Science.gov

Sample records for destroying persistent organic

  1. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Terrence L.; Wilson, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  2. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  3. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  4. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOEpatents

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    2000-01-01

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  5. A method and apparatus for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    1997-12-01

    A waste destruction method is described using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  6. Clean process to destroy arsenic-containing organic compounds with recovery of arsenic

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wang, F.T.

    1996-08-13

    A reduction method is provided for the treatment of arsenic-containing organic compounds with simultaneous recovery of pure arsenic. Arsenic-containing organic compounds include pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents such as Lewisite. The arsenic-containing compound is decomposed using a reducing agent. Arsine gas may be formed directly by using a hydrogen-rich reducing agent, or a metal arsenide may be formed using a pure metal reducing agent. In the latter case, the arsenide is reacted with an acid to form arsine gas. In either case, the arsine gas is then reduced to elemental arsenic. 1 fig.

  7. Clean process to destroy arsenic-containing organic compounds with recovery of arsenic

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Wang, Francis T.

    1996-01-01

    A reduction method is provided for the treatment of arsenic-containing organic compounds with simultaneous recovery of pure arsenic. Arsenic-containing organic compounds include pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents such as Lewisite. The arsenic-containing compound is decomposed using a reducing agent. Arsine gas may be formed directly by using a hydrogen-rich reducing agent, or a metal arsenide may be formed using a pure metal reducing agent. In the latter case, the arsenide is reacted with an acid to form arsine gas. In either case, the arsine gas is then reduced to elemental arsenic.

  8. Two-stage bioreactor to destroy chlorinated and nonchlorinated organic groundwater contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, B.R.; Bohner, A.K.; Burick, T.; Guarini, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Both chlorinated and nonchlorinated volatile organic compounds are found as common contaminants of groundwater across the nation. Two field-pilot bioreactors successfully treated contaminated groundwater at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). The fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) effectively removed >97% of the 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and >95% of the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene(s) (BTEX) from more than 210,000 gal of contaminated groundwater. The FBR removed 84% of the trichloroethylene (TCE), also found in this groundwater, based on a total mass balance beyond carbon adsorption. Enhanced operational stability was demonstrated for the gas-phase reactor (GPR) with 10 months of continuous operation in the laboratory and 2 months in the field. TCE concentrations in contaminated air entering the pilot GPR were reduced by 75% on average. Capital and operating costs for the FBR system were compared to other treatment options including ultraviolet (UV)-peroxidation, air stripping with carbon adsorption, and wet carbon adsorption. GPR economics were compared to carbon adsorption at two TCE concentrations. These bioreactor systems provide economical, destructive technologies for treating either contaminated water or contaminated air originating from air stripping, air sparging, or soil vapor extraction operations and will be effective remedial options at many sites.

  9. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  10. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  11. Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer: The single-seat Douglas BTD-1 Destroyer torpedo-bomber was developed from the two-seat XSB2D-1 scout-bomber. Although not put into full production, the BTD-1 lessons learned with the Destroyer were incorporated into the Douglas Skyraider's predecessor, the BT2D-1.

  12. A REVIEW OF BIOACCUMULATION MODELING APPROACHES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are likely to bioaccumulate in biological components of the environment, including fish and wildlife. The complex and long-term dynamics involved with bioaccumulation are often represented with models. Current scientific developments in t...

  13. Article "403. Toxicology of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are all synthetic chemicals, either intentionally or unintentionally produced/released. Some POPs are pesticides. Others are industrial products or unintended by-products resulting from industrial processes or combustions (see figure 1). POPs ...

  14. Stochastic dispersal and population persistence in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul David; Hastings, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Temporally variable conditions introduce time dependence into vital rates, and predicting the effect of this variability on population dynamics and persistence is critical for the effective management of natural populations subject to fluctuating environments. In many marine species, dispersal during the larval stage establishes links among populations and is largely determined by temporally variable fluid dynamic processes. However, the consequences of time-dependent dispersal for population persistence are largely unexplored, and so we present a model of stochastically driven dispersal to study population persistence in a temporally variable, patchy habitat. We illustrate how patterns of temporal autocorrelation, expressed as variance in stochastic population connectivity, can have counterintuitive consequences for predictions, where switching between two sets of dynamics, each of which leads to extinction, can promote metapopulation persistence. We contend that accounting for stochastic dispersal can have great relevance for understanding population persistence, in marine populations in particular and in organisms with some degree of passive dispersal in general. PMID:23852360

  15. CTEPP OVERVIEW: A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study, "Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants," (CTEPP) is a pilot-scale project involving about 260 children in their everyday surroundings. The objectives of CTEPP are twofold: (1) To measure the agg...

  16. Historic and newer persistent organic pollutants in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the literature published over the past five years with regard to the concentrations of historic and newly-listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods. The chemical classes selected for this review include historic POPs (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDT) ...

  17. Extending the Range of Organic Compounds that Can Be Destroyed Using the Process of Adsorption Coupled with Electrochemical Regeneration - 13054

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nigel; Lodge, Mike; Hilton, Linda; Adams, Alex; Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Toulemonde, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry is not a provider of oils and solvents but uses them in motors, equipment and even in chemical processes to extract valuable products. Currently, for old and contaminated oils and solvents, techniques still exist, such as incineration, but not all the oils and solvents are compatible with this technique because the activities of some components inside the oils are too high to be accepted at the incineration facility. For these oils, an alternative technique needs to be found for treatment. A process developed for water treatment using a technique of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration has been investigated to assess its capability to treat these organic wastes. One of the strengths of the process is its flexibility and adaptation to different compositions of oils. This point is important because, in the AREVA case, there are a lot of small volumes of old oils which need to be re-characterized. It takes time and money to do it especially when oils are contaminated; this is one reason why the technique is interesting to investigate. Tests have been performed with different oils coming from different sites to test the feasibility. Results demonstrate the destruction of a range of organics with regeneration energy requirements of 13.4 - 68.7 kWh/l and offer confidence for the future potential of the process. (authors)

  18. Tenascin-C drives persistence of organ fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Swati; Wang, Wenxia; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Feng, Gang; Wu, Minghua; Zhou, Xiaodong; Lafyatis, Robert; Lee, Jungwha; Hinchcliff, Monique; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Lakota, Katja; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Raparia, Kirtee; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Varga, John

    2016-01-01

    The factors responsible for maintaining persistent organ fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) are not known but emerging evidence implicates toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of SSc. Here we show the expression, mechanism of action and pathogenic role of endogenous TLR activators in skin from patients with SSc, skin fibroblasts, and in mouse models of organ fibrosis. Levels of tenascin-C are elevated in SSc skin biopsy samples, and serum and SSc fibroblasts, and in fibrotic skin tissues from mice. Exogenous tenascin-C stimulates collagen gene expression and myofibroblast transformation via TLR4 signalling. Mice lacking tenascin-C show attenuation of skin and lung fibrosis, and accelerated fibrosis resolution. These results identify tenascin-C as an endogenous danger signal that is upregulated in SSc and drives TLR4-dependent fibroblast activation, and by its persistence impedes fibrosis resolution. Disrupting this fibrosis amplification loop might be a viable strategy for the treatment of SSc. PMID:27256716

  19. Persistent organic pollutants as risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Elvis Ndonwi; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Tiedeu-Atogho, Barbara; Mofo-Mato, Edith-Pascale; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major and fast growing public health problem. Although obesity is considered to be the main driver of the pandemic of T2DM, a possible contribution of some environmental contaminants, of which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) form a particular class, has been suggested. POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes which enable them to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio accumulate in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between persistent organic pollutants and diabetes risk. These findings have been replicated in experimental studies both in human (in-vitro) and animals (in-vivo and in-vitro), and patho-physiological derangements through which these pollutants exercise their harmful effect on diabetes risk postulated. This review summarizes available studies, emphasises on limitations so as to enable subsequent studies to be centralized on possible pathways and bring out clearly the role of POPs on diabetes risk. PMID:25987904

  20. The energetic and chemical fingerprints of persistent soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, Pierre; Plante, Alain F.; Cécillon, Lauric; Lutfalla, Suzanne; Baudin, François; Bernard, Sylvain; Christensen, Bent T.; Fernandez, Jose M.; Houot, Sabine; Kätterer, Thomas; Macdonald, Andy; van Oort, Folkert; Le Guillou, Corentin; Chenu, Claire

    2016-04-01

    A better understanding of soil organic carbon (SOC) persistence is needed to better predict SOC vulnerability to global change. The absence of convincing physical or chemical procedures to define, characterize or isolate relatively labile versus persistent SOC pools makes the study of persistent SOC difficult. Long-term bare fallow (LTBF) experiments, in which C inputs have been stopped for several decades, provide a unique opportunity to study persistent SOC without the inherent artefacts induced by extraction procedures, the hypothesis being that SOC is gradually enriched in persistent C with time as labile components decompose. We determined the evolution of thermal and chemical characteristics of bulk SOC in five LTBF experiments across Europe: Askov (DK), Grignon (FR), Rothamsted (UK), Ultuna (SW) and Versailles (FR), using a multi-technique approach involving Rock-Eval pyrolysis, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT-MIRS), and Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS). Results of Rock-Eval and TG analyses showed that the temperature needed to combust the SOC increased with bare fallow duration at all sites. Conversely, SOC energy density (in mJ mg-1 C) measured by DSC decreased with bare fallow duration. Rock-Eval pyrolysis results showed that hydrogen index (HI) tended to decrease with bare fallow duration whereas the oxygen index (OI) did not show consistent trends across sites. NEXAFS signals presented little differences and were dominated by carboxyl peak. Nonetheless, NEXAFS results showed a trend of increasing carboxyl groups and decreasing ketone and amide groups with bare fallow duration. Due to the mineral matrix, only a reduced part of the DRIFT-MIRS signals has been used. We observed that the bulk chemistry of aliphatic SOC (CH3 vs. CH2 functional groups) showed different trends for the different sites. Our results showed that in spite of the heterogeneity of

  1. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  2. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in first birth mothers across Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Van Oostdam, Jay; Weber, Jean Philippe; Needham, Larry L; Trip, Luke

    2012-01-01

    This project was initiated by the North America Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). Its main purpose was to obtain an initial profile on pregnant woman's exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in North America (Canada, the United States and Mexico). Persistent organic pollutants are transferred to the fetus via the placenta during the pregnancy or to the infant via maternal milk; therefore, the pregnant woman's body burden is important because of the higher exposures and potential health effects in the fetus and infant. This paper presents the results from 240 pregnant women in 10 Mexican cities, and includes the concentrations of various POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in maternal plasma. We found concentrations of p,p'-DDE in maternal samples from Coatzacoalcos to be ∼60% higher than those found in Ciudad Obregon, which had the second highest concentration. Pregnant women from Merida had higher mean concentrations of PCBs than all women in other regions. Results for PCDDs and PCDFs plus dioxin-like PCBs data were only available on the basis of composite samples, and their concentrations are similar in most cities except for Coatzacoalcos, which had more than double the concentration found in other cities. Although this study provides useful information on the variability of POPs in specific populations and possible regional/local differences, these results cannot be generalized to the entire Mexican population because of differences in age, gender, sources of exposure and nonrandom nature of the sample.

  3. Assessing long-range transport potential of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, A.; Mackay, D.; Matthies, M.; Wania, F.; Webster, E.

    2000-02-15

    An analysis is presented of the factors controlling the potential for the long-range transport (LRT) of persistent organic pollutants subject to degrading reactions and reversible transport to other environmental media. The approach adopted generalizes those developed previously by van Pul et al. and Bennett et al. to estimate a characteristic travel distance (CTD) or a half-distance (analogous to a half-life) for a substance present in a mobile medium such as air and subject to reversible transport to other media such as soil and water. For substances discharged to immobile media, such as pesticides to soil, an effective travel distance (ETD) is defined as the distance that, for example, 1% of the discharged chemical may be transported. It is shown that existing multimedia box models can be used to estimate CTD and that a simple relationship exists between CTD and overall environmental persistence, which can be displayed graphically. CTDs in air and water are calculated illustratively for 18 chemicals, and recommendations are made regarding ranking or grouping chemicals according to their potential for LRT.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. PMID:16949712

  5. Do plants reflect atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic contaminants?

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    Chemical analysis of several types of plants -- such as pine needles, lichens, mosses and grasses -- has been used by numerous workers as a means of inferring spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic compounds (e.g. PCBs, PAHs, CBs and PCDD/Fs). This is usually because plants are perceived as convenient `passive` air samplers and assumed to `integrate` variations in ambient concentrations during their lifetime. More recently, various researchers have sought to understand the mechanisms of exchange/uptake at the air vegetation surface, with a view to refining the use of vegetation sampling techniques and understanding the role of vegetation in influencing the global cycling of these compounds. This presentation will review some of the recent advances in this area, highlighting some of pitfalls and beneficial uses of employing plants as `monitoring tools`.

  6. Leaching behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in shredder residues.

    PubMed

    Sakai, S; Urano, S; Takatsuki, H

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that some kinds of waste contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/DFs and PCBs. Leaching behaviors of these chemicals, however, have not been focused so much because of their low leachability. On the other hand, shredder residues originated from automobiles and electric appliances consist mainly of plastics, such as PVC, which contain additives including DEHP. In this study, contents analyses and leaching tests with and without surfactant-like substances for shredder residues were conducted. As a result, shredder residues from automobile and electric appliance contained PCBs in ppm level and a quantity of PCDD/DFs. Surfactant-like substances increase the leaching concentration of POPs. DEHP also leached out considerably even though using distilled water. PMID:9828329

  7. Transport of persistent organic pollutants by microplastics in estuarine conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastics represent an increasing source of anthropogenic contamination in aquatic environments, where they may also act as scavengers and transporters of persistent organic pollutants. As estuaries are amongst the most productive aquatic systems, it is important to understand sorption behaviour and transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by microplastics along estuarine gradients. The effects of salinity sorption equilibrium kinetics on the distribution coefficients (Kd) of phenanthrene (Phe) and 4,4‧-DDT, onto polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and onto polyethylene (PE) were therefore investigated. A salinity gradient representing freshwater, estuarine and marine conditions, with salinities corresponding to 0 (MilliQ water, 690 μS/cm), 8.8, 17.5, 26.3 and 35 was used. Salinity had no significant effect on the time required to reach equilibrium onto PVC or PE and neither did it affect desorption rates of contaminants from plastics. Although salinity had no effect on sorption capacity of Phe onto plastics, a slight decrease in sorption capacity was observed for DDT with salinity. Salinity had little effect on sorption behaviour and POP/plastic combination was shown to be a more important factor. Transport of Phe and DDT from riverine to brackish and marine waters by plastic is therefore likely to be much more dependent on the aqueous POP concentration than on salinity. The physical characteristics of the polymer and local environmental conditions (e.g. plastic density, particle residence time in estuaries) will affect the physical transport of contaminated plastics. A transport model of POPs by microplastics under estuarine conditions is proposed. Transport of Phe and DDT by PVC and PE from fresh and brackish water toward fully marine conditions was the most likely net direction for contaminant transport and followed the order: Phe-PE >> DDT-PVC = DDT-PE >> Phe-PVC.

  8. Organizing and Typing Persistent Objects Within an Object-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional operating systems provide little or no direct support for the services required for an efficient persistent object system implementation. We have built a persistent object scheme using a customization and extension of an object-oriented operating system called Choices. Choices includes a framework for the storage of persistent data that is suited to the construction of both conventional file system and persistent object system. In this paper we describe three areas in which persistent object support differs from file system support: storage organization, storage management, and typing. Persistent object systems must support various sizes of objects efficiently. Customizable containers, which are themselves persistent objects and can be nested, support a wide range of object sizes in Choices. Collections of persistent objects that are accessed as an aggregate and collections of light-weight persistent objects can be clustered in containers that are nested within containers for larger objects. Automated garbage collection schemes are added to storage management and have a major impact on persistent object applications. The Choices persistent object store provides extensible sets of persistent object types. The store contains not only the data for persistent objects but also the names of the classes to which they belong and the code for the operation of the classes. Besides presenting persistent object storage organization, storage management, and typing, this paper discusses how persistent objects are named and used within the Choices persistent data/file system framework.

  9. Toxicological Function of Adipose Tissue: Focus on Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Emond, Claude; Kim, Min Ji; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Clément, Karine; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adipose tissue (AT) is involved in several physiological functions, including metabolic regulation, energy storage, and endocrine functions. Objectives: In this review we examined the evidence that an additional function of AT is to modulate persistent organic pollutant (POP) toxicity through several mechanisms. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the interaction of AT with POPs to provide a comprehensive model for this additional function of AT. Discussion: As a storage compartment for lipophilic POPs, AT plays a critical role in the toxicokinetics of a variety of drugs and pollutants, in particular, POPs. By sequestering POPs, AT can protect other organs and tissues from POPs overload. However, this protective function could prove to be a threat in the long run. The accumulation of lipophilic POPs will increase total body burden. These accumulated POPs are slowly released into the bloodstream, and more so during weight loss. Thus, AT constitutes a continual source of internal exposure to POPs. In addition to its buffering function, AT is also a target of POPs and may mediate part of their metabolic effects. This is particularly relevant because many POPs induce obesogenic effects that may lead to quantitative and qualitative alterations of AT. Some POPs also induce a proinflammatory state in AT, which may lead to detrimental metabolic effects. Conclusion: AT appears to play diverse functions both as a modulator and as a target of POPs toxicity. PMID:23221922

  10. Persistent organic pollutants & obesity: potential mechanisms for breast cancer promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Reaves, Denise K.; Ginsburg, Erika; Bang, John J.; Fleming, Jodie M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary ingestion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) correlates with developing obesity. Obesity alters metabolism, induces an inflammatory tissue microenvironment, and is also linked with diabetes and breast cancer risk/promotion of the disease. However, no direct evidence exists exploring the correlation among all three of these factors (POPs, obesity, and breast cancer). Herein, we present current correlative studies suggesting a causal link between POPs exposure through diet and their bioaccumulation in adipose that promotes the development of obesity and ultimately influences breast cancer development and/or progression. Furthermore, as endocrine disruptors, POPs can potentially interfere with hormonally responsive tissue functions causing dysregulation in hormone signaling and cell function. This review highlights the critical need for advanced in vitro and in vivo model systems to understand the complex relationship between obesity, POPs, breast cancer, and, more importantly, to delineate their multifaceted molecular, cellular, and biochemical mechanisms. Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies directly testing the observed correlations as well as detailing their molecular mechanisms are vital to cancer research and, ultimately, public health. PMID:25624167

  11. GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; Hřebíček, Jiří; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a

  12. Legacy and contemporary persistent organic pollutants in North Pacific albatross.

    PubMed

    Harwani, Suhash; Henry, Robert W; Rhee, Alexandra; Kappes, Michelle A; Croll, Donald A; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Here we report the first measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE 47, 99, and 153) alongside 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of albatross from breeding colonies distributed across a large spatial east-west gradient in the North Pacific Ocean. North Pacific albatross are wide-ranging, top-level consumers that forage in pelagic regions of the North Pacific Ocean, making them an ideal sentinel species for detection and distribution of marine contaminants. Our work on contaminant burdens in albatross tissue provides information on transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the remote North Pacific and serves as a proxy for regional environmental quality. We sampled black-footed (Phoebastria nigripes; n = 20) and Laysan albatross (P. immutabilis; n = 19) nesting on Tern Island, Hawaii, USA, and Laysan albatross (n = 16) nesting on Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Our results indicate that North Pacific albatross are highly exposed to both PCBs and OCPs, with levels ranging from 8.8 to 86.9 ng/ml wet weight and 7.4 to 162.3 ng/ml wet weight, respectively. A strong significant gradient exists between Laysan albatross breeding in the Eastern Pacific, having approximately 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold higher levels for PCBs and OCPs, respectively, compared to those from the Central Pacific. Interspecies levels of contaminants within the same breeding site also showed high variation, with Tern black-footed albatross having approximately threefold higher levels of both PCBs and OCPs than Tern Laysan albatross. Surprisingly, while PBDEs are known to travel long distances and bioaccumulate in wildlife of high trophic status, we detected these three PBDE congeners only at trace levels ranging from not detectable (ND) to 0.74 ng/ml wet weight in these albatross. PMID:21898564

  13. Removal of Persistent Organic Contaminants by Electrochemically Activated Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Ali; Keller, Jurg; Tait, Stephan; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-12-15

    Solutions of sulfate have often been used as background electrolytes in the electrochemical degradation of contaminants and have been generally considered inert even when high-oxidation-power anodes such as boron-doped diamond (BDD) were employed. This study examines the role of sulfate by comparing electro-oxidation rates for seven persistent organic contaminants at BDD anodes in sulfate and inert nitrate anolytes. Sulfate yielded electro-oxidation rates 10-15 times higher for all target contaminants compared to the rates of nitrate anolyte. This electrochemical activation of sulfate was also observed at concentrations as low as 1.6 mM, which is relevant for many wastewaters. Electrolysis of diatrizoate in the presence of specific radical quenchers (tert-butanol and methanol) had a similar effect on electro-oxidation rates, illustrating a possible role of the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in the anodic formation of sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) species. The addition of 0.55 mM persulfate increased the electro-oxidation rate of diatrizoate in nitrate from 0.94 to 9.97 h(-1), suggesting a nonradical activation of persulfate. Overall findings indicate the formation of strong sulfate-derived oxidant species at BDD anodes when polarized at high potentials. This may have positive implications in the electro-oxidation of wastewaters containing sulfate. For example, the energy required for the 10-fold removal of diatrizoate was decreased from 45.6 to 2.44 kWh m(-3) by switching from nitrate to sulfate anolyte.

  14. Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Porta, Miquel; Jacobs, David R; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic compounds that travel with lipids and accumulate mainly in adipose tissue. Recent human evidence links low-dose POPs to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because humans are contaminated by POP mixtures and POPs possibly have nonmonotonic dose-response relations with T2D, critical methodological issues arise in evaluating human findings. This review summarizes epidemiological results on chlorinated POPs and T2D, and relevant experimental evidence. It also discusses how features of POPs can affect inferences in humans. The evidence as a whole suggests that, rather than a few individual POPs, background exposure to POP mixtures-including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls-can increase T2D risk in humans. Inconsistent statistical significance for individual POPs may arise due to distributional differences in POP mixtures among populations. Differences in the observed shape of the dose-response curves among human studies may reflect an inverted U-shaped association secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction or endocrine disruption. Finally, we examine the relationship between POPs and obesity. There is evidence in animal studies that low-dose POP mixtures are obesogenic. However, relationships between POPs and obesity in humans have been inconsistent. Adipose tissue plays a dual role of promoting T2D and providing a relatively safe place to store POPs. Large prospective studies with serial measurements of a broad range of POPs, adiposity, and clinically relevant biomarkers are needed to disentangle the interrelationships among POPs, obesity, and the development of T2D. Also needed are laboratory experiments that more closely mimic real-world POP doses, mixtures, and exposure duration in humans. PMID:24483949

  15. Removal of Persistent Organic Contaminants by Electrochemically Activated Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Ali; Keller, Jurg; Tait, Stephan; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-12-15

    Solutions of sulfate have often been used as background electrolytes in the electrochemical degradation of contaminants and have been generally considered inert even when high-oxidation-power anodes such as boron-doped diamond (BDD) were employed. This study examines the role of sulfate by comparing electro-oxidation rates for seven persistent organic contaminants at BDD anodes in sulfate and inert nitrate anolytes. Sulfate yielded electro-oxidation rates 10-15 times higher for all target contaminants compared to the rates of nitrate anolyte. This electrochemical activation of sulfate was also observed at concentrations as low as 1.6 mM, which is relevant for many wastewaters. Electrolysis of diatrizoate in the presence of specific radical quenchers (tert-butanol and methanol) had a similar effect on electro-oxidation rates, illustrating a possible role of the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in the anodic formation of sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) species. The addition of 0.55 mM persulfate increased the electro-oxidation rate of diatrizoate in nitrate from 0.94 to 9.97 h(-1), suggesting a nonradical activation of persulfate. Overall findings indicate the formation of strong sulfate-derived oxidant species at BDD anodes when polarized at high potentials. This may have positive implications in the electro-oxidation of wastewaters containing sulfate. For example, the energy required for the 10-fold removal of diatrizoate was decreased from 45.6 to 2.44 kWh m(-3) by switching from nitrate to sulfate anolyte. PMID:26572594

  16. Transport of persistent organic pollutants across the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal life is the most sensitive stage of human development to environmental pollutants. Early exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. The mechanisms of transference of POPs during pregnancy are still not well understood. The present study is aimed to investigate the transfer of POPs between mother and fetus. The concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 polybromodiphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners have been measured in 308 maternal serum samples, their respective umbilical cords and 50 placental tissues from a mother-infant cohort representative of Spanish general population. In general, the adjusted lipid-basis concentrations were higher in maternal serum than in cord serum and placenta. The concentrations of most pollutants between maternal serum and cord serum and between maternal serum and placenta were significantly correlated. These distributions were consistent with a predominant maternal source that transfers the pollutants into the placenta and the fetus. However, this distribution did not correspond to passive diffusion of these compounds between these tissues according to lipid content. The compounds more readily metabolized were higher in newborns, which suggest that differences in metabolic capabilities may be responsible of the observed variations in POP distributions between mother and newborns. Prenatal exposure to 4,4'-DDT and some PBDEs such as BDE 99 and BDE 209 is much higher than it could be anticipated from the composition of maternal serum. POP exposure assessment studies of newborns may overlook the effects of some of these pollutants if they only consider maternal determinations.

  17. On the reversibility of environmental contamination with persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Deuk; Wania, Frank

    2011-10-15

    An understanding of the factors that control the time trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment is required to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reductions and to predict future exposure. Using a regional contaminant fate model, CoZMo-POP 2, and a generic bell-shaped emission profile, we simulated time trends of hypothetical chemicals with a range of POP-like partitioning and degradation properties in different compartments of a generic warm temperate environment, with the objective of identifying the processes that may prevent the reversibility of environmental contamination with POPs after the end of primary emissions. Evaporation from soil and water can prevent complete reversibility of POP contamination of the atmosphere after the end of emissions. However, under the selected conditions, only for organic chemicals within a narrow range of volatility, that is, a logarithm of the octanol air equilibrium partition coefficient between 7 and 8, and with atmospheric degradation half-lives in excess of a few month can evaporation from environmental reservoirs sustain atmospheric levels that are within an order of magnitude of those resulting from primary emissions. HCB and α-HCH fulfill these criteria, which may explain, why their atmospheric concentrations have remained relatively high decades after their main primary emissions have been largely eliminated. Soil-to-water transfer is found responsible for the lack of reversibility of POP contamination of the aqueous environment after the end of emissions, whereas reversal of water-sediment exchange, although possible, is unlikely to contribute significantly. Differences in the reversibility of contamination in air and water suggests the possibility of changes in the relative importance of various exposure pathways after the end of primary emissions, namely an increase in the importance of the aquatic food chain relative to the agricultural one, especially if the former has a benthic

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in wetlands of the Mekong Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triet, Tran; Barzen, Jeb Anthony; Choowaew, Sansanee; Engels, Jon Michael; Ni, Duong Van; Mai, Nguyen Anh; Inkhavilay, Khamla; Soben, Kim; Sethik, Rath; Gomotean, Bhuvadol; Thuyen, Le Xuan; Kyi, Aung; Du, Nguyen Huy; Nordheim, Richard; Lam, Ho Si Tung; Moore, Dorn M.; Wilson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence and concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POP) were assessed in surface sediments collected from a wide variety of wetlands located throughout the Mekong Basin in Myanmar, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Of the 39 POPs tested in 531 sediment samples, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and endrin were most commonly detected. Even though DDT was banned in the 1990s, some use of DDT may still be occurring in the Mekong Basin. The amount of metabolites for DDT—dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)—found, however, suggests that use of DDT is on the decline throughout the region. HCB and endrin were found distributed broadly throughout the Mekong Basin but not in high amounts. The concentration and distribution of endosulfan and its metabolites represent a serious problem requiring further study and management action. While the total loading of POPs in wetland sediments of the Mekong Basin was generally low, hotspot sites occurred where concentrations exceeded established ecological risk thresholds. For example, wetlands of the open, dry dipterocarp forest of northern Cambodia and Vietnam as well as wetlands in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam contained high concentrations of some POPs. High concentrations of POPs were detected in some wetlands important for biodiversity conservation. Hotspots identified in wetlands such as the Tonle Sap not only had concentrations of DDT and DDE that exceeded Canadian and U.S. benchmarks, but fauna sampled in the area also showed high degrees of bioaccumulation of the same substances. Further and more extensive attention to monitoring POP presence in water birds, fish, and other aquatic organisms is warranted because of the bioaccumulation of these chemicals at higher levels in the food chain. This study represents a collaboration of eight universities from

  19. Weed seed persistence and microbial abundance in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed seed persistence in soil can be influenced by many factors, including crop management. This research was conducted to determine whether organic management systems with higher organic amendments and soil microbial biomass could reduce weed seed persistence compared to conventional management sy...

  20. Environmental persistence of organic pollutants: guidance for development and review of POP risk profiles.

    PubMed

    Boethling, Robert; Fenner, Kathrin; Howard, P; Klecka, Gary; Madsen, Torben; Snape, Jason R; Whelan, Mick J

    2009-10-01

    Environmental persistence is an important property that can enhance the potential of a chemical substance to exert adverse effects and be transported to remote environments. The persistence of organic compounds is governed by the rates at which they are removed by biological and chemical processes, such as biodegradation, hydrolysis, atmospheric oxidation, and photolysis. The persistence workgroup in a recent Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston workshop (Pensacola, FL, USA, January 2008) focused on evaluating persistence of organic compounds in environmental media (air, water, soil, sediment) in terms of their single-medium degradation half-lives. The primary aim was to provide guidance to authors and reviewers of chemical dossiers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances (PBTs) proposed for action. A second objective was to provide a summary of the current state of the science with respect to POP fate assessment. Assessing the persistence of chemical substances in the environment is not straightforward. A common misconception is that, like many chemical properties, environmental persistence is an inherent property of the substance and can be readily measured. In fact, rates of degradation of a substance in the environment are determined by a combination of substance-specific properties and environmental conditions. This article addresses how persistence can be evaluated based on an assortment of supporting information. Special attention is given to several critical issues, including transformation products, nonextractable residues, and treatment of uncertainty and conflicting data as part of a weight-of-evidence assessment.

  1. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip H; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify commercial chemicals that might be persistent and bioaccumulative (P&B) and that were not being considered in current Great Lakes, North American, and Arctic contaminant measurement programs. We combined the Canadian Domestic Substance List (DSL), a list of 3059 substances of "unknown or variable composition complex reaction products and biological materials" (UVCBs), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Update Rule (IUR) database for years 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006 yielding a database of 22263 commercial chemicals. From that list, 610 chemicals were identified by estimates from U.S EPA EPISuite software and using expert judgment. This study has yielded some interesting and probable P&B chemicals that should be considered for further study. Recent studies, following up our initial reports and presentations on this work, have confirmed the presence of many of these chemicals in the environment.

  2. The origin and evolution of assessment criteria for persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Michael; Solomon, Keith; Vighi, Marco; Gilman, Andy; Tarazona, Jose V

    2016-09-14

    General public concern over the effects of persistent chemicals began in the early 1960s. Since then, significant scientific advances have increased our understanding of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals and the properties and processes that influence their fates in, and adverse effects on, human health and the environment. In addition to the scientific advances, a number of legislations and agreements for national, international, and global identification and control of PBT chemicals have been adopted. However, some of the rationales and thoughts that were relied upon when the first criteria were developed to identify and categorize PBT chemicals and then POPs (persistent organic pollutants) have not been carried forward. Criteria have been based upon available data of neutral hydrophobic substances as reference chemicals, derived under laboratory conditions. They evolved over the last decades due to the diversification of the protection aims under various national regulatory frameworks and international agreements, advances in methods for estimation of physical/chemical properties, and the identification of chemicals which are non-traditional POPs. Criteria are not defined purely by science; they also are subject to the aims of policy. This paper offers a historical perspective on the development of criteria for PBT chemicals and POPs. It also offers suggestions for rationalization of protection goals, describes some emerging procedures for identification of compounds of concern, and proposes information that needs to be considered when applying criteria to screening and/or evaluation of new chemicals. PMID:27477634

  3. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Chemicals with Emphasis on Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid growth in chemical and agrochemical industries during the past century have resulted in the release of large numbers of persistent organic chemicals (POCs) into the environment. Since POCs are prevalent in air, water, soil and tissue of organisms throughout the world and r...

  4. AGGREGATE EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AT DAY CARE AND AT HOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1997, we measured the aggregate exposures of nine preschool children, ages two to five years, to a suite of organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants that are commonly found in the home and school environment. The children attended either of t...

  5. Sphingomonas paucimobilis: a persistent Gram-negative nosocomial infectious organism.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P; Adley, C C

    2010-07-01

    Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli create a significant problem in clinical settings, being the most widespread cause of nosocomial infections. They are opportunistic pathogens that take advantage of underlying conditions and diseases. Sphingomonas paucimobilis, a non-fermenting Gram-negative bacillus, is regarded as of minor clinical significance; however, many instances of infections with this organism can be found in the literature. Infections include bacteraemia/septicaemia caused by contaminated solutions, e.g. distilled water, haemodialysis fluid and sterile drug solutions. Cases of pseudobacteraemia have been recorded in association with S. paucimobilis, as have many cases of unusual infections both invasive and severe, e.g. septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. No cases of death have been recorded in the literature related to S. paucimobilis. This review illustrates that S. paucimobilis is a more important pathogen than previously thought.

  6. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia.

  7. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. PMID:27281225

  8. Global-scale environmental transport of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Koziol, A S; Pudykiewicz, J A

    2001-12-01

    In order to realistically simulate both chemistry and transport of atmospheric organic pollutants, it is indispensable that the applied models explicitly include coupling between different components of the global environment such as atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and soil system. A model with such properties is presented. The atmospheric part of the model is based on the equations in a general contravariant form which permits easy changes of the coordinate system by redefining the metric tensor of a specifically employed coordinate system. Considering a need to include explicitly the terrain effects, the terrain following spherical coordinate system is chosen from among many possible coordinate systems. This particular system is a combination of the Gal-Chen coordinates, commonly employed in mesoscale meteorological models, and the spherical coordinates, typical for global atmospheric models. In addition to atmospheric transport, the model also simulates the exchange between air and different types of underlying surfaces such as water, soil, snow, and ice. This approach permits a realistic representation of absorption and delayed re-emission of pollutants from the surface to the atmosphere and, consequently, allows to capture hysteresis-like effects of the exchange between the atmosphere and the other components of the system. In this model, the most comprehensive numerical representation of the exchange is that for soil. In particular, the model includes a realistic soil module which simulates both diffusion and convection of a tracer driven by evaporation from the soil, precipitation, and gravity. The model is applied to a long-term simulation of the transport of pesticides (hexachlorocyclohexanes in particular). Emission fluxes from the soil are rigorously computed on the basis of the realistic data of the agricultural application. All four modelled systems, i.e. atmosphere, soil, hydrosphere and cryosphere, are driven by objectively analysed

  9. Multiplex screening of persistent organic pollutants in fish using spectrally encoded microspheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are food contaminants of global public health concern and known to be carcinogenic and endocrine disruptors. Their monitoring is essential and an easy-to-use, rapid and affordable multi-analyte screening method with simplified sample preparation can be a valuable...

  10. Comparative evaluation of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk: persistent organic pollutants and mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Tsakiris, I N; Kokkinakis, E; Dumanov, J M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Flouris, A D; Vlachou, M; Tsatsakis, A M

    2013-11-03

    Publications produced over the past 20 years regarding the concentration of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk were evaluated, focusing primarily on persistent organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, flame retardants), pesticides (e.g organochlorine) and mycotoxins. In general, countries of low industrialization rate present low levels of dietary milk contamination with dioxins compared to those with high rate of industrialization. According to published data, the most common persistent organic pollutants detected in breast and dietary milk are dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene. Even though the potential risks of persistent organic pollutants in human milk have been acknowledged, the beneficial effect of breastfeeding as the optimal food source for newborn babies should not be disregarded. Especially when sharing information with the general public, it should be made clear that the presence of dioxins and persistent organic pollutants in human milk is not an indication for avoiding breastfeeding. The implications of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk is a matter of growing importance and warrants future work given its important health effects.

  11. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of high biomass cover crops with organic mulches may be an option for no-till vegetable production, but mineralization rates from these residues is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess nutrient release rates and persistence from mimosa, lespedeza, oat straw, and soybean r...

  12. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open burning of waste is the most significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in many national inventories prepared pursuant to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This is particularly true for developing ...

  13. Array-Based Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants via Cyclodextrin Promoted Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Moyano, Daniel F.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the selective array-based detection of 30 persistent organic pollutants via cyclodextrin-promoted energy transfer. The use of three fluorophores enabled the development of an array that classified 30 analytes with 100% accuracy and identified unknown analytes with 96% accuracy, as well as identifying 92% of analytes in urine. PMID:26096542

  14. Intermolecular Electronic Coupling of Organic Units for Efficient Persistent Room‐Temperature Phosphorescence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Mao, Zhu; Zhang, Xuepeng; Ou, Depei; Mu, Yingxiao; Zhao, Cunyuan; Liu, Siwei; Xu, Jiarui; Wu, Yuan‐Chun; Lu, Po‐Yen; Lien, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although persistent room‐temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emission has been observed for a few pure crystalline organic molecules, there is no consistent mechanism and no universal design strategy for organic persistent RTP (pRTP) materials. A new mechanism for pRTP is presented, based on combining the advantages of different excited‐state configurations in coupled intermolecular units, which may be applicable to a wide range of organic molecules. By following this mechanism, we have developed a successful design strategy to obtain bright pRTP by utilizing a heavy halogen atom to further increase the intersystem crossing rate of the coupled units. RTP with a remarkably long lifetime of 0.28 s and a very high quantum efficiency of 5 % was thus obtained under ambient conditions. This strategy represents an important step in the understanding of organic pRTP emission. PMID:26836346

  15. Intermolecular Electronic Coupling of Organic Units for Efficient Persistent Room-Temperature Phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Mao, Zhu; Zhang, Xuepeng; Ou, Depei; Mu, Yingxiao; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Cunyuan; Liu, Siwei; Chi, Zhenguo; Xu, Jiarui; Wu, Yuan-Chun; Lu, Po-Yen; Lien, Alan; Bryce, Martin R

    2016-02-01

    Although persistent room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emission has been observed for a few pure crystalline organic molecules, there is no consistent mechanism and no universal design strategy for organic persistent RTP (pRTP) materials. A new mechanism for pRTP is presented, based on combining the advantages of different excited-state configurations in coupled intermolecular units, which may be applicable to a wide range of organic molecules. By following this mechanism, we have developed a successful design strategy to obtain bright pRTP by utilizing a heavy halogen atom to further increase the intersystem crossing rate of the coupled units. RTP with a remarkably long lifetime of 0.28 s and a very high quantum efficiency of 5 % was thus obtained under ambient conditions. This strategy represents an important step in the understanding of organic pRTP emission. PMID:26836346

  16. Screening of persistent organic pollutants by QSPR classification models: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2008-08-01

    A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPRs) study for the prediction of the environmental persistence of a set of 250 heterogeneous organic compounds is here presented. Three a priori defined classes of environmental persistence were generated, by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, from the combination of half-life data in air, water, soil and sediment available for all the studied compounds. QSPR classification models were successfully developed using different techniques (k-NN, CART and CP-ANN) and three interpretable theoretical molecular descriptors. Robust external validation was provided by statistical splitting and also on completely new data. The good performances of all these models were compared and their structural domains were analyzed. The analysis of the errors highlights a slight tendency of persistence overestimation, misclassifying chemicals from a lower to a higher class of persistence, in line with the precautionary principle. Finally, the reliability of the proposed QSPR models was verified further with new data from the literature. The structure-based classification models, applicable for the prediction of potential persistence of heterogeneous organic compounds, could be useful as preliminary support tools for the identification and prioritization of new potential POPs among already existing chemicals as well as "screening prior to synthesis" procedures to avoid the production, and consequent release into the environment, of new POPs.

  17. STUDY DESIGN FOR A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC PESTICIDES "CTEPP"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study is one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examines the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary ad...

  18. Persistence and Stability of Teflubenzuron and Diflubenzuron When Associated to Organic Particles in Marine Sediment.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Ole B

    2016-02-01

    The persistence and stability of the oral administered anti salmon-lice drugs teflubenzuron and diflubenzuron were tested when associated to organic material as faecal particles from Atlantic salmon and medicated food pellets. This laboratory study was performed in seawater under aerobic conditions, at 7°C in the dark and showed that both compounds were remarkably persistent and stable since no significant reduction in the concentrations of flubenzurons in sediment were seen after 24 weeks. Therefore neither chemical or microbial degradation nor outwashing seems to be important pathways for these drugs to disappear from sediment under fish farms. Thus, it is more likely that the decrease of flubenzurons from marine sediments described in field investigations is caused by either bioturbation, resuspension of organic particles or a combination of these.

  19. Levels and profiles of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants in surface soils from Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, G R; Cai, M W; Zheng, M H; Nie, Z Q; Liu, W B; Lv, P; Su, G J; Gao, L R; Xiao, K

    2011-05-01

    Six species of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutions comprised of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene in soils collected from Shanxi province, China were determined. The sum toxic equivalent ranged from 0.14 to 2.20 with an average of 0.94 pg TEQ/g. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans contributed the most toxic proportion to the total toxic equivalent. CB-126 was the most toxic contributor to polychlorinated biphenyls. CN66/67 and CN73 are the dominant toxic congeners to polychlorinated naphthalenes. From the patterns, it was speculated that thermal related industries were possible sources of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutions.

  20. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. A mesoporous metal–organic framework based on a shape-persistent macrocycle

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Teng -Hao; Popov, Ilya; Chuang, Yu -Chun; Chen, Yu -Sheng; Miljani, Ognjen S.

    2015-08-26

    A mesoporous Zn-based metal–organic framework (MOF) was prepared from a shape-persistent phenylene ethynylene macrocycle functionalized with three –COOH groups. The rigid ligand has a ~ 9 Å wide central cavity which serves as a predesigned pore. The macrocycles [ππ] stack into pairs, with their carboxylate groups connected via three Zn₃O₁₄C₆H₂ clusters. The resulting MOF has a void volume of 86%.

  2. Equilibrium sampling to determine the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants from sediment.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wickström, Håkan; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-10-01

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) to lipid-normalized concentrations for a range of biota from a Swedish background lake. PCBs in duck mussels, roach, eel, pikeperch, perch and pike were mostly below the equilibrium partitioning level relative to the sediment, i.e., lipid-normalized concentrations were ≤CLip⇌Sed, whereas HCB was near equilibrium between biota and sediment. Equilibrium sampling allows straightforward, sensitive and precise measurement of CLip⇌Sed. We propose CLip⇌Sed as a metric of the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals from sediment useful to prioritize management actions to remediate contaminated sites.

  3. Blast from the past: melting glaciers as a relevant source for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may represent a secondary source of persistent organic chemicals is investigated. To this end, a dated sediment core from a glacier-fed lake (Lake Oberaar, Switzerland) was analyzed for a wide range of persistent organic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, and synthetic musk fragrances. Input fluxes of all organochlorines increased in the 1950s, peaked in the 1960s-1970s, and decreased again to low levels in the 1980s-1990s. This observation reflects the emission history of these compounds and technical improvements and regulations leading to reduced emissions some decades ago. The input of synthetic musks remained at a high level in the 1950s-1990s, which is consistent with their relatively constant production throughout the second half of the 20th century. Since the late 1990s, input of all compound classes into the high-Alpine Lake Oberaar has increased sharply. Currently, input fluxes of organochlorines are similar to or even higher than in the 1960s-1970s. This second peak supports the hypothesis that there is a relevant release of persistent organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive glacier melting predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for dire environmental impacts due to pollutants delivered into pristine mountainous areas.

  4. A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the

  5. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  6. Effect of moisture and organic manure on persistence of flubendiamide in soil.

    PubMed

    Das, Shaon Kumar; Mukherjee, Irani

    2012-04-01

    Persistence of flubendiamide in soil as affected by moisture and organic manure was studied. The present study reports persistence of flubendiamide [N (2)-{1,1-dimethyl-2-{methylsulfonyl) ethyl}-3-iodo-N (1)-{2-methyl-4-{1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro-1 (trifluoromethyl) ethyl} phenyl}-1,2-benzene dicarboxamide] in a sandy loam soil. Dissipation of the pesticide followed mono-phasic first order kinetics. The persistence of flubendiamide was more in dry soil followed by field capacity and submerged condition with half life values of 150.5-158.4 days for submerged soil, 177.0-181.1 days for field capacity soil and 206.6-215.0 days for dry soil. It was found that there is slight effect of fortification level on dissipation of flubendiamide in soil. In all the cases i.e. dry, field capacity and submerged condition dissipation was slightly slower at 10 μg g(-1) level. Amendment of organic manure (2.5%) to the soil enhanced the degradation of the insecticide, and the half-life values in field capacity and submerged soils were 155.1 and 130.8 days, respectively.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of persistent organic pollutants in the surroundings of various industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holoubek, I.; Helesic, J.; Kocan, A.; Pokorny, B.

    1995-12-31

    During the last decade several studies have been carried out aimed at improving the knowledge on the behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Evidence has been found that many of these compounds create serious problems due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Examples of POPs that behave in this way are polychlorinated pesticides, industrial compounds (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls) and some degradation, industrial, and combustion by-products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene). Although work has been done in order to understand the fate, behavior, and effects of POPs, less information is available on environmental cycling (migration) of these compounds through various environmental media. The major reason for this deficiency in the knowledge is related to a lack of detailed information on emissions of POPs and the parameters affecting their migration through the environment under various meteorological, chemical and physical conditions.

  8. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution.

  9. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport.

  10. Persistent photocurrent (PPC) in solution-processed organic thin film transistors: Mechanisms of gate voltage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Subhash; Mohapatra, Y. N.

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing need to understand mechanisms of photoresponse in devices based on organic semiconductor thin films and interfaces. The phenomenon of persistent photocurrent (PPC) has been systematically investigated in solution processed TIPS-Pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) as an important example of an organic semiconductor material system. With increasing light intensity from dark to 385 mW/cm2, there is a significant shift in threshold voltage (VTh) while the filed-effect mobility remains unchanged. The OTFT shows large photoresponse under white light illumination due to exponential tail states with characteristic energy parameter of 86 meV. The photo-induced current is observed to persist even for several hours after turning the light off. To investigate the origin of PPC, its quenching mechanism is investigated by a variety of methods involving a combination of gate bias, illumination and temperature. We show that a coherent model of trap-charge induced carrier concentration is able to account for the quenching behavior. Analysis of isothermal transients using time-analyzed transient spectroscopy shows that the emission rates are activated and are also field enhanced due to Poole-Frankel effect. The results shed light on the nature, origin, and energetic distribution of the traps controlling PPC in solution processed organic semiconductors and their interfaces.

  11. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport. PMID:24654605

  12. Biodegradation of persistent organics can overcome adsorption-desorption hysteresis in biological activated carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, V; Racys, V; van der Marel, P; Meulepas, R J W

    2016-04-01

    In Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) systems, persistent organic pollutants can be removed through a combination of adsorption, desorption and biodegradation. These processes might be affected by the presence of other organics, especially by the more abundant easily-biodegradable organics, like acetate. In this research these relations are quantified for the removal of the persistent pharmaceutical metoprolol. Acetate did not affect the adsorption and desorption of metoprolol, but it did greatly enhance the metoprolol biodegradation. At least part of the BAC biomass growing on acetate was also able to metabolise metoprolol, although metoprolol was only converted after the acetate was depleted. The presence of easily-degradable organics like acetate in the feeding water is therefore beneficial for the removal of metoprolol in BAC systems. The isotherms obtained from metoprolol adsorption and desorption experiments showed that BAC systems are subject to hysteresis; for AC bioregeneration to take place the microbial biomass has to reduce the concentration at the AC-biomass interface 2.7 times compared to the concentration at which the carbon was being loaded. However, given the threshold concentration of the MET degrading microorganisms (<0.08 μg/L) versus the average influent concentration (1.3 μg/L), bioregeneration is feasible.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses after fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Zecchin; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2015-04-15

    A fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station on February 25th, 2012 led to the burning of material that produced organic pollutants. To evaluate the impact in the surrounding area, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in moss samples collected in the vicinities of the station before and after the incident and compared to findings from previous studies in the same region. PCBs were on the same magnitude as that reported in previous studies, which could be associated to the global dispersion of these compounds and may not be related to the local fire. In contrast, concentrations of HCB and PAHs were higher than those reported in previous studies. No PBDEs were found above the method detection limit. Organic contaminant concentrations in mosses decreased a few months after the fire, which is an important characteristic when considering the use of mosses for monitoring recent exposure.

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic organisms off Adélie Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Goutte, A; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Chastel, O; Cherel, Y; Eléaume, M; Massé, G

    2013-12-15

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) were described in benthic and pelagic species collected off Adélie Land, Antarctica. Strong differences were observed among species, with reduced PeCB and HCB levels in benthic species, and elevated PCB levels in the Antarctic yellowbelly rockcod, the Antarctic sea urchin and the snow petrel. Lower-chlorinated congeners were predominant in krill; penta-PCBs in benthic organisms; hexa- and hepta-PCBs in seabirds and cryopelagic fish. This segregation may result from sedimentation process, specific accumulation and excretion, and/or biotransformation processes. The presence of PBDEs in Antarctic coastal organisms may originate from atmospheric transport and partly from a contamination by local sources. Although POP levels in Antarctic marine organisms were substantially lower than in Arctic and temperate organisms, very little is known about their toxic effects on these cold-adapted species, with high degree of endemism. PMID:24237994

  15. Persistence and potential effects of complex organic contaminant mixtures in wastewater-impacted streams.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Keefe, Steffanie H; Brown, Greg K; Furlong, Edward T; Gray, James L; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Sandstrom, Mark W; Zaugg, Steven D

    2013-03-01

    Natural and synthetic organic contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can cause ecosystem impacts, raising concerns about their persistence in receiving streams. In this study, Lagrangian sampling, in which the same approximate parcel of water is tracked as it moves downstream, was conducted at Boulder Creek, Colorado and Fourmile Creek, Iowa to determine in-stream transport and attenuation of organic contaminants discharged from two secondary WWTPs. Similar stream reaches were evaluated, and samples were collected at multiple sites during summer and spring hydrologic conditions. Travel times to the most downstream (7.4 km) site in Boulder Creek were 6.2 h during the summer and 9.3 h during the spring, and to the Fourmile Creek 8.4 km downstream site times were 18 and 8.8 h, respectively. Discharge was measured at each site, and integrated composite samples were collected and analyzed for >200 organic contaminants including metal complexing agents, nonionic surfactant degradates, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and pesticides. The highest concentration (>100 μg L(-1)) compounds detected in both WWTP effluents were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylate oligomers, both of which persisted for at least 7 km downstream from the WWTPs. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals were lower (<1 μg L(-1)), and several compounds, including carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole, were detected throughout the study reaches. After accounting for in-stream dilution, a complex mixture of contaminants showed little attenuation and was persistent in the receiving streams at concentrations with potential ecosystem implications. PMID:23398602

  16. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Harden, Jennifer W.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kleber, Markus; Burton, Sarah D.; Harte, John

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) processes in dynamic landscapes are strongly influenced by soil erosion and sedimentation. We determined the contribution of physical isolation of organic matter (OM) inside aggregates, chemical interaction of OM with soil minerals, and molecular structure of SOM in controlling storage and persistence of SOM in different types of eroding and depositional landform positions. By combining density fractionation with elemental and spectroscopic analyses, we showed that SOM in depositional settings is less transformed and better preserved than SOM in eroding landform positions. However, which environmental factors exert primary control on storage and persistence of SOM depended on the nature of the landform position considered. In an annual grassland watershed, protection of SOM by physical isolation inside aggregates and chemical association of organic matter (complexation) with soil minerals, as assessed by correlation with radiocarbon concentration, were more effective in the poorly drained, lowest-lying depositional landform positions, compared to well-drained landform positions in the upper parts of the watershed. Results of this study demonstrated that processes of soil erosion and deposition are important mechanisms of long-term OM stabilization.

  17. Vitrification: Destroying and immobilizing hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Peters, R.D.; Perez, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Researchers at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have led the development of vitrification a versatile adaptable process that transforms waste solutions, slurries, moist powder and/or dry solids into a chemically durable glass form. The glass form can be safely disposed or used for other purposes, such as construction material if non-radioactive. The feed used in the process can be either combustible or non-combustible. Organic compounds are decomposed in the melters` plenum, while the inorganic residue melts into a molten glass pool. The glass produced by this process is a chemically durable material comparable to natural obsidian. Its properties typically allow it to pass the EPA Toxicity (TCLP) test as non-hazardous. To date, no glass produced by vitrification has failed the TCLP test. Vitrification is thus an ideal method of treating DOE`s mixed waste because of its ability to destroy organic compounds and bind toxic or radioactive elements. This article provides an overview of the technology.

  18. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobby, R.; Pagano, L.; Grannas, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is well established that ice is a reactive medium in the environment and that active photochemistry occurs in frozen systems. Snow and ice contain a number of absorbing species including nitrate, peroxide and organic matter. Upon irradiation, they can generate a variety of reactive intermediates such as hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. It has been shown that dissolved organic matter is a ubiquitous component of snow and ice and plays an important role in overall light absorption properties of the sample. Additionally, the reactive intermediates produced can further react with contaminants present and alter their fate in the environment. Unfortunately, the role of dissolved organic matter in ice photochemistry has received little attention. Here we present results from laboratory-based studies aimed at elucidating the role of dissolved organic matter photochemistry on contaminant degradation in ice. Aqueous samples of our target pollutant, aldrin (20 μg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Results indicated that frozen samples degraded more quickly than liquid samples and that the addition of dissolved organic matter increases the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Both terrestrial (Suwannee River, U.S.) and microbial sources (Pony Lake, Antarctica) of DOM were able to sensitize aldrin loss in ice. Scavengers of singlet oxygen, such as furfuryl alcohol and β-carotene, were also added to DOM solutions. Based on the type of organic matter present, the scavengers had different effects on the photochemical degradation of aldrin. Our results indicate that natural organic matter present in ice is an important component of ice photochemical processes.

  19. The relation of phase distributions of persistent organic pollutants to estimated fate and human exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, L.; McKone, T.; Daisey, J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how advanced measurement technologies for determination of the gas and particulate phase distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can, with appropriate modeling efforts, lead to better understanding of how atmospheric phase distribution impacts exposure persistence or half-life. New data collected in California with both conventional and diffusion-denuder-based samplers are used to (1) assess the direction and magnitude of sampling biases in existing databases of POPs including organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and (2) compare predictions of persistence and half life using a regional fugacity exposure model (CalTOX). For many POPs, there are data quality problems in measurements of the partitioning between the gas phase and airborne particulate matter, between the gas phase and soils, and between the gas phase and vegetation. Whether intermedia transport takes place in gas or particulate phase can have a strong impact of the estimated persistence of potential human and ecosystem exposure. Most phase distribution measurements use filters followed by adsorbents to determining the relative concentrations of particulate-phase and gas-phase SVOC. In these measurements use filters followed by adsorbents to determining the relative concentrations of particulate-phase and gas-phase SVOC. In these systems, desorption of semi-volatile compounds form the particles on the filters, or adsorption of gases by the filter materials can lead to incorrect measurements of gas- and particulate-phase concentrations. Because the gas phase is collected before the particulate phase, diffusion denuder technology provides a less artifact-encumbered approach for accurate determination of phase distributions of semivolatile species.

  20. Review Article: Persistent organic pollutants and landfills - a review of past experiences and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin; Oliaei, Fardin

    2011-01-01

    The landfilling and dumping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other persistent hazardous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohaxane (HCH), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) can have significant adverse environmental consequences. This paper reviews past experiences with such disposal practices and highlights their unsustainability due to the risks of contamination of ecosystems, the food chain, together with ground and drinking water supplies. The use and associated disposal of POPs have been occurring for over 50 years. Concurrent with the phase-out of some of the most hazardous chemicals, the production of new POPs, such as brominated and fluorinated compounds has increased since the 1990s. These latter compounds are commonly used in a wide range of consumer goods, and as consumer products reach the end of their useful lives, ultimately enter waste recycling and disposal systems, in particular at municipal landfills. Because of their very slow, or lack of degradability, POPs will persist in landfills for many decades and possibly centuries. Over these extended time periods engineered landfill systems and their liners are likely to degrade, thus posing a contemporary and future risk of releasing large contaminant loads to the environment. This review highlights the necessity for alternative disposal methods for POP wastes, including destruction or complete removal from potential environmental release. In addition to such end of pipe solutions a policy change in the use pattern of persistent toxic chemicals is inevitable. In addition, inventories for the location and quantity of POPs in landfills, together with an assessment of their threat to ecosystems, drinking water and food resources are identified as key measures to facilitate appropriate management of risks. Finally the challenges of POP wastes in transition/developing countries, the risk of increased leaching of POPs from

  1. Review Article: Persistent organic pollutants and landfills - a review of past experiences and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin; Oliaei, Fardin

    2011-01-01

    The landfilling and dumping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other persistent hazardous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohaxane (HCH), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) can have significant adverse environmental consequences. This paper reviews past experiences with such disposal practices and highlights their unsustainability due to the risks of contamination of ecosystems, the food chain, together with ground and drinking water supplies. The use and associated disposal of POPs have been occurring for over 50 years. Concurrent with the phase-out of some of the most hazardous chemicals, the production of new POPs, such as brominated and fluorinated compounds has increased since the 1990s. These latter compounds are commonly used in a wide range of consumer goods, and as consumer products reach the end of their useful lives, ultimately enter waste recycling and disposal systems, in particular at municipal landfills. Because of their very slow, or lack of degradability, POPs will persist in landfills for many decades and possibly centuries. Over these extended time periods engineered landfill systems and their liners are likely to degrade, thus posing a contemporary and future risk of releasing large contaminant loads to the environment. This review highlights the necessity for alternative disposal methods for POP wastes, including destruction or complete removal from potential environmental release. In addition to such end of pipe solutions a policy change in the use pattern of persistent toxic chemicals is inevitable. In addition, inventories for the location and quantity of POPs in landfills, together with an assessment of their threat to ecosystems, drinking water and food resources are identified as key measures to facilitate appropriate management of risks. Finally the challenges of POP wastes in transition/developing countries, the risk of increased leaching of POPs from

  2. Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-02-01

    Microplastics have the potential to uptake and release persistent organic pollutants (POPs); however, subsequent transfer to marine organisms is poorly understood. Some models estimating transfer of sorbed contaminants to organisms neglect the role of gut surfactants under differing physiological conditions in the gut (varying pH and temperature), examined here. We investigated the potential for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to sorb and desorb (14)C-DDT, (14)C-phenanthrene (Phe), (14)C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and (14)C-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Desorption rates of POPs were quantified in seawater and under simulated gut conditions. Influence of pH and temperature was examined in order to represent cold and warm blooded organisms. Desorption rates were faster with gut surfactant, with a further substantial increase under conditions simulating warm blooded organisms. Desorption under gut conditions could be up to 30 times greater than in seawater alone. Of the POP/plastic combinations examined Phe with PE gave the highest potential for transport to organisms.

  3. Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-02-01

    Microplastics have the potential to uptake and release persistent organic pollutants (POPs); however, subsequent transfer to marine organisms is poorly understood. Some models estimating transfer of sorbed contaminants to organisms neglect the role of gut surfactants under differing physiological conditions in the gut (varying pH and temperature), examined here. We investigated the potential for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to sorb and desorb (14)C-DDT, (14)C-phenanthrene (Phe), (14)C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and (14)C-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Desorption rates of POPs were quantified in seawater and under simulated gut conditions. Influence of pH and temperature was examined in order to represent cold and warm blooded organisms. Desorption rates were faster with gut surfactant, with a further substantial increase under conditions simulating warm blooded organisms. Desorption under gut conditions could be up to 30 times greater than in seawater alone. Of the POP/plastic combinations examined Phe with PE gave the highest potential for transport to organisms. PMID:24212067

  4. Are there other persistent organic pollutants? A challenge for environmental chemists.

    PubMed

    Muir, Derek C G; Howard, Philip H

    2006-12-01

    The past 5 years have seen some major successes in terms of global measurement and regulation of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PB&T) chemicals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The Stockholm Convention, a global agreement on POPs, came into force in 2004. There has been a major expansion of measurements and risk assessments of new chemical contaminants in the global environment, particularly brominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated alkyl acids. However, the list of chemicals measured represents only a small fraction of the approximately 30,000 chemicals widely used in commerce (>1 t/y). The vast majority of existing and new chemical substances in commerce are not monitored in environmental media. Assessment and screening of thousands of existing chemicals in commerce in the United States, Europe, and Canada have yielded lists of potentially persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals. Here we review recent screening and categorization studies of chemicals in commerce and address the question of whether there is now sufficient information to permit a broader array of chemicals to be determined in environmental matrices. For example, Environment Canada's recent categorization of the Domestic (existing) Substances list, using a wide array of quantitative structure activity relationships for PB&T characteristics, has identified about 5.5% of 11,317 substances as meeting P & B criteria. Using data from the Environment Canada categorization, we have listed, for discussion purposes, 30 chemicals with high predicted bioconcentration and low rate of biodegradation and 28 with long range atmospheric transport potential based on predicted atmospheric oxidation half-lives >2 days and log air-water partition coefficients > or =5 and < or =1. These chemicals are a diverse group including halogenated organics, cyclic siloxanes, and substituted aromatics. Some of these chemicals and their transformation products may be candidates for future environmental

  5. An arctic terrestrial food-chain bioaccumulation model for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Barry C; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2003-07-01

    A model representing the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic terrestrial mammalian food-chains is developed, parametrized, tested, and analyzed. The model predicts concentrations of POPs in lichen, caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and wolf (Canis lupus) food-chains of Canada's central and western arctic region from measured concentrations in air and snowpack meltwater. The model accounts for temporal and seasonal variation in diet composition, life-stage, body weight, and fat content over the life-span of the animal. Model predicted concentrations of 25 organic chemicals forecasted for caribou and wolves from Cambridge Bay (69 degrees 07' N 105 degrees 03' W), Inuvik (68 degrees 18' N 133 degrees 29' W) and Bathurst Inlet (64 degrees 15' N 113 degrees 07' W) are shown to be in good agreement with the observed data. The model illustrates a strong relationship between biomagnification factors and chemical K(OA) and illustrates the effect of age, sex, and temperature on POPs bioaccumulation. Model results show that POPs with K(OA)s < 10(5) do not biomagnify in arctic terrestrial food-chains, while substances that exhibit log K(OA)s > 5 and also exhibit a log K(OW) > 2, show significant bioaccumulation in arctic terrestrial food-chains. The model shows that persistent low K(OW) (K(OW)s < 10(5)) but high K(OA) substances such as beta-HCH, 1,2,4,5 tetrachlorobenzene, and beta-endosulfan biomagnify in terrestrial mammals. PMID:12875402

  6. Assessment of secondary sources of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including highly toxic pesticides and other chemicals accumulate in living tissues and magnify in food chains. POPs are subject to long-range transport and hence represent a serious public health issue even in regions where their production is regulated. Rational control strategies require an understanding of the overall relationship between environmental emissions of contaminants and environmental / human exposure. In this study, we assess the relationships between environmental emissions and potential human exposure of organic contaminants with emphasis on long-range atmospheric transport. We investigate whether atmospheric levels of POPs measured at Zeppelin observatory in Svalbard since the early '90s are controlled by primary or secondary emissions. We present statistical indications that the measurements are affected by secondary ocean emissions and discuss the applicability of different inverse modeling approaches.

  7. Fuzzy model for risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Seguí, X; Pujolasus, E; Betrò, S; Agueda, A; Casal, J; Ocampo-Duque, W; Rudolph, I; Barra, R; Páez, M; Barón, E; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D; Darbra, R M

    2013-07-01

    We developed a model for evaluating the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to aquatic organisms. The model is based on fuzzy theory and uses information provided by international experts through a questionnaire. It has been tested in two case studies for a particular type of POPs: brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The first case study is related to the EU-funded AQUATERRA project, with sampling campaigns carried out in two Ebro tributaries in Spain (the Cinca and Vero Rivers). The second one, named the BROMACUA project, assessed different aquatic ecosystems in Chile (San Vicente Bay) and Colombia (Santa Marta Marsh). In both projects, the BFRs under study were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). However, the model can be extrapolated to other POPs and to different aquatic ecosystems to provide useful results for decision-makers. PMID:23524177

  8. 34 CFR 5.18 - Destroyed records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified form or character are destroyed after the lapse of time specified in the Records Disposal Act of 1943 (44 U.S.C. 366-380), the Federal Property Management Regulations (41 CFR parts 101-111), and...

  9. Elevated mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the soil of a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Nizzetto, Luca; Liu, Xiang; Borgå, Katrine; Starrfelt, Jostein; Li, Jun; Jiang, Yishan; Liu, Xin; Jones, Kevin C; Zhang, Gan

    2015-04-01

    Semivolatile persistent organic pollutants (POP) are bioaccumulative and toxic contaminants. Their global distribution depends on source distribution, atmospheric transport, degradation, and the exchange with ocean and land surfaces. Forests are crucial terrestrial reservoirs due to the commonly envisaged high capacity of their surface soils to store and immobilize airborne contaminants bound to soil organic matter. Our results show that POPs can be unexpectedly mobile in the soil of a tropical rainforest due to fast litter turnover (leading to rapid POP transfer to the subsoil) and leaching rates exceeding degradation rates especially for more hydrophobic congeners. Co-transport in association with leaching fine particulate and dissolved organic matter appears as a relevant driver of this PCB export. A markedly different distribution pattern is displayed in this soil in comparison to soils of colder environments with lower overall storage capacity. These findings show that biogeochemistry of organic matter degradation and weathering can influence POP soil fate. Because tropical forests represent 60% of the global terrestrial productivity, the highlighted dynamics might have an implication for the general distribution of these contaminants.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants and anti-thyroid peroxidase levels in Akwesasne Mohawk young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs, HCB and DDE, have been found to elicit a broad spectrum of biologic, metabolic, and immunologic responses. The potential of these pollutants to impair immune responses and trigger autoimmune disease is of growing concern, given their structural similarity to thyroid hormones and their potential to modulate the mechanisms and interfere with the binding of these hormones. We examine the relationship of different groupings of PCBs, according to chlorination and structure, and of p,p’-DDE and HCB to anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody, a useful tool in the evaluation of thyroid dysfunction, among 115 young adults of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation. Overall, eighteen participants (15.4%) had TPOAb levels above the normal laboratory reference range (23% of females, 9% of males). Among participants who were breast fed (n=47), those with an elevated TPOAb level had significantly higher levels of all PCB groupings, with the exception of levels of non-persistent PCBs which did not differ significantly. Levels of p,p’-DDE were also significantly elevated, while HCB and mirex were not higher among those with elevated TPOAb. Also, after stratifying by breast feeding status, participants who were breast fed showed significant, positive relationships between TPOAb levels and all PCB groupings, except groups comprised of non-persistent PCBs, and with p,p’-DDE, HCB, and mirex. No effects were evident among non-breastfed young adults. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the site and mechanism of action of these POPs and to establish thresholds for these effects, especially among populations with background levels of toxicant exposure. PMID:18995849

  11. Remote sensing and GIS for the modeling of persistent organic pollutant in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzini, S.; Teggi, S.; Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-10-01

    The characterization of the marine environment plays an important role in the understanding of the dynamics affecting the transport, fate and persistence (TFP) of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This work is part of a project funded by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca. The aim of the project is the assessment of the TFP of POPs in the Mediterranean sea. The analysis will be carried out at regionalmesoscale (central Mediterranean), and at local spatial scale considering different Italian test sites (the Delta of the Po River, the Venice Lagoon and the estuary of the Rio Nocella). The first step of this work involves the implementation of GIS geodatabases for the definition of the input dataset. The geodatabases were populated with MERIS and MODIS level 2 and level 3 products of Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient (DAC), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The spatial scale (central Mediterranean sea) and the reference system (Plate Carrée projection) have been imposed as a constraint for the geodatabases. Four geodatabases have been implemented, two for MODIS and two for MERIS products with a monthly, seasonal and climatological temporal scale (2002 -2013). Here, we present a first application of a methodology aimed to identify vulnerable areas to POPs accumulation and persistence. The methodology allowed to assess the spatial distribution of the CHL-a in the central Mediterranean sea. The chlorophyll concentration is related to the amount of nutrients in the water and therefore provides an indicator of the potential presence of POPs. A pilot area of 300 x 200 km located in the North Adriatic sea has been initially considered. The seasonal and climatological MODIS and MERIS CHL-a variability were retrieved and compared with in-situ forcing parameters, i.e. Po River

  12. Multimatrix measurement of persistent organic pollutants in Mar Chiquita, a continental saline shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, M L; Miglioranza, K S B; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Wunderlin, D A; Bistoni, M A

    2014-08-15

    RAMSAR sites are determined by specific characteristics of the environment in terms of ecological productivity as well services for human development, but they are also one of the most threatened ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamic of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in different biotic and abiotic matrixes of the RAMSAR site (wetlands with international importance), Mar Chiquita Lake. Sampling was performed according to land use (agricultural, urban, and industrial) at two stations: Laguna del Plata and Campo Mare. POPs were analyzed in superficial water (Sw), suspended particulate material (SPM), bottom sediment (Bs) and fish tissues (Odontesthes bonariensis). Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed by GC-ECD. HCHs, Endosulfans, DDTs, PCBs and PBDEs were found in all matrixes at both stations. The high persistence and transport processes are responsible for the occurrence of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Bs, SPM and fish tissues, even many years after their prohibition. PBDEs showed lower levels according to the scarcity of punctual sources in the area. Endosulfan showed variable amounts in agreement with application periods since this pesticide was used until a few years ago in this area. Finally, PCB levels overpassed the acceptable daily intake for human consumption being a risk for human health Thus, the present report confirms the occurrence of POPs in Mar Chiquita lake, alerting on the contribution of agricultural and urban pollutants in a RAMSAR site. Current results also raise concerns on biomagnification processes through the food web.

  13. Multimatrix measurement of persistent organic pollutants in Mar Chiquita, a continental saline shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, M L; Miglioranza, K S B; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Wunderlin, D A; Bistoni, M A

    2014-08-15

    RAMSAR sites are determined by specific characteristics of the environment in terms of ecological productivity as well services for human development, but they are also one of the most threatened ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamic of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in different biotic and abiotic matrixes of the RAMSAR site (wetlands with international importance), Mar Chiquita Lake. Sampling was performed according to land use (agricultural, urban, and industrial) at two stations: Laguna del Plata and Campo Mare. POPs were analyzed in superficial water (Sw), suspended particulate material (SPM), bottom sediment (Bs) and fish tissues (Odontesthes bonariensis). Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed by GC-ECD. HCHs, Endosulfans, DDTs, PCBs and PBDEs were found in all matrixes at both stations. The high persistence and transport processes are responsible for the occurrence of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Bs, SPM and fish tissues, even many years after their prohibition. PBDEs showed lower levels according to the scarcity of punctual sources in the area. Endosulfan showed variable amounts in agreement with application periods since this pesticide was used until a few years ago in this area. Finally, PCB levels overpassed the acceptable daily intake for human consumption being a risk for human health Thus, the present report confirms the occurrence of POPs in Mar Chiquita lake, alerting on the contribution of agricultural and urban pollutants in a RAMSAR site. Current results also raise concerns on biomagnification processes through the food web. PMID:24840282

  14. Experimental investigations of the entrapment and persistence of organic liquid contaminants in the subsurface environment.

    PubMed Central

    Abriola, L M; Bradford, S A

    1998-01-01

    Organic liquids are common polluters of the subsurface environment. Once released, these nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) tend to become entrapped within soils and geologic formations where they may serve as long-term contaminant reservoirs. The interphase mass transfer from such entrapped residuals will ultimately control environmental exposure levels as well as the persistence and/or remedial recovery of these contaminants in the subsurface. This paper summarizes National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-sponsored research designed to investigate and quantify NAPL entrapment and interphase mass transfer in natural porous media. Results of soil column and batch experiments are presented that highlight research findings over the past several years. These experiments explore dissolution and volatilization of hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in sandy porous media. Initial concentration levels and long-term recovery rates are shown to depend on fluid flow rate, soil structure, NAPL composition, and soil wetting characteristics. These observations are explained in the context of conceptual models that describe entrapped NAPL morphology and boundary layer transport. The implications of these laboratory findings on the subsurface persistence and recovery of entrapped NAPLs are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 9 PMID:9703497

  15. Current Status and Regulatory Aspects of Pesticides Considered to be Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2010-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. The information about their environmental properties, banned use, carcinogenic toxicity and environmental levels, can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Council of Agriculture, and Council of Labor Affairs). The significant progress to be reported is that the residual levels of these pesticide-POPs, ranging from trace amounts to a few ppb, have declined notably in recent years. PMID:21139852

  16. Biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere with mosses: performance and application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qimei; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have aroused environmentalists and public concerns due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. However, monitoring atmospheric POPs using conventional instrumental methods is difficult and expensive, and POP levels in air samples represent an instantaneous value at a sampling time. Biomonitoring methods can overcome this limitation, because biomonitors can accumulate POPs, serve as long-term integrators of POPs and provide reliable information to assess the impact of pollutants on the biota and various ecosystems. Recently, mosses are increasingly employed to monitor atmospheric POPs. Mosses have been applied to indicate POP pollution levels in the remote continent of Antarctica, trace distribution of POPs in the vicinity of pollution sources, describe the spatial patterns at the regional scale, and monitor the changes in the pollution intensity along time. In the future, many aspects need to be improved and strengthened: (i) the relationship between the concentrations of POPs in mosses and in the atmosphere (different size particulates and vapor phases); and (ii) the application of biomonitoring with mosses in human health studies.

  17. Effect of Temperature, Grain Size and Organic Content on Persistence of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Aquatic Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, N. T.; Juhl, A. R.; O'Mullan, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic bacteria from poorly treated sewage present a health threat in recreational waters. Sewage derived bacteria can attach to particles and sink to the bottom, where they may persist longer than in the water column. If sewage derived bacteria persist, contaminated sediments may function as a reservoir for indicator bacteria and pathogens that can be resuspended, recontaminating the water column. We quantified the persistence of the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp., in aquatic sediment microcosms in relation to sediment organic content, grain size and temperature. Surface sediment used for microcosms came from 5 near shore Hudson River estuary sites with different grain size distributions and organic content. Sediments from each location were divided into three separate containers that were then incubated in darkness at 18°, 25° and 30° C for several weeks. Subsamples were collected from each microcosm approximately weekly to track the decay of the FIB as a function of time. Duration required for 90% decay in different microcosms ranged from 6.7 to 63 days for E. coli and 5.1 to 60 days for Enterococcus sp., longer than has been typically observed in the water column. Our measurements of E. coli persistence were also longer than described in previous work. We found that E. coli persistence was strongly related to temperature with faster decay at higher temperatures. In contrast, Enterococcus sp. persistence was weakly related to temperature but was strongly related to sediment organic content and grain size distribution with decay rate increasing in sediments of low organic content and coarser grain size. Quantification of FIB persistence in sediment reservoirs can be used in water quality and public health predictions. The contrasting responses of E. coli and Enterococcus sp. persistence to sediment characteristics implies different suitability as indicators depending on environmental conditions.

  18. Topological insulators based on 2D shape-persistent organic ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qionghua; Wang, Jinlan; Chwee, Tsz Sian; Wu, Gang; Wang, Xiaobai; Ye, Qun; Xu, Jianwei; Yang, Shuo-Wang

    2015-01-14

    Topological insulators (TIs) represent an exciting new class of materials with potential applications in spintronics and quantum computing. In this work, we present a theoretical study on a new family of two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials based on the coordination of shape persistent organic ligands (SPOLs) to heavy transition metal ions such as Pd(2+) and Pt(2+). These 2D structures may be readily fabricated and are expected to be stable under normal atmospheric conditions. From first principles calculations and tight-binding model simulations carried out to characterize the bulk band structures, edge states, spin Chern numbers, and the Z2 topological invariants, we were able to identify candidates with non-trivial topological properties that may serve as topological insulators in real world applications.

  19. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota.

    PubMed

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Plötz, Joachim

    2004-02-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient>5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination.

  20. Atmosphere-surface exchange and long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pul, W.A.J. van; Jaarsveld, J.A. van; Jacobs, C.M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are compounds that are resistant to photolytic, biological and chemical degradation. Many POPs are semi-volatile at atmospheric conditions. Because of these characteristics POPs have a atmospheric lifetime of weeks or more and are subject to long-range atmospheric transport. During this transport POPs can be deposited as well as be re-emitted from soil and water bodies. In this study a model for the exchange of POP at the soil and sea surface is presented as well as its application in a long-range atmospheric transport model. The main goal of this study is to simulate the spatial distribution of POP deposition (accumulation) over Europe.

  1. Persistence and responsiveness of immunologic memory in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Moyron-Quiroz, Juan E; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Hartson, Louise; Kusser, Kim; Tighe, Michael P; Klonowski, Kimberly D; Lefrançois, Leo; Cauley, Linda S; Harmsen, Allen G; Lund, Frances E; Randall, Troy D

    2006-10-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) promote primary immune responses by recruiting naive lymphocytes and activated APCs. However, their role in the persistence or responsiveness of memory lymphocytes is unclear. We tested whether memory cells were maintained and could respond to challenge in the absence of SLOs. We found that influenza-specific CD8 cells in the lung acquired a memory phenotype, underwent homeostatic proliferation, recirculated through nonlymphoid tissues, and responded to and cleared a challenge infection in the complete absence of SLOs. Similarly, influenza-specific virus-neutralizing antibody was generated and maintained in the absence of SLOs. Inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) was also formed in the lungs of previously infected mice and may provide a niche for the maintenance of memory cells at the local level. These data show that SLOs are dispensable for the maintenance of immunologic memory and directly demonstrate the utility of local tissues, such as iBALT, in secondary immune responses.

  2. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed.

  3. Halogenated persistent organic pollutants in relation to trophic level in deep sea fish.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynda; Russell, Marie; Walsham, Pam; Hussy, Ines; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Phillips, Lesley; Dalgarno, Eric; Packer, Gill; Neat, Francis; Moffat, Colin F

    2014-11-15

    The bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in deep sea fish from the Rockall fishing area was investigated. Predator and prey species were analysed for stable isotopes, fatty acids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). δ(15)N indicated that black scabbard was at the highest trophic level and the prey the lowest. The fatty acid signatures indicated that black scabbard and black dogfish fed at a higher trophic level compared to the roundnose grenadier. PCBs and PBDEs were detected in the liver of all three predator species. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in the roundnose grenadier, possibly due to their longer life span. PCB concentrations were compared to OSPAR assessment criteria, concentrations were above background but below Environmental Assessment Criteria for all but one congener. PCB concentrations were below food safety levels in the flesh, but exceeded the limit for liver in the roundnose grenadier and black dogfish.

  4. Regional Variation in Human Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants in the United States, NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Wattigney, Wendy A.; Irvin-Barnwell, Elizabeth; Pavuk, Marian; Ragin-Wilson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    We examined serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among geographical regions of the United States as defined by the US Census Bureau. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for adults aged 20 years and older are presented for selected survey periods between 1999 and 2010. From NHANES 1999 through 2004, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentration levels were consistently higher among people living in the West than in the Midwest, Northeast, or South. In 2003–2010, perfluorinated compound concentrations tended to be highest in the South. The sum of 35 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners was significantly higher in the Northeast [GM: 189; 95% CI: 173–204 ng/g lipid] than the remaining regions. The regional differences in higher body burdens of exposure to particular POPs could be attributed to a variety of activities, including region-specific patterns of land use and industrial and agricultural chemical applications, as well as different levels of regulatory activity. PMID:26839572

  5. Using blood samples to estimate persistent organic pollutants and metals in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Hodge, Mary; Olszowy, Henry A; Whittier, Joan M; Lee, Shing Y

    2010-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals have been reported in a number of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations worldwide. However, due to ethical considerations, these studies have generally been on tissues from deceased and stranded animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of blood samples to estimate the tissue contamination of live C. mydas populations. This study analysed 125 POP compounds and eight heavy metals in the blood, liver, kidney and muscle of 16 C. mydas from the Sea World Sea Turtle Rehabilitation Program, Gold Coast, Australia. Strong correlations were observed between blood and tissue concentrations for a number of POPs and metals. Furthermore, these correlations were observed over large ranges of turtle size, sex and condition. These results indicate that blood samples are a reliable non-lethal method for predicting chemical contamination in C. mydas.

  6. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to remote lacustrine environments.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Ontiveros-Cuadras, Jorge Feliciano; Sericano, José L; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Liong Wee Kwong, Laval; Dunbar, Robert B; Mucciarone, David A; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2014-09-15

    Concentrations, temporal trends and fluxes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs) were determined in soil and (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from remote lacustrine environments (El Tule and Santa Elena lakes) in rural areas of Central Mexico. In both areas, the concentrations of target analytes in soil and sediment samples were comparable and indicative of slightly contaminated environments. The prevalence of low-molecular-weight PAHs in soils suggested their mainly atmospheric origin, in contrast to the aquatic sediments where runoff contribution was also significant. Increasing contamination trends of PCBs and PBDEs were evident, showing maximum fluxes of 4.8 ± 2.1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 ng cm(-2) a(-1) for PCBs and PBDEs, respectively. The predominance of lower-brominated PBDEs and lower-chlorinated PCBs in soils and sediments indicated that their presence is mostly due to long-range atmospheric transport. PMID:24971459

  7. Estimation of melting points of large set of persistent organic pollutants utilizing QSPR approach.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marquita; Sizochenko, Natalia; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The presence of polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as Cl/Br-substituted benzenes, biphenyls, diphenyl ethers, and naphthalenes has been identified in all environmental compartments. The exposure to these compounds can pose potential risk not only for ecological systems, but also for human health. Therefore, efficient tools for comprehensive environmental risk assessment for POPs are required. Among the factors vital for environmental transport and fate processes is melting point of a compound. In this study, we estimated the melting points of a large group (1419 compounds) of chloro- and bromo- derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes, diphenylethers, and benzenes by utilizing quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) techniques. The compounds were classified by applying structure-based clustering methods followed by GA-PLS modeling. In addition, random forest method has been applied to develop more general models. Factors responsible for melting point behavior and predictive ability of each method were discussed.

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jessica; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; Littnan, Charles; Pearce, Ronald

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about levels or effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Hawaiian monk seals (HMS) from the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) subpopulation. This study examined concentrations of a large suite of POPs in blubber and serum of juvenile and adult HMS from the MHI. Adult females have the lowest blubber levels of most POPs, whereas adult males have highest levels. POPs in serum were significantly different in adult males compared with adult females for chlordanes and summed dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Lipid-normalized concentrations of chlordanes, DDTs, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mirex in paired blubber and serum samples were significantly correlated. Contaminant levels from the MHI were at similar or lower levels than those from remote Northwestern Hawaiian Island populations. Determining initial ranges of POPs is an important step towards assessing one of the many potential health threats to this critically endangered species. PMID:22884537

  9. The Pollution of the Oceans and Great Lakes by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, R.; Muir, D.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of man-made organic chemicals across the Great Lakes and Oceans is widespread. Especially in the northern hemisphere, legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls or DDT can be detected almost everywhere. Despite their ban several decades ago, concentrations are only declining slowly in the atmosphere, while time trends are not available for the waters of the world. While concentrations are often low (picogram per liter range), their bioaccumulation still causes adverse effects in top predators, including humans. Our results for legacy POPs highlight that oceans and the Great Lakes are by now re-releasing these compounds back to the atmosphere. More recently banned POPs include brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Atmospheric concentrations are slowly declining, while their impacts on the aquatic environment will be felt for decades to come. Due to the paucity of aqueous data on POPs, we called for a global effort to monitor key POPs using passive samplers (AQUA-GAPS). Our recent cruise results show perfluorinated compounds to be present in all ocean basins, suggesting that they will remain for good. As of yet unknown are the presence and effects of additional hundreds to thousands industrial chemicals that are suspected of being persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Several of these have been identified as compounds of potential concern, but few have been investigated in the oceans. The solution to the pollution of POPs will have to rely on better chemical screening prior to high-volume production. The recent REACH legislation by the EU is a step in the right direction, but will not prevent the on-going release of man-made chemicals over the next few decades, many of which are already in use and will continue to be released over time.

  10. Preconception Maternal and Paternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Birth Size: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. Objective: We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Methods: Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Results: Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84–195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98–170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Conclusions: Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. Citation: Robledo CA, Yeung E

  11. Modelling the fate of persistent organic pollutants in europe: parameterization of a gridded distribution model

    SciTech Connect

    Prevedouros, Konstantinos; MacLeod, Matthew; Jones, Kevin C.; Sweetman Andrew J.

    2003-12-01

    A regionally segmented multimedia fate model for the European continent is described together with an illustrative steady-state case study examining the fate of small gamma, Greek-HCH (lindane) based on 1998 emission data. The study builds on the regionally segmented BETR North America model structure and describes the regional segmentation and parameterization for Europe. The European continent is described by a 5 degree x 5 degree grid, leading to 50 regions together with four perimetric boxes representing regions buffering the European environment. Each zone comprises seven compartments including; upper and lower atmosphere, soil, vegetation, fresh water and sediment and coastal water. Inter-regions flows of air and water are described, exploiting information originating from GIS databases and other georeferenced data. The model is primarily designed to describe the fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) within the European environment by examining chemical partitioning and de gradation in each region, and inter-region transport either under steady-state conditions or fully dynamically. A test case scenario is presented which examines the fate of estimated spatially resolved atmospheric emissions of lindane throughout Europe within the lower atmosphere and surface soil compartments. In accordance with the predominant wind direction in Europe, the model predicts high concentrations close to the major sources as well as towards Central and Northeast regions. Elevated soil concentrations in Scandinavian soils provide further evidence of the potential of increased scavenging by forests and subsequent accumulation by organic-rich terrestrial surfaces. Initial model predictions have revealed a factor of 5 10 underestimation of lindane concentrations in the atmosphere. This is explained by an underestimation of source strength and/or an underestimation of European background levels. The model presented can further be used to predict deposition fluxes and chemical

  12. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Increases Hospitalization Rates for Myocardial Infarction with Comorbid Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Alexander V.; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be an emerging risk factor for ischemic heart disease, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, some studies indicate that exposure to POPs may also be a risk factor for hypertension, a well-established risk factor for AMI. To investigate effect of POPs on the environmental burden of cardiovascular disease, a study of AMI with comorbid hypertension in populations environmentally exposed to persistent organic pollutants, based on the zip code of residence, was conducted. Data on hospital discharges for AMI with comorbid hypertension were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System for 1993–2004. Patients residing in zip codes containing or abutting POPs contaminated sites were considered environmentally exposed. Relative risks (RR) — with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) — of hospitalization for AMI with comorbid hypertension were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusting for known confounders. Adjusted hospitalization rates for AMI with comorbid hypertension were 12.4% higher in populations residing in proximity to a POPs site (adjusted RR = 1.124, 95% CI 1.025–1.233, p < 0.05), compared to not in proximity to a POPs site. Also, hospitalization rates for AMI with comorbid hypertension were higher in males than in females (adjusted RR = 2.157, 95% CI 2.100–2.215, p < 0.05), in African Americans than in Caucasians (adjusted RR = 1.631, 95% CI 1.483–1.794, p < 0.05), and in older age groups (p for trend <0.05). These findings are consistent with the established effects of non-modifiable risk factors and serve as indirect quality indicators for our model. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to POPs increases the burden of cardiovascular disease in exposed populations. PMID:21562627

  13. Sources of persistent organic pollutants emission on the territory of Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.

    The paper considers selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) atmospheric emission evaluation on the territory of Belarus for main source categories. The procedure applied was based on the UNECE EMEP methodology. Data of industrial statistics, production processes analysis and relevant emission factors were used. For a number of sources, only quality and semi-quality emission evaluation was conducted, due to the lack of information for the selection of emission factors or statistical data relevant. In the paper, emissions of the following groups of pollutants are discussed: dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as requested for EMEP database (Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants to the convention of 1979 on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe and Annexes I, II, or III to the Protocol, 1998). PAH emission and selected chlorinated pesticides input also requested by EMEP will be described in other issues. Estimations have showed that Belarus as a whole is not a large emission source of such POPs as dioxins. Its share in European emissions is significantly below 1%. This can be explained by the fact that in Belarus there are no such large dioxin emission sources like sintering, waste incineration, non-ferrous industry. But some important sources of dioxins/furans for instance, open burning are not included in quantitative estimation now. The main contribution to dioxin emissions is by firewood and peat combustion. Only electric steel smelting plant can be considered as a large emission point source. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors was estimated as the main source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) discharged into the environment: dielectric fluids with PCB are still in use in electrical equipment.

  14. Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Placental Tissue from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachael M.; Li, An; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Walker, Cheryl; Szabo, Sara; Leuthner, Steve; Durkin, Maureen S.; Moye, Jack; Miller, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and legacy environmental pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDE) are found in human placenta, indicating prenatal exposure, but data from the United States are sparse. We sought to determine concentrations of these compounds in human placentae as part of a formative research project conducted by the National Children’s Study Placenta Consortium. A total of 169 tissue specimens were collected at different time points post delivery from 42 human placentae at three U.S. locations, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry following extraction using matrix solid phase dispersion. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE were detected in all specimens. The concentrations of 10 PBDEs (∑10PBDEs), 32 PCBs (∑32PCBs) and p,p’-DDE were 43–1,723, 76–856 and 10–1,968 pg/g wet weight, respectively, in specimens collected shortly after delivery. Significant geographic differences in PBDEs were observed, with higher concentrations in placentae collected in Davis, CA than in those from Rochester, NY or Milwaukee, WI. We combined these with other published data and noted first-order declining trends for placental PCB and DDE concentrations over the past decades, with half-lives of about 5 and 8 years, respectively. The effect of time to tissue collection from refrigerated placentae on measured concentrations of these three classes of persistent organic pollutants was additionally examined, with no significant effect observed up to 120 hours. The results of this work indicate that widespread prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the United States continues. PMID:24485817

  15. Assessment of dietary exposure to some persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Karakalpakstan of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Nigina; Jermini, Marco; Small, Ian; Falzon, Dennis; Fürst, Peter; Migliorati, Giacomo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Forti, Anna Francesca; Anklam, Elke; von Holst, Christoph; Niyazmatov, Bakhtier; Bahkridinov, Shakub; Aertgeerts, Roger; Bertollini, Roberto; Tirado, Cristina; Kolb, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination in the area. An international team carried out analyses of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on samples of 12 foods commonly produced and consumed in Karakalpakstan. Analysis consistently detected long-lasting organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in all foods of animal origin and in some vegetables such as onions and carrots--two low-cost components of many traditional dishes. Levels of PCBs were relatively low in all samples except fish. Analyses revealed high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs (together often termed "dioxins") in sheep fat, dairy cream, eggs, and edible cottonseed oil, among other foodstuffs. These findings indicate that food traditionally grown, sold, and consumed in Karakalpakstan is a major route of human exposure to several persistent toxic contaminants, including the most toxic of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Intake estimations demonstrate that consumption of even small amounts of locally grown food may expose consumers to dioxin levels that considerably exceed the monthly tolerable dioxin intake levels set by the World Health Organization. Data presented in this study allow a first assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of certain food products in Karakalpakstan and highlight a critical public health situation. PMID:12896851

  16. Recommendations for Evaluating Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Gyalpo, Tenzing; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomonitoring data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in breast milk are increasingly collected and available for quantitative analysis of levels and time trends. A common approach is to apply log-linear regression to calculate doubling and halving times of the POP concentrations based on the temporal trend observed in breast milk. However, there are different, sometimes conflicting interpretations of these doubling and halving times. Objectives: We provide a mechanistic understanding of doubling and halving times where possible. Five recommendations are proposed for dealing with POP concentration trends in breast milk during three distinct periods (pre-ban, transition, post-ban period). Discussion: Using temporal trends of BDE-47 and PCB-153 in breast milk data, we show which information can be gained from the time-trend data. To this end, we analyzed time trends of hypothetical POPs for different periods with time-variant exposure and different intrinsic elimination half-lives, using a dynamic population-based pharmacokinetic model. Different pieces of information can be extracted from time-trend data from different periods. The analysis of trends of short-lived POPs is rather straightforward and facilitates extraction of the intrinsic elimination half-lives from the breast milk data. However, trends of slowly eliminated POPs only provide indications for the exposure time trend. Conclusions: Time-trend data of rapidly eliminated POPs provide information on exposure time trends and elimination half-lives. Temporal trends of slowly eliminated POPs are more complicated to interpret, and the extraction of exposure time trends and elimination half-lives require data sets covering several decades. Citation: Gyalpo T, Scheringer M, Hungerbühler K. 2016. Recommendations for evaluating temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk. Environ Health Perspect 124:881–885; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510219 PMID:26672061

  17. Gestational Weight Gain and Exposure of Newborns to Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Glomstad, Berit; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during fetal development can increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. Maternal characteristics and physiological changes during gestation, such as gestational weight gain (GWG), may have an influence in the overall burden of POPs in neonates. However, the associations between GWG and POP concentrations are still not well established. Objective: We examined the association of GWG with cord serum POPs concentrations after adjusting for prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) and other potential determinants of the transfer of POPs into newborns. The GWG values were evaluated after grouping by the reference guidelines of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods: We measured levels of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 325 cord serum samples from a Spanish birth cohort. Multivariable models were used to estimate associations of GWG, prepregnancy BMI, and other maternal determinants on cord serum concentrations of POPs. Results: Neonatal concentrations of POPs were inversely associated with GWG after adjustment for age, prepregnancy BMI, educational level, and fish consumption. On average, neonates of women with IOM-recommended GWG have lower POP concentrations than do neonates of mothers with inadequate GWG. Conclusions: The present findings suggest an association between neonatal exposure to POPs and inadequate GWG during pregnancy. Encouraging pregnant women to meet the recommended IOM guidelines for GWG may reduce the accumulation of POPs in newborns. Citation: Vizcaino E, Grimalt JO, Glomstad B, Fernández-Somoano A, Tardón A. 2014. Gestational weight gain and exposure of newborns to persistent organic pollutants. Environ Health Perspect 122:873–879; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306758 PMID:24786842

  18. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Increases Hospitalization Rates for Myocardial Infarction with Comorbid Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Alexander V; Carpenter, David O

    2010-03-23

    Studies suggest that environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be an emerging risk factor for ischemic heart disease, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, some studies indicate that exposure to POPs may also be a risk factor for hypertension, a well-established risk factor for AMI. To investigate effect of POPs on the environmental burden of cardiovascular disease, a study of AMI with comorbid hypertension in populations environmentally exposed to persistent organic pollutants, based on the zip code of residence, was conducted. Data on hospital discharges for AMI with comorbid hypertension were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System for 1993-2004. Patients residing in zip codes containing or abutting POPs contaminated sites were considered environmentally exposed. Relative risks (RR) - with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) - of hospitalization for AMI with comorbid hypertension were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusting for known confounders. Adjusted hospitalization rates for AMI with comorbid hypertension were 12.4% higher in populations residing in proximity to a POPs site (adjusted RR = 1.124, 95% CI 1.025-1.233, p < 0.05), compared to not in proximity to a POPs site. Also, hospitalization rates for AMI with comorbid hypertension were higher in males than in females (adjusted RR = 2.157, 95% CI 2.100-2.215, p < 0.05), in African Americans than in Caucasians (adjusted RR = 1.631, 95% CI 1.483-1.794, p < 0.05), and in older age groups (p for trend <0.05). These findings are consistent with the established effects of non-modifiable risk factors and serve as indirect quality indicators for our model. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to POPs increases the burden of cardiovascular disease in exposed populations.

  19. Assessment of dietary exposure to some persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Karakalpakstan of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Nigina; Jermini, Marco; Small, Ian; Falzon, Dennis; Fürst, Peter; Migliorati, Giacomo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Forti, Anna Francesca; Anklam, Elke; von Holst, Christoph; Niyazmatov, Bakhtier; Bahkridinov, Shakub; Aertgeerts, Roger; Bertollini, Roberto; Tirado, Cristina; Kolb, Anthony

    2003-08-01

    A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination in the area. An international team carried out analyses of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on samples of 12 foods commonly produced and consumed in Karakalpakstan. Analysis consistently detected long-lasting organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in all foods of animal origin and in some vegetables such as onions and carrots--two low-cost components of many traditional dishes. Levels of PCBs were relatively low in all samples except fish. Analyses revealed high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs (together often termed "dioxins") in sheep fat, dairy cream, eggs, and edible cottonseed oil, among other foodstuffs. These findings indicate that food traditionally grown, sold, and consumed in Karakalpakstan is a major route of human exposure to several persistent toxic contaminants, including the most toxic of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Intake estimations demonstrate that consumption of even small amounts of locally grown food may expose consumers to dioxin levels that considerably exceed the monthly tolerable dioxin intake levels set by the World Health Organization. Data presented in this study allow a first assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of certain food products in Karakalpakstan and highlight a critical public health situation. PMID:12896851

  20. Mineralogical control of soil organic carbon persistence at the multidecadal time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Barré, Pierre; Bernard, Sylvain; Le Guillou, Corentin; Chenu, Claire

    2015-04-01

    One of the current challenges in understanding the long term persistence of organic carbon in soils is to assess how mineral surfaces, especially at small scale, can stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC). The question we address in this work is whether different mineral species stabilize different types of SOC. Here we used the unique opportunity offered by long term bare fallows to study in situ C dynamics in several fine fractions of a silty loam soil. Indeed, with no vegetation i.e. no external input of fresh C, the plant-free soil of the Versailles 42 Plots (INRA, France) has been progressively enriched in persistent SOC during the 80 years of bare fallow. To separate mineral phases of the clay size fraction we performed a size fractionation on samples taken from 4 different plots at 5 different dates (0, 10, 22, 52, and 79 years after the beginning of the BF) and analyzed the SOC in the different fractions thus obtained. First, the clay fraction (< 2 µm) was isolated by wet sieving and centrifugation in water. Then, the clay fraction was further separated into 3 size fractions by centrifugation: fine clay (< 0.05 µm), intermediate clay (0.05 - 0.2 µm), and coarse clay (0.2 - 2 µm). X-ray diffraction was used to determine the mineralogy of the phases and we found that the coarse clay fraction on the one hand and fine and intermediate clay fractions on the other hand exhibited contrasted mineralogies. Fine and intermediate clay fractions contained almost exclusively smectite and mixed-layered illite/smectite minerals whereas coarse clays contained also discrete illite and kaolinite on top of smectite and illite/smectite. We carried out CHN elemental analysis to study the C and nitrogen dynamics with time in the different fractions. And synchrotron based spectroscopy and microscopy (NEXAFS bulk and STXM at the carbon K edge of 280 eV, CLS Saskatoon, Canada) was used to get information on the distribution and the chemical speciation of the SOC in fractions with

  1. Persistence of Mineral-Associated Soil Organic Carbon in European Soil Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Schrumpf, M.; Trumbore, S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is a heterogeneous mixture of components that are not equally biologically available, including light, plant derived material, dissolved organic carbon, and mineral-associated organic matter (MOM). Radiocarbon ages of bulk SOC average across this heterogeneity. Of particular interest is whether there are small amounts of very old OC (the so-called 'passive' pool) that can mask the fact that much of the OM is much younger. MOM has been shown to be older than the light fraction and DOC, but MOM is also a mixture of old and young material. This study seeks to clarify the quantity of C persisting on millennial time scales at different depths in the soil profile, and what factors allow this fraction to be more persistent than other fractions. We studied the fraction and age of C of the most chemically and physically stable fraction we could isolate from five European soils with differing land use, parent material, and soil type. First we isolated the MOM fraction by density, and then oxidized the MOM fraction with H2O2 to remove the labile C. The oxidation resistant residue was analyzed for C content and radiocarbon signature. The oxidation procedure removed 70-95% of the MOM fraction; the residue had a consistently older radiocarbon signature than the initial MOM, indicating that the C removed was younger than the bulk average. This stable fraction ranged from 100 radiocarbon years Before Present (BP) in the top 5 cm, to 10,000 years BP at the 30-40 cm depth. Non-crystalline iron concentrations were correlated with the absolute amount of SOC protected from oxidation, but not its proportion or age. With the exception of a tilled cropland site, all examined profiles exhibited a nearly linear depletion in radiocarbon signature with depth in both the protected and oxidizable MOM, confirming that the most chemically and physically stable C is oldest at the deepest point in a 50 cm profile. Ongoing work on this study will further elucidate how the

  2. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes. PMID:27400905

  3. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27226172

  4. Molecular perspectives and recent advances in microbial remediation of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jaya; Das, Surajit

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and pollution stress stimulate genetic adaptation in microorganisms and assist in evolution of diverse metabolic pathways for their survival on several complex organic compounds. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are highly lipophilic in nature and cause adverse effects to the environment and human health by biomagnification through the food chain. Diverse microorganisms, harboring numerous plasmids and catabolic genes, acclimatize to these environmentally unfavorable conditions by gene duplication, mutational drift, hypermutation, and recombination. Genetic aspects of some major POP catabolic genes such as biphenyl dioxygenase (bph), DDT 2,3-dioxygenase, and angular dioxygenase assist in degradation of biphenyl, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxins/furans, respectively. Microbial metagenome constitutes the largest genetic reservoir with miscellaneous enzymatic activities implicated in degradation. To tap the metabolic potential of microorganisms, recent techniques like sequence and function-based screening and substrate-induced gene expression are proficient in tracing out novel catabolic genes from the entire metagenome for utilization in enhanced biodegradation. The major endeavor of today's scientific world is to characterize the exact genetic mechanisms of microbes for bioremediation of these toxic compounds by excavating into the uncultured plethora. This review entails the effect of POPs on the environment and involvement of microbial catabolic genes for their removal with the advanced techniques of bioremediation. PMID:27234838

  5. Persistent organic pollutants in liver of Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) from southeastern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cascaes, M J; Oliveira, R T; Ubarana, M M; Sato, R M; Baldassin, P; Colabuono, F I; Leonel, J; Taniguchi, S; Weber, R R

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 14 livers from specimens of the Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii), which is an important economic resource for small-scale fisheries on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The following concentrations (lipid weight) of POPs were found: ∑PCBs: 1019±267 ng g(-1); ∑DDTs: 111±40 ng g(-1) and ∑PBDEs: 10.4±4.78. PCB 153 made the greatest contribution to ∑PCB (21.4%), followed by PCB 138 (14.6%) and PCB 180 (9.94%). Among chlorinated pesticides, only the p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD isomers had concentrations above the detection limit. Moreover, levels above the detection limit were found only for PBDE congeners 47 and 100 (BDEs 47>99). On average, BDE 47 accounted for 88% of the total PBDE load. The feeding habits of the Brazilian sharpnose shark close to the Brazilian coastline are likely the most important difference regarding the accumulation of POPs in comparison to oceanic species that feed in deeper waters. Thus, this species may be used to evaluate the pollution of coastal areas as well as human exposure to contaminants, as the Brazilian sharpnose shark is a frequently used for human consumption. Further studies in other areas of Brazil and involving other species are needed to clarify the mechanisms and potential impact of POPs, which can affect the biology of different organisms and cause population declines.

  6. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Evenset, A; Hallanger, I G; Tessmann, M; Warner, N; Ruus, A; Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Christensen, G; Renaud, P E

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ(15)N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ(15)N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone.

  7. Inter-annual variation of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) in an Antarctic top predator Arctocephalus gazella.

    PubMed

    Brault, Emily K; Goebel, Michael E; Geisz, Heidi N; Canuel, Elizabeth A; Dickhut, Rebecca M

    2013-11-19

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), contaminants that may bioaccumulate in upper trophic level organisms, were detected in the milk of a top predator, the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella). Multiparous females had significantly lower concentrations of certain POPs (trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, and several PCBs) in their milk than primiparous females, likely due to the annual lactational transfer of the POP burden from mother to pup. Furthermore, there were significant interannual differences in POP concentrations in multiparous females' milk from five breeding seasons between 2000 and 2011. Decreasing trends in concentrations of certain POPs over the recent decade coincide with declining global emissions, yet atmospheric concentrations in the Antarctic are not always consistent with global trends, suggesting that additional factors may contribute to temporal trends of POPs in fur seals. Climate shifts and corresponding availability of krill over the past decade were not consistent with trends observed in POP concentrations in fur seal milk, suggesting that climate may not be a key factor. Additional mechanisms, such as variability in the geographic ranges of individual seals during overwintering migrations are discussed and should be explored further. PMID:24138491

  8. Mountain cold-trapping increases transfer of persistent organic pollutants from atmosphere to cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Wania, Frank; MacLeod, Matthew; Lei, Ying Duan; Quinn, Cristina L; Zhang, Xianming; Scheringer, Martin; Wegmann, Fabio; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Heil, Fritz; Klocke, Peter; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Alaee, Mehran

    2013-08-20

    Concentrations of long-lived organic contaminants in snow, soil, lake water, and vegetation have been observed to increase with altitude along mountain slopes. Such enrichment, called "mountain cold-trapping", is attributed to a transition from the atmospheric gas phase to particles, rain droplets, snowflakes, and Earth's surface at the lower temperatures prevailing at higher elevations. Milk sampled repeatedly from cows that had grazed at three different altitudes in Switzerland during one summer was analyzed for a range of persistent organic pollutants. Mountain cold-trapping significantly increased air-to-milk transfer factors of most analytes. As a result, the milk of cows grazing at higher altitudes was more contaminated with substances that have regionally uniform air concentrations (hexachlorobenzene, α-hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan sulfate). For substances that have sources, and therefore higher air concentrations, at lower altitudes (polychlorinated biphenyls, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane), alpine milk has lower concentrations, but not as low as would be expected without mountain cold-trapping. Differences in the elevational gradients in soil concentrations and air-to-milk transfer factors highlight that cold-trapping of POPs in pastures is mostly due to increased gas-phase deposition as a result of lower temperatures causing higher uptake capacity of plant foliage, whereas cold-trapping in soils more strongly depends on wet and dry particle deposition. Climatic influences on air-to-milk transfer of POPs needs to be accounted for when using contamination of milk lipids to infer contamination of the atmosphere. PMID:23885857

  9. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Evenset, A; Hallanger, I G; Tessmann, M; Warner, N; Ruus, A; Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Christensen, G; Renaud, P E

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ(15)N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ(15)N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. PMID:26519572

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes.

  12. Persistence of two Trichomonas gallinae isolates in chlorinated and distilled water with or without organic material.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Richard W; Maestas, Lauren P; Harnage, Philip M

    2013-09-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite commonly found in columbids, passerines, and raptors. In passerines and columbids, trichomonosis causes significant morbidity and mortality associated with contaminated bird feeders and waters. However, there has been little work on the persistence of T. gallinae in water to determine if artificial waters are a likely source of infection for naive birds. To examine drinking water as a source of T. gallinae transmission, we inoculated 1 x 10(6) trichomonads into containers with 500 ml of either distilled or chlorinated water. In addition, we inoculated the same number of trichomonads in distilled or chlorinated water contaminated with 15 g organic matter. Aliquots of 0.5 ml were collected from each container at 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, or 20 min; inoculated into a Trichomonas culture packet; and incubated at 37 C for 6 days. Survival was best in the presence of organic matter, with either distilled or chlorinated water. Uncontaminated chlorinated water did not allow survival at any sampling period.

  13. Levels of persistent organic pollutant and their predictors among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p’-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continues to be of concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and high persistence. Current toxicant body burden is still a primary concern within the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation since other studies conducted within the community have shown relationships between these POPs and endocrine disruption. In this article we describe the levels of these toxicants in young adults of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation between the ages of 17 and 21 years of age (mean age 18.1 years), and investigate potential influences of their current body-burden. Seventeen congeners in fourteen chromatographic peaks were detected in 50% or more of the individuals sampled (geometric mean [GM] of the sum of these congeners = 0.43 ppb). Congeners 118, 138[+163+164] and 153 had the highest rate of detection (≥ 98%) within the Akwesasne youth. Of the other organochlorines, HCB (GM= 0.04 ppb) and p,p’-DDE (GM=0.38 ppb) were found in 100% and 99% of the sample respectively. Significantly higher levels of PCBs were found among individuals who were breastfed as infants, were first born, or had consumed local fish within the past year. When compared to levels of p,p’-DDE, HCB, and 13 specific congeners reported by the CDC for youth between the ages of 12 and 19 years, the geometric means of several congeners (CBs 99, 105, 110, and 118) among the Akwesasne were higher than the reported CDC 90th percentile. In contrast, levels of CB 28 in Akwesasne youth were ∼50% or less than those of the CDC cohort. p,p’-DDE and HCB levels were generally higher in the CDC cohort (GM of 0.516 and 0.065 ppb, respectively for Mohawks vs. 2.51 and 0.123, respectively, for CDC). Concentrations of non-persistent PCBs among this sample of Akwesasne young adults were higher than those reported by the CDC suggesting continued exposure, but lower than those

  14. The evolution of mass balance models of persistent organic pollutant fate in the environment.

    PubMed

    Wania, F; Mackay, D

    1999-01-01

    Current approaches to modelling the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment have evolved in response to four dominant characteristics of these substances; namely: (1) the presence of POPs in virtually all environmental phases and the ease with which they move from one to the other requires multi-compartmental modelling. Describing transport across phase boundaries becomes as, or even more, important as quantifying transport within the phases; (2) POPs may persist in the environment for many decades. For chemicals that 'have time', concepts such as equilibrium partitioning and steady-state become more important than for short-lived substances whose fate is more controlled by the rates of transformation; (3) measuring POPs is difficult and expensive and observed concentrations of POPs are not available in high spatial or temporal resolution. Consequently, high resolution tends not to be a high priority in POP models; and (4) detrimental effects of POPs often manifest themselves in top predators, which has led to a focus on modelling biotic uptake and transfer within food chains. The task of building a POPs model is viewed as combining the four 'building blocks' of partitioning, transport, transformation and source data with the help of the law of the conservation of mass. Process models, evaluative models, models of real local, regional and global fate, as well as biological uptake models are presented and references to numerous examples are provided. An attempt is made to forecast future directions in the field of POPs modelling. It is expected that modelling techniques that do not rely on quantitative emission estimates as well as approaches that take into account spatial, temporal and climatic variability as well as parameter uncertainty will increase in importance. Finally, the relationship between modelling POPs and models of other pollutant issues is addressed, as are potential interactions between POPs and pollutant issues such as

  15. Dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants and metals among Inuit and Chukchi in Russian Arctic Chukotka

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction. Study design A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001–2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures. Methods Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food. Results POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. Conclusions Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean

  16. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  17. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish with different feeding habits inhabiting a shallow lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barni, María F Silva; Ondarza, Paola M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Meijide, Fernando; Grosman, Fabián; Sanzano, Pablo; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2016-04-15

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment can affect organisms inhabiting aquatic systems, in particular shallow lakes that are vulnerable to environmental stressors. This study aimed to assess POPs accumulation and changes at histological and physiological levels in tissues of three fish species with different trophic habits. Gills, brain, muscle, liver and gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis, Oligosarcus jenynsii and Cyphocharax voga were collected from the shallow lake La Peregrina, located in an agricultural area from Argentina. In addition, contaminant levels in surface water (SW), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments (BS) were assessed. Histological lesions were evaluated in fish tissues and levels of vitellogenin (VTG) were assessed in plasma of male fish in order to correlate these alterations with the presence of POPs in the environment. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by GC-ECD. Biotic and abiotic samples showed the same POPs distribution pattern: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs. Although tissue distribution of OCPs was species-specific, muscle showed the lowest levels in all species. The most abundant contaminants were endosulfans, suggesting their widespread use in the area. O. bonariensis showed the highest endosulfans levels in liver (184.2-219ngg(-1)wet w), which was associated with the high SPM levels considering this species is a filter feeder. The occurrence of PCBs and PBDEs shows the ubiquity of these pollutants in the area. Histological lesions in gills and liver of O. bonariensis and O. jenynsii, might be related with the high levels of endosulfans in these organs. The detection of VTG in males warns about a possible exposure to estrogenic compounds in the environment. In conclusion, the simultaneous exposure of fish to multiple environmental pollutants leads to different alterations, so measures should be taken in

  18. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish with different feeding habits inhabiting a shallow lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barni, María F Silva; Ondarza, Paola M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Meijide, Fernando; Grosman, Fabián; Sanzano, Pablo; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2016-04-15

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment can affect organisms inhabiting aquatic systems, in particular shallow lakes that are vulnerable to environmental stressors. This study aimed to assess POPs accumulation and changes at histological and physiological levels in tissues of three fish species with different trophic habits. Gills, brain, muscle, liver and gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis, Oligosarcus jenynsii and Cyphocharax voga were collected from the shallow lake La Peregrina, located in an agricultural area from Argentina. In addition, contaminant levels in surface water (SW), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments (BS) were assessed. Histological lesions were evaluated in fish tissues and levels of vitellogenin (VTG) were assessed in plasma of male fish in order to correlate these alterations with the presence of POPs in the environment. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by GC-ECD. Biotic and abiotic samples showed the same POPs distribution pattern: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs. Although tissue distribution of OCPs was species-specific, muscle showed the lowest levels in all species. The most abundant contaminants were endosulfans, suggesting their widespread use in the area. O. bonariensis showed the highest endosulfans levels in liver (184.2-219ngg(-1)wet w), which was associated with the high SPM levels considering this species is a filter feeder. The occurrence of PCBs and PBDEs shows the ubiquity of these pollutants in the area. Histological lesions in gills and liver of O. bonariensis and O. jenynsii, might be related with the high levels of endosulfans in these organs. The detection of VTG in males warns about a possible exposure to estrogenic compounds in the environment. In conclusion, the simultaneous exposure of fish to multiple environmental pollutants leads to different alterations, so measures should be taken in

  19. Scaling up a treatment to simultaneously remove persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Huguet, Mario; Marshall, William D

    2011-04-01

    Soil washing is a treatment process that can be used to remediate both organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments. A soil washing procedure was evaluated utilizing about 100g samples of soil that had been field-contaminated with arsenic, chromium, copper, pentachlorophenol (PCP), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The highest level of mobilization/detoxification was achieved in three soil washes with a mixture of 0.1M [S,S]-ethyelnediaminedisuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS) and 2% Brij 98 at pH 9 with 20 min of ultrasonication treatment at room temperature. This combination mobilized 70% of arsenic, 75% of chromium, 80% of copper, 90% of PCP, and 79% of PCDDs and PCDFs, so that the decontaminated soil met the maximum acceptable concentrations of the generic C-level criteria regulated by the Ministère du Développement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs for the Province of Québec, Canada. The organic pollutants were back-extracted from the aqueous suspension with hexane. Heavy metals were virtually completely precipitated from the aqueous washing suspension with Mg(0) particles at room temperature. The PCP was detoxified by catalytic hydrodechlorination with a stream of 5% (v/v) H(2)-supercritical CO(2) that transported the organosoluble fraction through a reaction chamber containing 2% Pd/γ-Al(2)O(3). In toto, this soil washing procedure demonstrates that persistent organic pollutants and selected heavy metals can be co-extracted efficiently from a field-contaminated soil with three successive washes with the same soil washing solution containing [S,S]-EDDS and a non-ionic surfactant (Brij 98) in admixture. An industrial-scale ex situ soil washing procedure with a combination of a non-ionic surfactant and a complexing reagent seems to be a plausible remediation technique for this former wooden utility pole storage facility. PMID:21354593

  20. Using Special Education to Destroy Black Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Asks whether special education is designed to keep African-American boys out of the mainstream of education and also looks at questions of a passive conspiracy to destroy African-American males and the role of racism. Discusses special education legislation, and argues that African-American boys are not being adequately educated. (JB)

  1. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN DUSTS THAT SETTLED AT INDOOR AND OUTDOOR LOCATIONS IN LOWER MANHATTAN AFTER 11 SEPTEMBER, 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the initial days that followed the explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11th, 2001, fourteen bulk samples of settled dusts were collected at locations surrounding the epicenter of the disaster, and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, ...

  2. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  3. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants meet adipose tissue hypoxia: does cross-talk contribute to inflammation during obesity?

    PubMed

    Myre, M; Imbeault, P

    2014-01-01

    Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate in lipid-rich tissues such as human adipose tissue. This is particularly problematic in individuals with excess adiposity, a physiological state that may be additionally characterized by local adipose tissue hypoxia. Hypoxic patches occur when oxygen diffusion is insufficient to reach all hypertrophic adipocytes. POPs and hypoxia independently contribute to the development of adipose tissue-specific and systemic inflammation often associated with obesity. Inflammation is induced by increased proinflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, as well as reduced adiponectin release, an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing adipokine. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the cellular response to some pollutants, while hypoxia responses occur through the oxygen-sensitive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. There is some overlap between the two signalling pathways since both require a common subunit called the AhR nuclear translocator. As such, it is unclear how adipocytes respond to simultaneous POP and hypoxia exposure. This brief review explores the independent contribution of POPs and adipose tissue hypoxia as factors underlying the inflammatory response from adipocytes during obesity. It also highlights that the combined effect of POPs and hypoxia through the AhR and HIF-1 signalling pathways remains to be tested. PMID:23998203

  5. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to reveal the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous system and on cancer, few studies focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. We attempted to find a relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation. Methods We recruited 121 subjects who visited Kyungpook National University Hospital for a health screening. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for 40 kinds of POPs including 17 types of polychlorinated biphenyls and 23 types of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, the Korean version of the Rome III criteria was used to identify gastrointestinal symptoms. Results Our results showed that abdominal discomfort had an inverse relationship with several polychlorinated biphenyls. Moreover, an inverted U-shaped relationship was observed between abdominal discomfort and several other organochlorine pesticides including p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and the effects of these pesticides on abdominal discomfort were similar to that of organochlorine pesticides on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Our results suggest that mild and unspecified gastrointestinal symptoms with no clear cause could be related to POPs levels. PMID:27688859

  6. The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

    Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

  7. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: consequence of divergent diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S

    2005-09-15

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:16201616

  9. Saharan dust - A carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.; Foreman, W.T.; Genualdi, S.; Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Majewski, M.S.; Mohammed, A.; Ramsubhag, A.; Shinn, E.A.; Simonich, S.L.; Smith, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa) is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Caribbean ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde) and the Caribbean (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago). Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in higher concentrations than the Caribbean sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable microorganisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The sea fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the Caribbean. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable microorganisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the Caribbean, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions.

  10. Air monitoring in the Arctic: Results for selected persistent organic pollutants for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fellin, P.; Dougherty, D.; Barrie, L.A.; Toom, D.; Muir, D.; Grift, N.; Lockhart, L.; Billeck, B.

    1996-03-01

    The Arctic is generally considered to be a pristine environment and has few direct inputs of organochlorine compounds (OCs), including pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In spite of this, airborne concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are comparable to those in more populated and industrialized regions of North America and Europe. Atmospheric transport and condensation of compounds at low temperature conditions are important factors contributing to the presence of contaminants in the Arctic. A long-term program has been established to measure the airborne concentrations of POPs in the Arctic. The first station at Alert was established in January 1992. The concentrations measured in the first year of monitoring for 18 compounds that are representative of different compound classes are presented. Seasonal variations for PAHs are similar to those for Arctic haze and peak during winter. For example, in the coldest period, october to April, benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were found to average 20 pg/m{sup 3}, whereas, in contrast, during the relatively warm May to September period, average levels were 1.0 pg/m{sup 3}. For OCs, the seasonal cycle was not as pronounced as that for PAH compounds. For example, {alpha}-hexachlorocyclohexane was found at Alert at average concentrations of 62 and 57 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively, during cold and warm periods. It is postulated that air concentrations are influenced by advection from distant source regions as well as exchange with local (Arctic Ocean) surfaces.

  11. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Fiedler, Heidelore; Yu, Gang; Ochoa, Gustavo Solorzano; Carroll, William F; Gullett, Brian K; Marklund, Stellan; Touati, Abderrahmane

    2011-08-01

    Open burning of waste is the most significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in many national inventories prepared pursuant to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. This is particularly true for developing countries. Emission factors for POPs such as PCDD/PCDF, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) and penta- and hexachlorobenzenes (PeCBz/HCB) from open burning of municipal solid waste in China and Mexico are reported herein. Six different waste sources were studied varying from urban-industrial to semi-urban to rural. For PCDD/PCDF, the emission factors to air ranged from 3.0 to 650 ng TEQ kg(-1)waste and for dl-PCB from 0.092 to 54 ng TEQ kg(-1)waste. Emission factors for PeCBz (17-1200 ng kg(-1)waste) and HCB (24-1300 ng kg(-1)waste) spanned a wide but similar range. Within the datasets there is no indication of significant waste composition effect on emission factor with the exception of significantly higher Mexico rural samples. PMID:21624634

  12. Depth Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the North and Tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caoxin; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Adelman, Dave A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-21

    Little is known of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the deep ocean. Polyethylene passive samplers were used to detect the vertical distribution of truly dissolved POPs at two sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Samplers were deployed at five depths covering 26-2535 m in the northern Atlantic and Tropical Atlantic, in approximately one year deployments. Samplers of different thickness were used to determine the state of equilibrium POPs reached in the passive samplers. Concentrations of POPs detected in the North Atlantic near the surface (e.g., sum of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs: 0.84 pg L(-1)) were similar to previous measurements. At both sites, PCB concentrations showed subsurface maxima (tropical Atlantic Ocean -800 m, North Atlantic -500 m). Currents seemed more important in moving POPs to deeper water masses than the biological pump. The ratio of PCB concentrations in near surface waters (excluding PCB-28) between the two sites was inversely correlated with congeners' subcooled liquid vapor pressure, in support of the latitudinal fractionation. The results presented here implied a significant amount of HCB is stored in the Atlantic Ocean (4.8-26% of the global HCB environmental burdens), contrasting traditional beliefs that POPs do not reach the deep ocean. PMID:27174500

  13. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood samples from Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco; González-Vega, Carolina; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Hernández-González, Lidia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2014-02-15

    Studies in Mexico have demonstrated exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in people living in different sites through the country. However, studies evaluating exposure to POPs in people living in Mexico City (one of most contaminated places in the world) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood as exposure biomarkers in people living in Mexico City. A total of 123 participants (blood donors aged 20-60 years) were recruited during 2010 in Mexico City. Quantitative analyses of blood samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Levels of the assessed compounds ranged from non-detectable (

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, John R.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Becker, Paul R.; Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M.; York, Geoffrey S.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for ΣPCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, J.R.; Krahn, M.M.; Becker, P.R.; Porter, B.J.; Schantz, M.M.; York, G.S.; O'Hara, T. M.; Wise, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for ??PCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2006.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber.

    PubMed

    Kucklick, John R; Krahn, Margaret M; Becker, Paul R; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M; York, Geoffrey S; O'Hara, Todd M; Wise, Stephen A

    2006-08-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for SigmaPCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic.

  17. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Henrique M R; Koerting, Lina; Devito, Sarah; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Murk, Albertinka J

    2011-11-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mortality, morphological abnormalities and larval development stages were quantified at specific time points during the 16-day experimental period. In contrast to amphibians and fish, P. miliaris early life development was not sensitive to dioxin-like toxicity in the prolonged early life stage test. Triclosan (TCS) levels higher than 500 nM were acutely toxic during embryo development. Morphological abnormalities were induced at concentrations higher than 50 nM hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1000 nM tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Larval development was delayed above 25 nM HBCD and 500 nM TBBPA. Heptadecafluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure slightly accelerated larval development at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the accelerated development was no longer observed at the end of the test period (16 dpf). The newly developed 16-day echinoid ELS bioassay proved to be sensitive to toxic effects of POPs that can be monitored for individual echinoid larvae. The most sensitive and dose related endpoint was the number of developmental penalty points. By manipulation of the housing conditions, the reproductive season could be extended from 3 to 9 months per year and the ELS experiments could be performed in artificial sea water as well.

  18. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4'-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  19. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 5. Persistent organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Gibson, Brian L.; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    CONCERN AND AWARENESS IS GROWING about the health effects of exposures to environmental contaminants, including those found in food. Most primary care physicians lack knowledge and training in the clinical recognition and management of the health effects of environmental exposures. We have found that the use of a simple history-taking tool — the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) — can help physicians identify patients at risk of such health effects. We present an illustrative case of a mother who is concerned about eating fish and wild game because her 7-year-old son has been found to have learning difficulties and she is planning another pregnancy. Potential exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury are considered. The neurodevelopmental effects of POPs on the fetus are reviewed. We provide advice to limit a patient's exposure to these contaminants and discuss the relevance of these exposures to the learning difficulties of the 7-year-old child and to the planning of future pregnancies. PMID:12074124

  20. Depth Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the North and Tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caoxin; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Adelman, Dave A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-21

    Little is known of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the deep ocean. Polyethylene passive samplers were used to detect the vertical distribution of truly dissolved POPs at two sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Samplers were deployed at five depths covering 26-2535 m in the northern Atlantic and Tropical Atlantic, in approximately one year deployments. Samplers of different thickness were used to determine the state of equilibrium POPs reached in the passive samplers. Concentrations of POPs detected in the North Atlantic near the surface (e.g., sum of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs: 0.84 pg L(-1)) were similar to previous measurements. At both sites, PCB concentrations showed subsurface maxima (tropical Atlantic Ocean -800 m, North Atlantic -500 m). Currents seemed more important in moving POPs to deeper water masses than the biological pump. The ratio of PCB concentrations in near surface waters (excluding PCB-28) between the two sites was inversely correlated with congeners' subcooled liquid vapor pressure, in support of the latitudinal fractionation. The results presented here implied a significant amount of HCB is stored in the Atlantic Ocean (4.8-26% of the global HCB environmental burdens), contrasting traditional beliefs that POPs do not reach the deep ocean.

  1. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  2. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre.

    PubMed

    Gassel, Margy; Harwani, Suhash; Park, June-Soo; Jahn, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Despite scientific and public concern, research on food web contamination from chemicals in plastic is limited, and distinguishing plastic sources from prey remains a challenge. We analyzed juvenile yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) from the North Pacific Central Gyre for plastic ingestion and tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and nonionic surfactants to investigate potential contamination from plastic exposure. Ingestion of synthetic debris occurred in ~10% of the sample population. PCBs and DDTs were 352±240 (mean±SD) and 1425±1118 ng/g lw, respectively. PBDEs were 9.08±10.6 ng/g lw, with BDEs-47, 99, and 209 representing 90% of PBDEs. Nonylphenol (NP) was detected in one-third of the yellowtail with a mean of 52.8±88.5 ng/g ww overall and 167±72.3 ng/g ww excluding non-detects. Because environmental NP is strongly associated with wastewater treatment effluents, long-range transport is unlikely, and NP was previously measured in gyre plastic, we concluded that plastic-mediated exposure best explained our findings of NP in yellowtail. PMID:23746941

  3. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in California women’s serum and residential dust

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Smith, Sabrina Crispo; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto X.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Metayer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through various routes, including consumption of contaminated food and accidental ingestion of settled dust. Objectives We aimed to identify key routes of exposure to organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in California women of reproductive age. Methods Blood was collected from 48 mothers participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study from 2006–2007 and analyzed for POPs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression models of natural-log transformed serum concentrations were used to identify determinants of exposure from available questionnaire information on dietary habits, reproductive history, and demographic characteristics, as well as vacuum cleaner dust-POP levels. Results After adjusting for blood lipid levels, age, body mass index, cumulative lactation, and sampling date, serum concentrations of multiple major PCBs were positively associated with fish consumption, but not dust-PCB levels. After adjusting for blood lipid levels, Hispanic ethnicity, country of origin, and household annual income, serum concentrations of multiple major PBDEs were positively associated with dust-PBDE levels. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the relative contribution of specific exposure routes to total POP intake varies by chemical class, with dust being a relatively important source of PBDEs and diet being a relatively important source of PCBs. PMID:25460621

  4. Distribution and ecotoxicological concerns of persistent organic pollutants in sediment from creek ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Mahesh; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Pandit, Gauri Girish

    2016-09-01

    In order to study the distribution and ecotoxicological concerns of persistent organic pollutants, grab sediment samples were collected from different locations across Thane creek, India. Analyses of samples were carried out using gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-mass spectrometry techniques. In organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), DDD (1-chloro-4-(2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl) benzene) and α, β, and γ conformer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 9 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners were analyzed in surface sediment samples. Concentrations of these pollutants in grab sediment samples may indicate their current use and impact on marine ecosystem. Average concentrations of total DDT (including DDD and DDE), HCH, and Σ9PCBs were found to be 4.9, 12.5, and 2.9 µg kg(-1)(dry weight) respectively. High concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were found at discharge locations in creek compared to other locations. Location-wise distribution of OCPs and PCBs indicates their high concentrations at the waste water receiving point. Data were compared for ecotoxicological impacts based on the levels specified in the sediment quality standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. γ-HCH was found to have maximum potential to induce ecotoxicological impacts. PMID:27229303

  5. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  6. The effect of food provisioning on persistent organic pollutant bioamplification in Chinook salmon larvae.

    PubMed

    Daley, Jennifer M; Leadley, Todd A; Pitcher, Trevor E; Drouillard, Ken G

    2013-06-01

    Fall spawning pacific salmon provision large amounts of yolk to their eggs to allow survival of larvae during under the ice winter conditions. This yolk provisioning leads to maternal offloading of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to eggs and larvae. Previous research has shown that Chinook salmon larvae exhibit limited capacity to eliminate POPs during the cold water period resulting in bioamplification of POP residues. This study compared POPs bioamplification in Chinook salmon larvae under a high food provisioning treatment and a non-fed treatment to test whether or not food availability attenuates POPs bioamplification via growth dilution. Results demonstrate that larvae in the food provisioning treatment did not gain weight until after day 129. Between hatching and day 129, fed and non-fed treatments exhibited similar decreases in whole body lipid content, negligible POPs elimination and POPs bioamplification factors approaching 1.6. By day 184 of the study, POPs bioamplification factors in the non-fed treatment were as high as 5.3 across chemicals but ranged from non-detectable to approaching 1 in the fed group. This study demonstrates that POPs bioamplification occurs in Chinook salmon larvae even under ideal rearing conditions but peaks after day 129, following which growth dilution can attenuate bioamplification relative to starved individuals.

  7. Factors influencing the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in food webs of the scheldt estuary.

    PubMed

    Van Ael, Evy; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of several persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs) in aquatic species from the Scheldt estuary were related with factors (body size, lipids, trophic position) possibly influencing their bioaccumulation. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N) were used as a measure for trophic position. A decreasing trend in POP levels toward the sea was observed. For POP concentrations in sediments, this trend could be attributed to a dilution effect from mixing with seawater. However, concentrations in biota more downstream were higher than expected after taking into account the dilution effect, possibly due to differences in bioavailability. Tissue concentrations were correlated with the lipid content in biota, but not with body size. Biomagnification was only significant for some PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE at the most marine sampling location (Terneuzen, L1) and for p,p'-DDD and BDE 100 at the second sampling location (Bath, L2). A significant decreasing relationship was found for γ-HCH concentrations with increasing δ(15)N at Terneuzen. For Antwerpen (L3), no significant relationships were detected. TMFs ranged from 0.64 for γ-HCH up to 1.60 for PCB 194. These results suggest that biomagnification was more important in the marine part of the estuary, although the presence of multiple carbon sources at the freshwater side might have led to an underestimation of the influence of trophic position.

  8. Modulation of persistent organic pollutant toxicity through nutritional intervention: emerging opportunities in biomedicine and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Dziubla, Thomas D; Hilt, J Zach; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Environmental pollution is increasing worldwide, and there is evidence that exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls can contribute to the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. Pollutant removal from contaminated sites and subsequent pollutant degradation are critical for reducing the long-term health risks associated with exposure. However, complete remediation of a toxicant from the environment is very difficult and cost-prohibitive. Furthermore, remediation technologies often result in the generation of secondary toxicants. Considering these circumstances, environmentally-friendly and sustainable remediation technologies and biomedical solutions to reduce vulnerability to environmental chemical insults need to be explored to reduce the overall health risks associated with exposure to environmental pollutants. We propose that positive lifestyle changes such as healthful nutrition and consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables or bioactive nutrients with antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties will reduce the body's vulnerability to environmental stressors and thus reduce toxicant-mediated disease pathologies. Interestingly, emerging evidence now implicates the incorporation of bioactive nutrients, such as plant-derived polyphenols, in technologies focused on the capture, sensing and remediation of halogenated POPs. We propose that human nutritional intervention in concert with the use of natural polyphenol sensing and remediation platforms may provide a sensible means to develop primary and long-term prevention strategies of diseases associated with many environmental toxic insults including halogenated POPs.

  9. Distribution and ecotoxicological concerns of persistent organic pollutants in sediment from creek ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Mahesh; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Pandit, Gauri Girish

    2016-09-01

    In order to study the distribution and ecotoxicological concerns of persistent organic pollutants, grab sediment samples were collected from different locations across Thane creek, India. Analyses of samples were carried out using gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-mass spectrometry techniques. In organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), DDD (1-chloro-4-(2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl) benzene) and α, β, and γ conformer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 9 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners were analyzed in surface sediment samples. Concentrations of these pollutants in grab sediment samples may indicate their current use and impact on marine ecosystem. Average concentrations of total DDT (including DDD and DDE), HCH, and Σ9PCBs were found to be 4.9, 12.5, and 2.9 µg kg(-1)(dry weight) respectively. High concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were found at discharge locations in creek compared to other locations. Location-wise distribution of OCPs and PCBs indicates their high concentrations at the waste water receiving point. Data were compared for ecotoxicological impacts based on the levels specified in the sediment quality standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. γ-HCH was found to have maximum potential to induce ecotoxicological impacts.

  10. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood samples from Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco; González-Vega, Carolina; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Hernández-González, Lidia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2014-02-15

    Studies in Mexico have demonstrated exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in people living in different sites through the country. However, studies evaluating exposure to POPs in people living in Mexico City (one of most contaminated places in the world) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood as exposure biomarkers in people living in Mexico City. A total of 123 participants (blood donors aged 20-60 years) were recruited during 2010 in Mexico City. Quantitative analyses of blood samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Levels of the assessed compounds ranged from non-detectable (

  11. Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in California Children's Whole Blood and Residential Dust.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Todd P; Crispo Smith, Sabrina; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto X; Rappaport, Stephen M; Metayer, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated relationships between persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels in the blood of children with leukemia and POP levels in dust from their household vacuum cleaners. Blood and dust were collected from participants of the California Childhood Leukemia Study at various intervals from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed for two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and two organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Due to small blood sample volumes (100 μL), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and BDE-153 were the only analytes with detection frequencies above 70%. For each analyte, depending on its detection frequency, a multivariable linear or logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between POP levels in blood and dust, adjusting for child's age, ethnicity, and breastfeeding duration; mother's country of origin; household annual income; and blood sampling date. In linear regression, concentrations of BDE-153 in blood and dust were positively associated; whereas, DDE concentrations in blood were positively associated with breastfeeding, maternal birth outside the U.S., and Hispanic ethnicity, but not with corresponding dust-DDE concentrations. The probability of PCB-153 detection in a child's blood was marginally associated with dust-PCB-153 concentrations (p = 0.08) in logistic regression and significantly associated with breastfeeding. Our findings suggest that dust ingestion is a source of children's exposure to certain POPs. PMID:26147951

  12. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry.

  13. Bioaccumulation and primary risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants with various bivalves.

    PubMed

    Takabe, Yugo; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Fumitake; Tanii, Nobuo; Maruno, Hirofumi; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Suzuki, Motoharu; Matsumura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    Field surveys on persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation were conducted with oysters, clams and scallops whose consumption amount accounted for large shares in the total consumption of shellfish in Japan. There was no numerical difference in bioaccumulation characteristics between oysters, clams, scallops, Corbicula and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Therefore, it was clear that the bioaccumulation characteristics in oysters, clams and scallops, which are important for food, could be ascertained by using the monitoring results with Corbicula and M. galloprovincialis which are easily sampled in various water areas in the world. Non-cancer risk (hazard quotient, HQ) and cancer risk (excess cancer risk, ΔR) via shellfish ranged from 10⁻⁸ to 10⁻⁴ and from 10⁻¹¹ to 10⁻⁷, respectively, at sampling points, which showed the risks of POP exposure via shellfish to be low enough. However, concerning the intake of other food, the importance of dieldrin monitoring should be suggested in Japan. Based on these results, the effectiveness of primary risk assessment could be suggested for screening chemicals whose preferential monitoring is needed. PMID:23109578

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: consequence of divergent diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S

    2005-09-15

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean.

  15. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to reveal the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous system and on cancer, few studies focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. We attempted to find a relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation. Methods We recruited 121 subjects who visited Kyungpook National University Hospital for a health screening. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for 40 kinds of POPs including 17 types of polychlorinated biphenyls and 23 types of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, the Korean version of the Rome III criteria was used to identify gastrointestinal symptoms. Results Our results showed that abdominal discomfort had an inverse relationship with several polychlorinated biphenyls. Moreover, an inverted U-shaped relationship was observed between abdominal discomfort and several other organochlorine pesticides including p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and the effects of these pesticides on abdominal discomfort were similar to that of organochlorine pesticides on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Our results suggest that mild and unspecified gastrointestinal symptoms with no clear cause could be related to POPs levels.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in South America.

    PubMed

    Baldassin, P; Taniguchi, S; Gallo, H; Maranho, A; Kolesnikovas, C; Amorim, D B; Mansilla, M; Navarro, R M; Tabeira, L C; Bicego, M C; Montone, R C

    2016-04-01

    Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, are the most abundant penguins living in temperate regions of South America and are good indicators of environmental pollution in the region. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were detected in the liver of Magellanic penguins found debilitated or dead on the beaches of Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) between 2008 and 2012 as well as in Uruguay and Chile in 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more prevalent than organochlorine pesticides (DDTs ∼ HCB ∼ Drins) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Among PCBs, penta-, hexa- and hepta-chlorinated congeners were predominant. Concentrations of POPs were similar between the Pacific and Atlantic penguin populations, except for PCBs, which were relatively higher in the Pacific population. During the study years (2008-2012), large variations were found in organochlorine pesticides and PCBs tended to decline. Overall, the southern portion of South America has low concentrations of POPs, with either a constant trend or evidence of decline. PMID:26881336

  17. Public health concern behind the exposure to persistent organic pollutants and the risk of metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are hazardous chemicals omnipresent in our food chain, which have been internationally regulated to ensure public health. Initially described for their potency to affect reproduction and promote cancer, recent studies have highlighted an unexpected implication of POPs in the development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity. Based on this novel knowledge, this article aims at stimulating discussion and evaluating the effectiveness of current POP legislation to protect humans against the risk of metabolic diseases. Furthermore, the regulation of POPs in animal food products in the European Union (EU) is addressed, with a special focus on marine food since it may represent a major source of POP exposure to humans. Discussion There is mounting scientific evidence showing that current POP risk assessment and regulation cannot effectively protect humans against metabolic disorders. Better regulatory control of POPs in dietary products should be of high public health priority. Summary The general population is exposed to sufficient POPs, both in term of concentration and diversity, to induce metabolic disorders. This situation should attract the greatest attention from the public health and governmental authorities. PMID:22520265

  18. Persistent organic pollutants carried by synthetic polymers in the ocean environment.

    PubMed

    Rios, Lorena M; Moore, Charles; Jones, Patrick R

    2007-08-01

    Thermoplastic resin pellets are melted and formed into an enormous number of inexpensive consumer goods, many of which are discarded after a relatively short period of use, dropped haphazardly onto watersheds and then make their way to the ocean where some get ingested by marine life. In 2003 and 2004 pre-production thermoplastic resin pellets and post-consumer plastic fragments were collected and analyzed for contamination for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Samples were taken from the North Pacific Gyre, and selected sites in California, Hawaii, and from Guadalupe Island, Mexico. The total concentration of PCBs ranged from 27 to 980 ng/g; DDTs from 22 to 7100 ng/g and PAHs from 39 to 1200 ng/g, and aliphatic hydrocarbons from 1.1 to 8600 microg/g. Analytical methods were developed to extract, concentrate and identify POPs that may have accumulated on plastic fragments and plastic pellets. The results of this study confirm that plastic debris is a trap for POPs. PMID:17532349

  19. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in digested sewage sludge (1993-2012).

    PubMed

    Zennegg, Markus; Munoz, Maria; Schmid, Peter; Gerecke, Andreas C

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of temporal trends is a key tool to assess the success of national and international regulations on chemical pollution. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical pollutants, which are not only harmful, but also because of their slow environmental degradation they pose a long-time risk. In this study, concentrations of selected POPs were measured between 1993 and 2012 in digested sewage sludge from eight municipal waste water treatment plants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), which have been banned or restricted for decades, exhibited decreasing trends with apparent half-lives between 9 and 12years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and long-chain perfluorinated acids showed no clear trend, which reflects the recent introduction of regulations. The analysis of octabromodiphenyl ethers did not reveal indications for reductive debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether; however the analysis of total bromine showed that up to 14% of the total bromine load in sewage sludge originated from PBDEs (average 2%). This is the first study to report temporal trends for more than 20years of series POPs in sewage sludge.

  20. Factors influencing the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in food webs of the scheldt estuary.

    PubMed

    Van Ael, Evy; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of several persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs) in aquatic species from the Scheldt estuary were related with factors (body size, lipids, trophic position) possibly influencing their bioaccumulation. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N) were used as a measure for trophic position. A decreasing trend in POP levels toward the sea was observed. For POP concentrations in sediments, this trend could be attributed to a dilution effect from mixing with seawater. However, concentrations in biota more downstream were higher than expected after taking into account the dilution effect, possibly due to differences in bioavailability. Tissue concentrations were correlated with the lipid content in biota, but not with body size. Biomagnification was only significant for some PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE at the most marine sampling location (Terneuzen, L1) and for p,p'-DDD and BDE 100 at the second sampling location (Bath, L2). A significant decreasing relationship was found for γ-HCH concentrations with increasing δ(15)N at Terneuzen. For Antwerpen (L3), no significant relationships were detected. TMFs ranged from 0.64 for γ-HCH up to 1.60 for PCB 194. These results suggest that biomagnification was more important in the marine part of the estuary, although the presence of multiple carbon sources at the freshwater side might have led to an underestimation of the influence of trophic position. PMID:24007477

  1. Profiling and Spatial Variation Analysis of Persistent Organic Pollutants in South African Delphinids.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Karczmarski, Leszek; Yu, Ri-Qing; Plön, Stephanie; Chen, Laiguo; Tu, Qin; Cliff, Geremy; Wu, Yuping

    2016-04-01

    The continuous disposal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in South Africa (SA) warrants concern about their detrimental effects on humans and wildlife. We surveyed six dolphin species (n = 90) incidentally captured in shark net installations or stranded off the SA east and south coast from 2005 to 2009 to study the POP exposure. Sousa plumbea, an inshore and estuarine species, was found to be the most contaminated by total POPs (21 100 ng g(-1) lw) of all the dolphins off SA, followed by Tursiops aduncus (19 800 ng g(-1) lw), Lagenodelphis hosei (13 600 ng g(-1) lw), and Delphinus capensis (5500 ng g(-1) lw), whereas POP levels in the offshore or pelagic delphinids were much lower. In all delphinids, dominant pollutants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), which represented more than 60% of the total concentration of total POPs, followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 30%). Concentrations of DDTs in S. plumbea and T. aduncus off SA were among the highest levels reported in delphinids globally. Approximately half of the adult T. aduncus had PCB concentrations above the effect threshold for impairment of immune functions. The concentrations of Mirex and Dieldrin in SA delphinids were higher than those found in species from other regions of the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:26967261

  2. Modelling transport and deposition of persistent organic pollutants in the European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Jaarsveld, J. A.; Van Pul, W. A. J.; De Leeuw, F. A. A. M.

    Persistent organic pollutant (POP) transport and deposition in Europe were investigated using calculations with the TREND model based on high-resolution 1990 emission estimates. Lindane (γ-HCH) and benzo(a)pyrene were chosen to represent components found predominantly in the gas and particle phases, respectively. Atmospheric lifetimes and dispersion of gas-phase POPs are primarily determined by their solubility in water and degradation rate in soils and vegetation; they have much longer lifetimes over land than over water surfaces. Model calculations indicate that γ-HCH has the potential for dispersion throughout the hemisphere, with most of it ending up in large water bodies. Spatial distribution patterns of calculated concentrations in precipitation correlated well with those of wet deposition measurements around the North Sea, but the absolute values were too low by a factor of three. Sensitivity analyses suggest that it is the emission data rather than other model parameters that are responsible for the underestimation. For (particle-phase) B(a)P the size distribution of its carrier particles and its atmospheric degradation rate are the most important, and the most uncertain, parameters affecting dispersion and transport. Results here indicate general overestimation of concentrations by a factor of two or less, but insufficient measurements limit uncertainty analyses and validity of conclusions.

  3. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4'-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect. PMID:23044032

  4. Profiling and Spatial Variation Analysis of Persistent Organic Pollutants in South African Delphinids.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Karczmarski, Leszek; Yu, Ri-Qing; Plön, Stephanie; Chen, Laiguo; Tu, Qin; Cliff, Geremy; Wu, Yuping

    2016-04-01

    The continuous disposal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in South Africa (SA) warrants concern about their detrimental effects on humans and wildlife. We surveyed six dolphin species (n = 90) incidentally captured in shark net installations or stranded off the SA east and south coast from 2005 to 2009 to study the POP exposure. Sousa plumbea, an inshore and estuarine species, was found to be the most contaminated by total POPs (21 100 ng g(-1) lw) of all the dolphins off SA, followed by Tursiops aduncus (19 800 ng g(-1) lw), Lagenodelphis hosei (13 600 ng g(-1) lw), and Delphinus capensis (5500 ng g(-1) lw), whereas POP levels in the offshore or pelagic delphinids were much lower. In all delphinids, dominant pollutants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), which represented more than 60% of the total concentration of total POPs, followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 30%). Concentrations of DDTs in S. plumbea and T. aduncus off SA were among the highest levels reported in delphinids globally. Approximately half of the adult T. aduncus had PCB concentrations above the effect threshold for impairment of immune functions. The concentrations of Mirex and Dieldrin in SA delphinids were higher than those found in species from other regions of the Southern Hemisphere.

  5. Increase in metabolic syndrome-related hospitalizations in relation to environmental sources of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Alexander V; Carpenter, David O

    2011-03-01

    Evidence from cell studies indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POP) can induce insulin resistance, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We hypothesized that residential proximity to environmental sources of POP would be associated with the MetS in the population. The present study examined the association between residency in a zip code containing or abutting environmental sources of POP and MetS-related hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as hospitalization rate ratios. Adjusted RR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. A higher proportion of African Americans resided in POP zip codes compared to Caucasians (25.9% and 24.3%, respectively, p < 0.01). Residence in POP zip codes was associated with a statistically significant 39.2% increase in MetS-related hospitalization rates, adjusted for race, gender, and age (adjusted RR = 1.392, 95% CI: 1.032-1.879, p = 0.030). Increase in age was independently associated with higher MetS-related hospitalization rates (p for trend < 0.001). Our findings contribute to the body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of POP constituting an environmental risk factor for the MetS. Further studies investigating exposure to POP and insulin resistance are warranted.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuxin; Halsall, Crispin J.; Crosse, John D.; Graf, Carola; Cai, Minghong; He, Jianfeng; Gao, Guoping; Jones, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OC pesticides), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in surficial sediments sampled along cruise transects from the Bering Sea to the central Arctic Ocean. OCs and PCBs all had significantly higher concentrations in the relatively shallow water (<500 m depth) of the Bering-Chukchi shelf areas (e.g., ΣPCB 286 ± 265 pg g-1 dw) compared to the deeper water regions (>500 m) of the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean (e.g., Canada Basin ΣPCB 149 ± 102 pg g-1 dw). Concentrations were similar to, or slightly lower than, studies from the 1990s, indicating a lack of a declining trend. PBDEs (excluding BDE-209) displayed very low concentrations (e.g., range of median values, 3.5-6.6 pg/g dw). In the shelf areas, the sediments comprised similar proportions of silt and clay, whereas the deep basin sediments were dominated by clay, with a lower total organic carbon (TOC) content. While significant positive correlations were observed between persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and TOC (Pearson correlation, r = 0.66-0.75, p <0.05), the lack of strong correlations, combined with differing chemical profiles between the sediments and technical formulations (and/or marine surface waters), indicate substantial chemical processing during transfer to the benthic environment. Marked differences in sedimentation rates between the shallow and deeper water regions are apparent (the ˜5 cm-depth grab samples collected here representing ˜100 years of accumulation for the shelf sediments and ˜1000 years for the deeper ocean regions), which may bias any comparisons. Nonetheless, the sediments of the shallower coastal arctic seas appear to serve as significant repositories for POPs deposited from surface waters.

  7. Multidecadal persistence of organic matter in soils: insights from spatially resolved investigations at the submicrometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Barré, Pierre; Bernard, Sylvain; Le Guillou, Corentin; Alléon, Julien; Chenu, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Better understanding the mechanisms responsible for the pluri-decadal persistence of carbon in soils requires well constraining the dynamics, the distribution and the chemical nature of both the soil organic carbon (SOC) and the associated mineral phases. The question we address in this work is whether different mineral species lead to different organo-mineral interactions and stabilize different quantities of SOM and different types of SOC. Here, benefiting from the unique opportunity offered by an INRA long term bare fallow (LTBF) experiment having started in 1928 in Versailles (France), we report the in-situ characterization of SOC dynamics in four clay fractions of this silty loam soil (total clays [TC, <2μm], coarse clays [CC, 0.2-2μm], intermediate clays [IC, 0.05-0.2μm] and fine clays [FC, 0-0.05μm]). The IC and FC fractions only contain smectite and illite/smectite mixed-layered clay minerals while the CC fraction also contains illite and kaolinite. In the absence of any carbon input, the plant-free LTBF clay fractions from Versailles progressively lost SOC during the first 50 years of the experiment, until they reached a seemingly stable concentration. Of note, the investigated clay fractions did not lose the same amount of SOC and do not exhibit the same final carbon concentrations. The decrease of the organic C:N ratios with LTBF duration corresponds to a progressive enrichment in N-rich SOC for all fractions which can be attributed to microbial material. Even though the speciation of SOC appears to only slightly evolve with LTBF duration, an enrichment in carboxyl and carbonyl groups is revealed by bulk-scale C-NEXAFS data for SOC from all clay fractions. In addition, STXM-based NEXAFS investigations at the submicrometer scale reveal three types of SOC-clay assemblages in addition to clay-free SOC and organic-free clays. While SOC appears mostly adsorbed onto clay surfaces within the IC and FC fractions, other protection mechanisms occur within the

  8. Characterization of polymer coated glass as a passive air sampler for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Harner, Tom; Farrar, Nick J; Shoeib, Mahiba; Jones, Kevin C; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2003-06-01

    The use of thin-film polymer-coated glass surfaces or POGs as passive air samplers was investigated during an uptake experiment in an indoor environment with high levels of gas-phase polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). POGs consisted of a micron thick layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) coated onto glass cylinders. The uptake was initially linear with time and governed by the air-side mass transfer coefficient and surface area of the sampler. This was followed by a curvilinear region and finally a constant phase when equilibrium was established between air and EVA. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of the POGs allowed rapid equilibrium with gas-phase PCBs; equilibration times were on the order of hours for the low molecular weight congeners. The equilibrium concentration was dependent on the EVA-air partition coefficient, K(EVA-A), which was shown to be very well correlated to the octanol-air partition coefficient, K(OA). When POGs of varying thickness were equilibrated with air, the amount of PCB accumulated increased with increasing thickness of the EVA, indicating that uptake was by absorption into the entire polymer matrix. A wind field of 4 m s(-1) resulted in an increased uptake rate by a factor of approximately six compared to uptake in relatively still air. This wind speed effect was diminished, however, when POGs were housed in deployment chambers consisting of inverted stainless steel bowls. Relationships based on the air-side mass transfer coefficient and K(EVA-A) were developed for PCBs that describe the entire uptake profile and allow air concentrations to be determined from the amount of chemical accumulated in the POG. It is believed that these relationships are also valid when POGs are used to detect other classes of persistent organic pollutants. PMID:12831034

  9. Association Between Type 2 Diabetes and Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Blomstedt, Paul; Kajantie, Eero; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Recently, exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association between type 2 diabetes and POP exposure in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The cohort consists of 8,760 people born in Helsinki during 1934–1944, before the global POP emission peak. In 2003, a clinical examination was performed, including blood sampling for laboratory analyses of serum lipids and POPs. Complete data from the examination were available for 1,988 participants. The concentrations of each POP were categorized into four groups on the basis of percentile intervals, and logistic regression was performed to examine diabetes prevalence across the POP categories, adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, and mean arterial pressure and using the lowest category as the reference group. RESULTS Among the participants with the highest exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p’-DDE, and polychlorinated biphenyl 153, the risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.64–2.24 times higher than that among individuals with the lowest exposure (Plin = 0.003–0.050, where Plin is the P value for linear trend across POP categories). In the stratified analysis, the associations between type 2 diabetes and oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor remained significant and were strongest among the overweight participants. Exposure to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 153) was not associated with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms the association between type 2 diabetes and adult-only exposure to organochlorine pesticides in a general urban population. PMID:21816981

  10. Halogenated persistent organic pollutants in deep water fish from waters to the west of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynda; Walsham, Pam; Russell, Marie; Hussy, Ines; Neat, Francis; Dalgarno, Eric; Packer, Gill; Scurfield, Judith A; Moffat, Colin F

    2011-04-01

    Halogenated persistent organic pollutants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)] along with total lipid, were measured in the liver and muscle of three species of deep water fish (black scabbard, black dogfish (liver only) and roundnose grenadier) collected from the Rockall fishing area, to the west of Scotland, between 2006 and 2008. Both contaminant groups were detected in the muscle and liver, with concentrations of PCBs being higher than PBDEs. There were no significant differences in the PCB or PBDE concentrations between the three species, or different sampling locations in the Rockall fishing area. PCB concentrations (ΣICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea)7 PCBs) greater than 500 μg kg(-1) lipid weight were found in 26 of the 106 liver samples. PCB concentrations were compared to OSPAR assessment criteria, concentrations were above background but below Environmental Assessment Criteria. Estimated Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, calculated using published models, in the fish muscle and liver indicated that consumption of deep water fish is unlikely to represent a risk to human health. The high squalene content in some of the black dogfish liver necessitated an additional clean-up step, involving gel permeation chromatography, when analyzing for PBDEs. Concentrations of PBDEs were low with many congeners being below detection limits, particularly in the muscle. There are currently no assessment criteria available for PBDEs. Furthermore, there is only very limited data on PBDEs in deep water fish. However, the concentrations observed in this study were similar to the concentrations recently reported in Mediterranean deep water fish. PMID:21421255

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon from the Lower Columbia Estuary, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lyndal L; Ylitalo, Gina M; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Kagley, Anna N; Arkoosh, Mary R; Lundrigan, Tricia A; Larson, Kim; Siipola, Mark; Collier, Tracy K

    2007-03-15

    Although chemical contaminants are recognized as a potential factor contributing to the salmon declines in the Pacific Northwest, United States, information on contaminant concentrations in threatened and endangered salmon from the Columbia Estuary is limited. In this study we monitored exposure to several persistent organic pollutants [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and other organochlorine pesticides] in outmigrant juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) in the Lower Columbia River, and evaluated the potential for adverse effects on salmon and the estuarine food web. Contaminants were measured in whole bodies and stomach contents of subyearling to yearling chinook collected in 2001 and 2002 from sites near the confluence of the Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Longview, and within the lower Estuary. The contaminants detected at highest concentrations in salmon whole bodies were PCBs and DDTs. Average concentrations of PCBs in salmon from the sampling sites ranged from 1300 to 14,000 ng/g lipid, in some cases exceeding the recently estimated threshold for adverse health effects in juvenile salmonids of 2400 ng/g lipid. Average DDT concentrations ranged from 1800 to 27,000 ng/g lipid. These levels are among the highest measured in juvenile salmon from Pacific Northwest estuaries to date. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in salmon whole bodies showed no clear spatial gradient from the Willamette/Columbia Confluence to the mouth of the Columbia, but tended to be higher in larger fish and older fish, suggesting a correlation with estuarine residence time. PCBs, DDTs, and PAHs were all found in salmon stomach contents, indicating that prey is a source of exposure. Hatchery feed may have contributed to contaminant body burdens in those fish that were of hatchery origin. Contaminant body burdens in salmon were poorly correlated with contaminant concentrations previously

  12. Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs) from municipal waste incinerators in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Yang; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), which are listed in the Stockholm Convention, are commonly known as unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs). As municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) have burgeoned in China, the emission of UPOPs is of great concerns. Compared to the extensive studies of PCDD/Fs emission, not much information of non-dioxin UPOPs (i.e., PCBs, HxCBz, and PeCBz) is available. In the present study, samples from raw gas (RG) after boiler, stack gas (SG) after air pollution control devices (APCDs) and fly ash (FA) samples were collected from typical MWIs in China. The analyses of SG samples indicate that PCDD/Fs are the major contributor to TEQ value, but non-dioxin UPOPs are the dominant compounds in terms of mass concentration. The mean emission factors of dl-PCBs, PeCBz, and HxCBz in SG are 0.372, 144, and 84.7 μg/t, respectively. In contrast with gaseous samples, FA contains higher mass concentration of PCDD/Fs and PCBs than that of PeCBz and HxCBz. In terms of homologues distribution of PCBs, di- to tetra-CBs were the predominant species in both SG and FA samples. PCB-126 is the major contributor to the TEQ concentration. The comparison of UPOPs composition in SG and RG samples shows that activated carbon adsorption process is capable of removing most PCDD/Fs, but less efficient for the removal of non-dioxin UPOPs.

  13. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  14. Fingerprint of persistent organic pollutants in tissues of Antarctic notothenioid fish.

    PubMed

    Lana, Nerina B; Berton, Paula; Covaci, Adrian; Ciocco, Néstor F; Barrera-Oro, Esteban; Atencio, Adrián; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2014-11-15

    In the present work, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were analyzed in three Antarctic notothenioids fish species: Trematomus newnesi (TRN), Notothenia coriiceps (NOC) and Notothenia rossii (NOR). The contribution of each POP-family to the total load was as follows: ΣPCB (40%)>ΣDDT (27%)>ΣPBDEs (23%)>ΣHCH (10%). Among the 23 PCB congeners analyzed, penta-CBs homologues were the prevalent group, followed by hexa-CBs and hepta-CBs. DDT and its metabolites presented the following trend: p,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDE~p,p'-DDD. PBDE profile was dominated by BDE-47 and BDE-99 congeners, followed by BDE-100>BDE-28>BDE-154, BDE-153. Among HCHs, the γ-HCH isomer was detected in all samples, constituting 69% total HCH load, while α-HCH and β-HCH contributions were 15% and 16%, respectively. The levels of POPs reported here suggest that NOR and NOC are more susceptible to accumulate the analyzed contaminants than TRN, a species not previously analyzed for POPs. Distribution of POPs among different tissues of the three species (muscle, liver, gonads, and gills) was also investigated. Considering lipid weight, the general pattern of POPs distribution in tissues indicated that while gonads showed higher levels of PCBs, DDTs and HCH, the most significant PBDE concentrations were recorded in gills. Also, a comparative analysis of POPs concentration in fish samples from Antarctic area was included.

  15. Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs) from municipal waste incinerators in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Yang; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), which are listed in the Stockholm Convention, are commonly known as unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs). As municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) have burgeoned in China, the emission of UPOPs is of great concerns. Compared to the extensive studies of PCDD/Fs emission, not much information of non-dioxin UPOPs (i.e., PCBs, HxCBz, and PeCBz) is available. In the present study, samples from raw gas (RG) after boiler, stack gas (SG) after air pollution control devices (APCDs) and fly ash (FA) samples were collected from typical MWIs in China. The analyses of SG samples indicate that PCDD/Fs are the major contributor to TEQ value, but non-dioxin UPOPs are the dominant compounds in terms of mass concentration. The mean emission factors of dl-PCBs, PeCBz, and HxCBz in SG are 0.372, 144, and 84.7 μg/t, respectively. In contrast with gaseous samples, FA contains higher mass concentration of PCDD/Fs and PCBs than that of PeCBz and HxCBz. In terms of homologues distribution of PCBs, di- to tetra-CBs were the predominant species in both SG and FA samples. PCB-126 is the major contributor to the TEQ concentration. The comparison of UPOPs composition in SG and RG samples shows that activated carbon adsorption process is capable of removing most PCDD/Fs, but less efficient for the removal of non-dioxin UPOPs. PMID:27239966

  16. Investigating the potential role of persistent organic pollutants in Hawaiian green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M; Balazs, George H; Nilsen, Frances; Rice, Marc; Work, Thierry M; Jensen, Brenda A

    2014-07-15

    It has been hypothesized for decades that environmental pollutants may contribute to green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), possibly through immunosuppression leading to greater susceptibility to the herpesvirus, the putative causative agent of this tumor-forming disease. To address this question, we measured concentrations of 164 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and halogenated phenols in 53 Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas) plasma samples archived by the Biological and Environmental Monitoring and Archival of Sea Turtle Tissues (BEMAST) project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Marine Environmental Specimen Bank. Four groups of turtles were examined: free-ranging turtles from Kiholo Bay (0% FP, Hawaii), Kailua Bay (low FP, 8%, Oahu), and Kapoho Bay (moderate FP, 38%, Hawaii) and severely tumored stranded turtles that required euthanasia (high FP, 100%, Main Hawaiian Islands). Four classes of POPs and seven halogenated phenols were detected in at least one of the turtles, and concentrations were low (often <200 pg/g wet mass). The presence of halogenated phenols in sea turtles is a novel discovery; their concentrations were higher than most man-made POPs, suggesting that the source of most of these compounds was likely natural (produced by the algal turtle diet) rather than metabolites of man-made POPs. None of the compounds measured increased in concentration with increasing prevalence of FP across the four groups of turtles, suggesting that these 164 compounds are not likely primary triggers for the onset of FP. However, the stranded, severely tumored, emaciated turtle group (n=14) had the highest concentrations of POPs, which might suggest that mobilization of contaminants with lipids into the blood during late-stage weight loss could contribute to the progression of the disease. Taken together, these data suggest that POPs are not a major cofactor in causing the onset of FP.

  17. Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2008-10-15

    There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

  18. Elucidating Turnover Pathways of Bioactive Small Molecules by Isotopomer Analysis: The Persistent Organic Pollutant DDT

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Ina; Betson, Tatiana R.; Vetter, Walter; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutant DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still indispensable in the fight against malaria, although DDT and related compounds pose toxicological hazards. Technical DDT contains the dichloro congener DDD (1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene) as by-product, but DDD is also formed by reductive degradation of DDT in the environment. To differentiate between DDD formation pathways, we applied deuterium NMR spectroscopy to measure intramolecular deuterium distributions (2H isotopomer abundances) of DDT and DDD. DDD formed in the technical DDT synthesis was strongly deuterium-enriched at one intramolecular position, which we traced back to 2H/1H fractionation of a chlorination step in the technical synthesis. In contrast, DDD formed by reductive degradation was strongly depleted at the same position, which was due to the incorporation of 2H-depleted hydride equivalents during reductive degradation. Thus, intramolecular isotope distributions give mechanistic information on reaction pathways, and explain a puzzling difference in the whole-molecule 2H/1H ratio between DDT and DDD. In general, our results highlight that intramolecular isotope distributions are essential to interpret whole-molecule isotope ratios. Intramolecular isotope information allows distinguishing pathways of DDD formation, which is important to identify polluters or to assess DDT turnover in the environment. Because intramolecular isotope data directly reflect isotope fractionation of individual chemical reactions, they are broadly applicable to elucidate transformation pathways of small bioactive molecules in chemistry, physiology and environmental science. PMID:25350380

  19. Changes in persistent organic pollutant levels from adolescence to young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Schell, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Elimination rates and their corresponding half-lives are conceptually important and intuitively accessible pharmacokinetic measures of toxicant elimination, but regression-based estimates are biased proportional to the degree of continuing (background) exposure. We propose an alternative estimator, the censored normal regression model, which uses all observations, but treats individuals whose initial level failed to exceed their follow-up level as censored observations to weight the regression estimates from those that declined between blood draws. In this manner, we derive the intrinsic elimination rate, the elimination rate free from ongoing exposure, as a parameter in a regression with an unobserved, latent dependent variable. We utilize sequential measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels from adolescence to adulthood, a period of intense change in size and body composition, to quantify individual-level change within a community exposed to significant quantities of contaminants over an extended period of time. Although much research has been conducted on effects of POPs, far less attention has been given to vectors of intake and changes in toxicant levels during the life course. We apply exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to types and timing of consumption, along with physical behavioral characteristics, to identify a structure of seven underlying factors. Although several variables show factorial complexity, the latent constructs included an age/maturation and period-related factor, a nutritional composite, consumption prior to pregnancy, fish and fowl consumed during pregnancy, factors distinguishing body mass and weight from height, and bottom-feeding fish consumption. Unadjusted and adjusted half-lives using the censored normal regression estimator, as well as estimated half-lives from conventional log concentration regressions, are reported for PCB groupings, specific congeners, p,p′-DDE, and HCB. PMID:25863595

  20. Biomonitoring and Hormone-Disrupting Effect Biomarkers of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Vitro and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Ghisari, Mandana; Wielsøe, Maria; Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Kjeldsen, Lisbeth S; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) include lipophilic legacy POPs and the amphiphilic perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). They have long half-lives and bioaccumulate in the environment, animals and human beings. POPs possess toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting potentials. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and thus disrupt the normal hormone homeostasis. Biomonitoring assesses the internal doses of a person to provide information about chemical exposures. Effect biomarkers assess chemicals potential to affect cellular functions in vivo/ex vivo. Human beings are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, having individually very different biological potentials and effects. Therefore, the assessment of the combined, integrated biological effect of the actual chemical mixture in human blood is important. In vitro and ex vivo cell systems have been introduced for the assessment of the integrated level of xenobiotic cellular effects in human beings. Ex vivo studies have shown geographical differences in bioaccumulated POP serum levels, being reflected by the combined biomarker effects of the complex mixture extracted from human serum. Xenohormone receptor transactivities can be used as an ex vivo integrated biomarker of POP exposure and effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/ex vivo studies have supported the potential impact of the combined effect of serum POPs on the activity of hormone and/or dioxin receptors as a risk factor for human health. With focus on hormone disruption, this MiniReview will give an update on recent POP-related endocrine-disrupting effects in vitro/ex vivo/in vivo and some related genetic data. PMID:24797035

  1. Characterization of polymer coated glass as a passive air sampler for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Harner, Tom; Farrar, Nick J; Shoeib, Mahiba; Jones, Kevin C; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2003-06-01

    The use of thin-film polymer-coated glass surfaces or POGs as passive air samplers was investigated during an uptake experiment in an indoor environment with high levels of gas-phase polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). POGs consisted of a micron thick layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) coated onto glass cylinders. The uptake was initially linear with time and governed by the air-side mass transfer coefficient and surface area of the sampler. This was followed by a curvilinear region and finally a constant phase when equilibrium was established between air and EVA. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of the POGs allowed rapid equilibrium with gas-phase PCBs; equilibration times were on the order of hours for the low molecular weight congeners. The equilibrium concentration was dependent on the EVA-air partition coefficient, K(EVA-A), which was shown to be very well correlated to the octanol-air partition coefficient, K(OA). When POGs of varying thickness were equilibrated with air, the amount of PCB accumulated increased with increasing thickness of the EVA, indicating that uptake was by absorption into the entire polymer matrix. A wind field of 4 m s(-1) resulted in an increased uptake rate by a factor of approximately six compared to uptake in relatively still air. This wind speed effect was diminished, however, when POGs were housed in deployment chambers consisting of inverted stainless steel bowls. Relationships based on the air-side mass transfer coefficient and K(EVA-A) were developed for PCBs that describe the entire uptake profile and allow air concentrations to be determined from the amount of chemical accumulated in the POG. It is believed that these relationships are also valid when POGs are used to detect other classes of persistent organic pollutants.

  2. Removal of persistent organic pollutants from micro-polluted drinking water by triolein embedded absorbent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Ru, Jia; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Zijian; Hu, Chun

    2009-06-01

    A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24 h although GAC had high removal rate in the first 4 h adsorption. Then the removal efficiency of mixed POPs (e.g. aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor epoxide), absorption isotherm, absorbent regeneration and initial column experiments of CA-triolein were studied in detail. The linear absorption isotherm and the independent absorption in binary isotherm indicated that the selected POPs are mainly absorbed onto CA-triolein absorbent by a partition mechanism. The absorption constant, K, was closely related to the hydrophobic property of the compound. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the absorption was spontaneous, with a high affinity and the absorption was an endothermic reaction. Rinsing with hexane the CA-triolein absorbent can be regenerated after absorption of POPs. No significant decrease in the dieldrin removal efficiency was observed even when the absorption-regeneration process was repeated for five times. The results of initial column experiments showed that the CA-triolein absorbent did not reach the breakthrough point at a breakthrough empty-bed volume (BV) of 3200 when the influent concentration was 1-1.5 microg/L and the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) was 20 min. PMID:19246190

  3. Halogenated persistent organic pollutants in deep water fish from waters to the west of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynda; Walsham, Pam; Russell, Marie; Hussy, Ines; Neat, Francis; Dalgarno, Eric; Packer, Gill; Scurfield, Judith A; Moffat, Colin F

    2011-04-01

    Halogenated persistent organic pollutants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)] along with total lipid, were measured in the liver and muscle of three species of deep water fish (black scabbard, black dogfish (liver only) and roundnose grenadier) collected from the Rockall fishing area, to the west of Scotland, between 2006 and 2008. Both contaminant groups were detected in the muscle and liver, with concentrations of PCBs being higher than PBDEs. There were no significant differences in the PCB or PBDE concentrations between the three species, or different sampling locations in the Rockall fishing area. PCB concentrations (ΣICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea)7 PCBs) greater than 500 μg kg(-1) lipid weight were found in 26 of the 106 liver samples. PCB concentrations were compared to OSPAR assessment criteria, concentrations were above background but below Environmental Assessment Criteria. Estimated Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, calculated using published models, in the fish muscle and liver indicated that consumption of deep water fish is unlikely to represent a risk to human health. The high squalene content in some of the black dogfish liver necessitated an additional clean-up step, involving gel permeation chromatography, when analyzing for PBDEs. Concentrations of PBDEs were low with many congeners being below detection limits, particularly in the muscle. There are currently no assessment criteria available for PBDEs. Furthermore, there is only very limited data on PBDEs in deep water fish. However, the concentrations observed in this study were similar to the concentrations recently reported in Mediterranean deep water fish.

  4. Estimation and characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutant emission from converter steelmaking processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang

    2014-06-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were characterized and quantified in stack gas and fly ash from the second ventilation systems in five typical converters in five different steelmaking plants. The 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs (2378-PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCBs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 1.84-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 5.59-87.6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash, and the PCN TEQs were 0.06-0.56 pg TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 0.03-0.08 pg TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash. The concentrations of UP-POPs in the present study were generally lower than those in other metallurgical processes, such as electric arc furnaces, iron ore sintering, and secondary metallurgical processes. Adding scrap metal might increase UP-POP emissions, indicating that raw material composition was a key influence on emissions. HxCDF, HpCDF, OCDF, HpCDD, and OCDD were the dominant PCDD/Fs in the stack gas and fly ash. TeCB and PeCB were dominant in the stack gas, but HxCB provided more to the total PCB concentrations in the fly ash. The lower chlorinated PCNs were dominant in all of the samples. The 2378-PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN emission factors in stack gases from the steelmaking converter processes (per ton of steel produced) were 1.88-2.89, 0.14-0.76, and 229-759 μg t(-1), respectively.

  5. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and sperm DNA methylation changes in Arctic and European populations.

    PubMed

    Consales, Claudia; Toft, Gunnar; Leter, Giorgio; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Uccelli, Raffaella; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Eleuteri, Patrizia; Jönsson, Bo A G; Giwercman, Aleksander; Pedersen, Henning S; Struciński, Paweł; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Zviezdai, Valentyna; Spanò, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], are environmental contaminants with potential endocrine disrupting activity. DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been associated with serum concentrations of POPs in Greenland Inuit and Korean populations. Greenland Inuits are characterized by the highest worldwide POP levels. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the relationship between serum POP concentrations and DNA methylation levels in sperm of non-occupationally exposed fertile men from Greenland, Warsaw (Poland), and Kharkiv (Ukraine). Serum levels of PCB-153 [1,2,4-trichloro-5-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)benzene], as a proxy of the total PCBs body burden, and of p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene], the main metabolite of DDT were measured. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed globally by flow cytometric (FCM) immunodetection of 5-methyl-cytosines and at specific repetitive DNA sequences (Alu, LINE-1, Satα) by PCR-pyrosequencing after bisulfite conversion. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to investigate correlations between serum POP concentrations and DNA methylation. No consistent associations between exposure to POPs and sperm DNA methylation at repetitive DNA sequences were detected. A statistically significant global decrease in methylation was associated with exposure to either POP by FCM analysis. This is the first study to investigate environmental exposure to POPs and DNA methylation levels considering sperm as the target cells. Although POP exposure appears to have a limited negative impact on sperm DNA methylation levels in adult males, the global hypomethylation detected by one of the methods applied suggests that further investigation is warranted. PMID:26801515

  6. Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: the international experience.

    PubMed

    Porta, Miquel; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballester, Ferran; Selva, Javier; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Llop, Sabrina; López, Tomàs

    2008-05-01

    Assessing the adverse effects on human health of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the impact of policies aiming to reduce human exposure to POPs warrants monitoring body concentrations of POPs in representative samples of subjects. While numerous ad hoc studies are being conducted to understand POPs effects, only a few countries are conducting nationwide surveillance programs of human concentrations of POPs, and even less countries do so in representative samples of the general population. We tried to identify all studies worldwide that analyzed the distribution of concentrations of POPs in a representative sample of the general population, and we synthesized the studies' main characteristics, as design, population, and chemicals analyzed. The most comprehensive studies are the National Reports on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (USA), the German Environmental Survey, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Population-wide studies exist as well in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Flanders (Belgium) and the Canary Islands (Spain). Most such studies are linked with health surveys, which is a highly-relevant additional strength. Only the German and Flemish studies analyzed POPs by educational level, while studies in the USA offer results by ethnic group. The full distribution of POPs concentrations is unknown in many countries. Knowledge gaps include also the interplay of age, gender, period and cohort effects on the prevalence of exposures observed by cross-sectional surveys. Local and global efforts to minimize POPs contamination, like the Stockholm convention, warrant nationwide monitoring of concentrations of POPs in representative samples of the general population. Results of this review show how such studies may be developed and used. PMID:18054079

  7. Occurrence of Legacy and New Persistent Organic Pollutants in Avian Tissues from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Son, Min-Hui; Kang, Jung-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Jung, Jin-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-11-17

    Legacy and new persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were analyzed in avian tissue samples from King George Island, Antarctica. The avian species consisted of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), the South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and the Brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus). HBCDs were detected in all samples and ranged from 1.67-713 pg/g-lipid. In the penguin samples, the concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.69-2.07 ng/g-lipid, whereas those in the skua samples ranged from 7.41-175 ng/g-lipid. The levels of Dechloranes ranged from 0.60-1.30 ng/g-lipid in the penguin samples and from 6.57-47.4 ng/g-lipid in the skua samples. The concentrations and congener distributions of OCPs and PCBs were similar to the results of previous reports. The three new POPs were detected in all samples, and this study was one of the first reports on the occurrence of these pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Because Antarctica is one of the most pristine places on Earth, the detection of new POPs in the Antarctic birds, especially penguins, is direct evidence of the long-range transport of pollutants. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of the penguin to the skua samples (BMFs-p) were greater than 1 in most legacy and new POPs, and the BMFs-p values of the new POPs were comparable to those of some OCPs, suggesting a possibility of biomagnification. Despite the small sample size, the results of this study identified POP contamination of the Antarctic avian species and long-range transport and biomagnification of HBCDs, Dechloranes, and PCNs.

  8. Changes in persistent organic pollutant levels from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Mia V; Deane, Glenn D; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Schell, Lawrence M

    2015-07-01

    Elimination rates and their corresponding half-lives are conceptually important and intuitively accessible pharmacokinetic measures of toxicant elimination, but regression-based estimates are biased proportional to the degree of continuing (background) exposure. We propose an alternative estimator, the censored normal regression model, which uses all observations, but treats individuals whose initial level failed to exceed their follow-up level as censored observations to weight the regression estimates from those that declined between blood draws. In this manner, we derive the intrinsic elimination rate, the elimination rate free from ongoing exposure, as a parameter in a regression with an unobserved, latent dependent variable. We utilize sequential measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels from adolescence to adulthood, a period of intense change in size and body composition, to quantify individual-level change within a community exposed to significant quantities of contaminants over an extended period of time. Although much research has been conducted on effects of POPs, far less attention has been given to vectors of intake and changes in toxicant levels during the life course. We apply exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to types and timing of consumption, along with physical behavioral characteristics, to identify a structure of seven underlying factors. Although several variables show factorial complexity, the latent constructs included an age/maturation and period-related factor, a nutritional composite, consumption prior to pregnancy, fish and fowl consumed during pregnancy, factors distinguishing body mass and weight from height, and bottom-feeding fish consumption. Unadjusted and adjusted half-lives using the censored normal regression estimator, as well as estimated half-lives from conventional log concentration regressions, are reported for PCB groupings, specific congeners, p,p'-DDE, and HCB. PMID:25863595

  9. Investigating the potential role of persistent organic pollutants in Hawaiian green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M; Balazs, George H; Nilsen, Frances; Rice, Marc; Work, Thierry M; Jensen, Brenda A

    2014-07-15

    It has been hypothesized for decades that environmental pollutants may contribute to green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), possibly through immunosuppression leading to greater susceptibility to the herpesvirus, the putative causative agent of this tumor-forming disease. To address this question, we measured concentrations of 164 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and halogenated phenols in 53 Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas) plasma samples archived by the Biological and Environmental Monitoring and Archival of Sea Turtle Tissues (BEMAST) project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Marine Environmental Specimen Bank. Four groups of turtles were examined: free-ranging turtles from Kiholo Bay (0% FP, Hawaii), Kailua Bay (low FP, 8%, Oahu), and Kapoho Bay (moderate FP, 38%, Hawaii) and severely tumored stranded turtles that required euthanasia (high FP, 100%, Main Hawaiian Islands). Four classes of POPs and seven halogenated phenols were detected in at least one of the turtles, and concentrations were low (often <200 pg/g wet mass). The presence of halogenated phenols in sea turtles is a novel discovery; their concentrations were higher than most man-made POPs, suggesting that the source of most of these compounds was likely natural (produced by the algal turtle diet) rather than metabolites of man-made POPs. None of the compounds measured increased in concentration with increasing prevalence of FP across the four groups of turtles, suggesting that these 164 compounds are not likely primary triggers for the onset of FP. However, the stranded, severely tumored, emaciated turtle group (n=14) had the highest concentrations of POPs, which might suggest that mobilization of contaminants with lipids into the blood during late-stage weight loss could contribute to the progression of the disease. Taken together, these data suggest that POPs are not a major cofactor in causing the onset of FP. PMID:24963745

  10. Investigating the potential role of persistent organic pollutants in Hawaiian green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Jennifer M.; Balazs, George H.; Nilsen, Frances; Rice, Marc; Work, Thierry M.; Jensen, Brenda A.

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized for decades that environmental pollutants may contribute to green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), possibly through immunosuppression leading to greater susceptibility to the herpesvirus, the putative causative agent of this tumor-forming disease. To address this question, we measured concentrations of 164 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and halogenated phenols in 53 Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas) plasma samples archived by the Biological and Environmental Monitoring and Archival of Sea Turtle Tissues (BEMAST) project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Marine Environmental Specimen Bank. Four groups of turtles were examined: free-ranging turtles from Kiholo Bay (0% FP, Hawaii), Kailua Bay (low FP, 8%, Oahu), and Kapoho Bay (moderate FP, 38%, Hawaii) and severely tumored stranded turtles that required euthanasia (high FP, 100%, Main Hawaiian Islands). Four classes of POPs and seven halogenated phenols were detected in at least one of the turtles, and concentrations were low (often <200 pg/g wet mass). The presence of halogenated phenols in sea turtles is a novel discovery; their concentrations were higher than most man-made POPs, suggesting that the source of most of these compounds was likely natural (produced by the algal turtle diet) rather than metabolites of man-made POPs. None of the compounds measured increased in concentration with increasing prevalence of FP across the four groups of turtles, suggesting that these 164 compounds are not likely primary triggers for the onset of FP. However, the stranded, severely tumored, emaciated turtle group (n = 14) had the highest concentrations of POPs, which might suggest that mobilization of contaminants with lipids into the blood during late-stage weight loss could contribute to the progression of the disease. Taken together, these data suggest that POPs are not a major cofactor in causing the onset of FP.

  11. Elucidating turnover pathways of bioactive small molecules by isotopomer analysis: the persistent organic pollutant DDT.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Ina; Betson, Tatiana R; Vetter, Walter; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutant DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still indispensable in the fight against malaria, although DDT and related compounds pose toxicological hazards. Technical DDT contains the dichloro congener DDD (1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene) as by-product, but DDD is also formed by reductive degradation of DDT in the environment. To differentiate between DDD formation pathways, we applied deuterium NMR spectroscopy to measure intramolecular deuterium distributions (2H isotopomer abundances) of DDT and DDD. DDD formed in the technical DDT synthesis was strongly deuterium-enriched at one intramolecular position, which we traced back to 2H/1H fractionation of a chlorination step in the technical synthesis. In contrast, DDD formed by reductive degradation was strongly depleted at the same position, which was due to the incorporation of 2H-depleted hydride equivalents during reductive degradation. Thus, intramolecular isotope distributions give mechanistic information on reaction pathways, and explain a puzzling difference in the whole-molecule 2H/1H ratio between DDT and DDD. In general, our results highlight that intramolecular isotope distributions are essential to interpret whole-molecule isotope ratios. Intramolecular isotope information allows distinguishing pathways of DDD formation, which is important to identify polluters or to assess DDT turnover in the environment. Because intramolecular isotope data directly reflect isotope fractionation of individual chemical reactions, they are broadly applicable to elucidate transformation pathways of small bioactive molecules in chemistry, physiology and environmental science.

  12. Seasonal change of persistent organic pollutant concentrations in air at Niigata area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Takase, Yuuya; Mitobe, Hideko; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Ohzeki, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Ken-ichi; Kitayama, Yoshie

    2003-07-01

    The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as HCB, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane (t-CHL, c-CHL), DDE, DDD and DDT, in ambient air have been measured at five sampling points in Niigata area, Japan (Niigata, Maki, Tsubame, Jouzo and Yahiko) during the period from September 1999 to November 2001. HCB, alpha-HCH, t-CHL and c-CHL showed higher concentrations than the other chemicals in all locations. All the POPs except t-CHL and c-CHL collected at urban sites of the Niigata Plain was almost the same in their concentration levels. Higher concentrations of t-CHL and c-CHL in residential areas should be attributed to the past usage of the chemical as a termiticide. At Yahiko (remote site), most of the POPs showed lower concentrations than those measured at the other sampling sites, although alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH were comparable with the concentrations found at the other sampling sites. All POPs except alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH tend to decrease 41-80% in their concentrations from 2000 to 2001. The lower POPs concentrations in winter and the higher POPs concentrations in summer at every sampling point can be partly explained by temperature differences. Applying the equation of the logarithm of the POP partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature (lnPa=m/T+b) to our data, linear relations were observed. HCB gave a poor linearity and the smallest slope, while beta-HCH, t-CHL and c-CHL gave good linearities and large slopes in the equation. The results suggest that HCB level is influenced by not only the emission from terrestrial sources but the global-scale background pollution. A peculiar observation is that beta-HCH concentration measured in our study showed large temperature dependence, indicating there could be a source of contamination in the surrounding areas. PMID:12738282

  13. Step changes in persistent organic pollutants over the Arctic and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Huang, T.; Wang, L.; Gao, H.; Ma, J.

    2015-03-01

    While some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been declining globally due to their worldwide ban since the 1980s, the declining trends of many of these toxic chemicals become less significant and in some cases their ambient air concentrations, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), showed observable increase during the 2000s, disagreeing with their declining global emissions and environmental degradation. As part of the efforts to assess the influences of environmental factors on the long-term trend of POPs in the Arctic, step change points in the time series of ambient POP atmospheric concentrations collected from four arctic monitoring sites were examined using various statistical techniques. Results showed that the step change points of these POP data varied in different years and at different sites. Most step change points were found in 2001-2002 and 2007-2008. In particular, the step change points of many PCBs for 2007-2008 were coincident with the lowest arctic sea ice concentration occurring during the 2000s. The perturbations of air concentration and water-air exchange fluxes of several selected POPs averaged over the Arctic, simulated by a POP mass balance perturbation model, switched from negative to positive during the early 2000s, indicating a tendency for reversal of POPs from deposition to volatilization which coincides with a positive to negative reversal of arctic sea ice extent anomalies from 2001. Perturbed ice-air exchange flux of PCB 28 and 153 showed an increasing trend and a negative to positive reversal in 2007, the year with the lowest arctic sea ice concentration. On the other hand, perturbed ice-air exchange flux of α-hexachlorocyclohexane decreased over the period of 1995 to 2012, likely owing to its lower Henry's law constant which indicates its relatively lower tendency for volatilization from ice to air.

  14. Step changes in persistent organic pollutants over the Arctic and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Huang, T.; Wang, L.; Gao, H.; Ma, J.

    2015-01-01

    While some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been declining globally due to their worldwide ban since the 1980s, the declining trends of many of these toxic chemicals become less significant and in some cases their ambient air concentrations, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), showed observable increase since 2000, disagreeing with their declining global emissions and environmental degradation. As part of the efforts to assess the influences of environmental factors on long-term trend of POPs in the Arctic, step change points in the time series of ambient POPs atmospheric concentrations collected from four arctic monitoring sites were examined using various statistical techniques. Results showed that the step change points of these POPs data varied in different years and at different sites. Most step change points were found in 2001-2002 and 2007-2008, respectively. In particular, the step change points of many PCBs for 2007-2008 were coincident with the lowest arctic sea ice concentration occurring in this period of time during the 2000s. The perturbations of air concentration and water-air exchange fluxes of several selected POPs averaged over the Arctic, simulated by a POPs mass balance perturbation model, switched from negative to positive from the early 2000s, indicating a tendency for reversal of POPs from deposition to volatilization which coincides with a positive to negative reversal of arctic sea ice extent anomalies from 2001. Perturbed ice-air exchange flux of PCB-28 and 153 showed an increasing trend and the negative to positive reversal in 2007, the year with the lowest arctic sea ice concentration. On the other hand, perturbed ice-air exchange flux of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) decreased over the period of 1995 through 2012, likely owing to its lower Henry's law constant which indicates its relatively lower tendency for volatilization from ice to air.

  15. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; MacLeod, Matthew; Guardans, Ramon; Scheringer, Martin; Barra, Ricardo; Harner, Tom; Zhang, Gan

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are global pollutants that can migrate over long distances and bioaccumulate through food webs, posing health risks to wildlife and humans. Multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Stockholm Convention on POPs, were enacted to identify POPs and establish the conditions to control their release, production and use. A Global Monitoring Plan was initiated under the Stockholm Convention calling for POP monitoring in air as a core medium; however long temporal trends (>10 years) of atmospheric POPs are only available at a few selected sites. Spatial coverage of air monitoring for POPs has recently significantly improved with the introduction and advancement of passive air samplers. Here, we review the status of air monitoring and modeling activities and note major uncertainties in data comparability, deficiencies of air monitoring and modeling in urban and alpine areas, and lack of emission inventories for most POPs. A vision for an internationally-integrated strategic monitoring plan is proposed which could provide consistent and comparable monitoring data for POPs supported and supplemented by global and regional transport models. Key recommendations include developing expertise in all aspects of air monitoring to ensure data comparability and consistency; partnering with existing air quality and meteorological networks to leverage synergies; facilitating data sharing with international data archives; and expanding spatial coverage with passive air samplers. Enhancing research on the stability of particle-bound chemicals is needed to assess exposure and deposition in urban areas, and to elucidate long-range transport. Conducting targeted measurement campaigns in specific source areas would enhance regional models which can be extrapolated to similar regions to estimate emissions. Ultimately, reverse-modeling combined with air measurements can be used to derive “emission” as an indicator to assess environmental

  16. Occurrence of Legacy and New Persistent Organic Pollutants in Avian Tissues from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Son, Min-Hui; Kang, Jung-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Jung, Jin-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-11-17

    Legacy and new persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were analyzed in avian tissue samples from King George Island, Antarctica. The avian species consisted of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), the South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and the Brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus). HBCDs were detected in all samples and ranged from 1.67-713 pg/g-lipid. In the penguin samples, the concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.69-2.07 ng/g-lipid, whereas those in the skua samples ranged from 7.41-175 ng/g-lipid. The levels of Dechloranes ranged from 0.60-1.30 ng/g-lipid in the penguin samples and from 6.57-47.4 ng/g-lipid in the skua samples. The concentrations and congener distributions of OCPs and PCBs were similar to the results of previous reports. The three new POPs were detected in all samples, and this study was one of the first reports on the occurrence of these pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Because Antarctica is one of the most pristine places on Earth, the detection of new POPs in the Antarctic birds, especially penguins, is direct evidence of the long-range transport of pollutants. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of the penguin to the skua samples (BMFs-p) were greater than 1 in most legacy and new POPs, and the BMFs-p values of the new POPs were comparable to those of some OCPs, suggesting a possibility of biomagnification. Despite the small sample size, the results of this study identified POP contamination of the Antarctic avian species and long-range transport and biomagnification of HBCDs, Dechloranes, and PCNs. PMID:26502059

  17. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fibroids: results from the ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Chen, Zhen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Peterson, C. Matthew; Pollack, Anna Z.; Sun, Liping; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and uterine fibroids we used previously collected data from a cohort of women 18–44 years of age undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy at 14 participating hospital surgical centers (n=473). POP concentrations were measured in omental fat and serum. Presence of fibroids was defined based on a postoperative diagnosis (n=99). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each POP by biologic medium was estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for identified covariates. Concentrations were higher in omental fat than in serum for all POPs. Serum p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) was the only POP associated with fibroids [per 1-SD increase in log-transformed p,p′-DDE OR (95% CI): 1.37 (1.05–1.80)]. In analyses excluding women diagnosed with endometriosis, a number of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in omental fat were associated with fibroids [PCB 99: 1.64 (1.08, 2.49); PCB 138: 1.64 (1.03, 2.59); PCB 146: 1.54 (1.01, 2.37); PCB 153: 1.88 (1.12, 3.13); PCB 196: 1.60 (1.02, 2.51); PCB 206: 1.52 (1.01, 2.29)]. Although exploratory, our study suggests that PCBs may be associated with fibroids in the absence of other gynecologic disorders such as endometriosis, but the associations varied by biologic media with more POPs emerging when quantified in fat. PMID:24802554

  19. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ΣDDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ΣDDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples.

  20. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah H; Peterson, Michael G; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Schwarz, Lisa K; Costa, Daniel P

    2015-11-15

    As top predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our study examined a suite of POPs in blubber (inner and outer) and blood (serum) of free-ranging northern elephant seals. For adult females (N=24), we satellite tracked and sampled the same seals before and after their approximately seven month long foraging trip. For males, we sampled different adults and sub-adults before (N=14) and after (N=15) the same foraging trip. For females, we calculated blubber burdens for all compounds. The highest POP concentrations in males and females were found for ∑DDTs and ∑PCBs. In blubber and serum, males had significantly greater concentrations than females for almost all compounds. For males and females, ∑DDT and ∑PBDEs were highly correlated in blubber and serum. While ∑PCBs were highly correlated with ∑DDTs and ∑PBDEs in blubber and serum for males, ∑PCBs showed weaker correlations with both compounds in females. As females gained mass while foraging, concentrations of nearly all POPs in inner and outer blubber significantly decreased; however, the absolute burden in blubber significantly increased, indicating ingestion of contaminants while foraging. Additionally, we identified three clusters of seal foraging behavior, based on geography, diving behavior, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, which corresponded with differences in ∑DDTs, ∑PBDEs, MeO-BDE 47, as well as the ratio of ∑DDTs to ∑PCBs, indicating the potential for behavior to heighten or mitigate contaminant exposure. The greatest concentrations of ∑DDTs and ∑PBDEs were observed in the cluster that foraged closer to the coast and had blood samples more enriched in (13)C. Bioaccumulation of POPs by elephant seals supports mesopelagic food webs as a sink for POPs and highlights elephant seals as a potential sentinel of contamination in deep ocean food webs.

  1. Spatial distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Australia's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianyu; Kennedy, Karen; Powell, Jennifer; Keywood, Melita; Gillett, Rob; Thai, Phong; Bridgen, Phil; Broomhall, Sara; Paxman, Chris; Wania, Frank; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-03-01

    A nation-wide passive air sampling campaign recorded concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in Australia's atmosphere in 2012. XAD-based passive air samplers were deployed for one year at 15 sampling sites located in remote/background, agricultural and semi-urban and urban areas across the continent. Concentrations of 47 polychlorinated biphenyls ranged from 0.73 to 72 pg m(-3) (median of 8.9 pg m(-3)) and were consistently higher at urban sites. The toxic equivalent concentration for the sum of 12 dioxin-like PCBs was low, ranging from below detection limits to 0.24 fg m(-3) (median of 0.0086 fg m(-3)). Overall, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in Australia were among the lowest reported globally to date. Among the organochlorine pesticides, hexachlorobenzene had the highest (median of 41 pg m(-3)) and most uniform concentration (with a ratio between highest and lowest value ∼5). Bushfires may be responsible for atmospheric hexachlorobenzene levels in Australia that exceeded Southern Hemispheric baseline levels by a factor of ∼4. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations generally increased from remote/background and agricultural sites to urban sites, except for high concentrations of α-endosulfan and DDTs at specific agricultural sites. Concentrations of heptachlor (0.47-210 pg m(-3)), dieldrin (ND-160 pg m(-3)) and trans- and cis-chlordanes (0.83-180 pg m(-3), sum of) in Australian air were among the highest reported globally to date, whereas those of DDT and its metabolites (ND-160 pg m(-3), sum of), α-, β-, γ- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (ND-6.7 pg m(-3), sum of) and α-endosulfan (ND-27 pg m(-3)) were among the lowest.

  2. Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc) mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin) is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b) and cryptochrome 3 (cry3), in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh) and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2), involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT) siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings

  3. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic, today and in a future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are of great concern because of their long residence time and long-range transport potential in the environment and because they are readily bioaccumulated along food chains and toxic for wildlife and humans. A multicompartment model is used to study global-scale and long term chemodynamics of anthropogenic organic substances in the Earth system. Model components are the atmosphere (ECHAM5) and ocean general circulation models (MPIOM), which include dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry, two-dimensional surface compartments (topsoil, vegetation surfaces, ice, and temporal snow cover) and intercompartmental mass exchange process parameterisations [1-3]. The transports into and out of the Arctic (66° N) are characterized for 1950-2000 under one realisation of present-day climate [4-5] and for 2001-2100 under one realisation of future climate (greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B of IPCC-AR4). Despite decaying primary emissions (since decades) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodimephenyltrichloromethane (DDT) are continuing to accumulate in the Arctic, which is fed by atmospheric transports. The main regions of import (and export) are identified and the vertical distribution and seasonalities are characterized. Changes by the end of the 21st century are discussed in the context of a major teleconnection, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. References [1] Guglielmo F, Lammel G, Maier-Reimer E: Global environmental cycling of DDT and ?-HCH in the 1980s - a study using a coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model. Chemosphere 76 (2009) 1509-1517 [2] Stemmler I, Lammel G: Cycling of DDT in the global oceans 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (2009) L24602 [3] Hofmann L, Stemmler I, Lammel G: The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on their global distributions and fate - 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover. Environ. Pollut. 162 (2012) 482

  4. Current status of persistent organic pesticides residues in air, water, and soil, and their possible effect on neighboring countries: a comprehensive review of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Though the use of pesticides has offered significant economic benefits by enhancing the production and yield of food and fibers and the prevention of vector-borne diseases, evidence suggests that their use has adversely affected the health of human populations and the environment. Pesticides have been widely distributed and their traces can be detected in all areas of the environment (air, water and soil). Despite the ban of DDT and HCH in India, they are still in use, both in domestic and agricultural settings. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the production and consumption of persistent organic pesticides, their maximum residual limit (MRL) and the presence of persistent organic pesticides in multicomponent environmental samples (air, water and soil) from India. In order to highlight the global distribution of persistent organic pesticides and their impact on neighboring countries and regions, the role of persistent organic pesticides in Indian region is reviewed. Based on a review of research papers and modeling simulations, it can be concluded that India is one of the major contributors of global persistent organic pesticide distribution. This review also considers the health impacts of persistent organic pesticides, the regulatory measures for persistent organic pesticides, and the status of India's commitment towards the elimination of persistent organic pesticides.

  5. Screening for persistent organic pollutants: Techniques to provide a scientific basis for POPs criteria in international negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodan, B.D.; Pennington, D.W.; Eckley, N.; Boethling, R.S.

    1999-10-15

    The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) is currently coordinating negotiations to develop a binding global agreement by late in the year 2000 to prohibit, restrict, or reduce the production, use, or release of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs are a small subset of organic chemicals whose characteristics of persistence in the environment, accumulation in biological organisms, and toxicity make them priority pollutants and environmental risks to humans and ecosystems. Under the UNEP negotiation, representatives are developing criteria and procedures for the addition of substances, guided by the initial list of 12 substances of substance groups selected for global action. It is therefore timely to investigate the scientific foundation for POPs screening criteria that have been used in other international, regional, and national programs, focusing on the properties of persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and long-range transport in a policy context. The theoretical, empirical, and multimedia modeling approaches used reveal that guidance for setting POPs screening criteria can be developed using a combination of science and policy input. These approaches suggest that criteria adopted under regional POPs agreements in North America and Europe are reasonable and tend to isolate a limited number of clearly hazardous POPs from the majority of organic chemicals, while not being so stringent that the ability to respond to as yet unidentified risks is seriously compromised.

  6. Effect of protein synthesis rhythm-organizing signal persists for a day after single administration of melatonin to rat.

    PubMed

    Zvezdina, N D; Malchenko, L A; Konchenko, D S; Dubovaya, T K; Brodskii, V Ya

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin administered to rat intraperitoneally organizes ultradian rhythm of protein synthesis in hepatocytes that persists for 1 day after exposure to the synchronizing signal. Hepatocytes were isolated 1 day after melatonin administration and cultured on coverslips in a serum-free medium. In 24 h in culture, the kinetics of protein synthesis was analyzed. In our previous experiments, we detected a rhythm in cells isolated in 1.5 h, but not in 3 days after melatonin administration to the rat. We have found that synchronization of oscillations of the protein synthesis intensity in vivo persists over 1 day after rat exposure to melatonin. Phenylephrine, an efficient synchronizer of protein synthesis in vitro, does not organize the rhythm in vivo.

  7. Are exploited mangrove molluscs exposed to Persistent Organic Pollutant contamination in Senegal, West Africa?

    PubMed

    Bodin, N; N'Gom Ka, R; Le Loc'h, F; Raffray, J; Budzinski, H; Peluhet, L; Tito de Morais, L

    2011-06-01

    The surface sediments, two bivalves (Arca senilis and Crassostera gasar) and three gastropods (Conus spp., Hexaplex duplex and Pugilina morio) from two Senegalese stations, Falia (Sine-Saloum Estuary) and Fadiouth (Petite Côte), were analyzed for their pollutant organic persistent contamination (polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs; organochlorinated pesticides OCPs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs). Results revealed significant levels of PCBs, DDTs and lindane in mangrove sediments ranging from 0.3 to 19.1, 0.3 to 15.9, and 0.1 to 1.9 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. Among the other POPs analysed, only hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and trans-nonachlor for OCPs, as well as BDE47 and BDE99 congeners for PBDEs were detected at very low concentrations, generally not of concern. POP levels and patterns were in good accordance with literature data available for other tropical developing countries. A seasonal quantitative difference was highlighted with higher levels of PCBs and DDTs in sediments after the wet season, likely due to the strong wash-out of residues from inland to the marine ecosystems during the rainy season. The observed pattern of DDT and its metabolites pointed out probable recent applications of DDT for public health emergencies in Senegal. Exploited molluscs were exposed to the same POP compounds as those measured in sediments. They presented OCP levels within the same range as in sediments, while significant higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in shellfish soft tissues revealing a higher bioaccumulation potential mainly due to the lipophilicity of these compounds. Finally, the influence of the reproduction cycle on POP levels through lipid content variations was highlighted, minimizing potential differences in POP bioaccumulation between shellfish species. From an ecotoxicological and public health point of view, results from this study revealed that POPs in sediments from the Petite Côte and the Sine-Saloum Estuary would not cause toxic effects

  8. Determination of selected persistent organic pollutants in wastewater from landfill leachates, using an amperometric biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomngongo, Philiswa N.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Gumbi, Bhekumuzi P.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    Landfill leachates that contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a big threat to groundwater systems and are projected to have hazardous effects in the long term if proper management strategies of the landfills are not put in place by those responsible. Monitoring the levels of POPs in landfill leachates is very crucial. This work presents an amperometric biosensor for determination of selected POPs in landfill leachates. The biosensor is based on kinetic inhibition of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The enzyme was immobilised by electrostatic attachment on a polyaniline-modified Pt electrode surface. Selected POPs inhibited HRP enzyme activity and the decrease in the enzyme activity was used to determine these environmental pollutants. Selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the analytes of choice because they are commonly found in South Africa water systems. Limits of detection for the amperometric biosensor were established as 0.014, 0.018, 0.022, 0.016 and 0.019 μg l-1 for BDE-100, PBB-1, PCB-1, PCB-28 and PCB-101, respectively. The HRP biosensor system gave different linear ranges for; BDE-100 (0.424-25.8 μg l-1), PBB-1 (0.862-13.4 μg l-1), PCB-1 (0.930-18.1 μg l-1), PCB-28 (0.730-15.7 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.930-27.1 μg l-1). Inhibition studies on HRP biosensor response toward the reduction of H2O2 in the absence and presence of the selected POPs were carried out to investigate the inhibition kinetics and its mechanism. The results obtained indicated that the inhibition mechanism was competitive for PBDEs and non-competitive for biphenyls (PCBs and PBBs). The application of the biosensor was tested on wastewater samples obtained from landfill leachate for determination of selected POPs. The leachate samples were found to contain PCB-28 (0.28 ± 0.03 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.31 ± 0.02 μg l-1). The samples were also analysed by GC-MS as a cross-check method and the

  9. Variations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghim, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Moon, K.; Han, J.; Yoon, S.

    2002-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured at Gosan, Jeju, two times, in November 2001 and in March and April 2002, each time for two weeks. Gosan is a representative background site in Korea and was a super site during ACE-Asia. Purposes of this work were to monitor the background concentrations of POPs in Korea and to assess the effect of long-range transport of these substances. Primary target pollutants were twelve chemicals such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs listed in the Stockholm Convention adopted in May 2001. However, PAHs were also measured in order to understand the overall characteristics of the POPs distribution since PAHs are most abundant POPs in our environment. Fine particles are usually an ideal carrier for long-range transport of POPs; size distribution and chemical composition of fine particles were analyzed in order to estimate the transport of POPs. Much higher concentrations of pollutants such as PAHs, PCDD/Fs, SO2 and fine particles, which were believed to be emitted from combustion sources, than other measurement data until that time, were observed in the latter part of the November 2001measurement period. Change of nitrate distribution from coarse to fine particles at that time indicates that higher concentrations could be resulted from emissions in the nearby area. Variations of organochlorine pesticides did not correlate with those of other pollutants; their concentrations were not consistently low even compared with those from contaminated areas in the world. March and April are the period of Yellow Sand in Northeast Asia. In the latter part of the spring 2002 measurement period, PM10 concentration went up to 320 ug/m3 because of heavy Yellow Sand. Characteristics of the variations of POPs in the two distinct measurement periods were compared and discussed. *This work was supported in part by the Korea Ministry of Environment as an Eco-technopia 21 project under grant 2001

  10. Associations between blood persistent organic pollutants and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Morales, Eva; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Casas, Maribel; Ballester, Ferran; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Marina, Loreto Santa; Espada, Mercedes; Goñi, Fernando; Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are suggested to contribute to lower vitamin D levels; however, studies in humans are scarce and have never focused on pregnancy, a susceptibility period for vitamin D deficiency. We investigated whether serum levels of POPs were associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentration in pregnancy. Cross-sectional associations of serum concentrations of eight POPs with plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration were analyzed in 2031 pregnant women participating in the Spanish population-based cohort INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. Serum concentrations of POPs were measured by gas chromatography and plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in pregnancy (mean 13.3±1.5weeks of gestation). Multivariable regression models were performed to assess the relationship between blood concentrations of POPs and 25(OH)D3. An inverse linear relationship was found between serum concentration of PCB180 and circulating 25(OH)D3. Multivariate linear regression models showed higher PCB180 levels to be associated with lower 25(OH)D3 concentration: quartile Q4 vs. quartile Q1, coefficient=-1.59, 95% CI -3.27, 0.08, p trend=0.060. A non-monotonic inverse relationship was found between the sum of predominant PCB congeners (PCB 180, 153 and 138) and 25(OH)D3 concentration: coefficient (95% CI) for quartile Q2 vs. Q1 [-0.50 (-1.94, 0.94)], quartile Q3 vs. Q1 [-1.56 (-3.11, -0.02)] and quartile Q4 vs. Q1 [-1.21 (-2.80, 0.38)], p trend=0.081. No significant associations were found between circulating 25(OH)D3 and serum levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCB, and ß-HCH. Our results suggest that the background exposure to PCBs may result in lower 25(OH)D3 concentration in pregnant women.

  11. ED 05-3 ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AND METABOLIC SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duk Hee

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of major cardiovascular risk factors like glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. The most important risk factor for MetS is abdominal obesity. Also, insulin resistance is considered as an underlying pathophysiology of MetS. Under the current paradigm, excess calorie intake and physical inactivity are major contributors to obesity and insulin resistance.Meanwhile, many environmental chemicals have recently received attention as a significant contributor to obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Among them, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are closely linked to most components of MetS. POPs are various chemicals which share characteristics of high lipophilicity, the ability to accumulate in fat, and resistance to biodegradation. Although most chlorinated POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides were banned several decades ago and the emission of dioxins are strictly regulated in most developed countries, the exposure to these chemicals in the general population still occurs because they have widely contaminated our food chain. Also, POPs accumulated in human adipose tissue have become an important source of internal exposure as POPs are slowly but continuously released from adipose tissue to the circulation.A substantial number of cross-sectional and prospective epidemiological studies on POPs and components of MetS have been published in recent several years. Human findings on POPs and MetS are strongly supported by experimental findings as well. Animal experiments demonstrated that animals exposed to low dose mixed POPs developed abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance, which are all MetS-related conditions. Interestingly there is human and experimental evidence on non-monotonic dose response relation, suggesting that high dose is not always more harmful than low dose. Even though POPs are well-known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs

  12. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group.

  13. [Occurrence and relevance to health of persistent organic substances and phthalates in breast milk].

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Raab, U; Fürst, P; Vieth, B; Völkel, W; Albrecht, M; Schwegler, U

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants like the polychlorinated dibenzo- P-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), perfluorinated compounds (PFC) and of phthalates in breast milk. On the basis of median and 95 (th) percentile values an "average" and a "high" intake were calculated for a 3-month-old infant exclusively breast-fed. Moreover, the actual daily intake was compared with tolerable daily intakes (TDI) recommended by scientific institutions. On this basis, we found an "average" ("high") daily intake of 70 (140) pg TEQ/kg body weight (b. w.) for PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB), 10 (20) ng/kg b. w. for PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate), 20 (50) ng/kg b. w. for PFOA (perfluorooctanoate), 1.7 (7.5) ng/kg b. w. for BDE 47, and 0.6 (2.1) ng/kg b. w. for BDE 99. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di- N-butyl phthalate (DnBP) an "average" and "high" intake of 400 ng/kg b. w. and 2,000 ng/kg b. w. and of 100 and 500 ng/kg b.w. were assumed, respectively. For all of these substances we found a daily intake via breast milk below the TDI, established on a livelong basis. On contrary, the daily intake for the sum of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB considerably exceeded the recommended TDI value. Even with regard to the "high" daily intake values the share of PBDE, PFC, and phthalates on the TDI was only in the lower percentage. Scientific organisations assume that an exceeding of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB intake in relation to the TDI value is acceptable only on the basis of the still declining levels in breast milk and the fact that this high exposure only occurs during some months of the entire life when breast milk is consumed. On the basis of the recent exposure situation mothers can exclusively breast-feed their infants for 6 months without any hesitation. The well established health benefits for mothers and infants when

  14. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah H; Peterson, Michael G; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Schwarz, Lisa K; Costa, Daniel P

    2015-11-15

    As top predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our study examined a suite of POPs in blubber (inner and outer) and blood (serum) of free-ranging northern elephant seals. For adult females (N=24), we satellite tracked and sampled the same seals before and after their approximately seven month long foraging trip. For males, we sampled different adults and sub-adults before (N=14) and after (N=15) the same foraging trip. For females, we calculated blubber burdens for all compounds. The highest POP concentrations in males and females were found for ∑DDTs and ∑PCBs. In blubber and serum, males had significantly greater concentrations than females for almost all compounds. For males and females, ∑DDT and ∑PBDEs were highly correlated in blubber and serum. While ∑PCBs were highly correlated with ∑DDTs and ∑PBDEs in blubber and serum for males, ∑PCBs showed weaker correlations with both compounds in females. As females gained mass while foraging, concentrations of nearly all POPs in inner and outer blubber significantly decreased; however, the absolute burden in blubber significantly increased, indicating ingestion of contaminants while foraging. Additionally, we identified three clusters of seal foraging behavior, based on geography, diving behavior, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, which corresponded with differences in ∑DDTs, ∑PBDEs, MeO-BDE 47, as well as the ratio of ∑DDTs to ∑PCBs, indicating the potential for behavior to heighten or mitigate contaminant exposure. The greatest concentrations of ∑DDTs and ∑PBDEs were observed in the cluster that foraged closer to the coast and had blood samples more enriched in (13)C. Bioaccumulation of POPs by elephant seals supports mesopelagic food webs as a sink for POPs and highlights elephant seals as a potential sentinel of contamination in deep ocean food webs. PMID

  15. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to Bjørnøya (Bear island).

    PubMed

    Kallenborn, Roland; Christensen, Guttorm; Evenset, Anita; Schlabach, Martin; Stohl, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    A first medium term monitoring of atmospheric transport and distribution for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Bjørnøya (Bear island) air samples has been performed in the period between week 51/1999 and week 28/2003. A total of 50 single compounds consisting of polychlorinated biphenyls (33 congeners), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (alpha-, beta-, gamma-HCH), alpha-endosulfan, cyclodiene pesticides (chlordanes, nonachlor-isomers, oxy-chlordane, heptachlor and chlordane) as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) derivatives were analysed and quantified. Atmospheric transport of POPs was identified as an important contamination source for the island. PCBs, HCB and HCH isomers were the predominant POP groups, contributing with 70-90% to the overall POP burden quantified in the Bjørnøya air samples. The highest concentration levels for a single compound were found for HCB (25-35 pg m(-3)). However, the sum of 33 PCB congeners was found to be in the same concentration range (annual means between 15 and 30 pg m(-3)). Cyclodiene pesticides, DDT derivatives and alpha-endosulfan were identified as minor contaminants. Several atmospheric long-range transport episodes were identified and characterised. Indications for industrial emissions as well as agricultural sources were found for the respective atmospheric transport episodes. A first simple statistical correlation assessment showed that for long-range transport of pollution, the local meteorological situation is not as important as the air mass properties integrated over the time period of the transport event. The local weather situation, on the other hand, is important when investigating deposition rates and up-take/accumulation properties in the local ecosystem. Based upon chemical data interpretation, valuable information about the influence of primary and secondary sources on the air mass contamination with chlorinated insecticides (e.g., HCHs) was found and discussed. The

  16. Mathematical prediction of imidacloprid persistence in two Croatian soils with different texture, organic matter content and acidity under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Broznić, Dalibor; Milin, Čedomila

    2013-01-01

    In the present laboratory study, persistence of imidacloprid (IMI) as a function of initial insecticide concentration and soil properties in two Croatian soils (Krk sandy clay and Istria clay soils) was studied and described mathematically. Upon fitting the obtained experimental data for the higher concentration level (5 mg/kg) to mathematical models, statistical parameters (R (2), scaled root mean squared error and χ (2) error) indicated that the single first-order kinetics model provided the best prediction of IMI degradation in the Krk sandy clay soil, while in the Istria clay soil biphasic degradation was observed. At the lower concentration level (0.5 mg/kg), the biphasic models Gustafson and Holden models as well as the first-order double exponential model fitted the best experimental data in both soils. The disappearance time (DT50) values estimated by the single first-order double exponential model (from 50 to 132 days) proved that IMI can be categorized as a moderately persistent pesticide. In the Krk sandy clay soil, resulting DT50 values tended to increase with an increase of initial IMI concentration, while in the Istria clay soil, IMI persistence did not depend on the concentration. Organic matter of both experimental soils provided an accelerating effect on the degradation rate. The logistic model demonstrated that the effect of microbial activity was not the most important parameter for the biodegradation of IMI in the Istria clay soil, where IMI degradation could be dominated by chemical processes, such as chemical hydrolysis. The results pointed that mathematical modeling could be considered as the most convenient tool for predicting IMI persistence and contributes to the establishment of adequate monitoring of IMI residues in contaminated soil. Furthermore, IMI usage should be strictly controlled, especially in soils with low organic matter content where the risk of soil and groundwater contamination is much higher due to its longer

  17. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:26440545

  18. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals.

  19. Destroying Kerr-Sen black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-03-01

    By neglecting the self-force, self-energy, and radiative effects, it has been shown that an extremal or near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole can turn into a naked singularity when it captures charged and spinning massive particles. A straightforward question then arises: do charged and rotating black holes in string theory possess the same property? In this paper we apply Wald's gedanken experiment, in his study on the possibility of destroying extremal Kerr-Newman black holes, to the case of (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black holes. We find that feeding a test particle into a (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black hole could lead to a violation of the extremal bound for the black hole.

  20. A growth factor-induced, spatially organizing cytoskeletal module enables rapid and persistent fibroblast migration

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katrin; Vilela, Marco; Jeon, Noo Li; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pertz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Summary Directional migration requires robust front/back polarity. We find that fibroblasts treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and pre-polarized by plating on a fibronectin line substrate, exhibit persistent migration for hours. This does not occur in the absence of PDGF, or on uniformly-coated fibronectin substrates. Persistent migration arises from establishment of two functional modules at cell front and back. At the front, formation of a zone containing podosome-like structures (PLS), dynamically correlates with low RhoA and myosin activity, and absence of a contractile lamella. At the back, myosin contractility specifically controls tail retraction with minimal crosstalk to the front module. The PLS zone is maintained in a dynamic steady state that preserves size and position relative to the cell front, allowing for long term coordination of front and back modules. We propose that front/back uncoupling achieved by the PLS zone is crucial for persistent migration in absence of directional cues. PMID:25268172

  1. Importance of Organic Matter-Uranium Biogeochemistry to Uranium Plume Persistence in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargar, J.; Janot, N.; Jones, M. E.; Bone, S. E.; Lezama-Pacheco, J.; Fendorf, S. E.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that biologically driven redox reactions, fueled by sedimentary lenses enriched in detrital organic matter, play major roles in maintaining the persistent uranium groundwater plume in the subsurface at the U.S. Department of Enery's Rifle, CO field research site. Biogeochemical cycling of C, N, Fe, and S is highly active in these organic-rich naturally reduced zones (NRZs), and uranium is present as U(IV). The speciation of these elements profoundly influences the susceptibility of uranium to be reoxidized and remobiliized and contribute to plume persistence. However, uranim speciation in particular is poorly constrained in these sytems. To better evaluate the importance of NRZs to uranium mobility and plume persistence at the Rifle site, the DOE-BER-funded SLAC SFA team has characterized vertical concentration profiles and speciation of uranium, iron, sulfur, and NOM in well bores at high spatial resolution (4 inch intervals). Up to 95% of the sedimentary uranium pool was found to be concentrated in NRZs, where it occurs dominantly as non-crystalline forms of U(IV). Uranium accumulation and the presence of the short-lived sulfide mackinawite (FeS) at NRZ-aquifer interfaces indicate that NRZs actively exchange solutes with the surrounding aquifer. Moreover, sediment textures indicate that NRZs are likely to be abundant in riparian zones throughout the upper Colorado River basin (U.S.A.), which contains most of the contaminated DOE legacy uranium ore processing sites in the U.S. These results suggest that NRZ-uranium interactions may be important to plume persistence regionally and emphasize the importance of understanding molecular-scale processes.

  2. USING WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO DESTROY TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-04

    A bench-scale feasibility study on the use of a Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) process to destroy a slurry laden with tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds has been undertaken. WAO is an aqueous phase process in which soluble and/or insoluble waste constituents are oxidized using oxygen or oxygen in air at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 C and 1 MPa to 320 C and 22 MPa. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). Test results indicate WAO is a feasible process for destroying TPB, its primary daughter products [triphenylborane (3PB), diphenylborinic acid (2PB), and phenylboronic acid (1PB)], phenol, and most of the biphenyl byproduct. The required conditions are a temperature of 300 C, a reaction time of 3 hours, 1:1 feed slurry dilution with 2M NaOH solution, the addition of CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O solution (500 mg/L Cu) as catalyst, and the addition of 2000 mL/L of antifoam. However, for the destruction of TPB, its daughter compounds (3PB, 2PB, and 1PB), and phenol without consideration for biphenyl destruction, less severe conditions (280 C and 1-hour reaction time with similar remaining above conditions) are adequate.

  3. Influence of the temperature gradient in blubber on the bioaccumulation of persistent lipophilic organic chemicals in seals.

    PubMed

    Czub, Gertje; McLachlan, Michael S

    2007-08-01

    Seals constitute an important link in food webs of the Arctic environment and are an important vector of persistent lipophilic organic pollutants to top predators (e.g., polar bears) and humans. Two fugacity-based, non-steady state, mechanistic lifetime models were assembled to explore the influence of the temperature gradient in the insulating blubber on the distribution and bioaccumulation of persistent lipophilic organic pollutants in seals. The behavior of a two-compartment model that distinguishes between the gastrointestinal tract and the seal itself was compared with a three-compartment model, in which a separate blubber compartment was implemented with a temperature gradient through the insulation layer. In both models, equilibrium partitioning between the animal's tissues, blood, and milk was assumed. The models were parameterized for ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and evaluated using field data for bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in this species. The two-compartment model resulted in predicted concentrations below reported field data. This was in particular the case for females, for which the elimination of the contaminants via milk was overpredicted by up to one order of magnitude. The three-compartment model with its consideration of the temperature gradient in blubber yielded predictions that were much more consistent with the field data. It also predicted a fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners between different blubber layers, as well as between blubber and blood or milk, which was in good qualitative agreement with observations reported in the literature. This work indicates that the temperature gradient in the blubber has an impact on the bioaccumulation of persistent lipophilic organic pollutants in seals and in marine mammals in general.

  4. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING AIR SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.13)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for extracting and preparing indoor and outdoor air samples for analysis of polar persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the preparation of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  5. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  6. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  7. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FIXED SITE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures to set up, calibrate, initiate and terminate air sampling for persistent organic pollutants. This method is used to sample air, indoors and outdoors, at homes and at day care centers over a 48-hr period.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants, brominated flame retardants and synthetic musks in fish from remote alpine lakes in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin; Gujer, Erika; Zennegg, Markus; Lanfranchi, Marco

    2007-04-01

    Remote alpine lakes do not receive any direct aquatic inputs from anthropogenic activities. Therefore, these ecosystems may receive persistent organic compounds (POPs) by direct atmospheric deposition, only. Consequently, fish dwelling in these ecosystems represent an excellent indicator for the long-term atmospheric input of bioaccumulating and persistent contaminants. In the present study, fish from seven remote alpine lakes, located between 2062 and 2637 m above sea level in south eastern Switzerland (Grisons), were investigated. Lipid-based fish tissue concentrations of pesticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its transformation products (2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), 4,4'-DDD, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), 4,4'-DDE), as well as dieldrin, heptachlor exo-epoxide (HPEX), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) were measured. In addition, seven synthetic musk compounds (Crysolide (ADBI), Phantolide (AHMI), Fixolide (AHTN), Traseolide (ATII), Galaxolide (HHCB), musk ketone (MK), and musk xylene (MX)) were determined. Concentrations of PCB, PCDD/F, and PBDE were in the same range as in fish from the major lakes situated in the Swiss plateau, indicating mainly atmospheric input of these persistent compounds. In contrast, concentrations of synthetic musks which are used as fragrances in laundry detergents and cosmetic products were distinctly lower than concentrations in fish from Swiss plateau lakes which receive inputs from waste water treatment plants.

  10. Serum Concentrations of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in a Sample of Pregnant Females and Changes in Their Concentrations during Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Richard Y.; Jain, Ram B.; Wolkin, Amy F.; Rubin, Carol H.; Needham, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives In this study we evaluated the concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females residing in the United States and assessed differences in these concentrations in all pregnant females during gestation. Methods We reviewed demographic and laboratory data for pregnant females participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including concentrations of 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 9 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 9 organochlorine pesticides. We report serum concentrations for first-time pregnant females (2001–2002; n = 49) and evaluate these concentrations in all pregnant females by trimester (1999–2002; n = 203) using a cross-sectional analysis. Results The chemicals with ≥ 60% detection included PCBs (congeners 126, 138/158, 153, 180), PCDDs/PCDFs [1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1234678HpCDD), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (123678HxCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran (1234678HpCDF), 1,1′-(2,2-dichloroethenylidene)-bis(4-chlorobenzene) (p,p′-DDE)], and trans-nonachlor. The geometric mean concentration (95% confidence intervals) for 1234678HpCDD was 15.9 pg/g lipid (5.0–50.6 pg/g); for 123678HxCDD, 9.7 pg/g (5.5–17.1 pg/g); and for 1234678HpCDF, 5.4 pg/g (3.3–8.7 pg/g). The differences in concentrations of these chemicals by trimester were better accounted for with the use of lipid-adjusted units than with whole-weight units; however, the increase in the third-trimester concentration was greater for PCDDs/PCDFs (123678HxCDD, 1234678HpCDF) than for the highest concentration of indicator PCBs (138/158, 153, 180), even after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion The concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females living in the United States suggest a decline in exposures to these chemicals since their ban or restricted use

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in the natural environments of the city of Bratsk (Irkutsk Oblast): Levels and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Mamontov, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    The contents of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)—in the natural environments of an industrial city (Bratsk) of Irkutsk oblast have been studied. Features of the spatial and seasonal distribution of the PCBs and OCPs in the soils and the atmospheric air have been revealed. The structure of the homological and congeneric composition of the PCBs in the soils and the atmospheric air has been shown. Parameters of the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks for human health from the impact of the PCBs and OCPs present in the soils and the atmospheric air have been determined.

  12. Mathematical prediction of imidacloprid persistence in two Croatian soils with different texture, organic matter content and acidity under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Broznić, Dalibor; Milin, Čedomila

    2013-01-01

    In the present laboratory study, persistence of imidacloprid (IMI) as a function of initial insecticide concentration and soil properties in two Croatian soils (Krk sandy clay and Istria clay soils) was studied and described mathematically. Upon fitting the obtained experimental data for the higher concentration level (5 mg/kg) to mathematical models, statistical parameters (R (2), scaled root mean squared error and χ (2) error) indicated that the single first-order kinetics model provided the best prediction of IMI degradation in the Krk sandy clay soil, while in the Istria clay soil biphasic degradation was observed. At the lower concentration level (0.5 mg/kg), the biphasic models Gustafson and Holden models as well as the first-order double exponential model fitted the best experimental data in both soils. The disappearance time (DT50) values estimated by the single first-order double exponential model (from 50 to 132 days) proved that IMI can be categorized as a moderately persistent pesticide. In the Krk sandy clay soil, resulting DT50 values tended to increase with an increase of initial IMI concentration, while in the Istria clay soil, IMI persistence did not depend on the concentration. Organic matter of both experimental soils provided an accelerating effect on the degradation rate. The logistic model demonstrated that the effect of microbial activity was not the most important parameter for the biodegradation of IMI in the Istria clay soil, where IMI degradation could be dominated by chemical processes, such as chemical hydrolysis. The results pointed that mathematical modeling could be considered as the most convenient tool for predicting IMI persistence and contributes to the establishment of adequate monitoring of IMI residues in contaminated soil. Furthermore, IMI usage should be strictly controlled, especially in soils with low organic matter content where the risk of soil and groundwater contamination is much higher due to its longer

  13. Revisiting the concept of recalcitrance and organic matter persistence in soils and aquatic systems: Does environment trump chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2014-12-01

    Most ecological models of decomposition rely on plant litter chemistry. However, growing evidence suggests that the chemical composition of organic matter (OM) is not a good predictor of its eventual fate in terrestrial or aquatic environments. New data on variable decomposition rates of select organic compounds challenge concepts of chemical recalcitrance, i.e. the inherent ability of certain molecular structures to resist biodegradation. The role of environmental or "ecosystem" properties on influencing decomposition dates back to some of the earliest research on soil OM. Despite early recognition that the physical and aqueous matrices are critical in determining the fate of organic compounds, the prevailing paradigm hinges on intrinsic chemical properties as principal predictors of decay rate. Here I build upon recent reviews and discuss new findings that contribute to three major transformations in our understanding of OM persistence: (1) a shift away from an emphasis on chemical recalcitrance as a primary predictor of turnover, (2) new interpretations of radiocarbon ages which challenge predictions of reactivity, and (3) the recognition that most detrital OM accumulating in soils and in water has been microbially processed. Predictions of OM persistence due to aromaticity are challenged by high variability in lignin and black C turnover observed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Contradictions in the behavior of lignin are, in part, influenced by inconsistent methodologies among research communities. Even black C, long considered to be one of the most recalcitrant components of OM, is susceptible to biodegradation, challenging predictions of the stability of aromatic structures. At the same time, revised interpretations of radiocarbon data suggest that organic compounds can acquire long mean residence times by various mechanisms independent of their molecular structure. Understanding interactions between environmental conditions and biological

  14. Persistence of spiromesifen in soil: influence of moisture, light, pH and organic amendment.

    PubMed

    Mate, Ch Jamkhokai; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Shaon Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Persistence of spiromesifen in soil as affected by varying moisture, light, compost amendment, soil sterilization and pH in aqueous medium were studied. Degradation of spiromesifen in soil followed the first-order reaction kinetics. Effect of different moisture regimes indicated that spiromesifen dissipated faster in submerged soil (t 1/2 14.3-16.7 days) followed by field capacity (t 1/2 18.7-20.0 days), and dry soil (t 1/2 21.9-22.9 days). Dissipation was faster in sterilized submerged (t 1/2 17.7 days) than in sterilized dry (t 1/2 35.8 days). Photo spiromesifen metabolite was not detected under different moisture regimes. After 30 days, enol spiromesifen metabolite was detected under submerged condition and was below detectable limit (<0.001 μg g(-1)) after 90 days. Soil amendment compost (2.5 %) at field capacity enhanced dissipation of the insecticide, and half-life value was 14.3 against 22.4 days without compost amendment. Under different pH condition, residues persisted in water with half-life values 5.7 to 12.5 days. Dissipation in water was faster at pH 9.0 (t 1/2 5.7 days), followed by pH 4.0 (t 1/2 9.7 days) and pH 7.2 (t 1/2 12.5 days). Exposure of spiromesifen to different light conditions indicated that it was more prone to degradation under UV light (t 1/2 3-4 days) than sunlight exposure (t 1/2 5.2-8.1 days). Under sunlight exposure, photo spiromesifen metabolite was detected after 10 and 15 days as compared to 3 and 5 days under UV light exposure. PMID:25616783

  15. Persistence of spiromesifen in soil: influence of moisture, light, pH and organic amendment.

    PubMed

    Mate, Ch Jamkhokai; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Shaon Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Persistence of spiromesifen in soil as affected by varying moisture, light, compost amendment, soil sterilization and pH in aqueous medium were studied. Degradation of spiromesifen in soil followed the first-order reaction kinetics. Effect of different moisture regimes indicated that spiromesifen dissipated faster in submerged soil (t 1/2 14.3-16.7 days) followed by field capacity (t 1/2 18.7-20.0 days), and dry soil (t 1/2 21.9-22.9 days). Dissipation was faster in sterilized submerged (t 1/2 17.7 days) than in sterilized dry (t 1/2 35.8 days). Photo spiromesifen metabolite was not detected under different moisture regimes. After 30 days, enol spiromesifen metabolite was detected under submerged condition and was below detectable limit (<0.001 μg g(-1)) after 90 days. Soil amendment compost (2.5 %) at field capacity enhanced dissipation of the insecticide, and half-life value was 14.3 against 22.4 days without compost amendment. Under different pH condition, residues persisted in water with half-life values 5.7 to 12.5 days. Dissipation in water was faster at pH 9.0 (t 1/2 5.7 days), followed by pH 4.0 (t 1/2 9.7 days) and pH 7.2 (t 1/2 12.5 days). Exposure of spiromesifen to different light conditions indicated that it was more prone to degradation under UV light (t 1/2 3-4 days) than sunlight exposure (t 1/2 5.2-8.1 days). Under sunlight exposure, photo spiromesifen metabolite was detected after 10 and 15 days as compared to 3 and 5 days under UV light exposure.

  16. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Raymond F.; Anderson, Henry A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Blystone, Chad; DeVito, Michael; Jacobs, David; Köhrle, Josef; Lee, Duk-Hee; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Turyk, Mary E.; Boyles, Abee L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lind, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as perfluoroalkyl acids and brominated compounds, and type 2 diabetes. Experimental data are needed to confirm the causality of these POPs, which will shed new light on the pathogenesis of diabetes. This new information should be considered by governmental bodies involved in the regulation of environmental contaminants. PMID:23651634

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated persistent organic pollutants in canned fish and seafood products: smoked versus non-smoked products.

    PubMed

    Drabova, Lucie; Pulkrabova, Jana; Kalachova, Kamila; Tomaniova, Monika; Kocourek, Vladimir; Hajslova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, levels of several groups of environmental contaminants represented by PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were determined in various types of canned smoked and non-smoked fish and seafood products (54 samples) obtained from the Czech market. PAHs were detected in all of the studied samples, and at least one of the target halogenated persistent organic pollutants was present above the LOQ in 85% of the samples. The levels of PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDTs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers found in the canned products varied in the range of 1.4-116 µg kg(-1), 0.6-59.6 µg kg(-1), 0.6-82.7 µg kg(-1) and 0.1-2.1 µg kg(-1) can content, respectively. Smoked sprats were the most contaminated fish product (n = 12) in which the highest levels of both PAHs and persistent organic pollutants were found. In 67% of the samples of smoked sprats in oil, the level of benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the maximum level of 5 µg kg(-1) established for smoked fish by European Union legislation. The distribution of target analytes between oil and fish fractions was also assessed. Significantly higher levels of PAHs were measured in the oil fraction. PMID:23339715

  18. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H

    2011-02-01

    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country.

  19. Applications of Nano Reactive Materials in Remediation of Persistence Organic Pollutants in Sediments and Groundwater - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of sediments and water contaminated hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. PCBs-contaminated sediments are ubiquitous despite the production and use of PCBs was banned in 1979 due to...

  20. Persisting in papyrus: size, oxidative stress, and fitness in freshwater organisms adapted to sustained hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Joyner-Matos, Joanna; Chapman, Lauren J

    2013-08-01

    Aquatic hypoxia is generally viewed as stressful for aerobic organisms. However, hypoxia may also benefit organisms by decreasing cellular stress, particularly that related to free radicals. Thus, an ideal habitat may have the minimum O2 necessary to both sustain aerobic metabolism and reduce the need to scavenge free radicals and repair free radical damage. The ability of aquatic organisms to sustain aerobic metabolism relates in part to the ability to maximize gas diffusion, which can be facilitated by small body size when O2 uptake occurs across the body surface, by a large gill surface area, or by the ability to use atmospheric air. We use water-breathing organisms in chronically hypoxic papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) swamps of East Africa to test the hypothesis that cellular-level benefits of hypoxia may translate into increased fitness, especially for small organisms. A review of recent studies of fingernail clams (Sphaerium sp.) shows that clams living in sustained hypoxia have minimized oxidative stress and that these cellular-level benefits may lead to increased fitness. We suggest that organisms in the extreme conditions in the papyrus swamps provide a unique opportunity to challenge the conventional classification of hypoxic habitats as 'stressful' and normoxic habitats as 'optimal.' PMID:23558301

  1. Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, J. C.; Frias, J. G. L.; Micaelo, A. C.; Sobral, P.

    2013-09-01

    The occurrence of stranded plastic marine debris along the Portuguese coastline was investigated. Number of items m-2 and size range of resin pellets were recorded, corresponding to 53% of total marine debris collected items. In addition, concentrations of adsorbed persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTC) were determined, PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PCB - polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Matosinhos (Mt) and Vieira de Leiria (VL) presented the highest number of items m-2 (362 and 332, respectively). Resin pellets with 4 mm diameter were the most abundant (50%). Contaminants concentration was variable. PAH concentrations recorded values between 53 and 44800 ng g-1, PCB ranged from 2 to 223 ng g-1 and DDT between 0.42 and 41 ng g-1. In general, aged and black pellets recorded higher concentrations for all contaminants. Matosinhos (Mt), Vieira de Leiria (VL) and Sines (Si), near industrial areas and port facilities, were the most contaminated beaches. Research efforts are needed to assess the points of entry of industrial plastic pellets in order to take action and minimize impacts on the ecosystems, in particular, points of transfer during transportation from plastic manufacturers to plastic converters should be identified and controlled so that virgin pellets are contained and will not enter rivers and be carried to the oceans where they can remain for a long time and travel great distances.

  2. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from Portugal versus European incidence: A critical overview.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread compounds, such as organohalogenated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, which can be found in all types of environmental compartments. Their presence in the aquatic environment is a worldwide problem, with emphasis on sediments which act as depository and consequently as a source of hydrophobic, recalcitrant and harmful compounds. Besides, these pollutants might affect the reproduction and mortality of living organisms, diverging in their potential to bioaccumulate in tissues. The present paper aims to review the occurrence of POPs in sediments and biota from the coastal, estuarine and river areas of Portugal. The list of the studied compounds comprises organohalogenated compounds, PAHs, organometallic compounds, pesticides, sterols, fatty acids and pharmaceutical compounds. The contamination of sediments by various pollutants is presented, such as PAHs up to 7,350 ng g(-1) found in Sado estuary and polychlorinated biphenyls up to 62.2 ng g(-1) in the case of sediments collected in Ria de Aveiro. The occurrence of these persistent toxic substances in sediments demonstrates aquatic contamination from agricultural, industrial and urban discharges and the concern about the potential risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife and humans. In fact, several classes of POPs have also been found in biota, such as polychlorinated biphenyls up to 810.9 ng g(-1) in sentinel fish from the Douro River estuary and pesticides in bivalves from the Sado River estuary. The importance of further systematic research on sediments and biota is here highlighted to compare the contamination of these two reservoirs; to assess their spatial and temporal variation; and to determine other classes of POPs that were not investigated yet (e.g., industrial compounds, estrogens and many classes of pharmaceuticals).

  3. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    PubMed

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices. PMID:24505991

  4. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    PubMed

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  5. Biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in Great Slave Lake food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.S.; Muir, D.; Lockhart, L.

    1994-12-31

    Great Slave Lake is a large, subarctic lake which receives the majority of its water from the Slave, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers watershed. Increased development in the southern region of the watershed may provide a significant source of organic contaminants to the lake in addition to contaminants entering the lake via direct atmospheric deposition. Here the authors report the results of a study comparing organic contaminant concentrations in lake trout, burbot, and whitefish collected near the Slave River outflow and in a region of Great Slave Lake which is believed to be minimally affected by the Slave River. They also use stable isotope analyses to infer spatial differences in fish feeding habits between the two regions of the lake and to investigate how food habits may affect organic contaminant biomagnification. Finally, the authors compare their Great Slave Lake data with studies conducted from other regions of the Arctic and subarctic. This allows them to infer how the Slave River inflow may affect organic contaminant concentrations and biomagnification in the Great Slave Lake ecosystem.

  6. Seasonal persistence of faecal indicator organisms in soil following dairy slurry application to land by surface broadcasting and shallow injection.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Christopher J; Oliver, David M; Fish, Robert D; Bulmer, Nicholas M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Winter, Michael; Chadwick, David R

    2016-12-01

    Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two slurry application methods (surface broadcast versus shallow injection) on the survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) delivered via dairy slurry to replicated grassland plots across contrasting seasons. A significant increase in FIO persistence (measured by the half-life of E. coli and intestinal enterococci) was observed when slurry was applied to grassland via shallow injection, and FIO decay rates were significantly higher for FIOs applied to grassland in spring relative to summer and autumn. Significant differences in the behaviour of E. coli and intestinal enterococci over time were also observed, with E. coli half-lives influenced more strongly by season of application relative to the intestinal enterococci population. While shallow injection of slurry can reduce agricultural GHG emissions to air it can also prolong the persistence of FIOs in soil, potentially increasing the risk of their subsequent transfer to water. Awareness of (and evidence for) the potential for 'pollution-swapping' is critical in order to guard against unintended environmental impacts of agricultural management decisions.

  7. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to and from the Arctic under present-day and future climate.

    PubMed

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard; Graf, Hans F

    2015-03-17

    The long-term atmospheric cycling and fate of persistent organic pollutants under the influence of a changing climate is a concern. A GCM's realization of present-day (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate, the latter under a medium scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, is used to study meridional transports and their correlations with the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations (AO and NAO). Regions of import and export maxima into the Arctic are identified along the Arctic Circle. It is found that, under future climate conditions, the net export of PCB153 out of the Arctic will increase. The meridional net flux pattern of this substance is expected to become independent of AO and NAO. For DDT, a trend of decreasing net Arctic import will reverse to an increasing trend 100 years after peak emission, which is partly due to more frequent AO and NAO positive phases. It is concluded that the long-term accumulation trends in the Arctic of other persistent pollutants, including so-called emerging pollutants, are subject to the substances' specific behavior and fate in the environment and need to be studied specifically. PMID:25686012

  8. Seasonal persistence of faecal indicator organisms in soil following dairy slurry application to land by surface broadcasting and shallow injection.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Christopher J; Oliver, David M; Fish, Robert D; Bulmer, Nicholas M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Winter, Michael; Chadwick, David R

    2016-12-01

    Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two slurry application methods (surface broadcast versus shallow injection) on the survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) delivered via dairy slurry to replicated grassland plots across contrasting seasons. A significant increase in FIO persistence (measured by the half-life of E. coli and intestinal enterococci) was observed when slurry was applied to grassland via shallow injection, and FIO decay rates were significantly higher for FIOs applied to grassland in spring relative to summer and autumn. Significant differences in the behaviour of E. coli and intestinal enterococci over time were also observed, with E. coli half-lives influenced more strongly by season of application relative to the intestinal enterococci population. While shallow injection of slurry can reduce agricultural GHG emissions to air it can also prolong the persistence of FIOs in soil, potentially increasing the risk of their subsequent transfer to water. Awareness of (and evidence for) the potential for 'pollution-swapping' is critical in order to guard against unintended environmental impacts of agricultural management decisions. PMID:27604756

  9. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  10. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals. PMID:25829055

  11. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to and from the Arctic under present-day and future climate.

    PubMed

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard; Graf, Hans F

    2015-03-17

    The long-term atmospheric cycling and fate of persistent organic pollutants under the influence of a changing climate is a concern. A GCM's realization of present-day (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate, the latter under a medium scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, is used to study meridional transports and their correlations with the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations (AO and NAO). Regions of import and export maxima into the Arctic are identified along the Arctic Circle. It is found that, under future climate conditions, the net export of PCB153 out of the Arctic will increase. The meridional net flux pattern of this substance is expected to become independent of AO and NAO. For DDT, a trend of decreasing net Arctic import will reverse to an increasing trend 100 years after peak emission, which is partly due to more frequent AO and NAO positive phases. It is concluded that the long-term accumulation trends in the Arctic of other persistent pollutants, including so-called emerging pollutants, are subject to the substances' specific behavior and fate in the environment and need to be studied specifically.

  12. Ocean metabolism and dissolved organic matter: How do small dissolved molecules persist in the ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Ronald

    2010-05-01

    The ocean reservoir of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is among the largest global reservoirs (~700 Pg C) of reactive organic carbon. Marine primary production (~50 Pg C/yr) by photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria is the major source of organic matter to the ocean and the principal substrate supporting marine food webs. The direct release of DOM from phytoplankton and other organisms as well as a variety of other processes, such as predation and viral lysis, contribute to the ocean DOM reservoir. Continental runoff and atmospheric deposition are relatively minor sources of DOM to the ocean, but some components of this material appear to be resistant to decomposition and to have a long residence time in the ocean. Concentrations of DOM are highest in surface waters and decrease with depth, a pattern that reflects the sources and diagenesis of DOM in the upper ocean. Most (70-80%) marine DOM exists as small molecules of low molecular weight (<1 kDalton). Surprisingly, high-molecular-weight (>1 kDalton) DOM is relatively enriched in major biochemicals, such as combined neutral sugars and amino acids, and is more bioavailable than low-molecular-weight DOM. The observed relationships among the size, composition, and reactivity of DOM have led to the size-reactivity continuum model, which postulates that diagenetic processes lead to the production of smaller molecules that are structurally altered and resistant to microbial degradation. The radiocarbon content of these small dissolved molecules also indicates these are the most highly aged components of DOM. Chemical signatures of bacteria are abundant in DOM and increase during diagenesis, indicating bacteria are an important source of slowly cycling biochemicals. Recent analyses of DOM isolates by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry have revealed an incredibly diverse mixture of molecules. Carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules are abundant in DOM, and they appear to be derived from diagenetically

  13. Steroidogenic differential effects in neonatal porcine Leydig cells exposed to persistent organic pollutants derived from cod liver oil.

    PubMed

    Granum, Cesilie; Anchersen, Sara; Karlsson, Camilla; Berg, Vidar; Olsaker, Ingrid; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Seafood products, including fish and fish oils, are major sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which may cause endocrine disruption related to reproductive dysfunction in males. Primary porcine neonatal Leydig cells were exposed to three extracts of POPs obtained from different stages in production of cod liver oil dietary supplement, in the absence and presence of luteinizing hormone (LH). No reduced viability was observed and all POP extracts showed increased testosterone and estradiol levels in unstimulated cells and decreased testosterone and estradiol secretion in LH-stimulated cells. A decrease in central steriodogenic genes including STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B and CYP17A1 was obtained in both culture conditions with all POP extracts. We implicate both small differences in composition and concentration of compounds as well as "old" POPs to be important for the observed steroidogenic effects. PMID:26055946

  14. Application of Focused Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction to the Determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Soil Samples.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Medellín-Garibay, S E; Castillo, C G; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, C A; Zuki-Orozco, B A; Batres-Esquivel, L; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2015-08-01

    A simple and rapid focused ultrasound extraction (FU) based method is presented for the determination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in soil using a gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector with electron impact ionization. The main experimental parameters affecting the FU step have been optimized by applying a PERMANOVA and PCO analysis allowing us to obtain a maximum amount of information with a minimum number of assays. The limits of detection for POPs fell within the 0.9-6.8 ng/g d.w. interval; a linear method was used with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.99. Recovery percentages at low concentrations (25 ng/g d.w.) were 75.8%-110%, and at high concentrations (75 ng/g d.w.) 82.3%-109%; the evaluated precision as RSD% of repeatability and reproducibility were within a range of 0.5%-11% and 0.3%-18%, respectively.

  15. How do climate fluctuations affect persistent organic pollutant distribution in North America? Evidence from a decade of air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianmin; Hung, Hayley; Blanchard, Pierrette

    2004-05-01

    Interannual variations of persistent organic pollutant (POP) air concentrations from the Great Lakes region and the Arctic during the 1990s are strongly associated with atmospheric low-frequency fluctuations, notably the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern. This suggests interactions between climate variation and the global distribution of POPs. Atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and several lighter polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured around the Great Lakes basin increased during the positive phases of NAO and ENSO in the spring. This implies that anomalous high air temperatures associated with NAO and ENSO enhance volatilization of POPs from reservoirs on the Earth's surface accumulated in the past. These compounds are then available for transport from source regions to more pristine regions such as the Arctic under favorable flow patterns associated with global climate variations.

  16. Organic persistent toxic substances in soils, waters and sediments along an altitudinal gradient at Mt. Sagarmatha, Himalayas, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Guzzella, Licia; Poma, Giulia; De Paolis, Adolfo; Roscioli, Claudio; Viviano, Gaetano

    2011-10-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important classes of compounds of serious environmental concern. These compounds were measured in waters, sediments and soils from several high altitude sites in the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and included in the Himalayan ridge. In water samples, low-level substituted PCBs and PBDEs, along with more volatile PAHs, were the most common contaminants. In sediment and soil samples, the PCB profile was mainly composed of medium-level chlorinated congeners and significantly correlated with altitude. The PAH profile for water and soil samples showed the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs due to emissions of solid combustion, whereas the profile for sediments indicated the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs from gasoline emissions. The PAH levels measured in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated, whereas the regarded Himalayan stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OC compounds. PMID:21752503

  17. QSAR models for estimating properties of persistent organic pollutants required in evaluation of their environmental fate and risk.

    PubMed

    Sabljic, A

    2001-04-01

    The molecular connectivity indices (MCIs) have been successfully used for over 20 years in quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) modelling in various areas of physics, chemistry, biology, drug design, and environmental sciences. With this review, we hope to assist present and future QSAR practitioners to apply MCIs more wisely and more critically. First, we have described the methods of calculation and systematics of MCIs. This section should be helpful in rational selection of MCIs for QSAR modelling. Then we have presented our long-term experience in the application of MCIs through several characteristic and successful QSAR models for estimating partitioning and chromatographic properties of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We have also analysed the trends in calculated MCIs and discussed their physical interpretation. In conclusion, several practical recommendations and warnings, based on our research experience, have been given for the application of MCIs in the QSAR modelling. PMID:11302582

  18. Observations on persistent organic pollutants in plants: Implications for their use as passive air samplers and for POP cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Ockenden, W.A.; Parker, C.; Jones, K.C.; Steinnes, E.

    1998-09-15

    Pine Needle (Pinus sylvestris) and lichen (Hypogymnia physodes) samples from various remote sites across Norway have been analyzed for a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Results have shown differences in accumulation between species, with higher concentrations being noted in the H. physodes than the P. sylvestris. This indicates that to use vegetation as a biomonitor, intraspecies and not interspecies comparisons in vegetation pollutant loading between sites are necessary. {alpha}/{gamma}-HCH ratios were highest at colder northern sites, indicating increased distance from source areas and long-range atmospheric transport. Concentrations of PCBs 101, 118, 138, and 153 in H. physodes were found to be higher at lower temperatures. Trends between burdens of the other POPs in H. physodes or P. sylvestris and site temperature or latitude were not apparent. Plant/air partition coefficients indicate favored accumulation of PCBs in vegetation at lower temperatures and for higher chlorinated congeners.

  19. Association of Dioxin and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) with Diabetes: Epidemiological Evidence and New Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    De Tata, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide explosion of the rates of diabetes and other metabolic diseases in the last few decades cannot be fully explained only by changes in the prevalence of classical lifestyle-related risk factors, such as physical inactivity and poor diet. For this reason, it has been recently proposed that other “nontraditional” risk factors could contribute to the diabetes epidemics. In particular, an increasing number of reports indicate that chronic exposure to and accumulation of a low concentration of environmental pollutants (especially the so-called persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) within the body might be associated with diabetogenesis. In this review, the epidemiological evidence suggesting a relationship between dioxin and other POPs exposure and diabetes incidence will be summarized, and some recent developments on the possible underlying mechanisms, with particular reference to dioxin, will be presented and discussed. PMID:24802877

  20. Temporal and spatial changes in persistent organic pollutants in Vietnamese coastal waters detected from plastic resin pellets.

    PubMed

    Le, Dung Quang; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hosoda, Junki; Tuyet, Dao Anh

    2016-08-15

    Plastic resin pellets collected at Minh Chau island and Ba Lat estuary between 2007 and 2014 in Vietnam were analyzed for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The study was carried out as part of the International Pellet Watch program for monitoring the global distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Higher levels of DDTs compared to PCBs indicated agricultural inputs rather than industrial discharges in the region. Most POP concentrations on both beaches decreased over the period, with the exception of HCH isomers. Though the concentration of DDTs showed a drastic decline on both beaches between 2007/2008 and 2014, DDTs accounted for 60-80% of total DDTs, suggesting that there is still a fresh input of these chemicals in the region. This study strongly recommends further investigations to track temporal and spatial patterns of POP levels in the marine environment using plastic resin pellets. PMID:27262498

  1. Influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Hoff, R.M.

    2000-03-15

    The influence of eutrophication on the biogeochemical cycles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is largely unknown. In this paper, the application of a dynamic air-water-phytoplankton exchange model to Lake Ontario is used as a framework to study the influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of POPs. The results of these simulations demonstrate that air-water exchange controls phytoplankton concentrations in remote aquatic environments with little influence from land-based sources of pollutants and supports levels in even historically contaminated systems. Furthermore, eutrophication or high biomass leads to a disequilibrium between the gas and dissolved phase, enhanced air-water exchange, and vertical sinking fluxes of PCBs. Increasing biomass also depletes the water concentrations leading to lower than equilibrium PCB concentrations in phytoplankton. Implications to future trends in PCB pollution in Lake Ontario are also discussed.

  2. Spatial and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hoguet, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer M; Reiner, Jessica L; Kucklick, John R; Bryan, Colleen E; Moors, Amanda J; Pugh, Rebecca S; Becker, Paul R

    2013-04-01

    Remote locations, such as the Arctic, are often sinks for persistent contaminants which can ultimately bioaccumulate in local wildlife. Assessing temporal contaminant trends in the Arctic is important in understanding whether restrictions on legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have led to concentration declines. Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) tissue samples were collected from two subpopulations (Cook Inlet, Alaska and the eastern Chukchi Sea) between 1989 and 2006. Several POPs (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and related compounds (DDTs), chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlorobenzenes, mirex, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and semi-quantitatively hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs)) were measured in 70 blubber samples, and total mercury (Hg) was measured in 67 liver samples from a similar set of individuals. Legacy POPs (PCBs, chlordanes, DDTs, and HCHs) were the predominant organic compound classes in both subpopulations, with median concentrations of 2360ng/g lipid for Σ80PCBs and 1890 ng/g lipid for Σ6DDTs. Backward stepwise multiple regressions showed that at least one of the four independent variables (subpopulation, sampling year, sex, and animal length) influenced the POP and Hg concentrations. ΣPCBs, ΣDDTs, Σchlordanes, Σchlorobenzenes, mirex, and Hg were significantly higher in belugas from the eastern Chukchi Sea than from the Cook Inlet (p≤0.0001). In contrast, Σ8PBDE and α-HBCD concentrations were significantly lower in belugas from the eastern Chukchi Sea than from the Cook Inlet (p<0.0001). Significant temporal increases in concentrations of Σ8PBDE and α-HBCD were observed for both subpopulations (p≤0.0003), and temporal declines were seen for ΣHCHs and Σchlorobenzenes in eastern Chukchi Sea belugas only (p≤0.0107). All other POP and Hg concentrations were stable, indicating either a lagging response of the Arctic to source reductions or the maintenance of concentrations

  3. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  4. Spatial and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hoguet, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer M; Reiner, Jessica L; Kucklick, John R; Bryan, Colleen E; Moors, Amanda J; Pugh, Rebecca S; Becker, Paul R

    2013-04-01

    Remote locations, such as the Arctic, are often sinks for persistent contaminants which can ultimately bioaccumulate in local wildlife. Assessing temporal contaminant trends in the Arctic is important in understanding whether restrictions on legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have led to concentration declines. Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) tissue samples were collected from two subpopulations (Cook Inlet, Alaska and the eastern Chukchi Sea) between 1989 and 2006. Several POPs (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and related compounds (DDTs), chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlorobenzenes, mirex, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and semi-quantitatively hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs)) were measured in 70 blubber samples, and total mercury (Hg) was measured in 67 liver samples from a similar set of individuals. Legacy POPs (PCBs, chlordanes, DDTs, and HCHs) were the predominant organic compound classes in both subpopulations, with median concentrations of 2360ng/g lipid for Σ80PCBs and 1890 ng/g lipid for Σ6DDTs. Backward stepwise multiple regressions showed that at least one of the four independent variables (subpopulation, sampling year, sex, and animal length) influenced the POP and Hg concentrations. ΣPCBs, ΣDDTs, Σchlordanes, Σchlorobenzenes, mirex, and Hg were significantly higher in belugas from the eastern Chukchi Sea than from the Cook Inlet (p≤0.0001). In contrast, Σ8PBDE and α-HBCD concentrations were significantly lower in belugas from the eastern Chukchi Sea than from the Cook Inlet (p<0.0001). Significant temporal increases in concentrations of Σ8PBDE and α-HBCD were observed for both subpopulations (p≤0.0003), and temporal declines were seen for ΣHCHs and Σchlorobenzenes in eastern Chukchi Sea belugas only (p≤0.0107). All other POP and Hg concentrations were stable, indicating either a lagging response of the Arctic to source reductions or the maintenance of concentrations

  5. Geographical variation of persistent organic pollutants in eggs of threatened loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Keller, Jennifer M; Wyneken, Jeanette; Crowder, Larry; Scott, Geoffrey; Kucklick, John R

    2011-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are recognized manmade threats to sea turtle populations, but substantial uncertainty exists surrounding their exposure to contaminants and their sensitivity to toxic effects. This uncertainty creates difficulty for conservation managers to make informed decisions for the recovery of these threatened species. To provide baseline concentrations and spatial comparisons, we measured a large suite of POPs in loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk samples collected from 44 nests in three distinct U.S. locations: North Carolina (NC), eastern Florida (E FL), and western Florida (W FL). The POPs included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordanes, mirex, dieldin, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene, and toxaphene congeners, as well as polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs). Persistent organic pollutant concentrations were lowest in W FL, intermediate in E FL, and highest in NC egg samples, with several statistically significant spatial differences. This increasing gradient along the southeast coast around the Florida peninsula to North Carolina was explained partly by the foraging site selection of the nesting females. Data from previous tracking studies show that NC nesting females feed primarily along the U.S. eastern coast, whereas W FL nesting females forage in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. The E FL nesting females forage in areas that overlap these two. The foraging site selection also results in exposure to different patterns of POPs. An unusual PBDE pattern was seen in the NC samples, with nearly equal contributions of PBDE congeners 47, 100, and 154. These findings are important to managers assessing threats among different stocks or subpopulations of this threatened species.

  6. Depth profile of persistent and emerging organic pollutants upstream of the Three Gorges Dam gathered in 2012/2013.

    PubMed

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Bi, Yonghong; Peng, Chengrong; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Persistent and emerging organic pollutants were sampled in September 2012 and 2013 at a sampling site in front of the Three Gorges Dam near Maoping (China) in a water depth between 11 and 61 m to generate a depth profile of analytes. A novel compact water sampling system with self-packed glass cartridges was employed for the on-site enrichment of approximately 300 L of water per sample to enable the detection of low analytes levels in the picogram per liter-scale in the large water body. The overall performance of the sampling system was acceptable for the qualitative detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), perfluoroalkylic acids (PFAAs), pharmaceutical residues and polar pesticides. Strongly particle-associated analytes like PAHs and PCBs resided mainly in the glass wool filter of the sampling system, whereas all other compounds have mainly been enriched on the XAD-resin of the self-packed glass cartridges. The sampling results revealed qualitative information on the presence, depth distribution and origin of the investigated compounds. Although the depth profile of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PFAAs appeared to be homogeneous, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides were detected in distinct different patterns with water depth. Source analysis with diagnostic ratios for PAHs revealed their origin to be pyrogenic (burning of coal, wood and grass). In contrast, most PCBs and OCPs had to be regarded as legacy pollutants which have been released into the environment in former times and still remain present due to their persistence. The abundance of emerging organic pollutants could be confirmed, and their most abundant compounds could be identified as perfluorooctanoic acid, diclofenac and atrazine among investigated PFAAs, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides, respectively.

  7. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

    2014-01-15

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses. PMID:24055669

  8. Depth profile of persistent and emerging organic pollutants upstream of the Three Gorges Dam gathered in 2012/2013.

    PubMed

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Bi, Yonghong; Peng, Chengrong; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Persistent and emerging organic pollutants were sampled in September 2012 and 2013 at a sampling site in front of the Three Gorges Dam near Maoping (China) in a water depth between 11 and 61 m to generate a depth profile of analytes. A novel compact water sampling system with self-packed glass cartridges was employed for the on-site enrichment of approximately 300 L of water per sample to enable the detection of low analytes levels in the picogram per liter-scale in the large water body. The overall performance of the sampling system was acceptable for the qualitative detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), perfluoroalkylic acids (PFAAs), pharmaceutical residues and polar pesticides. Strongly particle-associated analytes like PAHs and PCBs resided mainly in the glass wool filter of the sampling system, whereas all other compounds have mainly been enriched on the XAD-resin of the self-packed glass cartridges. The sampling results revealed qualitative information on the presence, depth distribution and origin of the investigated compounds. Although the depth profile of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PFAAs appeared to be homogeneous, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides were detected in distinct different patterns with water depth. Source analysis with diagnostic ratios for PAHs revealed their origin to be pyrogenic (burning of coal, wood and grass). In contrast, most PCBs and OCPs had to be regarded as legacy pollutants which have been released into the environment in former times and still remain present due to their persistence. The abundance of emerging organic pollutants could be confirmed, and their most abundant compounds could be identified as perfluorooctanoic acid, diclofenac and atrazine among investigated PFAAs, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides, respectively. PMID:26585456

  9. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions

    SciTech Connect

    Berhe, Asmeret A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kleber, Markus; Burton, Sarah D.; Harte, John

    2012-06-02

    The terrestrial biosphere is dominated by sloping landscapes [Staub and Rosenzweig, 1986] where biogeochemical cycling of essential elements is controlled by interaction of geomorphic, pedogenic, and ecological processes that shape them. Recent studies have highlighted the important role of soil erosion in dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) [Berhe et al., 2007, 2008; Boix-Fayos et al., 2009; Harden et al.,1999; Smith et al., 2001; Stallard, 1998a; Van Oost et al., 2007]. However, most process level studies of SOM cycling are dominantly located on nonsloping sites that experience minimal soil erosion and deposition and thus they fail to capture the influence of topography on SOM dynamics.

  10. Persistent organic pesticide residues in sediments of Vasai Creek near Mumbai: Assessment of sources and potential ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Singare, Pravin U

    2015-11-15

    Thirteen persistent organic pesticides were investigated in the sediments of Vasai Creek near Mumbai to evaluate their pollution levels and potential risks. It was observed that ΣOCPs level was in the range of 597-1538ng/g dw, with an average value of 1115.25ng/g dw. The level of ΣOPPs was in the range of 492-1034ng/g dw, with an average value of 798.15ng/g dw. The values o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratio gives an indication of use of technical DDT as the prime source of DDT, while the α/γ-BHC ratio indicate that BHCs in study area might have been received from fresh lindane. The results of an ecological risk assessment showed that sediment bound organic pesticides are of more ecotoxicological concern as they might create adverse ecological risk to the marine breeding habitats. These pesticides residues may get remobilize and released to overlying waters creating adverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. PMID:26428625

  11. The Fragment Constant Method for Predicting Octanol-Air Partition Coefficients of Persistent Organic Pollutants at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuehua; Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Li; Qiao, Xianliang; Huang, Liping

    2006-09-01

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) is a key physicochemical parameter for describing the partition of organic pollutants between air and environmental organic phases. Experimental determination of KOA is costly and time consuming, and sometimes restricted by lack of sufficiently pure chemicals. There is a need to develop a simple but accurate method to estimate KOA. In the present study, a fragment constant model based on five fragment constants and one structural correction factor, was developed for predicting logKOA at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. The model was validated as successful by statistical analysis and external experimental logKOA data. Compared to other quantitative structure-property relationship methods, the present model has the advantage that it is much easier to implement. As aromatic compounds that contain C, H, O, Cl, and Br atoms, were included in the training set used to develop the model, the current fragment model applies to a wide range of chlorinated and brominated aromatic pollutants, such as chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, all of which are typical persistent organic pollutants. Further study is necessary to expand the utility of the method to all halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds.

  12. Source identification, spatio-temporal distribution and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in sediments from the upper Danube catchment.

    PubMed

    Kukučka, Petr; Audy, Ondřej; Kohoutek, Jiří; Holt, Eva; Kalábová, Tereza; Holoubek, Ivan; Klánová, Jana

    2015-11-01

    Riverine sediments, collected on a monthly basis during a period of one year, from five sites in a mixed land use region of the Czech Republic were analysed for chlorinated and brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The region is located in the upper catchment of the Danube River. The POPs concentrations were as follows: 11-930 pg g(-1) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), 170-980 pg g(-1) dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), 34-13,700 pg g(-1) polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), 5.7-29,200 pg g(-1) polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and 0.21-351 ng g(-1) hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). Concentrations expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQs), for PCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN (TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN) ranged from 0.37 to 19 pg g(-1). The results revealed a clear spatial separation between sites based on concentration and congener profile. There were also some obvious temporal patterns of selected POPs, which were related to river flow (seasonality) and organic carbon (TOC) of the sediment. Potential sources of POPs include local municipalities (flame retardants), some diffuse sources (PCNs and PCDDs/Fs) and potential point sources (PBDEs). Risk assessment based on risk quotients (RQ) revealed limited to medium ecological risk from PBDEs. TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN were low relative to other European rivers, hence the risk to aquatic organisms was considered to be low. PCNs contributed significantly to overall TEQ in several cases. PMID:26291759

  13. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  14. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6 Section 100.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will...

  15. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  16. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the...

  17. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Request for Examination of Mutilated Currency for Possible Redemption § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account...

  18. Persistent Organic Pollutants Modify Gut Microbiota–Host Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice Through Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limin; Nichols, Robert G.; Correll, Jared; Murray, Iain A.; Tanaka, Naoki; Smith, Philip B.; Hubbard, Troy D.; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Hatzakis, Emmanuel; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Perdew, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alteration of the gut microbiota through diet and environmental contaminants may disturb physiological homeostasis, leading to various diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because most exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POPs) occurs through the diet, the host gastrointestinal tract and commensal gut microbiota are likely to be exposed to POPs. Objectives We examined the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), a persistent environmental contaminant, on gut microbiota and host metabolism, and we examined correlations between gut microbiota composition and signaling pathways. Methods Six-week-old male wild-type and Ahr–/– mice on the C57BL/6J background were treated with 24 μg/kg TCDF in the diet for 5 days. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics, targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triplequadrupole mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays to determine the microbiota compositions and the physiological and metabolic effects of TCDF. Results Dietary TCDF altered the gut microbiota by shifting the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. TCDF-treated mouse cecal contents were enriched with Butyrivibrio spp. but depleted in Oscillobacter spp. compared with vehicle-treated mice. These changes in the gut microbiota were associated with altered bile acid metabolism. Further, dietary TCDF inhibited the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway, triggered significant inflammation and host metabolic disorders as a result of activation of bacterial fermentation, and altered hepatic lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis in an AHR-dependent manner. Conclusion These findings provide new insights into the biochemical consequences of TCDF exposure involving the alteration of the gut microbiota, modulation of nuclear receptor signaling, and disruption of host metabolism. Citation Zhang L, Nichols RG, Correll J, Murray IA, Tanaka N, Smith PB

  19. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in air and vegetation from the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Deborah A; Wilkinson, Andrew C; Kimpe, Lynda E; Blais, Jules M

    2004-03-01

    The exchange of chlorinated organic pollutants between air and vegetation in cold, mountain environments was investigated through the extraction of coniferous vegetation and high-volume air samples collected from the Canadian Rocky Mountains during the summers of 1999 and 2000. Concentrations of several compounds in vegetation increased as temperatures decreased, whereas atmospheric concentrations were not related to temperature. Daily cycling of these compounds between air and vegetation as a result of diurnal temperature changes was not observed. Compared with concentrations in vegetation from the Canadian Rocky Mountains, plant samples from the western valley in British Columbia (Canada) showed higher pollutant levels. Chemical partitioning between vegetation and air was not correlated with temperature, indicating that air contamination is governed by long-range transport and not by local revolatilization events. Based on these observations, we show that both deposition at higher altitudes and long-range atmospheric transport influence chemical accumulation in vegetation from the Canadian Rocky Mountains. PMID:15285344

  1. Presence and distribution of persistent toxic substances in sediments and marine organisms of Potter Cove, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Curtosi, Antonio; Pelletier, Emilien; Vodopivez, Cristian; St Louis, Richard; Mac Cormack, Walter Patricio

    2010-11-01

    Levels of butyltin compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals were analyzed in marine sediments and organisms (Notothenia coriiceps, Laternula elliptica, and Nacella concinna), each of which has a different feeding strategy, in Potter Cove, Antarctica. PCBs were lower than detection limits in all samples. Only butyltin compounds were detected in a restricted area near the scientific station. Chromium, copper, magnesium, lead (Pb), and zinc had similar behavior in the cove, probably because they are regulated by similar process and conditions. However, Pb levels in some sites of the cove seem to be related to human activities in the area. Cadmium levels were relatively low, with the highest values found close to the shoreline, which is probably influenced by seasonal streams draining waters from Potter Peninsula. Results showed that despite the fact that Jubany Station has been operating for > 50 years, surface sediment and biota from Potter Cove do not exhibit levels of pollutants representing environmental concern.

  2. The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons Project After 10 Years: Persistent Barriers and Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Alex; Moller, Lars; Hayton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services. However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network’s fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved. PMID:16186449

  3. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Advances in the gas chromatographic determination of persistent organic pollutants in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; de Boer, J

    2008-04-01

    Environmental chemists have been challenged for over 30 years to analyse complex mixtures of halogenated organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs). Gas chromatography (GC) often proved to be the method of choice because of its high resolution. The recent developments in the field of comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) show that this technique can provide much more information than conventional (single-column) GC. Large volume injection (e.g. by programmed temperature vaporiser, or on-column injection) can be employed for the injection of tens of microliters of sample extract, in that way substantially improving the detection limits. Electron-capture detection (ECD) is a sensitive detection method but unambiguous identification is not possible and misidentification easily occurs. Mass spectrometric (MS) detection substantially improves the identification and the better the resolution (as with MS/MS, time-of-flight (TOF) MS and high-resolution (HR)MS), the lower the chances of misidentification are. Unfortunately, this comes only with substantially higher investments and maintenance costs. Co-extracted lipids, sulphur and other interferences can disturb the GC separation and detection leading to unreliable results. Extraction, and more so, sample clean-up and fractionation, are crucial steps prior to the GC analysis of these pollutants. Recent developments in sample extraction and clean-up show that selective pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is an effective and efficient extraction and clean-up technique that enables processing of multiple samples in less than 1h. Quality assurance tools such as interlaboratory studies and reference materials are very well established for PCDD/Fs and PCBs but the improvement of that infrastructure is needed for brominated flame retardants, PCAs and toxaphene. PMID

  5. Wandering albatrosses document latitudinal variations in the transfer of persistent organic pollutants and mercury to Southern Ocean predators.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Tartu, Sabrina; Meillère, Alizée; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier; Cherel, Yves

    2014-12-16

    Top marine predators are effective tools to monitor bioaccumulative contaminants in remote oceanic environments. Here, we used the wide-ranging wandering albatross Diomedea exulans to investigate potential geographical variations of contaminant transfer to predators in the Southern Ocean. Blood concentrations of 19 persistent organic pollutants and 14 trace elements were measured in a large number of individuals (N = 180) of known age, sex and breeding status from the subantarctic Crozet Islands. Wandering albatrosses were exposed to a wide range of contaminants, with notably high blood mercury concentrations. Contaminant burden was markedly influenced by latitudinal foraging habitats (inferred from blood δ(13)C values), with individuals feeding in warmer subtropical waters having lower concentrations of pesticides, but higher concentrations of mercury, than those feeding in colder subantarctic waters. Sexual differences in contaminant burden seemed to be driven by gender specialization in feeding habitats, rather than physiological characteristics, with females foraging further north than males. Other individual traits, such as adult age and reproductive status, had little effect on blood contaminant concentrations. Our study provides further evidence of the critical role of global distillation on organic contaminant exposure to Southern Ocean avian predators. In addition, we document an unexpected high transfer of mercury to predators in subtropical waters, which merits further investigation. PMID:25423551

  6. Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-07-22

    Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture-mark-recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations.

  7. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.

  8. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds.

    PubMed

    Choy, Emily S; Kimpe, Linda E; Mallory, Mark L; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2010-11-01

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ∑PCB and ∑DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing δ(15)N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:∑DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS.

  10. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale. PMID:26669722

  11. Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross

    PubMed Central

    Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture–mark–recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations. PMID:24920477

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jessup, David A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M.; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M. Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically Σpolychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ΣDDTs, Σhexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], Σpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], Σchlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ΣDDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ΣDDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ΣPCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  13. Detection of persistent organic pollutants binding modes with androgen receptor ligand binding domain by docking and molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are persistent in the environment after release from industrial compounds, combustion productions or pesticides. The exposure of POPs has been related to various reproductive disturbances, such as reduced semen quality, testicular cancer, and imbalanced sex ratio. Among POPs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4’-DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the most widespread and well-studied compounds. Recent studies have revealed that 4,4’-DDE is an antagonist of androgen receptor (AR). However, the mechanism of the inhibition remains elusive. CB-153 is the most common congener of PCBs, while the action of CB-153 on AR is still under debate. Results Molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) approaches have been employed to study binding modes and inhibition mechanism of 4,4’-DDE and CB-153 against AR ligand binding domain (LBD). Several potential binding sites have been detected and analyzed. One possible binding site is the same binding site of AR natural ligand androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Another one is on the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation function (AF2) region, which is crucial for the co-activators recruitment. Besides, a novel possible binding site was observed for POPs with low binding free energy with the receptor. Detailed interactions between ligands and the receptor have been represented. The disrupting mechanism of POPs against AR has also been discussed. Conclusions POPs disrupt the function of AR through binding to three possible biding sites on AR/LBD. One of them shares the same binding site of natural ligand of AR. Another one is on AF2 region. The third one is in a cleft near N-terminal of the receptor. Significantly, values of binding free energy of POPs with AR/LBD are comparable to that of natural ligand androgen DHT. PMID:24053684

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2010-10-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically ∑polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ∑DDTs, ∑hexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], ∑polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], ∑chlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ∑DDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ∑DDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ∑PCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  15. Dysregulation of Cytokine Response in Canadian First Nations Communities: Is There an Association with Persistent Organic Pollutant Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Imbeault, Pascal; Findlay, C. Scott; Robidoux, Michael A.; Haman, François; Blais, Jules M.; Tremblay, Angelo; Springthorpe, Susan; Pal, Shinjini; Seabert, Tim; Krümmel, Eva M.; Maal-Bared, Rasha; Tetro, Jason A.; Pandey, Sunita; Sattar, Syed A.; Filion, Lionel G.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies report that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) trigger the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Whether POP exposure is associated with a dysregulation of cytokine response remains to be investigated in humans. We studied the strength of association between plasma POP levels and circulating cytokines as immune activation markers. Plasma levels of fourteen POPs and thirteen cytokines were measured in 39 Caucasians from a comparator sample in Québec City (Canada) and 72 First Nations individuals from two northern communities of Ontario (Canada). Caucasians showed significantly higher levels of organochlorine insecticides (β-HCH, p,p′-DDE and HCB) compared to First Nations. Conversely, First Nations showed higher levels of Mirex, Aroclor 1260, PCB 153, PCB 170, PCB 180 and PCB 187 compared to Caucasians. While there was no difference in cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-22 between groups, First Nations had significantly greater average levels of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, TNFα and TNFβ levels compared to Caucasians. Among candidate predictor variables (age, body mass index, insulin resistance and POP levels), high levels of PCBs were the only predictor accounting for a small but significant effect of observed variance (∼7%) in cytokine levels. Overall, a weak but significant association is detected between persistent organochlorine pollutant exposure and elevated cytokine levels. This finding augments the already existing information that environmental pollution is related to inflammation, a common feature of several metabolic disorders that are known to be especially prevalent in Canada's remote First Nations communities. PMID:22768323

  16. Persistent organic pollutant accumulation in seasonal snow along an altitudinal gradient in the Tyrolean Alps.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Lourdes; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Pilar; Lopez, Jordi F; Nickus, Ulrike; Thies, Hansjoerg

    2014-11-01

    The snow capacity for storage of a large number of pollutants such as polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE), including BDE-209, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs; α- and γ-isomers), endosulfans (α- and β-isomers and the sulphate residue) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), in a steep altitudinal gradient (1,101-2,500 m above sea level (asl); maximum planar distance 16 km) in a typical European mountain system, the Tyrolean Alps (Austria), was studied here for the first time. Snow samples representing the whole snowpack accumulated at the end of the cold season were collected in all cases. The snow specific surface area (SSA) of these samples, 140-260 cm(2) g(-1), was characteristic of aged snow with low retention capacity. PAHs were the pollutant group in highest concentrations (500-8,400 pg L(-1)). PCBs and PBDEs were found in concentrations of 460-900 and 8.5-290 pg L(-1), respectively. From the fourteen investigated BDE congeners, only BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-209 were found above the detection limit, which is consistent with the results found in the only previous study in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia) which also involved a steep gradient (1,683-2,634 m asl; maximum planar distance 5 km; Arellano et al. 2011) and confirm the capacity of these low-volatile compounds for long-range transport from distant sources. HCB was found in a concentration range of 34-55 pg L(-1). Snow deposition fluxes of PCB-118, PCB-153, γ-HCH, α-endosulfan and BDE-47 showed statistically significant correlations with altitude, involving higher values at higher elevation. This trend may reflect cold trapping effects in view of the snow particle contents and SSA values. However, these gradients were only significant for this limited number of compounds within each pollutant group which may be explained by differences in physical-chemical properties of the compounds and the limited capacity of the aged snow for organic

  17. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard A.; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Pelé, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Klümper, Claudia; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. Objectives We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). Methods We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p,p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) (n = 1,864), estimating prenatal and postnatal POPs exposure using a validated pharmacokinetic model. Growth was change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months. Per compound, multilevel models were fitted with either POPs total exposure from conception to 24 months or prenatal or postnatal exposure. Results We found a significant increase in growth associated with p,p´-DDE, seemingly due to prenatal exposure (per interquartile increase in exposure, adjusted β = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22). Due to heterogeneity across cohorts, this estimate cannot be considered precise, but does indicate that an association with infant growth is present on average. In contrast, a significant decrease in growth was associated with postnatal PCB-153 exposure (β = –0.10; 95% CI: –0.19, –0.01). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of POPs exposure and infant growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p´-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels. Citation Iszatt N, Stigum H, Verner MA, White RA, Govarts E, Palkovicova Murinova L, Schoeters G, Trnovec T, Legler J, Pelé F, Botton J, Chevrier C, Wittsiepe J, Ranft U, Vandentorren S, Kasper-Sonnenberg M, Klümper C, Weisglas-Kuperus N, Polder A, Eggesbø M, OBELIX

  18. [Concentration characteristics and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Chao-Qi; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Jun-Jun

    2012-10-01

    Surface sediments were sampled from various surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, and four types of persistent organic pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured. The purposes were to investigate the concentration characteristics of the four types of pollutants and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled from the Tianjin coastal area. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranged from 274.06 microg x kg(-1) to 2656.65 microg x kg(-1), with the average being 1 198.51 microg x kg(-1). Combustion of fossil fuel such as coal and gasoline was the major source of PAHs in the surface sediments, while input of petroleum products might occur in some locations. In the Dagu discharging river, the total concentration of 22 OCPs was 3 103.36 microg x kg(-1), the total concentration of 35 PCBs and the total concentration of 14 PBDEs were 87.31 microg x kg(-1) and 13.88 microg x kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs in other sampling locations were low. The total organic carbon in the surface sediments had good correlation with PAHs but not with OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs, and this might be due to the fact that PAHs mainly came from area pollution while the other compounds mainly came from point pollution. In the sediments, PAHs (particularly low molecular weight PAHs) had high ecological risk; in multiple locations, the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations, indicating that they were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms. In the Dagu discharging river, the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane (gamma-BHC) exceeded their probable effect concentrations and were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms. The OCPs in other

  19. 2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Theater, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  20. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Theater, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  1. 7 CFR 48.4 - Destroying or dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS OF THE... behalf of another who, without good and sufficient cause, shall destroy or abandon, discard as refuse,...

  2. Factors shaping communities of pyrophilous macrofungi in microhabitats destroyed by illegal campfires.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Jolanta J; Kruk, Andrzej; Penczak, Tadeusz; Minter, David

    2012-09-01

    Pyrophilous macrofungi (PM) are a narrowly specialised group appearing exclusively in plant communities recently destroyed by fire. Their significance has hitherto been studied only for vegetation destroyed over large areas, while in small areas of fire, i.e., microhabitats they are viewed as independent components of the community linked only to the substratum. In the present work, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) species structures of PM in microhabitats depend on the type of plant community, (2) PM form communities on a small scale which are similar in structure and function to analogous large scale communities. We studied 20 surfaces destroyed by illegal campfires in four natural plant communities: oak-hornbeam forest Tilio-Carpinetum (TC), lowland acidophilus beech forest Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum (LF), suboceanic pine forest Leucobryo-Pinetum (LP), and an initial-phase xerothermic grassland community on a transitional habitat (MH). TC and LF habitats were conspicuously more favourable for PM than LP and MH. In TC and LF fire leads to significant loss of mycorrhizae in the upper layer of leaf litter. This provides a development opportunity for ectomycorrhizal PM species which, having little competition, substitute for the destroyed fragments of mycorrhizal networks. In LP and MH fire over a small surface does not destroy more deeply located mycorrhizal associations. Another important factor for PM influencing the quality of environment is the fertility of soil: highest in TC, intermediate in LF and lowest in LP and MH. The results casts doubt on the concept that PM are only synusia linked to the substratum (burnt wood). PM growing in microhabitats constitute an important group of organisms which facilitate rapid regeneration of plant community fragments destroyed by fire. PMID:22954342

  3. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  4. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING AIR SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method is for extracting an indoor and outdoor air sample consisting of a quartz fiber filter and an XAD-2 cartridge for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass...

  5. Passive Sampling to Measure Baseline Dissolved Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Pre-calibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were...

  6. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DERMAL WIPE SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.16)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for extracting and preparing a dermal (hand) wipe sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  7. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.15)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of polar persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the extraction, concentration, and derivatization of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SURFACE WIPE FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a hard floor surface wipe or food preparation surface wipe sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spect...

  9. Relationships between persistent organic pollutants and circulating immunoglobulin-Y in black-legged kittiwakes and Atlantic puffins.

    PubMed

    Sagerup, Kjetil; Asbakk, Kjetil; Polder, Anuschka; Skaåre, Janneche U; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Barrett, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Have Although persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may affect the immune system, few field studies actually examined this effect. There are indications that POP exert effects on the immune system; however, in the Arctic ecosystem data are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine immune functions in two medium trophic-positioned seabirds, the black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica). Overall POP concentrations were higher in kittiwakes than puffins and males had significantly higher concentrations than females. Mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB9) were 4700 ± 200 and 9600 ± 1400 ng/g lipid weight and 2800 ± 180 and 3900 ± 200 ng/g lipid weight in female and male kittiwake and puffin blood, respectively. Levels of immunoglobulin-Y (IgY) in blood of kittiwakes were not markedly affected by concentrations of POP. Similarly, the primary IgY response to tetanus toxoid was not affected by POP concentrations in a subsample of immunized kittiwakes. In puffins, there were significant correlations between the IgY-response and some of the POPs, but with low explanatory values. These results suggest that POPs concentrations were lower than, or just at the threshold level for effects of the proposed IgY biomarker. It is also conceivable that the IgY levels are not a suitable endpoint for evaluating perturbation of the immune system in free-living seabirds. PMID:24754386

  10. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37-70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms.

  11. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing.

  12. Presence, deposition flux and mass burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from Mehmood Booti Drain sediments, Lahore.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Mahmood, Adeel; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of analyzing persistent organic pollutants i.e., PCBs, PBDEs, DPs and OCPs for sediment samples collected from Mehmood Booti Drain, Lahore, Pakistan that receives higher pollution loads from adjacent waste dumping site. Levels of ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs, ∑DPs and ∑OCPs ranged between 5.9-62, 0.36-1.32, n.d.-0.02 and 0.96-18.07ngg(-1,) respectively. These levels were found to be comparable with other studies of local or global origin. Composition, spatial distribution and source profile indicated that Mehmood Booti waste dumping site was the major input source for sedimentary POPs pollution. The highest POPs deposition flux and mass inventory was attributed to PCBs and OCPs. Deposition flux indicated the input of 6E(-04), 5E(-05), 9E(-07) and 4E(-0)(4)t/yr of PCBs, PBDEs, DPs and OCPs into the Mehmood Booti Drain sediments which ultimately discharge into the River Ravi. Mass inventories suggested 1E(-02), 3E(-04), 7E(-06) and 3E(-03) metric tons PCBs, PBDEs, DPs and OCPs burden, respectively in the Mehmood Booti Drain sediments. PMID:26650420

  13. Typical halogenated persistent organic pollutants in indoor dust and the associations with childhood asthma in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Feng, Yan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Yin, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated persistent organic pollutants (Hal-POPs) are significant contaminants in the indoor environment that are related to many human diseases. Ingestion of indoor dust is considered the major pathway of Hal-POP exposures, especially for children aged 3-6 years. Alongside a retrospective study on the associations between typical Hal-POP exposure and childhood asthma in Shanghai, indoor dust samples from asthmatic and non-asthmatic children's homes (n = 60, each) were collected. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured by GC-MS. BDE-209, PCB-8 and p,p'-DDE were the predominant components in each chemical category. The concentrations of most Hal-POPs were significantly higher in the asthmatic families. The associations between Hal-POP exposure and asthma occurrence were examined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) using a logistic regression model. A positive association was found between p,p'-DDE in indoor dust and childhood asthma (OR = 1.825, 95%CI: 1.004, 3.317; p = 0.048). The average daily doses of Hal-POP intake were calculated using the method provided by the USEPA. Non-carcinogenic health risks were preliminarily assessed. Our study indicated that exposure to p,p'-DDE via indoor dust may contribute to childhood asthma occurrence. Non-carcinogenic health risks were not found with the intake of Hal-POPs via the ingestion of indoor dust.

  14. An Antarctic research station as a source of brominated and perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants to the local environment.

    PubMed

    Wild, Seanan; McLagan, David; Schlabach, Martin; Bossi, Rossana; Hawker, Darryl; Cropp, Roger; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie; Nash, Susan Bengtson

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of a permanently manned Australian Antarctic research station (Casey Station) as a source of contemporary persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the local environment. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and poly- and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were found in indoor dust and treated wastewater effluent of the station. PBDE (e.g., BDE-209 26-820 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw)) and PFAS levels (e.g., PFOS 3.8-2400 ng g(-1) (dw)) in dust were consistent with those previously reported in homes and offices from Australia, reflecting consumer products and materials of the host nation. The levels of PBDEs and PFASs in wastewater (e.g., BDE-209 71-400 ng L(-1)) were in the upper range of concentrations reported for secondary treatment plants in other parts of the world. The chemical profiles of some PFAS samples were, however, different from domestic profiles. Dispersal of chemicals into the immediate marine and terrestrial environments was investigated by analysis of abiotic and biotic matrices. Analytes showed decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the station. This study provides the first evidence of PFAS input to Polar regions via local research stations and demonstrates the introduction of POPs recently listed under the Stockholm Convention into the Antarctic environment through local human activities. PMID:25478728

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment.

  16. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. PMID:23830520

  18. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) IN wild Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from different FAO capture zones.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-06-01

    Residues of environmental contaminants in food represent a concern in food safety programs. In this study, the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were evaluated in 79 tuna samples from FAO areas 51 (Indian Ocean), 71 (Pacific Ocean), 34 (Atlantic Ocean), and 37 (Mediterranean Sea). 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 organochlorines (OCs) and 7 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were selected as representative compounds according to EFSA POPs monitoring guidelines. An analytical method, based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), with an "in-line" clean-up step and GC-MS/MS detection, was developed, validated and applied. PCBs were detected in all FAO areas, with a prevalence of 100% for most of them. In the FAO area 37, only, all PBDEs were detected. Only 5 OCs were detected. The results showed that POPs contamination of tuna reflects FAO area contamination; in particular FAO area 37 was the most polluted. Moreover, tuna muscle was an appropriate matrix for monitoring contamination and for obtaining information about food safety. PMID:27016811

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters.

    PubMed

    Cullon, Donna L; Yunker, Mark B; Alleyne, Carl; Dangerfield, Neil J; O'Neill, Sandra; Whiticar, Michael J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    We measured persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in order to characterize dietary exposure in the highly contaminated, salmon-eating northeastern Pacific resident killer whales. We estimate that 97 to 99% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in returning adult chinook were acquired during their time at sea. Highest POP concentrations (including PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and DDT) and lowest lipids were observed in the more southerly chinook sampled. While feeding by salmon as they enter some more POP-contaminated near-shore environments inevitably contribute to their contamination, relationships observed between POP patterns and both lipid content and delta13C also suggest a migration-related metabolism and loss of the less-chlorinated PCB congeners. This has implications for killer whales, with the more PCB-contaminated salmon stocks in the south partly explaining the 4.0 to 6.6 times higher estimated daily intake for sigmaPCBs in southern resident killer whales compared to northern residents. We hypothesize that the lower lipid content of southerly chinook stocks may cause southern resident killer whales to increase their salmon consumption by as much as 50%, which would further increase their exposure to POPs.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in forage fish prey of rhinoceros auklets breeding in Puget Sound and the northern California Current.

    PubMed

    Good, Thomas P; Pearson, Scott F; Hodum, Peter; Boyd, Daryle; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Ylitalo, Gina M

    2014-09-15

    Organochlorine contaminants in upper trophic-level consumers inhabiting Puget Sound are consistently higher than in those species inhabiting other west coast locations. We analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the six most common fish prey of rhinoceros auklets breeding on Protection Island (Puget Sound), Tatoosh Island (WA coast), and Destruction Island (WA coast). Wet-weight concentrations of POPs ranged widely (PCBs: 1.6-25.0 ng/g; DDTs: 0.2-56.0 ng/g; PBDEs:

  1. Sorption and competition of two persistent organic pesticides onto marine sediments: Relevance to their distribution in aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Lebeuf, Michel; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Gouteux, Bruno; Osman, Awaleh Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Sorption is a key process in the distribution of substances between environmental compartments in marine ecosystems. Two persistent organic pesticides, also known as toxaphene congeners, namely B8-1413 (P26) and B9-1679 (P50), are of special interest because they are not detected in sediments while relatively concentrated in marine mammals. Sorption-desorption, entrapment and competition behaviors of these pesticides onto marine sediments were studied to explain their environmental distribution. Data obtained under marine experimental conditions were fitted to sorption models to evaluate sorption coefficients and to assess the degree of B8-1413/B9-1679 entrapment of the two toxaphene congeners in sediments. Carbon normalized sorption coefficients (Koc) of both congeners were similar under in cold (2°C) marine (30 psu) conditions with high values ranging from 1.53×10(5) to 3.28×10(5) mL g(-1)indicative of a strong affinity to marine sediments However, the sorption-desorption investigations indicate that B8-1413/B9-1679 were on average 2.5 times less entrapped in sediments compared to B7-1450, a toxaphene congener known to accumulate predominantly in sediments. These results suggest that the low entrapment of B8-1413 and B9-1679 favor their availability and transfer to biological matrices.

  2. Steroid hormone related effects of marine persistent organic pollutants in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) 126 and 153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tributyltin (TBT), and methylmercury (MeHg) can be accumulated in seafood and then form a main source for human exposure. Some POPs have been associated with changes in steroid hormone levels in both humans and animals. This study describes the in vitro effects of these POPs and mixtures thereof in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Relative responses for 13 steroid hormones and 7 genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway, and CYP1A1, were analyzed. PFOS induced the most pronounced effects on steroid hormone levels by significantly affecting 9 out of 13 hormone levels measured, with the largest increases found for 17β-estradiol, corticosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, TCDD, both PCBs, and TBT significantly altered steroidogenesis. Increased steroid hormone levels were accompanied by related increased gene expression levels. The differently expressed genes were MC2R, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19A1 and changes in gene expression levels were more sensitive than changes in hormone levels. The POP mixtures tested showed mostly additive effects, especially for DHEA and 17β-estradiol levels. This study shows that some seafood POPs are capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells at concentrations that mixtures might reach in human blood, suggesting that adverse health effects cannot be excluded.

  3. Association between several persistent organic pollutants and thyroid hormone levels in serum among the pregnant women of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are of global concern because of their widespread contamination and adverse health effects. Potential endocrine disruption, especially of thyroid status by PCBs has been repeatedly suggested in both experimental and epidemiological studies. However the associations with PBDEs or OCPs have been arguable especially in human populations. We investigated the associations between major groups of POPs and thyroid hormone balances among pregnant women. One hundred five pregnant women at delivery were recruited from four cities of Korea in 2011 and were investigated. Blood samples were collected within a day before delivery. Serum was then analyzed for 19 PCBs, 19 PBDEs, and 19 OCPs, along with five thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4, and TSH). Several PCBs such as PCB28, 52, and 118 showed negative associations with T3 or T4. BDE47 and total PBDEs showed significant associations with T3 or T4. For OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were generally associated with reduction of T3 or T4. The thyroid hormone levels of all subjects were within the reference range, however exposure to several target POPs were clearly related with potential for disrupting thyroid hormone balance among pregnant women, at the current level of exposure. Although subtle, the changes in thyroid hormones should be seen with caution because even minor changes within pregnant women may have significant consequences especially on sensitive population like fetus. PMID:23928038

  4. Persistent organic pollutant levels in eggs of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) point to a decrease in hatching success.

    PubMed

    De Andrés, Eva; Gómara, Belén; González-Paredes, Daniel; Ruiz-Martín, José; Marco, Adolfo

    2016-03-01

    Sea turtles are susceptible to environmental pollution, since many harmful effects have been reported for different chemicals over the last two decades. In this context, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of particular concern due to their endocrine-disrupting nature. The aims of this study were to provide additional baseline data on PCB and PBDE concentrations in eggs of Dermochelys coriacea; and to investigate whether any of the congeners could compromise reproductive success in this species. A total of 18 nests from different females were studied during the nesting season of 2008 at Reserva Pacuare Beach, in the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. Reproductive parameters (viability, fertility and hatching rates) were calculated for all nests and hatchling morphometrics were successfully measured in 8 of them. Two to three fresh eggs per nest were taken for contaminant study. Different congeners of POPs were purified and identified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to an ion trap detector (GC-ITD MS/MS), as described below. Mean ± SD concentrations were calculated for POP congeners within each nest and clustering was also evaluated. Correlations were performed searching for potential relationships with reproductive parameters. POP levels were similar to those reported in French-Guiana populations and slightly lower than those associated to Florida populations. Sum of PBDEs showed a negative correlation to the hatching success, suggesting potential harmful effects of these contaminants on the reproduction of leatherbacks. PMID:26735737

  5. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37–70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms. PMID:26374495

  6. Vitamin C intervention may lower the levels of persistent organic pollutants in blood of healthy women - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihong; Huen, Karen; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto; Crispo Smith, Sabrina; Block, Gladys; Holland, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has a long term impact on human health. The goal of this pilot study was to test whether antioxidant intervention by vitamin C supplementation may be a remedial approach to decrease body burden of POPs in humans. Using solid phase extraction coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and a gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry, we measured 18 PCBs, 7 OCPs, and 5 PBDEs in the blood of 15 healthy California women (8 were obese/overweight and 7 had normal weight) before and after 2 months of vitamin C supplementation (1000 mg/day). We observed higher PBDE levels than PCBs and OCPs, but only PCB and OCP levels were strongly and positively correlated with participant's BMI and age. We also found statistically significant decreases in 6 PCBs (PCB-74, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-187), and 2 OCPs (4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDT), but not PBDEs after vitamin C supplementation. Pending confirmation of this pilot finding in a larger study of both sexes, vitamin C intervention may have important public health implications in protecting health by reducing body burdens of POPs. PMID:27090108

  7. Relative contribution of persistent organic pollutants to marine phytoplankton biomass dynamics in the North Sea and the Kattegat.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Gert; De Laender, Frederik; Goethals, Peter L M; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we use concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and of chlorophyll a to infer POP-induced effects on marine primary production in the Kattegat and the North Sea between the 1990s and the 2000s. To do so, we modelled phytoplankton dynamics using four classical drivers (light and nutrient availability, temperature and zooplankton grazing) and tested whether extending this model with a POP-induced phytoplankton growth limitation term improved model fit to observed chlorophyll a concentrations. Including monitored concentrations of PCBs and pesticides did not lead to a better model fit, suggesting that POP-induced growth limitation of marine phytoplankton in the North Sea and the Kattegat is small compared to the limitations caused by the classical drivers. In an attempt to more fully represent the multitude of POPs in the marine environment, the monitored concentrations were multiplied with a factor 10 and 100. Under these two configurations, region-specific contributions of POPs in the phytoplankton growth limitation were found. The inferred contribution of POPs to phytoplankton growth limitation was ca. 1% in Belgian marine waters, but in the Kattegat POPs explained ca. 10% of the phytoplankton growth limitation. These results suggest that there are regional differences in the contribution of POPs to the phytoplankton growth limitation.

  8. Increasing sample size in prospective birth cohorts: back-extrapolating prenatal levels of persistent organic pollutants in newly enrolled children.

    PubMed

    Verner, Marc-André; Gaspar, Fraser W; Chevrier, Jonathan; Gunier, Robert B; Sjödin, Andreas; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-03-17

    Study sample size in prospective birth cohorts of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited by costs and logistics of follow-up. Increasing sample size at the time of health assessment would be beneficial if predictive tools could reliably back-extrapolate prenatal levels in newly enrolled children. We evaluated the performance of three approaches to back-extrapolate prenatal levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and four polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners from maternal and/or child levels 9 years after delivery: a pharmacokinetic model and predictive models using deletion/substitution/addition or Super Learner algorithms. Model performance was assessed using the root mean squared error (RMSE), R2, and slope and intercept of the back-extrapolated versus measured levels. Super Learner outperformed the other approaches with RMSEs of 0.10 to 0.31, R2s of 0.58 to 0.97, slopes of 0.42 to 0.93 and intercepts of 0.08 to 0.60. Typically, models performed better for p,p'-DDT/E than PBDE congeners. The pharmacokinetic model performed well when back-extrapolating prenatal levels from maternal levels for compounds with longer half-lives like p,p'-DDE and BDE-153. Results demonstrate the ability to reliably back-extrapolate prenatal POP levels from levels 9 years after delivery, with Super Learner performing best based on our fit criteria. PMID:25698216

  9. Persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian high Arctic.

    PubMed

    Peck, Liam E; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2016-06-15

    We collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the Canadian high Arctic located at approximately 76°N and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury. We provide the first report on concentrations of POPs in eggs of three Arctic species (Thayer's gull Larus thayeri, Sabine's gull Xema sabini, Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the POP profiles among the five species with sufficient data for statistical comparisons (Thayer's gull, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, Sabine's gull, Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and common eider Somateria mollissima borealis). The Ross's Gull had unexpectedly high POP concentrations relative to the other species examined, although this was based on a single egg, while glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus eggs from our sampling location had very low POPs. Sabine's gulls had the lowest Hg of the eggs studied, consistent with their low trophic position, but concentrations of their legacy POPs were higher than expected. We also noted that total hexachlorocyclohexanes were higher than reported elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic in three species. PMID:26971212

  10. In vitro assessment of environmental stress of persistent organic pollutants on the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kuntong; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Lingli; Zhang, Mei; Yi, Meisheng; Wu, Yuping

    2015-12-25

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are detected ubiquitously and are linked to range of adverse health effects. The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin inhabited the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China, where high concentrations of POPs have been reported. This study evaluated the threats posed by POPs in the environment to the dolphin using an in vitro system. We selected BNF(β-naphthoflavone) and four POPs (DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes), CHLs(chlorides), HCHs(hexachlorocyclohexanes) and HCB(hexachlorobenzene)) which had been accumulated in the dolphin with high concentrations to treat the cultured skin fibroblast cells (ScSF cells) of the dolphin, and investigated the expression patterns of the ecological stress biomarkers CYP1A1, AHR and HSP70 in the cell line. The results showed that CYP1A1 was up-regulated after being exposed to different concentrations of BNF, DDTs and HCHs. CHLs, HCHs and HCB promoted AHR expression. HSP70 expression was increased by high concentrations of BNF and DDTs. Moreover, comet assay experiments revealed that DDTs produced higher degree of DNA damage to ScSF cells than other POPs, implying that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin in the PRE has been threatened by POPs accumulated in the body, especially by DDTs. Our results provided important information to assess the risk of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin raised by environmental POPs in vivo.

  11. Persistent organic pollutant levels and the importance of source proximity in Baltic and Svalbard breeding common eiders.

    PubMed

    Fenstad, Anette A; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Gabrielsen, Kristin M; Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim; Bustnes, Jan O; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Moe, Børge; Herzke, Dorte; Krøkje, Åse

    2016-06-01

    The distance to sources and the long-range transport potential of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are important in understanding the impact of anthropogenic pollution on natural seabird populations. The present study documented blood concentrations of POPs in the Baltic Sea (Tvärminne, Finland) population of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in 2009 and in 2011 and compared the concentrations with the presumably less exposed Arctic population in Svalbard (Kongsfjorden, Norway). The Baltic population had 26, 10, and 5 times greater concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene than the Svalbard population. Unexpectedly, concentrations of chlordanes were higher in Svalbard eiders, whereas concentrations of hexachlorobenzenes (HCBs) did not differ between the 2 populations. Although the similar HCB levels may partly be explained by the high transport potential of HCBs, unknown factors may have been more important than distance to sources and long-range transport potential for the chlordanes. One plausible explanation may be that the fasting-related redistribution of POPs from fat to blood was greater throughout the incubation in Arctic eiders, causing them to have higher blood levels of these POPs at the end of incubation. The blood concentrations of POPs in Baltic eiders were higher than documented in any other eider population and were comparable to levels in seabirds feeding at higher trophic positions in the food chain. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1526-1533. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26553455

  12. Persistent organic pollutant levels in eggs of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) point to a decrease in hatching success.

    PubMed

    De Andrés, Eva; Gómara, Belén; González-Paredes, Daniel; Ruiz-Martín, José; Marco, Adolfo

    2016-03-01

    Sea turtles are susceptible to environmental pollution, since many harmful effects have been reported for different chemicals over the last two decades. In this context, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of particular concern due to their endocrine-disrupting nature. The aims of this study were to provide additional baseline data on PCB and PBDE concentrations in eggs of Dermochelys coriacea; and to investigate whether any of the congeners could compromise reproductive success in this species. A total of 18 nests from different females were studied during the nesting season of 2008 at Reserva Pacuare Beach, in the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. Reproductive parameters (viability, fertility and hatching rates) were calculated for all nests and hatchling morphometrics were successfully measured in 8 of them. Two to three fresh eggs per nest were taken for contaminant study. Different congeners of POPs were purified and identified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to an ion trap detector (GC-ITD MS/MS), as described below. Mean ± SD concentrations were calculated for POP congeners within each nest and clustering was also evaluated. Correlations were performed searching for potential relationships with reproductive parameters. POP levels were similar to those reported in French-Guiana populations and slightly lower than those associated to Florida populations. Sum of PBDEs showed a negative correlation to the hatching success, suggesting potential harmful effects of these contaminants on the reproduction of leatherbacks.

  13. Diamondback terrapins as indicator species of persistent organic pollutants: Using Barnegat Bay, New Jersey as a case study.

    PubMed

    Basile, Emily R; Avery, Harold W; Bien, Walter F; Keller, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback terrapin's (Malaclemys terrapin) wide geographic distribution, long life span, occurrence in a variety of habitats within the saltmarsh ecosystem, predatory foraging behavior, and high site fidelity make it a useful indicator species for contaminant monitoring in estuarine ecosystems. In this study fat biopsies and plasma samples were collected from males and females from two sites within Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, as well as tissues from a gravid female and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), which are terrapin prey. Samples were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), chlorinated pesticides, and methyl-triclosan. Terrapins from the northern site, Spizzle Creek, closest to influences from industrial areas, had higher POP concentrations for both tissues than terrapins from the less impacted Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge. Sex differences were observed with males having higher contaminant concentrations in fat and females in plasma. PCB patterns in terrapin fat and plasma were comparable to other wildlife. An atypical PBDE pattern was observed, dominated by PBDEs 153 and 100 instead of PBDEs 47 and 99, which has been documented in only a few other turtle species. The typical PBDE patterns measured in mussels, terrapin prey, suggests that the terrapin may efficiently biotransform or eliminate PBDE 47 and possibly PBDE 99. Plasma contaminant concentrations significantly and positively correlated with those in fat. This study addresses several aspects of using the terrapin as an indicator species for POP monitoring: site and sex differences, tissue sampling choices, maternal transfer, and biomagnification. PMID:20947126

  14. Environmental and biological monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in waterbirds by non-invasive versus invasive sampling.

    PubMed

    Kocagöz, Rasih; Onmuş, Ortaç; Onat, İlgen; Çağdaş, Beste; Sıkı, Mehmet; Orhan, Hilmi

    2014-10-15

    Three main groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs); namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were quantified in water and sediment samples, as well as in various invasive and non-invasive samples from waterbirds in the Büyük Menderes River (BMR). Liver and muscle tissues, blood, and preen gland oil samples of yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Euroasian coot (Fulica atra) were collected both from the origin (Işıklı Lake) and the estuary (Söke) of the river, blood and preen gland oil samples of grey heron (Ardea cinerea) and pelican (Pelecanus crispus) were collected from the estuary only. In addition, non-hatched eggs from several above species and Mediterranean gull (Larus melanocephalus), in either station were collected. In all samples, POP contamination was measured and the potential usefulness of those invasive and non-invasive sampling for biomonitoring was evaluated. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured as potential indicators of POP exposure and of changes in the cellular defence. Venous blood proved to be a promising biomonitor for the concentrations in liver and muscle, especially for PCBs. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were correlated with the liver concentrations of several OCP congeners. The measured egg DDE concentrations were below the established threshold concentrations for the risk of hatch and reproductive success. PMID:24503014

  15. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion. PMID:24738886

  16. Bottlenose dolphins as indicators of persistent organic pollutants in the western North Atlantic Ocean and northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kucklick, John; Schwacke, Lori; Wells, Randy; Hohn, Aleta; Guichard, Aurore; Yordy, Jennifer; Hansen, Larry; Zolman, Eric; Wilson, Rachel; Litz, Jenny; Nowacek, Doug; Rowles, Teri; Pugh, Rebecca; Balmer, Brian; Sinclair, Carrie; Rosel, Patricia

    2011-05-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including legacy POPs (PCBs, chlordanes, mirex, DDTs, HCB, and dieldrin) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants were determined in 300 blubber biopsy samples from coastal and near shore/estuarine male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled along the U.S. East and Gulf of Mexico coasts and Bermuda. Samples were from 14 locations including urban and rural estuaries and near a Superfund site (Brunswick, Georgia) contaminated with the PCB formulation Aroclor 1268. All classes of legacy POPs in estuarine stocks varied significantly (p < 0.05) among sampling locations. POP profiles in blubber varied by location with the most characteristic profile observed in bottlenose dolphins sampled near the Brunswick and Sapelo estuaries along the Georgia coast which differed significantly (p < 0.001) from other sites. Here and in Sapelo, PCB congeners from Aroclor 1268 dominated indicating widespread food web contamination by this PCB mixture. PCB 153, which is associated with non-Aroclor 1268 PCB formulations, correlated significantly to human population indicating contamination from a general urban PCB source. Factors influencing regional differences of other POPs were less clear and warrant further study. This work puts into geographical context POP contamination in dolphins to help prioritize efforts examining health effects from POP exposure in bottlenose dolphins.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in coastal sediment off South China in relation to the importance of anthropogenic inputs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Liang, Yan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-06-01

    Surface sediments collected from the coastal region off South China were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentrations of BDE-209, Σ(12)PBDE, Σ(15)PAH, Σ(7)PAH, and Σ(11)OCP were 0.22 to 26.3, 0.01 to 0.77, 13.9 to 271, 6 to 133, and 0.9 to 104 ng/g, respectively. The spatial distribution patterns of PBDEs and PAHs suggested that the eastern coastal region was slightly more contaminated than the western coast. In addition, the concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDXs) were highly variable, with the highest level found at a site in Zhanjiang Bay, which might have been reflective of the impact of antifouling paints mainly used in boat maintenance in harbor areas. The predominance of BDE-209 in the study region was consistent with the usage pattern of penta-, octa-, and deca-BDEs in China, whereas sediment PAHs appeared to have been derived largely from coal or wood and petroleum combustion. Preliminary assessments indicated that terrestrial inputs, such as atmospheric transport and riverine runoff, may have been the major input pathways for PBDEs and PAHs, respectively, to accumulate in coastal sediment off South China. Conversely, residues of DDT-containing antifouling paints associated with shipping activities and boat maintenance accounted for most of the accumulated sediment DDTs.

  18. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation.

  19. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation. PMID:17410772

  20. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) IN wild Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from different FAO capture zones.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-06-01

    Residues of environmental contaminants in food represent a concern in food safety programs. In this study, the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were evaluated in 79 tuna samples from FAO areas 51 (Indian Ocean), 71 (Pacific Ocean), 34 (Atlantic Ocean), and 37 (Mediterranean Sea). 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 organochlorines (OCs) and 7 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were selected as representative compounds according to EFSA POPs monitoring guidelines. An analytical method, based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), with an "in-line" clean-up step and GC-MS/MS detection, was developed, validated and applied. PCBs were detected in all FAO areas, with a prevalence of 100% for most of them. In the FAO area 37, only, all PBDEs were detected. Only 5 OCs were detected. The results showed that POPs contamination of tuna reflects FAO area contamination; in particular FAO area 37 was the most polluted. Moreover, tuna muscle was an appropriate matrix for monitoring contamination and for obtaining information about food safety.

  1. The missing piece: sediment records in remote Mountain lakes confirm glaciers being secondary sources of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Peter; Bogdal, Christian; Blüthgen, Nancy; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Zwyssig, Alois; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    After atmospheric deposition and storage in the ice, glaciers are temporary reservoirs of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Recently, the hypothesis that melting glaciers represent secondary sources of these pollutants has been introduced by investigations of the historical trend of POPs in a dated sediment core from the proglacial Alpine Lake Oberaar. Here, the hypothesis is further confirmed by the comparison of sediment data gathered from two Alpine lakes with a glaciated and a nonglaciated hydrological catchment. The two lakes (Lake Engstlen and Lake Stein in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland) are situated only 8 km apart at similar altitude and in the same meteorological catchment. In the nonglacial lake sediment of Lake Engstlen, PCBs and DDT (polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane) levels culminated with the historic usage of these chemicals some 30-50 years ago. In the glacial Lake Stein, this peak was followed by a reincrease in the 1990s, which goes along with the accelerated melting of the adjacent glacier. This study confirms the hypothesis of glaciers being a secondary source of these pollutants and is in accordance with the earlier findings in Lake Oberaar.

  2. The influence of climate change on the global distribution and fate processes of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kallenborn, Roland; Halsall, Crispin; Dellong, Maud; Carlsson, Pernilla

    2012-11-01

    The effect of climate change on the global distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of growing interest to both scientists and policy makers alike. The impact of warmer temperatures and the resulting changes to earth system processes on chemical fate are, however, unclear, although there are a growing number of studies that are beginning to examine these impacts and changes in a quantitative way. In this review, we examine broad areas where changes are occurring or are likely to occur with regard to the environmental cycling and fate of chemical contaminants. For this purpose we are examining scientific information from long-term monitoring data with particular emphasis on the Arctic, to show apparent changes in chemical patterns and behaviour. In addition, we examine evidence of changing chemical processes for a number of environmental compartments and indirect effects of climate change on contaminant emissions and behaviour. We also recommend areas of research to address knowledge gaps. In general, our findings indicate that the indirect consequences of climate change (i.e. shifts in agriculture, resource exploitation opportunities, etc.) will have a more marked impact on contaminants distribution and fate than direct climate change. PMID:23014859

  3. Memory effect driven emissions of persistent organic pollutants from industrial thermal processes, their implications and management: a review.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Jitendra; Majumdar, Deepanjan

    2013-04-15

    Memory effect is delayed emission of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Many of the POP compounds viz. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) get trapped in the particulate phase deposited in the flue transfer lines and air pollution control systems (equivalent to storage in the memory of a system) and released subsequently. Memory effect driven emission is a combination of real time emission and emission of stored compounds and so is not a true measure of actual real time emission. Memory effect is now realized to have existed for a long time but was not identified and understood until recently. Memory effect has several serious implications e.g. it wrongly depicts emission patterns of POPs; it makes compliance to stipulated emission standards difficult; it could lead to wrong calculations of emission factors and emission inventory estimates of a plant and leads to misinterpretation of efficacy of processes and air pollution control systems. Further, new PCDD/Fs may be formed in the trapped particulate phase via de novo synthesis and the new compounds may be emitted, thereby increasing total PCDD/F emissions, apart from altering the homologue pattern of PCDD/Fs in emissions. Memory effect could be minimized by judicious operational and management (O&M) procedures like optimizing combustion, minimizing unnecessary halts in operations, periodical cleaning of flue transfer lines, application of inhibitors etc.

  4. Harnessing microbial gene pools to remediate persistent organic pollutants using genetically modified plants--a viable technology?

    PubMed

    Rylott, Elizabeth L; Johnston, Emily J; Bruce, Neil C

    2015-11-01

    It has been 14 years since the international community came together to legislate the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), restricting the production and use of specific chemicals that were found to be environmentally stable, often bioaccumulating, with long-term toxic effects. Efforts are continuing to remove these pollutants from the environment. While incineration and chemical treatment can be successful, these methods require the removal of tonnes of soil, at high cost, and are damaging to soil structure and microbial communities. The engineering of plants for in situ POP remediation has had highly promising results, and could be a more environmentally-friendly alternative. This review discusses the characterization of POP-degrading bacterial pathways, and how the genes responsible have been harnessed using genetic modification (GM) to introduce these same abilities into plants. Recent advances in multi-gene cloning, genome editing technologies and expression in monocot species are accelerating progress with remediation-applicable species. Examples include plants developed to degrade 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), trichloroethylene (TCE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, the costs and timescales needed to gain regulatory approval, along with continued public opposition, are considerable. The benefits and challenges in this rapidly developing and promising field are discussed. PMID:26283045

  5. Sorption and competition of two persistent organic pesticides onto marine sediments: Relevance to their distribution in aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Lebeuf, Michel; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Gouteux, Bruno; Osman, Awaleh Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Sorption is a key process in the distribution of substances between environmental compartments in marine ecosystems. Two persistent organic pesticides, also known as toxaphene congeners, namely B8-1413 (P26) and B9-1679 (P50), are of special interest because they are not detected in sediments while relatively concentrated in marine mammals. Sorption-desorption, entrapment and competition behaviors of these pesticides onto marine sediments were studied to explain their environmental distribution. Data obtained under marine experimental conditions were fitted to sorption models to evaluate sorption coefficients and to assess the degree of B8-1413/B9-1679 entrapment of the two toxaphene congeners in sediments. Carbon normalized sorption coefficients (Koc) of both congeners were similar under in cold (2°C) marine (30 psu) conditions with high values ranging from 1.53×10(5) to 3.28×10(5) mL g(-1)indicative of a strong affinity to marine sediments However, the sorption-desorption investigations indicate that B8-1413/B9-1679 were on average 2.5 times less entrapped in sediments compared to B7-1450, a toxaphene congener known to accumulate predominantly in sediments. These results suggest that the low entrapment of B8-1413 and B9-1679 favor their availability and transfer to biological matrices. PMID:25765263

  6. Persistent organic pollutants associated to water fluxes and sedimentary processes in the Colorado River delta, Baja California, México.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Ibarra, K C; Daesslé, L W; Macías-Zamora, J V; Ramírez-Álvarez, N

    2011-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were studied in sediment cores from two distinctive modern channels of the Colorado River (CR) delta. Their abundance and temporal changes are associated with flood-flows from the CR across the USA-Mexico border. The CR channel is directly exposed to river flood-flows while the Hardy River (HR) is a local channel derived mainly from agricultural runoff, geothermal effluents, and treated urban wastewater. Different headwater compositions and degrees of exposure to flood-flows appear to be the factors controlling the composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Enrichment of OCPs (46 ng g(-1) dwt in HR and 4.37 ng g(-1) dwt in CR) occurred during or a few years after flooding. PCB-138 (4.2 ng g(-1)dwt) is enriched in HR suggesting its origin in dielectric oils from the geothermal power plant. PCB-28 (2.1 ng g(-1)dwt) in CR may be related with atmospheric input and/or re-deposition of upstream sediments. In surficial sediments (0-3 cm), only HR exceeds international sediment quality guidelines (4,4'-DDE=8.16 ng g(-1)dwt and ΣDDT=8.34 ng g(-1)dwt).

  7. Environment and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in India: a systematic review of recent and historical data.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Nizzetto, Luca; Cupr, Pavel; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been used in a wide range of agricultural and industrial commodities, resulting in vigorous deterioration of environment and human health. A number of studies on the occurrence of POPs confirm their presence in various environmental compartments and human body. In order to deal with this global concern, India has recently prepared the National Implementation Plan (NIP) of the Stockholm Convention. Common beliefs point at India as a hot spot of POP contamination and human exposure; however no systematic analysis was ever performed so far considering all available past data on POP occurrence. This review aims to examine the distribution pattern of POPs in multicompartment environment and human samples, meta-analysis of time trends in exposure levels to environment and humans, and cross country comparison of POP contamination with China. Based on this review, it can be concluded that the Indian environment and human population are highly contaminated by DDTs and HCHs; however scarcity of data on other POPs makes it challenging to assess their nationwide human and environmental exposure. No evidence of a general decline in DDT and HCH residues in the environment and human body come out from the meta-analysis of time trend. While comparing contamination levels between India and China, tendency towards decline in POP contamination is visible in China, unlike India.

  8. Social organization of sexual-economic networks and the persistence of HIV in a rural area in the USA.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Dale; Ellerbrock, Tedd V; Chamblee, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine why high rates of HIV transmission have persisted in a rural area despite community-wide HIV prevention since the mid-1980s, qualitative information was collected about the contexts and social organization of risk behaviour for HIV transmission from residents of a southern Florida community with high HIV prevalence. Original data were collected during 1995-1997 using individual interviews, observations, focus groups, and print media. The research findings were recently reviewed by community members, and the relevance of the data in the present day context was confirmed. We identified risk behaviours including multiple sex partners within heterosexual networks that cross socioeconomic strata and include adults and young people, sex workers, men who have sex with men, prison inmates, truckers, and migrant workers. Crack cocaine was an important feature of some networks. Financial support from multiple male or female sex partners was often part of a personal economic strategy and overlaid traditional social support networks. This type of relationship appears to be historically integrated into the economic fabric of the community and is not likely to receive social censure. Sexual reciprocity may explain, in part, why HIV transmission is rising among women in rural southern communities that have depressed economies.

  9. Differences between Arctic and Atlantic fjord systems on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in zooplankton from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Ruus, Anders; Warner, Nicholas A; Herzke, Dorte; Evenset, Anita; Schøyen, Merete; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Borgå, Katrine

    2011-06-15

    Differences in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between fjords characterized by different water masses were investigated by comparing POP concentrations, patterns and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in seven species of zooplankton from Liefdefjorden (Arctic water mass) and Kongsfjorden (Atlantic water mass), Svalbard, Norway. No difference in concentrations and patterns of POPs was observed in seawater and POM; however higher concentrations and BAFs for certain POPs were found in species of zooplankton from Kongsfjorden. The same species were sampled in both fjords and the differences in concentrations of POPs and BAFs were most likely due to fjord specific characteristics, such as ice cover and timing of snow/glacier melt. These confounding factors make it difficult to conclude on water mass (Arctic vs. Atlantic) specific differences and further to extrapolate these results to possible climate change effects on accumulation of POPs in zooplankton. The present study suggests that zooplankton do biomagnify POPs, which is important for understanding contaminant uptake and flux in zooplankton, though consciousness regarding the method of evaluation is important. PMID:21600630

  10. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  11. Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Gou, Yan-Yu; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and Σdi-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport. PMID:24680980

  12. Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Gou, Yan-Yu; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and Σdi-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport.

  13. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. PMID:26610287

  14. Biotransfer of persistent organic pollutants from a large site in China used for the disassembly of electronic and electrical waste.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Xu, Ying; Han, Guanggen; Ling, Bo

    2006-08-01

    Samples of groundwater, river water, river sediment, paddy soil, rice seeds, hen eggs, fish, umbilical cord blood, and newborn meconium were collected from October 2002 to October 2003 near a large site in China used for the disassembly of obsolete transformers and other electronic or electrical waste. Six indicator PCB congeners, three non-ortho dioxin-like PCB congeners, and six organochlorine pesticides were determined in the samples by GC with electron capture detector. The results demonstrated that the local environment and edible foods had been seriously polluted by toxic PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. The actual daily intakes (ADIs) of these pollutants were estimated for local residents living in the area. The intake data showed that the contents of PCBs in these local residents were substantial, as the ADI estimates greatly exceed the reference doses set by the World Health Organization and the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The presence of the indicator PCB congeners in the cord blood and the meconium samples, as well as significant correlations (r (2) > 0.80, p < 0.05) between these levels, suggests a potential biotransfer of these indicators from mothers to their newborns. This preliminary study showed that obsolete transformers and other electronic or electrical waste can be an important source for the emission of persistent organic pollutants into the local environment, such as through leakage, evaporation, runoff, and leaching. Contamination from this source appears to have reached the level considered to be a serious threat to environmental and human health around the disassembly site.

  15. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed.

  16. Spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and River Ganga in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Sakthivel, S; Kumar, Bhupander; Kumar, Sanjay; Mishra, Meenu; Verma, V K; Gaur, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged in surface water by various point and nonpoint sources thereby degrading the functioning of the ecosystem and threatening human health. Chlorinated pesticides such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) are effective pest control chemicals, used in agriculture and public health activities (malaria eradication, etc.) in India for the past several decades and are still in use. POPs can cause endocrine disruption and food chain biomagnification because of their lipophilicity and environmental persistence. This study aims to assess the environmental occurrence and spatial distribution of OCPs, PAHs and PCBs in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and Ganga ending at the of the Bay of Bengal.The order of organochlorine pesticides is as: heptachlor>HCHs>DDTs>dieldrin>aldrin>endosulfan. Diamond Harbour and Bakkhali were the two places with elevated level of all individual HCH isomers compared to all other sites. β-Endosulfan and α-Endosulfan were high at Dibrugarh than other sampling sites. This is due to the ongoing use of Endosulfan in the tea estates in Assam especially the estates close to the town of Dibrugarh. p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT levels indicate the fresh input of DDT in all the sampling sites. Heptachlor has been observed in 57% of the total samples reported in the present study.These reasons may attribute to high deposition of pesticides in the surface water of Ganga and Brahmaputra.In addition the catchments area of the Ganga River is surrounded by agricultural lands so a relatively higher residue of pesticides was prevalent. Σ27 PCBs varied from BDL to 142 (Avg±SD, 3.96±6.71) ng L-1. PCB-18, PCB-52 & PCB-44 showed the highest concentration levels for all the sampling sites. PCB-126 was observed in samples taken from sites close to the city limit of Kolkata

  17. Spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and River Ganga in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Sakthivel, S; Kumar, Bhupander; Kumar, Sanjay; Mishra, Meenu; Verma, V K; Gaur, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged in surface water by various point and nonpoint sources thereby degrading the functioning of the ecosystem and threatening human health. Chlorinated pesticides such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) are effective pest control chemicals, used in agriculture and public health activities (malaria eradication, etc.) in India for the past several decades and are still in use. POPs can cause endocrine disruption and food chain biomagnification because of their lipophilicity and environmental persistence. This study aims to assess the environmental occurrence and spatial distribution of OCPs, PAHs and PCBs in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and Ganga ending at the of the Bay of Bengal.The order of organochlorine pesticides is as: heptachlor>HCHs>DDTs>dieldrin>aldrin>endosulfan. Diamond Harbour and Bakkhali were the two places with elevated level of all individual HCH isomers compared to all other sites. β-Endosulfan and α-Endosulfan were high at Dibrugarh than other sampling sites. This is due to the ongoing use of Endosulfan in the tea estates in Assam especially the estates close to the town of Dibrugarh. p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT levels indicate the fresh input of DDT in all the sampling sites. Heptachlor has been observed in 57% of the total samples reported in the present study.These reasons may attribute to high deposition of pesticides in the surface water of Ganga and Brahmaputra.In addition the catchments area of the Ganga River is surrounded by agricultural lands so a relatively higher residue of pesticides was prevalent. Σ27 PCBs varied from BDL to 142 (Avg±SD, 3.96±6.71) ng L-1. PCB-18, PCB-52 & PCB-44 showed the highest concentration levels for all the sampling sites. PCB-126 was observed in samples taken from sites close to the city limit of Kolkata

  18. Occurrence of POPs and other persistent organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from the Loire estuary, France.

    PubMed

    Couderc, M; Poirier, L; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A; Kamari, A; Blanchet-Letrouvé, I; Marchand, P; Vénisseau, A; Veyrand, B; Mouneyrac, C; Le Bizec, B

    2015-02-01

    The chemical contamination of the Loire estuary by three classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the perfluorinated and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), and three families of organic contaminants, the alkylphenols (APs), the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (OH-PAHs) and the bisphenol A (BPA) were investigated in the muscles and bile of European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Yellow eels (n=30) were caught in three different points along the estuary to highlight variations between sites and sources of contaminations. Silver eels (n=15) were also studied to compare contaminant impregnation between different life stages of the species. Average concentrations in the muscles of the eel ranged between: 857 and 4358 ng/gLW for the PCBs, 26 and 46 ng/gLW for the PBDEs, 130 and 1293 ng/gLW for the PFAS; and in bile: 31 and 286 μg/g protein for the APs, 9 and 26 μg/g protein for the OH-PAHs and ND-1213 μg/g protein for the BPA. Among PCBs, PCB 153 (40% contribution to the sum of PCBs) was predominant in all eel muscles. PBDE 47 (60%) was the most predominant PBDE congeners, while perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (85%) was the most widely detected PFAS. For APs, 4p-nonylphenol (91%) was the most abundant and for the OH-PAHs, it was 1OH-Pyrene (63%). All the eels exceeded the environmental quality standards (EQS) for biota for the PBDEs and about 75% were higher than the EQS specific to PFOS. Finally, 20% of the analyzed eels presented TEQ concentrations above the maximum limits for lipid-rich species. These results supplied new data on the occurrence, levels, and patterns of 53 organic chemicals in the eels from the Loire estuary and they highlighted the need of further investigations focused notably on the potential effects of these chemicals on this species and their analysis in the water and sediments of the estuary.

  19. Do persistent organic pollutants interact with the stress response? Individual compounds, and their mixtures, interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Steven; Frizzell, Caroline; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-01-22

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential (UNEP, 2001). The majority of studies on endocrine disruption have focused on interferences on the sexual steroid hormones and so have overlooked disruption to glucocorticoid hormones. Here the endocrine disrupting potential of individual POPs and their mixtures has been investigated in vitro to identify any disruption to glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. POP mixtures were screened for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocation using a GR redistribution assay (RA) on a CellInsight™ NXT high content screening (HCS) platform. A mammalian reporter gene assay (RGA) was then used to assess the individual POPs, and their mixtures, for effects on glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transactivation. POP mixtures did not induce GR translocation in the GR RA or produce an agonist response in the GR RGA. However, in the antagonist test, in the presence of cortisol, an individual POP, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), was found to decrease glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity to 72.5% (in comparison to the positive cortisol control). Enhanced nuclear transcriptional activity, in the presence of cortisol, was evident for the two lowest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFOS) potassium salt (0.0147mg/ml and 0.0294mg/ml), the two highest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (0.0025mg/ml and 0.005mg/ml) and the highest concentration of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) (0.0000858mg/ml). It is important to gain a better understanding of how POPs can interact with GRs as the disruption of glucocorticoid action is thought to contribute to complex diseases. PMID:26599974

  20. A twenty-one year temporal trend of persistent organic pollutants in St. Lawrence Estuary beluga, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lebeuf, Michel; Measures, Lena; Noël, Michelle; Raach, Meriem; Trottier, Steve

    2014-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in blubber from 144 stranded adult belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) found on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) between 1987 and 2007. Temporal trends of POP concentrations (ln transformed) in beluga were described by three models, zero slope (ZS), linear (L) and two-segment piecewise (PW). Often two but sometimes all three models were equivalent in describing temporal trends based on Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample sizes. Over this 21-year time period, concentrations of most legacy POPs, including PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, exhibited relatively weak (≤11% per year) but significant decreasing trends in beluga. For PBDEs, temporal trends were best described by a PW model, characterizing a rapid increase until 1997-1998 followed by a slower increase for males and a steady-state for females. Potential cofactors such as blubber lipid content and carcass state of preservation did not show any significant temporal trends over the time period considered. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in beluga liver, a proxy of trophic level, could not be associated to any effect on temporal trends of POP concentrations in beluga. Several POPs exhibited significant relationships with age of beluga and data were age-adjusted. Temporal trends of POP concentrations adjusted for age of beluga were reassessed but results were essentially identical as those obtained with the original POP data. Overall, POP temporal trends observed in SLE beluga are consistent with changes expected from regulations and restrictions in the use of these compounds in developed countries.

  1. Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Das, Krishna; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine; Kiszka, Jeremy J; Lepoint, Gilles; Mongin, Philippe; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ(15)N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation.

  2. Food intake and serum persistent organic pollutants in the Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT sub-study.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-10-01

    The Greenlandic Inuit have high blood concentrations of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). High POP concentrations have been associated with age, smoking and consumption of marine mammals. Studies have indicated that exposure to POPs during pregnancy may adversely affect fetal and child development. To assess geographical differences in diet, lifestyle and environmental contaminant exposure among pregnant women in Greenland, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected from 207 pregnant women in five Greenlandic regions (North, Disco Bay, West, South and East). Blood samples were analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 15 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and 63 metals. A trend of higher intake of marine mammals in the East and North regions was reflected by a higher n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio. Participants in the East region tended also to have higher intake of terrestrial species. A significant higher seabird intake was seen for pregnant women in the West region. Significant regional differences were found for blood concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, PFASs and mercury, with higher levels in the North and East regions. PFASs were significantly associated with PCBs and OCPs in most of the regions. In the North region, PFASs were associated with both selenium and mercury. No significant regional difference was observed for PBDEs. The regional differences of blood levels of POPs and mercury were related to differences in intake of the traditional food. Compared to earlier reports, decreased levels of legacy POPs, Hg and Pb and perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were observed, but the levels of PFAS congeners perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were sustained. The detection of POPs and heavy metals in maternal blood indicates fetal exposure to these compounds possibly influencing fetal development. PMID:26011616

  3. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blubber of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Brian C; Ylitalo, Gina M; McGeorge, Lauren E; Baugh, Keri A; Boyd, Daryle; Mullin, Keith D; Rosel, Patricia E; Sinclair, Carrie; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-09-15

    A number of studies were initiated in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill to understand potential injuries to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that inhabit the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) estuarine waters. As part of these studies, remote biopsy skin and blubber samples were collected from dolphins at six field sites that received varying degrees of oiling: Barataria Bay (BB), Chandeleur Sound West (CSW), Chandeleur Sound East (CSE), Mississippi Sound South (MSS), Mississippi Sound North (MSN), and St. Joseph Bay (SJ). Blubber samples from 108 male dolphins were analyzed for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as high levels of POPs have been previously reported in other southeastern U.S. dolphins and the potential contribution of these compounds to adverse health effects in NGoM dolphins must be considered. Dolphin blubber levels of summed POPs (ΣPOPs) did not differ significantly across sites (F-test, P=0.9119) [μg/g lipid; geometric mean and 95% CI]; CSW [65.9 (51.4-84.6)], SJ [74.1 (53.0-104)], MSN [74.3 (58.7-93.9)], BB [75.3 (56.4-101)], CSE [80.5 (57.8-112)], and MSS [82.5 (65.9-103)]. Overall, POP concentrations were in the lower half of the range compared to previously reported concentrations from other southeastern U.S. sites. Increased dolphin mortalities have been ongoing in the NGoM and have been suggested to be linked with the DWH oil spill. In addition, lung disease, impaired adrenal function, and serum biochemical abnormalities have been reported in dolphins from BB, an area that was heavily oiled. The results of this study suggest that POPs are likely not a primary contributor to the poor health conditions and increased mortality observed in some populations of NGoM dolphins following the DWH oil spill.

  4. Food intake and serum persistent organic pollutants in the Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT sub-study.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-10-01

    The Greenlandic Inuit have high blood concentrations of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). High POP concentrations have been associated with age, smoking and consumption of marine mammals. Studies have indicated that exposure to POPs during pregnancy may adversely affect fetal and child development. To assess geographical differences in diet, lifestyle and environmental contaminant exposure among pregnant women in Greenland, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected from 207 pregnant women in five Greenlandic regions (North, Disco Bay, West, South and East). Blood samples were analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 15 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and 63 metals. A trend of higher intake of marine mammals in the East and North regions was reflected by a higher n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio. Participants in the East region tended also to have higher intake of terrestrial species. A significant higher seabird intake was seen for pregnant women in the West region. Significant regional differences were found for blood concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, PFASs and mercury, with higher levels in the North and East regions. PFASs were significantly associated with PCBs and OCPs in most of the regions. In the North region, PFASs were associated with both selenium and mercury. No significant regional difference was observed for PBDEs. The regional differences of blood levels of POPs and mercury were related to differences in intake of the traditional food. Compared to earlier reports, decreased levels of legacy POPs, Hg and Pb and perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were observed, but the levels of PFAS congeners perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were sustained. The detection of POPs and heavy metals in maternal blood indicates fetal exposure to these compounds possibly influencing fetal development.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blubber of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Brian C; Ylitalo, Gina M; McGeorge, Lauren E; Baugh, Keri A; Boyd, Daryle; Mullin, Keith D; Rosel, Patricia E; Sinclair, Carrie; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-09-15

    A number of studies were initiated in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill to understand potential injuries to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that inhabit the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) estuarine waters. As part of these studies, remote biopsy skin and blubber samples were collected from dolphins at six field sites that received varying degrees of oiling: Barataria Bay (BB), Chandeleur Sound West (CSW), Chandeleur Sound East (CSE), Mississippi Sound South (MSS), Mississippi Sound North (MSN), and St. Joseph Bay (SJ). Blubber samples from 108 male dolphins were analyzed for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as high levels of POPs have been previously reported in other southeastern U.S. dolphins and the potential contribution of these compounds to adverse health effects in NGoM dolphins must be considered. Dolphin blubber levels of summed POPs (ΣPOPs) did not differ significantly across sites (F-test, P=0.9119) [μg/g lipid; geometric mean and 95% CI]; CSW [65.9 (51.4-84.6)], SJ [74.1 (53.0-104)], MSN [74.3 (58.7-93.9)], BB [75.3 (56.4-101)], CSE [80.5 (57.8-112)], and MSS [82.5 (65.9-103)]. Overall, POP concentrations were in the lower half of the range compared to previously reported concentrations from other southeastern U.S. sites. Increased dolphin mortalities have been ongoing in the NGoM and have been suggested to be linked with the DWH oil spill. In addition, lung disease, impaired adrenal function, and serum biochemical abnormalities have been reported in dolphins from BB, an area that was heavily oiled. The results of this study suggest that POPs are likely not a primary contributor to the poor health conditions and increased mortality observed in some populations of NGoM dolphins following the DWH oil spill. PMID:25965044

  6. Tissue-specific distribution and whole-body burden estimates of persistent organic pollutants in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Yordy, Jennifer E; Pabst, D Ann; McLellan, William A; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teri K; Kucklick, John R

    2010-06-01

    Most exposure assessments for free-ranging cetaceans focus on contaminant concentrations measured in blubber, and few data are available for other tissues or the factors governing contaminant distribution among tissues. The goal of this study was to provide a detailed description of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) body and assess the role of lipid dynamics in mediating contaminant distribution. Thirteen tissues (brain, blubber, heart, liver, lung, kidney, mammary gland, melon, skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid, thymus, and testis/uterus) were sampled during necropsy from bottlenose dolphins (n = 4) and analyzed for lipid and 85 POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Significant correlations between tissue POP concentrations and lipid suggest that distribution of POPs is generally related to tissue lipid content. However, blubber:tissue partition coefficients ranged widely from 0.753 to 6.25, suggesting that contaminant distribution is not entirely lipid-dependent. Tissue-specific and whole-body contaminant burdens confirmed that blubber, the primary site of metabolic lipid storage, is also the primary site for POP accumulation, contributing >90% to the whole-body burdens. Observations also suggest that as lipid mobilizes from blubber, contaminants may redistribute, leading to elevated tissue concentrations. These results suggest that individuals with reduced blubber lipid may be at increased risk for exposure-related health effects. However, this study also provides evidence that the melon, a metabolically inert lipid-rich structure, may serve as an alternate depot for POPs, thus preventing the bulk of blubber contaminants from being directly available to other tissues. This unique physiological adaptation should be taken into consideration when assessing contaminant-related health effects in wild cetacean populations

  7. Congener Patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants Establish the Extent of Contaminant Biotransport by Pacific Salmon in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Brandon S; Chaloner, Dominic T; Janetski, David J; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Moerke, Ashley H; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-01-19

    In the Great Lakes, introduced Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can transport persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), to new environments during their spawning migrations. To explore the nature and extent of POP biotransport by salmon, we compared 58 PCB and 6 PBDE congeners found in spawning salmon directly to those in resident stream fish. We hypothesized that stream fish exposed to salmon spawners would have congener patterns similar to those of salmon, the presumed contaminant source. Using permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), we found that POP congener patterns of Pacific salmon varied among regions in the Great Lakes basin (i.e., Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, or Lake Superior), tissue type (whole fish or eggs), and contaminant type (PCB or PBDE). For stream-resident fish, POP congener pattern was influenced by the presence of salmon, location (i.e., Great Lakes Basin), and species identity (i.e., brook trout [Salvelinus fontinalis] or mottled sculpin [Cottus bairdii]). Similarity in congener patterns indicated that salmon are a source of POPs to brook trout in stream reaches receiving salmon spawners from Lake Michigan and Lake Huron but not from Lake Superior. Congener patterns of mottled sculpin differed from those of brook trout and salmon, suggesting that brook trout and mottled sculpin either use salmon tissue to differing degrees, acquire POPs from different dietary sources, or bioaccumulate or metabolize POPs differently. Overall, our analyses identified the important role of salmon in contaminant biotransport but also demonstrated that the extent of salmon-mediated POP transfer and uptake in Great Lakes tributaries is location- and species-specific.

  8. An analysis of using semi-permeable membrane devices to assess persistent organic pollutants in ambient air of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ted Hsin-Yeh

    A region of concern for persistent organic pollutants (POPS) contamination is the Arctic, because of POPs' ability to migrate long distances through the atmosphere toward cold regions, condense out of the atmosphere in those region, deposit in sensitive arctic ecosystems and bioaccumulate in Arctic species. Thus, monitoring of POP concentrations in the Arctic is necessary. However, traditional active air monitoring techniques for POPs may not be feasible in the Arctic, because of logistics and cost. While these issues may be overcome using passive air sampling devices, questions arise about the interpretation of the contaminant concentrations detected using the passive air samplers. In this dissertation semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) containing triolein were characterized and evaluated for use in sampling the ambient air of Alaska for three classes of POPS (organochlorines [OCs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]). In addition, a SPMD-based sampling campaign for POPS was conducted simultaneously at five sites in Alaska during a one-year period. The POP concentrations obtained from the SPMDs were examined to determine the spatial and seasonal variability at the locations. POP concentrations detected in SPMDs were influenced by exposure to sunlight, concentrations of particulate-bound contaminants and changes in temperature. PAH concentrations in a SPMD mounted in a sunlight-blocking deployment unit were higher than in a SPMD exposed to sunlight (P = 0.007). PCB concentrations in SPMD exposed to filtered and non-filtered air were significantly different (P < 0.0001). Derived PAH air concentrations measured using SPMD were within a factor of approximately 7 of those obtained from an air sampler in Barrow, Alaska. The field study showed three distinct groups of samples. Barrow was separated from the sub-Arctic samples and a Homer sample (September-December) was distinct from the sub-Arctic samples. The separations suggest

  9. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  10. Forty-seven days of decay does not change persistent organic pollutant levels in loggerhead sea turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M

    2013-04-01

    Reptile and bird eggs are priority samples for specimen banking programs that assess spatial and temporal trends of environmental contaminants. From endangered species, such as sea turtles, nonlethal sampling is required (e.g., unhatched eggs collected postemergence). Previous contaminant monitoring studies have used unhatched sea turtle eggs, but no study has tested whether their concentrations represent levels found in fresh eggs (e.g., eggs collected within 24 h of oviposition). The author analyzed three fresh eggs from different nest depths and up to three unhatched eggs from 10 loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests in South Carolina, USA, for a suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Lipid-normalized POP concentrations were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between fresh and unhatched eggs or among different depths from the same nest. The POP concentrations in loggerhead eggs from South Carolina were higher than previously measured concentrations in eggs from Florida and slightly lower than concentrations in eggs from North Carolina. This pattern agrees with previously observed trends of increasing POP concentrations in loggerhead turtles inhabiting northern latitudes along the U.S. East Coast. Contaminant profiles are discussed, including a higher chlorinated pattern of polychlorinated biphenyls possibly associated with a Superfund site in nearby Brunswick, Georgia, USA, and unusual polybrominated diphenylether patterns seen in this and previous sea turtle studies. Concentrations correlated with one of eight measurements of reproductive success; levels were negatively correlated with egg mass (p < 0.05), which may have implications for hatchling fitness. The present study suggests that unhatched eggs can be used for POP-monitoring projects.

  11. Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D

    2014-03-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of

  12. A twenty-one year temporal trend of persistent organic pollutants in St. Lawrence Estuary beluga, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lebeuf, Michel; Measures, Lena; Noël, Michelle; Raach, Meriem; Trottier, Steve

    2014-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in blubber from 144 stranded adult belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) found on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) between 1987 and 2007. Temporal trends of POP concentrations (ln transformed) in beluga were described by three models, zero slope (ZS), linear (L) and two-segment piecewise (PW). Often two but sometimes all three models were equivalent in describing temporal trends based on Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample sizes. Over this 21-year time period, concentrations of most legacy POPs, including PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, exhibited relatively weak (≤11% per year) but significant decreasing trends in beluga. For PBDEs, temporal trends were best described by a PW model, characterizing a rapid increase until 1997-1998 followed by a slower increase for males and a steady-state for females. Potential cofactors such as blubber lipid content and carcass state of preservation did not show any significant temporal trends over the time period considered. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in beluga liver, a proxy of trophic level, could not be associated to any effect on temporal trends of POP concentrations in beluga. Several POPs exhibited significant relationships with age of beluga and data were age-adjusted. Temporal trends of POP concentrations adjusted for age of beluga were reassessed but results were essentially identical as those obtained with the original POP data. Overall, POP temporal trends observed in SLE beluga are consistent with changes expected from regulations and restrictions in the use of these compounds in developed countries. PMID:24742546

  13. Global monitoring plan for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention: Triggering, streamlining and catalyzing global POPs monitoring.

    PubMed

    Magulova, Katarina; Priceputu, Ana

    2016-10-01

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) aims to protect human health and the environment from POPs through a range of measures aimed at reducing and ultimately eliminating their releases into the environment and subsequent human exposure. Article 16 of the Convention sets the basis for a mechanism to assess the success of the activities undertaken worldwide to implement the Convention. One of major pillars for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the Convention is monitoring data obtained through the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for POPs. The implementation of the GMP over the last eleven years, since the entry into force of the Convention, shows how a global treaty such as the Stockholm Convention streamlined existing monitoring efforts and triggered harmonization and further development of a global monitoring network. In its initial stages, long term POPs monitoring programmes were available only in some parts of the globe. Over more than a decade of generation of harmonized, comparable monitoring data on 23 chemicals of global concern, a rich and extremely valuable dataset has been generated in the frame of the GMP. Long-term monitoring programmes have enlarged the scope of their activities to cover newly listed chemicals, and new programmes have emerged. Monitoring data are broadly shared through the GMP data warehouse, the Convention's clearing-house mechanism, and through other appropriate global tools. Through its global reach, the GMP contributes to the global chemicals and waste policy agenda, supports and triggers further research initiatives, and provides information to the general public at large. PMID:26794340

  14. Scavenging amphipods: sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Stern, Gary A; Tomy, Gregg T; Hargrave, Barry T; Jantunen, Liisa M; Macdonald, Robie W

    2013-06-01

    Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (∑Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ∑Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ∑Hg. ∑Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (∑Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with δ(13)C nor δ(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156,000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ∑TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ∑PCBs > ∑DDTs > ∑chlordanes > ∑mirex compounds > ∑BDEs ∼ ∑chlorobenzenes ∼ octachlorostyrene > α-hexachlorocyclohexane ∼ hexachlorobenzene ∼ pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ≤10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences.

  15. Geographical distribution and risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in golden threads (Nemipterus virgatus) from the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Fish are often used as good bioindicators to monitor the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on different scales in recent years. Forty-five golden threads (Nemipterus virgatus) were collected from six sampling sites in the northern South China Sea (SCS) to investigate the geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs ranged from 1.3-36.0, 2.3-76.5, 8.3-228 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. The highest PBDEs and DDTs concentrations were found in golden threads from Shantou, owing to the intensive electronic waste recycling activities and rapid development of agriculture. Samples from Haikou had the highest levels of PCBs, probably due to the existence of many shipbuilding yards in the past years. The concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were found in a decreasing trend from east to west and from north to south, while DDTs concentrations had no obvious trend in the distribution. PCBs were the most prevalent contaminants in Xiamen and Yangjiang, while DDTs were the dominant compounds at the other four sampling sites. Different profiles of POPs at each sampling site may attribute to different pollution sources in the northern SCS. Ratios of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs in golden threads suggested the probability of fresh input of DDT in the northern SCS. The estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs and DDTs were 0.030-0.069, 0.167-0.258 and 0.105-1.88 ng/kg/day, respectively, which were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake, suggesting that consumption of golden threads from the northern SCS would not subject the residents in the coastal areas of SCS to significant health risk.

  16. Endocrine effects of real-life mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in experimental models and wild fish.

    PubMed

    Berg, Vidar; Kraugerud, Marianne; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Olsvik, Pål A; Skåre, Janneche U; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Lyche, Jan L

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies have assessed the occurrence, levels, and potential adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in fish from Lake Mjøsa. In this lake, high levels of various POP were detected in biota. Fish from the nearby Lake Losna contain background levels of POP and served as reference (controls) in these studies. Significantly higher prevalence of mycobacteriosis and pathological changes were documented in burbot (Lota lota) from Mjøsa compared to burbot from Losna. Further, transcriptional profiling identified changes in gene expression in burbot from Mjøsa compared to burbot from Losna associated with drug metabolism enzymes and oxidative stress. POP extracted from burbot liver oil from the two lakes was used to expose zebrafish (Danio rerio) during two consecutive generations. During both generations, POP mixtures from both lakes increased the rate of mortality, induced earlier onset of puberty, and skewed sex ratio toward males. However, opposite effects on weight gain were found in exposure groups compared to controls during the two generations. Exposure to POP from both lakes was associated with suppression of ovarian follicle development. Analyses of genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes associated with weight homeostasis, steroid hormone functions, and insulin signaling. In human cell studies using adrenocortical H295R and primary porcine theca and granulosa cells, exposure to lake extracts from both populations modulated steroid hormone production with significant difference from controls. The results suggest that POP from both lakes may possess the potential to induce endocrine disruption and may adversely affect health in wild fish. PMID:27484136

  17. Thyroid hormones are associated with exposure to persistent organic pollutants in aging residents of upper Hudson River communities

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Jansing, Robert L.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and thyroid hormones in an aging population. Forty-eight women and 66 men, aged 55 to 74 years and living in upper Hudson River communities completed a questionnaire and provided blood specimens. Serum was analyzed for thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free (fT4) and total thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and for POPs. POPs included 39 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD), and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determined by high-resolution gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry detection (HRGC-HRMS). Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between thyroid hormones and sums of POPs, adjusted for covariates and stratified by sex. Effects were expressed as differences in thyroid hormone levels associated with a doubling in the level of exposure. Among women, DDT+DDE increased T4 by 0.34 μg/dL (P=0.04) and T3 by 2.78 ng/dL (P=0.05). Also in women, sums of PCBs in conjunction with PBDEs elicited increases of 24.39-80.85 ng/dL T3 (P<0.05), and sums of PCBs in conjunction with DDT+DDE elicited increases of 0.18-0.31 μg/dL T4 (P<0.05). For men estrogenic PCBs were associated with a 19.82 ng/dL T3 decrease (P=0.003), and the sum of estrogenic PCBs in conjunction with DDT+DDE elicited an 18.02 ng/dL T3 decrease (P=0.04). Given age-related declines in physiologic reserve, the influence of POPs on thyroid hormones in aging populations may have clinical implications and merits further investigation. PMID:24138783

  18. Investigation of spatial distributions and sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a heavily polluted industrial region using tree components.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Ozgunerge Falay, Ezgi; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

    2016-10-01

    Spatial distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Iskenderun industrial region in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in different tree components (i.e., pine needle, branch, bark, and stem) collected at several industrial and background sites (n = 27). Also, air, litter, and soil samples were analyzed to determine the relationship of atmospheric pollutants with tree components, litter, and soil. Spatial variation of measured concentrations and factor analysis showed that the iron-steel plants are the most important POP sources in Iskenderun area. Correlations of ambient air levels to those measured in soil, litter, and tree components were significant showing that POPs are exchanged between atmosphere and these compartments. Results have suggested that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial distributions and sources of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP quantities (mg/ha) accumulated in different tree components, litter, and soil were also predicted. Generally, the highest quantities were accumulated by stem and needles. In terms of overall inventory, including trees, litter and soil, the highest accumulated quantities were found in soil followed by trees and litter, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is a notable reservoir accumulating POPs. Ambient air POP concentrations were also estimated using a bark/air partitioning model. The estimated/measured ratios were close to 1.0 for several compounds and the results showed that the atmospheric POP concentrations could be estimated from the bark measurements within factors of 0.23-3.07, 1.02-6.67, 0.63-7.44, 1.07-3.37 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. PMID:27367178

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in tissues of the white-blooded Antarctic fish Champsocephalus gunnari and Chaenocephalus aceratus.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Schmid, Peter; Segner, Helmut; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Zennegg, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The global occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continuously contributes to their accumulation also in remote areas such as the Antarctic Ocean. Antarctic fish, which hold high trophic positions but appear to possess low endogenous elimination rates for chemicals, are expected to bioaccumulate POPs with rising anthropogenic pollution. Using a chemical-analytical method, we measured concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, HCBs, HCH and DDTs and determined toxic equivalents (TEQs) and bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) in muscle and ovaries of Antarctic icefish caught in the Southern Ocean around Elephant Island. We used two species with different feeding habits and trophic web positions: the planktivorous Champsocephalus gunnari and the piscivorous Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results revealed higher contaminant levels in ovary than in muscle tissues of both species. Most analytes concentrations and the TEQs (0.2-0.5) and BEQs (0.2) were lower as in temperate species. Comparison with literature data points to higher PCB (20-22 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw)) and DDT (7-19.5 ng g(-1) lw) concentrations than those measured in icefish in the 90's. For the other contaminants, we could not identify temporal trends. We found a higher bioaccumulation of contaminants, particularly HCB and DDTs, in C. aceratus (6.2 & 19.5 ng g(-1) lw, respectively) than in C. gunnari (3.8 & 7.0 ng g(-1) lw, respectively). However, there was no general species-specific accumulation pattern of the different toxicant classes between the two icefish. Thus, the expected link between contaminant burdens of C. aceratus and C. gunnari and their ecological traits was only weakly supported for these species.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in tissues of the white-blooded Antarctic fish Champsocephalus gunnari and Chaenocephalus aceratus.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Schmid, Peter; Segner, Helmut; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Zennegg, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The global occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continuously contributes to their accumulation also in remote areas such as the Antarctic Ocean. Antarctic fish, which hold high trophic positions but appear to possess low endogenous elimination rates for chemicals, are expected to bioaccumulate POPs with rising anthropogenic pollution. Using a chemical-analytical method, we measured concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, HCBs, HCH and DDTs and determined toxic equivalents (TEQs) and bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) in muscle and ovaries of Antarctic icefish caught in the Southern Ocean around Elephant Island. We used two species with different feeding habits and trophic web positions: the planktivorous Champsocephalus gunnari and the piscivorous Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results revealed higher contaminant levels in ovary than in muscle tissues of both species. Most analytes concentrations and the TEQs (0.2-0.5) and BEQs (0.2) were lower as in temperate species. Comparison with literature data points to higher PCB (20-22 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw)) and DDT (7-19.5 ng g(-1) lw) concentrations than those measured in icefish in the 90's. For the other contaminants, we could not identify temporal trends. We found a higher bioaccumulation of contaminants, particularly HCB and DDTs, in C. aceratus (6.2 & 19.5 ng g(-1) lw, respectively) than in C. gunnari (3.8 & 7.0 ng g(-1) lw, respectively). However, there was no general species-specific accumulation pattern of the different toxicant classes between the two icefish. Thus, the expected link between contaminant burdens of C. aceratus and C. gunnari and their ecological traits was only weakly supported for these species. PMID:27198544

  1. Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Africa. Part 2: design of a network to monitor the continental and intercontinental background.

    PubMed

    Lammel, G; Dobrovolný, P; Dvorská, A; Chromá, K; Brázdil, R; Holoubek, I; Hosek, J

    2009-11-01

    A network for the study of long-term trends of the continental background in Africa and the intercontinental background of persistent organic pollutants as resulting from long-range transport of contaminants from European, South Asian, and other potential source regions, as well as by watching supposedly pristine regions, i.e. the Southern Ocean and Antarctica is designed. The results of a pilot phase sampling programme in 2008 and meteorological and climatological information from the period 1961-2007 was used to apply objective criteria for the selection of stations for the monitoring network: out the original 26 stations six have been rejected because of suggested strong local sources of POPs and three others because of local meteorological effects, which may prevent part of the time long-range transported air to reach the sampling site. Representativeness of the meteorological patterns during the pilot phase with respect to climatology was assessed by comparison of the more local airflow situation as given by climatological vs. observed wind roses and by comparison of backward trajectories with the climatological wind (NCEP/NCAR re-analyses). With minor exceptions advection to nine inspected stations was typical for present-day climate during the pilot phase, 2008. Six to nine stations would cover satisfyingly large and densely populated regions of North-eastern, West and East Africa and its neighbouring seas, the Mediterranean, Northern and Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, the Western Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean. Among the more densely populated areas Southern Cameroon, parts of the Abessinian plateau and most of the Great Lakes area would not be covered. The potential of the network is not hampered by on-going long-term changes of the advection to the selected stations, as these do hardly affect the coverage of target areas.

  2. Relationship between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and ranging patterns in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from coastal Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Brian C; Schwacke, Lori H; Wells, Randall S; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R; Lane, Suzanne M; Martinez, Anthony; McLellan, William A; Rosel, Patricia E; Rowles, Teri K; Sparks, Kate; Speakman, Todd; Zolman, Eric S; Pabst, D Ann

    2011-05-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are apex predators in coastal southeastern U.S. waters; as such they are indicators of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in coastal ecosystems. POP concentrations measured in a dolphin's blubber are influenced by a number of factors, including the animal's sex and ranging pattern in relation to POP point sources. This study examined POP concentrations measured in bottlenose dolphin blubber samples (n=102) from the Georgia, USA coast in relation to individual ranging patterns and specifically, distance of sightings from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) point source near Brunswick, Georgia. Dolphin ranging patterns were determined based upon 5years of photo-identification data from two field sites approximately 40km apart: (1) the Brunswick field site, which included the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE), and (2) the Sapelo field site, which included the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve (SINERR). Dolphins were categorized into one of three ranging patterns from photo-identification data. Individuals with sighting histories exclusively within one of the defined field sites were considered to have either Brunswick or Sapelo ranging patterns. Individuals sighted in both field sites were classified as having a Mixed ranging pattern. Brunswick males had the highest concentrations of PCBs reported for any marine mammal. The pattern of PCB congeners was consistent with Aroclor 1268, a highly chlorinated PCB mixture associated with a Superfund site in Brunswick. PCB levels in Sapelo males were lower than in Brunswick males, but comparable to the highest levels measured in other dolphin populations along the southeastern U.S. Female dolphins had higher Aroclor 1268 proportions than males, suggesting that the highly chlorinated congeners associated with Aroclor 1268 may not be offloaded through parturition and lactation, as easily as less halogenated POPs. Individuals sighted farther from the Superfund point

  3. Endocrine activity of persistent organic pollutants accumulated in human silicone implants--Dosing in vitro assays by partitioning from silicone.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Mayer, Philipp; Pedersen, Mikael; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2015-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulated in human tissues may pose a risk for human health by interfering with the endocrine system. This study establishes a new link between actual human internal POP levels and the endocrine active dose in vitro, applying partitioning-controlled dosing from silicone to the H295R steroidogenesis assay: (1) Measured concentrations of POPs in silicone breast implants were taken from a recent study and silicone disks were loaded according to these measurements. (2) Silicone disks were transferred into H295R cell culture plates in order to control exposure of the adrenal cells by equilibrium partitioning. (3) Hormone production of the adrenal cells was measured as toxicity endpoint. 4-Nonylphenol was used for method development, and the new dosing method was compared to conventional solvent-dosing. The two dosing modes yielded similar dose-dependent hormonal responses of H295R cells. However, with the partitioning-controlled freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) as dose metrics, dose-response curves were left-shifted by two orders of magnitude relative to spiked concentrations. Partitioning-controlled dosing of POPs resulted in up to 2-fold increases in progestagen and corticosteroid levels at Cfree of individual POPs in or below the femtomolar range. Silicone acted not only as source of the POPs but also as a sorption sink for lipophilic hormones, stimulating the cellular hormone production. Methodologically, the study showed that silicone can be used as reference partitioning phase to transfer in vivo exposure in humans (silicone implants) to in vitro assays (partition-controlled dosing). The main finding was that POPs at the levels at which they are found in humans can interfere with steroidogenesis in a human adrenocortical cell line. PMID:26264162

  4. The stress of being contaminated? Adrenocortical function and reproduction in relation to persistent organic pollutants in female black legged kittiwakes.

    PubMed

    Tartu, Sabrina; Angelier, Frédéric; Herzke, Dorte; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    High levels of environmental pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCB and DDT have been found in the Arctic and many of those pollutants may impair reproduction through endocrine disruption. Nevertheless, their effects on stress hormones remain poorly understood, especially in free-ranging birds. Corticosterone, the principal glucocorticoid in birds, can indirectly impair reproduction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between POPs and reproduction through their potential consequences on different reproductive traits (breeding decision, egg-laying date, breeding success) and corticosterone secretion (baseline and stress-induced levels). We addressed those questions in an Arctic population of female black-legged kittiwakes during the pre-breeding stage and measured several legacy POPs (PCBs and pesticides: HCB, p,p'-DDE, CHL) in whole blood. POP levels were not related to breeding decision neither to breeding success, whereas females with high levels of pesticides laid their eggs earlier in the season. We found a negative relationship between POP levels and body condition index in non-breeding females. Black-legged kittiwakes with higher levels of PCB showed stronger adrenocortical response when subjected to a capture-handling stress protocol. We suggest that PCBs may disrupt corticosterone secretion whereas the positive relationship between pesticides and egg-laying date could either originate from a direct effect of pesticides or may be related to other confounding factors such as age or individual's quality. Although no direct negative reproduction output of POPs was found in this study, it is possible that the most contaminated individuals would be more sensitive to environmental stress and would be less able to maintain parental investment than less polluted individuals.

  5. Forty-seven days of decay does not change persistent organic pollutant levels in loggerhead sea turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M

    2013-04-01

    Reptile and bird eggs are priority samples for specimen banking programs that assess spatial and temporal trends of environmental contaminants. From endangered species, such as sea turtles, nonlethal sampling is required (e.g., unhatched eggs collected postemergence). Previous contaminant monitoring studies have used unhatched sea turtle eggs, but no study has tested whether their concentrations represent levels found in fresh eggs (e.g., eggs collected within 24 h of oviposition). The author analyzed three fresh eggs from different nest depths and up to three unhatched eggs from 10 loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests in South Carolina, USA, for a suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Lipid-normalized POP concentrations were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between fresh and unhatched eggs or among different depths from the same nest. The POP concentrations in loggerhead eggs from South Carolina were higher than previously measured concentrations in eggs from Florida and slightly lower than concentrations in eggs from North Carolina. This pattern agrees with previously observed trends of increasing POP concentrations in loggerhead turtles inhabiting northern latitudes along the U.S. East Coast. Contaminant profiles are discussed, including a higher chlorinated pattern of polychlorinated biphenyls possibly associated with a Superfund site in nearby Brunswick, Georgia, USA, and unusual polybrominated diphenylether patterns seen in this and previous sea turtle studies. Concentrations correlated with one of eight measurements of reproductive success; levels were negatively correlated with egg mass (p < 0.05), which may have implications for hatchling fitness. The present study suggests that unhatched eggs can be used for POP-monitoring projects. PMID:23418059

  6. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Biomarkers of Diabetes Risk in a Cohort of Great Lakes Sport Caught Fish Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Turyk, Mary; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Persky, Victoria; Freels, Sally; Lambertino, Anissa; Pini, Maria; Rhodes, Davina H.; Anderson, Henry A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is associated with increased diabetes risk, although the mechanism of action is not well delineated. Methods We investigated established diabetes biomarkers that could implicate potential mechanistic pathways, including C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation; gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), a liver enzyme associated with oxidative stress; and adiponectin, an adipokine modulating glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation. These biomarkers as well as hemoglobin A1c (HA1c), and POPs [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)] were measured in a cohort of Great Lakes sport caught fish (GLSCF) consumers. We examined associations of POPs and fish consumption with HA1c and incident diabetes, and evaluated mediation and moderation by diabetes biomarkers. Results Odds of incident diabetes were elevated with exposure to DDE and PCBs. DDE and PCB 118 were positively, and fish meals were inversely, associated with HA1c. CRP was inversely associated with saltwater and total fish meals, particularly in persons with higher adiposity, but did not mediate the associations of fish meals with HA1c. There were few associations of adiponectin, CRP and GGT with POPs, with the exception of positive associations of GGT with PCB 118 and with PBDEs in older persons, and a positive association of adiponectin with PBDEs. Adiponectin, CRP and GGT did not mediate associations of DDE and PCBs with HA1c or incident diabetes. However, the association of DDE with HA1c was stronger in persons with higher CRP, GGT and BMI, and lower adiponectin, while the association of PCB 118 with HA1c was stronger in persons with higher GGT. Conclusions These findings suggest that adiponectin, CRP and GGT did not mediate effects of POPs on diabetes or HA1c. However, POPs may have stronger effects on blood glucose in persons at higher risk for diabetes

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in young adults and changes in glucose related metabolism over a 23-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Lee, Duk-Hee; Porta, Miquel; Steffes, Michael W.; Jacobs, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Substantial evidence associates persistent organic pollutants (POP) with metabolic disturbances related to diabetes, but longitudinal studies with repeated measures are scarce. We aimed to characterize the association between background exposures to POPs with repeated measures of glucose homeostasis over 23-years. Methods Within the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (year 0 ages: 18–30 years), we measured POPs in serum obtained in 1987–88 (follow-up year 2) in 90 non-diabetic controls and 90 cases diabetes-free at year 2 who became diabetic by year 20. We analyzed 32 POPs detectable in ≥75% of participants and created summary scores for 32 POPs, 23 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Dependent variables were measures of glucose homeostasis at years 0–25 (up to 8 examinations). We explored associations using repeated measures regression adjusted for race, sex, concurrent body mass index (BMI), examination center and period, separately for cases and controls. Results The associations between the three summary scores and measures of glucose homeostasis were present for observations at ages 40–55 years, and particularly between 48–55 years: the 23 PCB summary was associated with HbA1c (never-diabetics: slope [value per unit of summary score], β=0.008, p=0.02; diabetics: β=0.03, p=0.07), fasting glucose (never-diabetics: β=0.24, p=0.003; diabetics: β=1.10, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity% (never-diabetics: β=−2.82, p < 0.001, diabetics: β=−0.31, p=0.30). No associations were observed at younger ages. Conclusions Glucose homeostasis may worsen after decades of exposure to PCBs and OCPs at background environmental levels, independent of BMI and after participants reached the 5th decade of life. PMID:25706918

  8. Understanding the physiological and molecular mechanism of persistent organic pollutant uptake and detoxification in cucurbit species (zucchini and squash).

    PubMed

    Chhikara, Sudesh; Paulose, Bibin; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2010-10-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) roots phytoextract significant amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil, followed by effective translocation to aboveground tissues. The closely related C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash) does not have this ability. In a DDE-contaminated field soil, zucchini roots and stems contained 3.6 and 6.6-fold greater contaminant than did squash tissues, respectively, and zucchini phytoextracted 12-times more DDE from soil than squash. In batch hydroponics, squash was significantly more sensitive to DDE (2-20 mg/L) exposure; 4 mg/L DDE significantly reduced squash biomass (14%) whereas for zucchini, biomass reductions were observed at 20 mg/L (20%). PCR select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in DDE treated zucchini relative to DDE treated squash or non-treated zucchini. After differential screening to eliminate false positives, unique cDNA clones were sequenced. Out of 40 shoot cDNA sequences, 34 cDNAs have homology to parts of phloem filament protein 1 (PP1). Out of 6 cDNAs from the root tissue, two cDNAs are similar to cytochrome P450 like proteins, and one cDNA matches a putative senescence associated protein. From the DDE exposed zucchini seedlings cDNA library, out of 22 differentially expressed genes, 14 cDNAs were found to have homology with genes involved in abiotic stresses, signaling, lipid metabolism, and photosynthesis. A large number of cDNA sequences were found to encode novel unknown proteins that may be involved in uncharacterized pathways of DDE metabolism in plants. A semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of isolated genes confirmed up-regulation in response to DDE exposure.

  9. The role of canine distemper virus and persistent organic pollutants in mortality patterns of Caspian seals (Pusa caspica).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Susan C; Eybatov, Tariel M; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D; Goodman, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971-2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n = 67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971-2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s-1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126-129 cm (n = 111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of

  10. Assessment of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in Weddell seal tissue (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Stephen J; Robinson, Eleanor M; Noren, Shawn R; Usenko, Sascha; Davis, Jay; Kanatous, Shane B

    2012-11-15

    Muscle samples were collected from pup, juvenile and adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2006. Blubber samples were collected from juvenile and adult seals. Samples were analyzed for emerging and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including current and historic-use organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Of the 41 target analytes, 28 contaminants were recovered from the Weddell seal blubber, in this order of prevalence: p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 153, PCB 138, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, nonachlor III, PCB 187, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, PCB 118, PBDE 47, PCB 156, PCB 149, PCB 180, PCB 101, PCB 170, PCB 105, o,p'-DDT, PCB 99, trans-chlordane, PCB 157, PCB 167, PCB 189, and PCB 114. Fewer POPs were found in the muscle samples, but were similar in the order of prevalence to that of the blubber: p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, nonachlor III, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 138, and PCB 105. Besides differences in toxicant concentrations reported between the muscle and blubber, we found differences in POP levels according to age class and suggest that differences in blubber storage and/or mobilization of lipids result in age class differences in POPs. To our knowledge, such ontogenetic associations are novel. Importantly, data from this study suggest that p,p'-DDT is becoming less prevalent temporally, resulting in an increased proportion of its metabolite p,p'-DDE in the tissues of this top predator. In addition, this study is among the first to identify a PBDE congener in Weddell seals near the McMurdo Station. This may provide evidence of increased PBDE transport and encroachment in Antarctic wildlife.

  11. The Role of Canine Distemper Virus and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Mortality Patterns of Caspian Seals (Pusa caspica)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Susan C.; Eybatov, Tariel M.; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D.; Goodman, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971–2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n = 67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971–2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s–1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126–129 cm (n = 111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low

  12. Do persistent organic pollutants interact with the stress response? Individual compounds, and their mixtures, interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Steven; Frizzell, Caroline; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-01-22

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential (UNEP, 2001). The majority of studies on endocrine disruption have focused on interferences on the sexual steroid hormones and so have overlooked disruption to glucocorticoid hormones. Here the endocrine disrupting potential of individual POPs and their mixtures has been investigated in vitro to identify any disruption to glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. POP mixtures were screened for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocation using a GR redistribution assay (RA) on a CellInsight™ NXT high content screening (HCS) platform. A mammalian reporter gene assay (RGA) was then used to assess the individual POPs, and their mixtures, for effects on glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transactivation. POP mixtures did not induce GR translocation in the GR RA or produce an agonist response in the GR RGA. However, in the antagonist test, in the presence of cortisol, an individual POP, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), was found to decrease glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity to 72.5% (in comparison to the positive cortisol control). Enhanced nuclear transcriptional activity, in the presence of cortisol, was evident for the two lowest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFOS) potassium salt (0.0147mg/ml and 0.0294mg/ml), the two highest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (0.0025mg/ml and 0.005mg/ml) and the highest concentration of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) (0.0000858mg/ml). It is important to gain a better understanding of how POPs can interact with GRs as the disruption of glucocorticoid action is thought to contribute to complex diseases.

  13. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants accumulation and lipid peroxidation in two reproductive stages of wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    PubMed

    Barni, María Florencia Silva; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in streamwater can sometimes exceed the guidelines values reported for biota and human protection in watersheds with intensive agriculture. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity are some of the markers of exposure to POPs in fish. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed in wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) from maturation and pre-spawning stages sampled in a typical soybean growing area. Pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and LPO by the method of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Concentrations of POPs were in the following order: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs in all organs and stages. Liver, gills and gonads had the highest OCP concentrations in both sexes and stages with a predominance of endosulfan in all samples. Matured individuals, sampled after endosulfan application period, showed higher endosulfan concentrations than pre-spawning individuals. The predominance of endosulfan sulfate could be due to direct uptake from diet and water column, as well as to the metabolism of the parent compounds in fish. The prevalence of p,p'-DDE in liver would also reflect both the direct uptake and the metabolic transformation of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE by fish. The highest levels of PBDEs and PCBs were found in gills and brain of both stages of growth. The pattern BDE-47>BDE-100 in all samples corresponds to pentaBDE exposure. In the case of PCBs, penta (#101 and 110) and hexa-CB congeners (#153 and 138) dominated in the maturation stages and tri (#18) and tetra-CB (#44 and 52) in pre-spawning stages, suggesting biotransformation or preferential accumulation of heavier congeners during gonadal development. Differences in LPO levels in ovaries were associated with growth dilution and reproductive stage. Differences in LPO levels in gills were related with pesticide

  14. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants accumulation and lipid peroxidation in two reproductive stages of wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    PubMed

    Barni, María Florencia Silva; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in streamwater can sometimes exceed the guidelines values reported for biota and human protection in watersheds with intensive agriculture. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity are some of the markers of exposure to POPs in fish. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed in wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) from maturation and pre-spawning stages sampled in a typical soybean growing area. Pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and LPO by the method of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Concentrations of POPs were in the following order: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs in all organs and stages. Liver, gills and gonads had the highest OCP concentrations in both sexes and stages with a predominance of endosulfan in all samples. Matured individuals, sampled after endosulfan application period, showed higher endosulfan concentrations than pre-spawning individuals. The predominance of endosulfan sulfate could be due to direct uptake from diet and water column, as well as to the metabolism of the parent compounds in fish. The prevalence of p,p'-DDE in liver would also reflect both the direct uptake and the metabolic transformation of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE by fish. The highest levels of PBDEs and PCBs were found in gills and brain of both stages of growth. The pattern BDE-47>BDE-100 in all samples corresponds to pentaBDE exposure. In the case of PCBs, penta (#101 and 110) and hexa-CB congeners (#153 and 138) dominated in the maturation stages and tri (#18) and tetra-CB (#44 and 52) in pre-spawning stages, suggesting biotransformation or preferential accumulation of heavier congeners during gonadal development. Differences in LPO levels in ovaries were associated with growth dilution and reproductive stage. Differences in LPO levels in gills were related with pesticide

  15. Effects of decontaminated fish oil or a fish and vegetable oil blend on persistent organic pollutant and fatty acid compositions in diet and flesh of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Sprague, Matthew; Bendiksen, Eldar A; Dick, James R; Strachan, Fiona; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Berntssen, Marc H G; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, John Gordon

    2010-05-01

    The health benefits of seafood are well documented and based on the unique supply of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Aquaculture now contributes about 50 % of food-grade seafood globally and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a rich source of n-3 HUFA. However, salmon and other oily fish can accumulate lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POP), including dioxins (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), derived largely from feed. In the present study, triplicate groups of salmon, of initial weight 0.78 kg, were fed one of three experimental diets for 11 weeks. The diets were coated with either a northern fish oil (FO) with a high POP content (cNFO), the same oil that had been decontaminated (deNFO) or a blend of southern fish oil, rapeseed and soyabean oils (SFO/RO/SO). Dietary PCDD/F+dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB) concentrations were 17.36, 0.45 and 0.53 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg, respectively. After 11 weeks, the flesh concentrations in fish fed the cNFO, deNFO and SFO/RO/SO diets were 6.42, 0.34 and 0.41 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. There were no differences in flesh EPA and DHA between fish fed the cNFO or deNFO diets although EPA and DHA were reduced by 50 and 30 %, respectively, in fish fed the SFO/RO/SO diet. Thus, decontaminated FO can be used to produce salmon high in n-3 HUFA and low in POP. Salmon produced using deNFO would be of high nutritional value and very low in POP and would utilise valuable fish oils that would otherwise be destroyed due to their high pollutant concentrations.

  16. Micromotors to capture and destroy anthrax simulant spores.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Jahir; Pan, Guoqing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Galarnyk, Michael; Wang, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Towards addressing the need for detecting and eliminating biothreats, we describe a micromotor-based approach for screening, capturing, isolating and destroying anthrax simulant spores in a simple and rapid manner with minimal sample processing. The B. globilli antibody-functionalized micromotors can recognize, capture and transport B. globigii spores in environmental matrices, while showing non-interactions with excess of non-target bacteria. Efficient destruction of the anthrax simulant spores is demonstrated via the micromotor-induced mixing of a mild oxidizing solution. The new micromotor-based approach paves a way to dynamic multifunctional systems that rapidly recognize, isolate, capture and destroy biological threats.

  17. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Stackelberg, Paul E; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T; Zaugg, Steven D; Henderson, Alden K; Reissman, Dori B

    2004-08-15

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal

  18. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal

  19. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in blubber of 16 species of cetaceans stranded in the Pacific Islands from 1997 through 2011.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Melannie J; Keller, Jennifer M; West, Kristi L; Jensen, Brenda A

    2014-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic man-made chemicals that bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food webs, making them a ubiquitous threat to the marine environment. Although many studies have determined concentrations of POPs in top predators, no studies have quantified POPs in stranded cetaceans within the last 30 years around the Hawaiian Islands. A suite of POPs was measured in the blubber of 16 cetacean species that stranded in the tropical Pacific, including Hawai'i from 1997 to 2011. The sample set includes odontocetes (n=39) and mysticetes (n=3). Median (range) contaminant concentrations in ng/g lipid for the most representative species category (delphinids excluding killer whales [n=27]) are: 9650 (44.4-99,100) for ∑DDTs, 6240 (40.8-50,200) for ∑PCBs, 1380 (6.73-9520) for ∑chlordanes, 1230 (13.4-5510) for ∑toxaphenes, 269 (1.99-10,100) for ∑PBDEs, 280 (2.14-4190) for mirex, 176 (5.43-857) for HCB, 48.1 (<5.42-566) for ∑HCHs, 33.9 (<2.42-990) for ∑HBCDs, 1.65 (<0.435-11.7) for octachlorostyrene and 1.49 (<2.07-13.1) for pentachlorobenzene. ∑PCB concentrations in these Pacific Island cetaceans approach and sometimes exceed proposed toxic threshold values. Backward stepwise multiple regressions indicated the influence of life history parameters on contaminant concentrations when performed with three independent variables (species category, year of stranding, and sex/age class). No temporal trends were noted (p>0.063), but sex/age class influences were evident with adult males exhibiting greater contaminant loads than adult females and juveniles for ∑DDT, ∑PCBs, ∑CHLs, and mirex (p≤0.036). POP concentrations were lower in mysticetes than odontocetes for many compound classes (p≤0.003). p,p'-DDE/∑DDTs ratios were greater than 0.6 for all species except humpback whales, suggesting exposure to an old DDT source. These POP levels are high enough to warrant concern and continued monitoring. PMID:24821437

  20. Influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the atmospheric persistent organic pollutants observed at near sources and receptor site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs are bio-accumulative, toxic, and susceptible to long-range transport (LRT). This study is the first that comprehensively discusses the long-range atmospheric transport behavior of these five groups of POPs. The main goal is to investigate the atmospheric characteristics of these POPs at the biomass burning sites of Chiang Mai in Thailand, and Da Nang in Vietnam, as well as the influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in Taiwan. Biomass burning in Southeast Asia is usually carried to remove the residues of agricultural activities. The ambient air in Da Nang seems to be more seriously affected by the local biomass burnings than that in Chiang Mai. The elevated atmospheric brominated POP (PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs) concentrations in Da Nang were attributed to the biomass burning and viewed as mostly unrelated to the local use of brominated flame retardants. In the spring of 2010, the mean atmospheric concentrations in LABS during the first and second Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) were 0.00428 and 0.00232 pg I-TEQ Nm-3 for PCDD/Fs, 0.000311 and 0.000282 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 for PCBs, 0.000379 and 0.000449 pg TEQ Nm-3 for total PBDD/Fs, 0.0208 and 0.0163 pg Nm-3 for total PBBs, and 109 and 18.2 pg Nm-3 for total PBDEs, respectively. These values represent the above concentrations due to the Southeast Asian biomass burnings. The affected atmospheric POP concentrations at the LABS were still at least one order lower than those in other atmospheric environments, except for the PBDE concentrations during the first IOP (109 pg Nm-3), which was surprisingly higher than those in Taiwanese metal complex areas (93.9 pg Nm-3) and urban areas (34.7 pg Nm-3). Atmospheric POP concentrations do not seem to dramatically decrease during long-range transport, and the reasons for this need to be further investigated.

  1. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, <1.0-2850 (275) for CHLs, 23-2020 (406) for HCHs, 2-1520 (261) for HCB, <0.2-48 (5) for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), 71-7120 (1840) for PBDEs, and <1.8-2300 (408) for HBCDs. In resident birds, the overall level of POPs was higher in seagull compared to pigeon. The stable isotope ratio of nitrogen and carbon indicates that seagull occupies a higher trophic position in the environment than pigeon. However, the POP accumulation profiles in these species differed. Pigeon tends to accumulate more recently used POPs such as PBDEs than seagull. The high-brominated BDE congeners, γ-HBCDs and γ-HCH (also called lindane) were enriched in pigeon compared to seagull, implying the widespread use of Deca-BDE, technical HBCDs, and lindane in the terrestrial environment of South Korea. The different accumulation profile of POPs in both resident species would be related to their habitat difference and trophic positions. For urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds

  2. Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic waste water compounds persist when waste water is used for recharge?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Duran, Norma L.; Bouwer, Herman; Rice, Robert C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experiment was devised to determine if pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water compounds (OWCs), as well as pathogens, found in treated effluent could be transported through a 2.4 m soil column and, thus, potentially reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates. Treated effluent was applied at the top of the 2.4 m long, 32.5 cm diameter soil column over 23 days, Samples of the column inflow were collected from the effluent storage tank at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment, and a sample of the soil column drainage at the base of the column (Bend) was collected at the end of the experiment. Samples were analyzed for 131 OWCs including veterinary and human antibiotics, other prescription and nonprescription drugs, widely used household and industrial chemicals, and steroids and reproductive hormones, as well as the pathogens Salmonella and Legionella. Analytical results for the two effluent samples taken at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment indicate that the number of OWCs detected in the column inflow decreased by 25% (eight compounds) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by 46% while the effluent was in the storage tank during the 23-day experiment. After percolating through the soil column, an additional 18 compounds detected in Tend (67% of OWCs) were no longer detected in the effluent (Bend) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by more than 70%. These compounds may have been subject to transformation (biotic and abiotic), adsorption, and (or) volatilization in the storage tank and during travel through the soil column. Eight compounds—carbamazapine; sulfamethoxazole; benzophenone; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; N,N-diethyltoluamide; tributylphosphate; tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and cholesterol—were detected in all three samples indicating they have the potential to reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in

  3. Number of Persistent Organic Pollutants Detected at High Concentrations in Blood Samples of the United States Population.

    PubMed

    Pumarega, José; Gasull, Magda; Lee, Duk-Hee; López, Tomàs; Porta, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is usually assessed considering each pollutant individually, with little attention to concentrations of mixtures in individuals or social groups. Yet, it may be relatively common for humans to have low and high concentrations of numerous POPs. The study objectives were to analyze the number of POPs detected per person at high concentrations in the U.S. population, and the associations between such type of indicators and socioeconomic factors as gender, race / ethnicity, education, and poverty level. From 91 POPs analyzed in serum samples of 4,739 individuals in three subsamples of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 (the last period with valid updated individual data for the compounds considered in the present study), we computed the number of POPs whose serum concentrations were above selected cutoff points. POPs included were 13 organochlorine compounds (OCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) 153, 38 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), and 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Over 13% of participants had ≥10 of the 37 most detected POPs each at a concentration in the top decile (P90). Over 30% of subjects with total toxic equivalency (TEQ) ≥P75, had ≥10 of 24 POPs not included in TEQ calculations at concentrations ≥P90. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, the adjusted odds ratio of having ≥10 of the 37 POPs at P90 was 9.2 for non-Hispanic blacks and 0.18 for Mexican Americans. Poverty, body mass index, age, and gender were also independently associated with having ≥10 POPs in the top decile. More than one tenth of the US population may have ≥10 POPs each at concentrations in the top decile. Such pattern is nine times more frequent in Non-Hispanic blacks and four times less frequent in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic whites

  4. Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Boyd Barr, Dana; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Zhang, Cuilin; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG), an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18-40 years; n = 218) participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1) total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight); (2) category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; and (3) area under the GWG curve (AUC). In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m² versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m². Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI)}, -378.03 (-724.02, -32.05). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m² {beta (95% CI), 280.29 (13.71, 546.86)}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² {beta (95% CI), 56.99 (-328.36, 442.34)}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p'-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier. PMID:27626435

  5. Modelling the impact of climate change on the atmospheric transport and the fate of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Geels, C.; Silver, J. D.; Brandt, J.

    2015-06-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) was applied to investigate how projected climate changes will affect the atmospheric transport of 13 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the Arctic and their environmental fate within the Arctic. Three sets of simulations were performed, one with present day emissions and initial environmental concentrations from a 20-year spin-up simulation, one with present day emissions and with initial environmental concentrations set to zero and one without emissions but with initial environmental concentrations from the 20-year spin-up simulation. Each set of simulations consisted of two 10-year time slices representing the present (1990-2000) and future (2090-2100) climate conditions. DEHM was driven using meteorological input from the global circulation model, ECHAM/MPI-OM, simulating the SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) A1B climate scenario. Under the applied climate and emission scenarios, the total mass of all compounds was predicted to be up to 55 % lower across the Northern Hemisphere at the end of the 2090s than in the 1990s. The mass of HCHs within the Arctic was predicted to be up to 38 % higher, whereas the change in mass of the PCBs was predicted to range from 38 % lower to 17 % higher depending on the congener and the applied initial environmental concentrations. The results of this study also indicate that contaminants with no or a short emission history will be more rapidly transported to and build up in the arctic environment in a future warmer climate. The process that dominates the environmental behaviour of POPs in the Arctic under a future warmer climate scenario is the shift in mass of POPs from the surface media to the atmosphere induced by the higher mean temperature. This is to some degree counteracted by higher degradation rates also following the higher mean temperature. The more dominant of these two processes depends on the physical-chemical properties of the compounds. Previous model

  6. Modelling impact of climate change on atmospheric transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Geels, C.; Silver, J. D.; Brandt, J.

    2015-03-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) was applied to investigate how projected climate changes will affect the atmospheric transport of 13 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the Artic and their environmental fate within the Arctic. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with initial environmental concentrations from a 20 year spin-up simulation and one with initial environmental concentrations set to zero. Each set of simulations consisted of two ten-year time slices representing the present (1990-2000) and future (2090-2100) climate conditions. The same POP emissions were applied in all simulations to ensure that the difference in predicted concentrations for each set of simulations only arises from the difference in climate input. DEHM was driven using meteorological input from the global circulation model, ECHAM/MPI-OM, simulating the SRES A1B climate scenario. Under the applied climate and emission scenarios, the total mass of all compounds was predicted to be up to 20% higher across the Northern Hemisphere. The mass of HCHs within the Arctic was predicted to be up to 39% higher, whereas the change in mass of the PCBs was predicted to range from 14% lower to 17% higher depending on the congener and the applied initial environmental concentrations. The results of this study also indicate that contaminants with no or a short emission history will be more rapidly transported to and build up in the arctic environment in a future warmer climate. The process that dominates the environmental behaviour of POPs in the Arctic under a future warmer climate scenario is the shift in mass of POPs from the surface media to the atmosphere induced by the higher mean temperature. This is to some degree counteracted by higher degradation rates also following the higher mean temperature. The more dominant of these two processes depend on the physical-chemical properties of the compounds. Previous model studies have predicted that the effect of a changed climate on

  7. Number of Persistent Organic Pollutants Detected at High Concentrations in Blood Samples of the United States Population

    PubMed Central

    Gasull, Magda; Lee, Duk-Hee; López, Tomàs

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is usually assessed considering each pollutant individually, with little attention to concentrations of mixtures in individuals or social groups. Yet, it may be relatively common for humans to have low and high concentrations of numerous POPs. The study objectives were to analyze the number of POPs detected per person at high concentrations in the U.S. population, and the associations between such type of indicators and socioeconomic factors as gender, race / ethnicity, education, and poverty level. From 91 POPs analyzed in serum samples of 4,739 individuals in three subsamples of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 (the last period with valid updated individual data for the compounds considered in the present study), we computed the number of POPs whose serum concentrations were above selected cutoff points. POPs included were 13 organochlorine compounds (OCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) 153, 38 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), and 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Over 13% of participants had ≥10 of the 37 most detected POPs each at a concentration in the top decile (P90). Over 30% of subjects with total toxic equivalency (TEQ) ≥P75, had ≥10 of 24 POPs not included in TEQ calculations at concentrations ≥P90. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, the adjusted odds ratio of having ≥10 of the 37 POPs at P90 was 9.2 for non-Hispanic blacks and 0.18 for Mexican Americans. Poverty, body mass index, age, and gender were also independently associated with having ≥10 POPs in the top decile. More than one tenth of the US population may have ≥10 POPs each at concentrations in the top decile. Such pattern is nine times more frequent in Non-Hispanic blacks and four times less frequent in Mexican Americans than in non

  8. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in soil from San Luis Potosí, México.

    PubMed

    Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier; Flores-Ramirez, Rogelio; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Orta-Garcia, Sandra Teresa; Hernandez-Castro, Berenice; Carrizalez-Yañez, Leticia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in soil from the city of San Luis Potosí in Mexico. In order to confirm the presence of the previously mentioned compounds, outdoor surface soil samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer for PBDEs, PCBs, DDT, and DDE. Meanwhile, heavy metals were quantified using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The total PBDEs levels ranged from 5.0 to 134 μg/kg dry weight (dw), with a total mean PBDEs level of 22.0 ± 32.5 μg/kg dw (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the total mean level in the studied soil was 21.6 ± 24.7 μg/kg dw (range, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and four heavy metals in soil samples from the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, and considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure for people, a biomonitoring program for the surveillance of the general population in the city of San Luis Potosi is necessary.

  9. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana; and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  10. Ecological and spatial factors drive intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Bustnes, Jan O; Covaci, Adrian; Johnsen, Trond V; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Herzke, Dorte; Sonne, Christian; Ballesteros, Manuel; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    Top predators in northern ecosystems may suffer from exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as this exposure may synergistically interact with already elevated natural stress in these ecosystems. In the present study, we aimed at identifying biological (sex, body condition), ecological (dietary carbon source, trophic level) and spatial factors (local habitat, regional nest location) that may influence intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153), polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE 47), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). During three breeding seasons (2008-2010), we sampled body feathers from fully-grown nestlings of three ecologically distinct predatory bird species in subarctic Norway: Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The present study analysed, for the first time, body feathers for both POPs and carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotopes, thus integrating the dietary carbon source, trophic level and POP exposure for the larger part of the nestling stage. Intraspecific variation in exposure was driven by a combination of ecological and spatial factors, often different for individual compounds. In addition, combinations for individual compounds differed among species. Trophic level and local habitat were the predominant predictors for CB 153, p,p'-DDE and BDE 47, indicating their biomagnification and decreasing levels according to coast>fjord>inland. Variation in exposure may also have been driven by inter-annual variation arisen from primary sources (e.g. p,p'-DDE) and/or possible revolatilisation from secondary sources (e.g. HCB). Interspecific differences in POP exposure were best explained by a combination of trophic level (biomagnification), dietary carbon source (food chain discrimination) and regional nest location (historical POP

  11. Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Boyd Barr, Dana; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Zhang, Cuilin; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG), an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18–40 years; n = 218) participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1) total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight); (2) category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; and (3) area under the GWG curve (AUC). In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p’-DDT) was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI)}, −378.03 (−724.02, −32.05). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI), 280.29 (13.71, 546.86)}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI), 56.99 (−328.36, 442.34)}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p’-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier. PMID:27626435

  12. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in blubber of 16 species of cetaceans stranded in the Pacific Islands from 1997 through 2011.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Melannie J; Keller, Jennifer M; West, Kristi L; Jensen, Brenda A

    2014-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic man-made chemicals that bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food webs, making them a ubiquitous threat to the marine environment. Although many studies have determined concentrations of POPs in top predators, no studies have quantified POPs in stranded cetaceans within the last 30 years around the Hawaiian Islands. A suite of POPs was measured in the blubber of 16 cetacean species that stranded in the tropical Pacific, including Hawai'i from 1997 to 2011. The sample set includes odontocetes (n=39) and mysticetes (n=3). Median (range) contaminant concentrations in ng/g lipid for the most representative species category (delphinids excluding killer whales [n=27]) are: 9650 (44.4-99,100) for ∑DDTs, 6240 (40.8-50,200) for ∑PCBs, 1380 (6.73-9520) for ∑chlordanes, 1230 (13.4-5510) for ∑toxaphenes, 269 (1.99-10,100) for ∑PBDEs, 280 (2.14-4190) for mirex, 176 (5.43-857) for HCB, 48.1 (<5.42-566) for ∑HCHs, 33.9 (<2.42-990) for ∑HBCDs, 1.65 (<0.435-11.7) for octachlorostyrene and 1.49 (<2.07-13.1) for pentachlorobenzene. ∑PCB concentrations in these Pacific Island cetaceans approach and sometimes exceed proposed toxic threshold values. Backward stepwise multiple regressions indicated the influence of life history parameters on contaminant concentrations when performed with three independent variables (species category, year of stranding, and sex/age class). No temporal trends were noted (p>0.063), but sex/age class influences were evident with adult males exhibiting greater contaminant loads than adult females and juveniles for ∑DDT, ∑PCBs, ∑CHLs, and mirex (p≤0.036). POP concentrations were lower in mysticetes than odontocetes for many compound classes (p≤0.003). p,p'-DDE/∑DDTs ratios were greater than 0.6 for all species except humpback whales, suggesting exposure to an old DDT source. These POP levels are high enough to warrant concern and continued monitoring.

  13. Cholecystokinin-destroying activities of canine tissue homogenates.

    PubMed

    Lonovics, J; Penke, B; Rayford, P L; Thompson, J C

    1986-02-01

    We have studied the capacity of different canine tissue homogenates to destroy cholecystokinin in vitro. Tissues from the kidney cortex, lung, pancreas, and small bowel contained significant cholecystokinin-destroying activity. Only small amounts of activity were found in the liver, and no activity was detected in the kidney medulla, the gastric antrum, gallbladder, spleen, or in serum or plasma. The kidney cortex was the richest source of activity. The cholecystokinin-destroying enzyme isolated from the kidney cortex was heat-labile, non-dialyzable, and trypsin-resistant, with an optimum pH between 7 and 7.4. The enzyme was inhibited by chelating agents and by phenylalanine amide, although it was little affected by phenylalanine itself or proteinase inhibitors. The enzyme required divalent cation cofactors for its activity. After inhibition by EDTA, the enzyme could be reactivated completely with Mn2+, but not with Ca2+ or Mg2+ alone. The cholecystokinin-destroying enzyme was bound strongly to membranes, and during differental centrifugation, was sedimented with mitochondrial fractions of kidney cortex. The supernatant fraction of the solubilized enzyme obtained at 105,000 X g had a molecular weight of about 480,000 dalton. Since the enzyme could be inhibited by phenylalanine-amide, it would appear to act at the C-terminal end of the cholecystokinin molecule.

  14. Destroying the event horizon of regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several authors have studied the possibility of overspinning or overcharging an existing black hole to destroy its event horizon and make the central singularity naked. When all the effects are properly taken into account, any attempt to destroy the black hole seems to be doomed to fail, in agreement with the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article, we study the possibility of destroying the event horizon of regular black holes. These objects have no central singularity and therefore they are not protected by the cosmic censorship hypothesis. Our results strongly support the conclusion that regular black holes can be destroyed. If we believe that the central singularity in astrophysical black holes is solved by quantum gravity effects, we might have a chance to see the black hole’s internal region and observe quantum gravity phenomena. As our finding implies the violation of the black hole’s area theorem, the collision of two black holes may release an amount of energy exceeding the Hawking bound, which can be experimentally tested by gravitational wave detectors.

  15. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Successful Selling of the Destroyer Deal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas E.; Morgan, Hugh

    One of the most evident examples of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's mastery of the press and his manipulation of public opinion was the 1940 arrangement of the transfer of 50 United States naval destroyers to Great Britain while that nation was at war with Germany and Italy and while noninterventionist sentiment was quite strong in the United…

  16. How Four-Year Colleges and Universities Organize Themselves to Promote Student Persistence: The Emerging National Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As leading measures of student success and institutional quality, persistence and graduation rates are intensely debated at education conferences, institutional meetings and legislative sessions (Adelman, 1999; American Association of State Colleges and Universities [AASCU], 2002; Gold & Albert, 2006; Perna & Thomas, 2006; Tinto & Pusser, 2006;…

  17. Estimating persistence of brominated and chlorinated organic pollutants in air, water, soil, and sediments with the QSPR-based classification scheme.

    PubMed

    Puzyn, T; Haranczyk, M; Suzuki, N; Sakurai, T

    2011-02-01

    We have estimated degradation half-lives of both brominated and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and PCDDs), furans (PBDFs and PCDFs), biphenyls (PBBs and PCBs), naphthalenes (PBNs and PCNs), diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and PCDEs) as well as selected unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, surface water, surface soil, and sediments (in total of 1,431 compounds in four compartments). Next, we compared the persistence between chloro- (relatively well-studied) and bromo- (less studied) analogs. The predictions have been performed based on the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) scheme with use of k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier and the semi-quantitative system of persistence classes. The classification models utilized principal components derived from the principal component analysis of a set of 24 constitutional and quantum mechanical descriptors as input variables. Accuracies of classification (based on an external validation) were 86, 85, 87, and 75% for air, surface water, surface soil, and sediments, respectively. The persistence of all chlorinated species increased with increasing halogenation degree. In the case of brominated organic pollutants (Br-OPs), the trend was the same for air and sediments. However, we noticed that the opposite trend for persistence in surface water and soil. The results suggest that, due to high photoreactivity of C-Br chemical bonds, photolytic processes occurring in surface water and soil are able to play significant role in transforming and removing Br-OPs from these compartments. This contribution is the first attempt of classifying together Br-OPs and Cl-OPs according to their persistence, in particular, environmental compartments. PMID:20386980

  18. Mental Suffering in Protracted Political Conflict: Feeling Broken or Destroyed

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Brian K.; McNeely, Clea A.; Daher, Mahmoud; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Barnes, William; Abu Mallouh, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This mixed-methods exploratory study identified and then developed and validated a quantitative measure of a new construct of mental suffering in the occupied Palestinian territory: feeling broken or destroyed. Methods Group interviews were conducted in 2011 with 68 Palestinians, most aged 30–40, in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip to discern local definitions of functioning. Interview participants articulated of a type of suffering not captured in existing mental health instruments used in regions of political conflict. In contrast to the specific difficulties measured by depression and PTSD (sleep, appetite, energy, flashbacks, avoidance, etc.), participants elaborated a more existential form of mental suffering: feeling that one’s spirit, morale and/or future was broken or destroyed, and emotional and psychological exhaustion. Participants articulated these feelings when describing the rigors of the political and economic contexts in which they live. We wrote survey items to capture these sentiments and administered these items—along with standard survey measures of mental health—to a representative sample of 1,778 32–43 year olds in the occupied Palestinian territory. The same survey questions also were administered to a representative subsample (n = 508) six months earlier, providing repeated measures of the construct. Results Across samples and time, the feeling broken or destroyed scale: 1) comprised a separate factor in exploratory factor analyses, 2) had high inter-item consistency, 3) was reported by both genders and in all regions, 4) showed discriminate validity via moderate correlations with measures of feelings of depression and trauma-related stress, and 5) was more commonly experienced than either feelings of depression or trauma-related stress. Conclusions Feeling broken or destroyed can be reliably measured and distinguished from conventional measures of mental health. Such locally grounded and contextualized

  19. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  20. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  1. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  2. 9 CFR 50.6 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... destroyed because of tuberculosis. 50.6 Section 50.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.6 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of tuberculosis. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis must be...

  3. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of legacy persistent organic pollutants and recommendations for sample collection from the surficial sediments of estuaries and seas in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lihong; Dai, Xuhong; Yu, Ang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid economic development in China, environmental pollution has become a major concern, particularly pollution by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Thus, these pollutants must be monitored over the long term. In this study, we analyze the distribution levels and sources of POPs in the surficial sediments of Chinese estuaries and seas. Results showed that POPs in sediments significantly distribute spatially and temporally. Furthermore, POPs not only concentrate in densely populated cities, bays, and industrial areas, but also follow the natural distribution of and temporal changes in local industrial structures. Hence, we recommend sampling sites and frequencies to monitor POPs in China over the long term and to defer their analysis.

  4. Sorption, leaching and persistence of metribuzin in Mediterranean soils amended with olive mill waste of different degrees of organic matter maturity.

    PubMed

    López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Peña, David; Albarrán, Angel; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier

    2013-06-15

    Metribuzin is a widely used herbicide, and worldwide is one of the most important contaminants in ground and surface waters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact amendment with fresh, composted, and field-aged olive mill waste (OW, COW, and AOW, respectively) had on the behaviour of this herbicide in four typical Mediterranean soils. A batch equilibration method was used to determine metribuzin adsorption-desorption. Leaching experiments were studied in hand-packed soil columns. Half-lives were calculated with incubation studies. Soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was also monitored. Metribuzin adsorption in the soils increased not only with increasing amounts of amendment, but especially with increasing degree of organic matter humification. Compared to unamended soils, the adsorption capacity increased by between 81% and 216%, 135% and 193%, and by 363% for the OW, COW, and AOW amended soils, respectively, at a 5% rate of application. The addition of COW enhanced metribuzin degradation in all the soils. In contrast, OW addition increased metribuzin persistence, attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of this amendment on microbial activity, especially in the acidic soils. The AOW-amended soils, which had the smallest labile fraction of soil organic matter and greatest degree of humification, showed the shortest herbicide persistence. The OW and COW amendments significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This was especially so in the latter case because of the higher sorption capacity and the faster degradation of the pesticide. The use of OW as organic amendment, especially when it has a high degree of organic matter humification, may be a useful management practice for reducing the risk of groundwater contamination by metribuzin in soils with low organic matter content.

  5. Sorption, leaching and persistence of metribuzin in Mediterranean soils amended with olive mill waste of different degrees of organic matter maturity.

    PubMed

    López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Peña, David; Albarrán, Angel; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier

    2013-06-15

    Metribuzin is a widely used herbicide, and worldwide is one of the most important contaminants in ground and surface waters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact amendment with fresh, composted, and field-aged olive mill waste (OW, COW, and AOW, respectively) had on the behaviour of this herbicide in four typical Mediterranean soils. A batch equilibration method was used to determine metribuzin adsorption-desorption. Leaching experiments were studied in hand-packed soil columns. Half-lives were calculated with incubation studies. Soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was also monitored. Metribuzin adsorption in the soils increased not only with increasing amounts of amendment, but especially with increasing degree of organic matter humification. Compared to unamended soils, the adsorption capacity increased by between 81% and 216%, 135% and 193%, and by 363% for the OW, COW, and AOW amended soils, respectively, at a 5% rate of application. The addition of COW enhanced metribuzin degradation in all the soils. In contrast, OW addition increased metribuzin persistence, attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of this amendment on microbial activity, especially in the acidic soils. The AOW-amended soils, which had the smallest labile fraction of soil organic matter and greatest degree of humification, showed the shortest herbicide persistence. The OW and COW amendments significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This was especially so in the latter case because of the higher sorption capacity and the faster degradation of the pesticide. The use of OW as organic amendment, especially when it has a high degree of organic matter humification, may be a useful management practice for reducing the risk of groundwater contamination by metribuzin in soils with low organic matter content. PMID:23562950

  6. Fractional noise destroys or induces a stochastic bifurcation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qigui; Zeng, Caibin; Wang, Cong

    2013-12-15

    Little seems to be known about the stochastic bifurcation phenomena of non-Markovian systems. Our intention in this paper is to understand such complex dynamics by a simple system, namely, the Black-Scholes model driven by a mixed fractional Brownian motion. The most interesting finding is that the multiplicative fractional noise not only destroys but also induces a stochastic bifurcation under some suitable conditions. So it opens a possible way to explore the theory of stochastic bifurcation in the non-Markovian framework.

  7. Pop, heavy metal and the blues: secondary analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POP), heavy metals and depressive symptoms in the NHANES National Epidemiological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J; Andreazza, Ana C; Pasco, Julie A; Dodd, Seetal; Jacka, Felice N; Moylan, Steven; Reiner, Eric J; Magalhaes, Pedro V S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Persistent environmental pollutants, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have a ubiquitous presence. Many of these pollutants affect neurobiological processes, either accidentally or by design. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between assayed measures of POPs and heavy metals and depressive symptoms. We hypothesised that higher levels of pollutants and metals would be associated with depressive symptoms. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants A total of 15 140 eligible people were included across the three examined waves of NHANES. Primary and secondary outcome measures Depressive symptoms were assessed using the nine-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), using a cut-off point of 9/10 as likely depression cases. Organic pollutants and heavy metals, including cadmium, lead and mercury, as well as polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), pesticides, phenols and phthalates, were measured in blood or urine. Results Higher cadmium was positively associated with depression (adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR)=1.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.90). Higher levels of mercury were negatively associated with depression (adjusted PR=0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.78), and mercury was associated with increased fish consumption (n=5500, r=0.366, p<0.001). In addition, several PFCs (perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid) were negatively associated with the prevalence of depression. Conclusions Cadmium was associated with an increased likelihood of depression. Contrary to hypotheses, many of persistent environmental pollutants were not associated or negatively associated with depression. While the inverse association between mercury and depressive symptoms may be explained by a protective role for fish consumption, the negative associations with other pollutants remains unclear. This exploratory study suggests the need for

  8. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in populations of the clam Chione californiensis in coastal lagoons of the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Vargas-González, Héctor H; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Mendoza-Salgado, Renato A; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the potential public health risk due to the massive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in agriculture in the Gulf of California. Specimens of the clam Chione californiensis were collected from three coastal lagoons (Yavaros, Altata and Reforma). Sites were classified as polluted/nonpolluted based on the presence/absence of OCs as an indicator of the persistence of these pollutants; in polluted sites, the time elapsed since pesticide application (past or recent) was estimated. Screening values (SV) for protecting human health as per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were used for risk assessment. OCs detected were ranked according to frequency of occurrence as follows: γ-chlordane (75%) > endrin (54%) > aldrin (48%) > heptachlor, and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDE) (37%) > β-heptachlor epoxide (30%) > lindane (α-BHC, δ-BHC) and endosulphan I (≤ 6%). Specifically, OCs detected at the highest concentration were heptachlor in Yavaros (0.0168 µgg(-1)) and Altata (0.0046 µgg(-1)), and aldrin in Reforma (0.0019 µgg(-1)). β-Heptachlor epoxide in Altata and Reforma was the only OC with a concentration exceeding the EPA Screening Value. From our results and based on the monthly consumption limit set forth by EPA, the maximum safe consumption of clams to avoid a carcinogenic risk derived from β-heptachlor epoxide in the fishing villages of Yavaros and Altata is 4 servings per month (1 serving = 0.227 kg) by a 70-kg person. These findings suggest that concentrations of OCs and their isomers in C. californiensis populations reflect environmental persistence as well as recent inputs of OCs into coastal lagoons in the Gulf of California. PMID:27050678

  9. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in populations of the clam Chione californiensis in coastal lagoons of the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Vargas-González, Héctor H; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Mendoza-Salgado, Renato A; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the potential public health risk due to the massive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in agriculture in the Gulf of California. Specimens of the clam Chione californiensis were collected from three coastal lagoons (Yavaros, Altata and Reforma). Sites were classified as polluted/nonpolluted based on the presence/absence of OCs as an indicator of the persistence of these pollutants; in polluted sites, the time elapsed since pesticide application (past or recent) was estimated. Screening values (SV) for protecting human health as per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were used for risk assessment. OCs detected were ranked according to frequency of occurrence as follows: γ-chlordane (75%) > endrin (54%) > aldrin (48%) > heptachlor, and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDE) (37%) > β-heptachlor epoxide (30%) > lindane (α-BHC, δ-BHC) and endosulphan I (≤ 6%). Specifically, OCs detected at the highest concentration were heptachlor in Yavaros (0.0168 µgg(-1)) and Altata (0.0046 µgg(-1)), and aldrin in Reforma (0.0019 µgg(-1)). β-Heptachlor epoxide in Altata and Reforma was the only OC with a concentration exceeding the EPA Screening Value. From our results and based on the monthly consumption limit set forth by EPA, the maximum safe consumption of clams to avoid a carcinogenic risk derived from β-heptachlor epoxide in the fishing villages of Yavaros and Altata is 4 servings per month (1 serving = 0.227 kg) by a 70-kg person. These findings suggest that concentrations of OCs and their isomers in C. californiensis populations reflect environmental persistence as well as recent inputs of OCs into coastal lagoons in the Gulf of California.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this project was to study 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethans (DDTs), 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 6 polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer. Methods Meat, liver, tallow, and bone marrow samples (n= 30) were collected from semi-domesticated reindeer in Northern Norway. Determination of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentrations was done by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dependent sample t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were used in statistical analysis. Results Concentrations of the persistent organic pollutants in the samples from semi-domesticated reindeer were generally low and slightly above the limit of detection (LOD). For PCBs and OCPs, ≥ 50% of the samples had concentrations above LOD. For the DDTs and PBDEs, the proportion of samples with concentrations above LOD varied between 3.7 and 45.5% depending on the sample type. Concentrations of PCB 99, 105, 138/163, 153 and 187 differed significantly between meat and liver, whereas concentrations of PCB 183 were significantly different between tallow and bone marrow. Furthermore, concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were significantly different between meat and liver. Significant correlations were revealed in concentrations of 5 PCB congeners between the studied tissue types. Conclusion Concentrations of the POPs revealed in this study were generally low. PMID:23938064

  11. An experimental study on the effects of nutrient enrichment on organic carbon persistence in the western Pacific oligotrophic gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Jiao, N.; Tang, K.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon sequestration in the ocean is of great concern with respect to the mitigation of global warming. How to hold the fixed organic carbon in the presence of tremendous numbers of heterotrophic microorganisms in marine environments is the central issue. We previously hypothesized that excessive nutrients would ultimately decrease the storage of organic carbon in marine environments. To test this, a series of in situ nutrient enrichment incubation experiments were conducted at a site (17.59° N, 127.00° E) within the western Pacific oligotrophic gyre. Five treatments were employed: glucose (Glu), algal exudation organic material (EOM), nitrate (N) and phosphate (P), N and P in combination with glucose and a control with no added nutrients. The results showed that the dissolved organic carbon consumption rates and bacterial community specific growth rates were enhanced by inorganic nutrient enrichment treatments during the initial 48 h incubation. At the end of 14 days of incubation, about one-third (average 3.3 μmol C kg-1) more organic carbon was respired in the glucose-enriched incubation with the addition of inorganic nutrients compared to that without. In contrast, when nutrients were limiting, glucose could not be efficiently used by the bacteria and thus it remained in the environment. These results suggest that repletion of inorganic nutrients could facilitate microbial consumption of organic carbon and thus has a significant impact on carbon cycling in the environment.

  12. Lassa-Vesicular Stomatitis Chimeric Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N.; Cepko, Connie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. IMPORTANCE Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We

  13. How Structured Is the Entangled Bank? The Surprisingly Simple Organization of Multiplex Ecological Networks Leads to Increased Persistence and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Kéfi, Sonia; Miele, Vincent; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A; Berlow, Eric L

    2016-08-01

    Species are linked to each other by a myriad of positive and negative interactions. This complex spectrum of interactions constitutes a network of links that mediates ecological communities' response to perturbations, such as exploitation and climate change. In the last decades, there have been great advances in the study of intricate ecological networks. We have, nonetheless, lacked both the data and the tools to more rigorously understand the patterning of multiple interaction types between species (i.e., "multiplex networks"), as well as their consequences for community dynamics. Using network statistical modeling applied to a comprehensive ecological network, which includes trophic and diverse non-trophic links, we provide a first glimpse at what the full "entangled bank" of species looks like. The community exhibits clear multidimensional structure, which is taxonomically coherent and broadly predictable from species traits. Moreover, dynamic simulations suggest that this non-random patterning of how diverse non-trophic interactions map onto the food web could allow for higher species persistence and higher total biomass than expected by chance and tends to promote a higher robustness to extinctions. PMID:27487303

  14. How Structured Is the Entangled Bank? The Surprisingly Simple Organization of Multiplex Ecological Networks Leads to Increased Persistence and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Wieters, Evie A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Species are linked to each other by a myriad of positive and negative interactions. This complex spectrum of interactions constitutes a network of links that mediates ecological communities’ response to perturbations, such as exploitation and climate change. In the last decades, there have been great advances in the study of intricate ecological networks. We have, nonetheless, lacked both the data and the tools to more rigorously understand the patterning of multiple interaction types between species (i.e., “multiplex networks”), as well as their consequences for community dynamics. Using network statistical modeling applied to a comprehensive ecological network, which includes trophic and diverse non-trophic links, we provide a first glimpse at what the full “entangled bank” of species looks like. The community exhibits clear multidimensional structure, which is taxonomically coherent and broadly predictable from species traits. Moreover, dynamic simulations suggest that this non-random patterning of how diverse non-trophic interactions map onto the food web could allow for higher species persistence and higher total biomass than expected by chance and tends to promote a higher robustness to extinctions. PMID:27487303

  15. How Structured Is the Entangled Bank? The Surprisingly Simple Organization of Multiplex Ecological Networks Leads to Increased Persistence and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Kéfi, Sonia; Miele, Vincent; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A; Berlow, Eric L

    2016-08-01

    Species are linked to each other by a myriad of positive and negative interactions. This complex spectrum of interactions constitutes a network of links that mediates ecological communities' response to perturbations, such as exploitation and climate change. In the last decades, there have been great advances in the study of intricate ecological networks. We have, nonetheless, lacked both the data and the tools to more rigorously understand the patterning of multiple interaction types between species (i.e., "multiplex networks"), as well as their consequences for community dynamics. Using network statistical modeling applied to a comprehensive ecological network, which includes trophic and diverse non-trophic links, we provide a first glimpse at what the full "entangled bank" of species looks like. The community exhibits clear multidimensional structure, which is taxonomically coherent and broadly predictable from species traits. Moreover, dynamic simulations suggest that this non-random patterning of how diverse non-trophic interactions map onto the food web could allow for higher species persistence and higher total biomass than expected by chance and tends to promote a higher robustness to extinctions.

  16. Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in arctic air: 20 years of monitoring under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Aas, Wenche; Breivik, Knut; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Sigurdsson, Arni; Hakola, Hannele; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Sverko, Ed; Barresi, Enzo; Fellin, Phil; Wilson, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) measured in Arctic air are essential in understanding long-range transport to remote regions and to evaluate the effectiveness of national and international chemical control initiatives, such as the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs. Long-term air monitoring of POPs is conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) at four Arctic stations: Alert, Canada; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Zeppelin, Svalbard; and Pallas, Finland, since the 1990s using high volume air samplers. Temporal trends observed for POPs in Arctic air are summarized in this study. Most POPs listed for control under the SC, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes, are declining slowly in Arctic air, reflecting the reduction of primary emissions during the last two decades and increasing importance of secondary emissions. Slow declining trends also signifies their persistence and slow degradation under the Arctic environment, such that they are still detectable after being banned for decades in many countries. Some POPs, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lighter PCBs, showed increasing trends at specific locations, which may be attributable to warming in the region and continued primary emissions at source. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) do not decline in air at Canada's Alert station but are declining in European Arctic air, which may be due to influence of local sources at Alert and the much higher historical usage of PBDEs in North America. Arctic air samples are screened for chemicals of emerging concern to provide information regarding their environmental persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP), which are important criteria for classification as a POP under SC. The AMAP network provides consistent and comparable air monitoring data of POPs for trend development and acts as a bridge between national monitoring programs and SC's Global Monitoring

  17. Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in arctic air: 20 years of monitoring under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Aas, Wenche; Breivik, Knut; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Sigurdsson, Arni; Hakola, Hannele; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Sverko, Ed; Barresi, Enzo; Fellin, Phil; Wilson, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) measured in Arctic air are essential in understanding long-range transport to remote regions and to evaluate the effectiveness of national and international chemical control initiatives, such as the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs. Long-term air monitoring of POPs is conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) at four Arctic stations: Alert, Canada; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Zeppelin, Svalbard; and Pallas, Finland, since the 1990s using high volume air samplers. Temporal trends observed for POPs in Arctic air are summarized in this study. Most POPs listed for control under the SC, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes, are declining slowly in Arctic air, reflecting the reduction of primary emissions during the last two decades and increasing importance of secondary emissions. Slow declining trends also signifies their persistence and slow degradation under the Arctic environment, such that they are still detectable after being banned for decades in many countries. Some POPs, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lighter PCBs, showed increasing trends at specific locations, which may be attributable to warming in the region and continued primary emissions at source. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) do not decline in air at Canada's Alert station but are declining in European Arctic air, which may be due to influence of local sources at Alert and the much higher historical usage of PBDEs in North America. Arctic air samples are screened for chemicals of emerging concern to provide information regarding their environmental persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP), which are important criteria for classification as a POP under SC. The AMAP network provides consistent and comparable air monitoring data of POPs for trend development and acts as a bridge between national monitoring programs and SC's Global Monitoring

  18. [Should the human smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?].

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten

    2004-10-21

    Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was a terror for civilizations around the world for more than 3000 years. Although the disease is eradicated, hundreds of variola virus isolates are kept in two WHO-collaborating facilities, one in USA and one in Russia. In spite of several agreements on destruction, it is now doubtful that these virus isolates will be destroyed. Variola virus may exist in other places and may be used as a biological weapon in war or for terror. Further research on variola virus is thus essential in order to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the virus and to develop new anti-variola virus vaccines and antiviral drugs.

  19. Calculation of wind speeds required to damage or destroy buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Henry

    Determination of wind speeds required to damage or destroy a building is important not only for the improvement of building design and construction but also for the estimation of wind speeds in tornadoes and other damaging storms. For instance, since 1973 the U.S. National Weather Service has been using the well-known Fujita scale (F scale) to estimate the maximum wind speeds of tornadoes [Fujita, 1981]. The F scale classifies tornadoes into 13 numbers, F-0 through F-12. The wind speed (maximum gust speed) associated with each F number is given in Table 1. Note that F-6 through F-12 are for wind speeds between 319 mi/hr (mph) and the sonic velocity (approximately 760 mph; 1 mph = 1.6 km/kr). However, since no tornadoes have been classified to exceed F-5, the F-6 through F-12 categories have no practical meaning [Fujita, 1981].

  20. Method for destroying halocarbon compositions using a critical solvent

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.; Janikowski, Stuart K.

    2006-01-10

    A method for destroying halocarbons. Halocarbon materials are reacted in a dehalogenation process wherein they are combined with a solvent in the presence of a catalyst. A hydrogen-containing solvent is preferred which functions as both a solvating agent and hydrogen donor. To augment the hydrogen donation capacity of the solvent if needed (or when non-hydrogen-containing solvents are used), a supplemental hydrogen donor composition may be employed. In operation, at least one of the temperature and pressure of the solvent is maintained near, at, or above a critical level. For example, the solvent may be in (1) a supercritical state; (2) a state where one of the temperature or pressure thereof is at or above critical; or (3) a state where at least one of the temperature and pressure thereof is near-critical. This system provides numerous benefits including improved reaction rates, efficiency, and versatility.