Science.gov

Sample records for destroyer programs background

  1. Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer: The single-seat Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer torpedo-bomber was developed from the two-seat XSB2D-1 scout-bomber. Although not put into full production, the BTD-1 lessons learned with the Destroyer were incorporated into the Douglas Skyraider's predecessor, the BT2D-1.

  2. Weatherization Assistance Program - Background Data and Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2010-03-01

    This technical memorandum is intended to provide readers with information that may be useful in understanding the purposes, performance, and outcomes of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (Weatherization). Weatherization has been in operation for over thirty years and is the nation's largest single residential energy efficiency program. Its primary purpose, established by law, is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential energy expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, the handicapped, and children.' The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act PL111-5 (ARRA), passed and signed into law in February 2009, committed $5 Billion over two years to an expanded Weatherization Assistance Program. This has created substantial interest in the program, the population it serves, the energy and cost savings it produces, and its cost-effectiveness. This memorandum is intended to address the need for this kind of information. Statistically valid answers to many of the questions surrounding Weatherization and its performance require comprehensive evaluation of the program. DOE is undertaking precisely this kind of independent evaluation in order to ascertain program effectiveness and to improve its performance. Results of this evaluation effort will begin to emerge in late 2010 and 2011, but they require substantial time and effort. In the meantime, the data and statistics in this memorandum can provide reasonable and transparent estimates of key program characteristics. The memorandum is laid out in three sections. The first deals with some key characteristics describing low-income energy consumption and expenditures. The second section provides estimates of energy savings and energy bill reductions that the program can reasonably be presumed to be producing. The third section

  3. Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

  4. ALCOHOLISM—The Chronological Background Leading to California's Present Program

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Wendell R.

    1958-01-01

    An ancient problem is receiving modern attention in California. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the historical background that has made possible newer attitudes and study approaches to the problem of alcoholism. The chain of circumstances (and its welders) leading to California's broadly programmed attack upon alcoholism and its related complications is described. PMID:13500218

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  6. Langley rotorcraft structural dynamics program: Background, status, accomplishments, plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Excessive vibration is the most common technical problem to arise as a show stopper in the development of a new rotorcraft. Vibration predictions have not been relied on by the industry during design because of deficiencies in finite element dynamic analyses. A rotorcraft structural dynamics program aimed at meeting the industry's long-term needs in this key technical area was implemented at Langley in 1984. The subject program is a cooperative effort involving NASA, the Army, academia, and the helicopter industry in a series of generic research activities directed at establishing the critical elements of the technology base needed for development of a superior finite element dynamics design analysis capability in the U.S. helicopter industry. An executive overview of the background, status, accomplishments, and future direction of this program is presented.

  7. Contamination control program for the Cosmic Background Explorer: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Each of the three state of the art instruments flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) were designed, fabricated, and integrated using unique contamination control procedures to ensure accurate characterization of the diffuse radiation in the universe. The most stringent surface level cleanliness specifications ever attempted by NASA were required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DRIBE) which is located inside a liquid helium cooled dewar along with the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS). The DRIBE instrument required complex stray radiation suppression that defined a cold primary optical baffle system surface cleanliness level of 100A. The cleanliness levels of the cryogenic FIRAS instrument and the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) which were positioned symmetrically around the dewar were less stringent ranging from 300 to 500A. To achieve these instrument cleanliness levels, the entire flight spacecraft was maintained at level 500A throughout each phase of development. The COBE contamination control program is described along with the difficulties experienced in maintaining the cleanliness quality of personnel and flight hardware throughout instrument assembly.

  8. Contamination control program for the Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    Each of the three state of the art instruments flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) were designed, fabricated, and integrated using unique contamination control procedures to ensure accurate characterization of the diffuse radiation in the universe. The most stringent surface level cleanliness specifications ever attempted by NASA were required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DRIBE) which is located inside a liquid helium cooled dewar along with the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS). The DRIBE instrument required complex stray radiation suppression that defined a cold primary optical baffle system surface cleanliness level of 100A. The cleanliness levels of the cryogenic FIRAS instrument and the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) which were positioned symmetrically around the dewar were less stringent ranging from 300 to 500A. To achieve these instrument cleanliness levels, the entire flight spacecraft was maintained at level 500A throughout each phase of development. The COBE contamination control program is described along with the difficulties experienced in maintaining the cleanliness quality of personnel and flight hardware throughout instrument assembly.

  9. Afterschool Alliance Backgrounder: Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Noting that various types of evaluations of after-school programming conducted over the last several years have provided useful information to providers and to policymakers, this report summarizes the lessons learned from independent evaluations of after-school programs. The following overall findings are supported with a delineation of findings…

  10. Down Under Amnesties: Background, Programs, and Comparative Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    1984-01-01

    Australia, proportionately, accepts more immigrants than the United States. Although Australia's location limits its experience with undocumented migrants, there have been enough of them to cause Australia to conduct three alien legalization programs. These programs, small by U.S. standards, provide some useful lessons to the U.S. (Author/RDN)

  11. Student Performance Standards and Testing Programs: Background Information for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Joel A.; Rice, Elizabeth V.

    This report provides Minnesota legislators with background information on establishing state educational standards and periodic testing to measure student progress. Scientific management, the accountability movement, and the basic education movement were educational trends of the 1970's providing pressure on states to set standards to improve…

  12. Discussing a Philosophical Background for the Ethnomathematical Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilela, Denise Silva

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which Wittgenstein's analytical framework may be relevant to philosophical reflection on ethnomathematics. The discussion develops Bill Barton's suggestion that a philosophical basis for the ethnomathematical program should include and explain culturally different mathematics systems, and the coexistence of…

  13. Photovoltaic market analysis program: Background, model development, applications and extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilien, G. L.; Fuller, F. H.

    1981-04-01

    Tools and procedures to help guide government spending decisions associated with stimulating photovoltaic market penetration were developed. The program has three main components: (1) theoretical analysis aimed at understanding qualitatively what general types of policies are likely to be most cost effective in stimulating PV market penetration; (2) operational model developent (PV1), providing a user oriented tool to study quantitatively the relative effectiveness of specific government spending options and (3) field measurements, aimed at providing objective estimates of the parameters used in the diffusion model used in PV1. Existing models of solar technology diffusion are reviewed and the structure of the PV1 model is described. Theoretical results on optimal strategies for spending federal market development and subsidy funds are reviewed. The validity of these results is checked by comparing them with PV1 projections of penetration and cost forecasts for 15 government policy strategies which are simulated on the PV1 model.

  14. Federal Assistance to Libraries: Background Information and Issues Related to Current Programs. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Wayne

    This report provides background--including information on structure, funding levels, program evaluation and issues--on federal programs which provide financial or material assistance to public, school, and college libraries. Federal library grant programs are covered in the following categories: (1) aid to public libraries under the Library…

  15. 34 CFR 5.18 - Destroyed records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified form or character are destroyed after the lapse of time specified in the Records Disposal Act of 1943 (44 U.S.C. 366-380), the Federal Property Management Regulations (41 CFR parts 101-111), and...

  16. Influences on family planning acceptance: an analysis of background and program factors in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J T

    1979-01-01

    Which factors have the greater influence on family planning performance: fixed background variables such as racial composition, urbanization, and mortality, which are affected by level of development, or program inputs such as assignment of personnel and location of clinics, which are subject to manipulation by administrators? An analysis of differences in family planning acceptance among 70 districts of Malaysia shows that two main program-manipulable variables--level of personnel deployment and accessibility of clinics--have the largest direct effect upon acceptance levels. Variations in background factors explain a smaller proportion.

  17. An Adapted Dialogic Reading Program for Turkish Kindergarteners from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergül, Cevriye; Akoglu, Gözde; Sarica, Ayse D.; Karaman, Gökçe; Tufan, Mümin; Bahap-Kudret, Zeynep; Zülfikar, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Adapted Dialogic Reading Program (ADR) on the language and early literacy skills of Turkish kindergarteners from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds. The effectiveness of ADR was investigated across six different treatment conditions including classroom and home based implementations in various…

  18. Using Special Education to Destroy Black Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Asks whether special education is designed to keep African-American boys out of the mainstream of education and also looks at questions of a passive conspiracy to destroy African-American males and the role of racism. Discusses special education legislation, and argues that African-American boys are not being adequately educated. (JB)

  19. COYOTE II - a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I - theoretical background

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.; Hogan, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE II, is presented in detail. COYOTE II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems and other types of diffusion problems. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in COYOTE II are also outlined. Instructions for use of the code are documented in SAND94-1179; examples of problems analyzed with the code are provided in SAND94-1180.

  20. Effect of an enrichment program on DAT scores of potential dental students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly P; Woolfolk, Marilyn; May, Kenneth B; Inglehart, Marita R

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore whether Dental Admission Test (DAT) training in an enrichment program for potential dental students increases the participants' Perceptual Achievement Test (PAT) and academic average (AA) scores and whether the length of the program and personal factors such as the number of disadvantages correlate with the DAT scores. Data were collected from 361 students in the summer enrichment program at one dental school between 1994 and 2011. Their baseline, midpoint, and end of program PAT and AA DAT scores were collected. Seventy students self-reported official scores. These students' PAT scores increased from 14.40 at baseline to 17.09 at midpoint to 17.84 at program end (p<0.001), and their AA scores increased from 13.53 to 14.09 to 15.12 (p<0.001). Their official scores were higher than the beginning scores (PAT: 14.42 vs. 16.15; p<0.001; AA: 13.61 vs. 16.23; p<0.001). The longer the program, the more the students improved their official scores (PAT: r=0.35; p=0.003; AA: r=0.24; p=0.044). The more disadvantages the students self-reported, the better their official test scores were (PAT: r=0.40; p<0.001; AA: r=0.43; p<0.001). This study found that the DAT training during summer enrichment programs for students from disadvantaged backgrounds led to significant improvements in their DAT scores. The longer the programs, the more the students improved; and the more disadvantages the students had, the more they benefitted.

  1. COYOTE : a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I, theoretical background.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-03-01

    The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems

  2. Destroying Kerr-Sen black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-03-01

    By neglecting the self-force, self-energy, and radiative effects, it has been shown that an extremal or near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole can turn into a naked singularity when it captures charged and spinning massive particles. A straightforward question then arises: do charged and rotating black holes in string theory possess the same property? In this paper we apply Wald's gedanken experiment, in his study on the possibility of destroying extremal Kerr-Newman black holes, to the case of (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black holes. We find that feeding a test particle into a (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black hole could lead to a violation of the extremal bound for the black hole.

  3. Vitrification: Destroying and immobilizing hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Peters, R.D.; Perez, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Researchers at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have led the development of vitrification a versatile adaptable process that transforms waste solutions, slurries, moist powder and/or dry solids into a chemically durable glass form. The glass form can be safely disposed or used for other purposes, such as construction material if non-radioactive. The feed used in the process can be either combustible or non-combustible. Organic compounds are decomposed in the melters` plenum, while the inorganic residue melts into a molten glass pool. The glass produced by this process is a chemically durable material comparable to natural obsidian. Its properties typically allow it to pass the EPA Toxicity (TCLP) test as non-hazardous. To date, no glass produced by vitrification has failed the TCLP test. Vitrification is thus an ideal method of treating DOE`s mixed waste because of its ability to destroy organic compounds and bind toxic or radioactive elements. This article provides an overview of the technology.

  4. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Determination of an environmental background level of 90Sr in urine for the Hanford bioassay program.

    PubMed

    Antonio, C L; Rivard, J W

    2009-11-01

    During the decommissioning and maintenance of some of the facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, workers have potential for a Sr intake. However, because of worldwide radioactive fallout, Sr is present in our environment and can be detectable in routine urine bioassay samples. It is important for the Hanford Site bioassay program to discriminate an occupational intake from a non-occupational environmental one. A detailed study of the background Sr in the urine of unexposed Hanford workers was performed. A survey of the Hanford Site bioassay database found 128 Hanford workers who were hired between 1997 and 2002 and who had a very low potential for an occupational exposure prior to the baseline strontium urinalysis. Each urinalysis sample represented excretion during an approximate 24-h period. The arithmetic mean value for the 128 pre-exposure baselines was 3.6 +/- 5.1 mBq d. The 99 percentile result was 17 mBq d, which was interpreted to mean that 1% of Hanford workers not occupationally exposed to strontium might exceed 17 mBq d. PMID:19820473

  6. Best Practices in Employment Background Screening: Tips and Considerations for Implementing a Comprehensive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashier, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Pre-employment background screening is becoming more commonplace as employers strive to provide a safe, secure environment for their employees and customers. However, in order for background screening policies to work properly, they must be consistent, fair and within the boundaries of the law. One way to ensure that these criteria are being met…

  7. Backgrounds, Teaching Responsibilities, and Motivations of Music Education Candidates Enrolled in Alternative Certification Music Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Daniel; McDowell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors associated with enrolling, continuing, and completing alternative certification programs in music education. Data were collected via surveys and semi-structured interviews of music teacher candidates from 43 program completers from seven alternative certification programs in three states. In…

  8. Coordinating Federal Assistance Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged: Recommendations and Background Materials. Special Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This special report from the National Commission for Employment Policy on coordinating federal assistance programs for the economically disadvantaged contains two parts. Part 1 includes recommendations for improving public assistance coordination programs in general and employment and training programs in particular. Eight recommendations focus on…

  9. Optimal reload strategies for identify-and-destroy missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, John C.; Smith, Cheryl M.

    2004-09-01

    In this problem an identification vehicle must re-acquire a fixed set of suspected targets and determine whether each suspected target is a mine or a false alarm. If a target is determined to be a mine, the identification vehicle must neutralize it by either delivering one of a limited number of on-board bombs or by assigning the neutralization task to one of a limited number of single-shot suicide vehicles. The identification vehicle has the option to reload. The singleshot suicide vehicles, however, cannot be replenished. We have developed an optimal path planning and reload strategy for this identify and destroy mission that takes into account the probabilities that suspected targets are mines, the costs to move between targets, the costs to return to and from the reload point, and the cost to reload. The mission is modeled as a discrete multi-dimensional Markov process. At each target position the vehicle decides based on the known costs, probabilities, the number of bombs on board (r), and the number of remaining one-shot vehicles (s) whether to move directly on to the next target or to reload before continuing and whether to destroy any mine with an on-board bomb or a one-shot suicide vehicle. The approach recursively calculates the minimum expected overall cost conditioned on all possible values r and s. The recursion is similar to dynamic programming in that it starts at the last suspected target location and works its way backwards to the starting point. The approach also uses a suboptimal traveling salesman strategy to search over candidate deployment locations to calculate the best initial deployment point where the reloads will take place.

  10. The Influence of Parents' Backgrounds, Beliefs about English Learning, and a Dialogic Reading Program on Thai Kindergarteners' English Lexical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petchprasert, Anongnad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated parents' backgrounds and their beliefs about English language learning, and compared the receptive English vocabulary development of three to six year-old-Thai children before and after participating in a parent-child reading program with the dialogic reading (DR) method. Fifty-four single parents of 54 children voluntarily…

  11. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  12. The Relationship between Cultural Background and Parental Perceptions of Functional Educational Programming for Students with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Eileen

    The study examined whether a relationship exists between cultural background (Caucasian, Hispanic, or Black) and families' attitudes toward educational programming for a family member with severe disabilities. Useable surveys were returned by 91 respondents out of the 103 of 337 families (31%) to whom surveys had been distributed. The 40-item…

  13. Five C Framework: A Student-Centered Approach for Teaching Programming Courses to Students with Diverse Disciplinary Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The already existing complexities of teaching and learning computer programming are increased where students are diverse in their disciplinary backgrounds, language skills, and culture. Learners experience emotional issues of anxiety, fear or boredom. Identifying opportunities for improvement and applying theoretical and empirical evidence found…

  14. Opinion: How to Destroy an English Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Many teachers have known of (or been members of) departments in which all of the potentially successful chairs--after having proven themselves by running subunits or graduate programs--have decided to devote themselves solely to research or teaching, and to leave department administration to whoever is willing to do it or whoever can be talked…

  15. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  16. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6 Section 100.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will...

  17. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  18. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  19. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Request for Examination of Mutilated Currency for Possible Redemption § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account...

  20. The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program: Background and Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth

    The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (SEOG) program provides financial assistance to low-income undergraduate students attending postsecondary education institutions and is authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education Act. The program is administered on the campus of each participating postsecondary education institution which uses…

  1. Evaluation of the SB 1041 Reforms to California's CalWORKs Program: Background and Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Bozick, Robert; Davis, Lois M.; Kitmitto, Sami; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Bos, Johannes M.; Holod, Aleksandra; Blankenship, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The California Budget Act of 2012, through a trailer bill known as Senate Bill (SB) 1041, contained significant reforms to the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program. CalWORKs is California's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, a central component of the safety net that provides cash aid for…

  2. The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Katherine; Newman, Constance; Clauson, Annette; Guthrie, Joanne; Buzby, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one of the largest food and nutrition assistance programs in the United States, feeding millions of children every day. School meal providers face the task of serving nutritious and appealing school lunches, including free and reduced-price lunches for low-income students, and doing so under budget…

  3. The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues. Economic Research Report Number 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Katherine; Newman, Constance; Clauson, Annette; Guthrie, Joanne; Buzby, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is the Nation's second largest food and nutrition assistance program. In 2006, it operated in over 101,000 public and nonprofit private schools and provided over 28 million low-cost or free lunches to children on a typical school day at a Federal cost of $8 billion for the year. This report provides…

  4. Construction of an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation using semidefinite programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantuzzi, G.; Wynn, A.

    2015-01-01

    A method to construct systematically an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation is developed by formulating the classical problem as an optimisation problem. In particular, we show that the infinite-dimensional problem can be rewritten as a finite-dimensional convex semidefinite problem, which is solved to construct a background profile and to obtain an upper bound on the energy of the solution ‖ u ‖ that applies to the infinite-dimensional PDE. The results are compared to existing analytical results, and support the fact that lim sup t → ∞ ‖ u ‖ ≤ O (L 3 / 2) is the optimal estimate achievable with the background profile method and a quadratic Lyapunov function.

  5. Background, current status, and prognosis of the ongoing slush hydrogen technology development program for the NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Hardy, T. L.; Whalen, M. V.; Richter, G. P.; Tomsik, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Among the Hydrogen Projects at the NASA Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC), is the task of implementing and managing the Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) Technology Program for the United States' National AeroSpace Plane Joint Program Office (NASP JPO). The objectives of this NASA LeRC program are to provide verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems and to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. The pursuit of these objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. A summary of the NASA LeRC overall SLH2 program plan, is presented along with its implementation, the present level of effort in each of the program areas, some of the results already in hand, and the prognosis for the effort in the immediate future.

  6. Investigation of the diffuse ultraviolet background using satellite data: Dynamics explorer guest investigator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The imaging instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission was designed primarily to obtain global auroral images. The instrument, however, was also used successfully to study marine bioluminescence, the geocorona, and the global distribution of atmospheric ozone. The imager has considerable potential for the study of astronomical sources of ultraviolet radiation as well. The data produced by the imager is used to study the brightness and isotrophy of the diffuse ultraviolet background.

  7. TORO II: A finite element computer program for nonlinear quasi-static problems in electromagnetics: Part 1, Theoretical background

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, TORO II, is presented in detail. TORO II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear, electromagnetic field problems described by the quasi-static form of Maxwell`s equations. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in TORO II are also outlined. Instructions for the use of the code are documented in SAND96-0903; examples of problems analyzed with the code are also provided in the user`s manual. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  8. A program for confidence interval calculations for a Poisson process with background including systematic uncertainties: POLE 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jan

    2004-04-01

    A Fortran 77 routine has been developed to calculate confidence intervals with and without systematic uncertainties using a frequentist confidence interval construction with a Bayesian treatment of the systematic uncertainties. The routine can account for systematic uncertainties in the background prediction and signal/background efficiencies. The uncertainties may be separately parametrized by a Gauss, log-normal or flat probability density function (PDF), though since a Monte Carlo approach is chosen to perform the necessary integrals a generalization to other parameterizations is particularly simple. Full correlation between signal and background efficiency is optional. The ordering schemes for frequentist construction currently supported are the likelihood ratio ordering (also known as Feldman-Cousins) and Neyman ordering. Optionally, both schemes can be used with conditioning, meaning the probability density function is conditioned on the fact that the actual outcome of the background process can not have been larger than the number of observed events. Program summaryTitle of program: POLE version 1.0 Catalogue identifier: ADTA Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTA Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Computer for which the program is designed: DELL PC 1 GB 2.0 Ghz Pentium IV Operating system under which the program has been tested: RH Linux 7.2 Kernel 2.4.7-10 Programming language used: Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: ˜1.6 Mbytes No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 373745 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2700 Distribution format: tar gzip file Keywords: Confidence interval calculation, Systematic uncertainties Nature of the physical problem: The problem is to calculate a frequentist confidence interval on the parameter of a Poisson process with known background in presence of

  9. Space Technology to Device that Destroys Pathogens Such As Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of a technician at KES Science and Technology Inc., in Kernesaw, Georgia, assembling the AiroCide Ti02, an anthrax-killing device about the size of a small coffee table. The anthrax-killing air scrubber, AiroCide Ti02, is a tabletop-size metal box that bolts to office ceilings or walls. Its fans draw in airborne spores and airflow forces them through a maze of tubes. Inside, hydroxyl radicals (OH-) attack and kill pathogens. Most remaining spores are destroyed by high-energy ultraviolet photons. Building miniature greenhouses for experiments on the International Space Station has led to the invention of this device that annihilates anthrax, a bacteria that can be deadly when inhaled. The research enabling the invention started at the University of Wisconsin's (Madison) Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), one of 17 NASA Commercial Space Centers. A special coating technology used in this anthrax-killing invention is also being used inside WCSAR-built plant growth units on the International Space Station. This commercial research is managed by the Space Product Development Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Space Technology to Device That Destroys Pathogens Such as Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AiroCide Ti02, an anthrax-killing air scrubber manufactured by KES Science and Technology Inc., in Kernesaw, Georgia, looks like a square metal box when it is installed on an office wall. Its fans draw in airborne spores and airflow forces them through a maze of tubes. Inside, hydroxyl radicals (OH-) attack and kill pathogens. Most remaining spores are destroyed by high-energy ultraviolet photons. Building miniature greenhouses for experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the invention of this device that annihilates anthrax-a bacteria that can be deadly when inhaled. The research enabling the invention started at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), one of 17 NASA Commercial Space Centers. A special coating technology used in the anthrax-killing invention is also being used inside WCSAR-built plant growth units on the ISS. This commercial research is managed by the Space Product Development Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. The WIC Program: Background, Trends, and Economic Issues, 2009 Edition. Economic Research Report Number 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Victor; Frazao, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is to safeguard the health of low-income women, infants, and children through age 4 who are at nutritional risk. WIC provides nutritious foods to supplement diets, nutrition education, and referrals to health care and other social services.…

  12. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of the Academic Impact of Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although afterschool programs for children have been operating for decades in some communities, the afterschool movement--the great national awakening to the opportunity afterschool offers--is just a few years old. As public demand for afterschool has grown, so has the demand for accountability. That is particularly true in afterschool programs…

  13. The Effectiveness of Abstinence Education Programs in Reducing Sexual Activity among Youth. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Robert

    Teenage sexual activity is a major problem confronting the nation and has led to a rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, emotional and psychological injuries, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Abstinence education programs for youth have proven effective in reducing early sexual activity. They can also provide the foundation for…

  14. 2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Theater, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  15. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Theater, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  16. 7 CFR 48.4 - Destroying or dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS OF THE... behalf of another who, without good and sufficient cause, shall destroy or abandon, discard as refuse,...

  17. Background report for the formerly utilized Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission sites program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting a program to determine radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Army Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission in the early years of nuclear energy development. Also included in the program are sites used in the Los Alamos plutonium development program and the Trinity atomic bomb test site. Materials, equipment, buildings, and land became contaminated, primarily with naturally occurring radioactive nuclides. They were later decontaminated in accordance with the standards and survey methods in use at that time. Since then, however, radiological criteria, and proposed guidelines for release of such sites for unrestricted use have become more stringent as research on the effects of low-level radiation has progressed. In addition, records documenting some of these decontamination efforts cannot be found, and the final radiological conditions of the sites could not be adequately determined from the records. As a result, the Formerly Utilized Sites Program was initiated in 1974 to identify these formerly used sites and to reevaluate their radiological status. This report covers efforts through June 1980 to determine the radiological status of sites for which the existing conditions could not be clearly defined. Principal contractor facilities and associated properties have already been identified and activities are continuing to identify additional sites. Any new sites located will probably be subcontractor facilities and areas used for disposal of contractor waste or equipment; however, only limited information regarding this equipment and material has been collected to date. As additional information becomes available, supplemental reports will be published.

  18. Nano-discs Destroy Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A new technique, designed with the potential to treat brain cancers, is under study at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago Medical Center. The micron-sized magnetic materials, with vortex-like arrangements of spins, were successfully interfaced with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cells. The microdisks are gold-coated and biofunctionalized with a cancer-targeting antibody. The antibody recognizes unique receptors on the cancer cells and attaches to them (and them alone), leaving surrounding healthy cells unaffected during treatment. Under application of an alternative magnetic field, the magnetic vortices shift, leading to oscillatory motion of the disks and causing the magneto-mechanic stimulus to be transmitted directly to the cancer cell. Probably because of the damage to the cancer cell membrane, this results in cellular signal transduction and amplification, causing initiation of apoptosis (programmed cell death or "cell suicide"). Manifestation of apoptosis is of clinical significance because the malignant cells are known to be almost "immortal" (due to suppressed apoptosis), and, consequently, highly resistant to conventional (chemo- and radio-) therapies. Due to unique properties of the vortex microdisks, an extremely high spin-vortex-induced cytotoxicity effect can be caused by application of unprecedentedly weak magnetic fields. An alternative magnetic field as slow as about 10s Hertz (for comparison, 60 Hertz in a electrical outlet) and as small as less than 90 Oersteds (which is actually less than the field produced by a magnetized razor blade) applied only for 10 minutes was sufficient to cause ~90% cancer cell destruction in vitro. The study has only been conducted in cells in a laboratory; animal trials are being planned. Watch a news clip of the story from ABC-7 News: http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/health&id=7245605 More details on this study can be found in the original research paper: Biofunctionalized

  19. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program. PMID:25274417

  20. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program.

  1. Micromotors to capture and destroy anthrax simulant spores.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Jahir; Pan, Guoqing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Galarnyk, Michael; Wang, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Towards addressing the need for detecting and eliminating biothreats, we describe a micromotor-based approach for screening, capturing, isolating and destroying anthrax simulant spores in a simple and rapid manner with minimal sample processing. The B. globilli antibody-functionalized micromotors can recognize, capture and transport B. globigii spores in environmental matrices, while showing non-interactions with excess of non-target bacteria. Efficient destruction of the anthrax simulant spores is demonstrated via the micromotor-induced mixing of a mild oxidizing solution. The new micromotor-based approach paves a way to dynamic multifunctional systems that rapidly recognize, isolate, capture and destroy biological threats.

  2. Cholecystokinin-destroying activities of canine tissue homogenates.

    PubMed

    Lonovics, J; Penke, B; Rayford, P L; Thompson, J C

    1986-02-01

    We have studied the capacity of different canine tissue homogenates to destroy cholecystokinin in vitro. Tissues from the kidney cortex, lung, pancreas, and small bowel contained significant cholecystokinin-destroying activity. Only small amounts of activity were found in the liver, and no activity was detected in the kidney medulla, the gastric antrum, gallbladder, spleen, or in serum or plasma. The kidney cortex was the richest source of activity. The cholecystokinin-destroying enzyme isolated from the kidney cortex was heat-labile, non-dialyzable, and trypsin-resistant, with an optimum pH between 7 and 7.4. The enzyme was inhibited by chelating agents and by phenylalanine amide, although it was little affected by phenylalanine itself or proteinase inhibitors. The enzyme required divalent cation cofactors for its activity. After inhibition by EDTA, the enzyme could be reactivated completely with Mn2+, but not with Ca2+ or Mg2+ alone. The cholecystokinin-destroying enzyme was bound strongly to membranes, and during differental centrifugation, was sedimented with mitochondrial fractions of kidney cortex. The supernatant fraction of the solubilized enzyme obtained at 105,000 X g had a molecular weight of about 480,000 dalton. Since the enzyme could be inhibited by phenylalanine-amide, it would appear to act at the C-terminal end of the cholecystokinin molecule.

  3. Destroying the event horizon of regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several authors have studied the possibility of overspinning or overcharging an existing black hole to destroy its event horizon and make the central singularity naked. When all the effects are properly taken into account, any attempt to destroy the black hole seems to be doomed to fail, in agreement with the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article, we study the possibility of destroying the event horizon of regular black holes. These objects have no central singularity and therefore they are not protected by the cosmic censorship hypothesis. Our results strongly support the conclusion that regular black holes can be destroyed. If we believe that the central singularity in astrophysical black holes is solved by quantum gravity effects, we might have a chance to see the black hole’s internal region and observe quantum gravity phenomena. As our finding implies the violation of the black hole’s area theorem, the collision of two black holes may release an amount of energy exceeding the Hawking bound, which can be experimentally tested by gravitational wave detectors.

  4. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Successful Selling of the Destroyer Deal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas E.; Morgan, Hugh

    One of the most evident examples of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's mastery of the press and his manipulation of public opinion was the 1940 arrangement of the transfer of 50 United States naval destroyers to Great Britain while that nation was at war with Germany and Italy and while noninterventionist sentiment was quite strong in the United…

  5. Mental Suffering in Protracted Political Conflict: Feeling Broken or Destroyed

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Brian K.; McNeely, Clea A.; Daher, Mahmoud; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Barnes, William; Abu Mallouh, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This mixed-methods exploratory study identified and then developed and validated a quantitative measure of a new construct of mental suffering in the occupied Palestinian territory: feeling broken or destroyed. Methods Group interviews were conducted in 2011 with 68 Palestinians, most aged 30–40, in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip to discern local definitions of functioning. Interview participants articulated of a type of suffering not captured in existing mental health instruments used in regions of political conflict. In contrast to the specific difficulties measured by depression and PTSD (sleep, appetite, energy, flashbacks, avoidance, etc.), participants elaborated a more existential form of mental suffering: feeling that one’s spirit, morale and/or future was broken or destroyed, and emotional and psychological exhaustion. Participants articulated these feelings when describing the rigors of the political and economic contexts in which they live. We wrote survey items to capture these sentiments and administered these items—along with standard survey measures of mental health—to a representative sample of 1,778 32–43 year olds in the occupied Palestinian territory. The same survey questions also were administered to a representative subsample (n = 508) six months earlier, providing repeated measures of the construct. Results Across samples and time, the feeling broken or destroyed scale: 1) comprised a separate factor in exploratory factor analyses, 2) had high inter-item consistency, 3) was reported by both genders and in all regions, 4) showed discriminate validity via moderate correlations with measures of feelings of depression and trauma-related stress, and 5) was more commonly experienced than either feelings of depression or trauma-related stress. Conclusions Feeling broken or destroyed can be reliably measured and distinguished from conventional measures of mental health. Such locally grounded and contextualized

  6. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  7. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  8. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  9. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  10. Determination of an Environmental Background Level of Sr-90 in Urine for the Hanford Bioassay Program Determination of an Environmental Background Level of Sr-90 in Urine for the Hanford Bioassay Program

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.; Rivard, James W.

    2009-11-01

    During the decommissioning and maintenance of some of the facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, workers have potential for a 90Sr intake. However, because of worldwide radioactive fallout, 90Sr is present in our environment, and can be detectable in routine urine bioassay samples. It is important for the Hanford Site bioassay program to discern an occupational intake from a non-occupational environmental one. A detailed study of the background 90Sr in the urine of unexposed Hanford workers was performed. A survey of the Hanford Site bioassay database found 128 Hanford workers who were hired between 1997 and 2002 and who had a very low potential for an occupational exposure prior to the baseline strontium urinalysis. Each urinalysis sample represented excretion during an approximate 24-hr period. The arithmetic mean value for the 128 pre-exposure baselines was 3.6 ± 5.1 mBq d-1. The 90Sr activities in urine varied from -12 to 20 mBq. The 99th percentile result was 16.4 mBqd-1, which was interpreted to mean that 1% of Hanford workers not occupationally exposed to strontium might exceed 16.4 mBq d-1.

  11. The VLT SINFONI Mg II Program for Line Emitters (SIMPLE). II. Background Quasars Probing Z ~ 1 Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroetter, Ilane; Bouché, Nicolas; Péroux, Céline; Murphy, Michael T.; Contini, Thierry; Finley, Hayley

    2015-05-01

    The physical properties of galactic winds are of paramount importance for our understanding of galaxy formation. Fortunately, they can be constrained using background quasars passing near star-forming galaxies (SFGs). From the 14 quasar-galaxy pairs in our Very Large Telescope (VLT)/SINFONI Mg ii Program for Line Emitters sample, we reobserved the 10 brightest galaxies in Hα with the VLT/SINFONI with 0.″ 7 seeing and the corresponding quasar with the VLT/UVES spectrograph. Applying geometrical arguments to these 10 pairs, we find that four are likely probing galactic outflows, three are likely probing extended gaseous disks, and the remaining three are not classifiable because they are viewed face-on. In this paper we present a detailed comparison between the line-of-sight kinematics and the host galaxy emission kinematics for the pairs suitable for wind studies. We find that the kinematic profile shapes (asymmetries) can be well reproduced by a purely geometrical wind model with a constant wind speed, except for one pair (toward J2357-2736) that has the smallest impact parameter b = 6 kpc and requires an accelerated wind flow. Globally, the outflow speeds are ˜100 km s-1 and the mass ejection rates (or {{\\dot{M}}out}) in the gas traced by the low-ionization species are similar to the star formation rate (SFR), meaning that the mass loading factor, η ={{\\dot{M}}out}/SFR, is ≈1.0. The outflow speeds are also smaller than the local escape velocity, which implies that the outflows do not escape the galaxy halo and are likely to fall back into the interstellar medium. Based on observations made at the ESO telescopes under program 080.A-0364(A) 080.A-0364(B) and 079.A-0600(B).

  12. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  13. Biological component of the NIMH clinical research branch collaborative program on the psychobiology of depression: I. Background and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Maas, J W; Koslow, S H; Davis, J M; Katz, M M; Mendels, J; Robins, E; Stokes, P E; Bowden, C L

    1980-11-01

    There are many reports which suggest that patients with effective illness (mania and/or depression) have abnormalities in the functioning of one or more neurobiological systems. At a conference convened by the Clinical Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs, National Institute of Mental Health, these findings were reviewed and some of the factors impeding movement towards a more complete and integrated view of the functioning of neurobiological systems in patients with mania or depression were identified. As a result, a multi-research centre, collaborative approach to the study of the psychobiology of affective disorders was developed. In this collaborative programme, which has now been underway for several years, the focus has been upon: (a) the assessment of the functioning of several different types of biological systems in the same patient, both before and during treatment; (b) obtaining a reasonably large number of patients and comparison subjects; and (c) the use within and across centres of standardized diagnostic categories and behavioural rating methodologies. In this paper the history, background, and rationale for this collaborative effort are reviewed. Those biological systems chosen for study are noted, and issues such as reliability and validity of diagnoses, measurement of state variables, assessment of change with treatment, and logistical and coordinating problems are discussed.

  14. Fractional noise destroys or induces a stochastic bifurcation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qigui; Zeng, Caibin; Wang, Cong

    2013-12-15

    Little seems to be known about the stochastic bifurcation phenomena of non-Markovian systems. Our intention in this paper is to understand such complex dynamics by a simple system, namely, the Black-Scholes model driven by a mixed fractional Brownian motion. The most interesting finding is that the multiplicative fractional noise not only destroys but also induces a stochastic bifurcation under some suitable conditions. So it opens a possible way to explore the theory of stochastic bifurcation in the non-Markovian framework.

  15. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Terrence L.; Wilson, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  16. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  17. USING WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO DESTROY TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-04

    A bench-scale feasibility study on the use of a Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) process to destroy a slurry laden with tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds has been undertaken. WAO is an aqueous phase process in which soluble and/or insoluble waste constituents are oxidized using oxygen or oxygen in air at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 C and 1 MPa to 320 C and 22 MPa. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). Test results indicate WAO is a feasible process for destroying TPB, its primary daughter products [triphenylborane (3PB), diphenylborinic acid (2PB), and phenylboronic acid (1PB)], phenol, and most of the biphenyl byproduct. The required conditions are a temperature of 300 C, a reaction time of 3 hours, 1:1 feed slurry dilution with 2M NaOH solution, the addition of CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O solution (500 mg/L Cu) as catalyst, and the addition of 2000 mL/L of antifoam. However, for the destruction of TPB, its daughter compounds (3PB, 2PB, and 1PB), and phenol without consideration for biphenyl destruction, less severe conditions (280 C and 1-hour reaction time with similar remaining above conditions) are adequate.

  18. Lassa-Vesicular Stomatitis Chimeric Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N.; Cepko, Connie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. IMPORTANCE Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We

  19. [Should the human smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?].

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten

    2004-10-21

    Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was a terror for civilizations around the world for more than 3000 years. Although the disease is eradicated, hundreds of variola virus isolates are kept in two WHO-collaborating facilities, one in USA and one in Russia. In spite of several agreements on destruction, it is now doubtful that these virus isolates will be destroyed. Variola virus may exist in other places and may be used as a biological weapon in war or for terror. Further research on variola virus is thus essential in order to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the virus and to develop new anti-variola virus vaccines and antiviral drugs.

  20. Calculation of wind speeds required to damage or destroy buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Henry

    Determination of wind speeds required to damage or destroy a building is important not only for the improvement of building design and construction but also for the estimation of wind speeds in tornadoes and other damaging storms. For instance, since 1973 the U.S. National Weather Service has been using the well-known Fujita scale (F scale) to estimate the maximum wind speeds of tornadoes [Fujita, 1981]. The F scale classifies tornadoes into 13 numbers, F-0 through F-12. The wind speed (maximum gust speed) associated with each F number is given in Table 1. Note that F-6 through F-12 are for wind speeds between 319 mi/hr (mph) and the sonic velocity (approximately 760 mph; 1 mph = 1.6 km/kr). However, since no tornadoes have been classified to exceed F-5, the F-6 through F-12 categories have no practical meaning [Fujita, 1981].

  1. Method for destroying halocarbon compositions using a critical solvent

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.; Janikowski, Stuart K.

    2006-01-10

    A method for destroying halocarbons. Halocarbon materials are reacted in a dehalogenation process wherein they are combined with a solvent in the presence of a catalyst. A hydrogen-containing solvent is preferred which functions as both a solvating agent and hydrogen donor. To augment the hydrogen donation capacity of the solvent if needed (or when non-hydrogen-containing solvents are used), a supplemental hydrogen donor composition may be employed. In operation, at least one of the temperature and pressure of the solvent is maintained near, at, or above a critical level. For example, the solvent may be in (1) a supercritical state; (2) a state where one of the temperature or pressure thereof is at or above critical; or (3) a state where at least one of the temperature and pressure thereof is near-critical. This system provides numerous benefits including improved reaction rates, efficiency, and versatility.

  2. Destroying a topological quantum bit by condensing Ising vortices.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhihao; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger

    2014-12-09

    The imminent realization of topologically protected qubits in fabricated systems will provide not only an elementary implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computing architecture, but also an experimental vehicle for the general study of topological order. The simplest topological qubit harbours what is known as a Z2 liquid phase, which encodes information via a degeneracy depending on the system's topology. Elementary excitations of the phase are fractionally charged objects called spinons, or Ising flux vortices called visons. At zero temperature, a Z2 liquid is stable under deformations of the Hamiltonian until spinon or vison condensation induces a quantum-phase transition destroying the topological order. Here we use quantum Monte Carlo to study a vison-induced transition from a Z2 liquid to a valence-bond solid in a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. Our results indicate that this critical point is beyond the description of the standard Landau paradigm.

  3. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  4. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  5. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  6. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  7. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  8. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  9. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  10. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 223.12 Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest...

  11. Student Financing in the Health Professions: Dependence on and Interactions between the Higher Education Act and the Public Health Service Act Financial Aid Programs: A Background Paper. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, Washington, DC.

    This paper identifies issues that underlie student financing of education in the health professions in terms of the interrelationships and interactions between financial aid programs under Title IV of the Higher Education Act and Titles VII and VIII of the Public Health Service Act. Section 1 provides background to the issues by describing…

  12. The Model U.N. Program: Teaching Unreality. A United Nations Assessment Project Study. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulick, Thomas G.; Merkle, Melanie L.

    An evaluation of the instructional materials used by high school and college students who participated in the Model United Nations Program showed that the program is uncritical of the United Nations (U.N.) and biased against the United States and the West in general. These materials are strongly promoted by many prominent educational professional…

  13. Evaluations Backgrounder: "A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before-school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  14. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before-school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  15. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  16. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  17. Some Wildfire Ignition Causes Pose More Risk of Destroying Houses than Others.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kathryn M; Penman, Trent D; Price, Owen F

    2016-01-01

    Many houses are at risk of being destroyed by wildfires. While previous studies have improved our understanding of how, when and why houses are destroyed by wildfires, little attention has been given to how these fires started. We compiled a dataset of wildfires that destroyed houses in New South Wales and Victoria and, by comparing against wildfires where no houses were destroyed, investigated the relationship between the distribution of ignition causes for wildfires that did and did not destroy houses. Powerlines, lightning and deliberate ignitions are the main causes of wildfires that destroyed houses. Powerlines were 6 times more common in the wildfires that destroyed houses data than in the wildfires where no houses were destroyed data and lightning was 2 times more common. For deliberate- and powerline-caused wildfires, temperature, wind speed, and forest fire danger index were all significantly higher and relative humidity significantly lower (P < 0.05) on the day of ignition for wildfires that destroyed houses compared with wildfires where no houses were destroyed. For all powerline-caused wildfires the first house destroyed always occurred on the day of ignition. In contrast, the first house destroyed was after the day of ignition for 78% of lightning-caused wildfires. Lightning-caused wildfires that destroyed houses were significantly larger (P < 0.001) in area than human-caused wildfires that destroyed houses. Our results suggest that targeting fire prevention strategies around ignition causes, such as improving powerline safety and targeted arson reduction programmes, and reducing fire spread may decrease the number of wildfires that destroy houses. PMID:27598325

  18. Some Wildfire Ignition Causes Pose More Risk of Destroying Houses than Others

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Trent D.; Price, Owen F.

    2016-01-01

    Many houses are at risk of being destroyed by wildfires. While previous studies have improved our understanding of how, when and why houses are destroyed by wildfires, little attention has been given to how these fires started. We compiled a dataset of wildfires that destroyed houses in New South Wales and Victoria and, by comparing against wildfires where no houses were destroyed, investigated the relationship between the distribution of ignition causes for wildfires that did and did not destroy houses. Powerlines, lightning and deliberate ignitions are the main causes of wildfires that destroyed houses. Powerlines were 6 times more common in the wildfires that destroyed houses data than in the wildfires where no houses were destroyed data and lightning was 2 times more common. For deliberate- and powerline-caused wildfires, temperature, wind speed, and forest fire danger index were all significantly higher and relative humidity significantly lower (P < 0.05) on the day of ignition for wildfires that destroyed houses compared with wildfires where no houses were destroyed. For all powerline-caused wildfires the first house destroyed always occurred on the day of ignition. In contrast, the first house destroyed was after the day of ignition for 78% of lightning-caused wildfires. Lightning-caused wildfires that destroyed houses were significantly larger (P < 0.001) in area than human-caused wildfires that destroyed houses. Our results suggest that targeting fire prevention strategies around ignition causes, such as improving powerline safety and targeted arson reduction programmes, and reducing fire spread may decrease the number of wildfires that destroy houses. PMID:27598325

  19. Some Wildfire Ignition Causes Pose More Risk of Destroying Houses than Others.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kathryn M; Penman, Trent D; Price, Owen F

    2016-01-01

    Many houses are at risk of being destroyed by wildfires. While previous studies have improved our understanding of how, when and why houses are destroyed by wildfires, little attention has been given to how these fires started. We compiled a dataset of wildfires that destroyed houses in New South Wales and Victoria and, by comparing against wildfires where no houses were destroyed, investigated the relationship between the distribution of ignition causes for wildfires that did and did not destroy houses. Powerlines, lightning and deliberate ignitions are the main causes of wildfires that destroyed houses. Powerlines were 6 times more common in the wildfires that destroyed houses data than in the wildfires where no houses were destroyed data and lightning was 2 times more common. For deliberate- and powerline-caused wildfires, temperature, wind speed, and forest fire danger index were all significantly higher and relative humidity significantly lower (P < 0.05) on the day of ignition for wildfires that destroyed houses compared with wildfires where no houses were destroyed. For all powerline-caused wildfires the first house destroyed always occurred on the day of ignition. In contrast, the first house destroyed was after the day of ignition for 78% of lightning-caused wildfires. Lightning-caused wildfires that destroyed houses were significantly larger (P < 0.001) in area than human-caused wildfires that destroyed houses. Our results suggest that targeting fire prevention strategies around ignition causes, such as improving powerline safety and targeted arson reduction programmes, and reducing fire spread may decrease the number of wildfires that destroy houses.

  20. Public Schools and the Original Federal Land Grant Program. A Background Paper from the Center on Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This background paper from the Center on Education Policy (CEP) examines the origins, history, and evolution of federal land grants for public schools, as well as their significance as an early example of the federal role in education. It is intended to serve as a more detailed companion to another CEP paper, "Get the Federal Government Out of…

  1. A Multilevel Framework for Recruiting and Supporting Graduate Students from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds in School Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grapin, Sally L.; Lee, Erica T.; Jaafar, Dounia

    2015-01-01

    The lack of cultural diversity among practitioners and trainers in the field of school psychology has been recognized as a longstanding problem. In particular, individuals from racial, ethnic, and linguistic minority and international backgrounds often encounter a range of barriers to pursuing graduate study in school psychology. Given the urgent…

  2. CLOSE BINARIES WITH INFRARED EXCESS: DESTROYERS OF WORLDS?

    SciTech Connect

    Matranga, M.; Drake, J. J.; Kashyap, V. L.; Marengo, M.; Kuchner, M. J.

    2010-09-10

    We present the results of a Spitzer photometric investigation into the IR excesses of close binary systems. In a sample of 10 objects, excesses in Infrared Array Camera and MIPS24 bands implying the presence of warm dust are found for 3. For two objects, we do not find excesses reported in earlier IRAS studies. We discuss the results in the context of the scenario suggested by Rhee and co-workers, in which warm dust is continuously created by destructive collisions between planetary bodies. A simple numerical model for the steady-state distribution of dust in one IR excess system shows a central clearing of radius 0.22 AU caused by dynamical perturbations from the binary star. This is consistent with the size of the central clearing derived from the Spitzer spectral energy distribution. We conclude that close binaries could be efficient 'destroyers of worlds' and lead to destabilization of the orbits of their planetary progeny by magnetically driven angular momentum loss and secular shrinkage of the binary separation.

  3. Advanced wind turbine with lift-destroying aileron for shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint; Juengst, Theresa M.; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1996-06-18

    An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an aileron with a bottom surface that slopes upwardly at an angle toward the nose region of the aileron. The aileron rotates about a center of rotation which is located within the envelope of the aileron, but does not protrude substantially into the air flowing past the aileron while the aileron is deflected to angles within a control range of angles. This allows for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor. When the aileron is rotated to angles within a shutdown range of deflection angles, lift-destroying, turbulence-producing cross-flow of air through a flow gap, and turbulence created by the aileron, create sufficient drag to stop rotation of the rotor assembly. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration.

  4. Parasitoid virus-like particles destroy Drosophila cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Rizki, R M; Rizki, T M

    1990-11-01

    Parasitoid wasps must avoid the destructive effects of the host's cellular defense system in order to exploit the host hemocoel as a suitable environment for their survival. To protect their eggs from encapsulation by Drosophila melanogaster blood cells, Leptopilina heterotoma females inject a factor that selectively destroys lamellocytes, the type of Drosophila blood cell involved in recognition and encapsulation of large foreign objects. Other types of host blood cells, including the phagocytic plasmatocytes, remain functional. This report demonstrates that the destructive factor for lamellocytes is a virus-like particle (VLP) stored in the reservoir of an accessory gland associated with the female wasp reproductive system. We show that VLPs enter Drosophila blood cells in vitro. VLPs are found free in the cytoplasm of lamellocytes but are confined to phagocytic vesicles of plasmatocytes. As lamellocytes are susceptible to the VLP infection and plasmatocytes are not, we conclude that the mode of VLP entry and its disposition in the cytoplasm determine the fate of the infected host blood cell. PMID:2122461

  5. Implementation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program: Synthesis of State Evaluations. Background for the Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbach, Margo; Ellwood, Marilyn; Irvin, Carol; Young, Cheryl; Conroy, Wendy; Quinn, Brian; Kell, Megan

    The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provides funds to states to expand health insurance coverage for low-income children who are uninsured. States have a great deal of flexibility to design and implement SCHIP, resulting in considerable diversity across states. Enrollment reached 3.4 million in federal fiscal year 2000 and…

  6. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Although afterschool programs for children have been operating for many years in some communities, the afterschool movement--the great national awakening to the opportunity afterschool offers--is just a few years old. As public demand for afterschool has grown, so has the demand for accountability. That is particularly true in afterschool…

  7. Readings in Homemaker Services; Selected Papers Presenting the Background, Uses and Practices of Homemaker-Home Health Aide Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Homemaker-Home Health Aide Services, New York, NY.

    Prepared by the National Council for Homemaker Services for those concerned with homemaker programs, this document contains selected papers which summarize the developments of the homemaker-home health aide service. Sections are: (1) The Philosophy and Goals of Homemaker-Home Health Aide Service, with papers by Elizabeth G. Watkins and Ellen…

  8. Differences in Background and Drug Use History Among Three Types of Drug Users Entering Drug Therapy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Bill; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    1977-01-01

    The 26,316 patients who entered drug therapy programs participating in the DARP from June, 1971, to March, 1973, and who had used drugs for at least two years were grouped into three drug use categories. Differences were observed among these three groups regarding the first drug used daily and the age at first drug use. (Author)

  9. Validation procedures used in the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is (1) to document the data validation process developed for the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP); (2) to offer members of other project teams and potential data users the benefit of the experience gained in the BSCP in the area of developing project-specific data validation criteria and procedures based on best available guidance and technical information; and (3) to provide input and guidance to the efforts under way within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to develop standard operating procedures to streamline and optimize the analytical laboratory data validation process for general use by making it more technically rigorous, consistent, and cost effective. Lessons learned from the BSCP are also provided to meet this end (Sect. 1.3).

  10. Access to "Jiggasha program: a family planning communication approach" and its exposure to the selected background characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M W; Khan, H T; Begum, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of "Jiggasha," an innovative communication approach for the promotion of family planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data from the 1996 Jiggasha follow-up survey were used, which gathered information by interviewing a network sample of 1862 married women and a subsample of 608 men. The study used the sample constituted by women respondents and included data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondents and their knowledge, attitude and practice relating to contraceptives. Findings showed that Jiggasha respondents have more access to radio than television. All respondents reported having a radio in their homes and they emphasized the importance of broadcasting more family planning messages via both electronic media. Only 16% of the women in the study setting were exposed to group meetings. Of the respondents reporting participation in group meetings, 38.25% joined in a Jiggasha meeting, 23.15% in a Grameen Bank group meeting, and 4.70% in a Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee group meeting. Logistic regression analysis indicated more access to Jiggashas among women over 30 years of age than among the younger age groups. Religion and education levels of respondents have significant impact on access to Jiggashas. Husbands' approval plays an important role among the Jiggasha respondents in using family planning method. This study provides important information for policy-makers to make family planning program a success. PMID:12179658

  11. Nevada's Class-Size Reduction Program. Nevada Revised Statutes 388.700-388.730: "Program To Reduce the Pupil-Teacher Ratio." Background Paper 97-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, H. Pepper

    In 1989, the Nevada Legislature enacted the Class-Size Reduction (CSR) Act. The measure was designed to reduce the pupil-teacher ratio in the public schools, particularly in the earliest grades. The program was scheduled to proceed in several phases. The first step reduced the student-teacher ratio in selected kindergartens and first grade classes…

  12. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  13. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  14. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  15. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  16. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  17. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  18. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  19. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  20. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  1. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  2. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  3. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine §...

  4. 19 CFR 191.71 - Drawback on articles destroyed under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback on articles destroyed under Customs supervision. 191.71 Section 191.71 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... articles destroyed under Customs supervision. (a) Procedure. At least 7 working days before the...

  5. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  6. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  7. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  8. 9 CFR 51.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 51.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) Cattle and bison. The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal indemnity by the...

  9. 9 CFR 51.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 51.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) Cattle and bison. The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal indemnity by the...

  10. 9 CFR 51.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 51.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) Cattle and bison. The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal indemnity by the...

  11. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  12. 12 CFR 1270.7 - Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced consolidated obligations. 1270.7 Section 1270.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES Consolidated Obligations § 1270.7 Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced consolidated obligations....

  13. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to... payment of Federal indemnity by the U.S. Department of Agriculture as provided in § 51.24: (a) As long...

  14. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to... payment of Federal indemnity by the U.S. Department of Agriculture as provided in § 51.24: (a) As long...

  15. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System lands without advertisement when necessary...

  16. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System lands without advertisement when necessary...

  17. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System lands without advertisement when necessary...

  18. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System lands without advertisement when necessary...

  19. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Destroys Thyroid Tissue Left after Surgery

    Cancer.gov

    A low dose of radioactive iodine given after surgery for thyroid cancer destroyed (ablated) residual thyroid tissue as effectively as a higher dose, with fewer side effects and less exposure to radiation, according to two randomized controlled trials.

  2. 169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by fire. 'Noble Castle' stood atop the ridge near Lakes Grace and Nora, overlooking Volta. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  3. E3 protein of bovine coronavirus is a receptor-destroying enzyme with acetylesterase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, R.; Luytjes, W.; Leider, J.; Spaan, W.; Palese, P.

    1988-12-01

    In addition to members of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, several coronaviruses have been shown to possess receptor-destroying activities. Purified bovine coronavirus (BCV) preparations have an esterase activity which inactivates O-acetylsialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibits this receptor-destroying activity of BCV, suggesting that the viral enzyme is a serine esterase. Treatment of purified BCV with (/sup 3/H)DFP and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins revealed that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein was specifically phosphorylated. This finding suggests that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein. Furthermore, treatment of BCV with DFP dramatically reduced its infectivity in a plaque assay. It is assumed that the esterase activity of BCV is required in an early step of virus replication, possible during virus entry or uncoating.

  4. The effect of sulphate on thiamine-destroying activity in rumen content cultures in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A; Laarveld, B; Patience, J F; Francis, S I; Christensen, D A

    1993-01-01

    The effect of sulphur on thiamine-destroying activity was studied in native or thiamine-spiked rumen content cultures. The treatments consisted of water [control (Ctrl)], sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulphate (Na2SO4). A net gain (relative to 0 h) of thiamine in native cultures was observed for at least 48 h at levels of S ranging from 0.25 to 8 mg S added per ml of the culture and also in the Ctrl and respective NaCl cultures. However, after 48 h of incubation thiamine concentration was lower (p < 0.05) in native cultures treated with Na2SO4 relative to Ctrl and NaCl treatments. There was a linear (p < 0.03) time trend indicating an effect of Na2SO4 over time on changes in thiamine concentration in native rumen cultures. In thiamine-spiked rumen content cultures, the cultures treated with Na2SO4 produced higher (p < 0.05) thiamine-destroying activity. There was no effect of cation (Na) on thiamine-destroying activity. Initial heat treatment of thiamine-spiked cultures inactivated part of the thiamine-destroying activity. There were no differences among treatments in heat treated cultures. It is concluded that sulphate increases thiamine-destroying activity in the rumen content and the destructive mechanism involves thermolabile factor(s), however, the ruminal synthesis of thiamine is not affected by sulphate.

  5. Factors shaping communities of pyrophilous macrofungi in microhabitats destroyed by illegal campfires.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Jolanta J; Kruk, Andrzej; Penczak, Tadeusz; Minter, David

    2012-09-01

    Pyrophilous macrofungi (PM) are a narrowly specialised group appearing exclusively in plant communities recently destroyed by fire. Their significance has hitherto been studied only for vegetation destroyed over large areas, while in small areas of fire, i.e., microhabitats they are viewed as independent components of the community linked only to the substratum. In the present work, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) species structures of PM in microhabitats depend on the type of plant community, (2) PM form communities on a small scale which are similar in structure and function to analogous large scale communities. We studied 20 surfaces destroyed by illegal campfires in four natural plant communities: oak-hornbeam forest Tilio-Carpinetum (TC), lowland acidophilus beech forest Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum (LF), suboceanic pine forest Leucobryo-Pinetum (LP), and an initial-phase xerothermic grassland community on a transitional habitat (MH). TC and LF habitats were conspicuously more favourable for PM than LP and MH. In TC and LF fire leads to significant loss of mycorrhizae in the upper layer of leaf litter. This provides a development opportunity for ectomycorrhizal PM species which, having little competition, substitute for the destroyed fragments of mycorrhizal networks. In LP and MH fire over a small surface does not destroy more deeply located mycorrhizal associations. Another important factor for PM influencing the quality of environment is the fertility of soil: highest in TC, intermediate in LF and lowest in LP and MH. The results casts doubt on the concept that PM are only synusia linked to the substratum (burnt wood). PM growing in microhabitats constitute an important group of organisms which facilitate rapid regeneration of plant community fragments destroyed by fire. PMID:22954342

  6. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... backgrounds, cultures, and experiences. A diverse workforce enables the DOI to provide a measure of... organizational group. The records of those applicants not selected are destroyed in accordance with DOI's...

  7. Executive Summary: Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Background information on, and the objectives of, the NASA Global Biology Research Program are given. The following issues were addressed: (1) geographic distribution of wetland parameters, (2) the processes of wetland material fluxes, and (3) the relation of local fluxes with global processes. Wetland inventorying and categorizing, gas-phase exchanges with the atmosphere, material exchange with the aquatic environment, and material storage in wetland sediments were identified as topics requiring further research.

  8. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the east side showing walkway and building foundation. View facing west-northwest. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 12 CFR 966.6 - Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consolidated obligations. 966.6 Section 966.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.6 Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced consolidated obligations. United States statutes and regulations of the Department of the Treasury now...

  10. 12 CFR 966.6 - Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consolidated obligations. 966.6 Section 966.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.6 Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced consolidated obligations. United States statutes and regulations of the Department of the Treasury now...

  11. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  12. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  13. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  14. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  15. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  16. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  17. 24 CFR 200.159 - Relief on account of lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced debentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relief on account of lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced debentures. 200.159 Section 200.159 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 24 CFR 200.159 - Relief on account of lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced debentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relief on account of lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced debentures. 200.159 Section 200.159 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 9 CFR 51.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 51.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... indemnity by the United States Department of Agriculture to an owner whose breeding swine are destroyed as... $10 per head for all other breeding swine. Prior to payment of indemnity, proof of destruction 4...

  20. 9 CFR 51.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 51.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... indemnity by the United States Department of Agriculture to an owner whose breeding swine are destroyed as... $10 per head for all other breeding swine. Prior to payment of indemnity, proof of destruction 4...

  1. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  2. Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

    1994-09-01

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

  3. Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development. Youth Employment Policies and Programs for the 1890s. Background Analysis for the Department of Labor Employment and Training Components of the Youth Act of 1980. Youth Knowledge Development Report 2.12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Robert

    Prepared as a basic background document for an interagency task force on youth employment, this report analyzes youth employment policies and programs for the 1980s. The main body of the report consists of three sections. Section 1, entitled "Policy Perspectives on the Youth Employment Problem," contains a discussion of pathways to career…

  4. When does noise destroy or enhance synchronous behavior in two mutually coupled light-controlled oscillators?

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ávila, G M; Kurths, J; Guisset, J L; Deneubourg, J L

    2010-11-01

    We study the influence of white gaussian noise in a system of two mutually coupled light-controlled oscillators (LCOs). We show that under certain noise intensity conditions, noise can destroy or enhance synchronization. We build some Arnold tonguelike structures in order to explain the effects due to noise. It is remarkable that noise-enhanced synchronization is possible only when the variances of the noise acting on each of the LCOs are different.

  5. The Learning Effects of an Ecology Enrichment Summer Program on Gifted Students from Mainstream and Diverse Cultural Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Wu, Jiun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chin

    2006-01-01

    Enrichment is one of the important educational models for gifted students. However, the research on gifted enrichment programs rarely leads to instructional interventions for culturally diverse students. The purposes of this study were: (a) to propose an ecology enrichment summer program for gifted students from mainstream and diverse cultural…

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.990 - May Federal agencies abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies real property? 102-75.990 Section 102-75.990 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies § 102-75.990 May Federal agencies abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies real property?...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.990 - May Federal agencies abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies real property? 102-75.990 Section 102-75.990 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies § 102-75.990 May Federal agencies abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies real property?...

  8. 41 CFR 102-36.305 - May we abandon or destroy excess personal property without reporting it to GSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy excess personal property without reporting it to GSA? 102-36.305 Section 102-36.305 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 36-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Disposition of Excess Personal Property Abandonment/destruction § 102-36.305 May we abandon or destroy excess personal...

  9. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... destroyed knowledge test report must be made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA,...

  10. 49 CFR 375.709 - If a shipment is totally lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER... household goods shipment is totally lost or destroyed in transit. The following two conditions also apply... with respect to a shipment of household goods you or your agent(s) totally lost or destroyed in...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.1000 - How is the decision made to abandon, destroy, or donate property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How is the decision made to abandon, destroy, or donate property? 102-75.1000 Section 102-75.1000 Public Contracts and... Determinations § 102-75.1000 How is the decision made to abandon, destroy, or donate property? No property...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.1000 - How is the decision made to abandon, destroy, or donate property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the decision made to abandon, destroy, or donate property? 102-75.1000 Section 102-75.1000 Public Contracts and... Determinations § 102-75.1000 How is the decision made to abandon, destroy, or donate property? No property...

  13. 41 CFR 102-36.305 - May we abandon or destroy excess personal property without reporting it to GSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... destroy excess personal property without reporting it to GSA? 102-36.305 Section 102-36.305 Public... without reporting it to GSA? Yes, you may abandon or destroy excess personal property when you have made a... when it has neither utility nor monetary value (either as an item or as scrap)....

  14. Historical Overview: (1) Economical, Political, and Social Background of Contemporary Canada; (2) Administrative History to 1969; (3) Programs and Curricula Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorino, Albert

    Against the background of current educational retrenchment and general economic crisis, this report traces the economic, social, political and educational influences that shape contemporary Canada. The instability of the economy and its domination by the United States, the transformation from a bicultural into a multicultural society, women's…

  15. Enhancing Literacy for Learners with Diverse Language and Cultural Backgrounds, Who Are Studying in Adult Basic Education Programs. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Carol; Lyons, Sara

    The guide is designed for teachers of adult basic education students with language backgrounds other than English, limited education, and low literacy skills coupled with relatively high oral skills in English. The first chapter outlines common educational, sociocultural, and linguistic characteristics of this target group. The second chapter…

  16. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOEpatents

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    2000-01-01

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  17. Possible evidence of destroying small PAH particles by radiation from AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qi-Chen; Wang, Jing; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2015-02-01

    The issue of destroying small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) particles by radiation from AGNs is examined through optical narrow-emission line ratios of a sample of type II AGNs. We find that narrow-line ratios [OI]λ6300/Hα and [SII]λ6716, λ6731/Hα have prominent correlations with the PAH 11.3/7.7 ratio in our selected sample of AGNs. Because of the marginal (and in some cases no) dependence of the PAH ratio on the gas metallicity, a possible explanation for the correlations is the destruction of small PAH particles by the hard ionizing field associated with the AGNs.

  18. Sensors based on recycled optical fibers destroyed by the catastrophic fuse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Paulo S.; Domingues, M. F.; Antunes, Paulo; Alberto, Nélia; Frias, Ana Rita; Ferreira, R. A. S.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decades the fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) micro cavities based sensors have become one of the most attractive optical fiber sensing technologies. However, its production requires a significant economical investment. We propose a cost effective solution based on micro cavity generated by the recycling of optical fibers destroyed through the catastrophic fuse effect. This technique considerably reduces the experimental complexity and the production costs. In this paper, the application of these sensors in the monitoring of several parameters, such as refractive index, pressure, strain and temperature is presented.

  19. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programs: What Have We Learned? Meeting Highlights and Background Briefing Report. Report of a Family Impact Seminar (Washington, D.C., May 26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Theodora; Herendeen, Lisa

    This report contains highlights from a seminar on teenage pregnancy prevention programs. Comments by these panelists are summarized: Kristin Moore, senior research associate, Child Trends, Inc.; Dennis McBride, consultant for the Adolescent Family Life Office; Susan Newcomer, consultant for the National Institute of Child Health and Development;…

  20. The CollegeKeys Compact[TM]: 2011 Catalog of Effective Practices. Programs and Practices That Expand Options for Students from Low-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The CollegeKeys Compact[TM] is a national call to action to school districts, colleges and universities, state education agencies, and nonprofit organizations to identify, share and expand programs and practices that address the needs and challenges of low-income students and help them get ready for, get into and get through college. The College…

  1. The CollegeKeys Compact[TM]: 2012 Catalog of Effective Practices. Programs and Practices that Expand Options for Students from Low-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The CollegeKeys Compact[TM] is a national call to action to school districts, colleges and universities, state education agencies, and nonprofit organizations to identify, share and expand programs and practices that address the needs and challenges of low-income students and help them get ready for, get into and get through college. The College…

  2. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  3. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Tanacross Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Curtin, G.C.; Griscom, Andrew; Singer, D.A.; Smith, James G.

    1976-01-01

    The Tanacross quadrangle, consisting of 17,400 km 2 (6,700 mi 2) in east-central Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides the background information for a folio of maps on the geology, geophysics, reconnaissance geochemistry, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. Revisions to the previously published geologic map of the Tanacross quadrangle, 18 new potassium-argon ages, and a comprehensive bibliography are also included.

  4. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resources maps of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Cox, D.P.; Detra, D.E.; Miller, T.P.; Wilson, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular and a companion folio of maps represent results of integrated field and laboratory studies by an interdisciplinary team on geology, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral resources, geochronology, and energy resources to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. The maps contain descriptive text, explanatory material, tables and diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides the background data for the mineral and energy resource assessment and integrates the component maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  5. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Nabesna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Griscom, Andrew; Marsh, S.P.; Singer, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Nabesna quadrangle in south-central Alaska is the first of the l:250,000-scale Alaskan quadrangles to be investigated by an interdisciplinary research team in order to furnish a mineral resource assessment of the State. The assessment of the 17,600-km 2 16,800-mi21 quadrangle is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and satellite imagery. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, diagrams, and accompanying discussions. This report provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource assessment. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the Nabesna quadrangle.

  6. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resource maps of the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Church, S.E.; Frisken, J.G.; Wilson, F.H.; Yount, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular, in conjunction with a companion folio of MF-series maps, two I-series geologic maps, and three bulletins, represents the results of integrated field and laboratory studies on the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, paleontology, geochronology, and mineral resources of the quadrangles. These studies were undertaken to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. Each map contains descriptive text, explanatory material, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides background information for the mineral resource assessment map (MF-1539-1) and integrates the component M F- and I-series maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  7. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Talkeetna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bruce L.; Curtin, G.C.; Griscom, Andrew; Nelson, S.W.; Singer, D.A.; Steele, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The Talkeetna 1? by 3? quadrangle, which consists of about 17,155 km 2 in south-central Alaska, was investigated by integrated field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat data interpretation for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. Past mineral production has been limited to gold from the Yentna district, but the quadrangle contains potentially significant resources of tin and silver and possibly a few other commodities including chromite and copper. The results of the mineral resource assessment are given in a folio of maps which are accompanied by descriptive texts, diagrams, tables, and pertinent references. This Circular provides background information on these investigations and integrates the component maps. A bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle.

  8. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the McCarthy Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKevett, E.M.; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Case, J.E.; Robinson, Keith; Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The McCarthy 1? by 3? quadrangle, in eastern south-central Alaska, contains potentially significant resources of copper and possibly of a few other commodities. This circular and a companion folio of maps represent results of integrated field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and satellite imagery that are designed to provide a modern mineral resource assessment of the quadrangle. The maps are accompanied by descriptive texts, explanatory material, pertinent references, and by a few auxiliary tables and diagrams. This circular provides background information for the mineral resource assessment and integrates the component maps. It also includes a master list of references (see 'Bibliography') relevant to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle.

  9. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallivan, Justin

    2012-03-21

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  10. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Gallivan, Justin [Emory University

    2016-07-12

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.1030 - May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner they decide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1030 May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.1030 - May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner they decide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1030 May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.1030 - May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner they decide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1030 May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.1030 - May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner they decide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1030 May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.1030 - May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner they decide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1030 May Federal agencies abandon or destroy property in any manner...

  16. Computational study on superparamagnetic hyperthermia with biocompatible SPIONs to destroy the cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caizer, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superparamagnetic hyperthermia (SPMHT) appears nowadays as the most promising method of the future, non-invasive and with low toxicity, for destroys the cancer cells through the magnetic relaxation in superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In our research we focused on finding the optimal conditions using a 3D computational study to obtain a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) by the magnetic relaxation in Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which give the most pronounced SAR and with low toxicity on cells. The effect of the diameter of the nanoparticles, frequency and amplitude of external alternating magnetic field and the thickness of biological coating of nanoparticles in the case of their encapsulation in biocompatible membranes, like liposomes (Ls) and cyclodextrins (CDs), on Néel-Brown magnetic relaxation and maximum SAR, are presented and discussed in this paper, within the biological admitted limit.

  17. How the antimicrobial peptides destroy bacteria cell membrane: Translocations vs. membrane buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Fang, Weihai

    2012-02-01

    In this study, coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation with implementation of electrostatic interactions is developed in constant pressure and surface tension ensemble to elucidate how the antimicrobial peptide molecules affect bilayer cell membrane structure and kill bacteria. We find that peptides with different chemical-physical properties exhibit different membrane obstructing mechanisms. Peptide molecules can destroy vital functions of the affected bacteria by translocating across their membranes via worm-holes, or by associating with membrane lipids to form hydrophilic cores trapped inside the hydrophobic domain of the membranes. In the latter scenario, the affected membranes are strongly corrugated (buckled) in accord with very recent experimental observations [G. E. Fantner et al., Nat. Nanotech., 5 (2010), pp. 280-285].

  18. Cancer-secreted miR-105 destroys vascular endothelial barriers to promote metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weiying; Fong, Miranda Y.; Min, Yongfen; Somlo, George; Liu, Liang; Palomares, Melanie R.; Yu, Yang; Chow, Amy; O’Connor, Sean Timothy Francis; Chin, Andrew R.; Yen, Yun; Wang, Yafan; Marcusson, Eric G.; Chu, Peiguo; Wu, Jun; Wu, Xiwei; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Li, Zhuo; Gao, Hanlin; Ren, Xiubao; Boldin, Mark P.; Lin, Pengnian Charles; Wang, Shizhen Emily

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cancer-secreted miRNAs are emerging mediators of cancer–host crosstalk. Here we show that miR-105, which is characteristically expressed and secreted by metastatic breast cancer cells, is a potent regulator of migration through targeting the tight junction protein ZO-1. In endothelial monolayers, exosome-mediated transfer of cancer-secreted miR-105 efficiently destroys tight junctions and the integrity of these natural barriers against metastasis. Overexpression of miR-105 in non-metastatic cancer cells induces metastasis and vascular permeability in distant organs, whereas inhibition of miR-105 in highly metastatic tumors alleviates these effects. MiR-105 can be detected in the circulation at the pre-metastatic stage, and its levels in the blood and tumor are associated with ZO-1 expression and metastatic progression in early-stage breast cancer. PMID:24735924

  19. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  20. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  1. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments. PMID:16892621

  2. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments.

  3. Seek and destroy process: Listeria monocytogenes process controls in the ready-to-eat meat and poultry industry.

    PubMed

    Malley, Thomas J V; Butts, John; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The majority of human listeriosis cases appear to be caused by consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated at the time of consumption with high levels of Listeria monocytogenes. Although strategies to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes in RTE products are critical for reducing the incidence of human listeriosis, control of postprocessing environmental contamination of RTE meat and poultry products is an essential component of a comprehensive L. monocytogenes intervention and control program. Complete elimination of postprocessing L. monocytogenes contamination is challenging because this pathogen is common in various environments outside processing plants and can persist in food processing environments for years. Persistent L. monocytogenes strains in processing plants have been identified as the most common postprocessing contaminants of RTE foods and the cause of multiple listeriosis outbreaks. Identification and elimination of L. monocytogenes strains persisting in processing plants is thus critical for (i) compliance with zero-tolerance regulations for L. monocytogenes in U.S. RTE meat and poultry products and (ii) reduction of the incidence of human listeriosis. The seek-and-destroy process is a systematic approach to finding sites of persistent strains (niches) in food processing plants, with the goal of either eradicating or mitigating effects of these strains. This process has been used effectively to address persistent L. monocytogenes contamination in food processing plants, as supported by peer-reviewed evidence detailed here. Thus, a regulatory environment that encourages aggressive environmental Listeria testing is required to facilitate continued use of this science-based strategy for controlling L. monocytogenes in RTE foods.

  4. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  5. Anthrax surrogate spores are destroyed by PDT mediated by phenothiazinium dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Some Gram-positive bacteria (including the causative agent of anthrax - Bacillus anthracis) survive conditions of stress and starvation by producing dormant stage spores. The spore"s multilayered capsule consists of inner and outer membranes, cortex, proteinaceous spore coat, and in some species an exosporium. These outer layers enclose dehydrated and condensed DNA, saturated with small, acid-soluble proteins. These protective structures make spores highly resistant to damage by heat, radiation, and commonly employed anti-bacterial agents. Previously Bacillus spores have been shown to be resistant to photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using dyes and light that easily destroy the corresponding vegetative bacteria, but recently we have discovered that they are susceptible to PDI. Photoinactivation, however, is only possible if phenothiazinium dyes are used. Dimethylmethylene blue, methylene blue, new methylene blue and toluidine blue O are all effective photosensitizers. Alternative photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal, polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugate, a tricationic porphyrin and benzoporphyrin derivative are ineffective against spores even though they can easily kill vegetative cells. Spores of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are most susceptible, B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus are also killed, while B. megaterium is resistant. Photoinactivation is most effective when excess dye is washed from the spores showing that the dye binds to the spores and that excess dye in solution can quench light delivery. The relatively mild conditions needed for spore killing could have applications for treating wounds contaminated by anthrax spores and for which conventional sporicides would have unacceptable tissue toxicity.

  6. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tchórzewska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers. PMID:25927478

  7. Regional caprock-destroying dolomite on the middle jurassic to early cretaceous Arabian shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Broomhall, R.W.; Allan, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Massive, stratigraphically-discordant dolomite occurs on the late Mesozoic Arabian Shelf in the northern portion of Aramco's main producing area. This dolomite is associated with solution-collapse of Hith-Arab anhydrite seals and with enhancement of porosity and permeability in tight limestone seals within the region. By destroying regional caprocks, dolomitization has had an adverse effect on oil accumulation. The spatial extent of this dolomite was determined by the examination of Formation Density/Compensated Neutron wireline logs and sample description logs from 50 onshore and offshore wells. Fluid inclusion geothermometry reveals that baroque dolomite precipitated from brine with salinities of 223,000 to 249,000 ppm TDS at temperatures of 102 to 134/sup 0/C onshore and 131 to 155/sup 0/C offshore. Petroleum fluid inclusions within the baroque dolomite indicate hydrocarbon migration contemporaneous with dolomitization. Carbon and oxygen isotope data suggest that that brine which precipitated baroque dolomite was also responsible for the massive recrystallization of shelf limestone to form host dolomite. Chemical analyses of formation waters suggest that brine which migrated out of halite deposits during burial was the dolomitizing fluid. The geological and geochemical attributes of Arabian Shelf dolomites strongly resemble those reported for dolomite associated with Alpine and Mississippi Valley-type carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits in Europe and North America.

  8. The application of fiber core posts in restoring badly destroyed primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Aly A

    2002-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) represents a challenge to pediatric dentists especially, when teeth are badly destroyed. ECC involves the upper anterior teeth early in life and by the time the dentist sees the child, most of the coronal structure is lost. Dentally, this is a very devastating situation for both the dentist and parents, as in many cases, extraction of these teeth is the only option. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, a new approach for treating these teeth is explained and documented by clinical cases, where fiber core posts are introduced into the root canals of primary incisors for a distance of 2 to 3 mm. It is retained in place by flowable composite, then the coronal part is reconstructed by a strip crown to restore the crown form. After a follow up period of one year, only 2 teeth out of 30 had to be extracted. The failure was attributed to failure in pulpal therapy rather than failure in the restorations, which were totally intact. A laboratory testing of the fracture load resistance of the restored teeth proved that this technique significantly improved the fracture load resistance of composite celluloid crowns, making it a valuable procedure to consider when the coronal tooth structure is not enough to support and retain a composite celluloid strip crown. PMID:11990042

  9. A case of surgery for congenital esophagobronchial fistula accompanied by a destroyed lung.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masaki; Murata, Yoshitake; Ohnishi, Ryoko; Kato, Tatsuo; Hara, Akira; Fujinaga, Takuji

    2016-12-01

    Congenital esophagobronchial fistula (EBF) is rarely seen in adults. We report a case of EBF detected in adulthood with a destroyed lung. A 67-year-old man experienced repeated pneumonia during his childhood. Since the age of 38, he had often suffered from bloody phlegm and always had a cough and sputum during oral intake. Before cardiac surgery for atrial fibrillation and valvular disease, computed tomography (CT) detected bronchiectasis, which could cause pulmonary bleeding during heart surgery, and the patient was introduced to our hospital for lung resection. A fistula between the esophagus and the right lower lung lobe was found using CT, esophagoscopy, and esophagography. Contrast CT and angiography revealed an abnormal artery branching from the inferior phrenic artery into the lobe. As indicated by intraoperative findings, the middle and lower lobes had strongly adhered to chest wall and diaphragm, but we located the fistula easily without adhesion to the surroundings, severed it using an automatic stapler, and resected the middle and lower lobes. The symptoms disappeared immediately, and the patient was uneventfully discharged.The diagnosis of congenital EBF was established with intraoperative findings and pathological exam. The existence of pulmonary sequestration was suggested because of the long-term absence of any symptoms during his adulthood, the tract of the EBF running into the lung, not directly into the bronchus, and a septum pathologically detected in the right lower lobe. A congenital EBF should be considered for differential diagnosis in cases of limited bronchiectasis in elderly people. PMID:27612868

  10. [Save or destroy? The importance of medical record for former patients and future patients].

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F E; Schornagel, J H

    2001-03-10

    In 1995, a new privacy law was introduced in the Netherlands. According to this law, medical records should be saved for 10 years, and then destroyed, unless keeping the records for a longer period follows reasonably from the duties of the treating physician (as is the case, for example, when treating patients with a chronic disease). There are serious concerns with regard to the future availability of medical record data for clinical research and patient care after 2005. Evaluation of the late effects of many medical treatments will no longer be possible in the Netherlands. Patient care, particularly genetic counselling, will be also seriously compromised. As a possible solution the profession might name diagnoses and treatments regarding for which, from the point of view of good care, it is necessary for files to be kept for longer than 10 years. For a uniform nationwide policy it would be better if all files, perhaps after sorting by diagnosis and treatment, should be obligatorily kept for much longer than 10 years, preferably for the duration of the life expectancy.

  11. The violent adolescent: the urge to destroy versus the urge to feel alive.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jane; Rogers, Kenneth

    2002-09-01

    The dynamics of adolescent violence are explored from theoretical and developmental perspectives applied to the review of psychoanalytic studies of violence and three cases: the case of Willie Bosket, presented in Fox Butterfield's All God's Children, an adolescent treated by one of the authors, and observation of staff dynamics in a juvenile detention facility. Studies indicate that violence is used to preserve a sense of existence and psychic equilibrium as well as to express rage and destroy unwanted projected parts of the self and dangerous intrusions into a fragile self-coherence. In the case studies, violent activity serves a number of psychic functions: it leads to high arousal states and the feeling of being alive thereby disavowing underlying feelings of deadness and depression, it serves to contain and discharge overwhelming chaotic and rageful feelings, and it enacts object ties and the unconscious fantasies of the parent. Staff dynamics in a treatment setting for juvenile offenders reflect the intrapsychic dynamics of the juvenile offender prone to acting out, projection, hypervigilance to signs of disrespect, and disavowal of unwanted affects including helplessness and vulnerability.

  12. Acid-Responsive Therapeutic Polymer for Prolonging Nanoparticle Circulation Lifetime and Destroying Drug-Resistant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ji-Gang; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihua

    2016-01-13

    How to destroy drug-resistant tumor cells remains an ongoing challenge for cancer treatment. We herein report on a therapeutic nanoparticle, aHLP-PDA, which has an acid-activated hemolytic polymer (aHLP) grafted onto photothermal polydopamine (PDA) nanosphere via boronate ester bond, in efforts to ablate drug-resistant tumors. Upon exposure to oxidative stress and/or near-infrared laser irradiation, aHLP-PDA nanoparticle responsively releases aHLP, likely via responsive cleavage of boronate ester bond, and thus responsively exhibits acid-facilitated mammalian-membrane-disruptive activity. In vitro cell studies with drug-resistant and/or thermo-tolerant cancer cells show that the aHLP-PDA nanoparticle demonstrates preferential cytotoxicity at acidic pH over physiological pH. When administered intravenously, the aHLP-PDA nanoparticle exhibits significantly prolonged blood circulation lifetime and enhanced tumor uptake compared to bare PDA nanosphere, likely owing to aHLP's stealth effects conferred by its zwitterionic nature at blood pH. As a result, the aHLP-PDA nanoparticle effectively ablates drug-resistant tumors, leading to 100% mouse survival even on the 32nd day after suspension of photothermal treatment, as demonstrated with the mouse model. This work suggests that a combination of nanotechnology with lessons learned in bacterial antibiotic resistance may offer a feasible and effective strategy for treating drug-resistant cancers often found in relapsing patients. PMID:26654626

  13. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    PubMed

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  14. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  15. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  16. Stimulus information stored in lasting active and hidden network states is destroyed by network bursts.

    PubMed

    Dranias, Mark R; Westover, M Brandon; Cash, Sidney; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2015-01-01

    In both humans and animals brief synchronizing bursts of epileptiform activity known as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) can, even in the absence of overt seizures, cause transient cognitive impairments (TCI) that include problems with perception or short-term memory. While no evidence from single units is available, it has been assumed that IEDs destroy information represented in neuronal networks. Cultured neuronal networks are a model for generic cortical microcircuits, and their spontaneous activity is characterized by the presence of synchronized network bursts (SNBs), which share a number of properties with IEDs, including the high degree of synchronization and their spontaneous occurrence in the absence of an external stimulus. As a model approach to understanding the processes underlying IEDs, optogenetic stimulation and multielectrode array (MEA) recordings of cultured neuronal networks were used to study whether stimulus information represented in these networks survives SNBs. When such networks are optically stimulated they encode and maintain stimulus information for as long as one second. Experiments involved recording the network response to a single stimulus and trials where two different stimuli were presented sequentially, akin to a paired pulse trial. We broke the sequential stimulus trials into encoding, delay and readout phases and found that regardless of which phase the SNB occurs, stimulus-specific information was impaired. SNBs were observed to increase the mean network firing rate, but this did not translate monotonically into increases in network entropy. It was found that the more excitable a network, the more stereotyped its response was during a network burst. These measurements speak to whether SNBs are capable of transmitting information in addition to blocking it. These results are consistent with previous reports and provide baseline predictions concerning the neural mechanisms by which IEDs might cause TCI.

  17. Hyper-resistivity and electron thermal conductivity due to destroyed magnetic surfaces in axisymmetric plasma equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, R. H.

    2012-06-15

    In order to model the effects of small-scale current-driven magnetic fluctuations in a mean-field theoretical description of a large-scale plasma magnetic field B(x,t), a space and time dependent hyper-resistivity {Lambda}(x,t) can be incorporated into the Ohm's law for the parallel electric field E Dot-Operator B. Using Boozer coordinates, a theoretical method is presented that allows for a determination of the hyper-resistivity {Lambda}({psi}) functional dependence on the toroidal magnetic flux {psi} for arbitrary experimental steady-state Grad-Shafranov axisymmetric plasma equilibria, if values are given for the parallel plasma resistivity {eta}({psi}) and the local distribution of any auxiliary plasma current. Heat transport in regions of plasma magnetic surfaces destroyed by resistive tearing modes can then be modeled by an electron thermal conductivity k{sub e}({psi})=({epsilon}{sub 0}{sup 2}m{sub e}/e{sup 2}){Lambda}({psi}), where e and m{sub e} are the electron charge and mass, respectively, while {epsilon}{sub 0} is the permittivity of free space. An important result obtained for axisymmetric plasma equilibria is that the {psi}{psi}-component of the metric tensor of Boozer coordinates is given by the relation g{sup {psi}{psi}}({psi}){identical_to}{nabla}{psi} Dot-Operator {nabla}{psi}=[{mu}{sub 0}G({psi})][{mu}{sub 0}I({psi})]/{iota}({psi}), with {mu}{sub 0} the permeability of free space, G({psi}) the poloidal current outside a magnetic surface, I({psi}) the toroidal current inside a magnetic surface, and {iota}({psi}) the rotational transform.

  18. Some but not All Tetrahymena Species Destroy Monolayer Cultures of Cells from a Wide Range of Tissues and Species.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Bols, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The activities of Tetrahymena corlissi, Tetrahymena thermophila, and Tetrahymena canadensis were studied in coculture with cell lines of insects, fish, amphibians, and mammals. These ciliates remained viable regardless of the animal cell line partner. All three species could engulf animal cells in suspension. However, if the animal cells were monolayer cultures, the monolayers were obliterated by T. corlissi and T. thermophila. Both fibroblast and epithelial monolayers were destroyed but the destruction of human cell monolayers was done more effectively by T. thermophila. By contrast, T. canadensis was unable to destroy any monolayer. At 4 °C T. thermophila and T. corlissi did not carryout phagocytosis and did not destroy monolayers, whereas T. canadensis was able to carryout phagocytosis but still could not destroy monolayers. Therefore, monolayer destruction appeared to require phagocytosis, but by itself this was insufficient. In addition, the ciliates expressed a unique swimming behavior. Tetrahymena corlissi and T. thermophila swam vigorously and repeatedly into the monolayer, which seemed to loosen or dislodge cells, whereas T. canadensis swam above the monolayer. Therefore, differences in swimming behavior might explain why T. corlissi has been reported to be a pathogen but T. canadensis has not.

  19. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.515 When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or...

  20. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.515 When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or...

  1. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.515 When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or...

  2. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.515 When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or...

  3. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.515 When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or...

  4. 49 CFR 375.707 - If a shipment is partially lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... percent of the non-binding estimate. The prorated percentage is equal to the percentage of the weight of that portion of the shipment delivered relative to the total weight of the shipment. For example, if... proportion of the shipment, based on actual or constructive weight, not lost or destroyed in transit. (c)...

  5. Fiber optic sensor employing successively destroyed coupled points or reflectors for detecting shock wave speed and damage location

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival "points" constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the "points" of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor.

  6. Fiber optic sensor employing successively destroyed coupled points or reflectors for detecting shock wave speed and damage location

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-08-29

    A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location is disclosed. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival ``points`` constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the ``points`` of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor. 6 figs.

  7. 49 CFR 375.707 - If a shipment is partially lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... percent of the non-binding estimate. The prorated percentage is equal to the percentage of the weight of that portion of the shipment delivered relative to the total weight of the shipment. For example, if... proportion of the shipment, based on actual or constructive weight, not lost or destroyed in transit. (c)...

  8. 49 CFR 375.707 - If a shipment is partially lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... percent of the non-binding estimate. The prorated percentage is equal to the percentage of the weight of that portion of the shipment delivered relative to the total weight of the shipment. For example, if... proportion of the shipment, based on actual or constructive weight, not lost or destroyed in transit. (c)...

  9. 49 CFR 375.709 - If a shipment is totally lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false If a shipment is totally lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery? 375.709 Section 375.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  10. 49 CFR 375.707 - If a shipment is partially lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false If a shipment is partially lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery? 375.707 Section 375.707 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  11. Interaction between the nematode-destroying fungus Arthrobotrys robusta (Hyphomycetales) and Haemonchus contortus infective larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-de Gives, P; Zavaleta-Mejia, E; Quiroz-Romero, H; Herrera-Rodriguez, D; Perdomo-Roldan, F

    1992-02-01

    In an in vitro trial, the effect of the nematode-destroying fungus Arthrobotrys robusta on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae was evaluated in petri dishes containing corn meal agar. After seven days incubation at 25 degrees C, 92.33% (+/- 4.1) predation was recorded. PMID:1561755

  12. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  13. PROPHE Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    This paper describes the Program for Research on Private Higher Education (PROPHE), a program that seeks to build knowledge about private higher education around the world. The program focuses on discovery, analysis, and dissemination of information, as well as creation of an international base of trained researchers. The main mission of the…

  14. The cancer of bureaucracy: how it will destroy science, medicine, education; and eventually everything else.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-06-01

    matter how effective in real-world terms) is regarded as intrinsically unreliable (self-interested and corrupt). Thus the endemic failures of peer review merely trigger demands for ever-more elaborate and widespread peer review. Just as peer review is killing science with its inefficiency and ineffectiveness, so parasitic bureaucracy is an un-containable phenomenon; dangerous to the extent that it cannot be allowed to exist unmolested, but must be utterly extirpated. Or else modernizing societies will themselves be destroyed by sclerosis, resource misallocation, incorrigibly-wrong decisions and the distortions of 'bureaucratic reality'. However, unfortunately, social collapse is the more probable outcome, since parasites can evolve more rapidly than host immune systems. PMID:20071103

  15. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  16. Lost property? Legal compensation for destroyed sperm: a reflection and comparison drawing on UK and French perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cordell, Sean; Bellivier, Florence; Widdows, Heather; Noiville, Christine

    2011-12-01

    In a recent case in the UK, six men stored their sperm before undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer in case they proved to be infertile after the treatment. The sperm was not properly stored and as a result was inadvertently destroyed. The men sued the NHS Trust that stored the sperm and were in the end successful. This paper questions the basis on which the judgement was made and the rationale behind it, namely that the men 'had ownership' of the sperm, and that compensation was thus due on the grounds that the men's property had been destroyed. We first argue that the claim is erroneous and enhances the tendency towards the commodification of body parts. We then suggest that the men could have been compensated for the harm done to them without granting property rights, and that this would, at least in philosophical and ethical terms, have been more appropriate. To help illustrate this, we draw on a parallel case in French law in which a couple whose embryos had been destroyed were overtly denied ownership rights in them. Finally, we suggest some possible ethical and practical problems if the proprietary view expressed in the UK ruling were to become dominant in law, with particular focus on the storing of genetic information in biobanks. We conclude that, although compensation claims should not necessarily be ruled out, a 'no property in the body' approach should be the default position in cases of detached bodily materials, the alternative being significantly ethically problematic.

  17. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  18. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  19. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  20. Background Material: Regulations Issued by the Department of Health and Human Services on Child Care Programs Authorized by Public Law 101-508. Prepared for a Hearing To Be Held on September 17, 1991. Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means. U.S. House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 1st Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    Background material for a hearing on implementing regulations for two new child care programs is presented. The objective of the new programs is to provide care for children in low- or moderate-income families so that parents can work. The report was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) at the request of the Acting Chairman of the…

  1. Background of the workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

  2. 19 CFR 191.36 - Failure to file Notice of Intent to Export, Destroy, or Return Merchandise for Purposes of Drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Destroy, or Return Merchandise for Purposes of Drawback. 191.36 Section 191.36 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...) DRAWBACK Unused Merchandise Drawback § 191.36 Failure to file Notice of Intent to Export, Destroy, or... time of filing those claims to be covered in this application; (H) The port(s) of exportation;...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.1025 - When can a Federal agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... public body? 102-75.1025 Section 102-75.1025 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... of donating it to a public body? A Federal agency may not abandon or destroy improvements on land or... time prior to actually abandoning or destroying the property, the Federal agency must donate it....

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.1025 - When can a Federal agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... public body? 102-75.1025 Section 102-75.1025 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... of donating it to a public body? A Federal agency may not abandon or destroy improvements on land or... time prior to actually abandoning or destroying the property, the Federal agency must donate it....

  5. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  6. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  7. School Law: Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1988-01-01

    In an Oklahoma case, the district court ruled that the school district had failed to investigate the background of a teacher convicted of a second sexual abuse charge. School districts should examine personnel polices and practices, and the school lawyer should review state laws, regulations, and court cases. (MLF)

  8. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  9. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  10. Thermal background noise limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  11. Diffuse UV Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

  12. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  13. A method and apparatus for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    1997-12-01

    A waste destruction method is described using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  14. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and mineral resources maps of the Butte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Trautwein, C.M.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Butte 1?x2 ? quadrangle in west-central Montana was investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). These investigations included geologic mapping, geochemical surveys, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, examinations of mineral deposits, and specialized geochronologic and remote-sensing studies. The data collected during these studies were compiled, combined with available published and unpublished data, analyzed, and used in a mineral-resource assessment of the quadrangle. The results, including data, interpretations, and mineral-resource assessments for nine types of mineral deposits, are published separately as a folio of maps. These maps are accompanied by figures, tables, and explanatory text. This circular provides background information on the Butte quadrangle, summarizes the studies and published maps, and lists a selected bibliography of references pertinent to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral resources of the quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, which includes the world-famous Butte mining district, has a long history of mineral production. Many mining districts within the quadrangle have produced large quantities of many commodities; the most important in dollar value of production were copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, and phosphate. At present, mines at several locations produce copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, lead, zinc, and phosphate. Exploration, mainly for gold, has indicated the presence of other mineral deposits that may be exploited in the future. The results of the investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that many areas of the quadrangle are highly favorable for the occurrence of additional undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, and other metals in several deposit types.

  15. The Monte Carlo program KoralW version 1.51 and the concurrent Monte Carlo KoralW&YFSWW3 with all background graphs and first-order corrections to /W-pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadach, S.; Płaczek, W.; Skrzypek, M.; Ward, B. F. L.; Waş, Z.

    2001-11-01

    The version 1.51 of the Monte Carlo (MC) program KoralW for all e +e -→f 1f¯2f 3f¯4 processes is presented. The most important change from the previous version 1.42 is the facility for writing MC events on the mass storage device and reprocessing them later on. In the reprocessing parameters of the Standard Model may be modified in order to fit them to experimental data. Another important new feature is the possibility of including complete O(α) corrections to double-resonant W-pair component-processes in addition to all background (non- WW) graphs. The inclusion is done with the help of the YFSWW3 MC event generator for fully exclusive differential distributions (event per event). Technically, it is done in such a way that YFSWW3 runs concurrently with KoralW as a separate slave process, reading momenta of the MC event generated by KoralW and returning the correction weight to KoralW. The latter introduces the O(α) correction using this weight, and finishes processing the event (rejection due to total MC weight, hadronization, etc.). The communication between KoralW and YFSWW3 is done with the help of the FIFO facility of the UNIX/Linux operating system. This does not require any modifications of the FORTRAN source codes. From the user's point of view, the resulting Concurrent MC event generator KoralW&YFSWW3 looks as a regular single MC event generator with all the standard features.

  16. Background level care.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice for routine caries care who, at present, appear to have no active or progressing caries lesions? It is proposed that, in addition to the use of criteria for lesion extent, treatment planning systems should also express the results of lesion assessments in terms of background level care (BLC), preventive treatment options and operative treatment options. The specific treatment options recommended for specific lesions and patients will depend upon a variety of other factors, including lesion activity, monitoring lesion behaviour over time and a range of other prognostic factors. Over recent decades, there has been comparatively little focus on appropriate BLC in a general practice setting. There are a range of issues around the need to support caries prevention and health maintenance from a behavioural and patient-focussed perspective. Even if a patient is deemed to be at low risk of future caries at a particular examination, there is a need for maintenance care. Intrinsic issues which need to be managed for both patients and their caries lesions in this patient group are: (1) the possibility of a change in caries risk status and (2) the impact of incorrect lesion assessments/diagnoses.

  17. Geodynamics: Introduction and Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of the field of geodynamics and its major scientific questions. The NASA geodynamics program is described as well as its status and accomplishments projected by 1988. Federal coordination and international cooperation in monitoring tectonic plate motion, polar motion, and Earth rotation are mentioned. The development of a GPS receiver for civilian geodesy and results obtained using satellite laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry in measuring crustal dynamics, global dynamics, and the geopotential field are reported.

  18. Post-Testicular Sperm Maturation: Centriole Pairs, Found in Upper Epididymis, are Destroyed Prior to Sperm's Release at Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Simerly, C; Castro, C; Hartnett, C; Lin, C C; Sukhwani, M; Orwig, K; Schatten, G

    2016-01-01

    The fertilizing sperm's lengthiest unchartered voyage is through the longest, least-investigated organ in a man's body - the Epididymis. Over six meters long in men, ~80 meters in stallions and over one-hundred times a mouse's body length, there are few functions known aside from sperm storage and nutrition. While spermatogenesis is completed in the testes, here we demonstrate sperm centriole reduction occurs within the epididymis. Investigations of GFP-CENTR mice and controls demonstrate both the presence of centriole pairs in the upper caput region of the epididymis and, the destruction, first, of the distal and, then, of the proximal centriole as the sperm transits to the cauda and vas deferens in preparation for its climactic release. These centrioles can neither recruit γ-tubulin nor nucleate microtubules when eggs are inseminated or microinjected, yet numerous maternally-nucleated cytasters are found. These sperm centrioles appear as vestigial basal bodies, destroyed in the mid-to-lower corpus. Post-testicular sperm maturation, in which sperm centrioles found in the caput are destroyed prior to ejaculation, is a newly discovered function for the epididymis. PMID:27534805

  19. Post-Testicular Sperm Maturation: Centriole Pairs, Found in Upper Epididymis, are Destroyed Prior to Sperm's Release at Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Simerly, C; Castro, C; Hartnett, C; Lin, C C; Sukhwani, M; Orwig, K; Schatten, G

    2016-08-18

    The fertilizing sperm's lengthiest unchartered voyage is through the longest, least-investigated organ in a man's body - the Epididymis. Over six meters long in men, ~80 meters in stallions and over one-hundred times a mouse's body length, there are few functions known aside from sperm storage and nutrition. While spermatogenesis is completed in the testes, here we demonstrate sperm centriole reduction occurs within the epididymis. Investigations of GFP-CENTR mice and controls demonstrate both the presence of centriole pairs in the upper caput region of the epididymis and, the destruction, first, of the distal and, then, of the proximal centriole as the sperm transits to the cauda and vas deferens in preparation for its climactic release. These centrioles can neither recruit γ-tubulin nor nucleate microtubules when eggs are inseminated or microinjected, yet numerous maternally-nucleated cytasters are found. These sperm centrioles appear as vestigial basal bodies, destroyed in the mid-to-lower corpus. Post-testicular sperm maturation, in which sperm centrioles found in the caput are destroyed prior to ejaculation, is a newly discovered function for the epididymis.

  20. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    PubMed

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  1. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  2. Seed selection strategy in global network alignment without destroying the entire structures of functional modules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Network alignment is one of the most common biological network comparison methods. Aligning protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of different species is of great important to detect evolutionary conserved pathways or protein complexes across species through the identification of conserved interactions, and to improve our insight into biological systems. Global network alignment (GNA) problem is NP-complete, for which only heuristic methods have been proposed so far. Generally, the current GNA methods fall into global heuristic seed-and-extend approaches. These methods can not get the best overall consistent alignment between networks for the opinionated local seed. Furthermore These methods are lost in maximizing the number of aligned edges between two networks without considering the original structures of functional modules. Methods We present a novel seed selection strategy for global network alignment by constructing the pairs of hub nodes of networks to be aligned into multiple seeds. Beginning from every hub seed and using the membership similarity of nodes to quantify to what extent the nodes can participate in functional modules associated with current seed topologically we align the networks by modules. By this way we can maintain the functional modules are not damaged during the heuristic alignment process. And our method is efficient in resolving the fatal problem of most conventional algorithms that the initialization selected seeds have a direct influence on the alignment result. The similarity measures between network nodes (e.g., proteins) include sequence similarity, centrality similarity, and dynamic membership similarity and our algorithm can be called Multiple Hubs-based Alignment (MHA). Results When applying our seed selection strategy to several pairs of real PPI networks, it is observed that our method is working to strike a balance, extending the conserved interactions while maintaining the functional modules unchanged. In

  3. Background oriented schlieren in a density stratified fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verso, Lilly; Liberzon, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Non-intrusive quantitative fluid density measurement methods are essential in the stratified flow experiments. Digital imaging leads to synthetic schlieren methods in which the variations of the index of refraction are reconstructed computationally. In this study, an extension to one of these methods, called background oriented schlieren, is proposed. The extension enables an accurate reconstruction of the density field in stratified liquid experiments. Typically, the experiments are performed by the light source, background pattern, and the camera positioned on the opposite sides of a transparent vessel. The multimedia imaging through air-glass-water-glass-air leads to an additional aberration that destroys the reconstruction. A two-step calibration and image remapping transform are the key components that correct the images through the stratified media and provide a non-intrusive full-field density measurements of transparent liquids.

  4. Background oriented schlieren in a density stratified fluid.

    PubMed

    Verso, Lilly; Liberzon, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Non-intrusive quantitative fluid density measurement methods are essential in the stratified flow experiments. Digital imaging leads to synthetic schlieren methods in which the variations of the index of refraction are reconstructed computationally. In this study, an extension to one of these methods, called background oriented schlieren, is proposed. The extension enables an accurate reconstruction of the density field in stratified liquid experiments. Typically, the experiments are performed by the light source, background pattern, and the camera positioned on the opposite sides of a transparent vessel. The multimedia imaging through air-glass-water-glass-air leads to an additional aberration that destroys the reconstruction. A two-step calibration and image remapping transform are the key components that correct the images through the stratified media and provide a non-intrusive full-field density measurements of transparent liquids.

  5. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  6. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  7. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  8. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  9. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  10. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  11. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  12. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  13. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  14. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  15. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  16. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  17. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  18. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  19. Cosmic microwave background images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranz, D.; Vielva, P.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmology concerns itself with the fundamental questions about the formation, structure, and evolution of the Universe as a whole. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is one of the foremost pillars of physical cosmology. Joint analyses of CMB and other astronomical observations are able to determine with ever increasing precision the value of the fundamental cosmological parameters and to provide us with valuable insight about the dynamics of the Universe in evolution. The CMB radiation is a relic of the hot and dense first moments of the Universe: a extraordinarily homogeneous and isotropic blackbody radiation, which shows small temperature anisotropies that are the key for understanding the conditions of the primitive Universe, testing cosmological models and probing fundamental physics at the very dawn of time. CMB observations are obtained by imaging of the sky at microwave wavelengths. However, the CMB signal is mixed with other astrophysical signals of both Galactic and extragalactic origin. To properly exploit the cosmological information contained in CMB images, they must be cleansed of these other astrophysical emissions first. Blind source separation (BSS) has been a very active field in the last few years. Conversely, the term "compact sources" is often used in the CMB literature referring to spatially bounded, small features in the images, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. Compact sources and diffuse sources are usually treated separately in CMB image processing. We devote this tutorial to the case of compact sources. Many of the compact source-detection techniques that are widespread inmost fields of astronomy are not easily applicable to CMB images. In this tutorial, we present an overview of the fundamentals of compact object detection theory keeping in mind at every moment these particularities. Throughout the article, we briefly consider Bayesian object detection, model selection, optimal linear filtering, nonlinear filtering, and

  20. Monitoring the pollution from a pyre used to destroy animal carcasses during the outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Cumbria, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowles, I.; Hill, R.; Auld, V.; Stewart, H.; Colhoun, C.

    The recent outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease has affected many parts of the UK but none more so than Cumbria, which has had the highest proportion of infected premises. From the beginning of the outbreak, pyres were used to destroy the animal carcasses, however, over time this policy was questioned due to the growing concern about the levels of pollution being emitted from the pyres and their potential impact on human health. Of particular concern were the potential levels of dioxins being emitted from the materials used to construct the pyres as well as from the combustion of the animal carcasses. This paper describes a monitoring campaign that measured the air concentrations of key pollutants from a pyre in Cumbria. Measurements were taken close to residences downwind of the pyre using a mobile laboratory equipped to sample respiratory irritants (SO 2, PM 10 and NO 2) and carcinogens (VOCs and particle-bound PAHs). Measurements of speciated dioxins, furans and PAHs were made on samples collected using a high-volume air sampler co-located with the laboratory. Results from the campaign showed that although the levels of pollutants such as SO 2, PM 10, dioxins, furans and PAHs were clearly elevated above normal background concentrations, the levels were unlikely to cause a substantial exceedance of air quality standards. Moreover, the work showed that for the local residents downwind of this particular pyre, all but the most sensitive individuals (i.e. severe asthmatics and sufferers of lung disease) were unlikely to experience any significant health effects.

  1. 14 CFR § 1203.200 - Background and discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background and discussion. § 1203.200 Section § 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM NASA Information Security Program § 1203.200 Background and discussion. (a)...

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is a summary of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United states and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A brief summary of public utility regulatory programs, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority is presented in this report to identify how such programs and authority may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  3. Diffract, then destroy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Philip

    2016-09-01

    A new implementation of X-ray diffraction using free-electron lasers can take snapshots of biological molecules that are inaccessible via X-ray crystallography. As Philip Ball reports, the technique can even be used to create stop-motion films of dynamic molecular processes

  4. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  5. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  6. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Arizona. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in Arizona. The Arizona state constitution establishes the Arizona Corporation Commission to regulate public service corporations. Within the area of its jurisdiction, the Commission has exclusive power and may not be interfered with by the legislature except in one narrow instance as described in the case Corporation Commission v. Pacific Greyhound Lines.

  8. Arbitrarily located microwave discharges as a means of cleansing the atmosphere of impurities that destroy the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect

    Askar`yan, G.A.; Batanov, G.M.; Barkhudarov, A.E.; Gritsinin, S.I.; Korchagina, E.G.; Kossyi, I.A.; Silakov, V.P.; Tarasova, N.M.

    1992-09-01

    It is proposed to use intense microwave beams to cleanse the atmospheric pool of freon contaminants (CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CFCl{sub 3}, etc.), which act destructively on the earth`s ozone layer. The possibility of exciting an arbitrarily located microwave discharge in the troposphere is considered. A relation is established between the amount of freon destroyed and the discharge parameters, the energy expended for this purpose is estimated, and the possible undesirable consequences of the associated phenomena (e.g., the formation of nitrogen oxides) are analyzed. The mechanism of dissociative attachment of electrons produced in the cold decaying plasma of the pulsed microwave discharge is assumed to be the main mechanism leading to the dissociation of chlorofluorocarbons. Results are presented from a model laboratory experiment, in which the efficiency with which freon impurities are dissociated under the action of the discharge excited in air by a beam of high-power microwave radiation is studied under conditions close to those in free space. The results of the experiment are consistent with the conclusions that follow from analyzing the elementary processes responsible for destruction of the freon components. 32 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Costs and Benefits Associated with the MRSA Search and Destroy Policy in a Hospital in the Region Kennemerland, The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Souverein, Dennis; Houtman, Patricia; Euser, Sjoerd M.; Herpers, Bjorn L.; Kluytmans, Jan; Den Boer, Jeroen W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy (S&D) policy between 2008 and 2013 in the Kennemer Gasthuis, a 400 bed teaching hospital in the region Kennemerland, the Netherlands. Methods A patient registration database was used to retrospectively calculate costs, including screening, isolation, follow-up, contact tracing, cleaning, treatment, deployment of extra healthcare workers, salary for an infection control practitioner (ICP) and service of isolation rooms. The estimated benefits (costs and lives when no MRSA S&D was applied) were based on a varying MRSA prevalence rate (up to 50%). Results When no MRSA S&D policy was applied, the additional costs and deaths due to MRSA bacteraemia were estimated to be € 1,388,907 and 33 respectively (at a MRSA prevalence rate of 50%). Currently, the total costs were estimated to be € 290,672 (€ 48,445 annually) and a MRSA prevalence rate of 17.3% was considered as break-even point. Between 2008 and 2013, a total of 576 high risk patients were screened for MRSA carriage, of whom 19 (3.3%) were found to be MRSA positive. Forty-nine patients (72.1%) were found unexpectedly. Conclusions Application of the MRSA S&D policy saves lives and money, although the high rate of unexpected MRSA cases is alarming. PMID:26849655

  10. Sent to destroy: the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates cell signaling and protein quality control in cardiovascular development and disease.

    PubMed

    Willis, Monte S; Townley-Tilson, W H Davin; Kang, Eunice Y; Homeister, Jonathon W; Patterson, Cam

    2010-02-19

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in biological processes integral to the development of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. The UPS prototypically recognizes specific protein substrates and places polyubiquitin chains on them for subsequent destruction by the proteasome. This system is in place to degrade not only misfolded and damaged proteins, but is essential also in regulating a host of cell signaling pathways involved in proliferation, adaptation to stress, regulation of cell size, and cell death. During the development of the cardiovascular system, the UPS regulates cell signaling by modifying transcription factors, receptors, and structural proteins. Later, in the event of cardiovascular diseases as diverse as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and ischemia/reperfusion injury, ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome are implicated in protecting and exacerbating clinical outcomes. However, when misfolded and damaged proteins are ubiquitinated by the UPS, their destruction by the proteasome is not always possible because of their aggregated confirmations. Recent studies have discovered how these ubiquitinated misfolded proteins can be destroyed by alternative "specific" mechanisms. The cytosolic receptors p62, NBR, and histone deacetylase 6 recognize aggregated ubiquitinated proteins and target them for autophagy in the process of "selective autophagy." Even the ubiquitination of multiple proteins within whole organelles that drive the more general macro-autophagy may be due, in part, to similar ubiquitin-driven mechanisms. In summary, the crosstalk between the UPS and autophagy highlight the pivotal and diverse roles the UPS plays in maintaining protein quality control and regulating cardiovascular development and disease. PMID:20167943

  11. Use of Criminal Background Checks in Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Wesley J.; Toomey, Maria Enerson

    2005-01-01

    To conduct an initial investigation into the use of criminal background checks and related issues in counselor education programs, surveys were sent to the contacts from 50 programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2001). The results of this pilot study highlight the need for more…

  12. Survey of the Schools of Wilmington, Delaware. Part 1: I. The Educational Background; II. School Organization, Supervision, and Finance; III. A School Building Program for Wilmington. Bulletin, 1921, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    During March of 1920, by resolution of the Board of Education of Wilmington, Delaware, a committee of 30 citizens of the city was appointed to make a survey of the public schools and of the system of education of the city. The executive committee was directed to prepare a plan or program to be followed in making the investigation and survey and to…

  13. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  14. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  15. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.

    1984-01-01

    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  16. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  17. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Medford 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.; Blakely, R.J.; Johnson, M.G.; Page, N.J.; Peterson, J.A.; Singer, D.A.; Whittington, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in southern Oregon and northern California was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  18. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Choteau 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean

    1981-01-01

    The Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle in northwest Montana was studied by an interdisciplinary research team in order to appraise its mineral resource and hydrocarbon potential The appraisal is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource appraisal. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle.

  19. The Eating Habits of Milky Way Mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ~ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ~ 108–1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108–109 M⊙),more » and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M⊙) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (<<1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (~2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M⊙ < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (~40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (~20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. In conclusion, we suggest that the MW could be a "transient fossil"; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.« less

  20. Design of a PROTAC that antagonizes and destroys the cancer-forming X-protein of the hepatitis B virus

    SciTech Connect

    Montrose, Kristopher; Krissansen, Geoffrey W.

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • A novel proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule (PROTAC) to treat hepatitis B. • The PROTAC antagonizes and destroys the X-protein of the hepatitis B virus. • The PROTAC is a fusion of the X-protein oligomerization and instability domains. • The oligomerization domain is a dominant-negative inhibitor of X-protein function. • X-protein-targeting PROTACs have potential to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma. - Abstract: The X-protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is essential for virus infection and contributes to the development of HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a disease which causes more than one million deaths each year. Here we describe the design of a novel PROTAC (proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule) capable of simultaneously inducing the degradation of the X-protein, and antagonizing its function. The PROTAC was constructed by fusing the N-terminal oligomerization and C-terminal instability domains of the X-protein to each other, and rendering them cell-permeable by the inclusion of a polyarginine cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). It was predicted that the oligomerization domain would bind the X-protein, and that the instability domain would cause the X-protein to be targeted for proteasomal degradation. Addition of the PROTAC to HepG2 liver cancer cells, engineered to express full-length and C-terminally truncated forms of the X-protein, resulted in the degradation of both forms of the X-protein. A cell-permeable stand-alone form of the oligomerization domain was taken up by HepG2 cells, and acted as a dominant-negative inhibitor, causing inhibition of X-protein-induced apoptosis. In summary, the PROTAC described here induces the degradation of the X-protein, and antagonizes its function, and warrants investigation in a preclinical study for its ability to prevent or treat HBV infection and/or the development of HCC.

  1. The Eating Habits of Milky Way-mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ∼ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ∼ 108–1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108–109 M⊙), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M⊙) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (∼2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < ‑2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M⊙ < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (∼40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (∼20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil” a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  2. The Eating Habits of Milky Way-mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ˜ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ˜ 108-1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108-109 M⊙), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M⊙) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (˜2%-5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M⊙ < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (˜40%-80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (˜20%-60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil” a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  3. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination that— (1) The personal property has no commercial value; or (2) The estimated cost of continued... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY General...

  4. 31 CFR 355.7 - What notice should I give if I do not receive my check or if a check is lost, stolen, or destroyed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.7 What notice should I give if... destroyed, you must provide prompt written notification. Your written notice may be sent to us or to the... you confirm the notice in writing. The written notice must provide enough information for us...

  5. 31 CFR 355.9 - What should I do if I recover a check reported as lost, stolen, destroyed, or not received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.9 What should I do if I recover a check reported as lost, stolen, destroyed, or not received? If you recover the original check you must notify us... check to us....

  6. 31 CFR 355.7 - What notice should I give if I do not receive my check or if a check is lost, stolen, or destroyed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.7 What notice should I give if... destroyed, you must provide prompt written notification. Your written notice may be sent to us or to the... you confirm the notice in writing. The written notice must provide enough information for us...

  7. 31 CFR 355.9 - What should I do if I recover a check reported as lost, stolen, destroyed, or not received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.9 What should I do if I recover a check reported as lost, stolen, destroyed, or not received? If you recover the original check you must notify us... check to us....

  8. 31 CFR 355.9 - What should I do if I recover a check reported as lost, stolen, destroyed, or not received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.9 What should I do if I recover a check reported as lost, stolen, destroyed, or not received? If you recover the original check you must notify us... check to us....

  9. 31 CFR 355.7 - What notice should I give if I do not receive my check or if a check is lost, stolen, or destroyed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.7 What notice should I give if... destroyed, you must provide prompt written notification. Your written notice may be sent to us or to the... you confirm the notice in writing. The written notice must provide enough information for us...

  10. 31 CFR 355.9 - What should I do if I recover a check reported as lost, stolen, destroyed, or not received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.9 What should I do if I recover a check reported as lost, stolen, destroyed, or not received? If you recover the original check you must notify us... check to us....

  11. 31 CFR 355.7 - What notice should I give if I do not receive my check or if a check is lost, stolen, or destroyed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING FISCAL AGENCY CHECKS § 355.7 What notice should I give if... destroyed, you must provide prompt written notification. Your written notice may be sent to us or to the... you confirm the notice in writing. The written notice must provide enough information for us...

  12. Background Reduction in Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.

    2005-09-08

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  13. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  14. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  15. Background Television and Reading Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting…

  16. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  17. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Silver City 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Houser, B.B.; Watts, K.C.; Klein, D.P.; Sharp, W.N.; Drewes, Harald; Hedlund, D.C.; Raines, G.L.; Hassemer, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Silver City 1 ? x 2 ? quadrangle, consisting of about 20,650 km2 in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, has been investigated by a multidisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. The results of this investigation are in a folio of 21 maps that contain detailed information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral deposits, and potential mineral resources of the quadrangle. This Circular provides background information on the various studies and integrates the component maps. It contains an extensive selected bibliography pertinent to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle. The quadrangle has produced more than $3.5 billion in mineral products since about 1850 and contains significant resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, iron, manganese-iron, zeolite minerals, and possibly tin and tungsten.

  18. Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-07

    This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3π muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  20. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Missouri. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Missouri is vested in the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for a term of six years. Commissioners must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the general supervision of public utilities. The Public Service Commission Law passed in 1913, makes no provision for the regulation of public utilities by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  1. Background environmental pollution of the Eurasian continent.

    PubMed

    Rovinsky, F Y; Afanasjev, M I; Burtseva, L V; Yegorov, V I

    1982-12-01

    (1) The interest to studying pollution of environmental media on the background level has grown in the recent years. There arose a necessity to establish a specialized observational system for conducting observations of changes in the state of the environment, and of ecological consequences of pollution as well as to produce assessments of the current and predicted states. The realized program of background monitoring and first results of integrated background measurements have already been published. The paper presented illustrates time-and-space features of the background pollution of natural environmental media according to data from various background stations. (2) Long-term systematic measurements at the 'Borovoe' station (Kazakh SSR) commenced in 1976 have been supplemented with the results of the background pollution studies carried out in Berezinskyi, Caucasian, Central-Chernozem, Sary-Chelek, and Repetek Biosphere Reserves and in locations of the background stations in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The data from the Hungarian and Czechoslovak stations were obtained during joint expeditions. Details are given in the relevant publications. (3) Ozone. Ozone measurements show the diurnal variation with the day-time maxima from 35 up to 160 μg m(-3). The correlation between day-time and nocturnal concentrations is a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect. (4) Sulphur dioxide and sulphates. The annual variation of sulphur dioxide characterised by winter maximum and summer minimum indicates the direct dependence on the amount of fuel burnt in the given region. Mean values of the sulphur dioxide content in the surface layer of the atmosphere correlates with the extent of the region urbanization and varies within 0.2-12.5 μg m(-3). The value of sulphur dioxide and sulphates correlation in the atmosphere is rather stable and varies within 0.18-0.37 μg m(-3). (5) Heavy metals. The annual cycle of the atmospheric content of lead, cadmium and arsenic is well

  2. 42 CFR 75.1 - Background and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background and purpose. 75.1 Section 75.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING STANDARDS FOR THE ACCREDITATION OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR AND THE CREDENTIALING OF RADIOLOGIC PERSONNEL § 75.1 Background and purpose. (a)...

  3. University Student Access and Success. Go8 Backgrounder 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Group of Eight (Go8) universities currently provide a wide range of services and programs to facilitate access and support for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. However, Go8 Vice-Chancellors have also agreed to develop jointly a coordinated equity strategy to increase the participation and success of students from disadvantaged backgrounds.…

  4. 14 CFR 91.1051 - Pilot safety background check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilot safety background check. 91.1051 Section 91.1051 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations Program Management § 91.1051 Pilot safety background check. Within 90 days of an...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1051 - Pilot safety background check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilot safety background check. 91.1051 Section 91.1051 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations Program Management § 91.1051 Pilot safety background check. Within 90 days of an...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1051 - Pilot safety background check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot safety background check. 91.1051 Section 91.1051 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations Program Management § 91.1051 Pilot safety background check. Within 90 days of an...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1051 - Pilot safety background check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilot safety background check. 91.1051 Section 91.1051 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operations Program Management § 91.1051 Pilot safety background check. Within 90 days of an...

  8. Low background techniques in XMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Atsushi

    2011-04-27

    The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

  9. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  10. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  11. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Rhode Island. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Rhode Island statutes vest in the Public Utility Commission and the Division of Public Utilities the exclusive power and authority to regulate public utility companies in that state. Both bodies have been established within the Department of Business Regulation but are independent of the Department's director and are not under his jurisdiction. The jurisdiction to regulate utilities is shared by the Commission and the Division. The Commission serves as a quasi-judicial tribunal with jurisdiction, powers, and duties to hold investigations and hearings involving rates, sufficiency and resonableness of facilities, gas, electric, water, and pipeline public utilities. The administrator, who is chief executive officer of the Division, is responsible for exercising the jurisdiction, supervision, powers, and duties not specifically assigned to the Commission. By virtue of his office, the chairman of the Commission serves also as the administrator and he supervises and directs the execution of all laws relating to public utilities and carriers and all regulations and orders of the Commission governing the conduct and charges of public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  12. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Idaho. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Idaho state legislature has created the Idaho Public Utilities Commission and has given the Commission the power and jurisdiction to supervise and regulate every public utility in the state. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the approval of the senate. Commissioners serve full time and are appointed for six year terms. No more than two of the members may be from the same political party. Title 61 of the Idaho Code, which establishes the Commission and delineates its powers, vests all regulatory responsibility in the Commission to the exclusion of local government. However, as an incident to their franchising power, municipalities may impose reasonable regulations on the use of their streets. The Idaho Supreme Court holds that the transfer of regulatory power over public utilities to the Commission did not diminish the powers and duties of municipalities to control and maintain their streets and alleys. Limited statutory authority also exists giving municipalities the power to regulate the fares, rates, rentals, or charges made for the service rendered under any franchise granted in such city, except such as are subject to regulation by the Public Utilities Commission. With the exception of this limited power, the Commission is the sole agency having regulatory power over Idaho public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  13. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Wisconsin. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Wisconsin state legislature has designated the Public Service Commission (PSC) as the agency responsible for regulating public utilities, and has prescribed the manner in which such utilities are to be regulated. The PSC consists of three commissioners appointed to staggered six-year terms by the governor and confirmed by the senate. Municipalities are given certain limited regulatory powers over public utilities. They are allowed to determine the quality and character of each kind of product or service to be rendered by any public utility within the municipality; to determine all other terms and conditions upon which a public utility may be permitted to occupy the streets, highways or other public places within the municipality; and may require such additions and extensions to (a public utility's) physical plant within said municipality as shall be reasonable and necessary in the interest of the public, and to designate the location and nature of all such additions and extensions subject to review by the PSC. However, the PSC has original and concurrent jurisdiction with municipalities to require extensions of service and to regulate service. Municipalities may purchase and own public utilities; however, such utilities are subject to regulation by the PSC. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Mississippi. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Mississippi is vested generally in the Public Service Commission, composed of three members elected for four year terms from separate districts of the state. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supersedes that of local governments. It is empowered to amend municipal franchises that contain provisions conflicting with its exclusive jurisdiction over the rates and standards of service of public utilities. Local governments play a role in regulating public utilities only through the exercise of their zoning and franchising powers. They may also operate their own utilities which are totally exempt from Commission control, unless they provide services more than one mile beyond their corporate boundaries. Other than a procedure in which certain provisions in municipal franchises may be subject to modification by the Commission, there is no process by which the decisions of local government respecting utilities are reviewed by the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  15. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Pennsylvania. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is generally vested in the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission. The Commission is comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the senate. Commission members are appointed for 10 year terms. They must be free from any employment which is incompatible with the duties of the Commission, and are subject to a statutory code of ethics. The Commission is charged with responsibility for enforcing the Public Utility Law. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supersedes that of local governments. The Commission, for example, may grant exemptions from local zoning requirements, and has approving authority over privileges or franchises granted by municipalities to public utilities. The Commission, however, has no authority over municipally owned utilities operating within municipal boundaries. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  16. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Michigan. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Michigan Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of three members appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commission members are appointed for six-year terms. They must be free from pecuniary and employment interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is vested with complete power and jurisdiction to regulate all public utilities in the state except any municipally-owned utility. The Commission may not change any rates fixed in or regulated by a franchise granted by a municipality. Upon submission to the Commission by the municipality and the public utility operating in the municipality, the Commission may investigate and fix rates and establish rules and conditions of service. The jurisdiction of the Commission extends to all public utilities except municipally-owned utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  17. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  18. Image background removal in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Ni, Mingtian; Zhang, Dongmin; Ledford, Edward B

    2003-01-24

    This paper describes a new technique for removing the background level from digital images produced in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). Background removal is an important first step in the larger problem of quantitative analysis. The approach estimates the background level across the chromatographic image based on structural and statistical properties of GCxGC data. Then, the background level is subtracted from the image, producing a chromatogram in which the peaks rise above a near-zero mean background. After the background level is removed, further analysis is required to determine the quantitative relationship between the peaks and chemicals in the sample. The algorithm is demonstrated experimentally to be effective at determining and removing the background level from GCxGC images. The algorithm has several parametric controls and is incorporated into an interactive program with graphical interface for rapid and accurate detection of GCxGC peaks.

  19. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  20. Background simulations and shielding calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2011-04-27

    Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

  1. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  2. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  3. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  4. Building and Destroying Students' "Academic Identities": The Power of Discourse in a Two-Way Immersion Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah K.

    2008-01-01

    Two-way immersion is a model for bilingual education designed to help language-minority students develop additive bilingualism while at the same time offering language-majority students a chance to learn a second language. There is a great deal of rhetoric around two-way immersion that claims these programs aim to improve overall equity among…

  5. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background and Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina

    2010-11-24

    We discuss a brief history of atmospheric neutrinos, from background to proton decay searches to proving neutrino oscillations. We then discuss how high statistics atmospheric neutrino measurements in the IceCube Deep Core Array can provide useful information about neutrino oscillation parameters and other neutrino properties.

  6. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  7. Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, G.B.; Franklin, J.F.; Kohler, A.; Croze, H.; Boelcke, C.

    1986-12-01

    One of the more significant problems when trying to determine what impact is having on global cycles is not knowing what ''natural'' levels should be for both abiotic (gases, trace elements) and biotic (ecosystem functions) processes. The authors believe that a well designed, coordinated network of baseline stations in remote areas around the world can provide a data base will allow best current estimates to be made of biotic and abiotic baseline conditions. These baseline conditions will then help us make better comparisons with more impacted areas, and thus help us more fully understand the impact man is having on his world. This paper examines the history of background pollution monitoring at the international level, describes current activities in the field of ''integrated'' background monitoring, and proposes criteria for the development of a global network of baseline stations to coordinate background monitoring for the presence, accumulation and behavior of pollutants in remote ecosystems. In this paper, this network is called the Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network.

  8. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  9. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  10. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  11. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  12. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  13. Background Characterization Techniques For Pattern Recognition Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Meg A.; Noah, Paul V.; Schroeder, John W.; Kessler, Bernard V.; Chernick, Julian A.

    1989-08-01

    The Department of Defense has a requirement to investigate technologies for the detection of air and ground vehicles in a clutter environment. The use of autonomous systems using infrared, visible, and millimeter wave detectors has the potential to meet DOD's needs. In general, however, the hard-ware technology (large detector arrays with high sensitivity) has outpaced the development of processing techniques and software. In a complex background scene the "problem" is as much one of clutter rejection as it is target detection. The work described in this paper has investigated a new, and innovative, methodology for background clutter characterization, target detection and target identification. The approach uses multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate a set of image metrics applied to infrared cloud imagery and terrain clutter scenes. The techniques are applied to two distinct problems: the characterization of atmospheric water vapor cloud scenes for the Navy's Infrared Search and Track (IRST) applications to support the Infrared Modeling Measurement and Analysis Program (IRAMMP); and the detection of ground vehicles for the Army's Autonomous Homing Munitions (AHM) problems. This work was sponsored under two separate Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs by the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), White Oak MD, and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity at Aberdeen Proving Ground MD. The software described in this paper will be available from the respective contract technical representatives.

  14. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  15. WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

  16. Quantum chromodynamics in background fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Huang, Zheng

    1989-02-01

    We try to build a framework for quantum chromodynamics in background fields. The nonvanishing vacuum condensates are described by the classical fields, while the corresponding quantum fields are quantized in the Furry representation and the physical states are defined in the physical QCD vacuum. The complete quark and gluon propagators are discussed in this framework and running condensate parameters are introduced by the renormalization requirement. A modified Callan-Symanzik equation is derived by taking account of the nonperturbative corrections.

  17. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  18. The isotropic radio background revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  19. Plutonium measurements near background levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

  20. Plutonium measurements near background levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

  1. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  2. The High Dispersion Background Algorithm in NEWSIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.; Grady, C. A.; O'Brien, P.; de la Pena, M.; Nichols, J.; Garhart, M.; Coulter, B.; Michalitsianos, A.

    1993-12-01

    A two-dimensional interpolating scheme, followed by modeling of the point spread function, is outlined for use in the final archiving NEWSIPS program in removing background fluxes of high dispersion IUE images. So far our tests have been limited mainly to SWP camera images. An integral facet of our background removal algorithm, basisiue, is its execution in a totally automated environment. Toward this end several conditioning steps are required before the background fluxes can be sampled. These include the removal of ``wiggles" of echelle orders as well as rotation of the camera format and removal of order ``splaying" and avoiding pixels with high fluxes due to permanent image blemishes and cosmic ray hits. Image-specific pixels with such pathologies are eliminated, along with on-order pixels, for a sample of pixels along 26 "swaths" (SWP camera) in the cross-dispersion direction. Smoothed, one-dimensional 7-th degree Chebyshev fits are then computed from the interpolated fluxes modified by a global point spread function determined from the interorder overlap pattern in an ensemble of science images. A second set of continuous Chebyshev functions, perpendicular to the first, is computed next along the positions of the IUE orders by interpolating across fluxes determined from the first set. Thus, this algorithm determines both the of background fluxes at arbitrary locations on the image and also determines the amount of interorder flux-overlap among short-wavelength orders, which is necessary to the final extraction of spectral fluxes. This work has been supported under NASA Contact NAS5-31230 to the Computer Sciences Corporation.

  3. COS SMOV Calibration: Detector Background Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, Thomas B., III; McPhate, J.; Osterman, S.; Sahnow, D.; Penton, S.; Keyes, C.; STScI COS Team; COS IDT Team

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), installed in May 2009 into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was designed with two low noise, photon counting detectors. The FUV channel utilizes a windowless, cross delay line (XDL) microchannel plate detector, with heritage from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission. The NUV side employs a closed tube MAMA detector, which had been the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight spare. The background performance of both channels was measured during the COS Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) program. For the FUV detector, the background rate is as expected from prelaunch estimates, 2.4×10-6 counts/sec/pixel, except at times when HST is close to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Close to the SAA boundary, the rate can be as high as 8×10-5. Several weak structures are found in the dark exposures. Some of these are likely due to energetic particles trapped in the geomagnetic field and can be recognized by their large pulse heights. Others are low gain events. For TIME-TAG exposures, most features are removed in ground processing by pulse height filtering of the individual events. For ACCUM mode, which is only used for bright objects, suspect regions of the spectra will be marked by data quality flags, but the features are expected to be too weak to be of consequence. For the NUV detector, the background rate is 6.7×10-5 counts/sec/pixel, about three times lower than predicted from prelaunch estimates and about 15 times lower than the pre-Servicing Mission 4 performance of the STIS NUV detector. A difference in windows between the MAMAs accounts for much of the improvement. In particular, although the COS background is elevated near the SAA, up to 1×10-3 counts/sec/pixel, no long-term phosphorescence occurs in the window after HST passes through the SAA. Little structure is seen in the NUV darks.

  4. Contract Education: A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    Today contract education is generally thought of as a program or course for which an employer is paying the full cost of instruction for customized training. Contract education can help faculty remain current, encourage industry to make equipment available to the college that might otherwise be too expensive, and provide employment opportunities…

  5. Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. PMID:25565705

  6. Background and History of the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Donald B.; Shulha, Lyn M.; Caruthers, Flora

    2004-01-01

    It is generally thought that evaluation originated with the civil service exams that were administered in ancient China. However, modern evaluation and, of particular importance to this article, evaluation standards, originated in the United States. Why this occurred is part of a larger question about the development of social and educational…

  7. Community College Leadership Programs, May 1987. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Carol; And Others

    This paper provides a wide range of information related to leadership and development needs in the California community colleges. First, a summary is presented of five studies or activities concerned with community college leadership, including: (1) the work of the Commission for the Review of the Master Plan for Higher Education; (2) the…

  8. Transitional Jobs: Background, Program Models, and Evaluation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The budget for the U.S. Department of Labor for Fiscal Year 2010 includes a total of $45 million to support and study transitional jobs. This paper describes the origins of the transitional jobs models that are operating today, reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of this approach and other subsidized employment models, and offers some…

  9. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  10. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    PubMed

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background. PMID:26181392

  11. Computerized background-oriented schlieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, G. E. A.

    2002-06-01

    A schlieren measurement technique based on computer evaluation of image variations due to refractive index variations in the propagation medium is presented; in what follows, this concept is referred to as the "background-oriented schlieren" (BOS) method. The differences between BOS and other optical techniques for refractive index measurement are the governing role of numerical methods, the extremely small amount of optical equipment, the high accuracy, the bidirectional sensitivity, the fast evaluation, and the missing field limitations. The principle of the method is the numerical comparison of a schlieren distorted and an undistorted image of a deliberate background. The method has become usable in practice owing to the immense progress in computing power and to newly developed fast-correlation algorithms. The extension of this method to space resolving techniques is possible. Some experimental studies show the applicability. Examples are a mixing turbulent jet, a supersonic jet, a shed vortex, and the sound wave of a gun shot. These few results underline the encouraging prospect for the future applicability of this technique. The BOS method offers not only the possibility of qualitative and quantitative schlieren investigations but also has the potential to determine density fields by integration of the measured gradient fields.

  12. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  13. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  14. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  15. New electronic device powers hospital employee background checks.

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    Ohio has a new electronic system for performing criminal background checks on potential employees. The Internet-based computer program, called WebCheck, was developed through the cooperation of Ohio's Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation and Cogent Systems, Inc., South Pasadena, CA. BCI&I initiated the development of WebCheck in response to Ohio law, which requires background checks on anyone applying for a job involving children and the elderly.

  16. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

  17. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  19. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  20. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  1. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  2. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  3. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century.

  4. Low background techniques applied in the BOREXINO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzel, G.

    2015-08-17

    The BOREXINO detector, located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, has been designed for real-time spectroscopy of low-energy solar neutrinos. Within the experiment several novel background reduction and assay techniques have been established. In many cases they are still the most sensitive world-wide. Developed methods and apparatus provided tools for a strict quality control program during the construction phase of the BOREXINO detector, which was the key to meet the background requirements. Achievement of extremely low background rate opened the possibility to probe in realtime almost entire spectrum of the solar neutrinos.

  5. Post-Testicular Sperm Maturation: Centriole Pairs, Found in Upper Epididymis, are Destroyed Prior to Sperm’s Release at Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Simerly, C.; Castro, C.; Hartnett, C.; Lin, C. C.; Sukhwani, M.; Orwig, K.; Schatten, G.

    2016-01-01

    The fertilizing sperm’s lengthiest unchartered voyage is through the longest, least-investigated organ in a man’s body – the Epididymis. Over six meters long in men, ~80 meters in stallions and over one-hundred times a mouse’s body length, there are few functions known aside from sperm storage and nutrition. While spermatogenesis is completed in the testes, here we demonstrate sperm centriole reduction occurs within the epididymis. Investigations of GFP-CENTR mice and controls demonstrate both the presence of centriole pairs in the upper caput region of the epididymis and, the destruction, first, of the distal and, then, of the proximal centriole as the sperm transits to the cauda and vas deferens in preparation for its climactic release. These centrioles can neither recruit γ-tubulin nor nucleate microtubules when eggs are inseminated or microinjected, yet numerous maternally-nucleated cytasters are found. These sperm centrioles appear as vestigial basal bodies, destroyed in the mid-to-lower corpus. Post-testicular sperm maturation, in which sperm centrioles found in the caput are destroyed prior to ejaculation, is a newly discovered function for the epididymis. PMID:27534805

  6. The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

  7. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  8. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, Narbe

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  9. Program TOMSCAT

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.

    1980-05-30

    Program TOMSCAT is an interactive code that calculates the scattering spectrum and background for a Thomson-scattering diagnostic in typical magnetic fusion plasmas. Thomson scattering yields values of the plasma electron temperature T/sub e/ and electron density N/sub e/. This program is intended as an aid for designing Thomson-scattering systems, so all experimental parameters are input by the user. The code is operational on OCTOPUS.

  10. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  11. Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:…

  12. Chronically Ill Children in America: Background and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nicholas; And Others

    The report examines chronic illness in children and considers issues and recommendations for change in public policies and programs affecting chronically ill children and their families. The background chapter notes the significance of the problem, reviews 11 diseases that are representative of the severe chronic illnesses of childhood: juvenile…

  13. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  14. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  15. Using Background Music To Enhance Memory and Improve Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Scheree; Henke, Jeanette; McLaughlin, Maureen; Ripp, Mary; Tuffs, Patricia

    This report describes a program to enhance spelling word retention through the use of background music. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in three middle class communities located in the southwestern suburbs of Chicago. The problems for poor spelling retention were documented through data revealing the number of students…

  16. Covalent binding to apoproteins is a major fate of heme in a variety of reactions in which cytochrome P-450 is destroyed

    SciTech Connect

    Guengerich, F.P.

    1986-07-16

    The heme in rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H and the microsomes were fractionated after in vitro incubations with a variety of agents known to destroy cytochrome P-450 heme. A major fraction of the heme label was irreversibly bound to apoprotein in all cases, including incubations with fluroxene, 1-octene, vinyl bromide, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, parathion, cumene hydroperoxide, NaN/sub 3/, or iron-ADP complex. Label was also extensively bound to apoprotein when purified and reconstituted cytochrome P-450 was incubated with NADPH and vinyl chloride. This process appears to be widespread and involved to a significant extent in the cytochrome P-450 heme destruction observed with many compounds.

  17. [The forensic-anthropological expertise of a historically important person's relics, destroyed by fire--the contribution of forensic experts to the preservation of a historical heritage].

    PubMed

    Stuller, F; Novomeský, F; Krajcovic, J; Straka, L

    2010-04-01

    The forensic-anthropological expertises of the human remains being destroyed by the external heat are rather rare in general practice of the medical examiner (burned body remains in the fired houses, in traffic accidents, air crashes, explosions in coal mines etc.). In the aim to restore the identity of the burned person, such an expertises have to solve a complex set of problems, which--on the site of a forensic expert--need the application of a very specific approaches and know how. The authors describe a rare case of forensic and anthropological expertise of the 400 years old relics of a person, being important in the slovak history, whose body in the coffin was intentionally exposed to open fire. PMID:21280281

  18. Combining Public Domain and Professional Panoramic Imagery for the Accurate and Dense 3d Reconstruction of the Destroyed Bel Temple in Palmyra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahbeh, W.; Nebiker, S.; Fangi, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper exploits the potential of dense multi-image 3d reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by either using public domain touristic imagery only or by combining the public domain imagery with professional panoramic imagery. The focus of our work is placed on the reconstruction of the temple of Bel, one of the Syrian heritage monuments, which was destroyed in September 2015 by the so called "Islamic State". The great temple of Bel is considered as one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East with a unique design. The investigations and the reconstruction were carried out using two types of imagery. The first are freely available generic touristic photos collected from the web. The second are panoramic images captured in 2010 for documenting those monuments. In the paper we present a 3d reconstruction workflow for both types of imagery using state-of-the art dense image matching software, addressing the non-trivial challenges of combining uncalibrated public domain imagery with panoramic images with very wide base-lines. We subsequently investigate the aspects of accuracy and completeness obtainable from the public domain touristic images alone and from the combination with spherical panoramas. We furthermore discuss the challenges of co-registering the weakly connected 3d point cloud fragments resulting from the limited coverage of the touristic photos. We then describe an approach using spherical photogrammetry as a virtual topographic survey allowing the co-registration of a detailed and accurate single 3d model of the temple interior and exterior.

  19. Simulation of PEP-II Accelerator Backgrounds Using TURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.J.; Fieguth, T.; Kozanecki, W.; Majewski, S.A.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2006-02-15

    We present studies of accelerator-induced backgrounds in the BaBar detector at the SLAC B-Factory, carried out using LPTURTLE, a modified version of the DECAY TURTLE simulation package. Lost-particle backgrounds in PEP-II are dominated by a combination of beam-gas bremstrahlung, beam-gas Coulomb scattering, radiative-Bhabha events and beam-beam blow-up. The radiation damage and detector occupancy caused by the associated electromagnetic shower debris can limit the usable luminosity. In order to understand and mitigate such backgrounds, we have performed a full program of beam-gas and luminosity-background simulations, that include the effects of the detector solenoidal field, detailed modeling of limiting apertures in both collider rings, and optimization of the betatron collimation scheme in the presence of large transverse tails.

  20. Multipurpose background for standardization in medical photography.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    1985-08-01

    A dual photography background system consisting of a quadrilled format on one side and a plain background on the other is described. It is mobile and efficient as a space- and time-saving device for medical photography.

  1. Observations and Modeling of Seismic Background Noise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    TERRAscope network deployed by the California Institute of Technology in cooperation with other institutions. A map showing the approximate locations of the stations used in this study is provided in Figure 1. One might hope for a better distribution of stations in the southern hemisphere, especially Africa and South America, in order to look for regional variations in seismic noise (apart from the major differences between continental, coastal and island sites). Unfortunately, anyone looking for subtle regional variations in seismic noise is probably going to be disappointed by the spectral data presented in this report because much of the station data appear to be dominated by local disturbances caused by instrumental, environmental, cultural, or surf noise. Better instruments and better instrument siting, or a well-funded field program, will be needed before a global isoseismal noise map can be produced. However, by assembling a composite of background noise from a large network of stations, many of the local station variables are masked, and it is possible to create generalized spectral plots of Earth noise for hypothetical quiet and noisy station sites.

  2. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the preceding year demonstrated an outstanding technological achievement or an innovative process, method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management programs can generally be characterized as waste treatment and/or pollution abatement programs....

  3. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the preceding year demonstrated an outstanding technological achievement or an innovative process, method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management programs can generally be characterized as waste treatment and/or pollution abatement programs....

  4. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the preceding year demonstrated an outstanding technological achievement or an innovative process, method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management programs can generally be characterized as waste treatment and/or pollution abatement programs....

  5. 77 FR 61791 - System of Records; Presidential Management Fellows Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... hosting and backup facilities is encrypted utilizing data at rest encryption technologies. A complete data... data base of PMF participant information will be destroyed when no longer needed for administrative... notice. In addition, Presidential Management Fellows Program data formerly collected by the Office...

  6. Low-background detector arrays for infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Estrada, J. A.; Goebel, J. H.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Mcmurray, R. E., Jr.; Weber, T. T.

    1989-01-01

    The status of a program which develops and characterizes integrated infrared (IR) detector array technology for space astronomical applications is described. The devices under development include intrinsic, extrinsic silicon, and extrinsic germanium detectors, coupled to silicon readout electronics. Low-background laboratory test results include measurements of responsivity, noise, dark current, temporal response, and the effects of gamma-radiation. In addition, successful astronomical imagery has been obtained on some arrays from this program. These two aspects of the development combine to demonstrate the strong potential for integrated array technology for IR space astronomy.

  7. A Myo6 Mutation Destroys Coordination between the Myosin Heads, Revealing New Functions of Myosin VI in the Stereocilia of Mammalian Inner Ear Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Amiel A.; Song, Lin; Ron, Uri; Tan, Joshua T.; Shitrit, Alina Starovolsky; Fuchs, Helmut; Hasson, Tama; Ben-Tal, Nir; Sweeney, H. Lee; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Steel, Karen P.; Avraham, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin VI, found in organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans, is essential for auditory and vestibular function in mammals, since genetic mutations lead to hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction in both humans and mice. Here, we show that a missense mutation in this molecular motor in an ENU-generated mouse model, Tailchaser, disrupts myosin VI function. Structural changes in the Tailchaser hair bundles include mislocalization of the kinocilia and branching of stereocilia. Transfection of GFP-labeled myosin VI into epithelial cells and delivery of endocytic vesicles to the early endosome revealed that the mutant phenotype displays disrupted motor function. The actin-activated ATPase rates measured for the D179Y mutation are decreased, and indicate loss of coordination of the myosin VI heads or ‘gating’ in the dimer form. Proper coordination is required for walking processively along, or anchoring to, actin filaments, and is apparently destroyed by the proximity of the mutation to the nucleotide-binding pocket. This loss of myosin VI function may not allow myosin VI to transport its cargoes appropriately at the base and within the stereocilia, or to anchor the membrane of stereocilia to actin filaments via its cargos, both of which lead to structural changes in the stereocilia of myosin VI–impaired hair cells, and ultimately leading to deafness. PMID:18833301

  8. LyP-1-conjugated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting lymph node metastases and destroying tumor lymphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Changyou; Wen, Ziyi; Feng, Linglin; Wang, Fei; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xiangkun; Dong, Qing; Liu, Min; Lu, Weiyue

    2011-10-01

    Lymphatic metastasis can be greatly promoted by metastases growth and lymphangiogenesis in lymph nodes (LNs). LyP-1, a cyclic peptide, is able to specifically bind with tumor cells and tumor lymphatics in metastatic LNs. This work aimed to use LyP-1-conjugated liposomes (L-LS) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (L-LS/DOX) to suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting both metastases and tumor lymphatics in LNs. L-LS were prepared and exhibited sizes around 90 nm and spherical morphology as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro cellular studies showed that LyP-1 modification obviously increased liposome uptake by MDA-MB-435 tumor cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity of liposomal DOX. A popliteal and iliac LN metastases model was successfully established by subcutaneous inoculation of tumor cells to nude mice. The immunofluorescence staining analysis indicated that LyP-1 modification enabled specific binding of liposome with tumor lymphatics and enhanced the destroying effect of liposomal DOX on tumor lymphatics. The in vivo fluorescence imaging and pharmacodynamic studies showed that LyP-1 modification increased liposome uptake by metastatic LNs and that L-LS/DOX significantly decreased metastatic LN growth and LN metastasis rate. These results suggested that L-LS/DOX were an effective delivery system for suppressing lymphatic metastasis by simultaneously inhibiting LN metastases and tumor lymphatics.

  9. Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Foy, B. R.; Petrin, R. R.; Wilson, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation

  10. Gamma background discrimination in the XENON100 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgarejo, Antonio; Xenon100 Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments rely on the ability to have an expected background close to 0 in order to be able to identify possible WIMP signals. Among the multiple strategies to achieve this goal, most of the experiments use background reduction techniques which exploit the difference between electron-like signal (most radioactive backgrounds) and neutron-like signals (neutrons and WIMPs). In this talk we will show the studies and measurements within the XENON100 experiment to distinguish signals from electrons and neutrons by comparing their light to signal ratio. A straightforward prediction of this work is the amount of events expected in the dark matter region in this experiment. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF, DOE, SNF, the Volkswagen Foundation, FCT and STCSM. We are grateful to the LNGS for hosting and supporting the XENON program.

  11. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  12. Color gradient background oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) imaging is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances through the comparison of digital images. By comparing images with and without a refractive disturbance visualizations can be achieved via a range of image processing methods. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high contrast speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern. Here a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative. The gradient background eliminates the need to perform an image correlation between the two digital images, as simple image subtraction can be used to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. This allows for quicker processing. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are shown. The gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data limited only by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Additional results include the use of a computer screen as a background.

  13. Color gradient background-oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    Background-oriented schlieren is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances by comparing digital images with and without a refractive disturbance distorting a background pattern. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high-contrast color transitions or speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern between the two images. Here, a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative that eliminates the need to perform a complex image correlation between the digital images. A simple image subtraction can be used instead to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. Gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data only limited by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Quantitative measurement of density in a thermal boundary layer is presented. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are demonstrated to allow measurement of two-dimensional refractions. A computer screen is used as the background, which allows for rapid modification of the gradient to tune sensitivity for a particular application.

  14. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  15. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  16. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  17. Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia

    Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

  18. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  19. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  20. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  1. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Background. 1031.2 Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.2 Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972...

  2. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  3. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  4. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  5. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  6. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  7. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  8. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  9. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background. (a) Basic purpose. This rule sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy and procedure...

  10. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  11. 16 CFR 1031.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that it was launching a pilot program to open CPSC staff activities for public review and comment. The... program's results, including data that indicated the voluntary standards site ranked among the top...

  12. Natural-background-oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael John; Settles, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) flow visualization method has the potential for large-scale flow imaging outside the laboratory by using natural backgrounds instead of the artificial patterns normally used indoors. The natural surroundings of an outdoor test site can sometimes be used as such a background, subject to criteria of fine scale, randomness and contrast that are developed here. Some natural backgrounds are more appropriate than others for a given application. Backgrounds used here to visualize both high- and low-speed schlieren disturbances include a sunlit cornfield and a backlit grove of trees. A range of image post-processing methods is considered for qualitative BOS. It is found that high sensitivity and a broad measuring range are in conflict here, much as they are in traditional schlieren instruments. Applications of natural-BOS include explosive characterization, firearms and artillery testing, chemical and natural-gas leak detection, and related phenomena.

  13. Integrated far-infrared background from galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi

    1991-01-01

    The integrated radiation from galaxies is calculated at far-IR and submillimeter wavelengths. The peak of the far-IR background radiation is 100-130 microns, and its total energy content is 0.5-6 percent of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). At wavelengths longward of 400 microns, the CMB dominates over the far-IR radiation from galaxies in intensity. The autocorrelation of fluctuations from the average angle of the far-IR background of galaxies is calculated. The contribution of galaxies to the anisotropy of the background radiation at wavelengths longer than about 400 microns where the CMB is predominant is obtained. It is found that, in general, earlier galaxy formation predicts stronger far-IR background radiation. The prompt initial enrichment model for the chemical evolution of disk galaxies, in particular those with an exponential star formation rate, produces much larger intensity of the integrated radiation than the accretion model.

  14. Characterization and Prediction of the SPI Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Jean, P.; Knodlseder, J.; Skinner, G. K.; Weidenspointer, G.

    2003-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Spectrometer, like most gamma-ray instruments, is background dominated. Signal-to-background ratios of a few percent are typical. The background is primarily due to interactions of cosmic rays in the instrument and spacecraft. It characteristically varies by +/- 5% on time scales of days. This variation is caused mainly by fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field that modulates the cosmic ray intensity. To achieve the maximum performance from SPI it is essential to have a high quality model of this background that can predict its value to a fraction of a percent. In this poster we characterize the background and its variability, explore various models, and evaluate the accuracy of their predictions.

  15. 48 CFR 1523.7000 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Star” requirements for energy efficiency. This equipment is often identified by the Energy StarTM logo... Star Computer Program is a voluntary partnership effort with the computer industry to promote the... systems. The Energy Star Program is designed to be a self-certifying computer industry program,...

  16. 48 CFR 1523.7000 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Star” requirements for energy efficiency. This equipment is often identified by the Energy StarTM logo... Star Computer Program is a voluntary partnership effort with the computer industry to promote the... systems. The Energy Star Program is designed to be a self-certifying computer industry program,...

  17. Does a Rater's Professional Background Influence Communication Skills Assessment?

    PubMed

    Artemiou, Elpida; Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing pressure in veterinary education to teach and assess communication skills, with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) being the most common assessment method. Previous research reveals that raters are a large source of variance in OSCEs. This study focused on examining the effect of raters' professional background as a source of variance when assessing students' communication skills. Twenty-three raters were categorized according to their professional background: clinical sciences (n=11), basic sciences (n=4), clinical communication (n=5), or hospital administrator/clinical skills technicians (n=3). Raters from each professional background were assigned to the same station and assessed the same students during two four-station OSCEs. Students were in year 2 of their pre-clinical program. Repeated-measures ANOVA results showed that OSCE scores awarded by the rater groups differed significantly: (F(matched_station_1) [2,91]=6.97, p=.002), (F(matched_station_2) [3,90]=13.95, p=.001), (F(matched_station_3) [3,90]=8.76, p=.001), and ((Fmatched_station_4) [2,91]=30.60, p=.001). A significant time effect between the two OSCEs was calculated for matched stations 1, 2, and 4, indicating improved student performances. Raters with a clinical communication skills background assigned scores that were significantly lower compared to the other rater groups. Analysis of written feedback provided by the clinical sciences raters showed that they were influenced by the students' clinical knowledge of the case and that they did not rely solely on the communication checklist items. This study shows that it is important to consider rater background both in recruitment and training programs for communication skills' assessment.

  18. The efficiency of reading around learned backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh T.; Abbey, Craig K.; Zhang, Yani

    2006-03-01

    Most metrics of medical image quality typically treat all variability components of the background as a Gaussian noise process. This includes task based model observers (non-prewhitening matched filter without and with an eye filter, NPW and NPWE; Hotelling and Channelized Hotelling) as well as Fourier metrics of medical image quality based on the noise power spectra. However, many investigators have observed that unlike many of the models/metrics, physicians often can discount signal-looking structures that are part of the normal anatomic background. This process has been referred to as reading around the background or noise. The purpose of this paper is to develop an experimental framework to systematically study the ability of human observers to read around learned backgrounds and compare their ability to that of an optimal ideal observer which has knowledge of the background. We measured human localization performance of one of twelve targets in the presence of a fixed background consisting of randomly placed Gaussians with random contrasts and sizes, and white noise. Performance was compared to a condition in which the test images contained only white noise but with higher contrast. Human performance was compared to standard model observers that treat the background as a Gaussian noise process (NPW, NPWE and Hotelling), a Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter, and an ideal observer. The Hotelling, NPW, NPWE models as well as the Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter predicted higher performance for the white noise test images than the background plus white noise. In contrast, ideal and human performance was higher for the background plus white noise condition. Furthermore, human performance exceeded that of the NPW, NPWE and Hotelling models and reached an efficiency of 19% relative to the ideal observer. Our results demonstrate that for some types of images human signal localization performance is consistent with use of knowledge about the high order

  19. Holographic thermalization in a quark confining background

    SciTech Connect

    Ageev, D. S. Aref’eva, I. Ya.

    2015-03-15

    We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact, a trapped surface formation. As the vacuum confining background, we considered the well-know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential and reproduces the QCD β-function. We perturb the vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of trapped surface formation, which results in a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain, we can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. We find that the dependence of the multiplicity on energy for the intermediate background has an asymptotic expansion whose first term depends on energy as E{sup 1/3}, which is very similar to the experimental dependence of particle multiplicities on the colliding ion energy obtained from the RHIC and LHC. However, this first term, at the energies where the approximation of the confining metric by the intermediate background works, does not saturate the exact answer, and we have to take the nonleading terms into account.

  20. Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of Minority Adults from Educationally Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  1. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  2. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Stawarz, L.; Lawrence, A.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  3. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  4. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  5. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  6. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  7. Low background physics at the Kimballton Mine

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.

    2011-04-27

    The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is home to several experiments. One consists to two HPGe detectors designed to screen candidate materials to be used in low-background experiments for radioactivity. Analysis techniques, including our efficiency calculations will be presented. We have also deployed a customized BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detector in a low-background cryostat. This paper will focus on the shield design, detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a detector in a low-background environment.

  8. Exploiting background knowledge in automated discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Aronis, J.M.; Buchanan, B.G.; Provost, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Prior work in automated scientific discovery has been successful in finding patterns in data, given that a reasonably small set of mostly relevant features is specified. The work described in this paper places data in the context of large bodies of background knowledge. Specifically, data items are connected to multiple databases of background knowledge represented as inheritance networks. The system has made a practical impact on botanical toxicology research, which required linking examples of cases of plant exposures to databases of botanical, geographical, and climate background knowledge.

  9. Optimization of background subtraction for image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetsky, Larry; Boczar, Ross; Lee-Own, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of foreground objects in scenery via image processing often involves a background subtraction process. This process aims to improve blob (connected component) content in the image. Quality blob content is often needed for defining regions of interest for object recognition and tracking. Three techniques are examined which optimize the background to be subtracted - genetic algorithm, an analytic solution based on convex optimization, and a related application of the CVX solver toolbox. These techniques are applied to a set of images and the results are compared. Additionally, a possible implementation architecture that uses multiple optimization techniques with subsequent arbitration to produce the best background subtraction is considered.

  10. Modeling Lost-Particle Backgrounds in PEP-II Using LPTURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Fieguth, T.; Barlow, R.; Kozanecki, W.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2005-05-17

    Background studies during the design, construction, commissioning, operation and improvement of BaBar and PEP-II have been greatly influenced by results from a program referred to as LPTURTLE (Lost Particle TURTLE) which was originally conceived for the purpose of studying gas background for SLC. This venerable program is still in use today. We describe its use, capabilities and improvements and refer to current results now being applied to BaBar.

  11. CERN-derived analysis of lunar radiation backgrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Svoboda, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The Moon produces radiation which background-limits scientific experiments there. Early analyses of these backgrounds have either failed to take into consideration the effect of charm in particle physics (because they pre-dated its discovery), or have used branching ratios which are no longer strictly valid (due to new accelerator data). We are presently investigating an analytical program for deriving muon and neutrino spectra generated by the Moon, converting an existing CERN computer program known as GEANT which does the same for the Earth. In so doing, this will (1) determine an accurate prompt neutrino spectrum produced by the lunar surface; (2) determine the lunar subsurface particle flux; (3) determine the consequence of charm production physics upon the lunar background radiation environment; and (4) provide an analytical tool for the NASA astrophysics community with which to begin an assessment of the Moon as a scientific laboratory versus its particle radiation environment. This will be done on a recurring basis with the latest experimental results of the particle data groups at Earth-based high-energy accelerators, in particular with the latest branching ratios for charmed meson decay. This will be accomplished for the first time as a full 3-dimensional simulation.

  12. Simulation of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the JUNO central detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Ying; Deng, Zi-Yan; Wen, Liang-Jian; Li, Wei-Dong; You, Zheng-Yun; Yu, Chun-Xu; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Lin, Tao

    2016-02-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is an experiment proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and probe the fundamental properties of neutrino oscillation. The JUNO central detector is a spherical liquid scintillator detector with 20 kton fiducial mass. It is required to achieve a energy resolution with very low radioactive background, which is a big challenge to the detector design. In order to ensure the detector performance can meet the physics requirements, reliable detector simulation is necessary to provide useful information for the detector design. A simulation study of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the JUNO central detector has been performed to guide the detector design and set requirements for the radio-purity of the detector materials. The accidental background induced by natural radioactivity in the JUNO central detector is 1.1/day. The result is satisfied for the experiment. Supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA10010900), CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (U1332201)

  13. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  14. Capabilities of the cosmic background explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic background explorer, now being redesigned for a launch on a Delta rocket in 1989, will carry three instruments to measure the cosmic infrared and microwave background radiation and other diffuse sources from 1 micron to 1 cm wavelength. These instruments will be orders of magnitude more sensitive and accurate than previous equipment and will help determine the structure of the early universe. The instruments are (1) an absolute spectrophotometer, covering 100 microns to 1 cm, (2) an absolute infrared radiometer covering 1 to 300 microns, and (3) differential microwave radiometers at 32, 53, and 90 GHz. They will measure the large scale anisotropy and the spectrum of the 3 K cosmic background, and search for the extragalactic infrared background, to a sensitivity limited by the astrophysical environment. The first two instruments require liquid helium cooling, limiting their lifetime to about 14 months.

  15. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollaine, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

  16. High-energy radiation background in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

  17. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS GRADUATED MOBILIZATION RESPONSE § 334.3 Background. (a) The GMR system is designed to... warning indicators may emanate from the political, socio-economic and/or industrial sectors. (c) The...

  18. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-17

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  19. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  20. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  1. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  2. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  3. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental... participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were undertaken without adequate regard...

  4. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-02-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

  5. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  6. The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzner, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

  7. Experiences with active cosmic background suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Lamaze, G.P.

    1994-12-31

    The dominant source of background in a bare germanium gamma-ray detector is natural radiation originating from potassium, uranium, and thorium decay in the laboratory environment and from cosmic rays. Most of the background is removed by surrounding the detector with lead shielding, which is commonly 20 cm thick. In a well-shielded detector, the largest contributor to the integral counting rate is cosmic rays, and to a lesser extent beta particles from {sup 210}Pb. Most of the counting rate in the continuum is due to highly penetrating muons. Many of the characteristic peaks in the background also originate from fast tertiary neutrons of cosmic-ray origin, which generate neutron activation products or create gamma rays from inelastic scattering in materials of the detector and shield. Very massive shielding is required to remove this penetrating component of background; we have found a fivefold reduction in the cosmic components by moving the detector into a laboratory 20 m underground. However, lacking an underground lab, we have attempted to use active shielding to reduce the background of a Ge detector located above ground. The guard detector is a proportional counter forming a roof 23 cm above the detector. The counter is placed inside the lead shielding to reduce it`s background counting rate.

  8. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  9. Low background screening capability in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  10. Measurement and analysis of sky background spectra in passive ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhang; Liu, Bingqi; Yu, Hao; Li, Xiaoming; Yan, Zongqun; Hua, Wenshen; Shi, Yunsheng; Chen, Yichao

    2015-10-01

    Experimental program is designed to analyze the radiation and absorption characteristic of the sky background at near-infrared Oxygen A absorption band of passive ranging based on Oxygen spectral absorption; an acousto-optic tunable hyper spectral imaging spectrometer is used as the measuring device. Under the condition of sunny, cloudy, and snowy weather, the sky background spectral distribution is collected using the acousto-optic tunable hyper spectral imaging spectrometer. Then the Oxygen absorption rate is calculated according to the principle of Oxygen spectrum absorption passive ranging. The measurement result shows: absorption lines exist in the sky background spectral distribution at the Oxygen A absorption band, and the absorption rates are different at different weather conditions. The Oxygen absorption rates are the biggest under snowy weather, bigger under cloudy weather, and the smallest under sunny weather. The general change pattern of Oxygen absorption rate under different weather conditions is obtained and the result has laid solid foundation for suppressing the interference of the background and extracting target spectral accurately in subsequent passive ranging researching.

  11. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provide official recognition to industrial organizations and political subdivisions of States which during..., method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater...

  12. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provide official recognition to industrial organizations and political subdivisions of States which during..., method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater...

  13. Background matrix subtraction (BMS): A novel background removal algorithm for GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Mohamed; Harbi, Hussein

    2014-07-01

    Background noise is a common type of coherent noise that severely compromises the integrity of the high-resolution images provided by ground penetrating radar survey. Several existing techniques employ different approaches to attenuate background noise. In this study, we present the background matrix subtraction (BMS) as an alternative technique to remove horizontal background noise and we compare its efficiency to that of the conventional background removal technique. Instead of calculating an average trace that is subtracted from the GPR data in the conventional background removal methods, the BMS technique is based on calculating a complete background matrix of the same size of the GPR section. The background matrix is created through a series of windowing, sample exclusion, weighting, and iteration. This series of processes guarantees that the background matrix is least affected by target response and is composed purely of horizontal background noise. The computed background matrix is then subtracted from the GPR data to remove horizontal events. Results of experiments conducted on both synthetic and real GPR data show that the BMS technique yields better results than the commonly used background removal technique.

  14. Density measurements in water using background oriented schlieren technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Wang, Chuanxi; Eliasson, Veronica

    2012-11-01

    Undersea earthquakes, tsunamis and underwater explosions are examples of phenomena that cause compressible wave propagation in oceans leading to changes in density and pressure. Here, a direct impact method is used to generate a shock wave in a water-filled channel and the following changes in the density of the fluid is quantified using an extended background oriented schlieren technique. Background oriented schlieren technique relies on measuring variations in index of refraction in the fluid. A high-speed camera is used to capture multiple frames of the shock wave propagation. A code has been developed to quantify the change in index of refection, and map it to the change in density. Results of density changes due to shock wave propagation in converging water-filled channels will be presented. Supported by Office of Naval Research through a MURI Grant Number N00014-06-1-0730 (Dr. Y.D.S. Rajapakse, Program Manager).

  15. 44 CFR 350.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the lead in State and local emergency planning and preparedness activities with respect to nuclear... civil emergency preparedness programs. Under section 201 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C... develop and implement plans and programs of disaster preparedness. (c) There are two sections in the...

  16. 44 CFR 350.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the lead in State and local emergency planning and preparedness activities with respect to nuclear... civil emergency preparedness programs. Under section 201 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C... develop and implement plans and programs of disaster preparedness. (c) There are two sections in the...

  17. 44 CFR 350.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... civil emergency preparedness programs. Under section 201 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C... develop and implement plans and programs of disaster preparedness. (c) There are two sections in the NRC's... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF STATE AND LOCAL RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND...

  18. 44 CFR 350.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... civil emergency preparedness programs. Under section 201 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C... develop and implement plans and programs of disaster preparedness. (c) There are two sections in the NRC's... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF STATE AND LOCAL RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND...

  19. 44 CFR 350.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... civil emergency preparedness programs. Under section 201 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C... develop and implement plans and programs of disaster preparedness. (c) There are two sections in the NRC's... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF STATE AND LOCAL RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND...

  20. Exploring the moon. [personal historical background perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrow, R.

    1981-01-01

    The genesis of lunar exploration programs is described. The idea that the dead moon could give important clues about the origin of the solar system germinated into plans for a soft landing on the moon and then into the Apollo program. The exchanges between NASA scientists and other astronomers that led to these plans are recounted.

  1. A review on natural background radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

  2. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  3. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.; De Amici, G.; Levin, S.; Witebsky, C.

    1984-12-01

    We have continued our program to measure the long-wavelength spectrum of the cosmic background radiation. Our previous observations were at five wavelengths--0.33, 0.9, 3.0, 6.3, and 12.0 cm--and had a weighted average value of 2.73 {+-} 0.05 K and deviated from a Planckian spectrum by less than 6%. In August 1984, we repeated our observations at 3.0, 0.9, and 0.33 cm and made new observations with a radiometer tunable from 1.7 to 15 cm. Preliminary analysis indicate that the new data are consistent with our previous results.

  4. The background and theory of integrated risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, John L.

    1995-01-01

    While all good managers have always considered risk in their decision making, only recently have formal programs to do so been introduced. This report covers the logical structure behind the formulation of an integrated risk management plan (IRM). Included in the report are factors forcing the development of a formal plan to consider risk, the basic objective or purpose of an IRM, and desirable traits of such a plan. The report moves on to a discussion of background issues, seeks to formalize some definitions, and then discusses required information on threats. The report concludes with the steps for an IRM.

  5. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  6. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  7. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    SciTech Connect

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutron background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.

  8. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutronmore » background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.« less

  9. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation—perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation.

  10. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  11. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  12. Olfactory signal coding in an odor background.

    PubMed

    Renou, Michel; Party, Virginie; Rouyar, Angéla; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-10-01

    Insects communicating with pheromones are confronted with an olfactory environment featuring a diversity of volatile organic compounds from plant origin. These volatiles constitute a rich and fluctuant background from which the information carried by the pheromone signal must be extracted. Thus, the pheromone receptor neurons must encode into spike trains the quality, intensity and temporal characteristics of the signal that are determinant to the recognition and localization of a conspecific female. We recorded and analyzed the responses of the pheromone olfactory receptor neurons of male moths to sex pheromone in different odor background conditions. We show that in spite of the narrow chemical tuning of the pheromone receptor neurons, the sensory input can be altered by odorant background. PMID:26116090

  13. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  14. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. S.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2016-03-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  15. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  16. Innovative Training in Pediatrics, General Psychiatry, and Child Psychiatry: Background, Outcomes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors describe the history, rationale, and outcomes of combined training programs in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child psychiatry ("triple board"), including narrative feedback from graduates and reflections upon the important components of the program. Methods: This article reviews the background and experiences of triple board…

  17. Appendix C: Background and Methodology for Alternative Certification Pilot. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. As part of the "Review," this appendix reports on a pilot study of new standards for assessing the quality of alternative certification programs. Background and methodology for alternative…

  18. Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

    2015-02-01

    One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0γ ≈ 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0γ = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (CνB) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the CνB with the induced beta decay νe+3H → 3He + e- using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

  19. Improved Background Corrections for Uranium Holdup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Chiang, L.G.

    2004-06-21

    In the original Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model, all holdup deposits were modeled as points, lines, and areas[1, 5]. Two improvements[4] were recently made to the GGH model and are currently in use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. These two improvements are the finite-source correction CF{sub g} and the self-attenuation correction. The finite-source correction corrects the average detector response for the width of point and line geometries which in effect, converts points and lines into areas. The result of a holdup measurement of an area deposit is a density-thickness which is converted to mass by multiplying it by the area of the deposit. From the measured density-thickness, the true density-thickness can be calculated by correcting for the material self-attenuation. Therefore the self-attenuation correction is applied to finite point and line deposits as well as areas. This report demonstrates that the finite-source and self-attenuation corrections also provide a means to better separate the gamma rays emitted by the material from the gamma rays emitted by background sources for an improved background correction. Currently, the measured background radiation is attenuated for equipment walls in the case of area deposits but not for line and point sources. The measured background radiation is not corrected for attenuation by the uranium material. For all of these cases, the background is overestimated which causes a negative bias in the measurement. The finite-source correction and the self-attenuation correction will allow the correction of the measured background radiation for both the equipment attenuation and material attenuation for area sources as well as point and line sources.

  20. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Mendis, A.

    1977-01-01

    It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater than about 1,000), as given by the canonical model of big bang cosmologies. In view of this, the claim that the microwave background radiation lends strong support to hot big bang cosmologies is without foundation.