hooftman, Wendela E; Kompier, Michiel A J; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between on-call duty exposure (active and total on-call hours a month, number of calls per duty) and employees' experiences of being on-call (stress due to unpredictability, ability to relax during inactive on-call periods, restrictions during on-call duties, on-call work demands, and satisfaction with compensation for on-call duties) on the one hand and fatigue, strain-based and time-based work-home interference (WHI), and perceived on-call performance difficulties (PPD) on the other hand. Cross-sectional survey data were collected among a large heterogeneous sample of Dutch employees (N = 5437). The final sample consisted of 157 on-call workers (23-69 years, 71% males). Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age and job characteristics). Differences in on-call work exposure were not systematically related to fatigue, WHI, and PPD (all p's >0.50). The experience of being on-call explained a medium proportion of the variation in fatigue and strain-based WHI and a medium to large proportion of the variation in time-based WHI and PPD over and above the control variables. Our results suggest that it is employees' experience of being on-call, especially the experience of stress due to the unpredictability, rather than the amount of exposure, that is related to fatigue, WHI, and perceived on-call performance difficulties.

  13. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY... Data Call Survey. DHS previously published this information collection request (ICR) in the Federal... consequences on a regional or national scale. The IP Data Call is administered out of IP/IICD. The IP Data Call...

  14. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  15. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  16. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  17. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  18. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  19. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  20. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request to call election. 81.5 Section 81.5 Indians... FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.5 Request to call election. (a) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an... tribal government. (b) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an election to adopt a...

  1. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for selective calling equipment... for selective calling equipment. This section specifies the requirements for voluntary digital selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment installed in ship and coast stations,...

  2. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) researchers face many challenges in developing effective, high-quality CALL. CALL research has a very strong focus on the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCLTs), particularly English. CALL researchers working with Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) face further constraints. LCTLs can range from…

  3. 31 CFR 348.2 - Redemption/call/reinvestment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redemption/call/reinvestment. 348.2... COMPENSATION SECURITIES § 348.2 Redemption/call/reinvestment. (a) Redemption by financial agents. The... Management Service, Washington, DC. (b) Call by the Treasury. The securities are subject to call...

  4. Call-handlers' working conditions and their subjective experience of work: a transversal study.

    PubMed

    Croidieu, Sophie; Charbotel, Barbara; Vohito, Michel; Renaud, Liliane; Jaussaud, Joelle; Bourboul, Christian; Ardiet, Dominique; Imbard, Isabelle; Guerin, Anne Céline; Bergeret, Alain

    2008-10-01

    The present study sought to describe call-center working conditions and call-handlers' subjective experience of their work. A transversal study was performed in companies followed by the 47 occupational physicians taking part. A dedicated questionnaire included one part on working conditions (work-station organization, task types, work schedules, and controls) and another on the perception of working conditions. Psychosocial risk factors were explored by three dimensions of the Karasek questionnaire, decision latitude, psychological demands and social support. A descriptive stage characterized the population and quantified the frequency of the various types of work organization, working conditions and perception. Certain working conditions data were crossed with perception data. The total sample comprised 2,130 call-handlers from around 100 different companies. The population was 71.9% female, with a mean age of 32.4 years. The general educational level was high, with 1,443 (68.2%) of call-handlers having at least 2 years' higher education; 1,937 of the workers (91.2%) had permanent work contracts. Some working situations were found to be associated with low decision latitude and high psychological demands: i.e., where the schedule (full-time or part-time) was imposed, where the call-handlers had not chosen to work in a call-center, or where they received prior warning of controls. Moreover, the rate of low decision latitude and high psychological demands increased with seniority in the job. The rate of low decision latitude increased with the size of the company and was higher when call duration was imposed and when the call-handlers handled only incoming calls. The rate of high psychological demands was higher when call-handlers handled both incoming and outgoing calls. This study confirmed the high rate of psychosocial constraints for call-handlers and identified work situations at risk.

  5. An ontology-based nurse call management system (oNCS) with probabilistic priority assessment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The current, place-oriented nurse call systems are very static. A patient can only make calls with a button which is fixed to a wall of a room. Moreover, the system does not take into account various factors specific to a situation. In the future, there will be an evolution to a mobile button for each patient so that they can walk around freely and still make calls. The system would become person-oriented and the available context information should be taken into account to assign the correct nurse to a call. The aim of this research is (1) the design of a software platform that supports the transition to mobile and wireless nurse call buttons in hospitals and residential care and (2) the design of a sophisticated nurse call algorithm. This algorithm dynamically adapts to the situation at hand by taking the profile information of staff members and patients into account. Additionally, the priority of a call probabilistically depends on the risk factors, assigned to a patient. Methods The ontology-based Nurse Call System (oNCS) was developed as an extension of a Context-Aware Service Platform. An ontology is used to manage the profile information. Rules implement the novel nurse call algorithm that takes all this information into account. Probabilistic reasoning algorithms are designed to determine the priority of a call based on the risk factors of the patient. Results The oNCS system is evaluated through a prototype implementation and simulations, based on a detailed dataset obtained from Ghent University Hospital. The arrival times of nurses at the location of a call, the workload distribution of calls amongst nurses and the assignment of priorities to calls are compared for the oNCS system and the current, place-oriented nurse call system. Additionally, the performance of the system is discussed. Conclusions The execution time of the nurse call algorithm is on average 50.333 ms. Moreover, the oNCS system significantly improves the assignment of nurses

  6. Acute asthma management by a pediatric after-hours call center.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kyle A; Freiner, Donna; Garbutt, Jane; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Bruns, Julie; Sterkel, Randal; Smith, Sharon R; Strunk, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    To describe an asthma management protocol used in a nurse-staffed pediatric After-Hours Call Center (AHCC) that incorporates severity-based home treatment recommendations and follow-up call assessments. Call records for asthma advice from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2004 were identified retrospectively and reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to report patient demographics, frequencies of symptom severity zones (Red, Yellow, or Green) at initial calls, frequencies of call dispositions designating care advice provided (including home treatment recommendations and seeking emergency department [ED] care), and changes in severity zones between initial calls and follow-up calls when nurses reassessed patients after recommended home treatment. During the study period, 3,632 asthma calls (2,439 initial; 1,193 follow-up) were managed by AHCC nurses. Initial calls were classified mostly as Red (28%) or Yellow (42%) severity zones; 27% were Green zone and 3% could not be categorized. Fifty-two percent of initial calls with Red or Yellow severity zones involved home treatment recommendations; 50% of those Red zone and 63% of those Yellow zone calls had improved severity zones at follow-up call assessments. Twenty-eight percent of patients with home treatment recommendations were referred to the ED at the time of follow-up call nurse reassessment. This telephone-based nurse-staffed pediatric acute asthma management protocol includes provision of severity-based home treatment recommendations and follow-up assessments, and improved symptoms for many children with acute exacerbations. This protocol may also be successful in other locations and may improve outcomes, such as reduction in ED visits.

  7. Call to reverse decline in ODA.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    In November 1997, the UN Secretary-General noted that population assistance was a development success story that has resulted in increased life expectancy, child survival, and use of family planning as well as decreased maternal mortality, family size, and population growth. Despite this success, development activities are at a critical juncture because official development assistance has dropped to its lowest level. The financial target agreed upon at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development called for $5.7 billion from donors, yet donors are committing only a small percentage of official development assistance to population programs. The income of the UN Population Fund will drop 8-10% for 1997 with the result that critical demands for reproductive health care will not be met. Because this will have critical consequences beyond the population field, the Secretary-General appealed to all nations to contribute to the highest level possible. In response to this statement, a Japanese newspaper asked why the Japanese government had cut donations by as much as 40% and urged the government to reconsider its reductions in donations to the UN.

  8. DOCSS: doctors on-call smartphone study.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, M K; Nason, G J; Liddy, S; Fitzgerald, C W; Kelly, M E; Shields, C

    2014-12-01

    Smartphones have revolutionised our demands for constant access to information. The usage of smartphones in the clinical setting is becoming widespread. The aim of our study was to assess smartphone ownership and usage across a cohort of interns. A voluntary novel questionnaire was distributed to interns in two university hospitals. Details regarding smartphone ownership and usage were assessed. Likert scales were utilised for analysis. Sixty-one (74.4 %) interns responded to the survey. Sixty (98.4 %) owned a smartphone with iPhone(®) being the most popular (76.7 %). Fifty-five (91.6 %) interns have downloaded medical applications ('apps'), while 29 (52.3 %) reported paying for them. Regarding smartphone use on-call, 30 (50 %) interns agreed it aids diagnoses, 26 (43 %) agree it helped in interpreting laboratory values, 31 (51.7 %) agreed it helped in dosing of medication and 33 (55 %) agreed it was of assistance in medical emergency protocols. Forty-two (70 %), 42 (70 %) and 46 (76.7 %) interns agreed or strongly agreed smartphones have a positive influence on them in terms of levels of stress, confidence and level of knowledge, respectively. Smartphone usage is widespread among our intern cohort. The introduction of hospital applications with local guidelines would be welcomed; however, this may require informed patient consent regarding their use.

  9. Another call to increase STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  10. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed. PMID:23919110

  11. From Systematic Review to Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Erika Metzler; Sobel, Linda L; Annan, Sandra L; Schminkey, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women. Searches conducted on databases including CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Women's Studies International, MedicLatina, and JSTOR used the MeSH terms Hispanic Americans (Latino/a and Hispanic), domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Selected studies were published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014. Of the 617 yielded articles, only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, none closely examined rurality or provided valid and reliable measures of outcomes, instead reporting program descriptions and suggested interventions. We identify key findings to guide program, screening, and tool development. Our study identifies a gap in knowledge, research, and effective practices and issues a call for action to create evidence-based tools to prevent, reduce, and eliminate IPV in these underserved populations.

  12. Contemporary spirituality: a call to wholeness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, H

    1986-06-01

    Our society and thus our health care organizations are beset by a dualistic perspective that identifies some groups as embodying "masculine" characteristics that are desirable, implying that other groups are less valuable. This perspective, visible in ageism, sexism, and racism, threatens the call to live and heal as Jesus lived and healed, which is the cornerstone of the Catholic health care ministry. A contemporary wholistic spirituality must be articulated that emphasizes individual responsibility for living as a person who believes in the dignity of all persons created by God. Modifying the language of health care is one way to better reflect a wholistic orientation. Two expressions that require special attention are "health care provider" and "patient." Substituting "health care promoter" and "client" for these terms would emphasize the health care ministry's role in helping persons with health care needs to be involved in the healing process. Since a health care organization's effectiveness depends on its members' commitment to healing, it is imperative that the organization's values be modeled and communicated to the members through the organization's decisions and activities. It likewise is important that those involved in the healing ministry reflect on their spirituality, their relationships with self, God, and others, to monitor those values that affect their relationships and experiences.

  13. McNamara calls for action now.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Robert McNamara outlined a 6 point global family planning (FP) program he designed to expand FP services to answer unmet need. The plan calls for Fp spending to increase to US$8 billion by 2000. For the US this would mean an increase from US$800 million to US$3.5 billion. This amount is very, very small compared to the total amount spent on official development assistance projected for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. It is easily within the capabilities of OECD countries to meet this goal. The plan would develop a system in which the World Bank and the UNFPA would work together with each developing country to establish population target levels. The World Bank would assume responsibility for organizing external financing and serve as a last resort source of financing. Japan must also begin to take a leadership role more in line with its economic power. Currently it spends only .32% of its GNP to aid developing countries, despite the fact that its per capita income is 20% larger than any other OECD member. This means raising spending form US$9 billion to US$14.5 billion. This could be done easily by raising it US$500 million/year and planning to increase this US$1 billion by 2000.

  14. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

  15. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  16. Introducing Psychometrical Validation of Questionnaires in CALL Research: The Case of Measuring Attitude towards CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, M.; Desmet, P.

    2009-01-01

    The great majority of questionnaires measuring non-observable constructs such as attitude towards CALL are often developed from a specific point of view and are seldom followed by psychometrical validation. Psychometrical properties of the questionnaire, such as construct validity and reliability, then remain unanswered too often, laying a heavy…

  17. Calling Behavior of Male Acheta domesticus Crickets Infected with Paragordius varius (Nematomorpha: Gordiida).

    PubMed

    Barquin, A; McGehee, B; Sedam, R T; Gordy, W L; Hanelt, B; de Valdez, M R Wise

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that parasites in the phylum Nematomorpha induce suicide behavior of their insect hosts to bring adult worms to the appropriate habitat for emergence. It is not well established, however, whether other nematomorph-induced behavioral alterations occur before worm emergence. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of the nematomorph Paragordius varius on the calling behavior of the male house cricket Acheta domesticus . We hypothesized that cricket calling, an energetically expensive and risky behavior, would be a potential target for nematomorph-induced behavioral alterations. We assessed if and how infection with P. varius affects A. domesticus calling behavior and whether the presence of wings at time of exposure to P. varius influenced changes in calling behavior. We recorded the calling behavior of male A. domesticus over the course of their infection after exposure to P. various before or after wing development. Additionally, we assessed whether winged crickets were "callers" or "noncallers" before exposure. We found that regardless of cricket developmental stage (or age) at time of infection, infected crickets spent significantly less time calling than their uninfected counterparts but only during the later stages of infection. Developmental stage at infection did affect whether crickets became callers: when infected before wing development significantly more uninfected crickets initiated calling; there was no difference between infected and uninfected crickets when infected as winged adults. Infection was a factor in whether callers stopped calling, with more infected crickets ceasing to call than uninfected crickets. This is the first study to show that infection with nematomorphs affects calling behavior of their insect host. Cricket calling behavior is immensely complex and although it was difficult to elucidate the adaptive nature of these parasite-induced behavioral changes, this study lays the groundwork for future

  18. Black-Scholes finite difference modeling in forecasting of call warrant prices in Bursa Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansor, Nur Jariah; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Call warrant is a type of structured warrant in Bursa Malaysia. It gives the holder the right to buy the underlying share at a specified price within a limited period of time. The issuer of the structured warrants usually uses European style to exercise the call warrant on the maturity date. Warrant is very similar to an option. Usually, practitioners of the financial field use Black-Scholes model to value the option. The Black-Scholes equation is hard to solve analytically. Therefore the finite difference approach is applied to approximate the value of the call warrant prices. The central in time and central in space scheme is produced to approximate the value of the call warrant prices. It allows the warrant holder to forecast the value of the call warrant prices before the expiry date.

  19. An Improved Call Admission Control Mechanism with Prioritized Handoff Queuing Scheme for BWA Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Prasun; Saha Misra, Iti

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, due to increased demand for using the Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks in a satisfactory manner a promised Quality of Service (QoS) is required to manage the seamless transmission of the heterogeneous handoff calls. To this end, this paper proposes an improved Call Admission Control (CAC) mechanism with prioritized handoff queuing scheme that aims to reduce dropping probability of handoff calls. Handoff calls are queued when no bandwidth is available even after the allowable bandwidth degradation of the ongoing calls and get admitted into the network when an ongoing call is terminated with a higher priority than the newly originated call. An analytical Markov model for the proposed CAC mechanism is developed to analyze various performance parameters. Analytical results show that our proposed CAC with handoff queuing scheme prioritizes the handoff calls effectively and reduces dropping probability of the system by 78.57% for real-time traffic without degrading the number of failed new call attempts. This results in the increased bandwidth utilization of the network.

  20. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    PubMed

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-09

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  1. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales

    PubMed Central

    Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Dunlop, Rebecca A.; Goldizen, Anne W.; Garland, Ellen C.; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

  2. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined.

  3. Parallel female preferences for call duration in a diploid ancestor of an allotetraploid treefrog.

    PubMed

    Bee, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    The gray treefrog species complex (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) comprises a single allotetraploid species (H. versicolor) that arose multiple times from hybrid matings between an extant diploid species (H. chrysoscelis) and at least two other extinct diploid treefrogs. While previous studies have investigated female preferences for call duration in the tetraploid, we know little about these preferences in its putative diploid anscestors. Here, I report results from two-choice phonotaxis experiments investigating call duration preferences in H. chrysoscelis. Females preferred an average-length call over shorter-than-average calls (0.5-2.0 standard deviations [SD] below average), and they preferred longer-than-average calls over average or shorter-than-average calls if the difference in pulse number was at least 2.0 SD. When the amplitude of the longer alternative was attenuated by 6 dB, females still preferred an average-length call over a shorter-than-average call, but there was no preference for longer-than-average calls over an average call. In the presence of chorus noise, female preferences for both average and longer-than-average calls over shorter alternatives were weakened or reversed. Together, the results from this study reveal patterns of female preferences for call duration that are strikingly similar among two members of a species complex with a novel evolutionary history. In both species, female preferences are directional, nonlinear, and limited by environmental noise. Furthermore, these results also highlight the need for caution in studies of sexual selection when extrapolating from patterns of female preference obtained under ideal laboratory conditions to conclusions about how those preferences are expressed in the real world.

  4. Parallel female preferences for call duration in a diploid ancestor of an allotetraploid treefrog

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The gray treefrog species complex (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) comprises a single allotetraploid species (H. versicolor) that arose multiple times from hybrid matings between an extant diploid species (H. chrysoscelis) and at least two other extinct diploid treefrogs. While previous studies have investigated female preferences for call duration in the tetraploid, we know little about these preferences in its putative diploid anscestors. Here, I report results from two-choice phonotaxis experiments investigating call duration preferences in H. chrysoscelis. Females preferred an average-length call over shorter-than-average calls (0.5–2.0 standard deviations [SD] below average), and they preferred longer-than-average calls over average or shorter-than-average calls if the difference in pulse number was at least 2.0 SD. When the amplitude of the longer alternative was attenuated by 6 dB, females still preferred an average-length call over a shorter-than-average call, but there was no preference for longer-than-average calls over an average call. In the presence of chorus noise, female preferences for both average and longer-than-average calls over shorter alternatives were weakened or reversed. Together, the results from this study reveal patterns of female preferences for call duration that are strikingly similar among two members of a species complex with a novel evolutionary history. In both species, female preferences are directional, nonlinear, and limited by environmental noise. Furthermore, these results also highlight the need for caution in studies of sexual selection when extrapolating from patterns of female preference obtained under ideal laboratory conditions to conclusions about how those preferences are expressed in the real world. PMID:19727325

  5. Sleep and recovery in physicians on night call: a longitudinal field study.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Birgitta; Kecklund, Göran; Karlson, Björn; Persson, Roger; Flisberg, Per; Ørbaek, Palle

    2010-08-15

    It is well known that physicians' night-call duty may cause impaired performance and adverse effects on subjective health, but there is limited knowledge about effects on sleep duration and recovery time. In recent years occupational stress and impaired well-being among anaesthesiologists have been frequently reported for in the scientific literature. Given their main focus on handling patients with life-threatening conditions, when on call, one might expect sleep and recovery to be negatively affected by work, especially in this specialist group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a 16-hour night-call schedule allowed for sufficient recovery in anaesthesiologists compared with other physician specialists handling less life-threatening conditions, when on call. Sleep, monitored by actigraphy and Karolinska Sleep Diary/Sleepiness Scale on one night after daytime work, one night call, the following first and second nights post-call, and a Saturday night, was compared between 15 anaesthesiologists and 17 paediatricians and ear, nose, and throat surgeons. Recovery patterns over the days after night call did not differ between groups, but between days. Mean night sleep for all physicians was 3 hours when on call, 7 h both nights post-call and Saturday, and 6 h after daytime work (p < 0.001). Scores for mental fatigue and feeling well rested were poorer post-call, but returned to Sunday morning levels after two nights' sleep. Despite considerable sleep loss during work on night call, and unexpectedly short sleep after ordinary day work, the physicians' self-reports indicate full recovery after two nights' sleep. We conclude that these 16-hour night duties were compatible with a short-term recovery in both physician groups, but the limited sleep duration in general still implies a long-term health concern. These results may contribute to the establishment of safe working hours for night-call duty in physicians and other health-care workers.

  6. Sleep and recovery in physicians on night call: a longitudinal field study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well known that physicians' night-call duty may cause impaired performance and adverse effects on subjective health, but there is limited knowledge about effects on sleep duration and recovery time. In recent years occupational stress and impaired well-being among anaesthesiologists have been frequently reported for in the scientific literature. Given their main focus on handling patients with life-threatening conditions, when on call, one might expect sleep and recovery to be negatively affected by work, especially in this specialist group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a 16-hour night-call schedule allowed for sufficient recovery in anaesthesiologists compared with other physician specialists handling less life-threatening conditions, when on call. Methods Sleep, monitored by actigraphy and Karolinska Sleep Diary/Sleepiness Scale on one night after daytime work, one night call, the following first and second nights post-call, and a Saturday night, was compared between 15 anaesthesiologists and 17 paediatricians and ear, nose, and throat surgeons. Results Recovery patterns over the days after night call did not differ between groups, but between days. Mean night sleep for all physicians was 3 hours when on call, 7 h both nights post-call and Saturday, and 6 h after daytime work (p < 0.001). Scores for mental fatigue and feeling well rested were poorer post-call, but returned to Sunday morning levels after two nights' sleep. Conclusions Despite considerable sleep loss during work on night call, and unexpectedly short sleep after ordinary day work, the physicians' self-reports indicate full recovery after two nights' sleep. We conclude that these 16-hour night duties were compatible with a short-term recovery in both physician groups, but the limited sleep duration in general still implies a long-term health concern. These results may contribute to the establishment of safe working hours for night-call duty in physicians and

  7. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Guest Editors:

    Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

    Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

    Scope of Submission

    The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
    • WDM node architectures
    • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
    • Routing protocols
    • WDM switching and routing
    • Quality of service
    • Performance measurement and evaluation
    • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
    • Traffic measurement and field trials
    • Optical burst and packet switching
    • OBS/OPS node architectures
    • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
    • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
    • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
    • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping

    • OVarCall: Bayesian Mutation Calling Method Utilizing Overlapping Paired-End Reads.

      PubMed

      Moriyama, Takuya; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru

      2017-03-01

      Detection of somatic mutations from tumor and matched normal sequencing data has become a standard approach in cancer research. Although a number of mutation callers have been developed, it is still difficult to detect mutations with low allele frequency even in exome sequencing. We expect that overlapping paired-end read information is effective for this purpose, but no mutation caller has modeled overlapping information statistically in a proper form in exome sequence data. Here, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical method, OVar- Call (https://github.com/takumorizo/OVarCall), where overlapping paired-end read information improves the accuracy of low allele frequency mutation detection. Firstly, we construct two generative models: one is for reads with somatic variants generated from tumor cells and the other is for reads that does not have somatic variants but potentially includes sequence errors. Secondly, we calculate marginal likelihood for each model using a variational Bayesian algorithm to compute Bayes factor for the detection of somatic mutations. We empirically evaluated the performance of OVarCall and confirmed its better performance than other existing methods.

    • [Characteristics of courtship calls of Microhyla ornata (Anura: Microhylidae)].

      PubMed

      Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Lin, Zhi-Hua

      2013-02-01

      During breeding season in May, 2012, we recorded and analyzed the courtship calls and the acoustic parameters of the male Microhyla ornate in Lishui, Zhejiang province using an IC recorder (SX950) and the sound software Praat. We observed that the male M. ornate produced calls characterized by a single harmonic call structure, multiple pulses (7, 9-16) and spindle amplitudes. Analyses of the calls revealed several interesting findings: the dominant frequency of all calls ranged from 1.22-4.09 kHz (n=233); their average values composed of different numbers of pulses were similar and that call duration increased with numbers of pulses; and pulse duration among different multi-pulse call groups was nearly identical, but it was equal or less in the last pulse than other pulses. By contrast, our analyses also showed that pulse interval was negatively correlated with call duration, i.e. the shorter in call duration, the longer in pulse interval among the different numbers of pulses call groups. Within the 7-pulse call group, calls exhibited the largest in pulse interval and the smallest in pulse rate, while those calls in 16-pulse were the opposite. Except that the 7- and 16-pulse call groups were both significantly different in pulse rate with other multi-pulse call groups, we found that pulse rates expressed different variations between pair-wise comparisons of the remaining call groups. As for call intensity, significant differences were only found between the 16-pulse call group and the other call groups, while pairwise comparisons of the remaining groups were not significant. After conducting our initial analyses, we compared the calls of the M. ornate population from Lishui with populations from five other localities-Hangzhou, Xuancheng, Karnoor, Bajipe and Padil-and found that the call structures were similar among the different populations, being single harmonic, while we observed differences in call dominant frequency, call duration, pulse duration and pulse

    • A wakeup call for science faculty.

      PubMed

      Alberts, Bruce

      2005-12-02

      By changing the way we teach the introductory science courses in our colleges and universities, we can attract many more talented students to science careers. At the same time, we will be fostering positive public attitudes about science that are critical for a successful modern society.

    • Vulnerability of nontarget goose species to hunting with electronic snow goose calls

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Caswell, J.H.; Afton, A.D.; Caswell, F.D.

      2003-01-01

      Since 1999, use of electronic calls has been legal for hunting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter snow geese) during special seasons or times of day when other waterfowl species could not be hunted in prairie Canada. Prior to expanding the use of electronic calls for hunting snow geese during fall hunting seasons, effects of these calls on nontarget goose species must be examined. Accordingly, we examined the vulnerability of Canada (Branta canadensis) and white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) (dark geese) to electronic snow goose calls and 3 goose decoy sets (dark, mixed, and white) during the 1999 fall hunting seasons in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Canada geese were 2.3 times more likely to fly within gun range (P<0.001) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 2.5 times greater (P=0.043) during control periods when hunters were silent or used traditional calling methods (i.e., hand-held and voice calls) than when hunters used electronic snow goose calls. Flock response and kill rate for Canada geese declined as proportions of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). White-fronted geese were 1.8 times more likely to fly within gun range (P=0.050) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 5.0 times greater (P=0.022) during control periods than during periods when electronic snow goose calls were used. Flock response for white-fronted geese also declined as the proportion of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). The legalization of electronic snow goose calls during fall hunting seasons in prairie Canada should not result in increased harvest of nontarget dark geese.

    • Prothrombin time (PT)

      MedlinePlus

      ... Pro-time; Anticoagulant-prothrombin time; Clotting time: protime; INR; International normalized ratio ... time, results are given as what is called INR (international normalized ratio). If you are not taking ...

    • Using genotype array data to compare multi- and single-sample variant calls and improve variant call sets from deep coverage whole-genome sequencing data

      PubMed Central

      Mathias, Rasika A.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; O’Connor, Timothy D.; Szpiech, Zachary A.; Torres, Raul; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

      2017-01-01

      Abstract Motivation: Variant calling from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data is susceptible to false positive calls due to sequencing, mapping and other errors. To better distinguish true from false positive calls, we present a method that uses genotype array data from the sequenced samples, rather than public data such as HapMap or dbSNP, to train an accurate classifier using Random Forests. We demonstrate our method on a set of variant calls obtained from 642 African-ancestry genomes from the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA), sequenced to high depth (30X). Results: We have applied our classifier to compare call sets generated with different calling methods, including both single-sample and multi-sample callers. At a False Positive Rate of 5%, our method determines true positive rates of 97.5%, 95% and 99% on variant calls obtained using Illuminas single-sample caller CASAVA, Real Time Genomics multisample variant caller, and the GATK UnifiedGenotyper, respectively. Since NGS sequencing data may be accompanied by genotype data for the same samples, either collected concurrent to sequencing or from a previous study, our method can be trained on each dataset to provide a more accurate computational validation of site calls compared to generic methods. Moreover, our method allows for adjustment based on allele frequency (e.g. a different set of criteria to determine quality for rare versus common variants) and thereby provides insight into sequencing characteristics that indicate call quality for variants of different frequencies. Availability and Implementation: Code is available on Github at: https://github.com/suyashss/variant_validation Contacts: suyashs@stanford.edu or mtaub@jhsph.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28035032

    • Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

      PubMed Central

      Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

      2014-01-01

      In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

    • Effect of Home-Call on Otolaryngology Resident Education: A Pilot Study.

      PubMed

      Caulley, Lisa; Quimby, Alexandra E; Barrowman, Nick; Moreau, Katherine; Vaccani, Jean-Philippe

      To inform institutional policies regarding call encounters through an evaluation of the effect of home-call on academic experience and fatigue among surgical residents. This study conducted an assessment of the nature of resident call encounters premidnight and postmidnight and a comparative analysis of sleep deprivation and efficiency in residents during home-call and off call. All Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery residents (n = 9) at single Canadian institution were asked to establish the time and nature of call encounters during home-call. Residents completed the Stanford Sleepiness Scale precall and postcall to measure sleepiness and wore an Actigraph device to measure sleep efficiency to establish fatigue in the setting of home-call as compared with residents off call. Home-call and off call patterns were studied using a random computer-generated selection of days for participants in both study groups. Analysis was conducted from December 1, 2013 to December 30, 2014. Residents received on average 7 pages per night, of which 78.5% of pages were for nonurgent issues. On an average, change in sleep deprivation scores postcall was 3.0 points higher (95% CI: 2.48-3.57, p < 0.0001) in residents who were qualified for a postcall day compared with residents who did not qualify for a postcall day and residents off call according to the Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Postcall sleep deprivation was significantly associated with number of encounters managed after midnight, regardless of management through telephone or in-hospital (p = 0.01). The Actigraph device identified a significant decrease in sleep efficiency in residents who were qualified for a postcall day compared with residents off call (mean = -31.1; 95% CI: -38.9, -23.4; p < 0.001). This is the first study to evaluate surgical residents' home-call experience. We identified a high proportion of nonurgent encounters that residents managed on call and increased postcall fatigue associated with postmidnight

    • Entropic Time

      SciTech Connect

      Caticha, Ariel

      2011-03-14

      The formulation of quantum mechanics within the framework of entropic dynamics includes several new elements. In this paper we concentrate on one of them: the implications for the theory of time. Entropic time is introduced as a book-keeping device to keep track of the accumulation of changes. One new feature is that, unlike other concepts of time appearing in the so-called fundamental laws of physics, entropic time incorporates a natural distinction between past and future.

    • Field Crickets Compensate for Unattractive Static Long-Distance Call Components by Increasing Dynamic Signalling Effort

      PubMed Central

      McAuley, Emily M.

      2016-01-01

      The evolution of multiple sexual signals presents a dilemma since individuals selecting a mate should pay attention to the most honest signal and ignore the rest; however, multiple signals may evolve if, together, they provide more information to the receiver than either one would alone. Static and dynamic signals, for instance, can act as multiple messages, providing information on different aspects of signaller quality that reflect condition at different time scales. While the nature of static signals makes them difficult or impossible for individuals to augment, dynamic signals are much more susceptible to temporary fluctuations in effort. We investigated whether male Texas field crickets, Gryllus texensis, that produce unattractive static signals compensate by dynamically increasing their calling effort. Our findings lend partial support to the compensation hypothesis, as males that called at unattractive carrier frequencies (a static trait) spent more time calling each night (a dynamic trait). Interestingly, this finding was most pronounced in males that called with attractive pulse characteristics (static traits) but did not occur in males that called with unattractive pulse characteristics. Males that signalled with unattractive pulse characteristics (duration and pause) spent less time calling through the night. Our correlative findings on wild caught males suggest that only males that signal with attractive pulse characteristics may be able to afford to pay the costs of both trait exaggeration and increased calling effort to compensate for poor carrier frequencies. PMID:27936045

    • Field Crickets Compensate for Unattractive Static Long-Distance Call Components by Increasing Dynamic Signalling Effort.

      PubMed

      McAuley, Emily M; Bertram, Susan M

      2016-01-01

      The evolution of multiple sexual signals presents a dilemma since individuals selecting a mate should pay attention to the most honest signal and ignore the rest; however, multiple signals may evolve if, together, they provide more information to the receiver than either one would alone. Static and dynamic signals, for instance, can act as multiple messages, providing information on different aspects of signaller quality that reflect condition at different time scales. While the nature of static signals makes them difficult or impossible for individuals to augment, dynamic signals are much more susceptible to temporary fluctuations in effort. We investigated whether male Texas field crickets, Gryllus texensis, that produce unattractive static signals compensate by dynamically increasing their calling effort. Our findings lend partial support to the compensation hypothesis, as males that called at unattractive carrier frequencies (a static trait) spent more time calling each night (a dynamic trait). Interestingly, this finding was most pronounced in males that called with attractive pulse characteristics (static traits) but did not occur in males that called with unattractive pulse characteristics. Males that signalled with unattractive pulse characteristics (duration and pause) spent less time calling through the night. Our correlative findings on wild caught males suggest that only males that signal with attractive pulse characteristics may be able to afford to pay the costs of both trait exaggeration and increased calling effort to compensate for poor carrier frequencies.

    • Real-world solutions for orthopaedic on-call problems.

      PubMed

      Agnew, Samuel G; Blotter, Robert H; Kosmatka, Paul K; Rudin, Guy J

      2012-01-01

      An increasing percentage of emergency departments are reporting an inadequate number of on-call specialists. This situation is causing a growing crisis in emergency department on-call coverage for patients requiring orthopaedic care. Many orthopaedic surgeons are electing to opt out of emergency department on-call service. For many reasons, including a dwindling supply of eager participants, more medical groups are finding it difficult to fulfill their on-call obligations. This problem demands a variety of strategies to address the multiple causative factors that occur in practice settings. Initially, it may be necessary to incentivize on-call service so more surgeons are willing to participate. Incentives may include improving the group governance and bylaws to avoid confusion on the rules for providing on-call coverage. The on-call experience may require financial improvements, outsourcing with locum tenens, or a complete restructuring of the on-call arrangement with the formation of a hospitalist program.

    • Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls

      PubMed Central

      Wich, Serge A; de Vries, Han

      2005-01-01

      Primates give alarm calls in response to the presence of predators. In some species, such as the Thomas langur (Presbytis thomasi), males only emit alarm calls if there is an audience. An unanswered question is whether the audience's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses that might explain the alarm calling duration of male Thomas langurs: the fatigue, group size and group member behaviour hypotheses. Fatigue and group size did not influence male alarm calling duration. We found that males only ceased calling shortly after all individuals in his group had given at least one alarm call. This shows that males keep track of and thus remember which group members have called. PMID:16608694

  1. Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Wich, Serge A; de Vries, Han

    2006-03-22

    Primates give alarm calls in response to the presence of predators. In some species, such as the Thomas langur (Presbytis thomasi), males only emit alarm calls if there is an audience. An unanswered question is whether the audience's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses that might explain the alarm calling duration of male Thomas langurs: the fatigue, group size and group member behaviour hypotheses. Fatigue and group size did not influence male alarm calling duration. We found that males only ceased calling shortly after all individuals in his group had given at least one alarm call. This shows that males keep track of and thus remember which group members have called.

  2. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  3. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  4. Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator for Call for Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    release; distribution is unlimited UNTRAINED FORWARD OBSERVER ( UFO ) TRANSLATOR FOR CALL FOR FIRE by Regan R. King September 2013 Thesis...DATE September 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNTRAINED FORWARD OBSERVER ( UFO ) TRANSLATOR FOR CALL...application, which we call the Untrained Forward Observer ( UFO ) Translator, capable of assisting untrained observers in performing Call for Fire by asking a

  5. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCall-backâ pay. 778.221 Section 778.221 Labor Regulations...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such...

  6. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure.

  7. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  8. Linguistics, Procedure and Technique in CALL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torsani, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Research in CALL education has identified a series of goals and constraints for technology in language education that need to be taken into account when designing a CALL syllabus. This article presents a theoretical framework for syllabus design based on the identification of three areas of expertise within CALL: linguistic knowledge, procedural…

  9. 76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... significant consequences on a regional or national scale. The IP Data Call is administered out of the IP Infrastructure Information Collection Division (IICD). The IP Data Call provides opportunities for states and...

  10. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  11. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  12. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  13. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  14. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  15. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  16. Investigating CALL in the Classroom: Situational Variables to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liutkus, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm in second language pedagogy has Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) playing a significant role. Much of the literature to-date claims that CALL can have a positive impact on students' second language acquisition (SLA). Mixed method of research produces data to investigate if CALL positively affects student language…

  17. Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

  18. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP, to...

  19. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP, to...

  20. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP, to...

  1. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP, to...

  2. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital...

  3. Calling and Career Preparation: Investigating Developmental Patterns and Temporal Precedence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas; Herrmann, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a calling and career development are assumed to be closely related. However, the nature of and reason for this relationship have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized the existence of reciprocal effects between calling and three dimensions of career preparation and assessed the change of the presence of a calling,…

  4. Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…

  5. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  6. Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…

  7. Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

  8. The Additional Uses of CALL in the Endangered Language Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the additional uses of CALL in the Endangered Language (EL) context. It briefly reviews ELs and reports on CALL for ELs in general. It then reviews the extra uses of CALL for ELs; these include changing negative attitudes towards the language, arousing interest in the language and contributing to language maintenance and…

  9. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  10. Calling and Career Preparation: Investigating Developmental Patterns and Temporal Precedence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas; Herrmann, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a calling and career development are assumed to be closely related. However, the nature of and reason for this relationship have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized the existence of reciprocal effects between calling and three dimensions of career preparation and assessed the change of the presence of a calling,…

  11. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  12. 28 CFR 540.102 - Monitoring of inmate telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of inmate telephone calls. 540... inmate telephone calls. The Warden shall establish procedures that enable monitoring of telephone... call to an attorney. The Warden shall notify an inmate of the proper procedures to have an...

  13. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement... Certified Public Accountants, to determine whether the call tracking system accurately tracks payphone...

  14. 78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Conference Call. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and... Advisory Council (RAC) Subgroup will host a conference call. DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host...

  15. 77 FR 18258 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of... impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at...

  16. 75 FR 16163 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing... the Secretary of the Treasury, announces the call of all FHA debentures, with a coupon rate of 5..., ``outstanding'' as of March 31, 2010. The date of the call is July 1, 2010. The debentures will be redeemed...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on collect telephone calls. 64... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall...

  18. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial or recalculated PRLPs, Treasury may issue a data call to insurers for insured loss information. Submission of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In...), however, writing a qualified covered call option and owning the optioned stock is not treated as...

  20. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  1. 29 CFR 1912.25 - Call of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Call of meetings. 1912.25 Section 1912.25 Labor Regulations...) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Operation of Advisory Committees § 1912.25 Call of meetings. No advisory committee shall hold any meeting except at the call of, or with the advance approval, of the...

  2. 28 CFR 540.103 - Inmate telephone calls to attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate telephone calls to attorneys. 540.103 Section 540.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL... calls to attorneys. The Warden may not apply frequency limitations on inmate telephone calls...

  3. On-call work and physicians' well-being: testing the potential mediators.

    PubMed

    Heponiemi, T; Puttonen, S; Elovainio, M

    2014-07-01

    On-call duties have been rated to be among the most stressful aspects of physicians' work. On-call work has been associated, for example, with medical errors, injuries and lower well-being. Thus, because it is not possible to remove on-call duties, measures to decrease the negative ramifications of on-call work are needed. To examine whether working on-call would predict psychological distress, job satisfaction and work ability in a 4-year follow-up and whether sleeping problems or work interference with family (WIF) would act as mechanisms in these associations. Questionnaires in 2006 and 2010 among physicians in Finland. The mediation analyses were conducted using methods suggested by Preacher and Hayes to examine direct and indirect effects with multiple mediators. There were 1541 respondents (60% women) of whom 52% had on-call duties. Sleeping problems and WIF acted as mechanisms in the association of existence of on-call duties with high distress, low job satisfaction and low work ability. On-call work was associated with higher levels of sleeping problems and WIF, and the number of active on-call hours was associated with higher levels of WIF, but not with sleeping problems. According to our results, one way to attenuate on-call work's negative ramifications is to make it easier for on-call physicians to connect work and family lives and develop work arrangements to promote better sleep and protected sleep time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Do early emergency calls before patient collapse improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests?

    PubMed

    Takei, Yutaka; Nishi, Taiki; Kamikura, Takahisa; Tanaka, Yoshio; Wato, Yukihiro; Kubo, Minoru; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Inaba, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    Some out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) are witnessed after emergency calls. This study aimed to confirm the benefit of early emergency calls before patient collapse on survival after OHCAs witnessed by bystanders and/or emergency medical technicians (EMTs). We analysed 278,310 witnessed OHCAs [EMT-witnessed cases (n=54,172), bystander-witnessed cases (n=224,138)] without pre-hospital physician involvement from all Japanese OHCA data prospectively collected between 2006 and 2012. The data were analysed for the correlation between neurologically favourable 1-month survival and the time interval between the emergency call and patient collapse. When emergency calls were placed earlier before patient collapse, the proportion of EMT-witnessed cases and survival rate after OHCAs witnessed by bystanders and EMTs were higher. When analysed only for bystander-witnessed cases, for earlier emergency calls placed before patient collapse, survival rate and incidences of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and dispatcher-assisted CPR decreased: 2.9%, 33.6% and 24.4%, respectively, for emergency calls placed >6min before collapse and 5.5%, 48.8% and 48.5%, respectively, for those placed 1-2min after collapse. Multivariable logistic regression showed that call-to-collapse interval (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) (0.92; 0.90-0.94) and EMT response time after collapse (0.84; 0.82-0.86) were associated with survival after bystander-witnessed OHCAs with emergency calls before collapse. Early emergency calls before patient collapse efficiently increases the proportion of EMT-witnessed cases and promotes survival after witnessed OHCAs. However, early emergency call before collapse may worsen the outcome when the patient's condition deteriorates to cardiac arrest before EMT arrival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca. PMID:19789730

  6. Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2008-01-01

    Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca.

  7. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    PubMed

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations.

  8. Motivation before meaning: motivational information encoded in meerkat alarm calls develops earlier than referential information.

    PubMed

    Hollén, Linda I; Manser, Marta B

    2007-06-01

    In contrast to historical assumptions about the affective nature of animal vocalizations, it is now clear that many vertebrates are capable of producing specific alarm calls in response to different predators, calls that provide information that goes beyond the motivational state of a caller. However, although these calls function referentially, it does not mean that they are devoid of motivational content. Studies on meerkats (Suricata suricatta) directly support this conclusion. The acoustic structure of their alarm calls simultaneously encodes information that is both motivational (level of urgency) and referential (predator specific). In this study, we investigated whether alarm calls of young meerkats undergo developmental modification and whether the motivational or the referential aspect of calls changes more over time. We found that, based on their acoustic structure, calls of young showed a high correct assignment to low- and high-urgency contexts but, in contrast to adults, low assignment to specific predator types. However, the discrimination among predator types was better in high-urgency than in low-urgency contexts. Our results suggest that acoustic features related to level of urgency are expressed earlier than those related to predator-specific information and may support the idea that referential calls evolve from motivational signals.

  9. SEE: improving nurse-patient communications and preventing software piracy in nurse call applications.

    PubMed

    Unluturk, Mehmet S

    2012-06-01

    Nurse call system is an electrically functioning system by which patients can call upon from a bedside station or from a duty station. An intermittent tone shall be heard and a corridor lamp located outside the room starts blinking with a slow or a faster rate depending on the call origination. It is essential to alert nurses on time so that they can offer care and comfort without any delay. There are currently many devices available for a nurse call system to improve communication between nurses and patients such as pagers, RFID (radio frequency identification) badges, wireless phones and so on. To integrate all these devices into an existing nurse call system and make they communicate with each other, we propose software client applications called bridges in this paper. We also propose a window server application called SEE (Supervised Event Executive) that delivers messages among these devices. A single hardware dongle is utilized for authentication and copy protection for SEE. Protecting SEE with securities provided by dongle only is a weak defense against hackers. In this paper, we develop some defense patterns for hackers such as calculating checksums in runtime, making calls to dongle from multiple places in code and handling errors properly by logging them into database.

  10. Hospital Readmissions Following Physician Call System Change: A Comparison of Concentrated and Distributed Schedules.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Christopher J; Shadowitz, Steven; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2016-07-01

    Physician call schedules are a critical element for medical practice and hospital efficiency. We compared readmission rates prior to and after a change in physician call system at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. We studied patients discharged over a decade (2004 through 2013) and identified whether or not each patient was readmitted within the subsequent 28 days. We excluded patients discharged for a surgical, obstetrical, or psychiatric diagnosis. We used time-to-event analysis and time-series analysis to compare rates of readmission prior to and after the physician call system change (January 1, 2009). A total of 89,697 patients were discharged, of whom 10,001 (11%) were subsequently readmitted and 4280 died. The risk of readmission was increased by about 26% following physician call system change (9.7% vs 12.2%, P <.001). Time-series analysis confirmed a 26% increase in the readmission rate after call system change (95% confidence interval, 22%-31%; P <.001). The increase in readmission rate after call system change persisted across patients with diverse ages, estimated readmission risks, and medical diagnoses. The net effect was equal to 7240 additional patient days in the hospital following call system change. A modest increase was observed at a nearby acute care hospital that did not change physician call system, and no increase in risk of death was observed with increased hospital readmissions. We suggest that changes in physician call systems sometimes increase subsequent hospital readmission rates. Further reductions in readmissions may instead require additional resources or ingenuity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Vessel Noise Affect Oyster Toadfish Calling Rates?

    PubMed

    Luczkovich, Joseph J; Krahforst, Cecilia S; Hoppe, Harry; Sprague, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The question we addressed in this study is whether oyster toadfish respond to vessel disturbances by calling less when vessels with lower frequency spectra are present in a sound recording and afterward. Long-term data recorders were deployed at the Neuse (high vessel-noise site) and Pamlico (low vessel-noise site) Rivers. There were many fewer toadfish detections at the high vessel-noise site than the low-noise station. Calling rates were lower in the high-boat traffic area, suggesting that toadfish cannot call over loud vessel noise, reducing the overall calling rate, and may have to call more often when vessels are not present.

  12. [Guangdong calls for stronger birth control effort].

    PubMed

    1981-08-20

    The Guangzhou Municipal CCP and Revolutionary Committees recently decided that the rural areas of Guangzhou must spend a concentrated period in the second 1/2 of this year in all-round implementation of the policies and measures on planned parenthood, to ensure that this year's target of keeping natural population growth rate below 10.5/1000 is met. Guangzhou Municipality has failed for 4 successive years to meet the population control target assigned by the provincial authorities. The natural population growth rate in 1979 was the highest of 10 major cities. In 1980 the city lagged behind 20 provinces and municipalities in the whole country in this respect. There was a serious rise in the birth rate in the city's suburban counties from January-July this year. As a result, the number of births in the area was 1700 more than in the same period last year. At the same time, there were 39% more marriages in the first 1/2 of the year in the municipality than in the same period last year. Thus, there is bound to be an increase in the number of legal births in the second 1/2 of the year. At present, an extremely conspicuous problem is the many rural pregnancies which are not covered by the plans and involved some 15,000 persons. The municipal CCP and revolutionary committees have therefore issued a circular demanding that all counties and districts spend some time in September and November to concentrate the leaders, cadres, and technical forces, create public opinion in a big way, conduct extensive propaganda, and mobilization, and do a good job in ideological work, to mobilize those who pregnancies are not covered by the plan to take remedial measures, and achieve a big rise in the rate of permanent contraception. The circular reiterated the policy principles in setting population targets, that is, advocating having only 1 child, strictly controlling the birth of a 2nd child according to the conditions, and forbidding the birth of a 3rd. The urban units must vigorously

  13. Divergence of a stereotyped call in northern resident killer whales.

    PubMed

    Grebner, Dawn M; Parks, Susan E; Bradley, David L; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Capone, Dean E; Ford, John K B

    2011-02-01

    Northern resident killer whale pods (Orcinus orca) have distinctive stereotyped pulsed call repertoires that can be used to distinguish groups acoustically. Repertoires are generally stable, with the same call types comprising the repertoire of a given pod over a period of years to decades. Previous studies have shown that some discrete pulsed calls can be subdivided into variants or subtypes. This study suggests that new stereotyped calls may result from the gradual modification of existing call types through subtypes. Vocalizations of individuals and small groups of killer whales were collected using a bottom-mounted hydrophone array in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia in 2006 and 2007. Discriminant analysis of slope variations of a predominant call type, N4, revealed the presence of four distinct call subtypes. Similar to previous studies, there was a divergence of the N4 call between members of different matrilines of the same pod. However, this study reveals that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N4 call, indicating that divergence in the N4 call is not the result of individual differences, but rather may indicate the gradual evolution of a new stereotyped call.

  14. Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication. PMID:25029238

  15. The Phonetics and Phonology of the Polish Calling Melodies.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Amalia; Żygis, Marzena; Jaskuła, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall. Systematic differences were found in the scaling and alignment of tonal targets: the routine call showed late alignment of the accentual pitch peak, and in most instances lower scaling of targets. The accented vowel was also affected, being overall louder in the urgent call. Based on the data and comparisons with other Polish melodies, we analyze the routine call as LH* !H-H% and the urgent call as H* L-L%. We discuss the results and our analysis in light of recent findings on calling melodies in other languages, and explore their repercussions for intonational phonology and the modeling of intonation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The information that receivers extract from alarm calls in suricates.

    PubMed Central

    Manser, M B; Bell, M B; Fletcher, L B

    2001-01-01

    Field observations and acoustic analyses have shown that suricate (Suricata suricatta) alarm calls vary in their acoustic structure depending on predator type. In this study, we tested whether receivers respond appropriately when hearing a call in the absence of a predator. Although the only way for suricates to escape from predators is to retreat to boltholes, responses to playbacks could be divided into distinct categories. The subjects responded differently to alarm calls given in response to aerial or terrestrial predators and to recruitment calls emitted in response to snakes and deposits on the ground. Suricates also showed rather distinct responses to low, medium and high urgency aerial calls. Differences in the responses were less obvious for different levels of urgency in the terrestrial and recruitment calls. Suricate receivers thus gain information about both the predator type and level of urgency from the acoustic structures of their calls. PMID:11747568

  17. Campbell's Monkeys Use Affixation to Alter Call Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Human language has evolved on a biological substrate with phylogenetic roots deep in the primate lineage. Here, we describe a functional analogy to a common morphological process in human speech, affixation, in the alarm calls of free-ranging adult Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli). We found that male alarm calls are composed of an acoustically variable stem, which can be followed by an acoustically invariable suffix. Using long-term observations and predator simulation experiments, we show that suffixation in this species functions to broaden the calls' meaning by transforming a highly specific eagle alarm to a general arboreal disturbance call or by transforming a highly specific leopard alarm call to a general alert call. We concluded that, when referring to specific external events, non-human primates can generate meaningful acoustic variation during call production that is functionally equivalent to suffixation in human language. PMID:19915663

  18. Development of the female great call in Hylobates gabriellae: A case study.

    PubMed

    Merker, B; Cox, C

    1999-01-01

    Although the structure of adult gibbon duet singing has been characterised in most species, little is known about the ontogeny of gibbon song. The present study describes the developmental trajectory of the female great call in a captive infant Hylobates gabriellae female, on the basis of periodic tape recordings made while she participated in the duetting of her parents. The major part of great call development is completed between 5 and 32 months of age, and a differential time course is apparent for different portions of the female great call, raising the question of the role of the protracted period of vocal development in this species.

  19. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival-An evaluation of 548 emergency calls.

    PubMed

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 30-day survival. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of CPRprior. This observational study evaluated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring in the Capital Region of Denmark from 01.01.2013 to 31.12.2013. OHCAs were linked to emergency medical dispatch centre records and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPRprior. The study included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPRprior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPRduring group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPRprior and CPRduring. Predictors positively associated with CPRprior included witnessed OHCA and healthcare professional bystanders. Predictors negatively associated with CPRprior included residential location, solitary bystanders, and bystanders related to the patient. The majority of bystander CPR (65%) was initiated during the emergency call, following dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions. Whether bystander CPR was initiated prior to emergency call versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR was not associated with ROSC or 30-day survival. Dispatcher-assisted CPR was especially beneficial for the initiation of bystander CPR in residential areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic evaluation of the differential benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Chau, June; Law, Antony Kwan Pui; Tam, Stanley Ku Fu; McGhee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    home visits and telephone calls are two often used approaches in transitional care, but their differential economic effects are unknown. to examine the differential economic benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support. cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). patients discharged from medical units randomly assigned to control (control, N = 210), home visits with calls (home, N = 196) and calls only (call, N = 204). cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted from the societal perspective comparing monetary benefits and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. the home arm was less costly but less effective at 28 days and was dominating (less costly and more effective) at 84 days. The call arm was dominating at both 28 and 84 days. The incremental QALY for the home arm was -0.0002/0.0008 (28/84 days), and the call arm was 0.0022/0.0104 (28/84 days). When the three groups were compared, the call arm had a higher probability being cost-effective at 84 days but not at 28 days (home: 53%, call: 35% (28 days) versus home: 22%, call: 73% (84 days)) measuring against the NICE threshold of £20,000. the original RCT showed that the bundled intervention involving home visits and calls was more effective than calls only in the reduction of hospital readmissions. This study adds a cost perspective to inform policymakers that both home visits and calls only are cost-effective for transitional care support, but calls only have a higher chance of being cost-effective for a sustained period after intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  1. Treatment with arginine vasotocin alters mating calls and decreases call attractiveness in male túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Kime, Nicole M; Whitney, Tina K; Ryan, Michael J; Rand, A Stanley; Marler, Catherine A

    2010-01-15

    The peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) and its mammalian homolog arginine vasopressin modulate a variety of social behaviors in vertebrates. In anurans, AVT influences the production of advertisement calls, the acoustic signals that males use to attract females and repel rival males. In this study, we investigate the effects of AVT on call characteristics in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Túngara frogs produce a "whine" that is important for species recognition; they may also produce a second, attractive call component, the "chuck". We used a field playback experiment to determine changes in male calling behavior following treatment with AVT. A previous study showed that AVT alters call rate and the production of chucks; in the current analysis, we focus on changes in the whine. Males produce shorter whines with higher initial frequencies following treatment with AVT. Call changes do not vary with a social stimulus. We also used female phonotaxis experiments to investigate the effects of call changes on female mate choice. Females disfavor the calls produced by males treated with exogenous AVT. We suggest that AVT influences motivation to call and the motor control of call production, but that over-stimulation of the vocal system limited the production of attractive calls in this experimental context.

  2. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].

  3. Propagation of natural toad calls in a Mediterranean terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Penna, Mario; Llusia, Diego; Márquez, R

    2012-12-01

    Propagation patterns of animal acoustic signals provide insights into the evolution of signal design to convey signaler's information to potential recipients. However, propagation properties of vertebrate calls have been rarely studied using natural calls from individuals; instead playback calls broadcast through loudspeakers have been used extensively, a procedure that may involve acoustical and physical features differing from natural sounds. Measurements of the transmission characteristics of natural advertisement calls, which are simple tonal sounds, of the Iberian midwife toad, Alytes cisternasii, were carried out, and the results were compared with previously published results broadcasting recorded calls of the same species. Measurements of sound pressure level (SPL) of calls from individual male A. cisternasii revealed that the call amplitude decreases at distances of 1-8 m from the source at rates averaging 1-5 dB above spherical transmission loss in an omni-directional pattern. A comparison between SPLs of natural calls in the current study and of playback calls from a previous study showed that patterns of propagation did not differ in average values, but variance was significantly higher for natural calls. Results suggest that using broadcast signals for transmission experiments may result in a simplification of the conditions in which actual animals communicate in nature.

  4. Female Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls do not reveal the fertile phase but influence mating outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Dana; Brauch, Katrin; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, J. Keith; Fischer, Julia

    2007-01-01

    In a number of primate species, females utter loud and distinctive calls during mating. Here we aim to clarify the information content and function of Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls by testing (i) whether or not copulation calls advertise the female fertile phase and (ii) whether and how copulation calls influence male ejaculatory behaviour. In order to do this, we combined hormone measurements with acoustic analysis and behavioural observations. In contrast to a previous study implying that the structure of copulation calls indicates the timing of the fertile phase, our results, using objective endocrine criteria for assessing ovulation, provide evidence that the structure of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques does not reveal the timing of the fertile phase. More importantly, females seem to influence the likelihood of ejaculation by calling versus remaining silent and by adjusting the timing of call onset. Females make use of this ability to influence mating outcome to ensure ejaculatory matings with almost all males in the group. In addition, calls given during ejaculatory copulations differ from those during non-ejaculatory copulations, providing information about mating outcome for listeners. We conclude that in this species, copulation calls apparently serve to enhance sperm competition and maximize paternity confusion. PMID:18089536

  5. Antidepressant medication adherence via interactive voice response telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Castle, Terri; Cunningham, Michael A; Marsh, Gary M

    2012-09-01

    Outpatients given antidepressants discontinue treatment at a high rate during the first few months. We evaluated the effectiveness of Highmark's use of interactive voice response (IVR) to improve antidepressant medication adherence. Quasi-experimental cohort intervention study. We placed 39,020 members newly given antidepressant medication into 3 intervention groups based on results of interactive voice response (IVR) call 1 month post-prescription: (1) not reached; (2) reached but not transferred to depression management consultant (DMC); and (3) reached and transferred to DMC. We evaluated medication adherence based on the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set effective acute phase (3 months) and continuation phase (6 months) treatment outcomes using member claims data. We used generalized estimating equations to model intervention effectiveness on medication adherence. Adherence increased markedly with age group, with members older than 65 years having a 5.11-fold higher odds (P <.0001) of compliance than the baseline group aged 18 to 24 years. In models adjusted for time, month of intervention, and drug, the odds of compliance for groups (3) and (2) relative to group (1) were 1.34 (P = .009) and 1.19 (P <.001), respectively. In models also adjusted for age group, the group (3) and (2) odds decreased to 1.00 and 1.03 and were not statistically significant. We found that IVR calls had little impact on antidepressant medication adherence rates. Adherence rates increased markedly with increasing age in each intervention group, suggesting that other intervention strategies to improve adherence should focus on the younger segment of the patient population.

  6. How post-call resident doctors perform, feel and are perceived in out-patient clinics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Wissow, Lawrence

    2011-07-01

     Recently, in the U.S.A., the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines limited residents' consecutive duty to 24 hours. In Europe, the European Working Time Directive limits the average working week to 48 hours. This study aimed to examine the performance of post-call residents in out-patient interviews using subjective and objective measures and to assess residents' subjective feelings.  We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a systematic sample of 170 paediatric primary care consultations conducted during 117 clinic sessions served by 47 residents at a teaching hospital, including 34 consultations conducted during 23 sessions by 20 post-call residents. Interviews were audiotaped and quantitatively analysed using the Roter Interactional Analysis System (RIAS). Residents and patients' parents gave subjective appraisals of the visits using short questionnaires. Major covariates are resident gender and the timing of the clinic. Results did not show significant differences between post-call residents and their peers who had left the hospital on time in most components of the out-patient interview. Subtle yet probably important differences emerged with findings that post-call residents were significantly less likely to ask a parent to repeat what she had just said, and parents seeing post-call residents were more likely to request the resident to repeat what he or she had just said and to check if the resident understood what they had said. Post-call residents were rated by objective coders as having better attitudes than their left-on-time counterparts, yet subjectively felt less satisfied and more fatigued. Female post-call residents felt less competent, less productive and less energetic; male post-call residents felt more challenged, more demoralised and busier. The changes in activating and partnering talk that occur in post-call residents are consistent with findings concerning sleep deprivation and speech. Female and male residents

  7. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  8. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    PubMed

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests.

  9. Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?

    PubMed Central

    Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Špinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

  10. Blue and fin whale call source levels and propagation range in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sirović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; Wiggins, Sean M

    2007-08-01

    Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) produce high-intensity, low-frequency calls, which probably function for communication during mating and feeding. The source levels of blue and fin whale calls off the Western Antarctic Peninsula were calculated using recordings made with calibrated, bottom-moored hydrophones. Blue whales were located up to a range of 200 km using hyperbolic localization and time difference of arrival. The distance to fin whales, estimated using multipath arrivals of their calls, was up to 56 km. The error in range measurements was 3.8 km using hyperbolic localization, and 3.4 km using multipath arrivals. Both species produced high-intensity calls; the average blue whale call source level was 189+/-3 dB re:1 microPa-1 m over 25-29 Hz, and the average fin whale call source level was 189+/-4 dB re:1 microPa-1 m over 15-28 Hz. Blue and fin whale populations in the Southern Ocean have remained at low numbers for decades since they became protected; using source level and detection range from passive acoustic recordings can help in calculating the relative density of calling whales.

  11. Nonlinear Acoustics in Cicada Mating Calls Enhance Sound Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    NUWC-NPT Reprint Report 11,907 1 March 2009 Nonlinear Acoustics in Cicada Mating Calls Enhance Sound Propagation Derke R. Hughes Albert H...vol. 125, no. 2, February 2009. Nonlinear acoustics in cicada mating calls enhance sound propagation Derke R. Hughes,3 Albert H. Nuttall,h Richard A...2008; revised 31 October 2008; accepted 15 November 2008) An analysis of cicada mating calls, measured in field experiments, indicates that the very

  12. Heart rate variability changes in physicians working on night call.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Birgitta; Persson, Roger; Flisberg, Per; Ørbaek, Palle

    2011-03-01

    Adverse effects by night-call duty have become an important occupational health issue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the heart rate variability (HRV) differed during recovery from day work and night-call duty between distinct physician specialities. We studied the impact of a 16-h night-call duty on autonomic balance, measured by HRV, among two physician groups differing with respect to having to deal with life-threatening conditions while on call. Nineteen anaesthesiologists (ANEST) and 16 paediatricians and ear, nose and throat surgeons (PENT) were monitored by ambulatory digital Holter electrocardiogram (ECG). Heart rate variability was analysed between 21:00 and 22:00 after an ordinary workday, on night call and in the evening post-call. Absolute and normalized high-frequency power (HF, HFnu) were the main outcome variables, expressing parasympathetic influence on the heart. ANEST had lower HF power than PENT while on night call and post-daytime work (p < 0.05), but not at post-night call. In the whole group of physicians, HFnu was lower on call and post-daytime work compared with post-night-call duty (p < 0.05). The physiological recovery after night duty seemed sufficient in terms of HRV patterns for HFnu, reflecting autonomic balance and did not differ between specialities. However, the less dynamic HRV after daytime work and during night-call duty in the ANEST group may indicate a higher physiological stress level. These results may contribute to the improvement of night-call schedules within the health care sector.

  13. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal.

  14. TADtool: visual parameter identification for TAD-calling algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Kai; Hug, Clemens B; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Vaquerizas, Juan M

    2016-10-15

    Eukaryotic genomes are hierarchically organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). The computational identification of these domains and their associated properties critically depends on the choice of suitable parameters of TAD-calling algorithms. To reduce the element of trial-and-error in parameter selection, we have developed TADtool: an interactive plot to find robust TAD-calling parameters with immediate visual feedback. TADtool allows the direct export of TADs called with a chosen set of parameters for two of the most common TAD calling algorithms: directionality and insulation index. It can be used as an intuitive, standalone application or as a Python package for maximum flexibility.

  15. Recall accuracy of mobile phone calls among Japanese young people.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Arima, Takuji; Sato, Yasuto; Kojimahara, Noriko; Taki, Masao; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the recall accuracy of mobile phone calls among young people using new software-modified phone (SMP) technology. A total of 198 Japanese students aged between 10 and 24 years were instructed to use a SMP for 1 month to record their actual call statuses. Ten to 12 months after this period, face-to-face interviews were conducted to obtain the self-reported call statuses during the monitoring period. Using the SMP record as the gold standard of validation, the recall accuracy of phone calls was evaluated. A total of 19% of the participants (34/177) misclassified their laterality (i.e., the dominant side of ear used while making calls), with the level of agreement being moderate (κ-statistics, 0.449). The level of agreement between the self-reports and SMP records was relatively good for the duration of calls (Pearson's r, 0.620), as compared with the number of calls (Pearson's r, 0.561). The recall was prone to small systematic and large random errors for both the number and duration of calls. Such a large random recall error for the amount of calls and misclassification of laterality suggest that the results of epidemiological studies of mobile phone use based on self-assessment should be interpreted cautiously.

  16. Calling International Rescue: knowledge lost in literature and data landslide!

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Teresa K.; Kell, Douglas B.; McDermott, Philip; Marsh, James; Pettifer, Steve R.; Thorne, David

    2009-01-01

    We live in interesting times. Portents of impending catastrophe pervade the literature, calling us to action in the face of unmanageable volumes of scientific data. But it isn't so much data generation per se, but the systematic burial of the knowledge embodied in those data that poses the problem: there is so much information available that we simply no longer know what we know, and finding what we want is hard – too hard. The knowledge we seek is often fragmentary and disconnected, spread thinly across thousands of databases and millions of articles in thousands of journals. The intellectual energy required to search this array of data-archives, and the time and money this wastes, has led several researchers to challenge the methods by which we traditionally commit newly acquired facts and knowledge to the scientific record. We present some of these initiatives here – a whirlwind tour of recent projects to transform scholarly publishing paradigms, culminating in Utopia and the Semantic Biochemical Journal experiment. With their promises to provide new ways of interacting with the literature, and new and more powerful tools to access and extract the knowledge sequestered within it, we ask what advances they make and what obstacles to progress still exist? We explore these questions, and, as you read on, we invite you to engage in an experiment with us, a real-time test of a new technology to rescue data from the dormant pages of published documents. We ask you, please, to read the instructions carefully. The time has come: you may turn over your papers… PMID:19929850

  17. Calling International Rescue: knowledge lost in literature and data landslide!

    PubMed

    Attwood, Teresa K; Kell, Douglas B; McDermott, Philip; Marsh, James; Pettifer, Steve R; Thorne, David

    2009-12-10

    We live in interesting times. Portents of impending catastrophe pervade the literature, calling us to action in the face of unmanageable volumes of scientific data. But it isn't so much data generation per se, but the systematic burial of the knowledge embodied in those data that poses the problem: there is so much information available that we simply no longer know what we know, and finding what we want is hard - too hard. The knowledge we seek is often fragmentary and disconnected, spread thinly across thousands of databases and millions of articles in thousands of journals. The intellectual energy required to search this array of data-archives, and the time and money this wastes, has led several researchers to challenge the methods by which we traditionally commit newly acquired facts and knowledge to the scientific record. We present some of these initiatives here - a whirlwind tour of recent projects to transform scholarly publishing paradigms, culminating in Utopia and the Semantic Biochemical Journal experiment. With their promises to provide new ways of interacting with the literature, and new and more powerful tools to access and extract the knowledge sequestered within it, we ask what advances they make and what obstacles to progress still exist? We explore these questions, and, as you read on, we invite you to engage in an experiment with us, a real-time test of a new technology to rescue data from the dormant pages of published documents. We ask you, please, to read the instructions carefully. The time has come: you may turn over your papers...

  18. Emergency department on-call status for pediatric orthopaedics: a survey of the POSNA membership.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian G; Kanel, Jeffrey S; Halsey, Matthew F; Thometz, John G; Rosenfeld, Samuel R; Epps, Howard R; McCarthy, James

    2015-03-01

    The emergency room on-call status of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons is an important factor affecting their practices and lifestyles and was last evaluated in 2006. The entire membership of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) was surveyed in 2010 for information regarding their emergency room on-call status with 382 surveys returned of over 1000 e-mailed to members of POSNA. Detailed information about on-call coverage, support, and frequency was obtained in answers to 14 different questions. Compared with the prior survey in 2006, the 2010 survey indicated that a higher percentage of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons receive compensation for taking emergency room call; a higher percentage cover pediatric patients only when on-call; and accessibility to operating rooms in a timely manner for trauma cases, although limited, has improved for pediatric patients. Utilization of support staff to meet on-call trauma coverage demands, such as residents, physician's assistants, and nurse practitioners, is becoming more common. Concentration of pediatric orthopaedic trauma has increased the coverage demands on pediatric orthopaedists. This has resulted in a change in reimbursement strategies, and allocation of OR time and hospital staffing resources.

  19. Weather variability permitted within amphibian monitoring protocol and affects on calling Hylidae.

    PubMed

    Milne, Robert; Bennett, Lorne; Hoyle, Mathew

    2013-11-01

    Anuran populations are sensitive to changing environmental conditions and act as useful indicators. Presently, much information collected concerning frog populations comes from volunteers following the North American Amphibian Monitoring Protocol. Does weather variability allowed within protocol affect the abundance of calling frogs? For 10 years, Credit Valley Conservation (Ontario, Canada) has been collecting anuran data concerning nine frog species employing three frog monitoring runs. Records include frog abundance by protocol code and five weather variables. Antecedent precipitation and temperature were determined from the nearest weather station. Locations with large source populations of two Hylidae species were selected (spring peeper calling in April and gray tree frog in May). Spearman correlations suggested there were no significant relationships between calling abundance of Hylidae species and ambient wind speed or humidity. However, gray tree frogs were temperature sensitive and calling was significantly related to increased water and air temperatures as well as day time high temperatures over the previous 2 weeks. Both species of calling Hylidae were affected by the volume and timing of precipitation (though, in different ways). Gray tree frogs seem to prefer drier conditions (when temperatures are significantly warmer) while spring peepers prefer to call during, or closely following, precipitation. Monitors targeting gray tree frog should track local weather conditions and focus on evenings when it is (a) warmer than the minimum temperatures and (b) drier than suggested by the protocol. It is recommended that an additional monitoring run could be added to reduce detection variability of this species.

  20. Call admission and capacity analysis for multimedia CDMA networks based on outage probability constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Xiaoming; Chen, Zujue

    2004-04-01

    Capacity analysis and call admission control in wireless communication systems are essential for system design and operation. The capacity for imperfectly power controlled multimedia code division multiple access (CDMA) networks based on system outage probability constraint is presented and analyzed. A handoff prioritized call admission scheme is then developed based on the derived system capacity and evaluated using the K-dimensional birth-death process model. A more general assumption that average channel holding times for new calls and handoff calls are not equal and an effective approximate model are adopted in the performance analysis. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the system performance in terms of blocking probabilities, resource utilization and average system throughput. It is shown that the system parameters such as outage probability constraint and power control errors have great impact on system capacity and performance.