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Sample records for destroyer programs background

  1. Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-22

    in FY2010 and two more FY2011, followed by the procurement in FY2012- FY2015 (in annual quantities of 1, 2, 1, 2) of a ship called the Future...September 7, 2009. Material in brackets as in original. 19 For more on the CG(X) program, see CRS Report RL34179, Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and

  2. Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-17

    FY2012- FY2015 (in annual quantities of 1, 2, 1, 2) of a ship called the Future Surface Combatant (FSC) that could be based on either the DDG-51 design or...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and... Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per

  3. Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-23

    submission.” The memo proposed procuring one DDG-51 in FY2010 and two more FY2011, followed by the procurement in FY2012- FY2015 (in annual quantities of 1, 2...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and...Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs July 23, 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL32109 Report

  4. Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-23

    more FY2011, followed by the procurement in FY2012- FY2015 (in annual quantities of 1, 2, 1, 2) of a ship called the Future Surface Combatant (FSC) that...committee report —then annual manpower costs for the DDG-51 could be reduced from the figure of $19.9 million shown in the table to about $16.5 million, a...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and

  5. Navy DDG-1000 and DDG-51 Destroyer Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-04

    issue for Congress is whether to continue with the construction of the second DDG-1000, or alternatively cancel the ship and rescind its funding... strategy with our nation’s warfighting needs. The Navy continues to address the dynamic capability requirements of the Fleet while balancing the demands ...base during the planning of the specific strategy . DDG 1000 Class Destroyer Program The Navy remains ready to begin construction of DDG 1000. A

  6. Navy DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-15

    acquisition strategy and a low rate initial production quantity of eight ships (one more than the Navy currently plans to procure). Construction Sequence for...radar by over a year. In order to support the ship construction schedule, the Navy has begun initial testing at an alternate test site. Because of issues...limit the program to two ships and resume construction of Arleigh Burke-class DDG-51 destroyers.... Industry sources say the Navy is interested in

  7. Navy DDG-1000 Destroyer Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    6 Table 3. DDG-1000 Capabilities Relative to DDG-51 Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 4. Alternative with...LPD (AGS) and Smaller Cruiser-Destroyer . . . . . . . 38 Table 5. Alternative with Smaller Cruiser-Destroyer...of FY2006, 49 had entered service and the remaining 13 were in various stages of construction , with the final ships scheduled to be delivered in 2010

  8. Navy DDG-1000 Destroyer Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-05

    order to support the ship construction schedule, the Navy has begun initial testing at an alternate test site. Because of issues with a critical...that the $400 million is to be used either for construction of DDG-1000s or for restarting construction of Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class destroyers...23 Table 4. DDG-1000 Capabilities Relative to DDG-51 Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table 5. Alternative with LPD

  9. Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-20

    program acquisition unit cost (PAUC)—one of two measures used under the Nunn-McCurdy provision for measuring cost growth 29 —was enough to cause a...The other measure used under the Nunn-McCurdy provision to measure cost growth is average program unit cost (APUC), which is the program’s total...procurement funding that would be needed to complete the cost of this additional DDG-51 is, however, included as the second item on the Navy’s FY2017

  10. Navy DDG-1000 and DDG-51 Destroyer Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-22

    also marks the kick off of a far-reaching NSFS Analysis of Alternatives that will set the course for future acquisition programs. It is important... alternatives in time for a Defense Acquisition Executive Review slated for June 2009. “We believe this [ analysis ] is the appropriate process to determine the...Congress in early 2009. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has reserved judgment on the Navy’s proposal, pending further analysis , but gave the

  11. Navy DDG-1000 and DDG-51 Destroyer Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-09

    kick off of a far-reaching NSFS Analysis of Alternatives that will set the course for future acquisition programs. It is important that the Navy...Defense has CRS-26 directed the two services to conduct a joint expeditionary fires analysis of alternatives in time for a Defense Acquisition Executive...conflicting demands , the Navy structured its acquisition strategy to develop key systems and mature the design before starting to build the ship. While

  12. Navy DDG-1000 and DDG-51 Destroyer Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-11

    the kick off of a far-reaching NSFS Analysis of Alternatives that will set the course for future acquisition programs. It is important that the Navy...Overall, stealth demands that as much as possible of the overall volume of the ship be buried in her hull, where the shape of the ship can minimise radar...Congress in early 2009. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has reserved judgment on the Navy’s proposal, pending further analysis , but gave

  13. Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-02

    watchstander; introduction of a Digital Video Surveillance System (DVSS) and introduction of an Integrated Bridge and Navigation System (IBNS). The...replacement platform, USNS Howard O. Lorenzen (Missile Range Instrumentation Ship (T- AGM ) 25), is a commercially designed and constructed ship...19, 2011. The United States Naval Ship (USNS) Howard O. Lorenzen (Missile Range Instrumentation Ship (T- AGM ) 25) completed at-sea Builder’s Trials

  14. Navy DDG-1000 and DDG-51 Destroyer Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-08

    acquisition strategy and a low rate initial production quantity of eight ships (one more than the Navy subsequently planned to procure). Construction ...the volume search radar by over a year. In order to support the ship construction schedule, the Navy has begun initial testing at an alternate test...5 Surface Combatant Construction Industrial Base

  15. Navy DDG-1000 Destroyer Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-11

    the construction of the dual lead ships is treated as a cost plus incentive fee (CPIF) item. Acquisition Strategy for Third and Subsequent Ships.12... construction schedule, the Navy has begun initial testing at an alternate test site. Because of issues with a critical circuit technology, the volume search...stealth demands that as much as possible of the overall volume of the ship be buried in her hull, where the shape of the ship can minimise radar

  16. Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-23

    replacement ship for our cruisers.” ( Material in brackets in the press report .) Another press report (Zachary M. Peterson, “Part One of Overdue CG(X) AOA...the FY2010- FY2015 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP) to be submitted to Congress in early 2009. An earlier report (Christopher P. Cavas, “DDG 1000...FY2010 and two more FY2011, followed by the procurement in FY2012- FY2015 (in annual quantities of 1, 2, 1, 2) of a ship called the Future Surface

  17. Employing Concept Definition Techniques to Deliver Value on the RAN Air Warfare Destroyer Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    team approach, early systems architecting and judicious use of Model Based Systems Engineering ( MBSE ). In this presentation, it is shown how...sponsors. As the program has progressed, this MBSE environment has been progressively expanded to include additional SysML system composition and system...applicability of MBSE techniques in complex/large programs and the reality that theoretical application of MBSE must be tailored and augmented with

  18. Weatherization Assistance Program - Background Data and Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2010-03-01

    This technical memorandum is intended to provide readers with information that may be useful in understanding the purposes, performance, and outcomes of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (Weatherization). Weatherization has been in operation for over thirty years and is the nation's largest single residential energy efficiency program. Its primary purpose, established by law, is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential energy expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, the handicapped, and children.' The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act PL111-5 (ARRA), passed and signed into law in February 2009, committed $5 Billion over two years to an expanded Weatherization Assistance Program. This has created substantial interest in the program, the population it serves, the energy and cost savings it produces, and its cost-effectiveness. This memorandum is intended to address the need for this kind of information. Statistically valid answers to many of the questions surrounding Weatherization and its performance require comprehensive evaluation of the program. DOE is undertaking precisely this kind of independent evaluation in order to ascertain program effectiveness and to improve its performance. Results of this evaluation effort will begin to emerge in late 2010 and 2011, but they require substantial time and effort. In the meantime, the data and statistics in this memorandum can provide reasonable and transparent estimates of key program characteristics. The memorandum is laid out in three sections. The first deals with some key characteristics describing low-income energy consumption and expenditures. The second section provides estimates of energy savings and energy bill reductions that the program can reasonably be presumed to be producing. The third section

  19. Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

  20. Resource Destroying Maps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Hu, Xueyuan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-02-10

    Resource theory is a widely applicable framework for analyzing the physical resources required for given tasks, such as computation, communication, and energy extraction. In this Letter, we propose a general scheme for analyzing resource theories based on resource destroying maps, which leave resource-free states unchanged but erase the resource stored in all other states. We introduce a group of general conditions that determine whether a quantum operation exhibits typical resource-free properties in relation to a given resource destroying map. Our theory reveals fundamental connections among basic elements of resource theories, in particular, free states, free operations, and resource measures. In particular, we define a class of simple resource measures that can be calculated without optimization, and that are monotone nonincreasing under operations that commute with the resource destroying map. We apply our theory to the resources of coherence and quantum correlations (e.g., discord), two prominent features of nonclassicality.

  1. Resource Destroying Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Hu, Xueyuan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-02-01

    Resource theory is a widely applicable framework for analyzing the physical resources required for given tasks, such as computation, communication, and energy extraction. In this Letter, we propose a general scheme for analyzing resource theories based on resource destroying maps, which leave resource-free states unchanged but erase the resource stored in all other states. We introduce a group of general conditions that determine whether a quantum operation exhibits typical resource-free properties in relation to a given resource destroying map. Our theory reveals fundamental connections among basic elements of resource theories, in particular, free states, free operations, and resource measures. In particular, we define a class of simple resource measures that can be calculated without optimization, and that are monotone nonincreasing under operations that commute with the resource destroying map. We apply our theory to the resources of coherence and quantum correlations (e.g., discord), two prominent features of nonclassicality.

  2. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-27

    boosting the yield of the primary, another system injects “boost gas”—a mixture of deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) gases—into the pit...it does not design warhead components; its role is to supply tritium for warheads. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current...many of the nonnuclear components; Savannah River Site (SC), which processes tritium from stockpiled weapons to remove decay products; Pantex Plant (TX

  3. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  4. Contamination control program for the Cosmic Background Explorer: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Each of the three state of the art instruments flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) were designed, fabricated, and integrated using unique contamination control procedures to ensure accurate characterization of the diffuse radiation in the universe. The most stringent surface level cleanliness specifications ever attempted by NASA were required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DRIBE) which is located inside a liquid helium cooled dewar along with the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS). The DRIBE instrument required complex stray radiation suppression that defined a cold primary optical baffle system surface cleanliness level of 100A. The cleanliness levels of the cryogenic FIRAS instrument and the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) which were positioned symmetrically around the dewar were less stringent ranging from 300 to 500A. To achieve these instrument cleanliness levels, the entire flight spacecraft was maintained at level 500A throughout each phase of development. The COBE contamination control program is described along with the difficulties experienced in maintaining the cleanliness quality of personnel and flight hardware throughout instrument assembly.

  5. Contamination control program for the Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    Each of the three state of the art instruments flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) were designed, fabricated, and integrated using unique contamination control procedures to ensure accurate characterization of the diffuse radiation in the universe. The most stringent surface level cleanliness specifications ever attempted by NASA were required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DRIBE) which is located inside a liquid helium cooled dewar along with the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS). The DRIBE instrument required complex stray radiation suppression that defined a cold primary optical baffle system surface cleanliness level of 100A. The cleanliness levels of the cryogenic FIRAS instrument and the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) which were positioned symmetrically around the dewar were less stringent ranging from 300 to 500A. To achieve these instrument cleanliness levels, the entire flight spacecraft was maintained at level 500A throughout each phase of development. The COBE contamination control program is described along with the difficulties experienced in maintaining the cleanliness quality of personnel and flight hardware throughout instrument assembly.

  6. Background and Evaluation of the Elementary School Economics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, William D.

    This document briefly introduces and describes the administration of the Elementary School Economics (ESE) program, discusses program objectives, suggests ways to integrate ESE into social studies curriculum, and evaluates the program's effectiveness. In 1960 the Industrial Relations Center at the University of Chicago initiated the ESE program to…

  7. NCA Program Review Standards: Background, Application, and Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backlund, Phil; Bach, Betsy; Procopio, Claire; Johnston, Deirdre; Mello, Brad; Sypher, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Academic program review has become a consistent and integral part of the life of a Communication Department. Nationally, program review began as part of the assessment movement, and has taken its place as a regular feature in higher education. Program review generally has two purposes--to demonstrate program effectiveness and to serve as data for…

  8. Down Under Amnesties: Background, Programs, and Comparative Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    1984-01-01

    Australia, proportionately, accepts more immigrants than the United States. Although Australia's location limits its experience with undocumented migrants, there have been enough of them to cause Australia to conduct three alien legalization programs. These programs, small by U.S. standards, provide some useful lessons to the U.S. (Author/RDN)

  9. Background information: requirements for advanced specialty education programs in prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    The proposed revisions have been developed to address problems of fragmentation, inconsistency, and lack of balance in advanced prosthodontic education. Minimum didactic and clinical requirements for each subdiscipline are clearly indicated in the proposed "Requirements," and programs will no longer be directed to provide special emphasis in one subdiscipline. It should be noted that the proposed "Requirements" do not prevent or preclude programs from emphasizing one subdiscipline. This option is left up to the sponsoring institutions. The proposed "Requirements," however, do underscore the fact that the primary responsibility of accredited prosthodontic programs is to provide students with the opportunity to achieve competence in the full scope of prosthodontic procedures.

  10. Student Performance Standards and Testing Programs: Background Information for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Joel A.; Rice, Elizabeth V.

    This report provides Minnesota legislators with background information on establishing state educational standards and periodic testing to measure student progress. Scientific management, the accountability movement, and the basic education movement were educational trends of the 1970's providing pressure on states to set standards to improve…

  11. Background, Purpose, and Scope of the GRE Board Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Bryce, Jr.

    The GRE Board established the Research Program to investigate ways to improve the GRE and its overall operation. Approximately 30 projects have been undertaken and funded by the GRE Board; perhaps a third of these have been completed. These projects can be divided into three groups: (1) those dealing with product or process or marketing…

  12. Discussing a Philosophical Background for the Ethnomathematical Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilela, Denise Silva

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which Wittgenstein's analytical framework may be relevant to philosophical reflection on ethnomathematics. The discussion develops Bill Barton's suggestion that a philosophical basis for the ethnomathematical program should include and explain culturally different mathematics systems, and the coexistence of…

  13. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-17

    1-2. See also Antonie Boessenkool, “Pratt & Whitney’s Costs Parts-Reject Rate Too High: JSF Official,” Defense News, August 3, 2009. 12 Office of...congressionally directed appropriations over the past four years. A February 2010 letter from DOD’s Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation cited the...Alternate Engine Cost/Benefit Analysis,” undated. Press reports and CRS sources indicate that the letter was received by the Congressional defense

  14. Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program: background and overview.

    PubMed

    Salazar, A M; Zitnay, G A; Warden, D L; Schwab, K A

    2000-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the principal cause of death and disability for young Americans, with an estimated societal cost of over $39 billion per year. The Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program (DVHIP) represents a close collaboration among the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Affairs (DVA), the Brain Injury Association (BIA), and the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA). Its principal mission is to ensure that military and veteran patients with head injury receive TBI-specific evaluation, treatment, rehabilitation, and follow-up, while at the same time addressing the readiness mission of the military and helping to define optimal care for victims of TBI nationwide. Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program activities can be grouped into three broad classes: (1) TBI education, community service, and primary prevention projects; (2) combined TBI clinical treatment, rehabilitation, and clinical research projects; and (3) clinically linked TBI laboratory research projects. It is thus based on a prudent integration of clinical care and follow-up with programmatic clinical and clinically related laboratory research, TBI prevention, and education. This previously nonexistent clinical infrastructure now offers a valuable base for ongoing TBI clinical research.

  15. Photovoltaic market analysis program: Background, model development, applications and extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilien, G. L.; Fuller, F. H.

    1981-04-01

    Tools and procedures to help guide government spending decisions associated with stimulating photovoltaic market penetration were developed. The program has three main components: (1) theoretical analysis aimed at understanding qualitatively what general types of policies are likely to be most cost effective in stimulating PV market penetration; (2) operational model developent (PV1), providing a user oriented tool to study quantitatively the relative effectiveness of specific government spending options and (3) field measurements, aimed at providing objective estimates of the parameters used in the diffusion model used in PV1. Existing models of solar technology diffusion are reviewed and the structure of the PV1 model is described. Theoretical results on optimal strategies for spending federal market development and subsidy funds are reviewed. The validity of these results is checked by comparing them with PV1 projections of penetration and cost forecasts for 15 government policy strategies which are simulated on the PV1 model.

  16. Programmed Pathogen Sense and Destroy Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-18

    evolve the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing transcription factor LasR to respond to the signal molecule 3OC12HSL with higher sensitivity and...sentinel circuits in recombinant E. coli cells with components of canonical quorum sensing (QS) signaling pathways. These pathways are normally used by...Pathogen Detection Expanded Accomplishments a) Accomplishments In the canonical gram-negative Quorum Sensing system, an I-protein synthase produces

  17. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-17

    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...will have on the Navy’s ability to procure other types of ships at desired rates in the 2020s and early 2030s. Potential oversight issues for...as a Navy shipbuilding program. CRS Report RL33640, U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues , by Amy F. Woolf, discusses

  18. MARIAH: A finite-element computer program for incompressible porous flow problems. Theoretical background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartling, D. K.; Hickox, C. E.

    1982-10-01

    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program MARIAH is presented. The MARIAH code is designed for the analysis of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer in saturated porous media. A description of the fluid/thermal boundary value problem treated by the program is presented and the finite element method and associated numerical methods used in MARIAH are discussed. Instructions for use of the program are documented in the Sandia National Laboratories report, SAND79-1623.

  19. The importance of educational and social backgrounds of diverse students to nursing program success.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bronwynne C

    2008-07-01

    This article compares the educational and social backgrounds of Anglo students with those of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian students receiving stipends and other services from a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant to determine the possible effects of such backgrounds on success in a baccalaureate nursing program. Stipend recipients provided baseline background data by interview on admission, and the results were compared with corresponding data from a volunteer sample of Anglo students to enhance understanding of the educational and social circumstances of the stipend recipients and to identify a need for individualized, tailored grant approaches. The Hispanic/Latino and American Indian students demonstrated less adequate educational backgrounds and lower social class as gauged by parental occupation, than did the Anglo students. Although overall comprehensive grant strategies maximized the potential for success of stipend recipients, strategies need to be tailored to fit each individual's unique educational and social background.

  20. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-16

    Program: Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence...Ave, SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  1. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-29

    Program: Background, Status, and Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The Library of Congress,101 Independence...Ave SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  2. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-17

    Program: Background, Status, and Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The Library of Congress,101...Independence Ave, SE,Washington,DC,20540 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  3. The Refugee Health Care System: A Background Paper on Policies, Programs and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Susan; Lidsker, Carol

    This paper provides background information on existing refugee health policy as spelled out in the Refugee Act of 1980, consideration that issues in health and health care have received, and significant program development that has occurred in addressing health care problems. Following the introduction, Section II describes the following: (1)…

  4. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    RAND Corporation , 2006, p. 45. (Report MG-484)) 15 Department of Defense, Selected Acquisition Report (SAR), LCS, as of December 31, 2012, p. 14...to-Shore Comunications Seen Deficient, GAO Says,” Bloomberg News, November 19, 2013. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues

  5. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-05

    Naval Ship Costs Over the Past Several Decades, Santa Monica (CA), RAND Corporation , 2006, p. 45. (Report MG-484)) 14 Department of Defense, Selected... Comunications Seen Deficient, GAO Says,” Bloomberg News, November 19, 2013. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

  6. An Adapted Dialogic Reading Program for Turkish Kindergarteners from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergül, Cevriye; Akoglu, Gözde; Sarica, Ayse D.; Karaman, Gökçe; Tufan, Mümin; Bahap-Kudret, Zeynep; Zülfikar, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Adapted Dialogic Reading Program (ADR) on the language and early literacy skills of Turkish kindergarteners from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds. The effectiveness of ADR was investigated across six different treatment conditions including classroom and home based implementations in various…

  7. 9 CFR 51.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.3 Payment to owners for animals... destruction by APHIS under the brucellosis eradication program. 3 In all cases, the amount of Federal... destroyed because of brucellosis are eligible to receive Federal indemnity for their animals: (i) Cattle...

  8. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-08

    Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave, SE...Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM

  9. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-28

    Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The Library of Congress,101 Independence...Avenue SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  10. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-19

    Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The Library of Congress,101 Independence Avenue...SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  11. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave., SE...Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM

  12. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave., SE...Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM

  13. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave., SE...Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  14. [The German program for disease management guidelines. Background, methods, and development process].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter; Kopp, Ina; Lelgemann, Monika; Sänger, Sylvia; Heymans, Lothar; Thole, Henning; Trapp, Henrike; Lorenz, Wilfried; Selbmann, Hans-Konrad; Encke, Albrecht

    2006-10-15

    The Program for National Disease Management Guidelines (German DM-CPG Program) was established in 2002 by the German Medical Association (umbrella organization of the German Chambers of Physicians) and joined by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF; umbrella organization of more than 150 professional societies) and by the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (NASHIP) in 2003. The program provides a conceptual basis for disease management, focusing on high-priority health-care topics and aiming at the implementation of best practice recommendations for prevention, acute care, rehabilitation and chronic care. It is organized by the German Agency for Quality in Medicine, a founding member of the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N). The main objective of the German DM-CPG Program is to establish consensus of the medical professions on evidence-based key recommendations covering all sectors of health-care provision and facilitating the coordination of care for the individual patient through time and across interfaces. Within the last year, DM-CPGs have been published for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. In addition, experts from national patient self-help groups have been developing patient guidance based upon the recommendations for health-care providers. The article describes background, methods, and tools of the DM-CPG Program, and is the first of a publication series dealing with innovative recommendations and aspects of the program.

  15. COYOTE : a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I, theoretical background.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-03-01

    The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems

  16. Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

  17. DDG-1000 Zumwalt Class Destroyer (DDG-1000)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-197 DDG 1000 Zumwalt Class Destroyer (DDG 1000) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be...concept development concluded and the Navy competitively selected and awarded a Design and Development contract to Northrop Grumman (NG) Ship systems

  18. A Preventive Intervention Program for Urban African American Youth Attending an Alternative Education Program: Background, Implementation, and Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Watts, Amy M.; Pothong, Pattarapan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted of structured group mentoring, parental support, and community outreach services administered to alternative education students and their primary caregiver(s) during the school year. Over a two-year intake period, 109 youth participated in the present process evaluation study. Findings from the study not only provided relevant demographic information on the characteristics of youth likely to be included in such programs but also indicated the importance of including the family in the rehabilitation effort and the need for school administrative system support for the underlying alternative education approach. The information presented in this report has a direct bearing on the planning of future prevention efforts conducted in similar settings that are aimed at reducing problem behaviors and promoting positive lifestyles among high-risk youth. PMID:20054423

  19. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positive rates that could lead to unnecessary surgery. A review of epidemiologic data suggests that familial ovarian cancer kindreds are rare, but women with first-degree relatives who have had ovarian cancer have a significant risk themselves for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, women with a great number of ovulatory cycles are at an increased risk for the disease. Circulating tumor markers are frequently elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer, but their value in early detection of ovarian cancer has yet to be established. Advances in endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow technology have significantly improved our ability to assess pelvic organs. This article presents the background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program for ovarian cancer, whose goals are to identify the best techniques for diagnosing ovarian cancer in an early stage, to determine the frequency with which such tests should be employed, to assess false-positive results, and to identify women who might benefit from prophylactic oophorectomies. PMID:1810100

  1. Vitrification: Destroying and immobilizing hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Peters, R.D.; Perez, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Researchers at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have led the development of vitrification a versatile adaptable process that transforms waste solutions, slurries, moist powder and/or dry solids into a chemically durable glass form. The glass form can be safely disposed or used for other purposes, such as construction material if non-radioactive. The feed used in the process can be either combustible or non-combustible. Organic compounds are decomposed in the melters` plenum, while the inorganic residue melts into a molten glass pool. The glass produced by this process is a chemically durable material comparable to natural obsidian. Its properties typically allow it to pass the EPA Toxicity (TCLP) test as non-hazardous. To date, no glass produced by vitrification has failed the TCLP test. Vitrification is thus an ideal method of treating DOE`s mixed waste because of its ability to destroy organic compounds and bind toxic or radioactive elements. This article provides an overview of the technology.

  2. Use incineration to destroy toxic gases safely

    SciTech Connect

    Straitz, J.F. III

    1995-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are produced and released to the atmosphere during many operations that use toxic gases and liquids, or produce them as byproducts. VOCs and a wide range of objectionable gas and liquid waste streams can be destroyed in thermal oxidizers (also called incinerators, fume burners or flares). They offer a reliable, cost-effective approach, particularly in cases where the heat value of the waste is sufficient and the oxidizer can be operated without supplemental fuel. Where the heat value is not sufficient, an auxiliary fuel, such as gas, propane or fuel oil, is needed to sustain the needed destruction temperatures. Temperature is a key factor for efficient thermal oxidizer operation. A properly designed unit typically operates at a minimum temperature of 1,600 F. When the design provides adequate gas-air mixing and sufficient residence time, destruction efficiencies of 99.9% or better can be produced for most organic waste vapors and liquids. Certain compounds require higher temperatures. In some cases, thermal oxidation can be carried out at lower temperatures (to control operation expenses) with some tradeoff destruction efficiency.

  3. Navy SSBN(X) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-27

    Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf , discusses the SSBN(X) as an element of future U.S. strategic...3 CRS Report RL33640, U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf . 4 In...more on the Navy’s SSNs and SSGNs, see CRS Report RL32418, Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for

  4. Backgrounds, Teaching Responsibilities, and Motivations of Music Education Candidates Enrolled in Alternative Certification Music Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Daniel; McDowell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors associated with enrolling, continuing, and completing alternative certification programs in music education. Data were collected via surveys and semi-structured interviews of music teacher candidates from 43 program completers from seven alternative certification programs in three states. In…

  5. Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Acceptable to Parents from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew; Goadby, Elizabeth; Headley, Clea; Hodge, Lauren; McAuliffe, Christine; Pope, Sue; Anderson, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting…

  6. Full mouth rehabilitation of destroyed dentition with rotational path removable partial denture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hyoung; Heo, Seong-Joo; Kim, Seong-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though implant dentistry is very successful and predictable in treatment of patients with destroyed dentition, there are some cases with limitations to implant therapy. In these cases, alternative treatment modality should be considered. CASE DESCRIPTION A patient with destroyed dentition was rehabilitated with a lateral rotational path removable partial denture. According to the diagnosis, we determined to raise vertical dimension for esthetic and functional restoration. The final restoration was performed after four months of provisional period. CLINICAL IMPLICATION The edentulous patients with compromised esthetics and functions can be successfully treated with a rotational path removable partial denture through adequate treatment planning and precise laboratory procedure. PMID:21165187

  7. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  8. Five C Framework: A Student-Centered Approach for Teaching Programming Courses to Students with Diverse Disciplinary Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The already existing complexities of teaching and learning computer programming are increased where students are diverse in their disciplinary backgrounds, language skills, and culture. Learners experience emotional issues of anxiety, fear or boredom. Identifying opportunities for improvement and applying theoretical and empirical evidence found…

  9. The Influence of Parents' Backgrounds, Beliefs about English Learning, and a Dialogic Reading Program on Thai Kindergarteners' English Lexical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petchprasert, Anongnad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated parents' backgrounds and their beliefs about English language learning, and compared the receptive English vocabulary development of three to six year-old-Thai children before and after participating in a parent-child reading program with the dialogic reading (DR) method. Fifty-four single parents of 54 children voluntarily…

  10. Optimal reload strategies for identify-and-destroy missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, John C.; Smith, Cheryl M.

    2004-09-01

    In this problem an identification vehicle must re-acquire a fixed set of suspected targets and determine whether each suspected target is a mine or a false alarm. If a target is determined to be a mine, the identification vehicle must neutralize it by either delivering one of a limited number of on-board bombs or by assigning the neutralization task to one of a limited number of single-shot suicide vehicles. The identification vehicle has the option to reload. The singleshot suicide vehicles, however, cannot be replenished. We have developed an optimal path planning and reload strategy for this identify and destroy mission that takes into account the probabilities that suspected targets are mines, the costs to move between targets, the costs to return to and from the reload point, and the cost to reload. The mission is modeled as a discrete multi-dimensional Markov process. At each target position the vehicle decides based on the known costs, probabilities, the number of bombs on board (r), and the number of remaining one-shot vehicles (s) whether to move directly on to the next target or to reload before continuing and whether to destroy any mine with an on-board bomb or a one-shot suicide vehicle. The approach recursively calculates the minimum expected overall cost conditioned on all possible values r and s. The recursion is similar to dynamic programming in that it starts at the last suspected target location and works its way backwards to the starting point. The approach also uses a suboptimal traveling salesman strategy to search over candidate deployment locations to calculate the best initial deployment point where the reloads will take place.

  11. Coast Guard Deepwater Acquisition Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-14

    to Reassess the Deepwater Program, GAO-11-535T, Statement of John P. Hutton , Director, Acquisition and Sourcing Management, Testimony Before the...Deepwater Program, GAO-11-535T, Statement of John P. Hutton , Director, Acquisition and Sourcing Management, Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Coast...Office, Coast Guard[:] Observations on Acquisition Management and Efforts to Reassess the Deepwater Program, GAO-11-535T, Statement of John P. Hutton

  12. Navy SSBN(X) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-10

    Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf , discusses the SSBN(X) as an element of future U.S. strategic nuclear forces in the...Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf . 2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear-powered...and SSGNs, see CRS Report RL32418, Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke

  13. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-18

    equivalent of the JROC inside of the service , our requirements definition process. That’s ongoing today. We’ve got a target to get down to JROC in the June......Congressional Research Service Summary The Navy’s Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program is a program to procure a large number of LCSs and

  14. The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Katherine; Newman, Constance; Clauson, Annette; Guthrie, Joanne; Buzby, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one of the largest food and nutrition assistance programs in the United States, feeding millions of children every day. School meal providers face the task of serving nutritious and appealing school lunches, including free and reduced-price lunches for low-income students, and doing so under budget…

  15. The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program: Background and Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth

    The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (SEOG) program provides financial assistance to low-income undergraduate students attending postsecondary education institutions and is authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education Act. The program is administered on the campus of each participating postsecondary education institution which uses…

  16. The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues. Economic Research Report Number 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Katherine; Newman, Constance; Clauson, Annette; Guthrie, Joanne; Buzby, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is the Nation's second largest food and nutrition assistance program. In 2006, it operated in over 101,000 public and nonprofit private schools and provided over 28 million low-cost or free lunches to children on a typical school day at a Federal cost of $8 billion for the year. This report provides…

  17. Background and initial evaluations of recently introduced cultivars distributed by the Citrus Clonal Protection Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) distributes budwood of new, potentially important commercial citrus cultivars as they are re- leased from quarantine after completing a thorough “Variety Introduction (VI)” disease testing and therapy program. This article is the second in a seri...

  18. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of the Academic Impact of Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This compilation focuses chiefly on the impact of afterschool programs on student academic achievement. Although afterschool programs for children have been operating for many years in some communities, the afterschool movement is just a few years old. As public demand for afterschool has grown, so has the demand for accountability. That is…

  19. Evaluation of the SB 1041 Reforms to California's CalWORKs Program: Background and Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Bozick, Robert; Davis, Lois M.; Kitmitto, Sami; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Bos, Johannes M.; Holod, Aleksandra; Blankenship, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The California Budget Act of 2012, through a trailer bill known as Senate Bill (SB) 1041, contained significant reforms to the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program. CalWORKs is California's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, a central component of the safety net that provides cash aid for…

  20. Opinion: How to Destroy an English Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Many teachers have known of (or been members of) departments in which all of the potentially successful chairs--after having proven themselves by running subunits or graduate programs--have decided to devote themselves solely to research or teaching, and to leave department administration to whoever is willing to do it or whoever can be talked…

  1. Navy SSBN(X) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-12

    Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf , discusses the SSBN(X) as an element of future U.S. strategic nuclear forces in the context of...Report RL33640, U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf . 2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN...SOF missions than do SSN operations. For more on the Navy’s SSNs and SSGNs, see CRS Report RL32418, Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine

  2. Navy SSBN(X) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-22

    Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf , discusses the SSBN(X) as an element of future U.S. strategic nuclear forces in the context of...Report RL33640, U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf . 2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN...SOF missions than do SSN operations. For more on the Navy’s SSNs and SSGNs, see CRS Report RL32418, Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine

  3. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6 Section 100.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will...

  4. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  5. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Request for Examination of Mutilated Currency for Possible Redemption § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account...

  6. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  7. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  8. Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-27

    Service Summary The LX(R) program is a program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in...accelerate the procurement of the first LX(R) from FY2020 to an earlier year, so as to reduce the gap in time between the end of LPD-17 production and the

  9. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-26

    air vehicle platform, sustainment, mission systems software, and test.”25 Responding to issues detailed in the technical review, on January 6, 2011...levels of participation in the program. International partners are also assisting with Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E), a subset of...Week/Ares blog, March 15, 2010. 59 Currently, the UK, Italy, and the Netherlands have agreed to participate in the IOT &E program. UK, the senior F

  10. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-23

    123 million, which the repot states would “Fully fund two ships to [the LCS program] cost cap in FY[20]09, reflecting government furnished material...the LCS program, the Navy testified in July 2007 that it wants to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and...somewhere between 50% and 75%, depending on the baseline that is used to measure the overrun. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) testified in

  11. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    the repot states would “Fully fund two ships to [the LCS program] cost cap in FY[20]09, reflecting government furnished material (GFM) from cancelled...purposes of government management and oversight of the program. Section 112 would require the Navy to submit a report to the congressional defense...testified in July 2007 that it wanted to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and beyond.12 The Navy now

  12. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    which the repot states would “Fully fund two ships to [the LCS program] cost cap in FY[20]09, reflecting government furnished material (GFM) from...its restructuring of the LCS program, the Navy testified in July 2007 that it wanted to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs...was somewhere between 50% and 75%, depending on the baseline that is used to measure the overrun. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) testified

  13. University-Urban Interface Program. University Forum. Background Paper. Goals and Government of the Metropolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, J. Steele

    This background paper for the Community Goals Forum at the University of Pittsburgh focuses on some of the local experiences that seem to be related to the Pittsburgh citizenry's low level of confidence in and expectation of local government as a means for improving the quality of life in the metropolis. The recent development of the great urban…

  14. DDG 1000 Zumwalt Class Destroyer (DDG 1000)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    not reach an affordable solution and deliveries of these components for DDG 1002 were becoming time-critical. The Navy concurrently pursued a steel ...of a steel deckhouse, hangar, and Aft PVLS for DDG 1002 on August 2, 2013. The program received a Request for Equitable Adjustment from BIW for DDG...design, construction, and delivery of the steel deckhouse, hangar, and aft missile launching system for the DDG 1002….” The consideration

  15. Background, current status, and prognosis of the ongoing slush hydrogen technology development program for the NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Hardy, T. L.; Whalen, M. V.; Richter, G. P.; Tomsik, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Among the Hydrogen Projects at the NASA Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC), is the task of implementing and managing the Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) Technology Program for the United States' National AeroSpace Plane Joint Program Office (NASP JPO). The objectives of this NASA LeRC program are to provide verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems and to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. The pursuit of these objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. A summary of the NASA LeRC overall SLH2 program plan, is presented along with its implementation, the present level of effort in each of the program areas, some of the results already in hand, and the prognosis for the effort in the immediate future.

  16. TORO II: A finite element computer program for nonlinear quasi-static problems in electromagnetics: Part 1, Theoretical background

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, TORO II, is presented in detail. TORO II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear, electromagnetic field problems described by the quasi-static form of Maxwell`s equations. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in TORO II are also outlined. Instructions for the use of the code are documented in SAND96-0903; examples of problems analyzed with the code are also provided in the user`s manual. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Investigation of the diffuse ultraviolet background using satellite data: Dynamics explorer guest investigator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The imaging instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission was designed primarily to obtain global auroral images. The instrument, however, was also used successfully to study marine bioluminescence, the geocorona, and the global distribution of atmospheric ozone. The imager has considerable potential for the study of astronomical sources of ultraviolet radiation as well. The data produced by the imager is used to study the brightness and isotrophy of the diffuse ultraviolet background.

  18. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter "JSF" Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-25

    procurement year for the United States). 44 Quadrennial Defense Review Cuts Procurement in FY1999, 2000, Aerospace Daily, May 20, 1997, p. 280. 45 Vago ...Backgrounder, October 3, 1996, pp. 4-5. 64 Vago Muradian and John Robinson, “Public Confidence at Odds with Private Concerns about Tacair,” Defense Daily...by Christopher Bolkcom. 85 Vago Muradian, “Coffman: JSF Critical to Preserving U.S. Leadership in World Fighter (continued...) manned combat aircraft

  19. Notification: Background Investigation Services Project Notification US Virgin Islands Environmental Program Evaluation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Projects #OPE-FY14-0004, OPE-FY14-0005 and OPE-FY14-0006, October 30, 2013. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on October 30, 2013 into the environmental programs the US Virgin Islands (USVI) has implemented on EPA’s behalf.

  20. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-17

    PAGES 83 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8...23 Legislative Activity for FY2014...64 Appendix C . Allied Participation and Interest in Aegis BMD Program ........................................ 67 Appendix D. Earlier Oversight

  1. The WIC Program: Background, Trends, and Economic Issues, 2009 Edition. Economic Research Report Number 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Victor; Frazao, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is to safeguard the health of low-income women, infants, and children through age 4 who are at nutritional risk. WIC provides nutritious foods to supplement diets, nutrition education, and referrals to health care and other social services.…

  2. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 16, Introduction to Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  3. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of the Academic Impact of Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Although afterschool programs for children have been operating for decades in some communities, the afterschool movement--the great national awakening to the opportunity afterschool offers--is just a few years old. As public demand for afterschool has grown, so has the demand for accountability. That is particularly true in afterschool programs…

  4. Transition Components of the Frost Center, a Model Program Background: The Frost Center and Its Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosso, Janet L.

    The Frost Center (Rockville, Maryland) is a private, nonprofit school and therapeutic day program that serves adolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disabilities and their families. Approximately two-thirds of each student's day is spent in academic classes, acquiring the skills and behavior necessary for a return to a less…

  5. WE-D-207-01: Background and Clinical Implementation of a Screening Program

    SciTech Connect

    Aberle, D.

    2015-06-15

    In the United States, Lung Cancer is responsible for more cancer deaths than the next four cancers combined. In addition, the 5 year survival rate for lung cancer patients has not improved over the past 40 to 50 years. To combat this deadly disease, in 2002 the National Cancer Institute launched a very large Randomized Control Trial called the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). This trial would randomize subjects who had substantial risk of lung cancer (due to age and smoking history) into either a Chest X-ray arm or a low dose CT arm. In November 2010, the National Cancer Institute announced that the NLST had demonstrated 20% fewer lung cancer deaths among those who were screened with low-dose CT than with chest X-ray. In December 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended the use of Lung Cancer Screening using low dose CT and a little over a year later (Feb. 2015), CMS announced that Medicare would also cover Lung Cancer Screening using low dose CT. Thus private and public insurers are required to provide Lung Cancer Screening programs using CT to the appropriate population(s). The purpose of this Symposium is to inform medical physicists and prepare them to support the implementation of Lung Screening programs. This Symposium will focus on the clinical aspects of lung cancer screening, requirements of a screening registry for systematically capturing and tracking screening patients and results (such as required Medicare data elements) as well as the role of the medical physicist in screening programs, including the development of low dose CT screening protocols. Learning Objectives: To understand the clinical basis and clinical components of a lung cancer screening program, including eligibility criteria and other requirements. To understand the data collection requirements, workflow, and informatics infrastructure needed to support the tracking and reporting components of a screening program. To understand the role of the medical physicist in

  6. Navy SSBN(X) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-28

    Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf , discusses the SSBN(X) as an element of future U.S. strategic nuclear forces in the context of strategic nuclear...Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf . 4 In the designation SSGN, the G stands for guided missile (such as a cruise missile). As...strongly on Tomahawk and SOF missions than do SSN operations. For more on the Navy’s SSNs and SSGNs, see CRS Report RL32418, Navy Virginia (SSN-774

  7. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    foreign participation, and raise the aircraft’s unit price . 24 Muradian, Vago . QDR Tac Air Cuts Will Save $30 Billion, Ralston Says . Defense Daily, May 20...Squeo . "Pentagon Might Slash Its Plans to Buy Fighter Jets By About 30% ." Wall Street Journal. March 22, 2002 . 26 Vago Muradian . "DoD Assesses...Preparing for the Wrong Future? by Steven Kosiak, CSBA Backgrounder, October 3, 1996 : 4-5 . 4s Muradian, Vago and John Robinson. "Public Confidence at

  8. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-23

    International partners are also assisting with Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E), a subset of...40 Currently, the UK, Italy, and the Netherlands have agreed to participate in the IOT &E program. UK, the senior F-35 partner, will...have the strongest participation in the IOT &E phase. Italy and the Netherlands are contributing a far smaller amount and will take part only in the

  9. Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-07

    Force is expected late next month.... Sen. Richard Shelby, R- Ala ., a Northrop supporter, and Rep. Norman Dicks, D-Wash., a Boeing supporter, have sent...maintenance and forecasted modernization programs in avionics and aircraft systems. Additionally, the Department anticipates depot maintenance costs...slat tracks Xian Aircraft Co. (AVIC- 1) Peoples Republic of China avionics access doors Source: Teal Group Note: Commercial variants of both

  10. Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-22

    Air Force is expected late next month.... Sen. Richard Shelby, R- Ala ., a Northrop supporter, and Rep. Norman Dicks, D-Wash., a Boeing supporter...from $2.1 billion per year to $3 billion per year by 2040 due to increasing depot maintenance and forecasted modernization programs in avionics and...China avionics access doors Source: Teal Group Note: Commercial variants of both aircraft types are powered by engines manufactured by either

  11. Background report for the formerly utilized Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission sites program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting a program to determine radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Army Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission in the early years of nuclear energy development. Also included in the program are sites used in the Los Alamos plutonium development program and the Trinity atomic bomb test site. Materials, equipment, buildings, and land became contaminated, primarily with naturally occurring radioactive nuclides. They were later decontaminated in accordance with the standards and survey methods in use at that time. Since then, however, radiological criteria, and proposed guidelines for release of such sites for unrestricted use have become more stringent as research on the effects of low-level radiation has progressed. In addition, records documenting some of these decontamination efforts cannot be found, and the final radiological conditions of the sites could not be adequately determined from the records. As a result, the Formerly Utilized Sites Program was initiated in 1974 to identify these formerly used sites and to reevaluate their radiological status. This report covers efforts through June 1980 to determine the radiological status of sites for which the existing conditions could not be clearly defined. Principal contractor facilities and associated properties have already been identified and activities are continuing to identify additional sites. Any new sites located will probably be subcontractor facilities and areas used for disposal of contractor waste or equipment; however, only limited information regarding this equipment and material has been collected to date. As additional information becomes available, supplemental reports will be published.

  12. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-10

    Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service 5 Table 1. U.S. SSBN Classes George Washington (SSBN...actual ranges can be lesser or greater than those shown. The George Washington -class boats were procured as modifications of SSNs that were already...builder of the first boat in all four SSBN classes. The most recent SSBNs built by NNS were the George C. Marshall (SSBN-654) and George Washington

  13. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-14

    first boat in all four SSBN classes. The most recent SSBNs built by NNS were the George C. Marshall (SSBN-654) and George Washington Carver (SSBN-656...Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service 5 Table 1. U.S. SSBN Classes George Washington (SSBN-598) class Ethan...lesser or greater than those shown. The George Washington -class boats were procured as modifications of SSNs that were already under construction

  14. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-22

    Marshall (SSBN-654) and George Washington Carver (SSBN-656), which were Lafayette/Benjamin Franklin-class boats that were procured in FY1964 and entered...Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service 5 Table 1. U.S. SSBN Classes George Washington (SSBN-598) class Ethan Allen...greater than those shown. The George Washington -class boats were procured as modifications of SSNs that were already under construction. Three of

  15. Air Force F-22 Fighter Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-22

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave., SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  16. Air Force F-22 Fighter Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    information on the F-35’ s radar- evading capabilities until Tokyo makes a decision to purchase it, the sources said. Defense Minister Toshimi Kitazawa and...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave., SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8

  17. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-22

    unproven. To itigate risk, the Navy is conducting launch and recovery modeling and simulation , model basin testing, and experimentation and is...Influence Sweep is being redesigned to address corrosion issues and the Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System requires design changes to perform in all...to program officials, in September 2008, the Navy conducted a shore based integration exercise using simulated seaframe mission bays. Officials note

  18. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-22

    recovery designs are unproven. To itigate risk, the Navy is conducting launch and recovery modeling and simulation , model basin testing, and...Airborne and Surface Influence Sweep is being redesigned to address corrosion issues and the Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System requires design changes...June 2010. According to program officials, in September 2008, the Navy conducted a shore based integration exercise using simulated seaframe mission

  19. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-05

    shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and beyond.12 The Navy now states that it is reviewing the question...overrun. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) testified in July 2007 that according to its own analysis of Navy data, the combined cost of LCSs 1...33 Government Accountability Office, Defense Acquisitions[:] Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs, GAO-09- 326SP, March 2009, p. 106

  20. Space Technology to Device That Destroys Pathogens Such as Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AiroCide Ti02, an anthrax-killing air scrubber manufactured by KES Science and Technology Inc., in Kernesaw, Georgia, looks like a square metal box when it is installed on an office wall. Its fans draw in airborne spores and airflow forces them through a maze of tubes. Inside, hydroxyl radicals (OH-) attack and kill pathogens. Most remaining spores are destroyed by high-energy ultraviolet photons. Building miniature greenhouses for experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the invention of this device that annihilates anthrax-a bacteria that can be deadly when inhaled. The research enabling the invention started at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), one of 17 NASA Commercial Space Centers. A special coating technology used in the anthrax-killing invention is also being used inside WCSAR-built plant growth units on the ISS. This commercial research is managed by the Space Product Development Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Space Technology to Device that Destroys Pathogens Such As Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of a technician at KES Science and Technology Inc., in Kernesaw, Georgia, assembling the AiroCide Ti02, an anthrax-killing device about the size of a small coffee table. The anthrax-killing air scrubber, AiroCide Ti02, is a tabletop-size metal box that bolts to office ceilings or walls. Its fans draw in airborne spores and airflow forces them through a maze of tubes. Inside, hydroxyl radicals (OH-) attack and kill pathogens. Most remaining spores are destroyed by high-energy ultraviolet photons. Building miniature greenhouses for experiments on the International Space Station has led to the invention of this device that annihilates anthrax, a bacteria that can be deadly when inhaled. The research enabling the invention started at the University of Wisconsin's (Madison) Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), one of 17 NASA Commercial Space Centers. A special coating technology used in this anthrax-killing invention is also being used inside WCSAR-built plant growth units on the International Space Station. This commercial research is managed by the Space Product Development Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-25

    parallel development programs for service-unique aircraft that would have otherwise been necessary, saving at least $15 billion.” ( Letter from...Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen to Rep. Jerry Lewis, June 22, 2000. The text of letter made available by Inside the Air Force on June 23, 2000.) 3... Antonie Boessenkool, “Pratt & Whitney’s Costs Parts-Reject Rate Too High: JSF Official,” Defense News, August 3, 2009: 14; Dan Taylor, “Heinz: Pratt

  3. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Theater, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  4. Nano-discs Destroy Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A new technique, designed with the potential to treat brain cancers, is under study at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago Medical Center. The micron-sized magnetic materials, with vortex-like arrangements of spins, were successfully interfaced with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cells. The microdisks are gold-coated and biofunctionalized with a cancer-targeting antibody. The antibody recognizes unique receptors on the cancer cells and attaches to them (and them alone), leaving surrounding healthy cells unaffected during treatment. Under application of an alternative magnetic field, the magnetic vortices shift, leading to oscillatory motion of the disks and causing the magneto-mechanic stimulus to be transmitted directly to the cancer cell. Probably because of the damage to the cancer cell membrane, this results in cellular signal transduction and amplification, causing initiation of apoptosis (programmed cell death or "cell suicide"). Manifestation of apoptosis is of clinical significance because the malignant cells are known to be almost "immortal" (due to suppressed apoptosis), and, consequently, highly resistant to conventional (chemo- and radio-) therapies. Due to unique properties of the vortex microdisks, an extremely high spin-vortex-induced cytotoxicity effect can be caused by application of unprecedentedly weak magnetic fields. An alternative magnetic field as slow as about 10s Hertz (for comparison, 60 Hertz in a electrical outlet) and as small as less than 90 Oersteds (which is actually less than the field produced by a magnetized razor blade) applied only for 10 minutes was sufficient to cause ~90% cancer cell destruction in vitro. The study has only been conducted in cells in a laboratory; animal trials are being planned. Watch a news clip of the story from ABC-7 News: http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/health&id=7245605 More details on this study can be found in the original research paper: Biofunctionalized

  5. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

    1992-10-01

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

  6. Thailand radiation monitoring program: a preliminary result analysis of the country's background radiation.

    PubMed

    Krisanangkura, Piyawan; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring in the context of nuclear-related activities refers to the measurements of ambient gamma dose rates in the environment and radioactivity in air, water, soil etc. Since nuclear power programme in Thailand has not yet been in place, the environment surveillance programme in Thailand currently focuses on establishing 'baseline' environmental radiation levels and radioactivity for the purpose of establishing impacts of future possible sources such as nuclear accidents. The objective is to assure assessments concerning radiation safety for the environment and public. At present, Thailand's monitoring programme operates eight fixed monitoring stations installed in various regions of Thailand; four of which have been in operation since late 2010. The ambient gamma dose rate data are routinely collected from those four real-time monitoring stations starting from October 2010 to September 2011 as described in this study. Also, the radiation data from each station are statically analysed. This study found that the dose rate from the stations located in north and north-east of Thailand showed an apparent tendency towards a diurnal pattern. With these routine data, the average exposure dose rate was possible to estimate in Thailand. Additionally, the assessment of the equivalent dose from natural background radiation was estimated.

  7. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program.

  8. Effects of Reduced Natural Background Radiation on Drosophila melanogaster Growth and Development as Revealed by the FLYINGLOW Program.

    PubMed

    Morciano, P; Iorio, R; Iovino, D; Cipressa, F; Esposito, G; Porrazzo, A; Satta, L; Alesse, E; Tabocchini, M A; Cenci, G

    2017-03-06

    Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Background Measurement Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-15

    harmonic frequencies. In an effort to be quantity to use in studying this phenomena. In Fig. objective , the spacing of these reference lines has been 9b...waves, mesoseale eddies, and other phenomena. A current objective of considerable importance to both the Naval and the research communities is to...WAVENUMBER(CP) SLANT WAvENUMERCPM) 70 "t: UPWARD 70kNz DOWN WARID 3%1"ENERGY PROPAGATION a 01ENERGY PROPAGATION4 _jTP 06 F1 0 T1083 F1 I ~jj 03 0n0 ..) Cj

  10. DDG 51 Arleigh Burke Class Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG 51)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-180 DDG 51 Arleigh Burke Class Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG 51) As of FY 2017 President’s... Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year UCR - Unit Cost Reporting U.S. - United States USD(AT&L

  11. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Successful Selling of the Destroyer Deal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas E.; Morgan, Hugh

    One of the most evident examples of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's mastery of the press and his manipulation of public opinion was the 1940 arrangement of the transfer of 50 United States naval destroyers to Great Britain while that nation was at war with Germany and Italy and while noninterventionist sentiment was quite strong in the United…

  12. 27 CFR 46.117 - Lost or destroyed stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Lost or destroyed stamps. 46.117 Section 46.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Rules for Special (Occupational) Tax Special Tax Stamps § 46.117 Lost...

  13. 7 CFR 48.4 - Destroying or dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destroying or dumping. 48.4 Section 48.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... dumping. Any person receiving produce in interstate commerce or in the District of Columbia for or...

  14. Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    for the Columbia class program , previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program , a program to design and build a new class... program as the Navys top priority program . The Navy wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021, and the $773.1 million in AP funding... programs states that the estimated total acquisition cost of the Columbia class program is about $97.0 billion in constant FY2016 dollars, including about

  15. Determination of an Environmental Background Level of Sr-90 in Urine for the Hanford Bioassay Program Determination of an Environmental Background Level of Sr-90 in Urine for the Hanford Bioassay Program

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.; Rivard, James W.

    2009-11-01

    During the decommissioning and maintenance of some of the facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, workers have potential for a 90Sr intake. However, because of worldwide radioactive fallout, 90Sr is present in our environment, and can be detectable in routine urine bioassay samples. It is important for the Hanford Site bioassay program to discern an occupational intake from a non-occupational environmental one. A detailed study of the background 90Sr in the urine of unexposed Hanford workers was performed. A survey of the Hanford Site bioassay database found 128 Hanford workers who were hired between 1997 and 2002 and who had a very low potential for an occupational exposure prior to the baseline strontium urinalysis. Each urinalysis sample represented excretion during an approximate 24-hr period. The arithmetic mean value for the 128 pre-exposure baselines was 3.6 ± 5.1 mBq d-1. The 90Sr activities in urine varied from -12 to 20 mBq. The 99th percentile result was 16.4 mBqd-1, which was interpreted to mean that 1% of Hanford workers not occupationally exposed to strontium might exceed 16.4 mBq d-1.

  16. Partitioning of Variance in Reading Achievement of Rhode Island Compensatory Education Students among Background, Mental Ability, Program and Parental Involvement Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Pasquale John

    To investigate the effects of Title I reading programs and the relationships of relevant sets of variables to student achievement, this study sought to determine the unique, and the common, contributions of background, mental ability, program, and parental involvement to the variance in reading comprehension and vocabulary scores for Title I…

  17. Destroying the Linear No-threshold Basis for Radiation Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests five classes of effort that scientists can undertake to destroy the linear no-threshold hypothesis as the basis of radiation regulation in the United States. These are (1) pressure on regulators such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (2) presidential messages, (3) Congressional pressure, (4) educate physicians about low-dose radiation, and (5) work with journalists and media people. PMID:27867321

  18. Mental Suffering in Protracted Political Conflict: Feeling Broken or Destroyed

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Brian K.; McNeely, Clea A.; Daher, Mahmoud; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Barnes, William; Abu Mallouh, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This mixed-methods exploratory study identified and then developed and validated a quantitative measure of a new construct of mental suffering in the occupied Palestinian territory: feeling broken or destroyed. Methods Group interviews were conducted in 2011 with 68 Palestinians, most aged 30–40, in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip to discern local definitions of functioning. Interview participants articulated of a type of suffering not captured in existing mental health instruments used in regions of political conflict. In contrast to the specific difficulties measured by depression and PTSD (sleep, appetite, energy, flashbacks, avoidance, etc.), participants elaborated a more existential form of mental suffering: feeling that one’s spirit, morale and/or future was broken or destroyed, and emotional and psychological exhaustion. Participants articulated these feelings when describing the rigors of the political and economic contexts in which they live. We wrote survey items to capture these sentiments and administered these items—along with standard survey measures of mental health—to a representative sample of 1,778 32–43 year olds in the occupied Palestinian territory. The same survey questions also were administered to a representative subsample (n = 508) six months earlier, providing repeated measures of the construct. Results Across samples and time, the feeling broken or destroyed scale: 1) comprised a separate factor in exploratory factor analyses, 2) had high inter-item consistency, 3) was reported by both genders and in all regions, 4) showed discriminate validity via moderate correlations with measures of feelings of depression and trauma-related stress, and 5) was more commonly experienced than either feelings of depression or trauma-related stress. Conclusions Feeling broken or destroyed can be reliably measured and distinguished from conventional measures of mental health. Such locally grounded and contextualized

  19. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  20. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  1. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  2. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  3. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  4. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  5. Fractional noise destroys or induces a stochastic bifurcation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qigui; Zeng, Caibin; Wang, Cong

    2013-12-15

    Little seems to be known about the stochastic bifurcation phenomena of non-Markovian systems. Our intention in this paper is to understand such complex dynamics by a simple system, namely, the Black-Scholes model driven by a mixed fractional Brownian motion. The most interesting finding is that the multiplicative fractional noise not only destroys but also induces a stochastic bifurcation under some suitable conditions. So it opens a possible way to explore the theory of stochastic bifurcation in the non-Markovian framework.

  6. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Terrence L.; Wilson, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  7. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  8. Design of a Free-running, 1/30th Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In- situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization LT Dave Cope 3 May 2012 Advised by Prof Chrys Chryssostomidis Dr...Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization (BRIEFING CHARTS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Design and build a 1/30th Froude scaled, free-running model of the David Taylor Model Basin 5415 hull for hydrodynamic visualization and

  9. The Guaranteed Student Loan Program: Current Status, Background, and Issues. CRS Report for Congress, 87-815 EPW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Charlotte Jones; Stedman, James B.

    A description of the current provisions of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program is provided along with an analysis of the GSL budget, a summary of up-to-date statistics on participation in the program, and a review of continuing issues related to the program. These federally reinsured loans are usually made by private lenders to students for…

  10. USING WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO DESTROY TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-04

    A bench-scale feasibility study on the use of a Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) process to destroy a slurry laden with tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds has been undertaken. WAO is an aqueous phase process in which soluble and/or insoluble waste constituents are oxidized using oxygen or oxygen in air at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 C and 1 MPa to 320 C and 22 MPa. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). Test results indicate WAO is a feasible process for destroying TPB, its primary daughter products [triphenylborane (3PB), diphenylborinic acid (2PB), and phenylboronic acid (1PB)], phenol, and most of the biphenyl byproduct. The required conditions are a temperature of 300 C, a reaction time of 3 hours, 1:1 feed slurry dilution with 2M NaOH solution, the addition of CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O solution (500 mg/L Cu) as catalyst, and the addition of 2000 mL/L of antifoam. However, for the destruction of TPB, its daughter compounds (3PB, 2PB, and 1PB), and phenol without consideration for biphenyl destruction, less severe conditions (280 C and 1-hour reaction time with similar remaining above conditions) are adequate.

  11. Notification: Audit of EPA's Processes for Managing Background Investigations of Privileged Users and Taking Action to Remediate Weaknesses in Agency's Information Security Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY17-0139, Feb 15, 2017.The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on an audit of EPA's processes for managing background investigations of privileged users and taking action to remediate weaknesses in agency's info security program.

  12. Lassa-Vesicular Stomatitis Chimeric Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N.; Cepko, Connie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. IMPORTANCE Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We

  13. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  14. Do created wetlands replace the wetlands that are destroyed?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.

    1997-01-01

    Wetlands, once perceived as worthless land, are now recognized as a necessary component of a vital landscape. However, due to draining and filling we have lost many of our wetlands. The loss of wetlands can have undesirable effects on the landscape, such as erosion, flooding, habitat loss and deterioration of water quality. While natural wetland systems are being destroyed nationwide, the wetlands restored or created to compensate for these losses are commonly not evaluated or contain large percentages of non-wetland acreage. At the present time we do not have established methodology that can uniformly evaluate a wetland's function, or that is useful for providing guidelines that enhance wetland restoration/creation success.

  15. Method for destroying halocarbon compositions using a critical solvent

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.; Janikowski, Stuart K.

    2006-01-10

    A method for destroying halocarbons. Halocarbon materials are reacted in a dehalogenation process wherein they are combined with a solvent in the presence of a catalyst. A hydrogen-containing solvent is preferred which functions as both a solvating agent and hydrogen donor. To augment the hydrogen donation capacity of the solvent if needed (or when non-hydrogen-containing solvents are used), a supplemental hydrogen donor composition may be employed. In operation, at least one of the temperature and pressure of the solvent is maintained near, at, or above a critical level. For example, the solvent may be in (1) a supercritical state; (2) a state where one of the temperature or pressure thereof is at or above critical; or (3) a state where at least one of the temperature and pressure thereof is near-critical. This system provides numerous benefits including improved reaction rates, efficiency, and versatility.

  16. [Should the human smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?].

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten

    2004-10-21

    Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was a terror for civilizations around the world for more than 3000 years. Although the disease is eradicated, hundreds of variola virus isolates are kept in two WHO-collaborating facilities, one in USA and one in Russia. In spite of several agreements on destruction, it is now doubtful that these virus isolates will be destroyed. Variola virus may exist in other places and may be used as a biological weapon in war or for terror. Further research on variola virus is thus essential in order to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the virus and to develop new anti-variola virus vaccines and antiviral drugs.

  17. Tune the topology to create or destroy patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asllani, Malbor; Carletti, Timoteo; Fanelli, Duccio

    2016-12-01

    We consider the dynamics of a reaction-diffusion system on a multigraph. The species share the same set of nodes but can access different links to explore the embedding spatial support. By acting on the topology of the networks we can control the ability of the system to self-organise in macroscopic patterns, emerging as a symmetry breaking instability of an homogeneous fixed point. Two different cases study are considered: on the one side, we produce a global modification of the networks, starting from the limiting setting where species are hosted on the same graph. On the other, we consider the effect of inserting just one additional single link to differentiate the two graphs. In both cases, patterns can be generated or destroyed, as follows the imposed, small, topological perturbation. Approximate analytical formulae allow to grasp the essence of the phenomenon and can potentially inspire innovative control strategies to shape the macroscopic dynamics on multigraph networks.

  18. Destroying False Images of God: the Experiences of LGBT Catholics.

    PubMed

    Deguara, Angele

    2017-04-10

    This paper is about how lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) Catholics imagine God1(1) and how images of God change in parallel with their self-image. The study is based on qualitative research with LGBT Catholics most of whom are members of Drachma LGBTI in Malta or Ali d'Aquila in Palermo, Sicily. LGBT Catholics' image of God changes as they struggle to reconcile their religious and sexual identities, as they go through a process of "conversion" from deviants and sinners to loved children of God. One study participant compares his faith in God to peeling an onion: "With every layer one peels off, one destroys false images of God." Most study participants have moved away from the image of God of a bearded old man and father of creation and moved more towards a conception of God as love once identity conflicts are resolved.

  19. Destroying a topological quantum bit by condensing Ising vortices.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhihao; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger

    2014-12-09

    The imminent realization of topologically protected qubits in fabricated systems will provide not only an elementary implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computing architecture, but also an experimental vehicle for the general study of topological order. The simplest topological qubit harbours what is known as a Z2 liquid phase, which encodes information via a degeneracy depending on the system's topology. Elementary excitations of the phase are fractionally charged objects called spinons, or Ising flux vortices called visons. At zero temperature, a Z2 liquid is stable under deformations of the Hamiltonian until spinon or vison condensation induces a quantum-phase transition destroying the topological order. Here we use quantum Monte Carlo to study a vison-induced transition from a Z2 liquid to a valence-bond solid in a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. Our results indicate that this critical point is beyond the description of the standard Landau paradigm.

  20. Calculation of wind speeds required to damage or destroy buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Henry

    Determination of wind speeds required to damage or destroy a building is important not only for the improvement of building design and construction but also for the estimation of wind speeds in tornadoes and other damaging storms. For instance, since 1973 the U.S. National Weather Service has been using the well-known Fujita scale (F scale) to estimate the maximum wind speeds of tornadoes [Fujita, 1981]. The F scale classifies tornadoes into 13 numbers, F-0 through F-12. The wind speed (maximum gust speed) associated with each F number is given in Table 1. Note that F-6 through F-12 are for wind speeds between 319 mi/hr (mph) and the sonic velocity (approximately 760 mph; 1 mph = 1.6 km/kr). However, since no tornadoes have been classified to exceed F-5, the F-6 through F-12 categories have no practical meaning [Fujita, 1981].

  1. The Model U.N. Program: Teaching Unreality. A United Nations Assessment Project Study. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulick, Thomas G.; Merkle, Melanie L.

    An evaluation of the instructional materials used by high school and college students who participated in the Model United Nations Program showed that the program is uncritical of the United Nations (U.N.) and biased against the United States and the West in general. These materials are strongly promoted by many prominent educational professional…

  2. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Academics, Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Afterschool programs have been operating for decades in communities across the country, and federal investment in afterschool has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. However, even more investment in the field of afterschool, which includes before-school, afterschool and summer learning programs, is needed to keep up with the growing…

  3. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible...

  4. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  5. Some Wildfire Ignition Causes Pose More Risk of Destroying Houses than Others

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Trent D.; Price, Owen F.

    2016-01-01

    Many houses are at risk of being destroyed by wildfires. While previous studies have improved our understanding of how, when and why houses are destroyed by wildfires, little attention has been given to how these fires started. We compiled a dataset of wildfires that destroyed houses in New South Wales and Victoria and, by comparing against wildfires where no houses were destroyed, investigated the relationship between the distribution of ignition causes for wildfires that did and did not destroy houses. Powerlines, lightning and deliberate ignitions are the main causes of wildfires that destroyed houses. Powerlines were 6 times more common in the wildfires that destroyed houses data than in the wildfires where no houses were destroyed data and lightning was 2 times more common. For deliberate- and powerline-caused wildfires, temperature, wind speed, and forest fire danger index were all significantly higher and relative humidity significantly lower (P < 0.05) on the day of ignition for wildfires that destroyed houses compared with wildfires where no houses were destroyed. For all powerline-caused wildfires the first house destroyed always occurred on the day of ignition. In contrast, the first house destroyed was after the day of ignition for 78% of lightning-caused wildfires. Lightning-caused wildfires that destroyed houses were significantly larger (P < 0.001) in area than human-caused wildfires that destroyed houses. Our results suggest that targeting fire prevention strategies around ignition causes, such as improving powerline safety and targeted arson reduction programmes, and reducing fire spread may decrease the number of wildfires that destroy houses. PMID:27598325

  6. Some Wildfire Ignition Causes Pose More Risk of Destroying Houses than Others.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kathryn M; Penman, Trent D; Price, Owen F

    2016-01-01

    Many houses are at risk of being destroyed by wildfires. While previous studies have improved our understanding of how, when and why houses are destroyed by wildfires, little attention has been given to how these fires started. We compiled a dataset of wildfires that destroyed houses in New South Wales and Victoria and, by comparing against wildfires where no houses were destroyed, investigated the relationship between the distribution of ignition causes for wildfires that did and did not destroy houses. Powerlines, lightning and deliberate ignitions are the main causes of wildfires that destroyed houses. Powerlines were 6 times more common in the wildfires that destroyed houses data than in the wildfires where no houses were destroyed data and lightning was 2 times more common. For deliberate- and powerline-caused wildfires, temperature, wind speed, and forest fire danger index were all significantly higher and relative humidity significantly lower (P < 0.05) on the day of ignition for wildfires that destroyed houses compared with wildfires where no houses were destroyed. For all powerline-caused wildfires the first house destroyed always occurred on the day of ignition. In contrast, the first house destroyed was after the day of ignition for 78% of lightning-caused wildfires. Lightning-caused wildfires that destroyed houses were significantly larger (P < 0.001) in area than human-caused wildfires that destroyed houses. Our results suggest that targeting fire prevention strategies around ignition causes, such as improving powerline safety and targeted arson reduction programmes, and reducing fire spread may decrease the number of wildfires that destroy houses.

  7. The Monitoring of School Mathematics: Background Papers. Volume 3: Teaching and Future Directions. Program Report 87-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.; Stewart, Deborah M., Ed.

    This document is the third of three related volumes. They present the rationale, background, and framework for a comprehensive monitoring system being developed for the National Science Foundation. The system is being designed to gather information about the effects of national, state, and local policy actions designed to change the teaching and…

  8. Background Knowledge, Curriculum, and Socioeconomic Status: What Do Second-Grade Readers Know about Topics in Core Reading Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Students living in poverty continually score significantly lower than their more affluent peers on reading and writing achievement tests. One reason this literacy difference or gap may exist is a mismatch between students' background knowledge relevant to the text and the texts the students read daily in classrooms. It is well documented that…

  9. Public Schools and the Original Federal Land Grant Program. A Background Paper from the Center on Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This background paper from the Center on Education Policy (CEP) examines the origins, history, and evolution of federal land grants for public schools, as well as their significance as an early example of the federal role in education. It is intended to serve as a more detailed companion to another CEP paper, "Get the Federal Government Out of…

  10. A Multilevel Framework for Recruiting and Supporting Graduate Students from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds in School Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grapin, Sally L.; Lee, Erica T.; Jaafar, Dounia

    2015-01-01

    The lack of cultural diversity among practitioners and trainers in the field of school psychology has been recognized as a longstanding problem. In particular, individuals from racial, ethnic, and linguistic minority and international backgrounds often encounter a range of barriers to pursuing graduate study in school psychology. Given the urgent…

  11. Evaluations Backgrounder: A Summary of Formal Evaluations of Afterschool Programs' Impact on Behavior, Safety and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Although afterschool programs for children have been operating for many years in some communities, the afterschool movement--the great national awakening to the opportunity afterschool offers--is just a few years old. As public demand for afterschool has grown, so has the demand for accountability. That is particularly true in afterschool…

  12. Advanced wind turbine with lift-destroying aileron for shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint; Juengst, Theresa M.; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1996-06-18

    An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an aileron with a bottom surface that slopes upwardly at an angle toward the nose region of the aileron. The aileron rotates about a center of rotation which is located within the envelope of the aileron, but does not protrude substantially into the air flowing past the aileron while the aileron is deflected to angles within a control range of angles. This allows for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor. When the aileron is rotated to angles within a shutdown range of deflection angles, lift-destroying, turbulence-producing cross-flow of air through a flow gap, and turbulence created by the aileron, create sufficient drag to stop rotation of the rotor assembly. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration.

  13. The Integrated Sequence: An Innovative Component of Four Courses in the General Education Program at Davis & Elkins College. A Digest of Program Elements, Developmental Background, and Faculty Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartmann, Will

    The Integrated Sequence Program at Davis & Elkins College, which consists of four team-taught, interdisciplinary courses, is described, along with the origins and philosophy of the program. The courses are as follows: Human Freedom and the Counterforces (freshman year); World Culture (sophomore year); Comparative Ideas (junior year); and The…

  14. Results from the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory Variable Star Search Program: Background, Procedure, and Results from RAO Field 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael D.; Milone, E. F.

    2013-12-01

    We describe a variable star search program and present the fully reduced results of a search in a 19 square degree (4.4 × 4.4) field centered on J2000 RA = 22:03:24, DEC= +18:54:32. The search was carried out with the Baker-Nunn Patrol Camera located at the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory in the foothills of the Canadian Rockies. A total of 26,271 stars were detected in the field, over a range of about 11-15 (instrumental) magnitudes. Our image processing made use of the IRAF version of the DAOPHOT aperture photometry routine and we used the ANOVA method to search for periodic variations in the light curves. We formally detected periodic variability in 35 stars, that we tentatively classify according to light curve characteristics: 6 EA (Algol), 5 EB (?? Lyrae), 19 EW (W UMa), and 5 RR (RR Lyrae) stars. Eleven of the detected variable stars have been reported previously in the literature. The eclipsing binary light curves have been analyzed with a package of light curve modeling programs and 25 have yielded converged solutions. Ten of these are of systems that are detached, 3 semi-detached, 10 overcontact, and 2 are of systems that appear to be in marginal contact. We discuss these results as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the instrument and of the program.

  15. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  16. [Primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society--part I. Scientific background of the posture correction exercise scheme].

    PubMed

    Gardi, Zsuzsa; Feszthammer, Artúrné; Darabosné Tim, Irma; Tóthné Steinhausz, Viktória; Somhegyi, Annamária; Varga, Péter Pál

    2005-03-20

    The primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society aims to increase awareness of the need to develop and automatically maintain a biomechanically correct posture for all school children. The biomechanically correct posture is a dynamic balance based on a correct middle position of the pelvis and on muscle balance. In this position three important anatomical points--the left and right anterior superior iliac spines and the upper medial point of the pubic bone--form one frontal plane. From side-view the imaginary weight median of the body crosses the 2nd to 5th lumbar and the 2nd to 5th cervical vertebral bodies. When the muscles involved in posture are in balance, their strength and flexibility are just appropriate for the almost continuous work required against gravity. In case of static and/or dynamic under- or overload tonic muscles become shortened, and phasic muscles become stretched, and are no longer able to work optimally. Since many muscles and muscle parts that are involved in normal posture maintenance are not satisfactorily challenged in regular physical exercises and sport activities, the preventive exercise scheme of the Hungarian Spine Society aimed to involve these rarely used muscles in special strengthening and stretching exercises. The scheme is based on 12 test exercises that assess the strength and flexibility of postural muscles. A person who is able to do all test exercises correctly has no problem with his or her muscle balance. In order to counteract the harm caused by sedentary lifestyle already in childhood, regular use of this posture correction scheme in physical education starting from preschool throughout the school-years is recommended for all children.

  17. 7 CFR 735.11 - Lost or destroyed certificates of licensing, authorization or agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT General Provisions § 735.11 Lost or destroyed certificates of licensing... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lost or destroyed certificates of licensing, authorization or agreements. 735.11 Section 735.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  18. 7 CFR 735.11 - Lost or destroyed certificates of licensing, authorization or agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT General Provisions § 735.11 Lost or destroyed certificates of licensing... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lost or destroyed certificates of licensing, authorization or agreements. 735.11 Section 735.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  19. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  20. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  1. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  2. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to... payment of Federal indemnity by the U.S. Department of Agriculture as provided in § 51.24: (a) As long...

  3. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  4. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  5. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  6. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  7. 9 CFR 50.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.3 Payment to owners for animals destroyed. (a) The... to tuberculosis; (2) Cattle, bison, or captive cervids that have been classified as suspect for tuberculosis, except that the payment of indemnity for the destruction of suspect cattle, bison, and...

  8. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  9. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  10. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  11. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  12. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  13. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  14. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  15. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  16. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  17. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 223.12 Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to... lands without advertisement when necessary for the occupancy of a right-of-way or other authorized...

  18. 36 CFR 1226.24 - How must agencies destroy temporary records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must agencies destroy temporary records? 1226.24 Section 1226.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS.... Unrestricted records that agencies cannot sell or otherwise salvage must be destroyed by burning,...

  19. 36 CFR 1226.24 - How must agencies destroy temporary records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must agencies destroy temporary records? 1226.24 Section 1226.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS.... Unrestricted records that agencies cannot sell or otherwise salvage must be destroyed by burning,...

  20. 9 CFR 51.3 - Payment to owners for animals destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... indemnity by the United States Department of Agriculture to an owner whose breeding swine are destroyed as... $10 per head for all other breeding swine. Prior to payment of indemnity, proof of destruction 4 shall... of breeding swine or whose whole herd is destroyed because of brucellosis. The indemnity shall...

  1. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System lands without advertisement when necessary...

  2. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System lands without advertisement when necessary...

  3. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System lands without advertisement when necessary...

  4. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System lands without advertisement when necessary...

  5. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration. PMID:22992282

  6. Noise destroys feedback enhanced figure-ground segmentation but not feedforward figure-ground segmentation.

    PubMed

    Romeo, August; Arall, Marina; Supèr, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Figure-ground (FG) segmentation is the separation of visual information into background and foreground objects. In the visual cortex, FG responses are observed in the late stimulus response period, when neurons fire in tonic mode, and are accompanied by a switch in cortical state. When such a switch does not occur, FG segmentation fails. Currently, it is not known what happens in the brain on such occasions. A biologically plausible feedforward spiking neuron model was previously devised that performed FG segmentation successfully. After incorporating feedback the FG signal was enhanced, which was accompanied by a change in spiking regime. In a feedforward model neurons respond in a bursting mode whereas in the feedback model neurons fired in tonic mode. It is known that bursts can overcome noise, while tonic firing appears to be much more sensitive to noise. In the present study, we try to elucidate how the presence of noise can impair FG segmentation, and to what extent the feedforward and feedback pathways can overcome noise. We show that noise specifically destroys the feedback enhanced FG segmentation and leaves the feedforward FG segmentation largely intact. Our results predict that noise produces failure in FG perception.

  7. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. E3 protein of bovine coronavirus is a receptor-destroying enzyme with acetylesterase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, R.; Luytjes, W.; Leider, J.; Spaan, W.; Palese, P.

    1988-12-01

    In addition to members of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, several coronaviruses have been shown to possess receptor-destroying activities. Purified bovine coronavirus (BCV) preparations have an esterase activity which inactivates O-acetylsialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibits this receptor-destroying activity of BCV, suggesting that the viral enzyme is a serine esterase. Treatment of purified BCV with (/sup 3/H)DFP and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins revealed that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein was specifically phosphorylated. This finding suggests that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein. Furthermore, treatment of BCV with DFP dramatically reduced its infectivity in a plaque assay. It is assumed that the esterase activity of BCV is required in an early step of virus replication, possible during virus entry or uncoating.

  10. Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Destroys Thyroid Tissue Left after Surgery

    Cancer.gov

    A low dose of radioactive iodine given after surgery for thyroid cancer destroyed (ablated) residual thyroid tissue as effectively as a higher dose, with fewer side effects and less exposure to radiation, according to two randomized controlled trials.

  11. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-06

    Best Available Copy ., AD-A007 341 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL...PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME II APPENDICES By Alan J. Stev/crt 6 December 1974 Approved...of the comparative performance of high eflic.icncy ship propulsion systems, four arrangement drawings have been prepared. Each drawing shows the

  12. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... backgrounds, cultures, and experiences. A diverse workforce enables the DOI to provide a measure of... organizational group. The records of those applicants not selected are destroyed in accordance with DOI's...

  13. A History of the Army Ground Forces; Study Number 29. The Tank Destroyer History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-01-01

    a YTV ~" W PM.r ATO.Y NOTE The historical record of Tank DestroyerB in replete with fast, interosting action and achievement, Brevity being...commander would want to change ’the young mn’s spirit.’, the boldness, the dash, the courage written all over the re-cords of Tank Destroyer action at a...therefrom is due to weighing the compendium of objective material and to observing action in propinquity. The author acknowledges his indebtedness to

  14. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-06

    i pi» ■«■■i . ilMi<MI««iPMpM«l««P«nMVHV*W«nPW- AD-A007 340 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS...OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME I By Alan J. Stewart 6 December 1974 Approved for Public Release... Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types 7. AH r:i.iR(JJ Alan J. Stewart 9. Pr.fii-OFIMING OiiüANIi ATION NAMI A’JD AOOMESS Bradford

  15. Disposal of chemical weapons: Alternative technologies. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The United States has pledged to destroy its entire stockpile of chemical weapons by the end of this decade. The U.S. Army has begun this process by building and testing a demonstration facility to disassemble and incinerate these weapons on Johnston Island, a small island in the mid-Pacific Ocean. After tests prove the concept, the Army plans to build similar facilities for the other chemical weapons now stored at each of eight sites in the continental United States. Local community groups are opposed to the Army's current program at a number of these sites. The incineration of hazardous materials of all kinds has engendered concerns about public health impacts. Several organizations have suggested that technologies other than incineration may be safer and ore appropriate for this program. Because of these factors, Senator Wendell H. Ford asked the Office of Technology Assessment to evaluate the status and availability of alternative technologies for destruction of chemical weapons in the U.S. stockpile as an adjunct to OTA's larger assessment of weapons dismantlement. The background paper briefly describes the Army's chemical weapons destruction program, discusses the factors that could affect a decision to develop alternatives, discusses the alternatives, and illustrates the difficulty of gaining public acceptance of complex technical systems.

  16. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  17. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  18. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  19. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  20. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  1. 27 CFR 479.37 - Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certificates in lieu of stamps lost or destroyed. 479.37 Section 479.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  2. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the east side showing walkway and building foundation. View facing west-northwest. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 41 CFR 102-42.155 - Can foreign gifts or decorations be destroyed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can foreign gifts or decorations be destroyed? 102-42.155 Section 102-42.155 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  4. 41 CFR 102-42.155 - Can foreign gifts or decorations be destroyed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Can foreign gifts or decorations be destroyed? 102-42.155 Section 102-42.155 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  5. 41 CFR 102-42.155 - Can foreign gifts or decorations be destroyed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Can foreign gifts or decorations be destroyed? 102-42.155 Section 102-42.155 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5461 - Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or defaced Farm Credit securities, including coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Book-Entry Procedures for Farm Credit Securities § 615.5461 Lost, stolen, destroyed, mutilated or... Public Debt, P.O. Box 396, Parkersburg, WV 26102-0396, in the case of consolidated or...

  7. Simulation of Maneuvering Characteristics of a Destroyer Study Ship Using a Modified Nonlinear Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    propulsion machinery dynamics and the ship equations of motion. The model couples the ship propulsion dynamics equations with nonlinear maneuvering...This report describes an analog computer maneuvering simulation of a destroyer study ship. The mathematical model which is used includes the ship

  8. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and...; or (b) Moved in vehicles closed with official seals applied and removed by an APHIS...

  9. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and...; or (b) Moved in vehicles closed with official seals applied and removed by an APHIS...

  10. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and...; or (b) Moved in vehicles closed with official seals applied and removed by an APHIS...

  11. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and...; or (b) Moved in vehicles closed with official seals applied and removed by an APHIS...

  12. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  13. Costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy policy in a Dutch hospital.

    PubMed

    van Rijen, M M L; Kluytmans, J A J W

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy policy in a Dutch hospital during 2001 through 2006. Variable costs included costs for isolation, contact tracing, treatment of carriers and closure of wards. Fixed costs were the costs for the building of isolation rooms and the salary of one full-time infection control practitioner. To determine the benefits of the Search and Destroy policy, the transmission rate during the study period was calculated. Furthermore, the number of cases of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia prevented was estimated, as well as its associated prevented costs and patient lives. The costs of the MRSA policy were estimated to be euro 215,559 a year, which equals euro 5.54 per admission. The daily isolation costs for MRSA-suspected and -positive hospitalised patients were euro 95.59 and euro 436.62, respectively. Application of the Search and Destroy policy resulted in a transmission rate of 0.30 and was estimated to prevent 36 cases of MRSA bacteraemia per year, resulting in annual savings of euro 427,356 for the hospital and ten lives per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 8-14). In conclusion, application of the MRSA Search and Destroy policy in a hospital in a country with a low endemic MRSA incidence saves money and lives.

  14. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims for wine or spirits... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.65 Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond. (a) Claim for remission...

  15. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Claims for wine or spirits... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.65 Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond. (a) Claim for remission...

  16. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims for wine or spirits... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.65 Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond. (a) Claim for remission...

  17. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims for wine or spirits... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.65 Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond. (a) Claim for remission...

  18. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claims for wine or spirits... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.65 Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond. (a) Claim for remission...

  19. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  20. Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development. Youth Employment Policies and Programs for the 1890s. Background Analysis for the Department of Labor Employment and Training Components of the Youth Act of 1980. Youth Knowledge Development Report 2.12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Robert

    Prepared as a basic background document for an interagency task force on youth employment, this report analyzes youth employment policies and programs for the 1980s. The main body of the report consists of three sections. Section 1, entitled "Policy Perspectives on the Youth Employment Problem," contains a discussion of pathways to…

  1. The Learning Effects of an Ecology Enrichment Summer Program on Gifted Students from Mainstream and Diverse Cultural Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Wu, Jiun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chin

    2006-01-01

    Enrichment is one of the important educational models for gifted students. However, the research on gifted enrichment programs rarely leads to instructional interventions for culturally diverse students. The purposes of this study were: (a) to propose an ecology enrichment summer program for gifted students from mainstream and diverse cultural…

  2. Diving Deep: A Comparative Study of Educator Undergraduate and Graduate Backgrounds and Their Effect on Student Understanding of Engineering and Engineering Careers, Utilizing an Underwater Robotics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribner, J. Adam

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that educators having degrees in their subjects significantly enhances student achievement, particularly in secondary mathematics and science (Chaney, 1995; Goe, 2007; Rowan, Chiang, & Miller, 1997; Wenglinsky, 2000). Yet, science teachers in states that adopt the Next Generation Science Standards will be facilitating classroom engineering activities despite the fact that few have backgrounds in engineering. This quantitative study analyzed ex-post facto WaterBotics (an innovative underwater robotics curriculum for middle and high school students) data to determine if educators having backgrounds in engineering (i.e., undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering) positively affected student learning on two engineering outcomes: 1) the engineering design process, and 2) understanding of careers in engineering (who engineers are and what engineers do). The results indicated that educators having backgrounds in engineering did not significantly affect student understanding of the engineering design process or careers in engineering when compared to educators having backgrounds in science, mathematics, technology education, or other disciplines. There were, however, statistically significant differences between the groups of educators. Students of educators with backgrounds in technology education had the highest mean score on assessments pertaining to the engineering design process while students of educators with disciplines outside of STEM had the highest mean scores on instruments that assess for student understanding of careers in engineering. This might be due to the fact that educators who lack degrees in engineering but who teach engineering do a better job of "sticking to the script" of engineering curricula.

  3. Efficacy of inhaled iloprost in cor pulmonale and severe pulmonary hypertension associated with tuberculous destroyed lung.

    PubMed

    Park, Yae Min; Chung, Wook-Jin; Lee, Sang Pyo; Choi, Deok Young; Baek, Han Joo; Jung, Sung Hwan; Choi, In Suck; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the causes of cor pulmonale. Cor pulmonale patients with pulmonary hypertension have a significant lower survival rate than patients without. However, there is no conclusive treatment options in cor pulmonale and pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD until now. We report a patient with cor pulmonale and pulmonary hypertension associated with severe form of COPD and tuberculous destroyed lung who achieved marked clinical, functional and echocardiographic hemodynamic improvements with inhaled iloprost for six months.

  4. 41 CFR 102-36.305 - May we abandon or destroy excess personal property without reporting it to GSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... destroy excess personal property without reporting it to GSA? 102-36.305 Section 102-36.305 Public... without reporting it to GSA? Yes, you may abandon or destroy excess personal property when you have made a... when it has neither utility nor monetary value (either as an item or as scrap)....

  5. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test report must state: (1) The name of the... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed...

  6. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.29 Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical... replacement of a lost or destroyed medical certificate must be made: (1) By letter to the Department...

  7. 27 CFR 19.263 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific requirements. 19.263 Section 19.263..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond—specific requirements. (a) Claims for... spirits, articles, or wines in bond must include the following information: (1) Identity of...

  8. 27 CFR 19.263 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific requirements. 19.263 Section 19.263..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond—specific requirements. (a) Claims for... spirits, articles, or wines in bond must include the following information: (1) Identity of...

  9. 27 CFR 19.263 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific requirements. 19.263 Section 19.263..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond—specific requirements. (a) Claims for... spirits, articles, or wines in bond must include the following information: (1) Identity of...

  10. Admission Policies and Attrition Rates in California Community College Nursing Programs. Background and Summary of Findings and Recommendations of the California Postsecondary Education Commission. Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seago, Jean Ann; Spetz, Joanne

    Most analyses of California's nursing shortage find that too few nurses are being educated to meet future demand. Coffman and Spetz (1999) estimate that state nursing programs need to educate an additional 3,600 students per year between 2000 and 2010, and 5,000 more per year between 2010 and 2020 to maintain an adequate nursing force. Unless the…

  11. The CollegeKeys Compact[TM]: 2011 Catalog of Effective Practices. Programs and Practices That Expand Options for Students from Low-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The CollegeKeys Compact[TM] is a national call to action to school districts, colleges and universities, state education agencies, and nonprofit organizations to identify, share and expand programs and practices that address the needs and challenges of low-income students and help them get ready for, get into and get through college. The College…

  12. The CollegeKeys Compact[TM]: 2012 Catalog of Effective Practices. Programs and Practices that Expand Options for Students from Low-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The CollegeKeys Compact[TM] is a national call to action to school districts, colleges and universities, state education agencies, and nonprofit organizations to identify, share and expand programs and practices that address the needs and challenges of low-income students and help them get ready for, get into and get through college. The College…

  13. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  14. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOEpatents

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    2000-01-01

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  15. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resource maps of the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Church, S.E.; Frisken, J.G.; Wilson, F.H.; Yount, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular, in conjunction with a companion folio of MF-series maps, two I-series geologic maps, and three bulletins, represents the results of integrated field and laboratory studies on the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, paleontology, geochronology, and mineral resources of the quadrangles. These studies were undertaken to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. Each map contains descriptive text, explanatory material, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides background information for the mineral resource assessment map (MF-1539-1) and integrates the component M F- and I-series maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  16. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Nabesna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Griscom, Andrew; Marsh, S.P.; Singer, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Nabesna quadrangle in south-central Alaska is the first of the l:250,000-scale Alaskan quadrangles to be investigated by an interdisciplinary research team in order to furnish a mineral resource assessment of the State. The assessment of the 17,600-km 2 16,800-mi21 quadrangle is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and satellite imagery. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, diagrams, and accompanying discussions. This report provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource assessment. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the Nabesna quadrangle.

  17. Cytotoxic Mechanisms Employed by Mouse T Cells to Destroy Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varanasi, Vineeth; Avanesyan, Lia; Schumann, Desiree M.; Chervonsky, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Several cytotoxic mechanisms have been attributed to T cells participating in β-cell death in type 1 diabetes. However, sensitivity of β-cells to these mechanisms in vitro and in vivo is likely to be different. Moreover, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may use distinct mechanisms to cause β-cell demise that possibly involve activation of third-party cytotoxic cells. We used the transfer of genetically modified diabetogenic T cells into normal, mutant, and bone marrow chimeric recipients to test the contribution of major cytotoxic mechanisms in β-cell death. We found that 1) the killing of β-cells by CD4+ T cells required activation of the recipient’s own cytotoxic cells via tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); 2) CD8+ T-cell cytotoxic mechanisms destroying β-cells were limited to perforin and Fas ligand, as double knockouts of these molecules abrogated the ability of T cells to cause diabetes; and 3) individual CD8+ T-cell clones chose their cytotoxic weaponry by a yet unknown mechanism and destroyed their targets via either Fas-independent or Fas-dependent (∼40% of clones) pathways. Fas-dependent destruction was assisted by TNF-α. PMID:22773667

  18. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Gallivan, Justin [Emory University

    2016-07-12

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  19. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallivan, Justin

    2012-03-21

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  20. Programmed Ventricular Stimulation to Risk Stratify for Early Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation to Prevent Tachyarrhythmias following Acute Myocardial Infarction (PROTECT-ICD): Trial Protocol, Background and Significance.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Sarah; Taylor, Andrew J; Stiles, Martin; Chow, Clara; Kovoor, Pramesh

    2016-11-01

    The 'Programmed Ventricular Stimulation to Risk Stratify for Early Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation to Prevent Tachyarrhythmias following Acute Myocardial Infarction' (PROTECT-ICD) trial is an Australian-led multicentre randomised controlled trial targeting prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients who have at least moderately reduced cardiac function following a myocardial infarct (MI). The primary objective of the trial is to assess whether electrophysiological study to guide prophylactic implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) early following MI (first 40 days) will lead to a significant reduction in sudden cardiac death and non-fatal arrhythmia. The secondary objective is to assess the utility of cardiac MRI (CMR) in assessing early myocardial characteristics, and its predictive value for both inducible ventricular tachycardia (VT) at EPS and SCD/ non-fatal arrhythmia at follow-up.

  1. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  2. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments.

  3. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public... Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology only... of the cognizant Program Manager, will negotiate a background rights provision. If the...

  4. How the antimicrobial peptides destroy bacteria cell membrane: Translocations vs. membrane buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Fang, Weihai

    2012-02-01

    In this study, coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation with implementation of electrostatic interactions is developed in constant pressure and surface tension ensemble to elucidate how the antimicrobial peptide molecules affect bilayer cell membrane structure and kill bacteria. We find that peptides with different chemical-physical properties exhibit different membrane obstructing mechanisms. Peptide molecules can destroy vital functions of the affected bacteria by translocating across their membranes via worm-holes, or by associating with membrane lipids to form hydrophilic cores trapped inside the hydrophobic domain of the membranes. In the latter scenario, the affected membranes are strongly corrugated (buckled) in accord with very recent experimental observations [G. E. Fantner et al., Nat. Nanotech., 5 (2010), pp. 280-285].

  5. Cancer-secreted miR-105 destroys vascular endothelial barriers to promote metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weiying; Fong, Miranda Y.; Min, Yongfen; Somlo, George; Liu, Liang; Palomares, Melanie R.; Yu, Yang; Chow, Amy; O’Connor, Sean Timothy Francis; Chin, Andrew R.; Yen, Yun; Wang, Yafan; Marcusson, Eric G.; Chu, Peiguo; Wu, Jun; Wu, Xiwei; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Li, Zhuo; Gao, Hanlin; Ren, Xiubao; Boldin, Mark P.; Lin, Pengnian Charles; Wang, Shizhen Emily

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cancer-secreted miRNAs are emerging mediators of cancer–host crosstalk. Here we show that miR-105, which is characteristically expressed and secreted by metastatic breast cancer cells, is a potent regulator of migration through targeting the tight junction protein ZO-1. In endothelial monolayers, exosome-mediated transfer of cancer-secreted miR-105 efficiently destroys tight junctions and the integrity of these natural barriers against metastasis. Overexpression of miR-105 in non-metastatic cancer cells induces metastasis and vascular permeability in distant organs, whereas inhibition of miR-105 in highly metastatic tumors alleviates these effects. MiR-105 can be detected in the circulation at the pre-metastatic stage, and its levels in the blood and tumor are associated with ZO-1 expression and metastatic progression in early-stage breast cancer. PMID:24735924

  6. [Clusters of nonsolvent water in partially destroyed Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells].

    PubMed

    Turov, V V; Gun'ko, V M; Krupskaia, T V; Lipkovskaia, N A; Turova, A A

    2014-01-01

    The state of water in partially destroyed dry yeast cells has been studied using low-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy. It has been shown that the residual water is in the form of clusters of strongly and weakly associated water (SAW and WAW, respectively). Three or more types of SAW different in the chemical shift values have been found. It has been established that the interfacial water poorly dissolves hydrochloric and trifluoroacetic acids as well as DMSO and CD3CN. Hydrochloric acid on a surface of biomaterials can be separated into HCl and water. This process is stabilized by polar co-solvents (DMSO and CD3CN) added to the CDCl3 dispersion medium.

  7. Computational study on superparamagnetic hyperthermia with biocompatible SPIONs to destroy the cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caizer, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superparamagnetic hyperthermia (SPMHT) appears nowadays as the most promising method of the future, non-invasive and with low toxicity, for destroys the cancer cells through the magnetic relaxation in superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In our research we focused on finding the optimal conditions using a 3D computational study to obtain a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) by the magnetic relaxation in Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which give the most pronounced SAR and with low toxicity on cells. The effect of the diameter of the nanoparticles, frequency and amplitude of external alternating magnetic field and the thickness of biological coating of nanoparticles in the case of their encapsulation in biocompatible membranes, like liposomes (Ls) and cyclodextrins (CDs), on Néel-Brown magnetic relaxation and maximum SAR, are presented and discussed in this paper, within the biological admitted limit.

  8. Extragalactic Backgrounds after Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Olivier

    offers a direct probe of the relation between light and matter. We will also revisit long-standing questions such as the nature of the extragalactic gamma-ray background and the active galactic nuclei contribution to the CIB. The astrophysical implications of our program are quite unique and far-reaching. As such, this proposal is essential to NASA objectives. Cross-cutting among different frequencies, we will be able to analyze in a synergic way a huge amount of data from current NASA surveys and projects, and we will directly address three of the seven key questions identified in the Astro2010 report ``New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' : What is the fossil record of galaxy assembly from the first stars to present?, What are the connections between dark and luminous matter? How do cosmic structures form and evolve?

  9. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. 76 FR 79567 - Tribal Background Investigations and Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 556 and 558 RIN 3141-AA15 Tribal Background Investigations.... SUMMARY: The proposed rule modifies certain NIGC regulations concerning background investigations and... program'' background investigation and licensing procedures. Parts 556 and 558 address...

  11. A School Finds Its Community. Earthquakes Can Build as Well as Destroy Managua, Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Howard; Burton, Gary

    1974-01-01

    The American-Nicaraguan School in Managua has placed a new emphasis on serving the community through recreational programs, adult education, community projects, work study programs within the community, and cultural presentations for the general public. (Author/DN)

  12. Robust background modelling in DIALS

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, James M.; Winter, Graeme; Waterman, David G.; Fuentes-Montero, Luis; Gildea, Richard J.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating the background under each reflection during integration that is robust in the presence of pixel outliers is presented. The method uses a generalized linear model approach that is more appropriate for use with Poisson distributed data than traditional approaches to pixel outlier handling in integration programs. The algorithm is most applicable to data with a very low background level where assumptions of a normal distribution are no longer valid as an approximation to the Poisson distribution. It is shown that traditional methods can result in the systematic underestimation of background values. This then results in the reflection intensities being overestimated and gives rise to a change in the overall distribution of reflection intensities in a dataset such that too few weak reflections appear to be recorded. Statistical tests performed during data reduction may mistakenly attribute this to merohedral twinning in the crystal. Application of the robust generalized linear model algorithm is shown to correct for this bias. PMID:27980508

  13. International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-03

    such as the World Food Programme (WFP). In FY2009, USDA provided over 280,000 metric tons of U.S. commodities (including wheat , wheat flour , soybean...Trust was originally authorized by the Agricultural Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-494) as the Food Security Wheat Reserve, but was later reauthorized and...Security Commodity Reserve established in the 1996 farm bill and its predecessor, the Food Security Wheat Reserve, originally authorized by the

  14. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    PubMed

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  15. Polyethylene ribbon fibers: a new alternative for restoring badly destroyed primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Island, Gema; White, G E

    2005-01-01

    Dentistry has advanced to the point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. With the introduction of new materials and adhesive systems the use of polyethylene fibers as post and core offer a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed primary anterior teeth. These fibers offer root and coronal retention, stability and esthetics, and it is done chair side. The present study compared two different types of fibers and analyzed the fracture resistance between the two of them. Two groups were formed. Group I used non pre-impregnated resin fibers (glasSpan) and group II used pre-impregnated resin fibers (Splint-it). Both types of fibers have been used as post and core in the restoration of primary teeth and clinical studies have been published. Our results indicated that the mean fracture resistance for group I was 71.346 and for group II 97.952 (p = 0.004). During the observation of the fractured samples, adhesive failures were noted for group I at the junction between the fiber and its core to the interior wall of the root canal. In group II, the fibers were dislodged out of the canal and the core part of the canal remained intact. It can be concluded that pre-impregnated fibers offer a better fracture resistance when used as post in endodontically treated primary anterior teeth.

  16. The application of fiber core posts in restoring badly destroyed primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Aly A

    2002-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) represents a challenge to pediatric dentists especially, when teeth are badly destroyed. ECC involves the upper anterior teeth early in life and by the time the dentist sees the child, most of the coronal structure is lost. Dentally, this is a very devastating situation for both the dentist and parents, as in many cases, extraction of these teeth is the only option. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, a new approach for treating these teeth is explained and documented by clinical cases, where fiber core posts are introduced into the root canals of primary incisors for a distance of 2 to 3 mm. It is retained in place by flowable composite, then the coronal part is reconstructed by a strip crown to restore the crown form. After a follow up period of one year, only 2 teeth out of 30 had to be extracted. The failure was attributed to failure in pulpal therapy rather than failure in the restorations, which were totally intact. A laboratory testing of the fracture load resistance of the restored teeth proved that this technique significantly improved the fracture load resistance of composite celluloid crowns, making it a valuable procedure to consider when the coronal tooth structure is not enough to support and retain a composite celluloid strip crown.

  17. Regional caprock-destroying dolomite on the middle jurassic to early cretaceous Arabian shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Broomhall, R.W.; Allan, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Massive, stratigraphically-discordant dolomite occurs on the late Mesozoic Arabian Shelf in the northern portion of Aramco's main producing area. This dolomite is associated with solution-collapse of Hith-Arab anhydrite seals and with enhancement of porosity and permeability in tight limestone seals within the region. By destroying regional caprocks, dolomitization has had an adverse effect on oil accumulation. The spatial extent of this dolomite was determined by the examination of Formation Density/Compensated Neutron wireline logs and sample description logs from 50 onshore and offshore wells. Fluid inclusion geothermometry reveals that baroque dolomite precipitated from brine with salinities of 223,000 to 249,000 ppm TDS at temperatures of 102 to 134/sup 0/C onshore and 131 to 155/sup 0/C offshore. Petroleum fluid inclusions within the baroque dolomite indicate hydrocarbon migration contemporaneous with dolomitization. Carbon and oxygen isotope data suggest that that brine which precipitated baroque dolomite was also responsible for the massive recrystallization of shelf limestone to form host dolomite. Chemical analyses of formation waters suggest that brine which migrated out of halite deposits during burial was the dolomitizing fluid. The geological and geochemical attributes of Arabian Shelf dolomites strongly resemble those reported for dolomite associated with Alpine and Mississippi Valley-type carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits in Europe and North America.

  18. High Shear Stresses under Exercise Condition Destroy Circulating Tumor Cells in a Microfluidic System

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, Sagar; Fu, Afu; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the primary targets of cancer treatment as they cause distal metastasis. However, how CTCs response to exercise-induced high shear stress is largely unknown. To study the effects of hemodynamic microenvironment on CTCs, we designed a microfluidic circulatory system that produces exercise relevant shear stresses. We explore the effects of shear stresses on breast cancer cells with different metastatic abilities, cancer cells of ovarian, lung and leukemic origin. Three major findings were obtained. 1) High shear stress of 60 dynes/cm2 achievable during intensive exercise killed more CTCs than low shear stress of 15 dynes/cm2 present in human arteries at the resting state. 2) High shear stress caused necrosis in over 90% of CTCs within the first 4 h of circulation. More importantly, the CTCs that survived the first 4 h-circulation, underwent apoptosis during 16–24 h of post-circulation incubation. 3) Prolonged high shear stress treatment effectively reduced the viability of highly metastatic and drug resistant breast cancer cells. As high shear stress had much less damaging effects on leukemic cells mimicking the white blood cells, we propose that intensive exercise may be a good strategy for generating high shear stress that can destroy CTCs and prevent cancer metastasis. PMID:28054593

  19. Anthrax surrogate spores are destroyed by PDT mediated by phenothiazinium dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Some Gram-positive bacteria (including the causative agent of anthrax - Bacillus anthracis) survive conditions of stress and starvation by producing dormant stage spores. The spore"s multilayered capsule consists of inner and outer membranes, cortex, proteinaceous spore coat, and in some species an exosporium. These outer layers enclose dehydrated and condensed DNA, saturated with small, acid-soluble proteins. These protective structures make spores highly resistant to damage by heat, radiation, and commonly employed anti-bacterial agents. Previously Bacillus spores have been shown to be resistant to photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using dyes and light that easily destroy the corresponding vegetative bacteria, but recently we have discovered that they are susceptible to PDI. Photoinactivation, however, is only possible if phenothiazinium dyes are used. Dimethylmethylene blue, methylene blue, new methylene blue and toluidine blue O are all effective photosensitizers. Alternative photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal, polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugate, a tricationic porphyrin and benzoporphyrin derivative are ineffective against spores even though they can easily kill vegetative cells. Spores of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are most susceptible, B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus are also killed, while B. megaterium is resistant. Photoinactivation is most effective when excess dye is washed from the spores showing that the dye binds to the spores and that excess dye in solution can quench light delivery. The relatively mild conditions needed for spore killing could have applications for treating wounds contaminated by anthrax spores and for which conventional sporicides would have unacceptable tissue toxicity.

  20. Can Total Wrist Arthroplasty Be an Option in the Treatment of the Severely Destroyed Posttraumatic Wrist?

    PubMed Central

    Boeckstyns, Michel E. H.; Herzberg, Guillaume; Sørensen, Allan Ibsen; Axelsson, Peter; Krøner, Karsten; Liverneaux, Philippe A.; Obert, Laurent; Merser, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Background Severely destroyed posttraumatic wrists are usually treated by partial or total wrist fusion or proximal row carpectomy. The indications for and longevity of total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) are still unclear. Case Description The aim of this study was to analyze a series in which one last-generation total wrist arthroplasty was used as a salvage procedure for wrists with severe arthritis due to traumatic causes. The data were prospectively recorded in a web-based registry. Seven centers participated. Thirty-five cases had a minimum follow-up time of 2 years. Average follow-up was 39 (24–96) months. Pain had improved significantly at follow-up, mobility remained unchanged. The total revision rate was 3.7%, and the implant survival was 92% at 4–8 years. Literature Review Very few studies have described specific results after TWA in posttraumatic cases and almost none using classical “third-generation” implants. The number of cases and the follow-up in the published series are small. Clinical Relevance Although painful posttraumatic wrists with severe joint destruction can be salvaged by partial or total fusion, we found that, evaluated at short- to midterm, total wrist arthroplasty can be an alternative procedure and gives results that are comparable to those obtained in rheumatoid cases. Level IV Case series PMID:24436837

  1. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tchórzewska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers. PMID:25927478

  2. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  3. Remarkably high activities of testicular cytochrome c in destroying reactive oxygen species and in triggering apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Lin, Hao; Ye, Sheng; Liu, Qin-ying; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Chuan-mao; Xia, Yongjing; Margoliash, Emanuel; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Xiang-jun

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in sperm. High concentrations of H2O2 in sperm induce nuclear DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation and result in cell death. The respiratory chain of the mitochondrion is one of the most productive ROS generating systems in sperm, and thus the destruction of ROS in mitochondria is critical for the cell. It was recently reported that H2O2 generated by the respiratory chain of the mitochondrion can be efficiently destroyed by the cytochrome c-mediated electron-leak pathway where the electron of ferrocytochrome c migrates directly to H2O2 instead of to cytochrome c oxidase. In our studies, we found that mouse testis-specific cytochrome c (T-Cc) can catalyze the reduction of H2O2 three times faster than its counterpart in somatic cells (S-Cc) and that the T-Cc heme has the greater resistance to being degraded by H2O2. Together, these findings strongly imply that T-Cc can protect sperm from the damages caused by H2O2. Moreover, the apoptotic activity of T-Cc is three to five times greater than that of S-Cc in a well established apoptosis measurement system using Xenopus egg extract. The dramatically stronger apoptotic activity of T-Cc might be important for the suicide of male germ cells, considered a physiological mechanism that regulates the number of sperm produced and eliminates those with damaged DNA. Thus, it is very likely that T-Cc has evolved to guarantee the biological integrity of sperm produced in mammalian testis. PMID:16757556

  4. Hyper-resistivity and electron thermal conductivity due to destroyed magnetic surfaces in axisymmetric plasma equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, R. H.

    2012-06-15

    In order to model the effects of small-scale current-driven magnetic fluctuations in a mean-field theoretical description of a large-scale plasma magnetic field B(x,t), a space and time dependent hyper-resistivity {Lambda}(x,t) can be incorporated into the Ohm's law for the parallel electric field E Dot-Operator B. Using Boozer coordinates, a theoretical method is presented that allows for a determination of the hyper-resistivity {Lambda}({psi}) functional dependence on the toroidal magnetic flux {psi} for arbitrary experimental steady-state Grad-Shafranov axisymmetric plasma equilibria, if values are given for the parallel plasma resistivity {eta}({psi}) and the local distribution of any auxiliary plasma current. Heat transport in regions of plasma magnetic surfaces destroyed by resistive tearing modes can then be modeled by an electron thermal conductivity k{sub e}({psi})=({epsilon}{sub 0}{sup 2}m{sub e}/e{sup 2}){Lambda}({psi}), where e and m{sub e} are the electron charge and mass, respectively, while {epsilon}{sub 0} is the permittivity of free space. An important result obtained for axisymmetric plasma equilibria is that the {psi}{psi}-component of the metric tensor of Boozer coordinates is given by the relation g{sup {psi}{psi}}({psi}){identical_to}{nabla}{psi} Dot-Operator {nabla}{psi}=[{mu}{sub 0}G({psi})][{mu}{sub 0}I({psi})]/{iota}({psi}), with {mu}{sub 0} the permeability of free space, G({psi}) the poloidal current outside a magnetic surface, I({psi}) the toroidal current inside a magnetic surface, and {iota}({psi}) the rotational transform.

  5. Stimulus information stored in lasting active and hidden network states is destroyed by network bursts.

    PubMed

    Dranias, Mark R; Westover, M Brandon; Cash, Sidney; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2015-01-01

    In both humans and animals brief synchronizing bursts of epileptiform activity known as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) can, even in the absence of overt seizures, cause transient cognitive impairments (TCI) that include problems with perception or short-term memory. While no evidence from single units is available, it has been assumed that IEDs destroy information represented in neuronal networks. Cultured neuronal networks are a model for generic cortical microcircuits, and their spontaneous activity is characterized by the presence of synchronized network bursts (SNBs), which share a number of properties with IEDs, including the high degree of synchronization and their spontaneous occurrence in the absence of an external stimulus. As a model approach to understanding the processes underlying IEDs, optogenetic stimulation and multielectrode array (MEA) recordings of cultured neuronal networks were used to study whether stimulus information represented in these networks survives SNBs. When such networks are optically stimulated they encode and maintain stimulus information for as long as one second. Experiments involved recording the network response to a single stimulus and trials where two different stimuli were presented sequentially, akin to a paired pulse trial. We broke the sequential stimulus trials into encoding, delay and readout phases and found that regardless of which phase the SNB occurs, stimulus-specific information was impaired. SNBs were observed to increase the mean network firing rate, but this did not translate monotonically into increases in network entropy. It was found that the more excitable a network, the more stereotyped its response was during a network burst. These measurements speak to whether SNBs are capable of transmitting information in addition to blocking it. These results are consistent with previous reports and provide baseline predictions concerning the neural mechanisms by which IEDs might cause TCI.

  6. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of? 111.515 Section 111.515 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  7. 49 CFR 375.707 - If a shipment is partially lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... percent of the non-binding estimate. The prorated percentage is equal to the percentage of the weight of that portion of the shipment delivered relative to the total weight of the shipment. For example, if... proportion of the shipment, based on actual or constructive weight, not lost or destroyed in transit. (c)...

  8. 49 CFR 375.707 - If a shipment is partially lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... percent of the non-binding estimate. The prorated percentage is equal to the percentage of the weight of that portion of the shipment delivered relative to the total weight of the shipment. For example, if... proportion of the shipment, based on actual or constructive weight, not lost or destroyed in transit. (c)...

  9. Some but not All Tetrahymena Species Destroy Monolayer Cultures of Cells from a Wide Range of Tissues and Species.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Bols, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The activities of Tetrahymena corlissi, Tetrahymena thermophila, and Tetrahymena canadensis were studied in coculture with cell lines of insects, fish, amphibians, and mammals. These ciliates remained viable regardless of the animal cell line partner. All three species could engulf animal cells in suspension. However, if the animal cells were monolayer cultures, the monolayers were obliterated by T. corlissi and T. thermophila. Both fibroblast and epithelial monolayers were destroyed but the destruction of human cell monolayers was done more effectively by T. thermophila. By contrast, T. canadensis was unable to destroy any monolayer. At 4 °C T. thermophila and T. corlissi did not carryout phagocytosis and did not destroy monolayers, whereas T. canadensis was able to carryout phagocytosis but still could not destroy monolayers. Therefore, monolayer destruction appeared to require phagocytosis, but by itself this was insufficient. In addition, the ciliates expressed a unique swimming behavior. Tetrahymena corlissi and T. thermophila swam vigorously and repeatedly into the monolayer, which seemed to loosen or dislodge cells, whereas T. canadensis swam above the monolayer. Therefore, differences in swimming behavior might explain why T. corlissi has been reported to be a pathogen but T. canadensis has not.

  10. 49 CFR 375.709 - If a shipment is totally lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false If a shipment is totally lost or destroyed, what charges may I collect at delivery? 375.709 Section 375.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  11. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... medical certificate must be made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA, Aerospace...

  12. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... medical certificate must be made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA, Aerospace...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.990 - May Federal agencies abandon, destroy, or donate to public bodies real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property located on privately-owned land; (b) Destroy Government-owned improvements and related personal property located on Government-owned land (abandonment of such property is not authorized); or (c... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.1040 - May Federal agencies abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property before...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property before public notice is given of such proposed abandonment or destruction? 102-75.1040 Section 102-75.1040 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment...

  15. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of? 111.515 Section 111.515 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  16. Fiber optic sensor employing successively destroyed coupled points or reflectors for detecting shock wave speed and damage location

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival "points" constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the "points" of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor.

  17. Fiber optic sensor employing successively destroyed coupled points or reflectors for detecting shock wave speed and damage location

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-08-29

    A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location is disclosed. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival ``points`` constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the ``points`` of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor. 6 figs.

  18. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... place and date of the medical exam, name of the Airman Medical Examiner (AME), and the circumstances... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.29 Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or...

  19. 27 CFR 19.41 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond. 19.41 Section 19.41 Alcohol, Tobacco... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Claims § 19.41 Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost..., relating to the destruction or loss of spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines in bond, shall...

  20. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  1. The Athena Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  2. Biological and Host Range Studies with Bagous affinis, An Indian Weevil that Destroys Hydrilla Tubers. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    Fecundity and adult longevity A fecundity and adult longevity test was conducted with newly emerged adults. Adults were held initially with moist paper...plants were tested as indicated in the tables. Feeding was generally estimated in square millimeters or cubic millimeters with the aid of a ballpoint ... pen point ca. 1 mm in diameter and 1 mm long. Estimates in square millimeters were transformed to cubic milli- meters for comparison by multiplying

  3. Spending Analysis of Government Purchase Card Buys for United States Navy Destroyers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Among the diagnostic reviews of the GPC program are examinations of purchase history by the TYCOM APC through use of the Citibank Program Audit Tools...Guide Diagnostic Control Systems TYCOM APC monitoring ATG quarterly reviews Citibank PAT Standardized Documents and Procedures Monthly Summary

  4. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  5. The cancer of bureaucracy: how it will destroy science, medicine, education; and eventually everything else.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-06-01

    matter how effective in real-world terms) is regarded as intrinsically unreliable (self-interested and corrupt). Thus the endemic failures of peer review merely trigger demands for ever-more elaborate and widespread peer review. Just as peer review is killing science with its inefficiency and ineffectiveness, so parasitic bureaucracy is an un-containable phenomenon; dangerous to the extent that it cannot be allowed to exist unmolested, but must be utterly extirpated. Or else modernizing societies will themselves be destroyed by sclerosis, resource misallocation, incorrigibly-wrong decisions and the distortions of 'bureaucratic reality'. However, unfortunately, social collapse is the more probable outcome, since parasites can evolve more rapidly than host immune systems.

  6. Notification: Background Investigation Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0029, February 26, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin field work for our audit of background investigation services.

  7. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Ritz, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2007-07-12

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  8. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  9. Background Material: Regulations Issued by the Department of Health and Human Services on Child Care Programs Authorized by Public Law 101-508. Prepared for a Hearing To Be Held on September 17, 1991. Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means. U.S. House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 1st Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    Background material for a hearing on implementing regulations for two new child care programs is presented. The objective of the new programs is to provide care for children in low- or moderate-income families so that parents can work. The report was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) at the request of the Acting Chairman of the…

  10. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)...

  11. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., method or device in their waste treatment and pollution abatement programs. The wastewater management... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)...

  12. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  13. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  14. Introduction: Background on CROMERR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This self-directed, online course is designed for states, tribes, and local governments that administer EPA-authorized programs under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) and accept or wish to accept electronic reports.

  15. Breaking the Silence; Destroying the Lies: An Education Programme on Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Gillian

    1989-01-01

    Describes an educational program that enables women to explore, in a safe environment, male violence and its impact on their lives. Topics include battered women, rape, incest, pornography, nonphysical violence, and sexual harassment. The course helps women realize that violence is a societal, not individual, problem and empowers them to take…

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.1025 - When can a Federal agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in lieu of donating it to a... DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1025 When can a Federal agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in...

  17. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  18. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  19. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  20. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  1. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  2. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  3. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  4. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  5. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

  6. Wireless Cloud Computing on Guided Missile Destroyers: A Business Case Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    53  Figure 24.  USS MASON (DDG 87) WLAN Architecture (From 3e Technologies, 2001...ignored as a sunk cost. 18  Based on pilot programs, onboard the USS HOWARD (DDG 83) and the USS MASON (DDG 87), as well as schematics and server...rates are used in order to determine the cost of military personnel for the means of budgeting and management studies ( Roth , 2012).  Column 4 of

  7. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and mineral resources maps of the Butte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Trautwein, C.M.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Butte 1?x2 ? quadrangle in west-central Montana was investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). These investigations included geologic mapping, geochemical surveys, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, examinations of mineral deposits, and specialized geochronologic and remote-sensing studies. The data collected during these studies were compiled, combined with available published and unpublished data, analyzed, and used in a mineral-resource assessment of the quadrangle. The results, including data, interpretations, and mineral-resource assessments for nine types of mineral deposits, are published separately as a folio of maps. These maps are accompanied by figures, tables, and explanatory text. This circular provides background information on the Butte quadrangle, summarizes the studies and published maps, and lists a selected bibliography of references pertinent to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral resources of the quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, which includes the world-famous Butte mining district, has a long history of mineral production. Many mining districts within the quadrangle have produced large quantities of many commodities; the most important in dollar value of production were copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, and phosphate. At present, mines at several locations produce copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, lead, zinc, and phosphate. Exploration, mainly for gold, has indicated the presence of other mineral deposits that may be exploited in the future. The results of the investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that many areas of the quadrangle are highly favorable for the occurrence of additional undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, and other metals in several deposit types.

  8. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    5.4 Apollo-Soyuz 3 5 5.5 Evidence for Scattering From Dust ? 3 8 5.6 More Evidence For Scattering From Dust ? 4 0 5.7 More Observations 4 2...Emission from cold interstellar dust . This has been observed by IRAS as the 100 u.m cosmic cirrus (64). The existence of such dust at moderate and... DUST 4 6 CONCLUSIONS 4 7 6.1 Spectral Structure in the Diffuse 4 7 Ultraviolet Background 6.2 Is There Light Scattered From Dust ? 4 7 6.3

  9. Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Valluri, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a "condensation" type of phenomenon corresponding to a peak intensity. The observed cosmic background radiation can be explained from this standpoint. We have obtained analogous results by extremization of the occupation number for photons with the use of the Lambert W function. Some of the interesting applications of this function are briefly discussed in the context of graphene which exhibits an interesting two dimensional structure with several characteristic properties and diverse practical applications.

  10. Geodynamics: Introduction and Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of the field of geodynamics and its major scientific questions. The NASA geodynamics program is described as well as its status and accomplishments projected by 1988. Federal coordination and international cooperation in monitoring tectonic plate motion, polar motion, and Earth rotation are mentioned. The development of a GPS receiver for civilian geodesy and results obtained using satellite laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry in measuring crustal dynamics, global dynamics, and the geopotential field are reported.

  11. A Manning and Maintenance Effectiveness Model Applied to the Communication Division of a ’KNOX’ Class Destroyer Escort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    NAVAL ’POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, CaliforniA 00 THESIS A M~’ANNIN~G AND M.AINTENANCE EFFECTIVE-NESS MODEL APPLIED TO THE CO0i71NICATION DIVISION...OF A "KNOX" CLASS DESTROYER ESCORT by Clifford Stephen Perrin September 1975 Thesis Advisor: Donald P. Gayer f Approved for public release...4 thesis ; whereas the MCE is referred to as "deferral repairs", In each case the information recorded by the repairing •:." 15 k.L activity is entered

  12. A method and apparatus for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    1997-12-01

    A waste destruction method is described using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  13. Targeting cancer with 'smart bombs': equipping plant virus nanoparticles for a 'seek and destroy' mission.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Stefan; Lommel, Steven A

    2009-07-01

    This article discusses plant virus nanoparticles as a weapon in the war on cancer. The successes and failures of numerous nanoparticle strategies are discussed as a background to consideration of the plant virus nanoparticle approach. To have therapeutic benefit, the advantages of the targeted nanoparticle must outweigh the problems of colloidal stability, uptake by the reticuloendothelial system as well as the requirement for clearance from the body. Biodegradable nanoparticles are considered to have the most promise to address these complex phenomena. After justifying the choice of biodegradable particles, the article focuses on comparison of micelles, liposomes, polymers and modified plant viruses. The structural uniformity, cargo capacity, responsive behavior and ease of manufacturing of plant virus nanoparticles are unique properties that suggest they have a wider role to play in targeted therapy. The loading of chemotherapeutic cargo is discussed, with specific reference to the advantage of reversible transitions of the capsid of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus. These features will be contrasted and compared with other biodegradable 'smart bombs' that target cancer cells.

  14. Program Revitalization: A Productive Function for Behavioral Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualley, Charles A.

    1973-01-01

    There is a concern that the field of art education will be imposed upon by programed instruction as a means of improving education thereby destroying individuality and the creative process. Article reassures such fears. (RK)

  15. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  16. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  17. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  18. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  19. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  20. 16 CFR 1031.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1031.17 Section 1031.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION... that it was launching a pilot program to open CPSC staff activities for public review and comment....

  1. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  2. 14 CFR § 1203.200 - Background and discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background and discussion. § 1203.200 Section § 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM NASA Information Security Program § 1203.200 Background and discussion. (a)...

  3. Background and Rationale.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Bouye, Karen; Liburd, Leandris

    2016-02-12

    In 2011, CDC published the first CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR). This report examined health disparities in the United States associated with various characteristics, including race/ethnicity, sex, income, education, disability status, and geography. Health disparities were defined as "differences in health outcomes and their determinants between segments of the population, as defined by social, demographic, environmental, and geographic attributes". Among other recommendations, the 2011 CHDIR emphasized the need to address health disparities with a dual intervention strategy focused on populations at greatest need and on improving the health of the U.S. population by making interventions available to everyone. The 2013 CHDIR updated the 2011 CHDIR and included additional reports on social and environmental determinants of health; the supplement emphasized the importance of multisectoral collaboration, highlighting the need for a comprehensive, community-driven approach to reducing health disparities in the United States. A follow-up report described five interventions that were shown to be effective or demonstrated promise for reducing health disparities. These publications have focused attention on the need to address health disparities in the United States, as well as on programs and interventions that address them. This supplement describes additional interventions that address particular disparities observed by race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographic location, disability, and/or sexual orientation across a range of conditions, including asthma, infection with HIV and hepatitis A, use of colorectal cancer screening, youth violence, food security, and health-related quality of life.

  4. Integrable Background Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderbank, David M. J.

    2014-03-01

    This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ℓ-manifold, determines a (k+ℓ)-dimensional geometry (k+ℓ≤4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ℓ-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+ℓ)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(∞) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(Σ^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently

  5. Monitoring the pollution from a pyre used to destroy animal carcasses during the outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Cumbria, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowles, I.; Hill, R.; Auld, V.; Stewart, H.; Colhoun, C.

    The recent outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease has affected many parts of the UK but none more so than Cumbria, which has had the highest proportion of infected premises. From the beginning of the outbreak, pyres were used to destroy the animal carcasses, however, over time this policy was questioned due to the growing concern about the levels of pollution being emitted from the pyres and their potential impact on human health. Of particular concern were the potential levels of dioxins being emitted from the materials used to construct the pyres as well as from the combustion of the animal carcasses. This paper describes a monitoring campaign that measured the air concentrations of key pollutants from a pyre in Cumbria. Measurements were taken close to residences downwind of the pyre using a mobile laboratory equipped to sample respiratory irritants (SO 2, PM 10 and NO 2) and carcinogens (VOCs and particle-bound PAHs). Measurements of speciated dioxins, furans and PAHs were made on samples collected using a high-volume air sampler co-located with the laboratory. Results from the campaign showed that although the levels of pollutants such as SO 2, PM 10, dioxins, furans and PAHs were clearly elevated above normal background concentrations, the levels were unlikely to cause a substantial exceedance of air quality standards. Moreover, the work showed that for the local residents downwind of this particular pyre, all but the most sensitive individuals (i.e. severe asthmatics and sufferers of lung disease) were unlikely to experience any significant health effects.

  6. Diffract, then destroy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Philip

    2016-09-01

    A new implementation of X-ray diffraction using free-electron lasers can take snapshots of biological molecules that are inaccessible via X-ray crystallography. As Philip Ball reports, the technique can even be used to create stop-motion films of dynamic molecular processes

  7. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Arizona. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in Arizona. The Arizona state constitution establishes the Arizona Corporation Commission to regulate public service corporations. Within the area of its jurisdiction, the Commission has exclusive power and may not be interfered with by the legislature except in one narrow instance as described in the case Corporation Commission v. Pacific Greyhound Lines.

  8. Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-03

    Navy Aegis ships. The program involved modifying the SM-2 Block IV air-defense missile. The missile, as modified, was called the Block IVA version. The...system was designed to intercept descending missiles endo-atmospherically (i.e., within the atmosphere) and destroy them with the Block IVA ...underwent sea trials and high- power radiation testing in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005. It was then moved by a heavy transport vessel to Hawaii

  9. Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense-Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    The missile, as modified, was called the Block IVA version. The system was designed to intercept descending missiles endo-atmospherically (i.e...within the atmosphere) and destroy them with the Block IVA missile’s blast-fragmentation warhead. 28 In announcing its decision to cancel the program...power radiation testing in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005. It was then moved by a heavy transport vessel to

  10. Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-23

    modified, was called the Block IVA version. The system was designed to intercept descending missiles endo-atmospherically (i.e., within the...atmosphere) and destroy them with the Block IVA missile’s blast-fragmentation warhead. 22 In announcing its decision to cancel the program, DOD cited poor...trials and high-power radiation testing in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005. It was then moved by a heavy transport vessel to Hawaii, arriving there in January

  11. Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-02

    Aegis ships. The program involved modifying the SM-2 Block IV air-defense missile. The missile, as modified, was called the Block IVA version. The...system was designed to intercept descending missiles endo-atmospherically (i.e., within the atmosphere) and destroy them with the Block IVA missile’s...integrated with the SBX radar in Texas.40 SBX underwent sea trials and high-power radiation testing in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005. It was then moved by

  12. Survey of the Schools of Wilmington, Delaware. Part 1: I. The Educational Background; II. School Organization, Supervision, and Finance; III. A School Building Program for Wilmington. Bulletin, 1921, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    During March of 1920, by resolution of the Board of Education of Wilmington, Delaware, a committee of 30 citizens of the city was appointed to make a survey of the public schools and of the system of education of the city. The executive committee was directed to prepare a plan or program to be followed in making the investigation and survey and to…

  13. Costs and Benefits Associated with the MRSA Search and Destroy Policy in a Hospital in the Region Kennemerland, The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Souverein, Dennis; Houtman, Patricia; Euser, Sjoerd M.; Herpers, Bjorn L.; Kluytmans, Jan; Den Boer, Jeroen W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy (S&D) policy between 2008 and 2013 in the Kennemer Gasthuis, a 400 bed teaching hospital in the region Kennemerland, the Netherlands. Methods A patient registration database was used to retrospectively calculate costs, including screening, isolation, follow-up, contact tracing, cleaning, treatment, deployment of extra healthcare workers, salary for an infection control practitioner (ICP) and service of isolation rooms. The estimated benefits (costs and lives when no MRSA S&D was applied) were based on a varying MRSA prevalence rate (up to 50%). Results When no MRSA S&D policy was applied, the additional costs and deaths due to MRSA bacteraemia were estimated to be € 1,388,907 and 33 respectively (at a MRSA prevalence rate of 50%). Currently, the total costs were estimated to be € 290,672 (€ 48,445 annually) and a MRSA prevalence rate of 17.3% was considered as break-even point. Between 2008 and 2013, a total of 576 high risk patients were screened for MRSA carriage, of whom 19 (3.3%) were found to be MRSA positive. Forty-nine patients (72.1%) were found unexpectedly. Conclusions Application of the MRSA S&D policy saves lives and money, although the high rate of unexpected MRSA cases is alarming. PMID:26849655

  14. Does lightning destroy rocks?: Results from a laboratory lightning experiment using an impulse high-current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasa, Sachi A.; Nishimura, Seisuke; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2012-08-01

    To understand the destruction of rocks and changes to landforms by lightning strikes, laboratory experiments of lightning strikes were performed using three kinds of rock samples as targets. Artificial lightning with known electric current was simulated by an impulse high-current generator in the laboratory. The artificial lightning is different to natural lightning. The high-current generator can generate up to 20 kA of electric current equal to 50% of the value of natural lightning, but up to 50 kV of electric voltage which is a tenth to hundredth that of natural lightning. Experimental results showed that the rock samples with low mechanical resistance, tuff and rhyolite, were destroyed, while the rock sample with high mechanical resistance, i.e., granite, was not broken by lightning strikes. These results indicate that natural lightning causes rocks and bedrock to break. These imply that lightning might change landforms, for example gnammas and fractures on tors and mountain peaks where lightning tends to strike.

  15. Sent to destroy: the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates cell signaling and protein quality control in cardiovascular development and disease.

    PubMed

    Willis, Monte S; Townley-Tilson, W H Davin; Kang, Eunice Y; Homeister, Jonathon W; Patterson, Cam

    2010-02-19

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in biological processes integral to the development of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. The UPS prototypically recognizes specific protein substrates and places polyubiquitin chains on them for subsequent destruction by the proteasome. This system is in place to degrade not only misfolded and damaged proteins, but is essential also in regulating a host of cell signaling pathways involved in proliferation, adaptation to stress, regulation of cell size, and cell death. During the development of the cardiovascular system, the UPS regulates cell signaling by modifying transcription factors, receptors, and structural proteins. Later, in the event of cardiovascular diseases as diverse as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and ischemia/reperfusion injury, ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome are implicated in protecting and exacerbating clinical outcomes. However, when misfolded and damaged proteins are ubiquitinated by the UPS, their destruction by the proteasome is not always possible because of their aggregated confirmations. Recent studies have discovered how these ubiquitinated misfolded proteins can be destroyed by alternative "specific" mechanisms. The cytosolic receptors p62, NBR, and histone deacetylase 6 recognize aggregated ubiquitinated proteins and target them for autophagy in the process of "selective autophagy." Even the ubiquitination of multiple proteins within whole organelles that drive the more general macro-autophagy may be due, in part, to similar ubiquitin-driven mechanisms. In summary, the crosstalk between the UPS and autophagy highlight the pivotal and diverse roles the UPS plays in maintaining protein quality control and regulating cardiovascular development and disease.

  16. Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the UF6 fueled gas core reactor as a function of cavity reactor criticality and fluid mechanics tests, investigations of uranium optical emission spectra, and radiant heat transfer power plant studies. Data are also given on nuclear and thermodynamic cycle analysis.

  17. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.

    1984-01-01

    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  18. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  19. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Choteau 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean

    1981-01-01

    The Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle in northwest Montana was studied by an interdisciplinary research team in order to appraise its mineral resource and hydrocarbon potential The appraisal is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource appraisal. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Choteau l? x 2? quadrangle.

  20. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Medford 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.; Blakely, R.J.; Johnson, M.G.; Page, N.J.; Peterson, J.A.; Singer, D.A.; Whittington, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in southern Oregon and northern California was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Medford 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  1. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Hawaii. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Hawaii is vested in the Public Utilities Commission. The Commission is composed of three members appointed by the Governor. Commissioners serve for six year terms, must be independent of the companies they regulate and must not possess or acquire an interest in any public utility. The regulatory authority of the Commission preempts that of any other state agency. Local governments have no authority over public utilities. Chapter 196 of the Hawaii statutes establishes the position of the Energy Resources Coordinator; the role of the coordinator, however, is merely to develop, review, and recommend programs for the optimum development of Hawaii's energy resources. The Commission has jurisdiction over all public utilities located in the state. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. [Practical study for seminar program certified by Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists for Clinical Psychiatric Pharmacists organized by Chiba Society of Hospital Pharmacists, and investigation of participants' background and issues for taking board certified psychiatric pharmacy specialists and board certified pharmacists in psychiatric pharmacy certifications using questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Tsukiji, Mariko; Furuyama, Hikaru; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Ishida, Keiko; Matsuda, Kimiko; Fukuda, Keiko; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Recently, certification systems for Board-Certified Psychiatric Pharmacy Specialists (BCPPS) and Board-Certified Pharmacists in Psychiatric Pharmacy (BCPPP) were established by the Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists (JSHP) in 2008, to meet the increasing needs for specialists in psychiatric pharmacy. However, there was no report on the background and opinion of pharmacists who have intention to take the BCPPS or BCPPP and/or seminar programs for BCPPS or BCPPP. The Chiba Society of Hospital Pharmacists has started to provide a seminar program certified by the JSHP to study psychiatry for pharmacists and also investigated the participants' background, demand for the program, and issues in taking the BCPPS or BCPPP using questionnaires. We found that many participants wanted lectures to obtain information on issues they face in routine work as well as for certification testing. For many participants, satisfying the requirements for applying for the BCPPS or BCPPP was one of the most important issues in receiving the qualifications. We found that over 40% of participants working at community pharmacies intended to take the BCPPS or BCPPP, although working experience at a community pharmacy does not entitle them to apply for the BCPPS or BCPPP. The intention of community pharmacists indicates that discussion of the requirements for BCPPS or BCPPP certification systems is necessary to improve psychiatric community care. We will plan a practical seminar program with feedback from this investigation.

  4. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  5. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  6. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Silver City 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Houser, B.B.; Watts, K.C.; Klein, D.P.; Sharp, W.N.; Drewes, Harald; Hedlund, D.C.; Raines, G.L.; Hassemer, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Silver City 1 ? x 2 ? quadrangle, consisting of about 20,650 km2 in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, has been investigated by a multidisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. The results of this investigation are in a folio of 21 maps that contain detailed information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral deposits, and potential mineral resources of the quadrangle. This Circular provides background information on the various studies and integrates the component maps. It contains an extensive selected bibliography pertinent to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle. The quadrangle has produced more than $3.5 billion in mineral products since about 1850 and contains significant resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, iron, manganese-iron, zeolite minerals, and possibly tin and tungsten.

  7. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  8. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  9. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  10. Sent to Destroy: The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Regulates Cell Signaling and Protein Quality Control in Cardiovascular Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Monte S.; Townley-Tilson, W.H. Davin; Kang, Eunice Y.; Homeister, Jonathon W.; Patterson, Cam

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in biological processes integral to the development of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. The UPS prototypically recognizes specific protein substrates and places polyubiquitin chains on them for subsequent destruction by the proteasome. This system is in place to degrade not only misfolded and damaged proteins, but is essential also in regulating a host of cell signaling pathways involved in proliferation, adaptation to stress, regulation of cell size, and cell death. During the development of the cardiovascular system, the UPS regulates cell signaling by modifying transcription factors, receptors, and structural proteins. Later, in the event of cardiovascular diseases as diverse as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and ischemia reperfusion injury, ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome are implicated in protecting and exacerbating clinical outcomes. However, when misfolded and damaged proteins are ubiquitinated by the UPS, their destruction by the proteasome is not always possible due to their aggregated confirmations. Recent studies have discovered how these ubiquitinated misfolded proteins can be destroyed by alternative “specific” mechanisms. The cytosolic receptors p62, NBR, and HDAC6 recognize aggregated ubiquitinated proteins and target them for autophagy in the process of “selective autophagy”. Even the ubiquitination of multiple proteins within whole organelles that drive the more general macro-autophagy may be due, in part, to similar ubiquitin-driven mechanisms. In summary, the cross-talk between the UPS and autophagy highlight the pivotal and diverse roles the UPS plays in maintaining protein quality control and regulating cardiovascular development and disease. PMID:20167943

  11. Design of a PROTAC that antagonizes and destroys the cancer-forming X-protein of the hepatitis B virus

    SciTech Connect

    Montrose, Kristopher; Krissansen, Geoffrey W.

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • A novel proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule (PROTAC) to treat hepatitis B. • The PROTAC antagonizes and destroys the X-protein of the hepatitis B virus. • The PROTAC is a fusion of the X-protein oligomerization and instability domains. • The oligomerization domain is a dominant-negative inhibitor of X-protein function. • X-protein-targeting PROTACs have potential to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma. - Abstract: The X-protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is essential for virus infection and contributes to the development of HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a disease which causes more than one million deaths each year. Here we describe the design of a novel PROTAC (proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule) capable of simultaneously inducing the degradation of the X-protein, and antagonizing its function. The PROTAC was constructed by fusing the N-terminal oligomerization and C-terminal instability domains of the X-protein to each other, and rendering them cell-permeable by the inclusion of a polyarginine cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). It was predicted that the oligomerization domain would bind the X-protein, and that the instability domain would cause the X-protein to be targeted for proteasomal degradation. Addition of the PROTAC to HepG2 liver cancer cells, engineered to express full-length and C-terminally truncated forms of the X-protein, resulted in the degradation of both forms of the X-protein. A cell-permeable stand-alone form of the oligomerization domain was taken up by HepG2 cells, and acted as a dominant-negative inhibitor, causing inhibition of X-protein-induced apoptosis. In summary, the PROTAC described here induces the degradation of the X-protein, and antagonizes its function, and warrants investigation in a preclinical study for its ability to prevent or treat HBV infection and/or the development of HCC.

  12. The Eating Habits of Milky Way Mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    DOE PAGES

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ~ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ~ 108–1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108–109 M⊙),more » and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M⊙) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (<<1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (~2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M⊙ < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (~40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (~20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. In conclusion, we suggest that the MW could be a "transient fossil"; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.« less

  13. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  14. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3π muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  15. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorovits, B.; Abt, I.; Laubenstein, M.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10 -5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  16. 14 CFR 91.1051 - Pilot safety background check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot safety background check. 91.1051... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1051 Pilot safety background check. Within 90 days of an...

  17. University Student Access and Success. Go8 Backgrounder 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Group of Eight (Go8) universities currently provide a wide range of services and programs to facilitate access and support for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. However, Go8 Vice-Chancellors have also agreed to develop jointly a coordinated equity strategy to increase the participation and success of students from disadvantaged backgrounds.…

  18. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Florida. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Florida Public Service Commission. The Commission is comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the approval of the senate. The governor must choose his appointees from a list of persons recommended by the nine-person Florida Public Service Commission Nominating Council. Commissioners serve either three- or four-year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any utility subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supersedes that of local governments. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  19. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Tennessee. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Tennessee Public Service Commission has been designated by the legislature as the agency primarily responsible for the regulation of public utilities and carriers. The Commission is comprised of three members elected by the voters of the state. Each member of the Commission serves a six-year term. The Commission is given broad supervisory control over public utilities in the public utilities statute. Included under its authority is the power to determine whether a privilege or franchise granted to a public utility by a municipality is necessary and proper for the public convenience. No privilege or franchise is valid until it has been approved by the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  20. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Wyoming. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested in the Wyoming Public Service Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the state senate. Each member of the Commission serves a six-year term and no more than two members may be from the same political party. The Commission has exclusive regulatory authority over public utilities. The statutory definition of public utility, however, does not include municipally-owned and operated utility systems to the extent they provide services within the municipality. Such utilities are regulated locally. The Commission reviews no documentation of rates or services of municipallyy-owned systems. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  1. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Virginia. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilties is vested generally in the State Corporation Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members elected by a joint vote of the two houses of the general assembly. Commissioners serve six-year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any company subject to the supervision and regulation of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the primary responsibility of supervising and regulating public utilities. However, local governments retain the power to grant franchises and otherwise regulate the use of streets and other public property. In addition, municipally-owned utilities are not within the jurisdiction of the Commission to the extent that they operate within corporate limits. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Utah. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Utah Public Service Commission comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the consent of the State Senate. Commission members are appointed for six-year terms and must be free from employment and pecuniary interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the general supervision of public utilities, but its authority does not extend to municipally-owned utilities. Local governments are forbidden from exercising any regulatory powers over public utilities unless the utility is municipally-owned. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in West Virginia. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the West Virginia Public Service Commission, comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the state senate. Commissioners are appointed for six year terms. They must be free from any pecuniary or employment interest in public utilities. The Commission possesses the exclusive authority to regulate public utilities. While local governments retain the power to control the use of their streets and to grant franchises to public utilities, they cannot use this power to infringe on the exercise of regulatory power by the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  4. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Indiana. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Public Service Commission of Indiana. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor. Commissioners are appointed for four-year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interest in any public utility. Indiana courts have stated that the Commission was created and vested with regulatory authority over public utilities in order to relieve these utilities from local regulation. Local governments do, however, have specific statutory authority to determine, by contract or ordinance, the quality and character of service to be provided by public utilities within the municipality. Local governments may also regulate the use of streets and other public property by public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  5. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Missouri. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Missouri is vested in the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for a term of six years. Commissioners must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the general supervision of public utilities. The Public Service Commission Law passed in 1913, makes no provision for the regulation of public utilities by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  6. Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-09

    Background1 The JLTV is an Army- led , multi-service initiative to develop a family of future light tactical vehicles to replace many of the HMMWVs used...Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress Andrew Feickert Specialist in Military Ground Forces March 9, 2015...SUBTITLE Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-21

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL31872 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background...00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and

  8. Analysis of the XRS background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Cottam, J.; Fujimoto, R.; Furusho, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.

    2005-01-01

    Background counts on the XRS Calorimeter spectrometer of Astro-E2 have several sources, including primary cosmic rays and secondary particles interacting with the pixels and with the silicon structure of the array. After rejecting events coincident between pixels or between a pixel and the anti-coincidence detector behind the calorimeter array, the residual background on the ground in the 0.1 - 10 keV band is 1e-3 counts/s (8e-3 counts/s/sq cm). We will present the details of the ground background events and the rejection criteria required lo remove them while minimizing deadtime. We will also present preliminary analysis of the in-orbit background.

  9. Greater need for background checks.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1999-11-01

    The push is on for a more uniform system of background checks for health care employees. Studies and crimes against patients have prompted regulation by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), state governments, hospitals, and Congress.

  10. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Arkansas. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Arkansas state constitution contains no provision dealing with public utility regulation. Title 73 of the Arkansas Statutes specifically provides for the regulation of public utilities. The Arkansas Public Service Commission is established by statute as a subagency of the Department of Commerce and is responsible for regulating electric, steam heating, and certain other kinds of utilities. The Commission consists of three members, each appointed by the governor with the approval of the Senate for a term of six years. The Commission has authority over all matters pertaining to the regulation and operation of gas companies, electric companies, and hydro-electric companies among other utilities enumerated in the statute. The role of local governments in the regulation of public utilities has been reduced by recent legislation. Municipal councils formerly had the power to regulate rate-making for investor owned utilities operating within their boundaries. However, as a result of 1977 amendments to the Public Utilities Act, ratemaking for privately owned electric, gas, telephone, and sewer utilities is now within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Public Service Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  11. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New Mexico. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the New Mexico Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of three members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commission members, who are to be competent persons and qualified electors of (New Mexico), are appointed for six year terms. They must be free from any pecuniary or employment interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission possesses the exclusive power to regulate public utilities. The Commission, however, exercises no authority over utilities owned by municipal corporations or H class counties (counties under 54 square miles in area) unless the general electorate of the municipality or county elects to bring such utilities within the jurisdiction of the Commission. Municipalities may establish by contract, rates between the municipality and investor-owned utilities. Such contracts are limited to 25 years in duration and are subject to Commission approval. There is no specific procedure for review of local decisions regarding municipally-owned utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  12. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maryland. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Maryland is vested in the Public Service Commission under the authority of the Public Service Commission Law. The Commission consists of five commissioners who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Commissioners must be or become citizens of Maryland, at least three are to serve full time, and one of the commissioners is to be nominated as chairman. The tenure of each commissioner is six years and their terms are on a staggered schedule. Commissioners are eligible for reappointment. The Public Service Commission Law provides that the Commission's powers an jurisdiction shall extend to the full extent permitted by the Constitution and laws of the United States. Local governments in Maryland are not given regulatory power over public service companies. The only power that local governments have over the operations of utilities is the power to grant franchises. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  13. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in California. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Constitution of the State of California grants to the Legislature control over persons and private corporations that own or operate a line, plant, or system for the production, generation, or transmission of heat, light, water, or power to be furnished either directly or indirectly to or for the public. The Constitution establishes the Public Utilities Commission and grants certain specific powers to the PUC, including the power to fix rates, establish rules and prescribe a uniform system of accounts. The Constitution also recognizes that the Legislature has plenary power to confer additional authority and jurisdiction upon the PUC. The Constitution prohibits regulation by a city, county, or other municipal body of matters over which the Legislature has granted regulatory power to the PUC. This provision does not, however, impair the right of any city to grant franchises for public utilities. The California legislature has enacted the California Public Utilities Code and has designated the PUC as the agency to implement the regulatory provisions of the Code. The Public Utilities Commission consists of five members appointed by the governor and approved by the senate, a majority of the membership concurring, for staggered 6-year terms. Certain limited powers over the conduct of public utilities may still be exercised by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Pennsylvania. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is generally vested in the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission. The Commission is comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the senate. Commission members are appointed for 10 year terms. They must be free from any employment which is incompatible with the duties of the Commission, and are subject to a statutory code of ethics. The Commission is charged with responsibility for enforcing the Public Utility Law. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supersedes that of local governments. The Commission, for example, may grant exemptions from local zoning requirements, and has approving authority over privileges or franchises granted by municipalities to public utilities. The Commission, however, has no authority over municipally owned utilities operating within municipal boundaries. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  15. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Washington. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Washinton State Constitution grants authority to the legislature to regulate railroads and other common carriers as well as telegraph and telephone companies in the state. No section of the constitution expressly provides for the regulation of electric, gas, water, or heating utilities. The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Utilities and Transportation Commission, formerly designated at the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of three members appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate. The term of office for commissioners is six years. Recently enacted legislation provides for the implementation of tax incentives to encourage the development of cogeneration facilities in the state. This plan is to be administered by the Department of Revenue in conjunction with the Energy Office. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  16. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New Jersey. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate the operations of public utilities in New Jersey is generally vested in the Board of Public Utilities. The Board is subsumed within the Department of Energy for administrative purposes, but functions largely independently of supervision or control by that agency. The Board is composed of three members who serve for six-year terms. They are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Board supersedes that of local governments. The Board, for example, may grant exemptions from local zoning provisions, and has approving authority over privileges or franchises granted by municipalities to public utilities. The Board, however, cannot override the refusal of a municipality to grant consent to the initiation of operations by a public utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  17. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in South Dakota. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The South Dakota Public Utilities Commission is authorized by statute to regulate gas and electric utilities. The Commission consists of three elected commissioners each of whom serves for a six year term. The Commissioners are elected by district and each must, at the time of election, be a resident of the district from which he has been elected. Each Commissioner must reside in the state capital and devote his entire time to the duties of his office. The Commission is part of the Department of Commerce and Consumer Protection. Municipal power to regulate privately owned electric and gas public utilities was terminated in 1975. A municipally-owned electric utility has the authority to regulate the sale, use, and rates of electric power and energy which it provides. The Commission has no authority to regulate steam, heat, and refrigeration systems; that power resides in cities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  18. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Ohio. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Public Utilities Commission (PUCO) is a body created by the Ohio State legislature to administer the provisions of the Ohio Public Utilities Act. It is composed of three commissioners appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Once appointed, a commissioner serves for a six-year period. The PUCO is vested with the power and jurisdiction to supervise and regulate public utilities and railroads... . The term public utility includes every corporation, company, co-partnership, person or association, their lessees, trustees, or receivers, as defined in the Ohio Code. Among the various services enumerated in the Code under the definition of public utility are an electric light company; a gas company; a pipeline company transporting gas, oil or coal; a waterworks company; a heating or cooling company. The power to regulate public utilities is shared by the PUCO and municipal governments. The municipal regulatory authority is derived from the Ohio Constitution, statutory provisions, and municipal franchising authority. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  19. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Iowa. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Iowa State Commerce Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the approval of two-thirds of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for six-year terms. They must be free from employment or pecuniary interests in any public utility. Although the right to grant franchises is specifically reserved for municipalities, local governments exercise no regulatory authority over the provision of utility services by public utilities. Municipally-owned utilities, however, are specifically excepted from rate regulation by the Commission. The regulation of rates charged by municipally-owned utilities is the responsibility of local governments. The Commission is given no authority to review decisions of local governments with respect to rates. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  20. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Minnesota. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Minnesota Public Service Commission (PSC) in the Department of Public Service is authorized by statute to regulate public utilities. The PSC consists of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate to terms running for six years. Not more than three commissioners are to belong to the same political party. The commissioners are not to derive any significant portion of their income directly or indirectly from any public utility. Municipalities also have a limited role in the regulation of public utilities. If the municipality controls the exercise of a public utility franchise, it is authorized to assist the PSC as amicus curiae in proceedings with respect to the rates, fares, prices, regulation, or control of a utility operating in the municipality. Municipal utilities are exempt from regulation by the PSC because municipal utilities are presently effectively regulated by the residents of the municipalities which own and operate them. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  1. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Louisiana. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Louisiana Public Service Commission, composed of five members elected by the general electorate and elected for six-year terms. The Commission is charged with regulating all public utilities and has such other regulatory authority as provided by law. The Commission, however, has no power to regulate a public utility owned, operated, or regulated on the effective data of this constitution (1921) by the governing authority of one or more political subdivisions unless the Commission is authorized to regulate these utilities by the electorate of the political subdivision involved. An additional statutory provision excludes all municipally-owned public utilities from Commission regulation. New Orleans has retained the regulatory authority which it held as of the effective date of the Louisiana Constitution. Therefore, the Commission exercises no regulatory powers over investor or municipally-owned utilities in New Orleans. A municipality is empowered to own and operate a revenue-producing public utility within or without its boundaries and it may sell and distribute the commodity or service of the public utility within or without its corporate limits and may establish rates, rules, and regulations with respect to the sale and distribution. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Carolina. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Under the Public Utilities Act of 1965, utilities in North Carolina are regulated by the State's Utility Commission. The Commission consists of seven members who are appointed by the governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly sitting in joint session. The Commissioners serve eight year terms and the governor designates one of the commissioners as chairman. The Commission has an office of the executive director, who is appointed to a six year term by the governor subject to confirmaion by the General Assembly. The executive director heads the Commission's public staff. The public staff's duties include reviewing, investigating, and making recommendations on utility rates and services and intervention on behalf of the public in proceedings affecting consumer rates and generating plant certification. The Commission has the same power to regulate the operation of privately-owned public utilities within municipalities as it has to control those ouside. The only power over privately-owned utilities reserved to the municipalities is the power to grant franchises. A municipality may maintain its own utility systems, and such systems are not subject to the control and jurisdiction of the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Oklahoma. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Oklahoma Corporation Commission was created by the state constitution, for the purpose of regulating transportation and transmission companies. The Constitution also provides that the Commission may be vested with such additional powers, and charged with such other duties (not inconsistent with this Constitution). Pursuant to this power to regulate the legislature has given the Commission the power to regulate certain public utilities, including electric, gas, and steam. The Commission is composed of three members who are elected to staggered, six-year terms. A commissioner may not have any interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the general supervision of public utilities. Local governments have no role in the regulation of public utilities although municipalities do have the power to grant franchises. The constitution allows the legislature to pass laws giving cities, towns, and counties the right to regulate the rates and services of their franchises operating within the boundaries of the city, town, or county, although there are no such laws in effect at the present time. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  4. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Georgia. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members elected to six-year terms by the general electorate. Commissioners must be free of employment or pecuniary interests which are incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is the only agency that may exert regulatory control over public utilities. The legislature has delegated no regulatory authority to local government. Except for the powers incident to granting a franchise and its normal police powers, municipal corporations do not have any role in the supervision of public utilities. The Commission's general supervisory authority does not extend to public utilities owned or operated by municipal corporations. The jurisdiction of the Commission extends to several specific public utilities, including gas or electric light and power companies. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  5. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Rhode Island. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Rhode Island statutes vest in the Public Utility Commission and the Division of Public Utilities the exclusive power and authority to regulate public utility companies in that state. Both bodies have been established within the Department of Business Regulation but are independent of the Department's director and are not under his jurisdiction. The jurisdiction to regulate utilities is shared by the Commission and the Division. The Commission serves as a quasi-judicial tribunal with jurisdiction, powers, and duties to hold investigations and hearings involving rates, sufficiency and resonableness of facilities, gas, electric, water, and pipeline public utilities. The administrator, who is chief executive officer of the Division, is responsible for exercising the jurisdiction, supervision, powers, and duties not specifically assigned to the Commission. By virtue of his office, the chairman of the Commission serves also as the administrator and he supervises and directs the execution of all laws relating to public utilities and carriers and all regulations and orders of the Commission governing the conduct and charges of public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Nevada. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate the operatons of public utilities in Nevada is vested generally in the Public Service Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor to four year terms. One of the members is designated by the governor to act as chairman and serves in that capacity at the pleasure of the governor. Commissioners must be free from employment or pecuniary interests which are incompatible with the duties of the Commission. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supercedes that of local governments. Local governments play a role in regulating public utilities only through the exercise of their zoning and franchising powers. In addition, municipally-owned utilities are totally exempt from Commission control. No specific procedure is provided by which the decisions of local governments regarding utilities may be reviewed by the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Texas. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Texas is generally vested in the Public Utilities Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor, with the advice of at least two-thirds of the senate, for a six-year term. Prior to the passage of the Texas Public Utility Regulatory Act (PURA) in 1975, the power to regulate public utilities was vested almost exclusively in municipalities. Under PURA, municipalities retain exclusive original jurisdiction over all electric, water, and sewer utilities within the municipality. PURA provides that all regulations pertaining to public utilities promulgated by local regulatory agencies remain in effect unless they are superceded by Commission rules. The municipality's governing body is required to exercise its regulatory authority under rules and standards consistent with those promulgated by the Commission. The Commission has exclusive appellate jurisdiction to review orders and ordinances of regulatory municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  8. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Nebraska. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The state agency with principal authority to regulate electric public utilities is the Power Review Board (Board). However, the Board in fact, exercised little regulatory authority over heat and power utilities because all electrical power in Nebraska is currently supplied by public authorities and is not subject to regulation by the Board. Gas and water utilities are also subject to general supervision by municipalities. The Board is compised of five members - an attorney, an engineer, one accountant, two lay - persons appointed by the governor and confirmed by the legislature. All members are appointed to overlapping four-year terms, and none may serve more than two consecutive terms. Decisions by the Board require the approval of a majority of its members. The Public Service Commission of Nebraska is a constitutionally created body. Its powers and duties include the regulation of rates, service, and general control of common carriers as the legislature may provide by law. Other state agencies also possess limited regulatory jurisdiction which may be relevant to an energy facility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  9. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Dakota. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is a constitutional body responsible for the regulation of all public utilities. The PSC is composed of three elected commissioners who serve for six year terms. Section 83 of the state's Constitution gives the legislature the power to prescribe the powers and duties of the PCS. Pursuant to this authorization, the legislature adopted Title 49 of the North Dakota Century Code prescribing the jurisdiction as well as the powers and duties of the PSC. It also prescribes various rules and regulations pertaining to electric, gas, and other public utilities. All authority over public utilities is vested in the PSC. Local governments, except for the powers inherent in their franchising and zoning authority, are not given any control over utility regulation. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  10. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Illinois. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Illinois Commerce Commission, comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate and appointed for five year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any business subject to regulation by the Commission. Local governments may exercise a large degree of regulatory authority over public utilities providing services within a municipality. The question of whether a municipality will exercise regulatory control over local public utilities must be put to the voters of the city. If the proposition is approved by a majority of the voters, the municipality may regulate services and rates and exercise most of the regulatory functions otherwise assigned to the Commission. If any public utility is dissatisfied with any action of a municipality, the utility is entitled to apply to the Commission for review of the action. On review, the Commission may take any determination which it deems just and reasonable. In addition, municipally-owned utilities are excluded specifically from the definition of public utility. These utilities are not within the jurisdiction of the Commission and are regulated locally. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  11. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in South Carolina. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Pursuant to constitutional South Carolina mandate the General Assembly has created the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of seven members elected to four year terms by the General Assembly. One commissioner is elected from each of seven districts corresponding to the congressional districts as they existed as of January 1, 1930. The commissioners elect one of their members as chairman. The South Carolina statutes contain separate chapters dealing with the regulation of public utilities and electric utilities. Public utility includes the furnishing of gas or heat (other than by means of electricity) to the public. While the Commission is granted general supervisory and regulatory powers over public utilities and electric utilities, total governments retain some control over electrical utilities. All municipality's have the power to grant exclusive franchises to such utilities for the furnishing of light to the municipality and its inhabitants. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  12. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Kentucky. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Until April 1, 1979, the Public Service Commission had been vested with exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of rates and service of utilities. As of that date two new agencies, the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) and the Utility Regulatory Commission (URC), have replaced the Public Service Commission. The ERC consists of three full-time members appointed by the governor for four year terms and is responsible for enforcing the provisions of the Kentucky statutes relating to electric and gas utilities. The three-member URC is responsible for enforcing the provisions relating to non-energy utilities such as telephone, sewer, and water utilities. The statutes vest all regulatory authority over public utilities in either the ERC or the URC. Local governments retain only the power to grant local franchises. However, it should be noted, that any utility owned or operated by a political subdivision of the state is exempt from regulation. Thus, local government has complete authority over utilities which are self-owned. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  13. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Michigan. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Michigan Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of three members appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commission members are appointed for six-year terms. They must be free from pecuniary and employment interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is vested with complete power and jurisdiction to regulate all public utilities in the state except any municipally-owned utility. The Commission may not change any rates fixed in or regulated by a franchise granted by a municipality. Upon submission to the Commission by the municipality and the public utility operating in the municipality, the Commission may investigate and fix rates and establish rules and conditions of service. The jurisdiction of the Commission extends to all public utilities except municipally-owned utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Kansas. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Kansas legislature has created the State Corporation Commission and given the Commission full power, authority, and jurisdiction to supervise and control public utilities. The Commission is empowered to do all things necessary and convenient for the exercise of such power, authority and jurisdiction. The Commission is composed of three members, appointed by the governor by and with the consent of the senate. The Commissioners' appointment is for a four year term. The Commission elects one of its members as chairperson. The Kansas statutes provides that the power and authority to control and regulate all public utilities and common carriers situated and operated wholly or principally within any city or principally operated for the benefit of such city or its people, shall be vested exclusively in such city. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  15. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Idaho. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Idaho state legislature has created the Idaho Public Utilities Commission and has given the Commission the power and jurisdiction to supervise and regulate every public utility in the state. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the approval of the senate. Commissioners serve full time and are appointed for six year terms. No more than two of the members may be from the same political party. Title 61 of the Idaho Code, which establishes the Commission and delineates its powers, vests all regulatory responsibility in the Commission to the exclusion of local government. However, as an incident to their franchising power, municipalities may impose reasonable regulations on the use of their streets. The Idaho Supreme Court holds that the transfer of regulatory power over public utilities to the Commission did not diminish the powers and duties of municipalities to control and maintain their streets and alleys. Limited statutory authority also exists giving municipalities the power to regulate the fares, rates, rentals, or charges made for the service rendered under any franchise granted in such city, except such as are subject to regulation by the Public Utilities Commission. With the exception of this limited power, the Commission is the sole agency having regulatory power over Idaho public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  16. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Massachusetts. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Department of Public Utilities. The Department is under the supervision and control of a commission consisting of three members appointed by the governor for terms of four years. No more than two of the commissioners may be members of the same political party. Commissioners must be freee from any employment or financial interests which are incompatible with the duties of the Department. The Department is responsible for regulating public utilities. The Department is specifically granted general supervisory authority over all gas and electric companies. Specific provisions for the appeal of local decisions exist only in the case of a municipality's approval or disapproval of new operaions by an electric or gas company in a municipality already being served by another such utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  17. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New York. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the New York Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for six-year terms. Commissioners may not have any pecuniary or financial interest in any public utility. Local governing bodies are authorized to exercise such power, jurisdiction and authority in enforcing the laws of the state and the orders, rules, and regulations of the commission as may be prescribed by statute or by the commission with respect to public utilities. A Commission spokesman confirmed that no statutes have been passed pursuant to this provision and the Commission has not ceded any of its regulatory powers to local governments. With the exception of the granting of franchises and permits to use public ways, local governments exercise no regulatory powers over public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  18. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Mississippi. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Mississippi is vested generally in the Public Service Commission, composed of three members elected for four year terms from separate districts of the state. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supersedes that of local governments. It is empowered to amend municipal franchises that contain provisions conflicting with its exclusive jurisdiction over the rates and standards of service of public utilities. Local governments play a role in regulating public utilities only through the exercise of their zoning and franchising powers. They may also operate their own utilities which are totally exempt from Commission control, unless they provide services more than one mile beyond their corporate boundaries. Other than a procedure in which certain provisions in municipal franchises may be subject to modification by the Commission, there is no process by which the decisions of local government respecting utilities are reviewed by the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  19. The Eating Habits of Milky Way Mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ~ 1012.1 M) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ~ 108–1010M. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108–109 M), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (<<1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (~2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (~40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M can contribute a considerable fraction (~20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. In conclusion, we suggest that the MW could be a "transient fossil"; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  20. THE EATING HABITS OF MILKY WAY-MASS HALOS: DESTROYED DWARF SATELLITES AND THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-10

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (M{sub vir} ∼ 10{sup 12.1} M{sub ⊙}) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with M{sub star} ∼ 10{sup 8}–10{sup 10}M{sub ⊙}. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (M{sub star} < 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (∼2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −2. Dwarfs with masses 10{sup 5} < M{sub star}/M{sub ⊙} < 10{sup 8} provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (∼40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with M{sub star} > 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙} can contribute a considerable fraction (∼20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil”; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  1. Effectiveness of two cooking systems in destroying Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, E M; Harrison, M A; Williams, S E; Broccoli, M H

    2000-07-01

    A rapid, high-temperature double-sided grilling-broiling (DGB) system was compared to a single-sided broiling (SSB) system for cooking of foodservice ground beef patties to reduce microbial numbers and maintain textural quality. Patties (110 g) containing either Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Listeria monocytogenes (10(6-7) CFU/g) were cooked to target internal temperatures of 60 or 68 degrees C on each cooking system and immediately removed from the grills without the additional holding time at 60 or 68 degrees C that is recommended for foodservice cooking of ground beef patties. Actual final internal temperature attained, position on the grill, degree of doneness, cooking time, after-cook weight, texture characteristics, and bacterial counts of the patties were monitored. The DGB reduced E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes populations in ground beef patties by 5.7 log10 and 5.4 log10 CFU/g, respectively, when cooked to a target temperature of 60 degrees C (actual final internal temperature of 71.2 degrees C) and by 6.1 log10 and 5.6 log10 CFU/g, respectively, when cooked to a target temperature of 68 degrees C (actual final internal temperature of 75.8 degree C). The SSB reduced E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes populations by 1.3 log10 and 1.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively, when cooked to a target temperature of 60 degrees C (actual final internal temperature of 62.7 degrees C) and by 2.9 log10 and 3.6 log10 CFU/g, respectively, when cooked to a target temperature of 68 degrees C (actual final internal temperature of 69.3 degrees C). The DGB system effected a higher, more rapid temperature increase in patties cooked to either target temperature compared to the SSB system. This higher temperature was more effective in destroying pathogens in beef patties. Texture analyses determined that patties cooked on the DGB system had significantly higher values for springiness, adhesiveness, and product height as compared to the SSB system, and patties cooked on either system

  2. Ion Beam Scattering by Background Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillet, Anne; Hughes, Thomas; Boerner, Jeremiah

    2015-11-01

    The presence of background gases can cause charged particle beams to become more diffuse due to scattering. Calculations for the transport of an ion beam have been performed using Aleph, a particle-in-cell plasma modeling code, and verified against a general envelop equation for charged particle beams. We have investigated the influence of background helium on the coherence and transmitted current of the ion beam. Collisions between ions and neutral particles were calculated assuming isotropic elastic scattering. Since this tends to predict larger scattering angles than are expected at high energies, these are conservative estimates for beam scattering. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

  3. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  4. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  5. Background simulations and shielding calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2011-04-01

    Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

  6. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  7. Background music and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  8. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  9. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  10. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  11. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  12. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  13. The cosmic infrared background experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2006-03-01

    The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 μm, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z ˜ 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7″ to 2°, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100× fainter than IRTS/DIRBE, with sufficient resolution to remove local-galaxy correlations. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near

  14. Ambient Background Particulate Compositiion Outdoor Natural Background: Interferents/Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    the biological warfare detection world), you must conduct long term ( seasonally ) particulate monitoring. Anecdotal short term monitoring attempts...particulates (interferents or clutter) in the lower atmosphere at four locations along a transect in the UK for 2 years. In addition, seasonal , diurnal...CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND 9 2. UK AEROSOL BIODIVERSITY STUDY-2 YEARS, FOUR LOCATIONS. FOUR SEASONS 10 3. DoD SPONSORED ANAL YSIS OF UK

  15. WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

  16. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  17. Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. PMID:25565705

  18. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  19. Contract Education: A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    Today contract education is generally thought of as a program or course for which an employer is paying the full cost of instruction for customized training. Contract education can help faculty remain current, encourage industry to make equipment available to the college that might otherwise be too expensive, and provide employment opportunities…

  20. Community College Leadership Programs, May 1987. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Carol; And Others

    This paper provides a wide range of information related to leadership and development needs in the California community colleges. First, a summary is presented of five studies or activities concerned with community college leadership, including: (1) the work of the Commission for the Review of the Master Plan for Higher Education; (2) the…

  1. Transitional Jobs: Background, Program Models, and Evaluation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The budget for the U.S. Department of Labor for Fiscal Year 2010 includes a total of $45 million to support and study transitional jobs. This paper describes the origins of the transitional jobs models that are operating today, reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of this approach and other subsidized employment models, and offers some…

  2. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-12

    of the primary, another system injects “boost gas” — a mixture of deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) gases — into the pit before the...nuclear weapons plant, is not involved in the POG because it does not design warhead components; its role is to supply tritium for warheads. 62 U.S...nonnuclear components; Savannah River Site (SC), which processes tritium from stockpiled weapons to remove decay products; Pantex Plant (TX), which assembles

  3. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-19

    boosting the yield of the primary, another system injects “boost gas” — a mixture of deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) gases — into the pit...River Site, another nuclear weapons plant, is not involved in the POG because it does not design warhead components; its role is to supply tritium for...many of the nonnuclear components; Savannah River Site (SC), which processes tritium from stockpiled weapons to remove decay products; Pantex Plant (TX

  4. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-28

    gas” — a mixture of deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) gases — into the pit before the explosive is detonated. The intense heat and pressure...POG because it does not design warhead components; its role is to supply tritium for warheads. 60 U.S. Department of Energy. National Nuclear Security...which processes tritium from stockpiled weapons to remove decay products; Pantex Plant (TX), which assembles and disassembles nuclear weapons; and the

  5. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-23

    yield of the primary, another system injects “boost gas” — a mixture of deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) gases — into the pit before the...Savannah River Site, another nuclear weapons plant, is not involved in the POG because it does not design warhead components; its role is to supply tritium ...nonnuclear components; Savannah River Site (SC), which processes tritium from stockpiled weapons to remove decay products; Pantex Plant (TX), which

  6. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-18

    deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) gases — into the pit before the explosive is detonated. The intense heat and pressure of the fission chain...warhead components; its role is to supply tritium for warheads. 56 U.S. Department of Energy. National Nuclear Security Administration. “Nuclear Weapons...components and secondaries; Kansas City Plant (MO), CRS-49 which produces many of the nonnuclear components; Savannah River Site (SC), which processes tritium

  7. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-08

    Research Service, The Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave, SE,Washington,DC,20540- 7050 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...subject to corrosion . Plastic-bonded high explosives and other plastics tend to decompose over extended periods of time.... portions of materials can...noted that nuclear weapons engineering has benefitted from a quarter century of experience in dealing with corrosion , deterioration, and creep since the

  8. Background and History of the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Donald B.; Shulha, Lyn M.; Caruthers, Flora

    2004-01-01

    It is generally thought that evaluation originated with the civil service exams that were administered in ancient China. However, modern evaluation and, of particular importance to this article, evaluation standards, originated in the United States. Why this occurred is part of a larger question about the development of social and educational…

  9. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    111-212).7 In a letter , Office of Management and Budget Director Jacob Lew stated that “DoD would be expected to continue funding activities on a pro...discussion. 8 Letter from Jacob J. Lew, Director, Office of Management and Budget, to Senator Sherrod Brown, December 21, 2010. 9 Tony Capaccio...2009, pp. 1-2. See also Antonie Boessenkool, “Pratt & Whitney’s Costs Parts-Reject Rate Too High: JSF Official,” (continued...) F-35 Alternate Engine

  10. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-10

    the FY2010 Supplemental (P.L. 111-212).8 In a letter , Office of Management and Budget Director Jacob Lew stated that “DoD would be expected to...U.S. Defense Policy and Budget, for this discussion. 9 Letter from Jacob J. Lew, Director, Office of Management and Budget, to Senator Sherrod Brown...Report, July 29, 2009, pp. 1-2. See also Antonie Boessenkool, “Pratt & Whitney’s Costs Parts-Reject Rate Too High: JSF Official,” Defense News, August 3

  11. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-10

    In a letter , Office of Management and Budget Director Jacob Lew stated that “DoD would be expected to continue funding activities on a pro-rata...in U.S. Defense Policy and Budget, for this discussion. 10 Letter from Jacob J. Lew, Director, Office of Management and Budget, to Senator Sherrod...2010. 17 Graham Warwick, “Navy Backs Single JSF Engine As F-35C Rolls Out,” Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, July 29, 2009, pp. 1-2. See also Antonie

  12. Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-02

    The program involved modifying the SM-2 Block IV air-defense missile. The missile, as modified, was called the Block IVA version. The system was...designed to intercept descending missiles endo-atmospherically (i.e., within the atmosphere) and destroy them with the Block IVA missile’s blast...with the SBX radar in Texas.40 SBX underwent sea trials and high-power radiation testing in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005. It was then moved by a heavy

  13. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  14. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  15. [Biometric ranging of the corpses destroyed at the site of a catastrophe in terms of gender, longitudinal and circumferencial dimensions, and the degree of subcutaneous fat distribution].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Galitskaia, O I; Negasheva, M A

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative criteria for biometric ranging of destroyed corpses in terms of anatomical localization, gender, longitudinal length, trunk circumference, and the folds of subcutaneous fat are proposed. The wealth of anthropometric materials obtained in the studies of various Caucasoid populations was used to calculate the normative tables for biometric ranging of the decomposed corpses. The proposed technology excludes the subjective assessments for the purpose of such classification at the sites of catastrophes. Moreover, it promotes the accumulation of the variety of valuable information, such as the size of the collar, headwear, and footwear, clothing size and height, and portrait features, that can be used for victim identification.

  16. Low background techniques applied in the BOREXINO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzel, G.

    2015-08-17

    The BOREXINO detector, located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, has been designed for real-time spectroscopy of low-energy solar neutrinos. Within the experiment several novel background reduction and assay techniques have been established. In many cases they are still the most sensitive world-wide. Developed methods and apparatus provided tools for a strict quality control program during the construction phase of the BOREXINO detector, which was the key to meet the background requirements. Achievement of extremely low background rate opened the possibility to probe in realtime almost entire spectrum of the solar neutrinos.

  17. Issues and progress in determining background ozone and particle concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ambient ozone is associated with a variety of health outcomes ranging from mild breathing discomfort to mortality. For the purpose of health risk and policy assessments EPA evaluates the anthropogenic increase in ozone above background concentrations and has defined the North American (NA) background concentration of O3 as that which would occur in the U.S. in the absence of anthropogenic emissions of precursors in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Monthly average NA background ozone has been used to evaluate health risks, but EPA and state air quality managers must also estimate day specific ozone background levels for high ozone episodes as part of urban scale photochemical modeling efforts to support ozone regulatory programs. The background concentration of O3 is of more concern than other air pollutants because it typically represents a much larger fraction of observed O3 than do the backgrounds of other criteria pollutants (particulate matter (PM), CO, NO2, SO2). NA background cannot be determined directly from ambient monitoring data because of the influence of NA precursor emissions on formation of ozone within NA. Instead, estimates of NA background O3 have been based on GEOS-Chem using simulations in which NA anthropogenic precursor emissions are zeroed out. Thus, modeled NA background O3 includes contributions from natural sources of precursors (including CH4, NMVOCs, NOx, and CO) everywhere in the world, anthropogenic sources of precursors outside of NA, and downward transport of O3 from the stratosphere. Although monitoring data cannot determine NA background directly, measurements by satellites, aircraft, ozonesondes and surface monitors have proved to be highly useful for identifying sources of background O3 and for evaluating the performance of the GEOS-Chem model. Model simulated NA background concentrations are strong functions of location and season with large inter-day variability and with values increasing with elevation and higher in

  18. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  19. Background illumination and automated perimetry.

    PubMed

    Klewin, K M; Radius, R L

    1986-03-01

    Visual field function in the right and left eyes of 31 normal volunteers was evaluated with an automated projection perimeter (OCTOPUS). Serial visual field evaluations were repeated in these same eyes with neutral filters of increasing optical density. We compared the results of threshold determinations with the different neutral filters in place before the examined eye. Significant reduction in threshold sensitivity at several test spots throughout the central 30 degrees visual field was seen with neutral density filters of 0.5 log units or greater. The low level of background illumination of the OCTOPUS perimeter (4.0 apostilbs) may allow relatively minor reduction in light transmission by the ocular media to produce significant changes in the recorded level of threshold sensitivity during visual field evaluation.

  20. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  1. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  2. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Post-Testicular Sperm Maturation: Centriole Pairs, Found in Upper Epididymis, are Destroyed Prior to Sperm’s Release at Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Simerly, C.; Castro, C.; Hartnett, C.; Lin, C. C.; Sukhwani, M.; Orwig, K.; Schatten, G.

    2016-01-01

    The fertilizing sperm’s lengthiest unchartered voyage is through the longest, least-investigated organ in a man’s body – the Epididymis. Over six meters long in men, ~80 meters in stallions and over one-hundred times a mouse’s body length, there are few functions known aside from sperm storage and nutrition. While spermatogenesis is completed in the testes, here we demonstrate sperm centriole reduction occurs within the epididymis. Investigations of GFP-CENTR mice and controls demonstrate both the presence of centriole pairs in the upper caput region of the epididymis and, the destruction, first, of the distal and, then, of the proximal centriole as the sperm transits to the cauda and vas deferens in preparation for its climactic release. These centrioles can neither recruit γ-tubulin nor nucleate microtubules when eggs are inseminated or microinjected, yet numerous maternally-nucleated cytasters are found. These sperm centrioles appear as vestigial basal bodies, destroyed in the mid-to-lower corpus. Post-testicular sperm maturation, in which sperm centrioles found in the caput are destroyed prior to ejaculation, is a newly discovered function for the epididymis. PMID:27534805

  4. Chronically Ill Children in America: Background and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nicholas; And Others

    The report examines chronic illness in children and considers issues and recommendations for change in public policies and programs affecting chronically ill children and their families. The background chapter notes the significance of the problem, reviews 11 diseases that are representative of the severe chronic illnesses of childhood: juvenile…

  5. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  6. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  7. Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:…

  8. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  9. The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics

  11. Student criminal background checks in colleges of allied health.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Diane; Aziz, Hassan; Mahoney, Sherry; Gilman, Frances H

    2008-01-01

    The demand that criminal background checks be performed for students in allied health schools and programs has soared in recent years. The need for criminal background checks on students entering the health care professions has emerged as a critical issue largely due to requirements by clinical affiliate training sites. The Joint Commission published a standard stating, "for staff, students and volunteers who work in the same capacity as staff who provide care, treatment, and services, at Elements of Performance 5 states criminal background checks are verified when required by law and regulation and organization policy." More simply stated, this means that criminal background check records must be verifiable if required by some authoritative entity such as state law. However, whether by misinterpretation of the standard or through conscious decision by organization policy makers, many health care organizations suddenly began to require criminal background checks as part of their affiliation agreements with health related schools or programs. The focus of this study was to identify current practices of allied health institutions regarding their conduct of criminal background checks on students entering the allied health professions.

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  13. Simulation of PEP-II Accelerator Backgrounds Using TURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.J.; Fieguth, T.; Kozanecki, W.; Majewski, S.A.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2006-02-15

    We present studies of accelerator-induced backgrounds in the BaBar detector at the SLAC B-Factory, carried out using LPTURTLE, a modified version of the DECAY TURTLE simulation package. Lost-particle backgrounds in PEP-II are dominated by a combination of beam-gas bremstrahlung, beam-gas Coulomb scattering, radiative-Bhabha events and beam-beam blow-up. The radiation damage and detector occupancy caused by the associated electromagnetic shower debris can limit the usable luminosity. In order to understand and mitigate such backgrounds, we have performed a full program of beam-gas and luminosity-background simulations, that include the effects of the detector solenoidal field, detailed modeling of limiting apertures in both collider rings, and optimization of the betatron collimation scheme in the presence of large transverse tails.

  14. The Advantages of Parametric Modeling for the Reconstruction of Historic Buildings. The Example of the in War Destroyed Church of ST. Catherine (katharinenkirche) in Nuremberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, M.; Herbst, G.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rutishauser, S.; Zellweger, A.

    2013-02-01

    Consecrated in 1297 as the monastery church of the four years earlier founded St. Catherine's monastery, the Gothic Church of St. Catherine was largely destroyed in a devastating bombing raid on January 2nd 1945. To counteract the process of disintegration, the departments of geo-information and lower monument protection authority of the City of Nuremburg decided to getting done a three dimensional building model of the Church of St. Catherine's. A heterogeneous set of data was used for preparation of a parametric architectural model. In effect the modeling of historic buildings can profit from the so called BIM method (Building Information Modeling), as the necessary structuring of the basic data renders it into very sustainable information. The resulting model is perfectly suited to deliver a vivid impression of the interior and exterior of this former mendicant orders' church to present observers.

  15. Combining Public Domain and Professional Panoramic Imagery for the Accurate and Dense 3d Reconstruction of the Destroyed Bel Temple in Palmyra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahbeh, W.; Nebiker, S.; Fangi, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper exploits the potential of dense multi-image 3d reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by either using public domain touristic imagery only or by combining the public domain imagery with professional panoramic imagery. The focus of our work is placed on the reconstruction of the temple of Bel, one of the Syrian heritage monuments, which was destroyed in September 2015 by the so called "Islamic State". The great temple of Bel is considered as one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East with a unique design. The investigations and the reconstruction were carried out using two types of imagery. The first are freely available generic touristic photos collected from the web. The second are panoramic images captured in 2010 for documenting those monuments. In the paper we present a 3d reconstruction workflow for both types of imagery using state-of-the art dense image matching software, addressing the non-trivial challenges of combining uncalibrated public domain imagery with panoramic images with very wide base-lines. We subsequently investigate the aspects of accuracy and completeness obtainable from the public domain touristic images alone and from the combination with spherical panoramas. We furthermore discuss the challenges of co-registering the weakly connected 3d point cloud fragments resulting from the limited coverage of the touristic photos. We then describe an approach using spherical photogrammetry as a virtual topographic survey allowing the co-registration of a detailed and accurate single 3d model of the temple interior and exterior.

  16. Background and introduction: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    The Salt Cedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; hereafter the Act) directs the Department of the Interior to submit a report to Congress1 that includes an assessment of several issues surrounding these two nonnative trees, now dominant components of the vegetation along many rivers in the Western United States. Specifically, the Act calls for “…an assessment of the extent of salt cedar and Russian olive infestation on public and private land in the western United States,” which shall“A) consider existing research on methods to control salt cedar and Russian olive trees; B) consider the feasibility of reducing water consumption by salt cedar and Russian olive trees; C) consider methods of and challenges associated with the revegetation or restoration of infested land; and D) estimate the costs of destruction of salt cedar and Russian olive trees, related biomass removal, and revegetation or restoration and maintenance of the infested land.”Finally, the Act calls for discussion of“(i) long-term management and funding strategies…that could be implemented by Federal, State, tribal, and private land managers and owners to address the infestation by salt cedar and Russian olive; (ii) any deficiencies in the assessment or areas for additional study; and (iii) any field demonstrations that would be useful in the effort to control salt cedar and Russian olive.”The primary intent of this report is to provide the science assessment called for under the Act. A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. In addition to relying on the direction provided under Section C of the Act, the authors of this report also drew upon the detailed list of considerations presented in Section E of the Act to guide development of more expansive discussions of topics relevant to saltcedar and Russian olive control

  17. Chaotic background phase matching signal separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wu; Hui, Xia; Chen, Wang

    2016-07-01

    Aiming at the problem of separating the useful signal in the chaos background and using the phase matching method, the signal can be extracted effectively from the chaotic background. In this method, the chaotic background is not estimated with phase reconstruction and the geometric analysis of phase space is not required. Through the separation Simulation of the sinusoidal signal in the chaos background and the separation degree analysis, the low signal to noise ratio of the signal in the chaos background can be effectively separated. The effect of removing the chaotic background noise is obvious.

  18. Observations and Modeling of Seismic Background Noise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    TERRAscope network deployed by the California Institute of Technology in cooperation with other institutions. A map showing the approximate locations of the stations used in this study is provided in Figure 1. One might hope for a better distribution of stations in the southern hemisphere, especially Africa and South America, in order to look for regional variations in seismic noise (apart from the major differences between continental, coastal and island sites). Unfortunately, anyone looking for subtle regional variations in seismic noise is probably going to be disappointed by the spectral data presented in this report because much of the station data appear to be dominated by local disturbances caused by instrumental, environmental, cultural, or surf noise. Better instruments and better instrument siting, or a well-funded field program, will be needed before a global isoseismal noise map can be produced. However, by assembling a composite of background noise from a large network of stations, many of the local station variables are masked, and it is possible to create generalized spectral plots of Earth noise for hypothetical quiet and noisy station sites.

  19. Solwind instrument destroyed in test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Air Force's destruction of one of its own satellites last month ended what had been the longest continuous stream of data from an instrument observing the sun's corona. Satellite P78-1 served as the target in a test of antisatellite (ASAT) weaponry on September 13, 1985. The satellite carried Solwind, a white light coronagraph that observed the solar corona at distances of 3-10 solar radii, according to Robert M. MacQueen, director of the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo.

  20. Chronic metabolic acidosis destroys pancreas.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Peter; Melamed, Felix

    2014-11-28

    One primary reason for the current epidemic of digestive disorders might be chronic metabolic acidosis, which is extremely common in the modern population. Chronic metabolic acidosis primarily affects two alkaline digestive glands, the liver, and the pancreas, which produce alkaline bile and pancreatic juice with a large amount of bicarbonate. Even small acidic alterations in the bile and pancreatic juice pH can lead to serious biochemical/biomechanical changes. The pancreatic digestive enzymes require an alkaline milieu for proper function, and lowering the pH disables their activity. It can be the primary cause of indigestion. Acidification of the pancreatic juice decreases its antimicrobial activity, which can lead to intestinal dysbiosis. Lowering the pH of the pancreatic juice can cause premature activation of the proteases inside the pancreas with the potential development of pancreatitis. The acidification of bile causes precipitation of the bile acids, which irritate the entire biliary system and create bile stone formation. Aggressive mixture of the acidic bile and the pancreatic juice can cause erratic contractions of the duodenum's walls and subsequent bile reflux into the stomach and the esophagus. Normal exocrine pancreatic function is the core of proper digestion. Currently, there is no effective and safe treatment for enhancing the exocrine pancreatic function. Restoring normal acid-base homeostasis can be a useful tool for pathophysiological therapeutic approaches for various gastrointestinal disorders. There is strong research and practical evidence that restoring the HCO3(-) capacity in the blood can improve digestion.

  1. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General background. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background....

  2. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General background. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background. (a) Basic purpose. This rule sets...

  3. Low-background detector arrays for infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Estrada, J. A.; Goebel, J. H.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Mcmurray, R. E., Jr.; Weber, T. T.

    1989-01-01

    The status of a program which develops and characterizes integrated infrared (IR) detector array technology for space astronomical applications is described. The devices under development include intrinsic, extrinsic silicon, and extrinsic germanium detectors, coupled to silicon readout electronics. Low-background laboratory test results include measurements of responsivity, noise, dark current, temporal response, and the effects of gamma-radiation. In addition, successful astronomical imagery has been obtained on some arrays from this program. These two aspects of the development combine to demonstrate the strong potential for integrated array technology for IR space astronomy.

  4. Background Extraction Using Random Walk Image Fusion.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Wang, Hong-Cyuan; Yeh, Chih-Hsiang; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Lai, Yu-Chi

    2016-12-23

    It is important to extract a clear background for computer vision and augmented reality. Generally, background extraction assumes the existence of a clean background shot through the input sequence, but realistically, situations may violate this assumption such as highway traffic videos. Therefore, our probabilistic model-based method formulates fusion of candidate background patches of the input sequence as a random walk problem and seeks a globally optimal solution based on their temporal and spatial relationship. Furthermore, we also design two quality measures to consider spatial and temporal coherence and contrast distinctness among pixels as background selection basis. A static background should have high temporal coherence among frames, and thus, we improve our fusion precision with a temporal contrast filter and an optical-flow-based motionless patch extractor. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm can successfully extract artifact-free background images with low computational cost while comparing to state-of-the-art algorithms.

  5. A new screening method to detect water-soluble antioxidants: acetaminophen (Tylenol) and other phenols react as antioxidants and destroy peroxynitrite-based luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, K; Sacks, M; Qazi, N

    1998-01-01

    This study is based on a simple chemical interaction of peroxynitrite (O = N-O-O-) and luminol, which produces blue light upon oxidation. Since peroxynitrite has a half-life of about 1 s, a drug known as linsidomine (SIN-1) is used as a peroxynitrite generator. Peroxynitrite can oxidize lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Upon the stimulation of inflammation and/or infection, macrophages and neutrophils can be induced to produce large amounts of peroxynitrite, which can oxidize phenols and sulphhydryl-containing compounds. Therefore, phenols and sulphhydryls eliminate peroxynitrite. This is an example of the Yin-Yang hypothesis e.g. oxidation-reduction. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) can inhibit fever and some types of pain without being a particularly effective anti-inflammatory. Since it is a phenol, it could act as a nitration target for peroxynitrite. Then peroxynitrite, the possible cause of pain and elevated temperature, might be destroyed in the reaction. Acetaminophen is a phenolic compound which produces a clear inhibitory dose-response curve with peroxynitrite in its range of clinical effectiveness. Whether acetaminophen actually works as we suggest is to be proven. Three different types of reaction could decrease the amount of peroxynitrite: (a) interference with base-catalysed opening of the SIN-1 molecule; (b) destruction of one or both substances needed to form it--superoxide and/or nitric oxide; when the SIN-1 degrades to superoxide and nitric oxide, the former may be destroyed by superoxide dismutase (SOD); (c) peroxynitrite may react directly with phenols (mono-, di-, tri- and tetraphenols), possibly by nitration. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and 2-hydroxyestradiol (catechol estrogen) are potent inhibitors of luminol light emission. Epineprine, isoproterenol, pyrogallol, catechol and ascorbic acid (a classic antioxidant) are all inhibitors of luminol chemiluminescence. Isoproterenol, norepinephrine/and epinephrine first inhibit light but overall stimulate

  6. Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Foy, B. R.; Petrin, R. R.; Wilson, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation

  7. Analysis of Alpha Backgrounds in DarkSide-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Alissa; DarkSide Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    DarkSide-50 is the current phase of the DarkSide direct dark matter search program, operating underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. The detector is a dual-phase argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC), designed for direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, and housed within an active veto system of liquid scintillator and water Cherenkov detectors. Since switching to a target of low radioactivity argon extracted from underground sources in April, 2016, the background is no longer dominated by naturally occurring 39Ar. However, alpha backgrounds from radon and its daughters remain, both from the liquid argon bulk and internal detector surfaces. I will present details of the analysis used to understand and quantify alpha backgrounds, as well as to understand other types of radon contamination that may be present, and our sensitivity to them.

  8. Effect of Atmospheric Background Aerosols on Biological Agent Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA Chemical and Biological Sensor Standards Study. 32 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory, JBPDS...the Research Program on BW Detection, Space General, AD480357, 1966. (U) The goal of this project was to examine the effects of background...that relied on detection of chemiluminescence resulting from a chemical reaction UNCLASSIFIED 8 UNCLASSIFIED with luminal and porphyrin4. During

  9. Defense Acquisition Reform: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-23

    MIT professor Harvey Sapolsky wrote The limited number of available reforms have all been recycled. You can centralize or decentralize. You can...Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke, p. 9. 16 Harvey Sapolsky, “Let’s Skip Acquisition Reform This Time...challenges of an ever changing landscape and that fundamental reforms are necessary.42 In 2009, Norman Augustine (former CEO of Lockheed Martin) and

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-18

    SUBTITLE Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT ...the ratification of the CTBT. It would be imprudent to tie the hands of a future administration that may have to conduct a test of an element of an...Monitoring Former Soviet Union, excerpt from a report by Russian News Agency ITAR-TASS, September 23, 2005. 15 “Russia Supports CTBT as Key Element of

  11. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-30

    SUBTITLE Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...administration that may have to conduct a test of an element of an aging, unmodernized stockpile in order to assure the reliability of the nuclear deterrent force...continued) Soviet Union, excerpt from a report by Russian News Agency ITAR-TASS, September 23, 2005. 15 “Russia Supports CTBT as Key Element of Nuclear Non

  12. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-28

    SUBTITLE Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...administration that may have to conduct a test of an element of an aging, unmodernized stockpile in order to assure the reliability of the nuclear...Soviet Union, excerpt from a report by Russian News Agency ITAR-TASS, September 23, 2005. 16 “Russia Supports CTBT as Key Element of Nuclear Non

  13. Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-28

    more than 50 miles from shore. NSC Program National Security Cutters (Figure 1), also known as Legend (WMSL-750) class cutters,11 are the Coast...panel [discussion] during the Navy League Sea Air Space conference in National Harbor, Md., echoed Coast Guard Commandant Robert Papp in stating that...Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 34 Since commissioning of the first NSC in 2008 the Legend -class cutters

  14. LyP-1-conjugated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting lymph node metastases and destroying tumor lymphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Changyou; Wen, Ziyi; Feng, Linglin; Wang, Fei; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xiangkun; Dong, Qing; Liu, Min; Lu, Weiyue

    2011-10-01

    Lymphatic metastasis can be greatly promoted by metastases growth and lymphangiogenesis in lymph nodes (LNs). LyP-1, a cyclic peptide, is able to specifically bind with tumor cells and tumor lymphatics in metastatic LNs. This work aimed to use LyP-1-conjugated liposomes (L-LS) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (L-LS/DOX) to suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting both metastases and tumor lymphatics in LNs. L-LS were prepared and exhibited sizes around 90 nm and spherical morphology as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro cellular studies showed that LyP-1 modification obviously increased liposome uptake by MDA-MB-435 tumor cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity of liposomal DOX. A popliteal and iliac LN metastases model was successfully established by subcutaneous inoculation of tumor cells to nude mice. The immunofluorescence staining analysis indicated that LyP-1 modification enabled specific binding of liposome with tumor lymphatics and enhanced the destroying effect of liposomal DOX on tumor lymphatics. The in vivo fluorescence imaging and pharmacodynamic studies showed that LyP-1 modification increased liposome uptake by metastatic LNs and that L-LS/DOX significantly decreased metastatic LN growth and LN metastasis rate. These results suggested that L-LS/DOX were an effective delivery system for suppressing lymphatic metastasis by simultaneously inhibiting LN metastases and tumor lymphatics.

  15. The research of moving object detection based on background difference compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yan-bin; Ying, Jie; Lu, Lin-li

    2013-08-01

    Moving object detection was implemented in dynamic background based on background difference compensation. Background differential can effectively segment the moving object in static background. But in moving video, the camera motion causes corresponding movement of the target and background, which makes the prospect moving object hard to separate from the background. In order to detect moving object, we can compensate the movement of the background and transfer the dynamic background to static. Moving object detection in static background image was implemented using a new weights updating method that the weights were updated during a certain period. This method based on classical Gaussian mixture model improved the efficiency of image segmentation greatly. Moving object detection in dynamic background was realized using background differential compensation. The global motion of the background was established according to the affined parameters model. The model parameters were estimated by feature points matching based on the search strategy. Invalid matching points were eliminated using the method of distance consistency. Backward mapping was used to get the motion parameters of the background. After compensation of the background with the global motion parameters, frame difference between the current frame and the background can detect moving objects effectively. Experiments were done on computer with the programming tools of VS2010 and MATLAB. Experimental results showed that the algorithm based on differential compensation was effective.

  16. Background removal procedure for rapid scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Czechowski, Tomasz; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-01-01

    In rapid scan EPR the changing magnetic field creates a background signal with components at the scan frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of the background signal increases with scan width and is more significant for weak EPR signals such as are obtained in the presence of magnetic field gradients. A procedure for distinguishing this background from the EPR signal is proposed, mathematically described, and tested for various experimental conditions.

  17. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  18. Background concentrations of 18 air toxics for North America.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael C; Hafner, Hilary R; Montzka, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act identifies 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), or "air toxics," associated with adverse human health effects. Of these air toxics, 18 were targeted as the most important in a 10-City Pilot Study conducted in 2001 and 2002 as part of the National Air Toxics Trend Sites Program. In the present analysis, measurements available from monitoring networks in North America were used to estimate boundary layer background concentrations and trends of these 18 HAPs. The background concentrations reported in this study are as much as 85% lower than those reported in recent studies of HAP concentrations. Background concentrations of some volatile organic compounds were analyzed for trends at the 95% confidence level; only carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) and tetrachloroethylene decreased significantly in recent years. Remote background concentrations were compared with the one-in-a-million (i.e., 10(6)) cancer benchmarks to determine the possible causes of health risk in rural and remote areas; benzene, chloroform, formaldehyde, and chromium (Cr) fine particulate were higher than cancer benchmark values. In addition, remote background concentrations were found to contribute between 5% and 99% of median urban concentrations.

  19. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  20. 48 CFR 1523.7000 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Star” requirements for energy efficiency. This equipment is often identified by the Energy StarTM logo... Star Computer Program is a voluntary partnership effort with the computer industry to promote the... systems. The Energy Star Program is designed to be a self-certifying computer industry program,...