Science.gov

Sample records for destroying persistent organic

  1. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Terrence L.; Wilson, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  2. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  3. New Developments in Wood-Destroying Organisms from the International Research Group on Wood Preservation \\t

    Treesearch

    Elmer L. Schmidt

    1991-01-01

    New developments in wood-destroying organisms and in wood protection from the 20th annual meeting (May 1989 at Lappeenranta, Finland) of the International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG) are highlighted in the areas of biological control of fungi, dry rot, decay mechanisms and product problems, new techniques, insect problems and control, and developments in...

  4. Wood-destroying organisms in the new millennium : where have we gone since Bend 1989?

    Treesearch

    Michael Haverty; Jessie Micales-Glaeser

    2004-01-01

    At the joint meeting of the Western International Forest Disease Work Conference and the Western Forest Insect Work Conference, held in Bend, OR, on September 13, 1989, a symposium was convened entitled "Current Research on Wood-destroying Organisms and Future Prospects for Protecting Wood in Use. "Presentations were made by three pathologists and nine...

  5. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  6. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  7. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOEpatents

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    2000-01-01

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  8. Persistent Nausea without organic cause.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D W; Swenson, W M; Huizenga, K A; Melson, S J

    1976-05-01

    The onset of functional nausea among 77 patients was frequently related to an organic disease or to a psychophysiologic response to stress. Later, the nausea had obvious features of conversion, hypochondriasis, or an hallucination. The patients had significant psychiatric disorders as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and by clinical examination. While in the hospital most patients experienced symptomatic improvement but they did not accept a psychologic explanation for their nausea.

  9. A method and apparatus for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    1997-12-01

    A waste destruction method is described using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  10. Clean process to destroy arsenic-containing organic compounds with recovery of arsenic

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Wang, Francis T.

    1996-01-01

    A reduction method is provided for the treatment of arsenic-containing organic compounds with simultaneous recovery of pure arsenic. Arsenic-containing organic compounds include pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents such as Lewisite. The arsenic-containing compound is decomposed using a reducing agent. Arsine gas may be formed directly by using a hydrogen-rich reducing agent, or a metal arsenide may be formed using a pure metal reducing agent. In the latter case, the arsenide is reacted with an acid to form arsine gas. In either case, the arsine gas is then reduced to elemental arsenic.

  11. Clean process to destroy arsenic-containing organic compounds with recovery of arsenic

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wang, F.T.

    1996-08-13

    A reduction method is provided for the treatment of arsenic-containing organic compounds with simultaneous recovery of pure arsenic. Arsenic-containing organic compounds include pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents such as Lewisite. The arsenic-containing compound is decomposed using a reducing agent. Arsine gas may be formed directly by using a hydrogen-rich reducing agent, or a metal arsenide may be formed using a pure metal reducing agent. In the latter case, the arsenide is reacted with an acid to form arsine gas. In either case, the arsine gas is then reduced to elemental arsenic. 1 fig.

  12. When the Patient Believes That the Organs Are Destroyed: Manifestation of Cotard's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Machado, Leonardo; Filho, Luiz Evandro de Lima; Machado, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Cotard's Syndrome (CS) is a rare clinical event described for the first time in 1880 by the neurologist and psychiatrist Jules Cotard and characterized by negation delusions (or nihilists). Immortality and hypochondriac delusions are also typical. Nowadays, it is known that CS can be associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions. In this article, we describe the case of a patient that believed not having more organs and having the body deformed and whose CS was associated with a bigger depressive disorder. Although the electroconvulsive therapy is the most described treatment modality in the literature, the reported case had therapeutic success with association of imipramine and risperidone.

  13. When the Patient Believes That the Organs Are Destroyed: Manifestation of Cotard's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Cotard's Syndrome (CS) is a rare clinical event described for the first time in 1880 by the neurologist and psychiatrist Jules Cotard and characterized by negation delusions (or nihilists). Immortality and hypochondriac delusions are also typical. Nowadays, it is known that CS can be associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions. In this article, we describe the case of a patient that believed not having more organs and having the body deformed and whose CS was associated with a bigger depressive disorder. Although the electroconvulsive therapy is the most described treatment modality in the literature, the reported case had therapeutic success with association of imipramine and risperidone. PMID:28003827

  14. Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Wania, F.; Mackay, D.

    1996-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POP) are long-lived organic compounds that become concentrated as they move through the food chain. They have toxic effects on animal reproduction, development and immunological function. Understanding how POPs migrate through the global environment has become the focus of growing national and international concern. It is thus timely to evaluate, modify and extend the various concepts of POP distribution, especially in the view of recently announced international intentions to control the use of such substances. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health.Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes.Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research.Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as

  16. Statistical Survey of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Risk ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    U.S. EPA conducted a national statistical survey of fish tissue contamination at 540 river sites (representing 82 954 river km) in 2008–2009, and analyzed samples for 50 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including 21 PCB congeners, 8 PBDE congeners, and 21 organochlorine pesticides. The survey results were used to provide national estimates of contamination for these POPs. PCBs were the most abundant, being measured in 93.5% of samples. Summed concentrations of the 21 PCB congeners had a national weighted mean of 32.7 μg/kg and a maximum concentration of 857 μg/kg, and exceeded the human health cancer screening value of 12 μg/kg in 48% of the national sampled population of river km, and in 70% of the urban sampled population. PBDEs (92.0%), chlordane (88.5%) and DDT (98.7%) were also detected frequently, although at lower concentrations. Results were examined by subpopulations of rivers, including urban or nonurban and three defined ecoregions. PCBs, PBDEs, and DDT occur at significantly higher concentrations in fish from urban rivers versus nonurban; however, the distribution varied more among the ecoregions. Wildlife screening values previously published for bird and mammalian species were converted from whole fish to fillet screening values, and used to estimate risk for wildlife through fish consumption. This work presents the results of the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey (NRSA) where 50 persistent organic pollutants (POPs

  17. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  18. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  19. Proceedings of the symposium on current research on wood-destroying organisms and future prospects for protecting wood in use; September 13, 1989; Bend, OR.

    Treesearch

    Michael I. Haverty; W. Wayne Wilcox

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Western International Forest Disease Work Conference and the Western Forest Insect Work Conference met jointly in Bend, Oregon, during the week of September 11-15, 1989. One of the 90-minute, concurrent workshops scheduled during this period was a discussion of the biology and present and future control strategies of wood-destroying organisms. This subject...

  20. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  1. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce.

  2. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs

  3. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135

  4. A REVIEW OF BIOACCUMULATION MODELING APPROACHES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are likely to bioaccumulate in biological components of the environment, including fish and wildlife. The complex and long-term dynamics involved with bioaccumulation are often represented with models. Current scientific developments in t...

  5. Article "403. Toxicology of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are all synthetic chemicals, either intentionally or unintentionally produced/released. Some POPs are pesticides. Others are industrial products or unintended by-products resulting from industrial processes or combustions (see figure 1). POPs ...

  6. A REVIEW OF BIOACCUMULATION MODELING APPROACHES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are likely to bioaccumulate in biological components of the environment, including fish and wildlife. The complex and long-term dynamics involved with bioaccumulation are often represented with models. Current scientific developments in t...

  7. Article "403. Toxicology of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are all synthetic chemicals, either intentionally or unintentionally produced/released. Some POPs are pesticides. Others are industrial products or unintended by-products resulting from industrial processes or combustions (see figure 1). POPs ...

  8. Extending the Range of Organic Compounds that Can Be Destroyed Using the Process of Adsorption Coupled with Electrochemical Regeneration - 13054

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nigel; Lodge, Mike; Hilton, Linda; Adams, Alex; Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Toulemonde, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry is not a provider of oils and solvents but uses them in motors, equipment and even in chemical processes to extract valuable products. Currently, for old and contaminated oils and solvents, techniques still exist, such as incineration, but not all the oils and solvents are compatible with this technique because the activities of some components inside the oils are too high to be accepted at the incineration facility. For these oils, an alternative technique needs to be found for treatment. A process developed for water treatment using a technique of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration has been investigated to assess its capability to treat these organic wastes. One of the strengths of the process is its flexibility and adaptation to different compositions of oils. This point is important because, in the AREVA case, there are a lot of small volumes of old oils which need to be re-characterized. It takes time and money to do it especially when oils are contaminated; this is one reason why the technique is interesting to investigate. Tests have been performed with different oils coming from different sites to test the feasibility. Results demonstrate the destruction of a range of organics with regeneration energy requirements of 13.4 - 68.7 kWh/l and offer confidence for the future potential of the process. (authors)

  9. CTEPP OVERVIEW: A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study, "Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants," (CTEPP) is a pilot-scale project involving about 260 children in their everyday surroundings. The objectives of CTEPP are twofold: (1) To measure the agg...

  10. CTEPP OVERVIEW: A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study, "Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants," (CTEPP) is a pilot-scale project involving about 260 children in their everyday surroundings. The objectives of CTEPP are twofold: (1) To measure the agg...

  11. Resource Destroying Maps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Hu, Xueyuan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-02-10

    Resource theory is a widely applicable framework for analyzing the physical resources required for given tasks, such as computation, communication, and energy extraction. In this Letter, we propose a general scheme for analyzing resource theories based on resource destroying maps, which leave resource-free states unchanged but erase the resource stored in all other states. We introduce a group of general conditions that determine whether a quantum operation exhibits typical resource-free properties in relation to a given resource destroying map. Our theory reveals fundamental connections among basic elements of resource theories, in particular, free states, free operations, and resource measures. In particular, we define a class of simple resource measures that can be calculated without optimization, and that are monotone nonincreasing under operations that commute with the resource destroying map. We apply our theory to the resources of coherence and quantum correlations (e.g., discord), two prominent features of nonclassicality.

  12. Resource Destroying Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Hu, Xueyuan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-02-01

    Resource theory is a widely applicable framework for analyzing the physical resources required for given tasks, such as computation, communication, and energy extraction. In this Letter, we propose a general scheme for analyzing resource theories based on resource destroying maps, which leave resource-free states unchanged but erase the resource stored in all other states. We introduce a group of general conditions that determine whether a quantum operation exhibits typical resource-free properties in relation to a given resource destroying map. Our theory reveals fundamental connections among basic elements of resource theories, in particular, free states, free operations, and resource measures. In particular, we define a class of simple resource measures that can be calculated without optimization, and that are monotone nonincreasing under operations that commute with the resource destroying map. We apply our theory to the resources of coherence and quantum correlations (e.g., discord), two prominent features of nonclassicality.

  13. Historic and newer persistent organic pollutants in food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter reviews the literature published over the past five years with regard to the concentrations of historic and newly-listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods. The chemical classes selected for this review include historic POPs (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDT) ...

  14. [IMMUNOLOGIC MONITORING OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI PERSISTENCE IN THE ORGANISM].

    PubMed

    Belaya, Yu A; Belaya, O F; Petrukhin, V G; Vakhrameeva, M S; Bystrova, S M; Pronin, A V

    2015-01-01

    Generalized results of 15-year prospective studies of frequency of occurrence and dynamics of circulation of pathogenetically significant LPS/O-antigens, high molecular weight proteins, including CagA, and VacA of Helicobacter pylori in biological media of organism in patients with gastrointestinal diseases and asymptomatic volunteers due to effects of external and internal factors are presented. Features of antigen circulation and reciprocal immune reaction of the organism are established, that reflect their interaction in the parasite-host tandem, risk and prognosis of possible complications in the process of long-term persistence of Helicobacter pylori in the organism.

  15. Tenascin-C drives persistence of organ fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Swati; Wang, Wenxia; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Feng, Gang; Wu, Minghua; Zhou, Xiaodong; Lafyatis, Robert; Lee, Jungwha; Hinchcliff, Monique; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Lakota, Katja; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Raparia, Kirtee; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Varga, John

    2016-01-01

    The factors responsible for maintaining persistent organ fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) are not known but emerging evidence implicates toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of SSc. Here we show the expression, mechanism of action and pathogenic role of endogenous TLR activators in skin from patients with SSc, skin fibroblasts, and in mouse models of organ fibrosis. Levels of tenascin-C are elevated in SSc skin biopsy samples, and serum and SSc fibroblasts, and in fibrotic skin tissues from mice. Exogenous tenascin-C stimulates collagen gene expression and myofibroblast transformation via TLR4 signalling. Mice lacking tenascin-C show attenuation of skin and lung fibrosis, and accelerated fibrosis resolution. These results identify tenascin-C as an endogenous danger signal that is upregulated in SSc and drives TLR4-dependent fibroblast activation, and by its persistence impedes fibrosis resolution. Disrupting this fibrosis amplification loop might be a viable strategy for the treatment of SSc. PMID:27256716

  16. Persistent organic pollutants as risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Elvis Ndonwi; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Tiedeu-Atogho, Barbara; Mofo-Mato, Edith-Pascale; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major and fast growing public health problem. Although obesity is considered to be the main driver of the pandemic of T2DM, a possible contribution of some environmental contaminants, of which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) form a particular class, has been suggested. POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes which enable them to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio accumulate in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between persistent organic pollutants and diabetes risk. These findings have been replicated in experimental studies both in human (in-vitro) and animals (in-vivo and in-vitro), and patho-physiological derangements through which these pollutants exercise their harmful effect on diabetes risk postulated. This review summarizes available studies, emphasises on limitations so as to enable subsequent studies to be centralized on possible pathways and bring out clearly the role of POPs on diabetes risk.

  17. The energetic and chemical fingerprints of persistent soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, Pierre; Plante, Alain F.; Cécillon, Lauric; Lutfalla, Suzanne; Baudin, François; Bernard, Sylvain; Christensen, Bent T.; Fernandez, Jose M.; Houot, Sabine; Kätterer, Thomas; Macdonald, Andy; van Oort, Folkert; Le Guillou, Corentin; Chenu, Claire

    2016-04-01

    A better understanding of soil organic carbon (SOC) persistence is needed to better predict SOC vulnerability to global change. The absence of convincing physical or chemical procedures to define, characterize or isolate relatively labile versus persistent SOC pools makes the study of persistent SOC difficult. Long-term bare fallow (LTBF) experiments, in which C inputs have been stopped for several decades, provide a unique opportunity to study persistent SOC without the inherent artefacts induced by extraction procedures, the hypothesis being that SOC is gradually enriched in persistent C with time as labile components decompose. We determined the evolution of thermal and chemical characteristics of bulk SOC in five LTBF experiments across Europe: Askov (DK), Grignon (FR), Rothamsted (UK), Ultuna (SW) and Versailles (FR), using a multi-technique approach involving Rock-Eval pyrolysis, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT-MIRS), and Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS). Results of Rock-Eval and TG analyses showed that the temperature needed to combust the SOC increased with bare fallow duration at all sites. Conversely, SOC energy density (in mJ mg-1 C) measured by DSC decreased with bare fallow duration. Rock-Eval pyrolysis results showed that hydrogen index (HI) tended to decrease with bare fallow duration whereas the oxygen index (OI) did not show consistent trends across sites. NEXAFS signals presented little differences and were dominated by carboxyl peak. Nonetheless, NEXAFS results showed a trend of increasing carboxyl groups and decreasing ketone and amide groups with bare fallow duration. Due to the mineral matrix, only a reduced part of the DRIFT-MIRS signals has been used. We observed that the bulk chemistry of aliphatic SOC (CH3 vs. CH2 functional groups) showed different trends for the different sites. Our results showed that in spite of the heterogeneity of

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the persistence of organic gunshot residue.

    PubMed

    Arndt, James; Bell, Suzanne; Crookshanks, Lindsey; Lovejoy, Marco; Oleska, Casey; Tulley, Tanya; Wolfe, Drew

    2012-10-10

    The organic components of gunshot residue (OGSR, also called firearms discharge residue (FDR) or cartridge discharge residue (CDR)) have been studied and discussed in the literature. These residues, consisting of particulates such as burned and unburned powder as well as molecular compounds, are rarely used in casework except for purposes such as shooting reconstructions. Molecular compounds that survive the firing event or that are created as a result of the firing event could, with focused research and development, open a new avenue for forensic gunshot residue analysis. In this study, the persistence of organic gunshot residue was evaluated using diphenylamine (DPA) as a target analyte and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as the detection system. Samples were collected from hands using a solvent swabbing technique and the swab was analyzed using direct thermal desorption for sample introduction into the IMS. OGSR was found to persist for at least 4 h. Although DPA is a widely used industrial compound, analysis of numerous blank and background samples (n∼100) did not show any significant response for DPA using this detector. Variations were noted among individuals and as such, the data set does not support estimation of a half-life as has been done for traditional primer residues. No secondary transfers were observed, suggesting the possibility of skin adhesion via interactions between the lipophilic organic compounds and skin lipids. IMS proved valuable as a means of generating patterns for forensic pattern matching and shows promise as a screening tool applied to firearms discharge.

  19. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  20. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael W I; Torn, Margaret S; Abiven, Samuel; Dittmar, Thorsten; Guggenberger, Georg; Janssens, Ivan A; Kleber, Markus; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Lehmann, Johannes; Manning, David A C; Nannipieri, Paolo; Rasse, Daniel P; Weiner, Steve; Trumbore, Susan E

    2011-10-05

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily--and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  1. Selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Italian environment.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; De Felip, Elena; Magliuolo, Mariella; Ferri, Fabiola; Di Domenico, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The ratification of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is a departure point for several considerations on their presence in environmental matrices. In this paper, the Italian situation is presented with emphasis on the most toxic compounds--chemicals with dioxin-like toxic action, and the activity in the area of interest of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Biotic, as well as abiotic matrices have been taken in consideration and, where possible, a comparation between their contamination levels with the levels reported on similar matrices by other European countries has been reported.

  2. ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPED FOR THE CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP) STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study was designed by the U.S. EPA to collect data on young children's exposures to pesticides and other pollutants in their everyday environments in support of the Food Quality...

  3. ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPED FOR THE CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP) STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study was designed by the U.S. EPA to collect data on young children's exposures to pesticides and other pollutants in their everyday environments in support of the Food Quality...

  4. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in first birth mothers across Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Van Oostdam, Jay; Weber, Jean Philippe; Needham, Larry L; Trip, Luke

    2012-01-01

    This project was initiated by the North America Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). Its main purpose was to obtain an initial profile on pregnant woman's exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in North America (Canada, the United States and Mexico). Persistent organic pollutants are transferred to the fetus via the placenta during the pregnancy or to the infant via maternal milk; therefore, the pregnant woman's body burden is important because of the higher exposures and potential health effects in the fetus and infant. This paper presents the results from 240 pregnant women in 10 Mexican cities, and includes the concentrations of various POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in maternal plasma. We found concentrations of p,p'-DDE in maternal samples from Coatzacoalcos to be ∼60% higher than those found in Ciudad Obregon, which had the second highest concentration. Pregnant women from Merida had higher mean concentrations of PCBs than all women in other regions. Results for PCDDs and PCDFs plus dioxin-like PCBs data were only available on the basis of composite samples, and their concentrations are similar in most cities except for Coatzacoalcos, which had more than double the concentration found in other cities. Although this study provides useful information on the variability of POPs in specific populations and possible regional/local differences, these results cannot be generalized to the entire Mexican population because of differences in age, gender, sources of exposure and nonrandom nature of the sample.

  5. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Snow and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greis, V. M.; Mahanna, K. M.; Grannas, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    The frozen surfaces of polar regions are highly reactive. The Arctic snowpack has been shown to play an important role in processing atmospheric species such as mercury, molecular halogens, organics and ozone. Several recent studies have demonstrated photochemical transformations of anthropogenic organic contaminants in ice. Unfortunately, information on transformations of organic contaminants in snow and ice is currently limited. It is important to gain a better understanding of the photochemical processes that occur, as well as identify the products of degradation, in order to assess the possible ecosystem-wide implications of pollutant degradation (i.e. generation of products more toxic than the original pollutant). With a better grasp of the photochemical processes of anthropogenic organic pollutants, an improved understanding of their effects on the environment can be obtained. In our research, we investigated both direct and indirect photodegradation of several persistent organic pollutants of concern to the Arctic environment, including aldrin, dieldrin, PCBs and hexachlorobenzene. Reactivity in both ice and liquid samples was assessed. We found selective degradation in the samples, with some of the pollutants exhibiting greater degradation in liquid samples, while others showed greater degradation in the ice samples. The methods and results of these experiments will be discussed.

  6. Assessing long-range transport potential of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, A.; Mackay, D.; Matthies, M.; Wania, F.; Webster, E.

    2000-02-15

    An analysis is presented of the factors controlling the potential for the long-range transport (LRT) of persistent organic pollutants subject to degrading reactions and reversible transport to other environmental media. The approach adopted generalizes those developed previously by van Pul et al. and Bennett et al. to estimate a characteristic travel distance (CTD) or a half-distance (analogous to a half-life) for a substance present in a mobile medium such as air and subject to reversible transport to other media such as soil and water. For substances discharged to immobile media, such as pesticides to soil, an effective travel distance (ETD) is defined as the distance that, for example, 1% of the discharged chemical may be transported. It is shown that existing multimedia box models can be used to estimate CTD and that a simple relationship exists between CTD and overall environmental persistence, which can be displayed graphically. CTDs in air and water are calculated illustratively for 18 chemicals, and recommendations are made regarding ranking or grouping chemicals according to their potential for LRT.

  7. Obesity, Persistent Organic Pollutants and Related Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Vassilopoulou, Loukia; Psycharakis, Christos; Petrakis, Demetrios; Tsiaoussis, John; Tsatsakis, Aristides M

    2017-01-01

    The present review aims to delve into persistent organic pollutants (POPs) , as xenobiotics, in correlation to human health. POPs exhibit a group of common characteristics, including lipophilicity, persistence to decomposition and bioaccumulation in tissues. POPs have been thoroughly studied by former researchers, as they offer a particular interest in the elucidation of metabolic, endocrine and immune perturbation caused by their synergy with intracellular mechanisms. Herein particular focus is attributed to the relationship of POPs with obesity provocation. Obesity nowadays receives epidemic dimensions, as its prevalence elevates in an exponential degree. POPs-induced obesity rotates around interfering in metabolic and endocrinal procedures and interacting with peroxisome-proliferator and retinoic receptors. Moreover, polymorphisms in CYP gene families exert a negative result, as they incapacitate detoxification of POPs. Obesity could be deemed as a multidimensional condition, as various factors interact to lead to an obesogenic result. Therefore, concomitant disorders may occur, from mild to lethal, and get intensified due to POPs exposure. POPs exact function mechanisms remain rather enigmatic, thus further investigation should be prospectively performed, for a more lucid picture of this issue, and, consequently for the establishment of alternative solutions.

  8. Do plants reflect atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic contaminants?

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    Chemical analysis of several types of plants -- such as pine needles, lichens, mosses and grasses -- has been used by numerous workers as a means of inferring spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic compounds (e.g. PCBs, PAHs, CBs and PCDD/Fs). This is usually because plants are perceived as convenient `passive` air samplers and assumed to `integrate` variations in ambient concentrations during their lifetime. More recently, various researchers have sought to understand the mechanisms of exchange/uptake at the air vegetation surface, with a view to refining the use of vegetation sampling techniques and understanding the role of vegetation in influencing the global cycling of these compounds. This presentation will review some of the recent advances in this area, highlighting some of pitfalls and beneficial uses of employing plants as `monitoring tools`.

  9. Leaching behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in shredder residues.

    PubMed

    Sakai, S; Urano, S; Takatsuki, H

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that some kinds of waste contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/DFs and PCBs. Leaching behaviors of these chemicals, however, have not been focused so much because of their low leachability. On the other hand, shredder residues originated from automobiles and electric appliances consist mainly of plastics, such as PVC, which contain additives including DEHP. In this study, contents analyses and leaching tests with and without surfactant-like substances for shredder residues were conducted. As a result, shredder residues from automobile and electric appliance contained PCBs in ppm level and a quantity of PCDD/DFs. Surfactant-like substances increase the leaching concentration of POPs. DEHP also leached out considerably even though using distilled water.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk.

  11. Transport of persistent organic pollutants by microplastics in estuarine conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastics represent an increasing source of anthropogenic contamination in aquatic environments, where they may also act as scavengers and transporters of persistent organic pollutants. As estuaries are amongst the most productive aquatic systems, it is important to understand sorption behaviour and transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by microplastics along estuarine gradients. The effects of salinity sorption equilibrium kinetics on the distribution coefficients (Kd) of phenanthrene (Phe) and 4,4‧-DDT, onto polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and onto polyethylene (PE) were therefore investigated. A salinity gradient representing freshwater, estuarine and marine conditions, with salinities corresponding to 0 (MilliQ water, 690 μS/cm), 8.8, 17.5, 26.3 and 35 was used. Salinity had no significant effect on the time required to reach equilibrium onto PVC or PE and neither did it affect desorption rates of contaminants from plastics. Although salinity had no effect on sorption capacity of Phe onto plastics, a slight decrease in sorption capacity was observed for DDT with salinity. Salinity had little effect on sorption behaviour and POP/plastic combination was shown to be a more important factor. Transport of Phe and DDT from riverine to brackish and marine waters by plastic is therefore likely to be much more dependent on the aqueous POP concentration than on salinity. The physical characteristics of the polymer and local environmental conditions (e.g. plastic density, particle residence time in estuaries) will affect the physical transport of contaminated plastics. A transport model of POPs by microplastics under estuarine conditions is proposed. Transport of Phe and DDT by PVC and PE from fresh and brackish water toward fully marine conditions was the most likely net direction for contaminant transport and followed the order: Phe-PE >> DDT-PVC = DDT-PE >> Phe-PVC.

  12. Toxicological Function of Adipose Tissue: Focus on Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Emond, Claude; Kim, Min Ji; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Clément, Karine; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adipose tissue (AT) is involved in several physiological functions, including metabolic regulation, energy storage, and endocrine functions. Objectives: In this review we examined the evidence that an additional function of AT is to modulate persistent organic pollutant (POP) toxicity through several mechanisms. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the interaction of AT with POPs to provide a comprehensive model for this additional function of AT. Discussion: As a storage compartment for lipophilic POPs, AT plays a critical role in the toxicokinetics of a variety of drugs and pollutants, in particular, POPs. By sequestering POPs, AT can protect other organs and tissues from POPs overload. However, this protective function could prove to be a threat in the long run. The accumulation of lipophilic POPs will increase total body burden. These accumulated POPs are slowly released into the bloodstream, and more so during weight loss. Thus, AT constitutes a continual source of internal exposure to POPs. In addition to its buffering function, AT is also a target of POPs and may mediate part of their metabolic effects. This is particularly relevant because many POPs induce obesogenic effects that may lead to quantitative and qualitative alterations of AT. Some POPs also induce a proinflammatory state in AT, which may lead to detrimental metabolic effects. Conclusion: AT appears to play diverse functions both as a modulator and as a target of POPs toxicity. PMID:23221922

  13. Atmospheric Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahos, P.; Edson, J.; Cifuentes, A.; McGillis, W. R.; Zappa, C.

    2008-12-01

    Long-range transport of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) is a global concern. Remote regions such as the Southern Ocean are greatly under-sampled though critical components in understanding POPs cycling. Over 20 high-volume air samples were collected in the Southern Ocean aboard the RV Brown during the GASEX III experiment between Mar 05 to April 9 2008. The relatively stationary platform (51S,38W) enabled the collection of a unique atmospheric time series at this open ocean station. Air sampling was also conducted across transects from Punto Arenas, Chile and to Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were collected using glass sleeves packed with poly-urethane foam plugs and C-18 resin in order to collect target organic pollutants (per-fluorinated compounds, currently and historically used pesticides) in this under-sampled region. Here we present POPs concentrations and trends over the sampled period and compare variations with air parcel back trajectories to establish potential origins of their long-range transport.

  14. Spontaneous honeybee behaviour is altered by persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Jade; Williamson, Sally M; Fitchett, Ann E; Wright, Geraldine A; Judge, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants on honeybee behaviour has focused mainly on currently used pesticides. However, honeybees are also exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The aim of this laboratory based study was to determine if exposure to sublethal field-relevant concentrations of POPs altered the spontaneous behaviour of foraging-age worker honeybees. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) were orally exposed to either a sublethal concentration of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 (100 ng/ml), the organochlorine insecticide lindane (2.91 ng/ml) or vehicle (0.01% DMSO, 0.00015% ethanol in 1M sucrose) for 1-4 days. The frequency of single event behaviours and the time engaged in one of four behavioural states (walking, flying, upside down and stationary) were monitored for 15 min after 1, 2, 3 and 4 days exposure. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 but not lindane increased the frequency and time engaged in honeybee motor activity behaviours in comparison to vehicle. The Aroclor 1254-induced hyperactivity was evident after 1 day of exposure and persisted with repeated daily exposure. In contrast, 1 day of exposure to lindane elicited abdominal spasms and increased the frequency of grooming behaviours in comparison to vehicle exposure. After 4 days of exposure, abdominal spasms and increased grooming behaviours were also evident in honeybees exposed to Aroclor 1254. These data demonstrate that POPs can induce distinct behavioural patterns, indicating different toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties. The changes in spontaneous behaviour, particularly the PCB-induced chronic hyperactivity and the associated energy demands, may have implications for colony health.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants & obesity: potential mechanisms for breast cancer promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Reaves, Denise K.; Ginsburg, Erika; Bang, John J.; Fleming, Jodie M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary ingestion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) correlates with developing obesity. Obesity alters metabolism, induces an inflammatory tissue microenvironment, and is also linked with diabetes and breast cancer risk/promotion of the disease. However, no direct evidence exists exploring the correlation among all three of these factors (POPs, obesity, and breast cancer). Herein, we present current correlative studies suggesting a causal link between POPs exposure through diet and their bioaccumulation in adipose that promotes the development of obesity and ultimately influences breast cancer development and/or progression. Furthermore, as endocrine disruptors, POPs can potentially interfere with hormonally responsive tissue functions causing dysregulation in hormone signaling and cell function. This review highlights the critical need for advanced in vitro and in vivo model systems to understand the complex relationship between obesity, POPs, breast cancer, and, more importantly, to delineate their multifaceted molecular, cellular, and biochemical mechanisms. Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies directly testing the observed correlations as well as detailing their molecular mechanisms are vital to cancer research and, ultimately, public health. PMID:25624167

  16. Persistent photoconductivity effects in printed n-channel organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nga Ng, Tse; Fujieda, Ichiro; Street, Robert A.; Veres, Janos

    2013-03-01

    Persistent photoconductivity of top-gate n-type organic transistors is investigated. The irradiation of green light leads to a negative shift in transistor threshold voltage and an increase in sub-threshold current. These light-induced effects are enhanced when the gate is negatively biased during the light irradiation, and the recovery process is faster at 60 °C than at 25 °C. After storage in dark, full recovery is obtained for a transistor printed with a neat semiconductor, whereas for the device printed with a solution of the same semiconductor mixed with an insulator, only partial recovery is observed after four days at room temperature. Other stress conditions (irradiation with a positive gate bias, irradiation without bias, and bias under dark) do not change the threshold voltage or the sub-threshold current significantly. We attribute this photo phenomenon to holes trapped and released at the dielectric/semiconductor interface and a smaller number of positive fixed charges generated in the bulk of the semiconductor layer.

  17. On enumeration of congeners of common persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Puzyn, Tomasz; Ng, Esmond G

    2010-08-01

    Congeners are molecules based on the same carbon skeleton but different by the number of substituents and/or a substitution pattern. Various Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) exist in the environment as families of halogen substituted congeners and/or their hydroxyl and methoxy substituted derivatives. Numbers of possible congeners resulting from substitution of a parent POP molecule with only one type of chemical group are generally available. At the same time, numbers of mixed-substituent congeners have not been counted and presented yet, although there is an increasing interest in such as is the increasing number of research articles presenting results on already identified Cl-/Br-mixed type congeners and/or their HO-/CH(3)O-mixed metabolites. We have enumerated and counted possible mixed-substituent congeners of common POPs. This article presents the obtained numbers for congener families of benzene, naphthalene, biphenyl, diphenyl ether, dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, anthracene, pyrene and others and obtained by substitution of up to five chemical group types.

  18. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in internal organs of coypu, Myocastor coypus.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Ryszard; Beutling, Dorothea; Budzyk, Jolanta; Pietrzak, Marian; Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) to identify and quantify persistent organochlorine pesticides, (18 compounds including primary compounds and metabolites), in animal internal organs (kidneys, liver, and brain) has been developed. Tandem mass spectrometric conditions were individually optimized for each target compound in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode to obtain maximum sensitivity. Prior to instrumental analysis, a sample preparation method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by acidic digestion with sulfuric acid to reduce matrix co-extractives was employed. Analyses of real samples were carried out on coypus (Myocastor coypus) from the autumn slaughter of 19 animals. In the analyzed samples, three of the target compounds, namely DDE-pp' (DDT metabolite), HCB and lindane, were detected. Their concentration levels fell in the ranges of 0.003-0.007, 0.003-0.025, and 0.003-0.021 mg kg(-1) (0.005, 0.010, and 0.010 mg kg(-1) on average) in the case of DDE-pp', HCB and lindane, respectively. Although low quantities of organochlorine pesticides do not pose an immediate danger to consumers' health, they should be of public health concern considering long-term, low-dose exposure.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants alter DNA methylation during human adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Murk, Albertinka J; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2017-04-01

    Ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can accumulate in humans where they might influence differentiation of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation is one of the underlying mechanisms by which POPs affect adipocyte differentiation, and to what extent DNA methylation can be related to gene transcription. Adipocyte differentiation was induced in two human cell models with continuous exposure to different POPs throughout differentiation. From the seven tested POPs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) decreased lipid accumulation, while tributyltin (TBT) increased lipid accumulation. In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), TCDD and TBT induced opposite gene expression profiles, whereas after PFOS exposure gene expression remained relatively stable. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis showed that all three POPs affected DNA methylation patterns in adipogenic and other genes, possibly related to the phenotypic outcome, but without concomitant gene expression changes. Differential methylation was predominantly detected in intergenic regions, where the biological relevance of alterations in DNA methylation is unclear. This study demonstrates that POPs, at environmentally relevant levels, are able to induce differential DNA methylation in human differentiating adipocytes. Copyright © 2017 Wageningen University. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in China's surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J

    2017-02-15

    Following recent rapid industrialization, China is now one of the largest producers and consumers of organic chemicals in the world. This is compounded by variable regulatory oversight with respect to storage, use and waste management of these chemicals and their byproducts. This review synthesizes the data on the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in waters in China. Surface water heavily polluted with POPs is distributed in the Yangtze River Estuary, Pearl River Delta, Minjiang River Estuary, Jiulongjiang Estuary, Daya Bay, Taihu Lake, and the waterways of Zhejiang Province, where concentrations of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) frequently exceed both international and Chinese guideline values. These areas are mainly distributed along the southeast coast of China, within or downstream of major manufacturing districts, intensive agricultural basins, and other industrial centers. A comparison of the levels of OCPs in the aquatic environment of China with other indicative regions worldwide shows comparable levels of pollution (overall range from below detection limit (BDL) to 5104.8ng/L and regional means from 2.9-929.6ng/L). PAHs and PCBs pollution appear to be particularly serious in China (PAHs overall ranging from BDL to 474,000ng/L with regional means from 15.1-72,400ng/L; PCBs from BDL to 3161ng/L with regional means ranging from 0.2-985.2ng/L). There is as yet limited evidence of serious perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) pollution. We discuss major sources and processes responsible for high POP occurrence using a range of measures (including diagnostic ratios of different compounds), regulatory oversight and policy gaps in the control of POPs in China, and potential long-term health and ecological effects. We argue that water quality guidelines, pollution control measures and cleanup strategies for POPs in China should be

  1. Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-11-01

    Eudora Welty, the famous writer, was once asked what should be done by society or government to encourage young writers. Her response, which surprised the questioner, and me when I heard it, was "Nothing". Welty contended that a person who was really a writer would be persistent enough to overcome whatever obstacles were in the way, needing no interference or support from others.

  2. Persistent Spatial Gradients In Drinking Water Reservoir Methane Emissions: The Role Of Catchment Organic Matter Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, B. S.; Ford, P.

    2011-12-01

    Floating chamber measurements of methane (CH4) fluxes from three reservoirs in southeast Australia, revealed a consistent and persistent spatial gradient in CH4 flux in all three reservoirs. Two of the reservoirs (Hinze Dam, Little Nerang Dam) are located in the subtropics with dense rainforest vegetation in the catchment, and are subject to high rainfall. The third reservoir (60-year old Cotter Dam) experiences a Mediterranean climate with approximately 1200 mm annual rainfall. The Cotter catchment was mainly a Pinus radiata plantation which was destroyed in a 2003 bushfire. Catchment vegetation is now largely regrowth Pinus radiata and eucalypt woodland. Fluxes typically ranged from < 10 mg-CH4 m-2 d-1 near the dam walls to ≥ 1000 mg-CH4 m-2 d-1 at the upstream ends of all reservoirs where catchment organic matter is inferred to be preferentially deposited. No such gradient in the CH4 flux was observed in one arm of Hinze Dam which receives water discharged from Little Nerang Dam, ca 10 km upstream. As well, no gradient was observed in Cotter Dam prior to an anomalously wet summer with sediment-laden December-January 2011 runoff >20 times the reservoir's volume. Several weeks following the flood, the mean reservoir emissions from Cotter Dam had increased by a factor of 25 and a strong (100 x) longitudinal gradient in CH4 flux was measured. Following a further six weeks of normal flows, the emissions had fallen by a factor of ten but the spatial gradient persisted. Our observations at all three reservoirs is consistent with the hypothesis that deposition of fresh catchment organic matter is the dominant mechanism driving methane production in these reservoirs. Fluxes were dominated by bubbles with between 60 and 80% of total emissions emanating from just 10% of the surface area of each reservoir. Our results have implications for attempts to quantify CH4 fluxes from reservoirs: sampling strategies must give considerable weight to zones of high deposition

  3. Destroying extremal magnetized black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2017-07-01

    The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adapted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "Ernst magnetization" permits a test particle to have strong enough energy to destroy the black hole. However, the corresponding effective potentials show that such particles would never reach the horizon.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in plasma of delivering women from Arkhangelsk.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Tkachev, Anatoly; Burkow, Ivan C

    2003-05-01

    The high levels of persistent organic pollutants have caused concern about human health, especially the health of the foetus and newborn child. This has especially been the case for Greenlandic and Canadian Inuits, where elevated levels of PCB and p,p'-DDE have been reported. In recent studies from arctic Russia the levels of beta-HCH and the DDT-group have been reported to be high, whereas the levels of PCB are low. However, the information from Northern Russia is, so far, incomplete. In this study, 27 delivering women from the city of Arkhangelsk, Russia, participated. They completed a questionnaire before delivery and plasma samples were collected after delivery. The analytical method developed to support this study involved gel permeation chromatography and silica gel purification, in addition to a traditional GC-MS method, and thus include acid labile compounds. The arithmetic mean levels of p,p'-DDE, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDT were 5.42, 3.59 and 1.17 microg/l, respectively. Toxaphene 26 and 50 were the only toxaphenes above the limit of detection, with arithmetic mean levels of 0.05 and 0.09 microg/l, respectively. Among the PCB congeners, PCB 138/163 was the most abundant with an arithmetic mean of 0.53 microg/l. The elevated levels of beta-HCH and p,p'-DDT as well as a low DDE/DDT ratio is a strong indication of fresh and maybe local sources in this area.

  5. Chlorinated Persistent Organic Pollutants, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Miquel; Jacobs, David R.; Vandenberg, Laura N.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic compounds that travel with lipids and accumulate mainly in adipose tissue. Recent human evidence links low-dose POPs to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because humans are contaminated by POP mixtures and POPs possibly have nonmonotonic dose-response relations with T2D, critical methodological issues arise in evaluating human findings. This review summarizes epidemiological results on chlorinated POPs and T2D, and relevant experimental evidence. It also discusses how features of POPs can affect inferences in humans. The evidence as a whole suggests that, rather than a few individual POPs, background exposure to POP mixtures—including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls—can increase T2D risk in humans. Inconsistent statistical significance for individual POPs may arise due to distributional differences in POP mixtures among populations. Differences in the observed shape of the dose-response curves among human studies may reflect an inverted U-shaped association secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction or endocrine disruption. Finally, we examine the relationship between POPs and obesity. There is evidence in animal studies that low-dose POP mixtures are obesogenic. However, relationships between POPs and obesity in humans have been inconsistent. Adipose tissue plays a dual role of promoting T2D and providing a relatively safe place to store POPs. Large prospective studies with serial measurements of a broad range of POPs, adiposity, and clinically relevant biomarkers are needed to disentangle the interrelationships among POPs, obesity, and the development of T2D. Also needed are laboratory experiments that more closely mimic real-world POP doses, mixtures, and exposure duration in humans. PMID:24483949

  6. Removal of Persistent Organic Contaminants by Electrochemically Activated Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Ali; Keller, Jurg; Tait, Stephan; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-12-15

    Solutions of sulfate have often been used as background electrolytes in the electrochemical degradation of contaminants and have been generally considered inert even when high-oxidation-power anodes such as boron-doped diamond (BDD) were employed. This study examines the role of sulfate by comparing electro-oxidation rates for seven persistent organic contaminants at BDD anodes in sulfate and inert nitrate anolytes. Sulfate yielded electro-oxidation rates 10-15 times higher for all target contaminants compared to the rates of nitrate anolyte. This electrochemical activation of sulfate was also observed at concentrations as low as 1.6 mM, which is relevant for many wastewaters. Electrolysis of diatrizoate in the presence of specific radical quenchers (tert-butanol and methanol) had a similar effect on electro-oxidation rates, illustrating a possible role of the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in the anodic formation of sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) species. The addition of 0.55 mM persulfate increased the electro-oxidation rate of diatrizoate in nitrate from 0.94 to 9.97 h(-1), suggesting a nonradical activation of persulfate. Overall findings indicate the formation of strong sulfate-derived oxidant species at BDD anodes when polarized at high potentials. This may have positive implications in the electro-oxidation of wastewaters containing sulfate. For example, the energy required for the 10-fold removal of diatrizoate was decreased from 45.6 to 2.44 kWh m(-3) by switching from nitrate to sulfate anolyte.

  7. Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Porta, Miquel; Jacobs, David R; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic compounds that travel with lipids and accumulate mainly in adipose tissue. Recent human evidence links low-dose POPs to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because humans are contaminated by POP mixtures and POPs possibly have nonmonotonic dose-response relations with T2D, critical methodological issues arise in evaluating human findings. This review summarizes epidemiological results on chlorinated POPs and T2D, and relevant experimental evidence. It also discusses how features of POPs can affect inferences in humans. The evidence as a whole suggests that, rather than a few individual POPs, background exposure to POP mixtures-including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls-can increase T2D risk in humans. Inconsistent statistical significance for individual POPs may arise due to distributional differences in POP mixtures among populations. Differences in the observed shape of the dose-response curves among human studies may reflect an inverted U-shaped association secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction or endocrine disruption. Finally, we examine the relationship between POPs and obesity. There is evidence in animal studies that low-dose POP mixtures are obesogenic. However, relationships between POPs and obesity in humans have been inconsistent. Adipose tissue plays a dual role of promoting T2D and providing a relatively safe place to store POPs. Large prospective studies with serial measurements of a broad range of POPs, adiposity, and clinically relevant biomarkers are needed to disentangle the interrelationships among POPs, obesity, and the development of T2D. Also needed are laboratory experiments that more closely mimic real-world POP doses, mixtures, and exposure duration in humans.

  8. Transport of persistent organic pollutants across the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal life is the most sensitive stage of human development to environmental pollutants. Early exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. The mechanisms of transference of POPs during pregnancy are still not well understood. The present study is aimed to investigate the transfer of POPs between mother and fetus. The concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 polybromodiphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners have been measured in 308 maternal serum samples, their respective umbilical cords and 50 placental tissues from a mother-infant cohort representative of Spanish general population. In general, the adjusted lipid-basis concentrations were higher in maternal serum than in cord serum and placenta. The concentrations of most pollutants between maternal serum and cord serum and between maternal serum and placenta were significantly correlated. These distributions were consistent with a predominant maternal source that transfers the pollutants into the placenta and the fetus. However, this distribution did not correspond to passive diffusion of these compounds between these tissues according to lipid content. The compounds more readily metabolized were higher in newborns, which suggest that differences in metabolic capabilities may be responsible of the observed variations in POP distributions between mother and newborns. Prenatal exposure to 4,4'-DDT and some PBDEs such as BDE 99 and BDE 209 is much higher than it could be anticipated from the composition of maternal serum. POP exposure assessment studies of newborns may overlook the effects of some of these pollutants if they only consider maternal determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Legacy and contemporary persistent organic pollutants in North Pacific albatross.

    PubMed

    Harwani, Suhash; Henry, Robert W; Rhee, Alexandra; Kappes, Michelle A; Croll, Donald A; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Here we report the first measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE 47, 99, and 153) alongside 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of albatross from breeding colonies distributed across a large spatial east-west gradient in the North Pacific Ocean. North Pacific albatross are wide-ranging, top-level consumers that forage in pelagic regions of the North Pacific Ocean, making them an ideal sentinel species for detection and distribution of marine contaminants. Our work on contaminant burdens in albatross tissue provides information on transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the remote North Pacific and serves as a proxy for regional environmental quality. We sampled black-footed (Phoebastria nigripes; n = 20) and Laysan albatross (P. immutabilis; n = 19) nesting on Tern Island, Hawaii, USA, and Laysan albatross (n = 16) nesting on Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Our results indicate that North Pacific albatross are highly exposed to both PCBs and OCPs, with levels ranging from 8.8 to 86.9 ng/ml wet weight and 7.4 to 162.3 ng/ml wet weight, respectively. A strong significant gradient exists between Laysan albatross breeding in the Eastern Pacific, having approximately 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold higher levels for PCBs and OCPs, respectively, compared to those from the Central Pacific. Interspecies levels of contaminants within the same breeding site also showed high variation, with Tern black-footed albatross having approximately threefold higher levels of both PCBs and OCPs than Tern Laysan albatross. Surprisingly, while PBDEs are known to travel long distances and bioaccumulate in wildlife of high trophic status, we detected these three PBDE congeners only at trace levels ranging from not detectable (ND) to 0.74 ng/ml wet weight in these albatross. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in wetlands of the Mekong Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triet, Tran; Barzen, Jeb Anthony; Choowaew, Sansanee; Engels, Jon Michael; Ni, Duong Van; Mai, Nguyen Anh; Inkhavilay, Khamla; Soben, Kim; Sethik, Rath; Gomotean, Bhuvadol; Thuyen, Le Xuan; Kyi, Aung; Du, Nguyen Huy; Nordheim, Richard; Lam, Ho Si Tung; Moore, Dorn M.; Wilson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence and concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POP) were assessed in surface sediments collected from a wide variety of wetlands located throughout the Mekong Basin in Myanmar, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Of the 39 POPs tested in 531 sediment samples, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and endrin were most commonly detected. Even though DDT was banned in the 1990s, some use of DDT may still be occurring in the Mekong Basin. The amount of metabolites for DDT—dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)—found, however, suggests that use of DDT is on the decline throughout the region. HCB and endrin were found distributed broadly throughout the Mekong Basin but not in high amounts. The concentration and distribution of endosulfan and its metabolites represent a serious problem requiring further study and management action. While the total loading of POPs in wetland sediments of the Mekong Basin was generally low, hotspot sites occurred where concentrations exceeded established ecological risk thresholds. For example, wetlands of the open, dry dipterocarp forest of northern Cambodia and Vietnam as well as wetlands in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam contained high concentrations of some POPs. High concentrations of POPs were detected in some wetlands important for biodiversity conservation. Hotspots identified in wetlands such as the Tonle Sap not only had concentrations of DDT and DDE that exceeded Canadian and U.S. benchmarks, but fauna sampled in the area also showed high degrees of bioaccumulation of the same substances. Further and more extensive attention to monitoring POP presence in water birds, fish, and other aquatic organisms is warranted because of the bioaccumulation of these chemicals at higher levels in the food chain. This study represents a collaboration of eight universities from

  11. Weed seed persistence and microbial abundance in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed seed persistence in soil can be influenced by many factors, including crop management. This research was conducted to determine whether organic management systems with higher organic amendments and soil microbial biomass could reduce weed seed persistence compared to conventional management sy...

  12. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, B.; Grannas, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Contamination and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic, an area previously considered as pristine and removed from human influence, has become a growing concern. Volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from lower latitudes are transported to the Arctic through a process known as global distillation. The polar regions are unique in that they sit in darkness during the winter until polar sunrise. These conditions allow pollutants to accumulate during winter and then undergo 24-hours of continuous irradiance in sunlit conditions. Photochemical degradation may thus be an important pathway to consider in the spring/summer Arctic season. Additionally, active photochemistry has also been observed in mid-latitude snowpacks. However, the potential photodegradation of anthropogenic contaminants in mid-latitude snow has received little attention in the literature. Aldrin, a once globally distributed pesticide, is of particular environmental concern due to its low solubility in water, known persistence in the environment, and its ability to degrade into environmentally persistent products. To investigate the potential photochemical degradation of aldrin, samples of aqueous aldrin solution (20 µg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Following irradiation, samples were extracted with organic solvent containing an internal standard for GC-ECD analysis. Results indicated that frozen samples degrade more quickly than liquid samples. Photochemical half lives for frozen and liquid samples were found to be approximately 13.5 hours and 45 hours respectively. It was found that the addition of natural organic matter increased the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Ongoing studies will further evaluate the differences in liquid and frozen reactivity and the influence of different sources of natural organic matter.

  13. Efficacy of resistin and leptin in predicting persistent organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengfei; Wang, Shiqi; Qiu, Zhaoyan; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Feng, Xiangying; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Zhao, Qingchuan

    To investigate the accuracy of resistin, leptin and adiponectin levels in predicting persistent organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Data from 90 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital for AP were retrospectively collected from an ongoing prospective cohort study. The levels of adiponectin, leptin and resistin were measured and compared between patients with and without persistent organ failure. The accuracy of the adipokines in predicting persistent organ failure were compared with the patients' Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, and were separately investigated in overweight and non-overweight groups. Persistent organ failure occurred in 26.7% of the patients. The levels of resistin were significantly increased in AP patients with persistent organ failure, in both the overweight and the non-overweight subgroups. Resistin and APACHE-II score predicted persistent organ failure with comparable areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.72 and 0.75, respectively (p = 0.66). Resistin demonstrated similar accuracy with the APACHE-II score in predicting persistent organ failure in the overweight (0.69 vs. 0.66, p = 0.82) and non-overweight (0.76 vs. 0.87, p = 0.39) subgroups. There was no correlation between adiponectin and persistent organ failure, but a weak correlation between leptin and persistent organ failure was demonstrated. Resistin and leptin levels, rather than adiponectin, correlate with persistent organ failure in patients with AP. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Semen Quality: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that persistent environmental chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls may adversely affect human fecundity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples discontinuing contraception for purposes of becoming pregnant. Men provided a blood specimen and two fresh semen samples collected approximately a month apart that underwent next day analysis for 35 semen quality endpoints. Serum samples were analyzed for 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners #18, 28, 44, 49, 52, 66, 74, 87, 99, 101, 114, 118, 128, 138, 146, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, 183, 187, 189, 194, 195, 196, 201, 206, 209); 1 polybrominated biphenyl (#153); 9 organochlorine pesticides; and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners #17, 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) using high resolution mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of chemicals on semen quality, we regressed each semen marker on each chemical while adjusting for research site, age, body mass index, serum lipids, and cotinine levels. Males with chemical concentrations in the fourth quartile, as compared to the first quartile, showed significant associations for several individual chemicals in each chemical class and type of semen quality parameter indicating negative and positive associations with semen quality. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in particular were associated with several measures of increased abnormal morphology. These exploratory results highlight the role of environmental influences on male fecundity, and are of particular interest given the ubiquitous exposures to these compounds. PMID:25441930

  15. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip H; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify commercial chemicals that might be persistent and bioaccumulative (P&B) and that were not being considered in current Great Lakes, North American, and Arctic contaminant measurement programs. We combined the Canadian Domestic Substance List (DSL), a list of 3059 substances of "unknown or variable composition complex reaction products and biological materials" (UVCBs), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Update Rule (IUR) database for years 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006 yielding a database of 22263 commercial chemicals. From that list, 610 chemicals were identified by estimates from U.S EPA EPISuite software and using expert judgment. This study has yielded some interesting and probable P&B chemicals that should be considered for further study. Recent studies, following up our initial reports and presentations on this work, have confirmed the presence of many of these chemicals in the environment.

  16. The origin and evolution of assessment criteria for persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Michael; Solomon, Keith; Vighi, Marco; Gilman, Andy; Tarazona, Jose V

    2016-09-14

    General public concern over the effects of persistent chemicals began in the early 1960s. Since then, significant scientific advances have increased our understanding of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals and the properties and processes that influence their fates in, and adverse effects on, human health and the environment. In addition to the scientific advances, a number of legislations and agreements for national, international, and global identification and control of PBT chemicals have been adopted. However, some of the rationales and thoughts that were relied upon when the first criteria were developed to identify and categorize PBT chemicals and then POPs (persistent organic pollutants) have not been carried forward. Criteria have been based upon available data of neutral hydrophobic substances as reference chemicals, derived under laboratory conditions. They evolved over the last decades due to the diversification of the protection aims under various national regulatory frameworks and international agreements, advances in methods for estimation of physical/chemical properties, and the identification of chemicals which are non-traditional POPs. Criteria are not defined purely by science; they also are subject to the aims of policy. This paper offers a historical perspective on the development of criteria for PBT chemicals and POPs. It also offers suggestions for rationalization of protection goals, describes some emerging procedures for identification of compounds of concern, and proposes information that needs to be considered when applying criteria to screening and/or evaluation of new chemicals.

  17. AGGREGATE EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AT DAY CARE AND AT HOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1997, we measured the aggregate exposures of nine preschool children, ages two to five years, to a suite of organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants that are commonly found in the home and school environment. The children attended either of t...

  18. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Chemicals with Emphasis on Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid growth in chemical and agrochemical industries during the past century have resulted in the release of large numbers of persistent organic chemicals (POCs) into the environment. Since POCs are prevalent in air, water, soil and tissue of organisms throughout the world and r...

  19. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Chemicals with Emphasis on Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid growth in chemical and agrochemical industries during the past century have resulted in the release of large numbers of persistent organic chemicals (POCs) into the environment. Since POCs are prevalent in air, water, soil and tissue of organisms throughout the world and r...

  20. AGGREGATE EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AT DAY CARE AND AT HOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1997, we measured the aggregate exposures of nine preschool children, ages two to five years, to a suite of organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants that are commonly found in the home and school environment. The children attended either of t...

  1. Behavior persistence in defining threshold switch in stepwise response of aquatic organisms exposed to toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zongming; Li, Shangge; Zhang, Tingting; Qi, Luhuizi; Xing, Na; Yu, Huimin; Jian, Jinfeng; Chon, Tae-Soo; Tang, Bo

    2016-12-01

    As a characteristic in bacterial colony, persistence model described the dynamics of two subpopulations (normal (n) and persister (p)). In order to illustrate the switch of "Threshold" in the stepwise behavior responses of organisms, it is hypothesized that total behavior (Bt) of organisms consists of two types in behavior tendency, intoxication (Bp) and normal/recovery behavior (Bn). Both Bp and Bn could be concurrently affected by environmental stress E, and behavior response modes (M) are decided by the relationship between E and toxicity threshold of test organisms (Ti). The results suggested stress constant λ was decided by the constant rates gnE,gpE, an and ap. Due to different stress constant λ, the behavior responses of indicators showed great difference in different M, which included 'safe mode' (Ms), 'acclimation mode' (Mac), 'adjustment mode' (Maj) and 'toxic effect' (Mte). Usually, Bt during Ms could maintain around 0.8, and Mte would happen once it is lower than 0.2. According to the relationship between Bt values and E changes in 7 Majs, behavior persistence relying on adjustment could reflect the behavior homeostasis of organisms under environmental stress and be regarded as a threshold switch for the stepwise behavior responses. The mathematical analysis of behavior persistence allows making a quantitative prediction on environment assessment that would promote the emergence of persistence, as well as evaluating its ecological implications.

  2. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Organic Nanocrystals with Bright Red Persistent Room-Temperature Phosphorescence for Biological Applications.

    PubMed

    Fateminia, S M Ali; Mao, Zhu; Xu, Shidang; Yang, Zhiyong; Chi, Zhenguo; Liu, Bin

    2017-09-25

    Persistent room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) in pure organic materials has attracted great attention because of their unique optical properties. The design of organic materials with bright red persistent RTP remains challenging. Herein, we report a new design strategy for realizing high brightness and long lifetime of red-emissive RTP molecules, which is based on introducing an alkoxy spacer between the hybrid units in the molecule. The spacer offers easy Br-H bond formation during crystallization, which also facilitates intermolecular electron coupling to favor persistent RTP. As the majority of RTP compounds have to be confined in a rigid environment to quench nonradiative relaxation pathways for bright phosphorescence emission, nanocrystallization is used to not only rigidify the molecules but also offer the desirable size and water-dispersity for biomedical applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Intermolecular Electronic Coupling of Organic Units for Efficient Persistent Room‐Temperature Phosphorescence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Mao, Zhu; Zhang, Xuepeng; Ou, Depei; Mu, Yingxiao; Zhao, Cunyuan; Liu, Siwei; Xu, Jiarui; Wu, Yuan‐Chun; Lu, Po‐Yen; Lien, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although persistent room‐temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emission has been observed for a few pure crystalline organic molecules, there is no consistent mechanism and no universal design strategy for organic persistent RTP (pRTP) materials. A new mechanism for pRTP is presented, based on combining the advantages of different excited‐state configurations in coupled intermolecular units, which may be applicable to a wide range of organic molecules. By following this mechanism, we have developed a successful design strategy to obtain bright pRTP by utilizing a heavy halogen atom to further increase the intersystem crossing rate of the coupled units. RTP with a remarkably long lifetime of 0.28 s and a very high quantum efficiency of 5 % was thus obtained under ambient conditions. This strategy represents an important step in the understanding of organic pRTP emission. PMID:26836346

  5. (PRESENTED AT TSUKUBA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS METHOD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity.

  6. Multiplex screening of persistent organic pollutants in fish using spectrally encoded microspheres

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are food contaminants of global public health concern and known to be carcinogenic and endocrine disruptors. Their monitoring is essential and an easy-to-use, rapid and affordable multi-analyte screening method with simplified sample preparation can be a valuable...

  7. Array-Based Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants via Cyclodextrin Promoted Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Moyano, Daniel F.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the selective array-based detection of 30 persistent organic pollutants via cyclodextrin-promoted energy transfer. The use of three fluorophores enabled the development of an array that classified 30 analytes with 100% accuracy and identified unknown analytes with 96% accuracy, as well as identifying 92% of analytes in urine. PMID:26096542

  8. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open burning of waste is the most significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in many national inventories prepared pursuant to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This is particularly true for developing ...

  9. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open burning of waste is the most significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in many national inventories prepared pursuant to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This is particularly true for developing ...

  10. Persistence of Subcultural Organizations: An Analysis Surrounding the Process of Subcultural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lont, Cynthia M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the terms used to describe the process of subcultural change (adaptation, appropriation, commodization, cooptation, and incorporation), demonstrating their limits. Introduces a more exact term, "persistence," and recommends its use and the elimination of other terms. Uses one subcultural organization, Redwood Records (a women's…

  11. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A combination of high biomass cover crops with organic mulches may be an option for no-till vegetable production, but mineralization rates from these residues is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess nutrient release rates and persistence from mimosa, lespedeza, oat straw, and soybean r...

  12. Comparative evaluation of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk: persistent organic pollutants and mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Tsakiris, I N; Kokkinakis, E; Dumanov, J M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Flouris, A D; Vlachou, M; Tsatsakis, A M

    2013-11-03

    Publications produced over the past 20 years regarding the concentration of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk were evaluated, focusing primarily on persistent organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, flame retardants), pesticides (e.g organochlorine) and mycotoxins. In general, countries of low industrialization rate present low levels of dietary milk contamination with dioxins compared to those with high rate of industrialization. According to published data, the most common persistent organic pollutants detected in breast and dietary milk are dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene. Even though the potential risks of persistent organic pollutants in human milk have been acknowledged, the beneficial effect of breastfeeding as the optimal food source for newborn babies should not be disregarded. Especially when sharing information with the general public, it should be made clear that the presence of dioxins and persistent organic pollutants in human milk is not an indication for avoiding breastfeeding. The implications of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk is a matter of growing importance and warrants future work given its important health effects.

  13. Persistence and internalization of Salmonella on/in organic spinach sprout: exploring the contamination route

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: The effects of contamination route, including seed and water, on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Methods: Seeds (1g) were contaminated with S. Newport using 10 ml of S. Newport-water suspension ov...

  14. Screening of persistent organic pollutants by QSPR classification models: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2008-08-01

    A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPRs) study for the prediction of the environmental persistence of a set of 250 heterogeneous organic compounds is here presented. Three a priori defined classes of environmental persistence were generated, by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, from the combination of half-life data in air, water, soil and sediment available for all the studied compounds. QSPR classification models were successfully developed using different techniques (k-NN, CART and CP-ANN) and three interpretable theoretical molecular descriptors. Robust external validation was provided by statistical splitting and also on completely new data. The good performances of all these models were compared and their structural domains were analyzed. The analysis of the errors highlights a slight tendency of persistence overestimation, misclassifying chemicals from a lower to a higher class of persistence, in line with the precautionary principle. Finally, the reliability of the proposed QSPR models was verified further with new data from the literature. The structure-based classification models, applicable for the prediction of potential persistence of heterogeneous organic compounds, could be useful as preliminary support tools for the identification and prioritization of new potential POPs among already existing chemicals as well as "screening prior to synthesis" procedures to avoid the production, and consequent release into the environment, of new POPs.

  15. Persistence of Two Isolates of Trichomonas gallinae in Simulated Bird Baths With and Without Organic Material.

    PubMed

    Purple, Kathryn E; Gerhold, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas gallinae, a well-documented protozoan parasite of avian hosts, has been implicated in major passerine mortality events recently and historically throughout the literature. It has been suggested that bird baths and artificial water sources could serve as a source of infection for naive birds; however, trichomonad persistence in water is not well understood. We measured the persistence of T. gallinae isolates from two avian hosts in distilled water and distilled water with the addition of organic material. We inoculated plastic containers in a laboratory setting with 1 × 10(6) trichomonads and then sampled 500 μl from each container at various time points postinoculation (0-20 hr). The 500-μl aliquots were inoculated into flasks with 5 ml of modified Diamond media at each time point. Flasks were incubated at 37 C and examined by light microscopy for five consecutive days for the characteristic movements of live trichomonads. The maximum persistence was 16 hr with a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) isolate in the organic material treatment, far longer than the 1 hr persistence previously reported. We show that T. gallinae isolates are capable of persisting for long periods of time in water, illustrating that bird baths may be validated as a potential source of transmission in epidemics.

  16. Comprehensive solid-phase extraction method for persistent organic pollutants. Validation and application to the analysis of persistent chlorinated pesticides.

    PubMed

    Sandau, Courtney D; Sjödin, Andreas; Davis, Mark D; Barr, John R; Maggio, Vincent L; Waterman, Alyson L; Preston, Kerry E; Preau, James L; Barr, Dana B; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2003-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is involved in many epidemiological studies regarding the measurement of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in specimens obtained from humans. In addition to these commonly determined analytes, there is a need to include additional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in our analyses, which further stresses the analyses because sample volumes remain small. Thus, a single method of analysis for all POPs in human serum is needed. CDC has recently developed a semiautomated and comprehensive solid-phase extraction method for POPs. The method is comprehensive since it was optimized for the extraction of many different POP compound classes. We then developed a purification and fractionation scheme that allows (a) separation of different compound classes by particular functionalities and (b) purification of those fractions to remove coextracted interferences. This paper describes the first step in the semiautomated comprehensive extraction and multiple fractionation method developed by CDC for monitoring POPs. In this paper, we validate the analysis of the persistent chlorinated pesticides, a compound class difficult to examine because of their structural diversity, in human plasma. The method was validated against an existing CDC method by using a spiked quality-control serum pool. The concentrations determined for all analytes using both methods were within 2%-14% relative standard deviations. A multilevel (i.e., 3-4 point) matrix spike showed good linearity for the analytes tested (r2 = 0.978-0.999). The method was then applied to 40-year-old archived plasma samples for the quantitative analysis of selected chlorinated pesticides. Mean recoveries of the 13C-labeled internal quantification standards ranged from 64% to 123% for the 11 monitored pesticides. The overall method proved to be robust by handling old coagulated plasma samples. It allowed faster throughput of samples than our previous methods

  17. STUDY DESIGN FOR A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC PESTICIDES "CTEPP"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study is one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examines the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary ad...

  18. STUDY DESIGN FOR A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC PESTICIDES "CTEPP"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study is one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examines the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary ad...

  19. [Persistence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in organism of infected animals].

    PubMed

    Rakovskaia, I V; Gorina, L G; Barkhatova, O I; Balabanov, D N; Goncharova, S A; Gamova, N A; Levina, G A

    2009-01-01

    To study the possibility of existence of antigenemia during urogenital mycoplasmal infections by detection the antigens of agents in blood and viscera of infected animals. Rabbits and mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, their antigens and DNAs. Samples of blood and visceral organs were studied by several methods: cultural with use of standard media, PCR, RT-PCR, indirect hemagglutination test, and immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies. Bacteremia with M. hominis develops during 2 months after inoculation in rabbits and 3 weeks after inoculation in mice. Antigens of M. hominis and U. urealyticum were detected in serum and visceral organs significantly frequently than live cells and DNAs. Prolonged preservation of the antigens in animals' blood and viscera after intraperitoneal administration of "pure" antigens points to the presence of true mycoplasmal antigenemia. Forms of existence of antigens in organism are different-they can represent corpuscular antigens as well as soluble molecular compounds circulating in blood both in free state and in structure of immune complexes. Antigens as well as live cells are preserved in all studied organs. Inoculation of rabbits and mice with M. hominis or U. urealyticum resulted in development of generalized infection with persistence of the agent in all studied organs during initial phase of infection and predominant persistence in organs of immunogenesis during later phases.

  20. A mesoporous metal–organic framework based on a shape-persistent macrocycle

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Teng -Hao; Popov, Ilya; Chuang, Yu -Chun; Chen, Yu -Sheng; Miljani, Ognjen S.

    2015-08-26

    A mesoporous Zn-based metal–organic framework (MOF) was prepared from a shape-persistent phenylene ethynylene macrocycle functionalized with three –COOH groups. The rigid ligand has a ~ 9 Å wide central cavity which serves as a predesigned pore. The macrocycles [ππ] stack into pairs, with their carboxylate groups connected via three Zn₃O₁₄C₆H₂ clusters. The resulting MOF has a void volume of 86%.

  1. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Blast from the past: melting glaciers as a relevant source for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may represent a secondary source of persistent organic chemicals is investigated. To this end, a dated sediment core from a glacier-fed lake (Lake Oberaar, Switzerland) was analyzed for a wide range of persistent organic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, and synthetic musk fragrances. Input fluxes of all organochlorines increased in the 1950s, peaked in the 1960s-1970s, and decreased again to low levels in the 1980s-1990s. This observation reflects the emission history of these compounds and technical improvements and regulations leading to reduced emissions some decades ago. The input of synthetic musks remained at a high level in the 1950s-1990s, which is consistent with their relatively constant production throughout the second half of the 20th century. Since the late 1990s, input of all compound classes into the high-Alpine Lake Oberaar has increased sharply. Currently, input fluxes of organochlorines are similar to or even higher than in the 1960s-1970s. This second peak supports the hypothesis that there is a relevant release of persistent organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive glacier melting predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for dire environmental impacts due to pollutants delivered into pristine mountainous areas.

  3. Equilibrium sampling to determine the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants from sediment.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wickström, Håkan; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-10-07

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) to lipid-normalized concentrations for a range of biota from a Swedish background lake. PCBs in duck mussels, roach, eel, pikeperch, perch and pike were mostly below the equilibrium partitioning level relative to the sediment, i.e., lipid-normalized concentrations were ≤CLip⇌Sed, whereas HCB was near equilibrium between biota and sediment. Equilibrium sampling allows straightforward, sensitive and precise measurement of CLip⇌Sed. We propose CLip⇌Sed as a metric of the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals from sediment useful to prioritize management actions to remediate contaminated sites.

  4. A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the

  5. Vitrification: Destroying and immobilizing hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Peters, R.D.; Perez, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Researchers at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have led the development of vitrification a versatile adaptable process that transforms waste solutions, slurries, moist powder and/or dry solids into a chemically durable glass form. The glass form can be safely disposed or used for other purposes, such as construction material if non-radioactive. The feed used in the process can be either combustible or non-combustible. Organic compounds are decomposed in the melters` plenum, while the inorganic residue melts into a molten glass pool. The glass produced by this process is a chemically durable material comparable to natural obsidian. Its properties typically allow it to pass the EPA Toxicity (TCLP) test as non-hazardous. To date, no glass produced by vitrification has failed the TCLP test. Vitrification is thus an ideal method of treating DOE`s mixed waste because of its ability to destroy organic compounds and bind toxic or radioactive elements. This article provides an overview of the technology.

  6. Use incineration to destroy toxic gases safely

    SciTech Connect

    Straitz, J.F. III

    1995-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are produced and released to the atmosphere during many operations that use toxic gases and liquids, or produce them as byproducts. VOCs and a wide range of objectionable gas and liquid waste streams can be destroyed in thermal oxidizers (also called incinerators, fume burners or flares). They offer a reliable, cost-effective approach, particularly in cases where the heat value of the waste is sufficient and the oxidizer can be operated without supplemental fuel. Where the heat value is not sufficient, an auxiliary fuel, such as gas, propane or fuel oil, is needed to sustain the needed destruction temperatures. Temperature is a key factor for efficient thermal oxidizer operation. A properly designed unit typically operates at a minimum temperature of 1,600 F. When the design provides adequate gas-air mixing and sufficient residence time, destruction efficiencies of 99.9% or better can be produced for most organic waste vapors and liquids. Certain compounds require higher temperatures. In some cases, thermal oxidation can be carried out at lower temperatures (to control operation expenses) with some tradeoff destruction efficiency.

  7. Predictors of persistent diarrhea in norovirus enteritis after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pearlie P; van Duin, David; Sonderup, Jessica L; Grant, Wendy J; Kalil, Andre C; Florescu, Diana F

    2016-11-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may develop protracted diarrheal illness from norovirus. We performed a retrospective chart review between January 2010 and April 2014 to identify predictors of persistent diarrhea in transplant recipients with norovirus enteritis. A total of 152 SOT recipients with mean age of 31.5 years (SD 23.1) were included: 43.4% male, 34.2% pediatric patients. Allograft types were abdominal 136 (89.5%) (kidney [39.5%], liver-small bowel [23%], other [27%]) and thoracic 16 (10.5%). The median time to diagnosis of first norovirus enteritis episode from date of transplantation was 1.7 (0.3-5.3) years. At time of presentation, diarrhea was present in 141 (93%). Thirty percent had persistent diarrhea at 2 weeks. Hospitalization was required for treatment in 121 (80%) of episodes with the mean length of stay of 10±15.2 days. Most (91%) infections were due to norovirus genogroup II, and gastrointestinal coinfections were seen in 23 (19%) norovirus enteritis episodes. Nausea at time of diagnosis (P=.002) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the preceding 90 days (P=.036) were identified as independent risk factors for persistent diarrhea using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Our study shows that nausea on presentation and prior CMV infection were associated with persistent diarrhea in patients with norovirus enteritis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  9. Antiviral antibody-producing cells in parenchymatous organs during persistent virus infection

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    In mice persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), the parenchymatous organs contain infiltrates of mononuclear cells, the sizes and numbers of which vary between strains and become more numerous and extensive when the animals grow older. Histologically, these were found to possess a tissue-like structure, and by use of immunohistologic procedures they were shown to contain plasma cells secreting IgM and IgG. Cells of kidneys, livers, brains, and spleens of LCMV carrier mice were dispersed by digestion with trypsin, leukocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and numbers of cells producing antibodies against LCMV were determined by use of a solid-phase immunoenzymatic technique. In all these organs, cells producing LCMV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were demonstrated, the latter more numerous than the former. Their numbers correlated with numbers and extent of the lymphoid cell infiltrates. The blood of the same mice was essentially free of antiviral antibody-forming cell. The proportion of cells producing LCMV-specific antibodies to all cells producing Ig of any specificity varied between organs, being lowest in spleen, intermediate in liver and kidney, and highest in the brain, where in individual mice up to 90% of all active cells produced virus- specific antibodies. The LCMV carrier mouse should prove to be a useful animal model to investigate antibody production in parenchymatous organs during persistent virus infections. PMID:3546579

  10. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-06

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport.

  11. Biodegradation of persistent organics can overcome adsorption-desorption hysteresis in biological activated carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, V; Racys, V; van der Marel, P; Meulepas, R J W

    2016-04-01

    In Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) systems, persistent organic pollutants can be removed through a combination of adsorption, desorption and biodegradation. These processes might be affected by the presence of other organics, especially by the more abundant easily-biodegradable organics, like acetate. In this research these relations are quantified for the removal of the persistent pharmaceutical metoprolol. Acetate did not affect the adsorption and desorption of metoprolol, but it did greatly enhance the metoprolol biodegradation. At least part of the BAC biomass growing on acetate was also able to metabolise metoprolol, although metoprolol was only converted after the acetate was depleted. The presence of easily-degradable organics like acetate in the feeding water is therefore beneficial for the removal of metoprolol in BAC systems. The isotherms obtained from metoprolol adsorption and desorption experiments showed that BAC systems are subject to hysteresis; for AC bioregeneration to take place the microbial biomass has to reduce the concentration at the AC-biomass interface 2.7 times compared to the concentration at which the carbon was being loaded. However, given the threshold concentration of the MET degrading microorganisms (<0.08 μg/L) versus the average influent concentration (1.3 μg/L), bioregeneration is feasible.

  12. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobby, R.; Pagano, L.; Grannas, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is well established that ice is a reactive medium in the environment and that active photochemistry occurs in frozen systems. Snow and ice contain a number of absorbing species including nitrate, peroxide and organic matter. Upon irradiation, they can generate a variety of reactive intermediates such as hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. It has been shown that dissolved organic matter is a ubiquitous component of snow and ice and plays an important role in overall light absorption properties of the sample. Additionally, the reactive intermediates produced can further react with contaminants present and alter their fate in the environment. Unfortunately, the role of dissolved organic matter in ice photochemistry has received little attention. Here we present results from laboratory-based studies aimed at elucidating the role of dissolved organic matter photochemistry on contaminant degradation in ice. Aqueous samples of our target pollutant, aldrin (20 μg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Results indicated that frozen samples degraded more quickly than liquid samples and that the addition of dissolved organic matter increases the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Both terrestrial (Suwannee River, U.S.) and microbial sources (Pony Lake, Antarctica) of DOM were able to sensitize aldrin loss in ice. Scavengers of singlet oxygen, such as furfuryl alcohol and β-carotene, were also added to DOM solutions. Based on the type of organic matter present, the scavengers had different effects on the photochemical degradation of aldrin. Our results indicate that natural organic matter present in ice is an important component of ice photochemical processes.

  14. Organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column for selective solid-phase microextraction of perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiyue; Yang, Zihui; Huang, Yongbin; Jiang, Linbo; Chen, Yingzhuang; Shen, Yao; Chen, Bo

    2013-03-01

    A novel construction strategy of monolithic capillary column for selectively enriching perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants was proposed. The organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column was synthesized by a "one-pot" approach via the polycondensation of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy-silane, then in situ copolymerization of 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes. The obtained monolithic columns were systematically characterized. The results demonstrated that the optimal column possessed good mechanical stability and high permeability. The adsorption capacities of the optimized monolithic column for perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate were 0.257 and 0.513 μg/mg, respectively. Adsorption capacities of the monoliths were proved to increasing with increasing the amounts of fluorinated monomers in the fluorous monoliths. Sodium 1-octanesulfonate, as a comparison compound, was hardly adsorbed on the fluorous monolith. In addition, the trace amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in water samples can be successfully concentrated about 160 times to their original concentrations by this monolithic column. These results demonstrated that the capacity and selectivity of the affinity fluorous column is high and can be applied to the selective enrichment for the perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants from environmental samples.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses after fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Zecchin; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2015-04-15

    A fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station on February 25th, 2012 led to the burning of material that produced organic pollutants. To evaluate the impact in the surrounding area, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in moss samples collected in the vicinities of the station before and after the incident and compared to findings from previous studies in the same region. PCBs were on the same magnitude as that reported in previous studies, which could be associated to the global dispersion of these compounds and may not be related to the local fire. In contrast, concentrations of HCB and PAHs were higher than those reported in previous studies. No PBDEs were found above the method detection limit. Organic contaminant concentrations in mosses decreased a few months after the fire, which is an important characteristic when considering the use of mosses for monitoring recent exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Harden, Jennifer W.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kleber, Markus; Burton, Sarah D.; Harte, John

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) processes in dynamic landscapes are strongly influenced by soil erosion and sedimentation. We determined the contribution of physical isolation of organic matter (OM) inside aggregates, chemical interaction of OM with soil minerals, and molecular structure of SOM in controlling storage and persistence of SOM in different types of eroding and depositional landform positions. By combining density fractionation with elemental and spectroscopic analyses, we showed that SOM in depositional settings is less transformed and better preserved than SOM in eroding landform positions. However, which environmental factors exert primary control on storage and persistence of SOM depended on the nature of the landform position considered. In an annual grassland watershed, protection of SOM by physical isolation inside aggregates and chemical association of organic matter (complexation) with soil minerals, as assessed by correlation with radiocarbon concentration, were more effective in the poorly drained, lowest-lying depositional landform positions, compared to well-drained landform positions in the upper parts of the watershed. Results of this study demonstrated that processes of soil erosion and deposition are important mechanisms of long-term OM stabilization.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in human milk in women from urban and rural areas in northern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Su-Ju; Zhao, Jian-Hong; Koga, Minoru; Ma, Yu-Xia; Liu, Dian-Wu; Nakamura, Masafumi; Liu, Huai-Jun; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Clark, George C; Kayama, Fujio

    2005-11-01

    Human milk specimens from 55 women in Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural areas in Hebei Province in northern China were collected and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and dioxins. We administered a questionnaire to milk donors at collection time, asking about lifestyle factors that potentially influence organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in human milk. We found that the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH in human milk from the primiparous mothers in Shijiazhuang (3330 and 108.8 ng/g fat, respectively) were higher than in samples from mothers from Tangshan (1916 and 21.2 ng/g fat, respectively). In addition, we found the level of p,p'-DDE correlated positively with a dietary history of meat consumption or consumption of internal organs of pigs and sheep (r=0.38 and r=0.52, respectively), but not with intake frequencies of vegetables and fruits in primiparous mothers. The higher level for p,p'-DDE may be due to a greater intake of contaminated fatty foods in the industrialized areas. We also showed that the body burden of p,p'-DDE was higher in the urban group compared to the values in other regions in China after 1998. However, there was no difference in dioxin levels between the two regions. Comprehensive monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in human milk and food is needed in China.

  18. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxins and other persistent organic pollutants and anogenital distance in children.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Mathianaki, Kleopatra; Karakosta, Polyxeni; Spanaki, Ariana; Besselink, Harrie; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; KaterinaSarri; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the potential endocrine disruptive effect of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through maternal diet, by measuring anogenital distance in newborns and young children. We included 231 mothers and their newborns measured at birth from the Rhea study in Crete, Greece and the Hmar study in Barcelona, Spain and 476 mothers and their children measured between 1 and 2 years from the Rhea study. We used food frequency questionnaires to assess maternal diet and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) and other POPs in maternal samples. We defined a "high-fat diet" score, as a prenatal exposure estimate, that incorporated intakes of red meat, processed meat, fatty fish, seafood, eggs and high-fat dairy products during pregnancy. Increasing maternal "high-fat diet" score was related to increasing dioxin-like activity and serum concentrations of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood. An inverse dose-response association was found between "high-fat diet" score and anoscrotal distance in newborn males. The highest tertile of the maternal score was associated with -4.2 mm (95% CI -6.6 to -1.8) reduction in anoscrotal distance of newborn males, compared to the lowest tertile. A weak positive association was found between the "high-fat diet" score and anofourchetal distance in newborn females. In young children we found no association between maternal "high-fat diet" score and anogenital distances. In conclusion, maternal high-fat diet may be linked to high prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptive effects, resulting to phenotypic alterations of the reproductive system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, J P; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Artacho-Cordón, F; Garde, C; Perez-Carrascosa, F; Linares, I; Tovar, I; González-Alzaga, B; Expósito, J; Torne, P; Fernández, M F; Olea, N

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends=0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends=0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend=0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends=0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend=0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistence and potential effects of complex organic contaminant mixtures in wastewater-impacted streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Natural and synthetic organic contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can cause ecosystem impacts, raising concerns about their persistence in receiving streams. In this study, Lagrangian sampling, in which the same approximate parcel of water is tracked as it moves downstream, was conducted at Boulder Creek, Colorado and Fourmile Creek, Iowa to determine in-stream transport and attenuation of organic contaminants discharged from two secondary WWTPs. Similar stream reaches were evaluated, and samples were collected at multiple sites during summer and spring hydrologic conditions. Travel times to the most downstream (7.4 km) site in Boulder Creek were 6.2 h during the summer and 9.3 h during the spring, and to the Fourmile Creek 8.4 km downstream site times were 18 and 8.8 h, respectively. Discharge was measured at each site, and integrated composite samples were collected and analyzed for >200 organic contaminants including metal complexing agents, nonionic surfactant degradates, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and pesticides. The highest concentration (>100 μg L–1) compounds detected in both WWTP effluents were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylate oligomers, both of which persisted for at least 7 km downstream from the WWTPs. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals were lower (<1 μg L–1), and several compounds, including carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole, were detected throughout the study reaches. After accounting for in-stream dilution, a complex mixture of contaminants showed little attenuation and was persistent in the receiving streams at concentrations with potential ecosystem implications.

  1. Mind the Gap: Persistent and Mobile Organic Compounds-Water Contaminants That Slip Through.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Berger, Urs; Arp, Hans Peter H; Gallard, Hervé; Knepper, Thomas P; Neumann, Michael; Quintana, José Benito; Voogt, Pim de

    2016-10-04

    The discharge of persistent and mobile organic chemicals (PMOCs) into the aquatic environment is a threat to the quality of our water resources. PMOCs are highly polar (mobile in water) and can pass through wastewater treatment plants, subsurface environments and potentially also drinking water treatment processes. While a few such compounds are known, we infer that their number is actually much larger. This Feature highlights the issue of PMOCs from an environmental perspective and assesses the gaps that appear to exist in terms of analysis, monitoring, water treatment and regulation. On this basis we elaborate strategies on how to narrow these gaps with the intention to better protect our water resources.

  2. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Concern Over the Link with Insulin Resistance Related Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mostafalou, Sara

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are mostly halogenated compounds tending to persist in the environment, enter into the food chain, and accumulate in fat mass of mammals due to their high lipophilicity. They include some organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these chemicals were widely used in the past so that their residues can be detected in the human body, though their usage has been banned for years. POPs have been shown to perturb the health of biological systems in different ways evidenced by carcinogenicity and disrupting effects on endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems. There are many epidemiologic and experimental studies on the association of exposure to POPs with insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders like obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Inflammation as a known mechanism accompanying insulin resistance has also been shown to arise in insulin target tissues exposed to POPs. This review addresses the breast milk concentration of POPs in different regions of the world, synthesizes the current information on the association of POPs with insulin resistance related metabolic disorders, and discusses the inflammation as an involved mechanism. Considering high prevalence of insulin resistance related metabolic diseases and their relation with POPs, much need is felt regarding international and regional programs to not only limit their production and usage but eliminate these persistent pollutants from the environment.

  3. Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-02-01

    Microplastics have the potential to uptake and release persistent organic pollutants (POPs); however, subsequent transfer to marine organisms is poorly understood. Some models estimating transfer of sorbed contaminants to organisms neglect the role of gut surfactants under differing physiological conditions in the gut (varying pH and temperature), examined here. We investigated the potential for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to sorb and desorb (14)C-DDT, (14)C-phenanthrene (Phe), (14)C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and (14)C-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Desorption rates of POPs were quantified in seawater and under simulated gut conditions. Influence of pH and temperature was examined in order to represent cold and warm blooded organisms. Desorption rates were faster with gut surfactant, with a further substantial increase under conditions simulating warm blooded organisms. Desorption under gut conditions could be up to 30 times greater than in seawater alone. Of the POP/plastic combinations examined Phe with PE gave the highest potential for transport to organisms.

  4. Review Article: Persistent organic pollutants and landfills - a review of past experiences and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin; Oliaei, Fardin

    2011-01-01

    The landfilling and dumping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other persistent hazardous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohaxane (HCH), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) can have significant adverse environmental consequences. This paper reviews past experiences with such disposal practices and highlights their unsustainability due to the risks of contamination of ecosystems, the food chain, together with ground and drinking water supplies. The use and associated disposal of POPs have been occurring for over 50 years. Concurrent with the phase-out of some of the most hazardous chemicals, the production of new POPs, such as brominated and fluorinated compounds has increased since the 1990s. These latter compounds are commonly used in a wide range of consumer goods, and as consumer products reach the end of their useful lives, ultimately enter waste recycling and disposal systems, in particular at municipal landfills. Because of their very slow, or lack of degradability, POPs will persist in landfills for many decades and possibly centuries. Over these extended time periods engineered landfill systems and their liners are likely to degrade, thus posing a contemporary and future risk of releasing large contaminant loads to the environment. This review highlights the necessity for alternative disposal methods for POP wastes, including destruction or complete removal from potential environmental release. In addition to such end of pipe solutions a policy change in the use pattern of persistent toxic chemicals is inevitable. In addition, inventories for the location and quantity of POPs in landfills, together with an assessment of their threat to ecosystems, drinking water and food resources are identified as key measures to facilitate appropriate management of risks. Finally the challenges of POP wastes in transition/developing countries, the risk of increased leaching of POPs from

  5. Are there other persistent organic pollutants? A challenge for environmental chemists.

    PubMed

    Muir, Derek C G; Howard, Philip H

    2006-12-01

    The past 5 years have seen some major successes in terms of global measurement and regulation of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PB&T) chemicals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The Stockholm Convention, a global agreement on POPs, came into force in 2004. There has been a major expansion of measurements and risk assessments of new chemical contaminants in the global environment, particularly brominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated alkyl acids. However, the list of chemicals measured represents only a small fraction of the approximately 30,000 chemicals widely used in commerce (>1 t/y). The vast majority of existing and new chemical substances in commerce are not monitored in environmental media. Assessment and screening of thousands of existing chemicals in commerce in the United States, Europe, and Canada have yielded lists of potentially persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals. Here we review recent screening and categorization studies of chemicals in commerce and address the question of whether there is now sufficient information to permit a broader array of chemicals to be determined in environmental matrices. For example, Environment Canada's recent categorization of the Domestic (existing) Substances list, using a wide array of quantitative structure activity relationships for PB&T characteristics, has identified about 5.5% of 11,317 substances as meeting P & B criteria. Using data from the Environment Canada categorization, we have listed, for discussion purposes, 30 chemicals with high predicted bioconcentration and low rate of biodegradation and 28 with long range atmospheric transport potential based on predicted atmospheric oxidation half-lives >2 days and log air-water partition coefficients > or =5 and < or =1. These chemicals are a diverse group including halogenated organics, cyclic siloxanes, and substituted aromatics. Some of these chemicals and their transformation products may be candidates for future environmental

  6. Assessment of secondary sources of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including highly toxic pesticides and other chemicals accumulate in living tissues and magnify in food chains. POPs are subject to long-range transport and hence represent a serious public health issue even in regions where their production is regulated. Rational control strategies require an understanding of the overall relationship between environmental emissions of contaminants and environmental / human exposure. In this study, we assess the relationships between environmental emissions and potential human exposure of organic contaminants with emphasis on long-range atmospheric transport. We investigate whether atmospheric levels of POPs measured at Zeppelin observatory in Svalbard since the early '90s are controlled by primary or secondary emissions. We present statistical indications that the measurements are affected by secondary ocean emissions and discuss the applicability of different inverse modeling approaches.

  7. Plant-bacteria partnerships for the remediation of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Muhammad; Imran, Asma; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    High toxicity, bioaccumulation factor and widespread dispersal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) cause environmental and human health hazards. The combined use of plants and bacteria is a promising approach for the remediation of soil and water contaminated with POPs. Plants provide residency and nutrients to their associated rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria. In return, the bacteria support plant growth by the degradation and detoxification of POPs. Moreover, they improve plant growth and health due to their innate plant growth-promoting mechanisms. This review provides a critical view of factors that affect absorption and translocation of POPs in plants and the limitations that plant have to deal with during the remediation of POPs. Moreover, the synergistic effects of plant-bacteria interactions in the phytoremediation of organic pollutants with special reference to POPs are discussed.

  8. Relationships between persistent organic pollutants and carbonaceous materials in aquatic sediments of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Ko, Fung-Chi; Chen, Hung-Yu; Hsu, Min-Lan; Wu, Jian-Ming; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Nan, Fan-Hua; Yeager, Kevin M; Santschi, Peter H

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that many persistent organic pollutants (POPs, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and various pesticides), are strongly associated with carbonaceous materials (including organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC)). We hypothesize that carbonaceous materials can be used as a first-order pollution index, to indicate areas where POP pollution may require further investigation. We tested our hypothesis and found that strong, positive correlations between BC and OC contents versus the concentrations of PCBs (and PAHs) existed in estuarine sediments of the Danshui River in 2005 and 2008. Thus, our preliminary results demonstrate that POC and BC are potential indicators of the POP pollution potential in fluvial sediments of the Danshui River in Taiwan. This innovative approach can provide a simple, relatively inexpensive and expedient means to monitor concentrations of POPs in polluted aquatic sediments of Taiwan, and/or those having a legacy of POP inputs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An arctic terrestrial food-chain bioaccumulation model for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Barry C; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2003-07-01

    A model representing the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic terrestrial mammalian food-chains is developed, parametrized, tested, and analyzed. The model predicts concentrations of POPs in lichen, caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and wolf (Canis lupus) food-chains of Canada's central and western arctic region from measured concentrations in air and snowpack meltwater. The model accounts for temporal and seasonal variation in diet composition, life-stage, body weight, and fat content over the life-span of the animal. Model predicted concentrations of 25 organic chemicals forecasted for caribou and wolves from Cambridge Bay (69 degrees 07' N 105 degrees 03' W), Inuvik (68 degrees 18' N 133 degrees 29' W) and Bathurst Inlet (64 degrees 15' N 113 degrees 07' W) are shown to be in good agreement with the observed data. The model illustrates a strong relationship between biomagnification factors and chemical K(OA) and illustrates the effect of age, sex, and temperature on POPs bioaccumulation. Model results show that POPs with K(OA)s < 10(5) do not biomagnify in arctic terrestrial food-chains, while substances that exhibit log K(OA)s > 5 and also exhibit a log K(OW) > 2, show significant bioaccumulation in arctic terrestrial food-chains. The model shows that persistent low K(OW) (K(OW)s < 10(5)) but high K(OA) substances such as beta-HCH, 1,2,4,5 tetrachlorobenzene, and beta-endosulfan biomagnify in terrestrial mammals.

  10. Revolatilization of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic induced by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianmin; Hung, Hayley; Tian, Chongguo; Kallenborn, Roland

    2011-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds produced by human activities that are resistant to environmental degradation. They include industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Owing to their persistence in the environment, POPs are transported long distances in the atmosphere, accumulating in regions such as the Arctic, where low temperatures induce their deposition. Here the compounds accumulate in wildlife and humans, putting their health at risk. The concentrations of many POPs have decreased in Arctic air over the past few decades owing to restrictions on their production and use. As the climate warms, however, POPs deposited in sinks such as water and ice are expected to revolatilize into the atmosphere, and there is evidence that this process may have already begun for volatile compounds. Here we show that many POPs, including those with lower volatilities, are being remobilized into the air from repositories in the Arctic region as a result of sea-ice retreat and rising temperatures. We analysed records of the concentrations of POPs in Arctic air since the early 1990s and compared the results with model simulations of the effect of climate change on their atmospheric abundances. Our results indicate that a wide range of POPs have been remobilized into the Arctic atmosphere over the past two decades as a result of climate change, confirming that Arctic warming could undermine global efforts to reduce environmental and human exposure to these toxic chemicals.

  11. Coupling of phytoplankton uptake and air-water exchange of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Baker, J.E.; Ko, F.C.; Jeremiason, J.D.

    1999-10-15

    A dynamic model that couples air-water exchange and phytoplankton uptake of persistent organic pollutants has been developed and then applied to PCB data from a small experimental lake. A sensitivity analysis of the model, taking into account the influence of physical environmental conditions such as temperature, wind speed, and mixing depth as well as plankton-related parameters such as biomass and growth rate was carried out for a number of PCBs with different physical-chemical properties. The results indicate that air-water exchange dynamics are influenced not only by physical parameters but also by phytoplankton biomass and growth rate. New phytoplankton production results in substantially longer times to reach equilibrium. Phytoplankton uptake-induced depletion of the dissolved phase concentration maintains air and water phases out of equilibrium. Furthermore, PCBs in phytoplankton also take longer times to reach equilibrium with the dissolved water phase when the latter is supported by diffusive air-water exchange. However, both model analysis and model application to the Experimental Lakes Area of northwestern Ontario (Canada) suggest that the gas phase supports the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs, in atmospherically driven aquatic environments.

  12. [Unusual forms of persistence of Mycoplasma hominis in organism of infected humans].

    PubMed

    Levina, G A; Barkhatova, O I; Gorina, L G; Gamova, N A; Goncharova, S A; Miller G G; Raskova, T M; Rastegaeva, I N; Seliverstova, N A; Rakovskaia, I V

    2012-01-01

    Study previously unknown forms of persistence of Mycoplasma hominis in host organism. Culture method was used for detection of mycoplasmas. Identification was carried out by serological, electron microscopy methods, classic PCR and real time PCR; circulating immune complexes (CIC) were isolated by PEG precipitation. Classic micoplasma cultures could not be isolated from blood even once. At the same time "mini-colony" cultures composed of mini-cells that were hardly passaged but sometimes formed continuous layer of the same colonies were isolated from blood serum samples with high frequency. During reseeding for more than 1 year they never acquired classic form. Not only antigens of M. hominis but its DNA were shown to be present in CIC. Viable cells forming "mini-colonies" identical to those isolated from blood sera were isolated from circulating immune complexes. A system of evidence on identity of isolated M. hominis cultures is presented. Cultures had infectivity and an ability to persist in organs of experimentally infected mice. The isolated forms are apparently the result of adaptation of mycoplasmas to humoral immunity factors.

  13. Probing Arctic Sediment Constituents for Their Ability to Promote the Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, H. L.; Grannas, A. M.; Scully, D. M.; Miller, P. L.

    2005-12-01

    The presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in polar regions is of concern because their toxicological properties may have a deleterious impact on these fragile ecosystems. Although the presence of POPs in the Arctic is widely acknowledged, little work has considered the potential for POPs to be transformed via natural processes in the Arctic environment. To the best of our knowledge, this present work is the first to study the ability of Arctic sediment constituents to promote the transformation of POPs. Several sediments were collected from various locations in Toolik, Alaska (68° 38'N, 149° 43'W) and the reactive sediment constituents were extracted with MilliQ water. The extracts were screened for their ability to promote reduction reactions by spiking with the chemical probe, pentachloronitrobenzene. The target POPs aldrin, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl were spiked into the most reactive of the sediment extracts and their degradation was monitored over several weeks. We observed selective degradation of persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan sediments and found that pentachloronitrobenzene was a useful probe in predicting sediment reductive reactivity.

  14. Elevated mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the soil of a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Nizzetto, Luca; Liu, Xiang; Borgå, Katrine; Starrfelt, Jostein; Li, Jun; Jiang, Yishan; Liu, Xin; Jones, Kevin C; Zhang, Gan

    2015-04-07

    Semivolatile persistent organic pollutants (POP) are bioaccumulative and toxic contaminants. Their global distribution depends on source distribution, atmospheric transport, degradation, and the exchange with ocean and land surfaces. Forests are crucial terrestrial reservoirs due to the commonly envisaged high capacity of their surface soils to store and immobilize airborne contaminants bound to soil organic matter. Our results show that POPs can be unexpectedly mobile in the soil of a tropical rainforest due to fast litter turnover (leading to rapid POP transfer to the subsoil) and leaching rates exceeding degradation rates especially for more hydrophobic congeners. Co-transport in association with leaching fine particulate and dissolved organic matter appears as a relevant driver of this PCB export. A markedly different distribution pattern is displayed in this soil in comparison to soils of colder environments with lower overall storage capacity. These findings show that biogeochemistry of organic matter degradation and weathering can influence POP soil fate. Because tropical forests represent 60% of the global terrestrial productivity, the highlighted dynamics might have an implication for the general distribution of these contaminants.

  15. Consumption of organic meat does not diminish the carcinogenic potential associated with the intake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-04-19

    Numerous studies have shown an epidemiological link between meat consumption and the incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that this relationship may be motivated by the presence of carcinogenic contaminants on it. Among the most frequently detected contaminants in meat are several types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and it is well known that many of them are carcinogenic. On the other hand, an increasing number of consumers choose to feed on what are perceived as healthier foods. Thus, the number of consumers of organic food is growing. However, environmental contamination by POPs is ubiquitous, and it is therefore unlikely that the practices of organic food production are able to prevent this contamination. To test this hypothesis, we acquired 76 samples of meat (beef, chicken, and lamb) of two modes of production (organic and conventional) and quantified their levels of 33 carcinogenic POPs. On this basis, we determined the human meat-related daily dietary exposure to these carcinogens using as a model a population with a high consumption of meat, such as the Spanish population. The maximum allowable meat consumption for this population and the carcinogenic risk quotients associated with the current pattern of consumption were calculated. As expected, no sample was completely free of carcinogenic contaminants, and the differences between organically and conventionally produced meats were minimal. According to these results, the current pattern of meat consumption exceeded the maximum limits, which are set according to the levels of contaminations, and this is associated with a relevant carcinogenic risk. Strikingly, the consumption of organically produced meat does not diminish this carcinogenic risk, but on the contrary, it seems to be even higher, especially that associated with lamb consumption.

  16. Remote sensing and GIS for the modeling of persistent organic pollutant in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzini, S.; Teggi, S.; Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-10-01

    The characterization of the marine environment plays an important role in the understanding of the dynamics affecting the transport, fate and persistence (TFP) of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This work is part of a project funded by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca. The aim of the project is the assessment of the TFP of POPs in the Mediterranean sea. The analysis will be carried out at regionalmesoscale (central Mediterranean), and at local spatial scale considering different Italian test sites (the Delta of the Po River, the Venice Lagoon and the estuary of the Rio Nocella). The first step of this work involves the implementation of GIS geodatabases for the definition of the input dataset. The geodatabases were populated with MERIS and MODIS level 2 and level 3 products of Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient (DAC), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The spatial scale (central Mediterranean sea) and the reference system (Plate Carrée projection) have been imposed as a constraint for the geodatabases. Four geodatabases have been implemented, two for MODIS and two for MERIS products with a monthly, seasonal and climatological temporal scale (2002 -2013). Here, we present a first application of a methodology aimed to identify vulnerable areas to POPs accumulation and persistence. The methodology allowed to assess the spatial distribution of the CHL-a in the central Mediterranean sea. The chlorophyll concentration is related to the amount of nutrients in the water and therefore provides an indicator of the potential presence of POPs. A pilot area of 300 x 200 km located in the North Adriatic sea has been initially considered. The seasonal and climatological MODIS and MERIS CHL-a variability were retrieved and compared with in-situ forcing parameters, i.e. Po River

  17. Persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wyplosz, B; Burdet, C; François, H; Durrbach, A; Duclos-Vallée, J C; Mamzer-Bruneel, M-F; Poujol, P; Launay, O; Samuel, D; Vittecoq, D; Consigny, P H

    2013-09-01

    Immunization using live attenuated vaccines represents a contra-indication after solid organ transplantation (SOT): consequently, transplant candidates planning to travel in countries where yellow fever is endemic should be vaccinated prior to transplantation. The persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after transplantation has not been studied yet. We measured yellow-fever neutralizing antibodies in 53 SOT recipients vaccinated prior to transplantation (including 29 kidney recipients and 18 liver recipients). All but one (98%) had protective titers of antibodies after a median duration of 3 years (min.: 0.8, max.: 21) after transplantation. The median antibody level was 40 U/L (interquartile range: 40-80). For the 46 patients with a known or estimated date of vaccination, yellow-fever antibodies were still detectable after a median time of 13 years (range: 2-32 years) post-immunization. Our data suggest there is long-term persistence of antibodies to yellow fever in SOT recipients who have been vaccinated prior to transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere with mosses: performance and application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qimei; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have aroused environmentalists and public concerns due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. However, monitoring atmospheric POPs using conventional instrumental methods is difficult and expensive, and POP levels in air samples represent an instantaneous value at a sampling time. Biomonitoring methods can overcome this limitation, because biomonitors can accumulate POPs, serve as long-term integrators of POPs and provide reliable information to assess the impact of pollutants on the biota and various ecosystems. Recently, mosses are increasingly employed to monitor atmospheric POPs. Mosses have been applied to indicate POP pollution levels in the remote continent of Antarctica, trace distribution of POPs in the vicinity of pollution sources, describe the spatial patterns at the regional scale, and monitor the changes in the pollution intensity along time. In the future, many aspects need to be improved and strengthened: (i) the relationship between the concentrations of POPs in mosses and in the atmosphere (different size particulates and vapor phases); and (ii) the application of biomonitoring with mosses in human health studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in the Atlantic and southern oceans and oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Cochran, Michele A; Falconer, Renee L; Kylin, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to cycle through the atmosphere and hydrosphere despite banned or severely restricted usages. Global scale analyses of POPs are challenging, but knowledge of the current distribution of these compounds is needed to understand the movement and long-term consequences of their global use. In the current study, air and seawater samples were collected Oct. 2007-Jan. 2008 aboard the Icebreaker Oden en route from Göteborg, Sweden to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Both air and surface seawater samples consistently contained α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-Endosulfan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sample concentrations for most POPs in air were higher in the northern hemisphere with the exception of HCB, which had high gas phase concentrations in the northern and southern latitudes and low concentrations near the equator. South Atlantic and Southern Ocean seawater had a high ratio of α-HCH to γ-HCH, indicating persisting levels from technical grade sources. The Atlantic and Southern Ocean continue to be net sinks for atmospheric α-, γ-HCH, and Endosulfan despite declining usage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of the cold condensation of persistent organic pollutants with a global multimedia fate model

    SciTech Connect

    Scheringer, M.; Wegmann, F.; Fenner, K.; Hungerbuehler, K.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present a new global multimedia fate model that considers the influence of temperature on the environmental transport, degradation, and partitioning of persistent organic pollutants. The model consists of a variable number of latitudinal zones with specific annual temperature courses; each zone contains soil, oceanic surface water, and tropospheric air. The chemicals' degradation rates and Henry's law constants (H) are implemented as functions of temperature and the concentrations in the soil, water, and air compartments of each latitudinal zone are calculated as functions of time. The resulting temporal and spatial concentrations patterns are characterized by persistence and spatial range. Model calculations are carried out for tetrachloromethane, {alpha}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({alpha}-HCH), and murex, and the specific distribution patterns of these three chemicals are discussed. The model results show that the soil and water concentrations of the polar zones are strongly sensitive to changes of the latitudinal gradient of H and of washout ratios, adsorption to aerosol particles, and deposition rates.

  1. Experimental investigations of the entrapment and persistence of organic liquid contaminants in the subsurface environment.

    PubMed Central

    Abriola, L M; Bradford, S A

    1998-01-01

    Organic liquids are common polluters of the subsurface environment. Once released, these nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) tend to become entrapped within soils and geologic formations where they may serve as long-term contaminant reservoirs. The interphase mass transfer from such entrapped residuals will ultimately control environmental exposure levels as well as the persistence and/or remedial recovery of these contaminants in the subsurface. This paper summarizes National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-sponsored research designed to investigate and quantify NAPL entrapment and interphase mass transfer in natural porous media. Results of soil column and batch experiments are presented that highlight research findings over the past several years. These experiments explore dissolution and volatilization of hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in sandy porous media. Initial concentration levels and long-term recovery rates are shown to depend on fluid flow rate, soil structure, NAPL composition, and soil wetting characteristics. These observations are explained in the context of conceptual models that describe entrapped NAPL morphology and boundary layer transport. The implications of these laboratory findings on the subsurface persistence and recovery of entrapped NAPLs are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 9 PMID:9703497

  2. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy.

    PubMed

    Valvi, Damaskini; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Goñi, Fernando; Grimalt, Joan O; Llop, Sabrina; Marina, Loreto Santa; Vizcaino, Esther; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-02-01

    To examine the effects of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and overweight at 14 months of age. In a Spanish birth cohort study, the POPs dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs-congeners 153, 138, 180) were measured in maternal serum collected in the first trimester of pregnancy during 2003-2008. Rapid growth was defined as a z-score weight gain >0.67 SD between 6 months of age and birth. Overweight at 14 months was defined as a BMI z-score ≥85th percentile. Generalized linear models examined the association between POPs and rapid growth (N = 1285) and overweight (N = 1198). The analysis population included 24% rapid growers and 30% overweight infants. DDE and HCB were positively associated with rapid growth and with overweight. There was some indication that infant sex and exclusive breastfeeding duration may modify the effects of DDE, and that maternal prepregnancy BMI status may influence the effects of HCB. PCBs were not related to postnatal growth. Prenatal exposure to DDE and HCB may be associated with early postnatal growth. Further research is needed to evaluate the persistence of these associations at older ages. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  3. Current status and regulatory aspects of pesticides considered to be persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2010-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. The information about their environmental properties, banned use, carcinogenic toxicity and environmental levels, can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Council of Agriculture, and Council of Labor Affairs). The significant progress to be reported is that the residual levels of these pesticide-POPs, ranging from trace amounts to a few ppb, have declined notably in recent years.

  4. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Breast cancer and persistent organic pollutants (excluding DDT): a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Mouly, Tafzila Akter; Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew

    2016-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of heterogeneous compounds of both natural and anthropogenic origin with highly persistent and bioaccumulative properties. They cause a range of adverse effects to human health and the environment around the world. There is growing concern that POPs may increase breast cancer risk due to their xenoestrogenic properties. The aim of this systematic literature review is to summarize and integrate the risks of breast cancer following environmental exposure to POPs (other than DDT) from primary epidemiological studies published between 2006 and 2015. After searching various databases, 14 case-control studies and one cohort study were included. Evidence of an association between increased breast cancer risk and environmental exposure to these chemicals is inconsistent and inadequate to conclude with certainty. However, most of the studies have examined exposure to the pollutants after diagnosis of breast cancer, overlooking exposure during critical windows of vulnerability. They have also largely focused on individual chemicals but ignored the combined effects of different chemicals. Therefore, major data gaps remain in examining exposure during critical windows of vulnerability and assessing combined effects of multiple chemicals. Development of better exposure assessment methods addressing these gaps is required for future research.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human follicular fluid and in vitro fertilization outcomes, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Storm, Robin; Zhang, Li; Butts, Celeste D; Sollohub, Diana; Jansing, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitously distributed among the U.S. population and adversely impact human reproduction. These compounds have been detected in human ovarian follicular fluid (FF), where they directly contact a developing oocyte. As a pilot investigation, we measured 43 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its persistent metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in residual FF collected from 32 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). We identified significant inverse associations between higher levels of PCB congeners and indicators of ovarian reserve (e.g., antral follicle count), follicular response to administered gonadotropins (e.g., peak estradiol, number of oocytes retrieved, endometrial thickness), intermediate IVF endpoints (e.g., oocyte fertilization and embryo quality), and clinical IVF outcomes (e.g., embryo implantation and live birth), after adjusting for body mass index, cigarette smoking, race, and age. Our results suggest that ongoing exposure to POPs impacts IVF and merit confirmation in a larger and more definitive future study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. For a healthier future: a virtuous cycle for reducing exposure to persistent organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Chisato; Todaka, Emiko

    2017-01-01

    In the modern society, people are exposed to various pollutants during their lifetime. Worldwide, the status of children's health has changed in recent decades. Some studies have attempted to identify the causes of these changes and whether they relate to pollutant exposure; however, such attempts have faced major challenges because human life is complex, involving many social and environmental factors. Several long-term cohort studies are being conducted to determine the relationship between diseases and social and environmental factors in children. Even before we establish complete proof of adverse effects, we should attempt to decrease risk to future generations by adopting precautionary principles. Environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants can be reduced throughout the stages of life—the fetal period, newborn and infant periods, childhood, adolescence and adulthood (preconception) by individuals as well as by society as a whole. Through reducing environmental exposure to pollutants, adverse health effects can also be reduced, which will contribute to healthier future generations. Here, we suggest a virtuous cycle for improving the health of future generations through reduced exposure to persistent pollutants. PMID:28515209

  8. Current Status and Regulatory Aspects of Pesticides Considered to be Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2010-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. The information about their environmental properties, banned use, carcinogenic toxicity and environmental levels, can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Council of Agriculture, and Council of Labor Affairs). The significant progress to be reported is that the residual levels of these pesticide-POPs, ranging from trace amounts to a few ppb, have declined notably in recent years. PMID:21139852

  9. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Dust From Older Homes: Learning From Lead

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Ward, Mary H.; Colt, Joanne S.; Gunier, Robert B.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to (1) evaluate the relation between home age and concentrations of multiple chemical contaminants in settled dust and (2) discuss the feasibility of using lead hazard controls to reduce children’s exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Methods. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, from 2001 to 2007, we used a high-volume small surface sampler and household vacuum cleaners to collect dust samples from 583 homes and analyzed the samples for 94 chemicals with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We evaluated relations between chemical concentrations in dust and home age with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Results. Dust concentrations of lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine insecticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were correlated with home age (ρ > 0.2; P < .001), whereas concentrations of pyrethroid insecticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were not. Conclusions. Dust in older homes contains higher levels of multiple, persistent chemicals than does dust in newer homes. Further development of strategies to reduce chemical exposures for children living in older homes is warranted. PMID:24832145

  10. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce. III: byproducts, impurities, and transformation products.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip H; Muir, Derek C G

    2013-05-21

    The goal of this series of studies was to identify commercial chemicals that might be persistent and bioaccumulative (PB) and that were not being considered in current wastewater and aquatic environmental measurement programs. In this study, we focus on chemicals that are not on commercial chemical lists such as U.S. EPA's Inventory Update Rule but may be found as byproducts or impurities in commercial chemicals or are likely transformation products from commercial chemical use. We evaluated the 610 chemicals from our earlier publication as well as high production volume chemicals and identified 320 chemicals (39 byproducts and impurities, and 281 transformation products) that could be potential PB chemicals. Four examples are discussed in detail; these chemicals had a fair amount of information on the commercial synthesis and byproducts and impurities that might be found in the commercial product. Unfortunately for many of the 610 chemicals, as well as the transformation products, little or no information was available. Use of computer-aided software to predict the transformation pathways in combination with the biodegradation rules of thumb and some basic organic chemistry has allowed 281 potential PB transformation products to be suggested for some of the 610 commercial chemicals; more PB transformation products were not selected since microbial degradation often results in less persistent and less bioaccumulative metabolites.

  11. Persistent inflammatory, immunosuppressed, catabolic syndrome (PICS): A new phenotype of multiple organ failure

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Martin D.; Moore, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotype of multiple organ failure has appeared: Persistent Inflammatory, Immunosuppressed, Catabolic Syndrome (PICS). Comorbidities and age >65 years have been established as the leading risk factors for PICS. As the percentage of elderly people continues to increase the prevalence of PICS in our ICUs will surely grow. Malnutrition (despite appropriate supplementation), recurrent nosocomial infections, frailty, ventilator dependence, and an indolent death depicts the central theme that plagues PICS patients. Aligned with the recently awarded P50 grant by NIGMS entitled, “PICS: A New Horizon for Surgical Critical Care”, and the University Of Florida’s Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center will investigate the genetic make-up of PICS patients, better understand frailty and the implication in trauma patients, and hopefully elucidate new therapies. Currently, there are no therapies to combat PICS aside from nutritional inference elaborated after reviewing the literature on Burns, Cachexia, and Sarcopenia. PMID:26086042

  12. [Construction of index system for early warning of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pollution incidents in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Lü, Yong-Long; He, Gui-Zhen; Wang, Tie-Yu

    2014-10-01

    Early warning of pollution incidents caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is urgently needed for China in the circumstances of serious POPs pollution and in increasing demand for improvement in chemical risk management. Given different categories of POPs and pollution incidents, the index system for early warning of POPs pollution accidents was built based on lifecycle theory and POPs formation mechanisms. It will be helpful for decision makers to enhance the early warning management of POPs pollution incidents in China. The index system for early warning includes two parts, early warning and mechanism for system operation. The indices include risk source indicators, warning indicators and warning level indicators. To ensure the effective implementation of this system, the mechanisms for response and policy guarantee were also formulated. These mechanisms contain dynamic inventory management and periodical assessment of risk sources, timely and effective report of warning conditions, as well as coordination and cooperation among the relevant departments.

  13. Regional Variation in Human Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants in the United States, NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Wattigney, Wendy A.; Irvin-Barnwell, Elizabeth; Pavuk, Marian; Ragin-Wilson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    We examined serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among geographical regions of the United States as defined by the US Census Bureau. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for adults aged 20 years and older are presented for selected survey periods between 1999 and 2010. From NHANES 1999 through 2004, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentration levels were consistently higher among people living in the West than in the Midwest, Northeast, or South. In 2003–2010, perfluorinated compound concentrations tended to be highest in the South. The sum of 35 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners was significantly higher in the Northeast [GM: 189; 95% CI: 173–204 ng/g lipid] than the remaining regions. The regional differences in higher body burdens of exposure to particular POPs could be attributed to a variety of activities, including region-specific patterns of land use and industrial and agricultural chemical applications, as well as different levels of regulatory activity. PMID:26839572

  14. Using blood samples to estimate persistent organic pollutants and metals in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Hodge, Mary; Olszowy, Henry A; Whittier, Joan M; Lee, Shing Y

    2010-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals have been reported in a number of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations worldwide. However, due to ethical considerations, these studies have generally been on tissues from deceased and stranded animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of blood samples to estimate the tissue contamination of live C. mydas populations. This study analysed 125 POP compounds and eight heavy metals in the blood, liver, kidney and muscle of 16 C. mydas from the Sea World Sea Turtle Rehabilitation Program, Gold Coast, Australia. Strong correlations were observed between blood and tissue concentrations for a number of POPs and metals. Furthermore, these correlations were observed over large ranges of turtle size, sex and condition. These results indicate that blood samples are a reliable non-lethal method for predicting chemical contamination in C. mydas.

  15. [Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of alpha endosulfan persistent organic pollutant].

    PubMed

    Hou, Di-bo; Yue, Fei-heng; Kang, Xu-sheng; Huang, Ping-jie; Zhang, Guang-xin

    2012-05-01

    Frequency-dependent absorption coefficient spectrum and refractive index spectrum of alpha endosulfan, a kind of persistent organic pollutants, are presented in the terahertz frequency region by terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The spectral features in the THz region have a number of unique characteristic absorption peaks. The result demonstrates that THz-TDS is a promising method to identify materials. Then we adopted density functional calculation method to analyze theoretic absorption coefficients of single alpha endosulfan molecule within 0.2-2 THz. The results show that absorption peaks at 1.68, 1.91 THz in theoretical calculation correspond to 1.7, 1.88 THz in the experiment. Finally, vibrational modes and approximate assignments were discussed, showing that these matched peaks are caused by intramolecular vibrational modes of alpha endosulfan. Others might be related to intermolecular vibrational modes or combined vibrational modes.

  16. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Persistence and responsiveness of immunologic memory in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Moyron-Quiroz, Juan E; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Hartson, Louise; Kusser, Kim; Tighe, Michael P; Klonowski, Kimberly D; Lefrançois, Leo; Cauley, Linda S; Harmsen, Allen G; Lund, Frances E; Randall, Troy D

    2006-10-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) promote primary immune responses by recruiting naive lymphocytes and activated APCs. However, their role in the persistence or responsiveness of memory lymphocytes is unclear. We tested whether memory cells were maintained and could respond to challenge in the absence of SLOs. We found that influenza-specific CD8 cells in the lung acquired a memory phenotype, underwent homeostatic proliferation, recirculated through nonlymphoid tissues, and responded to and cleared a challenge infection in the complete absence of SLOs. Similarly, influenza-specific virus-neutralizing antibody was generated and maintained in the absence of SLOs. Inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) was also formed in the lungs of previously infected mice and may provide a niche for the maintenance of memory cells at the local level. These data show that SLOs are dispensable for the maintenance of immunologic memory and directly demonstrate the utility of local tissues, such as iBALT, in secondary immune responses.

  18. Atmosphere-surface exchange and long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pul, W.A.J. van; Jaarsveld, J.A. van; Jacobs, C.M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are compounds that are resistant to photolytic, biological and chemical degradation. Many POPs are semi-volatile at atmospheric conditions. Because of these characteristics POPs have a atmospheric lifetime of weeks or more and are subject to long-range atmospheric transport. During this transport POPs can be deposited as well as be re-emitted from soil and water bodies. In this study a model for the exchange of POP at the soil and sea surface is presented as well as its application in a long-range atmospheric transport model. The main goal of this study is to simulate the spatial distribution of POP deposition (accumulation) over Europe.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jessica; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; Littnan, Charles; Pearce, Ronald

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about levels or effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Hawaiian monk seals (HMS) from the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) subpopulation. This study examined concentrations of a large suite of POPs in blubber and serum of juvenile and adult HMS from the MHI. Adult females have the lowest blubber levels of most POPs, whereas adult males have highest levels. POPs in serum were significantly different in adult males compared with adult females for chlordanes and summed dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Lipid-normalized concentrations of chlordanes, DDTs, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mirex in paired blubber and serum samples were significantly correlated. Contaminant levels from the MHI were at similar or lower levels than those from remote Northwestern Hawaiian Island populations. Determining initial ranges of POPs is an important step towards assessing one of the many potential health threats to this critically endangered species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A biomimetic absorbent for removal of trace level persistent organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Ru, Jia; Wang, Zijian

    2007-05-01

    A novel biomimetic absorbent containing the lipid triolein was developed for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water. The structural characteristics of the absorbent were obtained by SEM and a photoluminescence method. Under optimum preparation conditions, triolein was perfectly embedded in the cellulose acetate (CA) spheres, the absorbent was stable and no triolein leaked into the water. Dieldrin, endrin, aldrin and heptachlor epoxide were effectively removed by the CA--triolein absorbent in laboratory batch experiments. This suggests that CA-triolein absorbent may serve as a good absorbent for those selected POPs. Triolein in the absorbent significantly increased the absorption capacity, and lower residual concentrations of POPs were achieved when compared to the use of cellulose acetate absorbent. The absorption rate for lipophilic pollutants was very fast and exhibited some relationship with the octanol--water partition coefficient of the analyte. The absorption mechanism is discussed in detail.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Magliano, D J; Loh, V H Y; Harding, J L; Botton, J; Shaw, J E

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of diabetes and obesity has increased rapidly over the last few decades in both developed and developing countries. While it is intuitively appealing to suggest that lifestyle risk factors such as decreased physical activity and adoption of poor diets can explain much of the increase, the evidence to support this is poor. Given this, there has been an impetus to look more widely than traditional lifestyle and biomedical risk factors, especially those risk factors, which arise from the environment. Since the industrial revolution, there has been an introduction of many chemicals into our environment, which have now become environmental pollutants. There has been growing interest in one key class of environmental pollutants known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their potential role in the development of diabetes. This review will summarise and appraise the current epidemiological evidence relating POPs to diabetes and highlight gaps and flaws in this evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of melting points of large set of persistent organic pollutants utilizing QSPR approach.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marquita; Sizochenko, Natalia; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The presence of polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as Cl/Br-substituted benzenes, biphenyls, diphenyl ethers, and naphthalenes has been identified in all environmental compartments. The exposure to these compounds can pose potential risk not only for ecological systems, but also for human health. Therefore, efficient tools for comprehensive environmental risk assessment for POPs are required. Among the factors vital for environmental transport and fate processes is melting point of a compound. In this study, we estimated the melting points of a large group (1419 compounds) of chloro- and bromo- derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes, diphenylethers, and benzenes by utilizing quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) techniques. The compounds were classified by applying structure-based clustering methods followed by GA-PLS modeling. In addition, random forest method has been applied to develop more general models. Factors responsible for melting point behavior and predictive ability of each method were discussed.

  3. Topological insulators based on 2D shape-persistent organic ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qionghua; Wang, Jinlan; Chwee, Tsz Sian; Wu, Gang; Wang, Xiaobai; Ye, Qun; Xu, Jianwei; Yang, Shuo-Wang

    2015-01-14

    Topological insulators (TIs) represent an exciting new class of materials with potential applications in spintronics and quantum computing. In this work, we present a theoretical study on a new family of two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials based on the coordination of shape persistent organic ligands (SPOLs) to heavy transition metal ions such as Pd(2+) and Pt(2+). These 2D structures may be readily fabricated and are expected to be stable under normal atmospheric conditions. From first principles calculations and tight-binding model simulations carried out to characterize the bulk band structures, edge states, spin Chern numbers, and the Z2 topological invariants, we were able to identify candidates with non-trivial topological properties that may serve as topological insulators in real world applications.

  4. Effect of Temperature, Grain Size and Organic Content on Persistence of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Aquatic Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, N. T.; Juhl, A. R.; O'Mullan, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic bacteria from poorly treated sewage present a health threat in recreational waters. Sewage derived bacteria can attach to particles and sink to the bottom, where they may persist longer than in the water column. If sewage derived bacteria persist, contaminated sediments may function as a reservoir for indicator bacteria and pathogens that can be resuspended, recontaminating the water column. We quantified the persistence of the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp., in aquatic sediment microcosms in relation to sediment organic content, grain size and temperature. Surface sediment used for microcosms came from 5 near shore Hudson River estuary sites with different grain size distributions and organic content. Sediments from each location were divided into three separate containers that were then incubated in darkness at 18°, 25° and 30° C for several weeks. Subsamples were collected from each microcosm approximately weekly to track the decay of the FIB as a function of time. Duration required for 90% decay in different microcosms ranged from 6.7 to 63 days for E. coli and 5.1 to 60 days for Enterococcus sp., longer than has been typically observed in the water column. Our measurements of E. coli persistence were also longer than described in previous work. We found that E. coli persistence was strongly related to temperature with faster decay at higher temperatures. In contrast, Enterococcus sp. persistence was weakly related to temperature but was strongly related to sediment organic content and grain size distribution with decay rate increasing in sediments of low organic content and coarser grain size. Quantification of FIB persistence in sediment reservoirs can be used in water quality and public health predictions. The contrasting responses of E. coli and Enterococcus sp. persistence to sediment characteristics implies different suitability as indicators depending on environmental conditions.

  5. A Versatile Environmental Impedimetric Sensor for Ultrasensitive Determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Highly Toxic Inorganic Ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Zhong-Gang; Jiang, Yu-Jing; Zhan, Dong-Ping; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2015-05-01

    An impedimetric sensor for persistent toxic substances, including organic pollutants and toxic inorganic ions is presented. The persistent toxic substances are detected using an ultrasensitive technique that is based on electron-transfer blockage. This depends on the formation of guest-host complexes, hydrogen bonding, or a cyclodextrin (CD)-metal complex (Mm(OH)n-β-CD) structure between the target pollutants and β-CD.

  6. Photochemical Transformations of Trace Persistent Organic Pollutants in Snow and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Rowland, G. A.; Sprenkle, A.; Bausch, A.

    2007-12-01

    Polar snowpacks have been established as active matrices for chemical processing of atmospheric species such as molecular halogens, volatile organics and ozone. It has previously been demonstrated that photochemical transformations of anthropogenic persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in ice occur under laboratory conditions, but there is little in the published literature regarding these processes. In the study described here, we consider the effect of near ultraviolet radiation on trace amounts of various organochlorine compounds in ice; the compounds selected are of interest because of their known presence in polar regions and their detrimental effect on organisms in polar ecosystems. Both direct photochemical transformations and indirect photo-oxidation by OH radical were investigated. To differentiate between pure liquid-phase, solid phase and interfacial processes, experiments were conducted on POPs in aqueous solution, ice and crushed ice/snow at various temperatures. In all cases, the degradation of the POP was monitored by the extraction of photolyzed samples followed by GC analysis. On the basis of these degradation studies, some reactive systems were selected for more detailed investigation. Reaction products were identified from irradiated samples by SPME with GCMS analysis. On the basis of the kinetic studies and identified reaction products, mechanisms for selected photochemical transformations are proposed. Potential implications of these transformations for environmental partitioning and interactions of the selected POPs will be discussed.

  7. Preconception Maternal and Paternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Birth Size: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. Objective: We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Methods: Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Results: Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84–195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98–170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Conclusions: Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. Citation: Robledo CA, Yeung E

  8. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Increases Hospitalization Rates for Myocardial Infarction with Comorbid Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Alexander V.; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be an emerging risk factor for ischemic heart disease, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, some studies indicate that exposure to POPs may also be a risk factor for hypertension, a well-established risk factor for AMI. To investigate effect of POPs on the environmental burden of cardiovascular disease, a study of AMI with comorbid hypertension in populations environmentally exposed to persistent organic pollutants, based on the zip code of residence, was conducted. Data on hospital discharges for AMI with comorbid hypertension were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System for 1993–2004. Patients residing in zip codes containing or abutting POPs contaminated sites were considered environmentally exposed. Relative risks (RR) — with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) — of hospitalization for AMI with comorbid hypertension were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusting for known confounders. Adjusted hospitalization rates for AMI with comorbid hypertension were 12.4% higher in populations residing in proximity to a POPs site (adjusted RR = 1.124, 95% CI 1.025–1.233, p < 0.05), compared to not in proximity to a POPs site. Also, hospitalization rates for AMI with comorbid hypertension were higher in males than in females (adjusted RR = 2.157, 95% CI 2.100–2.215, p < 0.05), in African Americans than in Caucasians (adjusted RR = 1.631, 95% CI 1.483–1.794, p < 0.05), and in older age groups (p for trend <0.05). These findings are consistent with the established effects of non-modifiable risk factors and serve as indirect quality indicators for our model. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to POPs increases the burden of cardiovascular disease in exposed populations. PMID:21562627

  9. The Pollution of the Oceans and Great Lakes by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, R.; Muir, D.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of man-made organic chemicals across the Great Lakes and Oceans is widespread. Especially in the northern hemisphere, legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls or DDT can be detected almost everywhere. Despite their ban several decades ago, concentrations are only declining slowly in the atmosphere, while time trends are not available for the waters of the world. While concentrations are often low (picogram per liter range), their bioaccumulation still causes adverse effects in top predators, including humans. Our results for legacy POPs highlight that oceans and the Great Lakes are by now re-releasing these compounds back to the atmosphere. More recently banned POPs include brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Atmospheric concentrations are slowly declining, while their impacts on the aquatic environment will be felt for decades to come. Due to the paucity of aqueous data on POPs, we called for a global effort to monitor key POPs using passive samplers (AQUA-GAPS). Our recent cruise results show perfluorinated compounds to be present in all ocean basins, suggesting that they will remain for good. As of yet unknown are the presence and effects of additional hundreds to thousands industrial chemicals that are suspected of being persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Several of these have been identified as compounds of potential concern, but few have been investigated in the oceans. The solution to the pollution of POPs will have to rely on better chemical screening prior to high-volume production. The recent REACH legislation by the EU is a step in the right direction, but will not prevent the on-going release of man-made chemicals over the next few decades, many of which are already in use and will continue to be released over time.

  10. Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Placental Tissue from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachael M.; Li, An; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Walker, Cheryl; Szabo, Sara; Leuthner, Steve; Durkin, Maureen S.; Moye, Jack; Miller, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and legacy environmental pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDE) are found in human placenta, indicating prenatal exposure, but data from the United States are sparse. We sought to determine concentrations of these compounds in human placentae as part of a formative research project conducted by the National Children’s Study Placenta Consortium. A total of 169 tissue specimens were collected at different time points post delivery from 42 human placentae at three U.S. locations, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry following extraction using matrix solid phase dispersion. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE were detected in all specimens. The concentrations of 10 PBDEs (∑10PBDEs), 32 PCBs (∑32PCBs) and p,p’-DDE were 43–1,723, 76–856 and 10–1,968 pg/g wet weight, respectively, in specimens collected shortly after delivery. Significant geographic differences in PBDEs were observed, with higher concentrations in placentae collected in Davis, CA than in those from Rochester, NY or Milwaukee, WI. We combined these with other published data and noted first-order declining trends for placental PCB and DDE concentrations over the past decades, with half-lives of about 5 and 8 years, respectively. The effect of time to tissue collection from refrigerated placentae on measured concentrations of these three classes of persistent organic pollutants was additionally examined, with no significant effect observed up to 120 hours. The results of this work indicate that widespread prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the United States continues. PMID:24485817

  11. Modelling the fate of persistent organic pollutants in europe: parameterization of a gridded distribution model

    SciTech Connect

    Prevedouros, Konstantinos; MacLeod, Matthew; Jones, Kevin C.; Sweetman Andrew J.

    2003-12-01

    A regionally segmented multimedia fate model for the European continent is described together with an illustrative steady-state case study examining the fate of small gamma, Greek-HCH (lindane) based on 1998 emission data. The study builds on the regionally segmented BETR North America model structure and describes the regional segmentation and parameterization for Europe. The European continent is described by a 5 degree x 5 degree grid, leading to 50 regions together with four perimetric boxes representing regions buffering the European environment. Each zone comprises seven compartments including; upper and lower atmosphere, soil, vegetation, fresh water and sediment and coastal water. Inter-regions flows of air and water are described, exploiting information originating from GIS databases and other georeferenced data. The model is primarily designed to describe the fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) within the European environment by examining chemical partitioning and de gradation in each region, and inter-region transport either under steady-state conditions or fully dynamically. A test case scenario is presented which examines the fate of estimated spatially resolved atmospheric emissions of lindane throughout Europe within the lower atmosphere and surface soil compartments. In accordance with the predominant wind direction in Europe, the model predicts high concentrations close to the major sources as well as towards Central and Northeast regions. Elevated soil concentrations in Scandinavian soils provide further evidence of the potential of increased scavenging by forests and subsequent accumulation by organic-rich terrestrial surfaces. Initial model predictions have revealed a factor of 5 10 underestimation of lindane concentrations in the atmosphere. This is explained by an underestimation of source strength and/or an underestimation of European background levels. The model presented can further be used to predict deposition fluxes and chemical

  12. Factors influencing persistent organic pollutant concentrations in the Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus).

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Karen J S; Kucklick, John R; McFee, Wayne E; Pugh, Rebecca S; Becker, Paul R

    2005-05-01

    Assessing the trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in cetaceans is difficult because of age and gender influences on accumulation. Persistent organic pollutants bioaccumulate and are poorly metabolized; hence, concentrations may increase with age in males while females reduce their POP burden through parturition and lactation. Age and gender effects on contaminant concentrations are species specific because of life history and reproductive strategies. These influences must be understood in order to elucidate and assess lifetime POP exposure. The objectives of this study were to determine baseline POP concentrations in blubber samples from the Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and to investigate life history and other influences, such as metabolism, on these concentrations. Forty-seven L. acutus blubber samples collected from mass stranding events in Massachusetts, USA (1993-2000), and archived in the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Gaithersburg, MD, USA) were analyzed for 55 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB; 55 congeners), five polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and organochlorine pesticides (toxaphene, DDT and metabolites, mirex, dieldrin, chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene, and endosulfans) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ages for 19 animals were determined from growth layer groups on decalcified, stained thin tooth sections. Total PCBs (sigmaPCB; sum of 55 congeners) were the contaminants present in the highest concentrations in all age classes (0.5-63 microg/g wet mass) followed by sum of DDTs (0.50-43 microg/g wet mass), toxaphene (0.055-31 microg/g wet mass), chlordanes (0.30-24 microg/g wet mass), and PBDEs (0.12-4.0 microg/g wet mass). Body length had a greater statistical influence than age on contaminant burdens in L. acutus. Contaminant burdens decreased with length in both male and female L. acutus, suggesting

  13. Sources of persistent organic pollutants emission on the territory of Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.

    The paper considers selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) atmospheric emission evaluation on the territory of Belarus for main source categories. The procedure applied was based on the UNECE EMEP methodology. Data of industrial statistics, production processes analysis and relevant emission factors were used. For a number of sources, only quality and semi-quality emission evaluation was conducted, due to the lack of information for the selection of emission factors or statistical data relevant. In the paper, emissions of the following groups of pollutants are discussed: dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as requested for EMEP database (Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants to the convention of 1979 on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe and Annexes I, II, or III to the Protocol, 1998). PAH emission and selected chlorinated pesticides input also requested by EMEP will be described in other issues. Estimations have showed that Belarus as a whole is not a large emission source of such POPs as dioxins. Its share in European emissions is significantly below 1%. This can be explained by the fact that in Belarus there are no such large dioxin emission sources like sintering, waste incineration, non-ferrous industry. But some important sources of dioxins/furans for instance, open burning are not included in quantitative estimation now. The main contribution to dioxin emissions is by firewood and peat combustion. Only electric steel smelting plant can be considered as a large emission point source. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors was estimated as the main source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) discharged into the environment: dielectric fluids with PCB are still in use in electrical equipment.

  14. Recommendations for Evaluating Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Gyalpo, Tenzing; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2016-07-01

    Biomonitoring data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in breast milk are increasingly collected and available for quantitative analysis of levels and time trends. A common approach is to apply log-linear regression to calculate doubling and halving times of the POP concentrations based on the temporal trend observed in breast milk. However, there are different, sometimes conflicting interpretations of these doubling and halving times. We provide a mechanistic understanding of doubling and halving times where possible. Five recommendations are proposed for dealing with POP concentration trends in breast milk during three distinct periods (pre-ban, transition, post-ban period). Using temporal trends of BDE-47 and PCB-153 in breast milk data, we show which information can be gained from the time-trend data. To this end, we analyzed time trends of hypothetical POPs for different periods with time-variant exposure and different intrinsic elimination half-lives, using a dynamic population-based pharmacokinetic model. Different pieces of information can be extracted from time-trend data from different periods. The analysis of trends of short-lived POPs is rather straightforward and facilitates extraction of the intrinsic elimination half-lives from the breast milk data. However, trends of slowly eliminated POPs only provide indications for the exposure time trend. Time-trend data of rapidly eliminated POPs provide information on exposure time trends and elimination half-lives. Temporal trends of slowly eliminated POPs are more complicated to interpret, and the extraction of exposure time trends and elimination half-lives require data sets covering several decades. Gyalpo T, Scheringer M, Hungerbühler K. 2016. Recommendations for evaluating temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk. Environ Health Perspect 124:881-885; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510219.

  15. Estimated infant intake of persistent organic pollutants through breast milk in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Coakley, Jonathan; Bridgen, Phil; Smith, Allan H; Read, Deborah; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2014-08-29

    To estimate average infant daily intake of chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through the consumption of breast milk in New Zealand. Breast milk of 39 first-time mothers aged 20-30 years was collected during 2007-2010 and analysed for persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds and organochlorine pesticides. The quantity of POPs consumed by infants assuming exclusive breast feeding was estimated by calculating the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) expressed as amount consumed through breast milk per kilogram of body weight per day. Of all POPs quantified, the EDI of DDT (principally in the form of its metabolite p,p'-DDE) was the highest (1.6 mcg/kg/day), and above the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.5 mcg/kg/day. The mean EDI for dioxin-like compounds (including PCDD/Fs and PCBs) was 19.7 pg TEQ(toxic equivalency)/kg/day, which is among the lowest reported worldwide, yet above the TDI of 1 pg TEQ/kg/day. The EDI of HCH, HCB, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were 32.9, 37.9, 39.4, 2.0, and 0.9 ng/kg/day respectively, all of which were below the current TDI. Age of the mother was positively associated with higher EDIs for the infant, particularly for total-TEQ and total-DDT. Infant daily intakes of chlorinated POPs through breast milk estimated for New Zealand are low or average by international comparison, and 5 times lower than 25 years ago. Future breast milk monitoring will determine whether this diminishing trend is continuing as well as providing monitoring information on other POPs.

  16. Selected persistent organic pollutants in human placental tissue from the United States.

    PubMed

    Nanes, Jessica A; Xia, Yulin; Dassanayake, R M A Priyanthi S; Jones, Rachael M; Li, An; Stodgell, Christopher J; Walker, Cheryl; Szabo, Sara; Leuthner, Steve; Durkin, Maureen S; Moye, Jack; Miller, Richard K

    2014-07-01

    Emerging and legacy environmental pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide metabolite DDE are found in human placenta, indicating prenatal exposure, but data from the United States are sparse. We sought to determine concentrations of these compounds in human placentae as part of a formative research project conducted by the National Children's Study Placenta Consortium. A total of 169 tissue specimens were collected at different time points post delivery from 43 human placentae at three U.S. locations, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry following extraction using matrix solid phase dispersion. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE were detected in all specimens. The concentrations of 10 PBDEs (Σ10PBDEs), 32 PCBs (Σ32PCBs) and p,p'-DDE were 43-1723, 76-856 and 10-1968pgg(-1) wet weight, respectively, in specimens collected shortly after delivery. Significant geographic differences in PBDEs were observed, with higher concentrations in placentae collected in Davis, CA than in those from Rochester, NY or Milwaukee, WI. We combined these with other published data and noted first-order declining trends for placental PCB and DDE concentrations over the past decades, with half-lives of about 5 and 8years, respectively. The effect of time to tissue collection from refrigerated placentae on measured concentrations of these three classes of persistent organic pollutants was additionally examined, with no significant effect observed up to 120h. The results of this work indicate that widespread prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the United States continues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Arrebola, J P; Artacho-Cordón, F; Amaya, E; Aragones, N; Llorca, J; Perez-Gomez, B; Ardanaz, E; Kogevinas, M; Castano-Vinyals, G; Pollan, M; Olea, N

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p'-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p'-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point to novel

  18. Biological monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants in human milk in Israel.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Janice; Berman, Tamar; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Grotto, Itamar; Rubin, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of POPs around the globe. The Ministry of Health, collaborating with the Ministry of Environmental Protection, measured the exposure of the population to POPs as part of the WHO-coordinated exposure study. Human milk, with a relatively high fat content is a preferred matrix for the monitoring of exposure. Donors of breast milk were recruited from three hospitals after signing informed consent forms. Breast milk was collected from 52 primipara women, aged 23-35, living in Israel for the last 10 years who gave birth to singleton full term healthy infants. Samples, collected at 3-17 weeks postpartum, were stored at -20 °C until sent to the WHO Reference Laboratory, State Laboratory for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food (CVUA), in Frieburg, Germany for a single pooled analysis. Mothers were provided with the pooled analysis results. Out of over 50 Persistent Organic Pollutants listed in the analysis, 16, including aldrin, endrin, parlar and mirex were not found at detectable levels in the Israeli pooled sample. For the indicator compounds found at detectable levels, most were lower than those reported in European countries. Since 1982, levels of POPs contamination as measured in breast milk have declined significantly. This is likely due to restrictions on agricultural, industrial, and other uses of many POPs in Israel. Ongoing biomonitoring in Israel and inter-ministerial collaboration supports the elimination of POPs in the environment and human milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recommendations for Evaluating Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Gyalpo, Tenzing; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomonitoring data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in breast milk are increasingly collected and available for quantitative analysis of levels and time trends. A common approach is to apply log-linear regression to calculate doubling and halving times of the POP concentrations based on the temporal trend observed in breast milk. However, there are different, sometimes conflicting interpretations of these doubling and halving times. Objectives: We provide a mechanistic understanding of doubling and halving times where possible. Five recommendations are proposed for dealing with POP concentration trends in breast milk during three distinct periods (pre-ban, transition, post-ban period). Discussion: Using temporal trends of BDE-47 and PCB-153 in breast milk data, we show which information can be gained from the time-trend data. To this end, we analyzed time trends of hypothetical POPs for different periods with time-variant exposure and different intrinsic elimination half-lives, using a dynamic population-based pharmacokinetic model. Different pieces of information can be extracted from time-trend data from different periods. The analysis of trends of short-lived POPs is rather straightforward and facilitates extraction of the intrinsic elimination half-lives from the breast milk data. However, trends of slowly eliminated POPs only provide indications for the exposure time trend. Conclusions: Time-trend data of rapidly eliminated POPs provide information on exposure time trends and elimination half-lives. Temporal trends of slowly eliminated POPs are more complicated to interpret, and the extraction of exposure time trends and elimination half-lives require data sets covering several decades. Citation: Gyalpo T, Scheringer M, Hungerbühler K. 2016. Recommendations for evaluating temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk. Environ Health Perspect 124:881–885; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510219 PMID:26672061

  20. Assessment of dietary exposure to some persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Karakalpakstan of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Nigina; Jermini, Marco; Small, Ian; Falzon, Dennis; Fürst, Peter; Migliorati, Giacomo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Forti, Anna Francesca; Anklam, Elke; von Holst, Christoph; Niyazmatov, Bakhtier; Bahkridinov, Shakub; Aertgeerts, Roger; Bertollini, Roberto; Tirado, Cristina; Kolb, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination in the area. An international team carried out analyses of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on samples of 12 foods commonly produced and consumed in Karakalpakstan. Analysis consistently detected long-lasting organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in all foods of animal origin and in some vegetables such as onions and carrots--two low-cost components of many traditional dishes. Levels of PCBs were relatively low in all samples except fish. Analyses revealed high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs (together often termed "dioxins") in sheep fat, dairy cream, eggs, and edible cottonseed oil, among other foodstuffs. These findings indicate that food traditionally grown, sold, and consumed in Karakalpakstan is a major route of human exposure to several persistent toxic contaminants, including the most toxic of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Intake estimations demonstrate that consumption of even small amounts of locally grown food may expose consumers to dioxin levels that considerably exceed the monthly tolerable dioxin intake levels set by the World Health Organization. Data presented in this study allow a first assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of certain food products in Karakalpakstan and highlight a critical public health situation. PMID:12896851

  1. Assessment of dietary exposure to some persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Karakalpakstan of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Nigina; Jermini, Marco; Small, Ian; Falzon, Dennis; Fürst, Peter; Migliorati, Giacomo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Forti, Anna Francesca; Anklam, Elke; von Holst, Christoph; Niyazmatov, Bakhtier; Bahkridinov, Shakub; Aertgeerts, Roger; Bertollini, Roberto; Tirado, Cristina; Kolb, Anthony

    2003-08-01

    A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination in the area. An international team carried out analyses of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on samples of 12 foods commonly produced and consumed in Karakalpakstan. Analysis consistently detected long-lasting organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in all foods of animal origin and in some vegetables such as onions and carrots--two low-cost components of many traditional dishes. Levels of PCBs were relatively low in all samples except fish. Analyses revealed high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs (together often termed "dioxins") in sheep fat, dairy cream, eggs, and edible cottonseed oil, among other foodstuffs. These findings indicate that food traditionally grown, sold, and consumed in Karakalpakstan is a major route of human exposure to several persistent toxic contaminants, including the most toxic of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Intake estimations demonstrate that consumption of even small amounts of locally grown food may expose consumers to dioxin levels that considerably exceed the monthly tolerable dioxin intake levels set by the World Health Organization. Data presented in this study allow a first assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of certain food products in Karakalpakstan and highlight a critical public health situation.

  2. Persistence of Mineral-Associated Soil Organic Carbon in European Soil Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Schrumpf, M.; Trumbore, S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is a heterogeneous mixture of components that are not equally biologically available, including light, plant derived material, dissolved organic carbon, and mineral-associated organic matter (MOM). Radiocarbon ages of bulk SOC average across this heterogeneity. Of particular interest is whether there are small amounts of very old OC (the so-called 'passive' pool) that can mask the fact that much of the OM is much younger. MOM has been shown to be older than the light fraction and DOC, but MOM is also a mixture of old and young material. This study seeks to clarify the quantity of C persisting on millennial time scales at different depths in the soil profile, and what factors allow this fraction to be more persistent than other fractions. We studied the fraction and age of C of the most chemically and physically stable fraction we could isolate from five European soils with differing land use, parent material, and soil type. First we isolated the MOM fraction by density, and then oxidized the MOM fraction with H2O2 to remove the labile C. The oxidation resistant residue was analyzed for C content and radiocarbon signature. The oxidation procedure removed 70-95% of the MOM fraction; the residue had a consistently older radiocarbon signature than the initial MOM, indicating that the C removed was younger than the bulk average. This stable fraction ranged from 100 radiocarbon years Before Present (BP) in the top 5 cm, to 10,000 years BP at the 30-40 cm depth. Non-crystalline iron concentrations were correlated with the absolute amount of SOC protected from oxidation, but not its proportion or age. With the exception of a tilled cropland site, all examined profiles exhibited a nearly linear depletion in radiocarbon signature with depth in both the protected and oxidizable MOM, confirming that the most chemically and physically stable C is oldest at the deepest point in a 50 cm profile. Ongoing work on this study will further elucidate how the

  3. The role of turbulence in the cycling of persistent organic pollutants in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, Kieran

    2014-05-01

    The role of turbulence in the cycling of two selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs), γ-HCH and PCB 153, in the North Sea is presented and discussed using output from a combined very high resolution hydrodynamic (Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model, HAMSOM) and Fate and Transport Ocean Model (FANTOM). POPs in the ocean are subject to a wide range of processes including mechanical, chemical, physical, and biological processes. Large amounts of POPs enter the North Sea system through atmospheric deposition and river inputs, with additional contributions coming from bottom sediments and adjacent seas. POPs processes are calculated with the FANTOM model, and include: advection-diffusion of a POP (advection-diffusion calculated with the HAMSOM); exchange between the atmosphere and the water column (gas, dry and wet deposition, volatilization); exchange between the water column and sediment; river input; exchange at the open boundaries; and degradation in water and in sediment. POPs are classified as being generally hydrophobic (like PCB 153), so they tend to sorb to particulate organic matter (POM) in the water column before sinking into the sediment. Lesser hydrophobic POPs (like γ-HCH) dissolve more in water and a smaller proportion of them are found in sediment. Because they are persistent, POPs have long half-lives and so remain in sediment for long periods (generally years to tens of years). POPs in sediment are resuspended by strong bottom currents, particularly in shallow water as the result of storms, mostly during winter, when high winds effects can result in very strong bottom currents. These resuspended POPs repartition between organic material and dissolution in water and lead to increased volatilisation of the POP to the atmosphere which can result in the delivery of large amounts of POPs to Europe, particularly during storm events. Strong currents will transfer the POP horizontally before it can sink back down to the sediment, thereby changing concentrations

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the Crozet Archipelago, southern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Barrett-Lennard, Lance; Guinet, Christophe; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous environmental contaminants of which significant concentrations are reported in upper trophic level animals. In 1998, we collected blubber biopsy samples (n=11) from killer whales (Orcinus orca) inhabiting the coastal waters around Possession Island, Crozet Archipelago, southern Indian Ocean, for contaminant analyses. Despite inhabiting an isolated region far removed from industrial activities, these killer whales can presently be considered among the most PCB-contaminated cetaceans in the southern hemisphere, with concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 20.5mg/kg lipid weight (lw). PCDD levels ranged from below the detection limit (5 ng/kg) to 77.1 ng/kg lw and PCDF levels from below the detection limit (7 ng/kg) to 36.1 ng/kg lw. Over 70% of our study animals had PCB concentrations which exceeded a 1.3mg/kg PCB threshold established for endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity in free-ranging harbour seals, suggesting that organic contaminants cannot be ruled out as an additional threat to this declining population.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood plasma and breast milk from Russian arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Klopov, V; Odland, J O; Burkow, I C

    1998-10-01

    Under the auspices of Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), a Russian-Norwegian co-operation project was established to assess the exposure of delivering women to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic areas of Russia. In the period 1993-95 blood and breast milk samples were collected from 94 delivering women in Yamal and Tajmyr Autonomous Regions of Siberia. Concentrations of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined by high resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The POP levels in maternal plasma among the non-indigenous women were higher than the native population, especially in total PCB, HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and the DDT-group. The dietary questionnaires showed that the non-indigenous populations consumed considerably less local food items like reindeer meat and fresh water fish. There was no correlation between local food consumption and elevated levels of pollutants. Even if the indigenous groups had lower concentrations of the most important pollutants than the non-indigenous population, they were still higher than the levels measured in the Scandinavian countries of the AMAP-study and up to levels of medical concern. The most important sources of organic pollutants for the Russian Arctic populations of Yamal and Tajmyr seems to be imported food from other areas of Russia and local use of pesticides. It must be a high priority concern to further elucidate these trends and initiate prophylactic measures for the exposed population groups.

  7. Characterization and comparison of three passive air samplers for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom

    2002-10-01

    The accumulation of persistent organic pollutants by three passive sampling media--semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), polyurethane foam (PUF) disks, and an organic-rich soil--was investigated. The media were exposed to contaminated indoor air over a period of 450 days, and concentrations in the air and in the media were monitored for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and polychlorinated naphthalene homologue groups. Uptake was initially linear and governed by the surface area of the sampler and the boundary layer airside mass transfer coefficient (MTC). Mean values of the MTC were 0.13, 0.11, and 0.26 cm s-1 for SPMD, PUF, and soil, respectively. As the study progressed, equilibrium was established between ambient air and the passive sampling media for the lower molecular weight PCB congeners. This information was used to calculate passive sampler-air partition coefficients, KPSM-A. These were correlated to the octanol-air partition coefficient, and the resulting regressions were used to predict KPSM-A for the full suite of PCBs. Information on MTC, KPSM-A, surface area, and effective thickness of each sampler was used to estimate times to equilibrium for each medium. These ranged from tens of days for the lower molecular weight congeners to tens of years for the higher molecular weight PCBs. Expressions were also developed to relate the amount of chemical accumulated by the passive sampling media to average ambient air concentrations over the integration period of the sample.

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in krill from the Bellingshausen, South Scotia, and Weddell Seas.

    PubMed

    Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal J; Hernán, Gema; Abad, Esteban; Dachs, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) reach Antarctica through atmospheric transport, oceanic currents, and to minor extent, by migratory animals. The Southern Ocean is a net sink for many POPs, with a key contribution of the settling fluxes of POPs bound to organic matter (biological pump). However, little is known about POP transfer through the food web in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic waters, where krill is an important ecological node. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the Bellingshausen, South Scotia and Weddell Seas around the Antarctic Peninsula. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in krill showed a large variability and the average were higher (generally within a factor 3) than those previously reported for eastern Antarctica. This result highlights regional differences related to atmospheric transport and deposition, and also probable regional sources due to human activities. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification factors for PCBs in krill were estimated using previously reported phytoplankton and seawater concentrations for this region. These suggested a near water-krill equilibrium for PCBs, which was not observed for water-phytoplankton partitioning. The estimated removal settling fluxes of PCBs due to the biological pump were several orders of magnitude higher than the estimated fluxes of PCBs transferred from phytoplankton to krill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The maximum reservoir capacity of soils for persistent organic pollutants: implications for global cycling.

    PubMed

    Dalla Valle, M; Jurado, E; Dachs, J; Sweetman, A J; Jones, K C

    2005-03-01

    The concept of maximum reservoir capacity (MRC), the ratio of the capacities of the surface soil and of the atmospheric mixed layer (AML) to hold chemical under equilibrium conditions, is applied to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface 'skin' (1 mm) of soils. MRC is calculated as a function of soil organic matter (SOM) content and temperature-dependent K(OA) and mapped globally for selected PCB congeners (PCB-28; -153; -180) and HCB, to identify regions with a higher tendency to retain POPs. It is shown to vary over many orders of magnitude, between compounds, locations and time (seasonally/diurnally). The MRC approach emphasises the very large capacity of soils as a storage compartment for POPs. The theoretical MRC concept is compared to reality and its implications for the global cycling of POPs are discussed. Sharp gradients in soil MRC can exist in mountainous areas and between the land and ocean. Exchanges between oceans and land masses via the atmosphere is likely to be an important driver to the global cycling of these compounds, and net ocean-land transfers could occur in some areas.

  10. Sorption, transport and biodegradation - An insight into bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soil.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoya; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Wang, Jingjing; Wan, Jia; Liu, Yani; Yu, Jiangfang; Yi, Huan; Ye, Shujing; Deng, Rui

    2017-08-24

    Contamination of soils with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticide, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, halohydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of increasing concern. Microbial degradation is potential mechanism for the removal of POPs, but it is often restricted by low bioavailability of POPs. Thus, it is important to enhance bioavailability of POPs in soil bioremediation. A series of reviews on bioavailability of POPs has been published in the past few years. However, bioavailability of POPs in relation to soil organic matter, minerals and soil microbes has been little studied. To fully understand POPs bioavailability in soil, research on interactions of POPs with soil components and microbial responses in bioavailability limitation conditions are needed. This review focuses on bioavailability mechanisms of POPs in terms of sorption, transport and microbial adaptation, which is particularly novel. In consideration of the significance of bioavailability, further studies should investigate the influence of various bioremediation strategies on POPs bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mountain cold-trapping increases transfer of persistent organic pollutants from atmosphere to cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Wania, Frank; MacLeod, Matthew; Lei, Ying Duan; Quinn, Cristina L; Zhang, Xianming; Scheringer, Martin; Wegmann, Fabio; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Heil, Fritz; Klocke, Peter; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Alaee, Mehran

    2013-08-20

    Concentrations of long-lived organic contaminants in snow, soil, lake water, and vegetation have been observed to increase with altitude along mountain slopes. Such enrichment, called "mountain cold-trapping", is attributed to a transition from the atmospheric gas phase to particles, rain droplets, snowflakes, and Earth's surface at the lower temperatures prevailing at higher elevations. Milk sampled repeatedly from cows that had grazed at three different altitudes in Switzerland during one summer was analyzed for a range of persistent organic pollutants. Mountain cold-trapping significantly increased air-to-milk transfer factors of most analytes. As a result, the milk of cows grazing at higher altitudes was more contaminated with substances that have regionally uniform air concentrations (hexachlorobenzene, α-hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan sulfate). For substances that have sources, and therefore higher air concentrations, at lower altitudes (polychlorinated biphenyls, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane), alpine milk has lower concentrations, but not as low as would be expected without mountain cold-trapping. Differences in the elevational gradients in soil concentrations and air-to-milk transfer factors highlight that cold-trapping of POPs in pastures is mostly due to increased gas-phase deposition as a result of lower temperatures causing higher uptake capacity of plant foliage, whereas cold-trapping in soils more strongly depends on wet and dry particle deposition. Climatic influences on air-to-milk transfer of POPs needs to be accounted for when using contamination of milk lipids to infer contamination of the atmosphere.

  12. Molecular perspectives and recent advances in microbial remediation of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jaya; Das, Surajit

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and pollution stress stimulate genetic adaptation in microorganisms and assist in evolution of diverse metabolic pathways for their survival on several complex organic compounds. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are highly lipophilic in nature and cause adverse effects to the environment and human health by biomagnification through the food chain. Diverse microorganisms, harboring numerous plasmids and catabolic genes, acclimatize to these environmentally unfavorable conditions by gene duplication, mutational drift, hypermutation, and recombination. Genetic aspects of some major POP catabolic genes such as biphenyl dioxygenase (bph), DDT 2,3-dioxygenase, and angular dioxygenase assist in degradation of biphenyl, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxins/furans, respectively. Microbial metagenome constitutes the largest genetic reservoir with miscellaneous enzymatic activities implicated in degradation. To tap the metabolic potential of microorganisms, recent techniques like sequence and function-based screening and substrate-induced gene expression are proficient in tracing out novel catabolic genes from the entire metagenome for utilization in enhanced biodegradation. The major endeavor of today's scientific world is to characterize the exact genetic mechanisms of microbes for bioremediation of these toxic compounds by excavating into the uncultured plethora. This review entails the effect of POPs on the environment and involvement of microbial catabolic genes for their removal with the advanced techniques of bioremediation.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea.

  14. Levels of persistent organic pollutant and their predictors among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p’-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continues to be of concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and high persistence. Current toxicant body burden is still a primary concern within the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation since other studies conducted within the community have shown relationships between these POPs and endocrine disruption. In this article we describe the levels of these toxicants in young adults of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation between the ages of 17 and 21 years of age (mean age 18.1 years), and investigate potential influences of their current body-burden. Seventeen congeners in fourteen chromatographic peaks were detected in 50% or more of the individuals sampled (geometric mean [GM] of the sum of these congeners = 0.43 ppb). Congeners 118, 138[+163+164] and 153 had the highest rate of detection (≥ 98%) within the Akwesasne youth. Of the other organochlorines, HCB (GM= 0.04 ppb) and p,p’-DDE (GM=0.38 ppb) were found in 100% and 99% of the sample respectively. Significantly higher levels of PCBs were found among individuals who were breastfed as infants, were first born, or had consumed local fish within the past year. When compared to levels of p,p’-DDE, HCB, and 13 specific congeners reported by the CDC for youth between the ages of 12 and 19 years, the geometric means of several congeners (CBs 99, 105, 110, and 118) among the Akwesasne were higher than the reported CDC 90th percentile. In contrast, levels of CB 28 in Akwesasne youth were ∼50% or less than those of the CDC cohort. p,p’-DDE and HCB levels were generally higher in the CDC cohort (GM of 0.516 and 0.065 ppb, respectively for Mohawks vs. 2.51 and 0.123, respectively, for CDC). Concentrations of non-persistent PCBs among this sample of Akwesasne young adults were higher than those reported by the CDC suggesting continued exposure, but lower than those

  15. Multimatrix measurement of persistent organic pollutants in Mar Chiquita, a continental saline shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, M L; Miglioranza, K S B; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Wunderlin, D A; Bistoni, M A

    2014-08-15

    RAMSAR sites are determined by specific characteristics of the environment in terms of ecological productivity as well services for human development, but they are also one of the most threatened ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamic of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in different biotic and abiotic matrixes of the RAMSAR site (wetlands with international importance), Mar Chiquita Lake. Sampling was performed according to land use (agricultural, urban, and industrial) at two stations: Laguna del Plata and Campo Mare. POPs were analyzed in superficial water (Sw), suspended particulate material (SPM), bottom sediment (Bs) and fish tissues (Odontesthes bonariensis). Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed by GC-ECD. HCHs, Endosulfans, DDTs, PCBs and PBDEs were found in all matrixes at both stations. The high persistence and transport processes are responsible for the occurrence of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Bs, SPM and fish tissues, even many years after their prohibition. PBDEs showed lower levels according to the scarcity of punctual sources in the area. Endosulfan showed variable amounts in agreement with application periods since this pesticide was used until a few years ago in this area. Finally, PCB levels overpassed the acceptable daily intake for human consumption being a risk for human health Thus, the present report confirms the occurrence of POPs in Mar Chiquita lake, alerting on the contribution of agricultural and urban pollutants in a RAMSAR site. Current results also raise concerns on biomagnification processes through the food web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants and metals among Inuit and Chukchi in Russian Arctic Chukotka

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction. Study design A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001–2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures. Methods Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food. Results POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. Conclusions Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean

  17. Exposure of ruminants to persistent organic pollutants and potential of decontamination.

    PubMed

    Rychen, Guido; Jurjanz, Stefan; Fournier, Agnès; Toussaint, Hervé; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    Human activities are emitting persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the environment. These compounds have raised concerns about the risk of transfer through the food chain via animal products. They are characterized by a strong persistence in environmental matrices and a lipophilicity which may lead to their accumulation in fat tissues. In EU Regulations (no. 1881/2006, 1259/2011), maximum acceptable levels for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like or nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food of animal origin have been set. Transfer rates from contaminated fodder to milk have been established: for PCBs, the rate of transfer varies from 5 to 90% and for PCDD/Fs from 1 to 40%. The differential transfer of the compounds towards milk is related to the hydrophobicity of the pollutants and to their metabolic susceptibility. According to numerous authors, soil is the major reservoir for POPs, and its involuntary ingestion by farm animals reared outdoors may be the main cause of animal product contamination (meat, milk, or eggs). Recent studies seem to indicate that soil is a real risk matrix in terms of transfer of pollutants to the food chain. A POP crisis management is extremely difficult, since it impacts many farmers located in the contaminated area. The question arising is to know if livestock contaminated by POPs may be decontaminated and further used for their initial purpose. Recent data demonstrate that the decontamination process appear feasible and depends on initial level of contamination or the physiological status of the animals.

  18. Dairy ruminant exposure to persistent organic pollutants and excretion to milk.

    PubMed

    Rychen, G; Jurjanz, S; Toussaint, H; Feidt, C

    2008-02-01

    Human activities produce polluting compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which may interact with agriculture. These molecules have raised concern about the risk of transfer through the food chain via the animal product. POPs are characterised by a strong persistence in the environment, a high volatility and a lipophilicity, which lead to their accumulation in fat tissues. These compounds are listed in international conventions to organise the information about their potential toxicity for humans and the environment. The aim of this paper is to synthesise current information on dairy ruminant exposure to POPs and the risk of their transfer to milk. Three major groups of POPs have been considered: the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), the polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results show that contamination of fodder and soil by these compounds is observed when they are exposed to emission sources (steelworks, cementworks, waste incinerators or motorways) compared with remote areas. In general, soil contamination is considered higher than plant contamination. Highest concentrations of POPs in soil may be close to 1000 ng/kg dry matter (DM) for PCDD/Fs, to 10 000 mg/kg DM for PAHs and 100 μg/kg DM for PCBs. The contamination of milk by POPs depends on environmental factors, factors related to the rearing system (fodder and potentially contaminated soil, stage of lactation, medical state of the herd) and of the characteristics of the contaminants. Transfer rates to milk have been established: for PCBs the rate of transfer varies from 5% to 90%, for PCDD/Fs from 1% to 40% and for PAHs from 0.5% to 8%. The differential transfer of the compounds towards milk is related to the hydrophobicity of the pollutants as well as to the metabolic susceptibility of the compounds.

  19. A review of the determination of persistent organic pollutants for environmental forensics investigations.

    PubMed

    Megson, David; Reiner, Eric J; Jobst, Karl J; Dorman, Frank L; Robson, Mathew; Focant, Jean-François

    2016-10-19

    The field of environmental forensics emerged in the 1980s as a consequence of legislative frameworks enacted to enable parties, either states or individuals, to seek compensation with regard to contamination or injury due to damage to the environment. This legal environment requires stringent record keeping and defendable data therefore analysis can sometimes be confined to data to be obtained from certified laboratories using a standard accredited analytical method. Many of these methods were developed to target specific compounds for risk assessment purposes and not for environmental forensics applications such as source identification or age dating which often require larger data sets. The determination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for environmental forensic applications requires methods that are selective but also cover a wide range of target analytes which can be identified and quantified without bias. POPs are used in a wide variety of applications such as flame retardants, fire suppressants, heat transfer agents, surfactants and pesticides mainly because of their chemical inertness and stability. They also include compounds such as dioxins that can be unintentionally produced from industrial activities. POPs are persistent in the environment, bioaccumulative and/or toxic and therefore require analytical methods that are sensitive enough to meet the low detection limits needed for the protection of the environment and human health. A variety of techniques, procedures and instruments can be used which are well suited for different scenarios. Optimised methods are important to ensure that analytes are quantitatively extracted, matrix coextractables and interferences are removed and instruments are used most effectively and efficiently. This can require deviation from standard methods which can open the data up to further scrutiny in the courtroom. However, when argued effectively and strict QA/QC procedures are followed the development and

  20. Associations between persistent organic pollutants, type 2 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and mortality.

    PubMed

    Grice, Brian A; Nelson, Robert G; Williams, Desmond E; Knowler, William C; Mason, Clinton; Hanson, Robert L; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Pavkov, Meda E

    2017-07-01

    Relationships were examined between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and incident type 2 diabetes, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality. In a nested case-control study, 300 persons without diabetes had baseline examinations between 1969 and 1974; 149 developed diabetes (cases) and 151 remained non-diabetic (controls) during 8.0 and 23.1 years of follow-up, respectively. POPs were measured at baseline. ORs for diabetes were computed by logistic regression analysis. The cases were followed from diabetes onset to ESRD, death or 2013. HRs for ESRD and mortality were computed by cause-specific hazard models. Patterns of association were explored using principal components analysis. PCB151 increased the odds for incident diabetes, whereas hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was protective after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, sample storage characteristics, glucose and lipid levels. Associations between incident diabetes and polychlorinatedbiphenyl (PCB) or persistent pesticide (PST) components were mostly positive but non-significant. Among the cases, 29 developed ESRD and 48 died without ESRD. PCB28, PCB49 and PCB44 increased the risk of ESRD after adjusting for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Several PCBs and PSTs increased the risk of death without ESRD. The principal components analysis identified PCBs with low-chlorine load positively associated with ESRD and death without ESRD, and several PSTs associated with death without ESRD. Most POPs were positively but not significantly associated with incident diabetes. PCB151 was significantly predictive and HCB was significantly protective for diabetes. Among participants with diabetes, low-chlorine PCBs increase the risk of ESRD and death without ESRD, whereas several PSTs predict death without ESRD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and organophosphate pesticides, and markers of glucose metabolism at birth.

    PubMed

    Debost-Legrand, Anne; Warembourg, Charline; Massart, Catherine; Chevrier, Cécile; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Monfort, Christine; Rouget, Florence; Bonnet, Fabrice; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2016-04-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that developmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) and to some non persistent pesticides may disrupt metabolic regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and thereby contribute to the current epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders. Quasi-experimental situations of undernutrition in utero have provided some information. However, the evidence in humans concerning the role of the prenatal environment in these disorders is contradictory, and little is known about long-term outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes, of prenatal exposure. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to POP and organophosphate pesticides on fetal markers of glucose metabolism in a sample of newborns from the Pelagie mother-child cohort in Brittany (France). Dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides were measured in maternal urine collected at the beginning of pregnancy. Cord blood was assayed for polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB153), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) and other POP. Insulin and adiponectin were determined in cord blood serum (n=268). A decrease in adiponectin and insulin levels was observed with increasing levels of DDE, but only in girls and not boys. Adiponectin levels were not related to the concentrations of other POP or DAP metabolites. Decreasing insulin levels were observed with increasing PCB153 concentrations. Insulin levels increased with DAP urinary levels. Additional adjustment for BMI z-score at birth modified some of these relations. Our observations bring support for a potential role of organophosphate pesticides and POP in alterations to glucose metabolism observable at birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Presence of persistent organic pollutants in a breeding common tern (Sterna hirundo) population in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Heidi; White, Philip; Lyashevska, Olga; O'Connor, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical compounds of environmental concern due to their toxic, persistent nature and their ability to bio-accumulate in biological tissue. Seabirds, for often being at the top of the food web, have been used as monitors of environmental pollutants. Adverse effects caused by POPs have been reported in common terns (Sterna hirundo) since the 1970s. Egg shell thinning, embryo and hatchling deformities have been reported for this species. Environmental legislation, such as the Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR), has agreed on the monitoring of concentration of POPs in common terns. This study set out to investigate contemporary concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in common terns breeding in Ireland, along with congener profiles. Investigation was conducted in live (n = 15) and dead birds (n = 20) to test for the efficiency of different methodologies using preen oil and feathers versus liver and preen gland. Mean concentrations of POPs followed the order: PCB (36.48 ng/g ww feather) > PAH (30.01 ng/g ww feather) > OCP (13.36 ng/g ww feather) > BFR (1.98 ng/g ww feather) in live birds; and PAH (46.65 ng/g ww preen gland) > PCB (44.11 ng/g ww preen gland) > OCP (15.15 ng/g ww liver) > BFR (5.07 ng/g ww liver) in dead birds. Comparison of contaminant results with toxicity pre-established levels concluded that this population of common terns in Ireland is not at risk of anomalies caused by POPs. However, some levels are higher in comparison to the ones established by OSPAR's EcoQO and must be monitored periodically.

  3. DDG-1000 Zumwalt Class Destroyer (DDG-1000)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-197 DDG 1000 Zumwalt Class Destroyer (DDG 1000) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be...concept development concluded and the Navy competitively selected and awarded a Design and Development contract to Northrop Grumman (NG) Ship systems

  4. Association of persistent organic pollutants and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes and diabetes-related health outcomes in Asia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Staimez, Lisa R

    2015-03-01

    Over half of the people with diabetes in the world live in Asia. Emerging scientific evidence suggests that diabetes is associated with environmental pollutants, exposures that are also abundant in Asia. To systematically review the literature concerning the association of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes and diabetes-related health outcomes in Asia. PubMed and Embase were searched to identify studies published up to November 2014. A secondary reference review of all extracted articles and the National Toxicology Program Workshop on the association of POPs with diabetes was also conducted. A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this review. To date, the evidence relating POPs and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes in Asian populations is equivocal. Positive associations were reported between serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several organochlorine pesticides (DDT, DDE, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane) with diabetes. PCDD/Fs were also associated with blood glucose and insulin resistance, but not beta-cell function. There were substantial limitations of the literature including: most studies were cross-sectional, few studies addressed selection bias and confounding, and most effect estimates had exceptionally wide confidence intervals. Few studies evaluated the effects of organophosphates. Well-conducted research is urgently needed on these pervasive exposures to inform policies to mitigate the diabetes epidemic in Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles for the Oxidative Degradation of Persistent Organic Water Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Ben Moshe, T.; Berkowitz, B.

    2008-12-01

    The continuous release of persistent organic chemicals such as pesticides, halogenated organic solvents, PAHs, and PCBs to the subsurface environment is an unfortunate reality. These compounds are recognized as toxic, and often carcinogenic and/or mutagenic, and they thus require highly efficient treatment procedures in aqueous systems. The current study presents an oxidation process, to decontaminate polluted water, using nanosized copper oxide particles as the catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidation agent. The process shows complete and rapid degradation of a wide range of organic contaminants under ambient pressure and temperature. In contrast, control runs that measured the degradation through exposure to hydrogen peroxide only or copper oxide nanoparticles only showed less than 10% reduction in contaminant concentration, as compared to the complete degradation achieved when particles and oxidation agent were used. Lack of exposure to light and the method of mixing seem to have no influence on the reaction rate or products. The reaction was found to proceed effectively in the range pH 3-8.5, and much slower at pH 10. Testing various concentrations of oxidation agent, an optimum point was found, with an increase above this concentration resulting in a reduced reaction rate. Moreover, measurements of reaction kinetics demonstrated a conversion from exponential decay of a contaminant, typical of a first-order reaction, to a linear decrease in contaminant concentration which is typical of a pseudo-zero-order reaction. This behavior indicates that upon increase in oxidation agent concentration, a different reaction pathway which is independent of the contaminant concentration becomes the prevailing process. The copper oxide nanoparticles were characterized before and after the reaction, and also shown to retain reactivity for several cycles after refreshing the contaminant solution and adding more hydrogen peroxide.

  6. Legacy persistent organic pollutants including PBDEs in the trophic web of the Ross Sea (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Martellini, Tania; Randazzo, Demetrio; Vacchi, Marino; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    The ecological features of the Ross Sea trophic web are peculiar and different from other polar food webs, with respect to the use of habitat and species interactions; due to its ecosystem integrity, it is the world's largest Marine Protected Area, established in 2016. Polar organisms are reported to bioaccumulate lipophilic contaminant, viz persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Legacy POPs and flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) were studied in key species of the Ross Sea (Euphausia superba, Pleuragramma antarctica) and their predators (Dissostichus mawsoni, Pygoscelis adeliae, Aptenodytes forsteri, Catharacta maccormicki, Leptonychotes weddellii). Gaschromatography revealed the presence of PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs in most of the samples; HCHs, dieldrin, Eldrin, non-ortho PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs were detected only in some species. The average ∑PBDEs was 0.19-1.35 pg/g wet wt in the key-species and one-two order of magnitude higher in the predators. Penguins and skuas from an area where a long-term field camp is located showed higher BDE concentrations. The ΣDDTs was higher in the Antarctic toothfish (20 ± 6.73 ng/g wet wt) and in the South Polar skua (5.911 ± 3.425 ng/g wet wt). The TEQs were evaluated and the highest concentration was found in the Weddell seal, due to PCB169, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF. There was no significant relationship between the trophic level and the POP concentrations. Although low concentrations, organisms of the Ross Sea trophic web should be further studied: lack of information on some ecotoxicological features and human impacts including global change may distress the ecosystem with unpredictable effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish with different feeding habits inhabiting a shallow lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barni, María F Silva; Ondarza, Paola M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Meijide, Fernando; Grosman, Fabián; Sanzano, Pablo; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2016-04-15

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment can affect organisms inhabiting aquatic systems, in particular shallow lakes that are vulnerable to environmental stressors. This study aimed to assess POPs accumulation and changes at histological and physiological levels in tissues of three fish species with different trophic habits. Gills, brain, muscle, liver and gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis, Oligosarcus jenynsii and Cyphocharax voga were collected from the shallow lake La Peregrina, located in an agricultural area from Argentina. In addition, contaminant levels in surface water (SW), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments (BS) were assessed. Histological lesions were evaluated in fish tissues and levels of vitellogenin (VTG) were assessed in plasma of male fish in order to correlate these alterations with the presence of POPs in the environment. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by GC-ECD. Biotic and abiotic samples showed the same POPs distribution pattern: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs. Although tissue distribution of OCPs was species-specific, muscle showed the lowest levels in all species. The most abundant contaminants were endosulfans, suggesting their widespread use in the area. O. bonariensis showed the highest endosulfans levels in liver (184.2-219ngg(-1)wet w), which was associated with the high SPM levels considering this species is a filter feeder. The occurrence of PCBs and PBDEs shows the ubiquity of these pollutants in the area. Histological lesions in gills and liver of O. bonariensis and O. jenynsii, might be related with the high levels of endosulfans in these organs. The detection of VTG in males warns about a possible exposure to estrogenic compounds in the environment. In conclusion, the simultaneous exposure of fish to multiple environmental pollutants leads to different alterations, so measures should be taken in

  8. Mixed-matrix membranes incorporated with porous shape-persistent organic cages for gas separation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hongchao; Zhang, Suobo

    2017-03-15

    There has been much recent interest in the use of porous materials derived from self-assembling, shape-persistent organic cages due to their solubility and easy post-synthetic modification. Herein we report the preparation of novel mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) employing the porous organic cage Noria and its derivatives Noria-Boc and Noria-CO(t)Bu as the fillers, and a fluorine containing polyimide, 6FDA-DAM, as the polymeric matrix. The physical structures and properties of Noria and its derivatives were measured and investigated. Noria with substituents of Boc (cleaved by thermal treatment during the process of membrane fabrication) and CO(t)Bu groups tend to show much better compatibility with polyimide than Noria itself, resulting in homogeneous dispersion of nanoaggregates and fine adhesion between the two phases in the derived Noria/6FDA-DAM and Noria-CO(t)Bu/6FDA-DAM MMMs. Gas permeation tests revealed that Noria and Noria-CO(t)Bu nanoparticles have different effect on gas separation performance of MMMs. The introduction of Noria into 6FDA-DAM tends to enhance CO2/CH4 selectivity and thus improve its gas separation properties, though a decrease in the observed permeability could be observed. In contrast, the introduction of Noria-CO(t)Bu with higher surface area and larger pores tends to increase the free volume and gas permeability of MMMs. These results show that both the morphology and the gas separation properties of MMMs could be tuned by tailoring the structures of porous organic cages.

  9. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  10. Survival and persistence of Campylobacter and Salmonella species under various organic loads on food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Sheldon, Brian W; Smith, Katie S; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2003-09-01

    the Salmonella test strains, D-values of 17.1, 426.6, 118.6, and 41.9 min and of 48.2, 1363.2, 481.8, and 134.2 min were calculated for cells suspended in PBS and TSB and then spotted on D, E SS, and CT surfaces, respectively. In contrast to C. jejuni, Salmonella serotypes were 1.7 to 3.3 times more persistent when suspended in TSB than when suspended in PBS and were 1.2 to 25.3 times more persistent than C. jejuni, depending on the contact surface and the type of suspension fluid (i.e., overall time required to achieve a 3-log reduction in population, lag time + 3 x D). These findings indicate that both the contact surface and the level of organic matter can influence the survival and persistence of C. jejuni and Salmonella species on food contact surfaces.

  11. Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Association with Maternal and Infant Thyroid Homeostasis: A Multipollutant Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Vivian; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Pettersen, Rolf Dagfinn; Hansen, Solrunn; Veyhe, Anna-Sofia; Jorde, Rolf; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2016-01-01

    Background: Disruption of thyroid homeostasis has been indicated in human studies targeting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Influence on the maternal thyroid system by POPs is of special interest during pregnancy because such effects could impair infant thyroid homeostasis. Objectives: We investigated the association between POPs and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (THs) in mother and child pairs from the Northern Norway Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort Study (MISA). Methods: Nineteen POPs and 10 thyroid parameters were analyzed in serum from 391 pregnant women in their second trimester. In addition, TSH concentrations in heel-prick samples from the infants were analyzed by the Norwegian Newborn Screening program. Association studies with a multipollutant approach were performed using multivariate analyses; partial least squares (PLS) regression, hierarchical clustering, and principal component analysis (PCA). Results: Several POPs were significantly associated with TSH and THs: a) PFOS was positively associated with TSH; b) PCBs, HCB, and nonachlors were inversely associated with T3, T4, and FT4; and, c) PFDA and PFUnDA were inversely associated with T3 and FT3. After mutual adjustments for the other contaminants, only PFDA and PFUnDA remained significantly associated with T3 and FT3, respectively. Infants born to mothers within the highest TSH quartile had 10% higher mean concentrations of TSH compared with children born to mothers in the lowest TSH quartile. Conclusion: The present results suggest that background exposures to POPs can alter maternal thyroid homeostasis. This research contributes to the understanding of multipollutant exposures using multivariate statistical approaches and highlights the complexity of investigating environmental concentrations and mixtures in regard to maternal and infant thyroid function. Citation: Berg V, Nøst TH, Pettersen RD, Hansen S, Veyhe AS, Jorde R, Odland JØ, Sandanger TM

  12. Persistent organ dysfunction plus death: a novel, composite outcome measure for critical care trials.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Daren K; Muscedere, John; Drover, John; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    Due to resource limitations, few critical care interventions have been rigorously evaluated with adequately powered randomized clinical trials (RCTs). There is a need to improve the efficiency of RCTs in critical care so that more definitive high quality RCTs can be completed with the available resources. The objective of this study was to validate and demonstrate the utility of a novel composite outcome measure, persistent organ dysfunction (POD) plus death, for clinical trials of critically ill patients. We performed a secondary analysis of a dataset from a prospective randomized trial involving 38 intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada, Europe, and the United States. We define POD as the persistence of organ dysfunction requiring supportive technologies during the convalescent phase of critical illness and it is present when a patient has an ongoing requirement for vasopressors, dialysis, or mechanical ventilation at the outcome assessments time points. In 600 patients enrolled in a randomized trial of nutrition therapy and followed prospectively for six months, we evaluated the prevalence of POD and its association with outcome. At 28 days, 2.3% of patients had circulatory failure, 13.7% had renal failure, 8.7% had respiratory failure, and 27.2% had died, for an overall prevalence of POD + death = 46.0%. Of survivors at Day 28, those with POD, compared to those without POD, had a higher mortality rate in the six-month follow-up period, had longer ICU and hospital stays, and a reduced quality of life at three months. Given these rates of POD + death and using a two-sided Chi-squared test at alpha = 0.05, we would require 616 patients per arm to detect a 25% relative risk reduction (RRR) in mortality, but only 286 per arm to detect the same RRR in POD + mortality. POD + death may be a valid composite outcome measure and compared to mortality endpoints, may reduce the sample size requirements of clinical trials of critically ill patients. Further validation in

  13. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN DUSTS THAT SETTLED AT INDOOR AND OUTDOOR LOCATIONS IN LOWER MANHATTAN AFTER 11 SEPTEMBER, 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the initial days that followed the explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11th, 2001, fourteen bulk samples of settled dusts were collected at locations surrounding the epicenter of the disaster, and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, ...

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  15. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  16. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN DUSTS THAT SETTLED AT INDOOR AND OUTDOOR LOCATIONS IN LOWER MANHATTAN AFTER 11 SEPTEMBER, 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the initial days that followed the explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11th, 2001, fourteen bulk samples of settled dusts were collected at locations surrounding the epicenter of the disaster, and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, ...

  17. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  18. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  19. Modelling transport and deposition of persistent organic pollutants in the European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Jaarsveld, J. A.; Van Pul, W. A. J.; De Leeuw, F. A. A. M.

    Persistent organic pollutant (POP) transport and deposition in Europe were investigated using calculations with the TREND model based on high-resolution 1990 emission estimates. Lindane (γ-HCH) and benzo(a)pyrene were chosen to represent components found predominantly in the gas and particle phases, respectively. Atmospheric lifetimes and dispersion of gas-phase POPs are primarily determined by their solubility in water and degradation rate in soils and vegetation; they have much longer lifetimes over land than over water surfaces. Model calculations indicate that γ-HCH has the potential for dispersion throughout the hemisphere, with most of it ending up in large water bodies. Spatial distribution patterns of calculated concentrations in precipitation correlated well with those of wet deposition measurements around the North Sea, but the absolute values were too low by a factor of three. Sensitivity analyses suggest that it is the emission data rather than other model parameters that are responsible for the underestimation. For (particle-phase) B(a)P the size distribution of its carrier particles and its atmospheric degradation rate are the most important, and the most uncertain, parameters affecting dispersion and transport. Results here indicate general overestimation of concentrations by a factor of two or less, but insufficient measurements limit uncertainty analyses and validity of conclusions.

  20. Adrenocortical function of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Verboven, Nanette; Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Evans, Neil P

    2010-03-01

    Unpredictable changes in the environment stimulate the avian hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to produce corticosterone, which induces behavioural and metabolic changes that enhance survival in the face of adverse environmental conditions. In addition to profound environmental perturbations, such as severe weather conditions and unpredictable food shortages, many Arctic-breeding birds are also confronted with chronic exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of which are known to disrupt endocrine processes. This study investigated the adrenocortical function of a top predator in the Arctic marine environment, the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). High concentrations of organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and metabolically-derived products in blood plasma of incubating glaucous gulls were associated with high baseline corticosterone concentrations in both sexes and a reduced stress response in males. Contaminant-related changes in corticosterone concentration occurred over and above differences in body condition and seasonal variation. Chronically high corticosterone concentrations and/or a compromised adrenocortical response to stress can have negative effects on the health of an individual. The results of the present study suggest that exposure to POPs may increase the vulnerability of glaucous gulls to environmental stressors and thus could potentially compromise their ability to adapt to the rapidly changing environmental conditions associated with climate change that are currently seen in the Arctic.

  1. Spatial biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Iran: a study using locally produced butter.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Amirali; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-07-01

    Butter is a readily collected, integrative and inexpensive sampling matrix for the spatial mapping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the national or regional scale. As air-plant-animal transfers generally supply the POPs reaching butter lipid, this study used butter for an initial evaluation of the occurrence, levels and distribution of POPs (selected organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in Iran, a country for which very little information on usage, emissions and environmental burdens of these compounds exists. Fifty samples from rural and urban areas, in the north, west and central regions of the country were collected from local farms in spring 2007. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE varied widely by a factor of approximately 1000 and approximately 370 (8450 pg g(-1) lipid and 46 800 pg g(-1) lipid on average). The highest levels, found mainly in urban areas in the centre of the country, were amongst the highest reported in the world. PCB concentrations (4320 pg g(-1) lipid on average) varied by a factor of approximately 160 and were highest close to urban centres and lowest in the rural northwest. Although Iran is not known for widespread PCB usage in the past, concentrations were higher than a 'global average' reported in a butter survey in 2001. This simple sampling approach could be adopted in other regions where cows graze, as part of an initial screening to help meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention.

  2. Can persistent organic pollutants and plastic-associated chemicals cause cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Lind, L; Lind, P M

    2012-06-01

    During the last decade, associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and pesticides, and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and overt CV disease (CVD) have been reported in humans. Recently, associations between plastic-associated chemicals (PACs), such as bisphenol A and phthalates, and CVD have also begun to emerge. Several approaches to evaluating such associations have been used: accidents with a high level of exposure, occupational exposure studies, geographical studies of subjects living near a contaminated area and traditional case-control or cohort studies with measurements of circulating levels of different environmental contaminants in the general population. Exposure to POPs has consistently been associated with diabetes using all the approaches described above, including prospective studies. The evidence regarding associations between exposure to POPs and other CV risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity and lipids, is less strong and is mainly based on cross-sectional data. Associations between overt CVD and POPs have been reported using all the above approaches, but prospective data from population-based studies are still lacking to provide firm evidence of an important and independent role of POP exposure in the pathogenesis of CVD. Nevertheless, taken together, current evidence suggests that further longitudinal and experimental studies should be conducted to investigate the effect of exposure to both POPs and PACs, such as bisphenol A and phthalates.

  3. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4'-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants carried by synthetic polymers in the ocean environment.

    PubMed

    Rios, Lorena M; Moore, Charles; Jones, Patrick R

    2007-08-01

    Thermoplastic resin pellets are melted and formed into an enormous number of inexpensive consumer goods, many of which are discarded after a relatively short period of use, dropped haphazardly onto watersheds and then make their way to the ocean where some get ingested by marine life. In 2003 and 2004 pre-production thermoplastic resin pellets and post-consumer plastic fragments were collected and analyzed for contamination for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Samples were taken from the North Pacific Gyre, and selected sites in California, Hawaii, and from Guadalupe Island, Mexico. The total concentration of PCBs ranged from 27 to 980 ng/g; DDTs from 22 to 7100 ng/g and PAHs from 39 to 1200 ng/g, and aliphatic hydrocarbons from 1.1 to 8600 microg/g. Analytical methods were developed to extract, concentrate and identify POPs that may have accumulated on plastic fragments and plastic pellets. The results of this study confirm that plastic debris is a trap for POPs.

  5. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre.

    PubMed

    Gassel, Margy; Harwani, Suhash; Park, June-Soo; Jahn, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Despite scientific and public concern, research on food web contamination from chemicals in plastic is limited, and distinguishing plastic sources from prey remains a challenge. We analyzed juvenile yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) from the North Pacific Central Gyre for plastic ingestion and tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and nonionic surfactants to investigate potential contamination from plastic exposure. Ingestion of synthetic debris occurred in ~10% of the sample population. PCBs and DDTs were 352±240 (mean±SD) and 1425±1118 ng/g lw, respectively. PBDEs were 9.08±10.6 ng/g lw, with BDEs-47, 99, and 209 representing 90% of PBDEs. Nonylphenol (NP) was detected in one-third of the yellowtail with a mean of 52.8±88.5 ng/g ww overall and 167±72.3 ng/g ww excluding non-detects. Because environmental NP is strongly associated with wastewater treatment effluents, long-range transport is unlikely, and NP was previously measured in gyre plastic, we concluded that plastic-mediated exposure best explained our findings of NP in yellowtail.

  6. Global pilot study for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using PUF disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Harner, Tom; Pozo, Karla; Gouin, Todd; Macdonald, Anne-Marie; Hung, Hayley; Cainey, Jill; Peters, Andrew

    2006-11-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed at global background sites, to test logistical issues associated with a global monitoring network for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). alpha-HCH, exhibited relatively high and uniform concentrations (17-150 pg/m3) at temperate and arctic sites with elevated concentrations associated with trans-Pacific inflow. Concentrations were much lower (<5 pg/m3) in Bermuda, Chile and Cape Grim. Concentrations for gamma-HCH, the main component of lindane, were spatially similar to the alpha-HCH pattern but lower in magnitude (typically, <10 pg/m3). Chlordane concentrations (sum of cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) were also low (<10 pg/m3). Dieldrin concentrations were in the range 2-25 pg/m3 at most sites but elevated in Bermuda. Back trajectories suggest that advection from Africa and the US may contribute. Endosulfan, a popular current-use pesticide, exhibited highest concentrations ranging from tens to hundreds of pg/m3. There was good agreement between duplicate samplers at each site and PUF disk-derived air concentrations agreed with high volume data. Few logistical/analytical problems were encountered in this pilot study.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan murre (Uria spp.) eggs: Geographical, species, and temporal comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Becker, Paul R.; Kucklick, John R.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.; Simac, Kristin S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in eggs of common and thick-billed murres (Uria aalge and U. lomvia) from five Alaskan nesting colonies were dominated by 4,4‘-DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs; 46 congeners comprised mainly of PCB congeners 153, 118, 138, 99, and 151), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and chlordane compounds (ΣCHL). Concentrations of 4,4‘-DDE, cis-nonachlor, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than those reported for some of the same colonies in the 1970s, while HCB concentrations were similar. In general, significantly higher concentrations were found in eggs from Gulf of Alaska colonies compared to those from Bering Sea colonies except for HCB (higher in the Bering Sea) and β-HCH (no significant difference between the two regions). Thick-billed murre eggs contained higher concentrations of 4,4‘-DDE and ΣPCBs, whereas common murre eggs had higher HCB concentra tions. Possible factors contributing to the POPs patterns found in eggs from these murre colonies are discussed.

  8. Biochemical fiber sensor based on evanescent field for detection persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Edi; Putri Gitrin, Martia; Marzuki, Ahmad; Suryanti, Venty

    2017-01-01

    Fiber optic is a light waveguides media that are cylindrical. Optical fiber has certain properties when it transmits light so it can be developed to be a sensing device or sensor. Evanescent wave phenomena appear when there are total internal reflections from many modes in an optical fiber. In this research, the Biochemical Fiber Sensor (BFS) using polishing cladding and some of the core fiber will be fabricated. BFS is used to interact with a biochemical compound. The principle of BFS is based on evanescent absorption which absorbs the typical spectrum of a biochemical compound. By measuring the spectrum from the light output in the BFS, evanescent absorption spectra can be analyzed an optical fiber. In this study, the biochemical compounds that used are lindane that is one of the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The result showed that there is a change from BFS spectra when it was exposed by POPs compound with various concentration. That change showed that there is evanescent absorption in BFS. Concentration of POPs compound is proportional with evanescent absorption of the POPs compound.

  9. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: consequence of divergent diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S

    2005-09-15

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean.

  11. Profiling and Spatial Variation Analysis of Persistent Organic Pollutants in South African Delphinids.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Karczmarski, Leszek; Yu, Ri-Qing; Plön, Stephanie; Chen, Laiguo; Tu, Qin; Cliff, Geremy; Wu, Yuping

    2016-04-05

    The continuous disposal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in South Africa (SA) warrants concern about their detrimental effects on humans and wildlife. We surveyed six dolphin species (n = 90) incidentally captured in shark net installations or stranded off the SA east and south coast from 2005 to 2009 to study the POP exposure. Sousa plumbea, an inshore and estuarine species, was found to be the most contaminated by total POPs (21 100 ng g(-1) lw) of all the dolphins off SA, followed by Tursiops aduncus (19 800 ng g(-1) lw), Lagenodelphis hosei (13 600 ng g(-1) lw), and Delphinus capensis (5500 ng g(-1) lw), whereas POP levels in the offshore or pelagic delphinids were much lower. In all delphinids, dominant pollutants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), which represented more than 60% of the total concentration of total POPs, followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 30%). Concentrations of DDTs in S. plumbea and T. aduncus off SA were among the highest levels reported in delphinids globally. Approximately half of the adult T. aduncus had PCB concentrations above the effect threshold for impairment of immune functions. The concentrations of Mirex and Dieldrin in SA delphinids were higher than those found in species from other regions of the Southern Hemisphere.

  12. Modulation of persistent organic pollutant toxicity through nutritional intervention: emerging opportunities in biomedicine and environmental remediation

    PubMed Central

    Petriello, Michael C.; Newsome, Bradley J.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Hilt, J. Zach; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution is increasing worldwide, and there is evidence that exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls can contribute to the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. Pollutant removal from contaminated sites and subsequent pollutant degradation are critical for reducing the long-term health risks associated with exposure. However, complete remediation of a toxicant from the environment is very difficult and cost-prohibitive. Furthermore, remediation technologies often result in the generation of secondary toxicants. Considering these circumstances, environmentally-friendly and sustainable remediation technologies and biomedical solutions to reduce vulnerability to environmental chemical insults need to be explored to reduce the overall health risks associate with exposure to environmental pollutants. We propose that positive lifestyle changes such as healthful nutrition and consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables or bioactive nutrients with antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties will reduce the body’s vulnerability to environmental stressors and thus reduce toxicant-mediated disease pathologies. Interestingly, emerging evidence now implicates the incorporation of bioactive nutrients, such as plant-derived polyphenols, in technologies focused on the capture, sensing and remediation of halogenated POPs. We propose that human nutritional intervention in concert with the use of natural polyphenol sensing and remediation platforms may provide a sensible means to develop primary and long-term prevention strategies of diseases associated with many environmental toxic insults including halogenated POPs. PMID:24530186

  13. Maximum reservoir capacity of vegetation for persistent organic pollutants: Implications for global cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Valle, Matteo; Dachs, Jordi; Sweetman, Andrew J.; Jones, Kevin C.

    2004-12-01

    The concept of maximum reservoir capacity (MRC) or "equilibrium capacity ratio," the ratio of the capacities of the vegetation and of the atmospheric mixed layer (AML) to hold chemical under equilibrium conditions, is applied to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in vegetation in order to assess its importance for the global cycling of POPs. Vegetation is found to have a significant storage capacity, and because of its intimate contact with the atmosphere may play an important role in global cycling of POPs. The vegetation MRC is calculated for some representative PCB congeners (PCB-28; -152; -180) at the global scale with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°. It is shown to be comparable to that of the skin layer of the soil and to vary over many orders of magnitude, between compounds, locations, and time (seasonally/diurnally), depending on the vegetation type and on the temperature. The highest MRC values are observed in areas with low temperatures and coniferous forests (e.g., Siberia, Canada, Scandinavia), while the lowest values are typically located in warm and desert areas (e.g., Sahara). Large differences were also observed at the regional scale. Implications for the global cycling and long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of POPs are discussed, including comparisons with soil and ocean MRCs, which will drive net transfers of POPs between media and regions.

  14. Body burden of metals and persistent organic pollutants among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Laird, Brian D; Goncharov, Alexey B; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-09-01

    Inuit living in the Arctic are exposed to elevated levels of environmental contaminants primarily due to long-range atmospheric transport. Blood sampling and contaminant biomonitoring was conducted as part of the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey in 2007-2008. The body burden of metals (e.g. Cd, Pb) and persistent organic pollutants (e.g. PCBs, DDT & DDE, toxaphene, chlordane, PBDEs) were measured for Inuit participants (n=2172) from 36 communities in Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, in Canada. The geometric mean of blood concentrations for Cd, Pb, PCBs, DDE & DDT, toxaphene, and chlordane were higher than those in the Canadian general population. A total of 9% of study participants exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for Pb, 11% of participants exceeded the trigger guideline of 5μgL(-1) for Cd, and 1% exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for PCBs. Also, 3% of women of child-bearing age exceeded blood Pb of 100μgL(-1) while 28% of women of child-bearing age exceeded 5μgL(-1) of PCBs. This work showed that most Inuit Health Survey participants were below blood contaminant guidelines set by Health Canada but that metal and POP body burdens commonly exceed exposures observed in the general population of Canada.

  15. Screening chemicals for the potential to be persistent organic pollutants: a case study of Arctic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank

    2008-07-15

    A large and ever-increasing number of chemicals are used in commerce, and researchers and regulators have struggled to ascertain that these chemicals do not threaten human health or cause environmental or ecological damage. The presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote environments such as the Arctic is of special concern and has international regulatory implications. Responding to the need for a way to identify chemicals of high concern, a methodology has been developed which compares experimentally measured properties, or values predicted from chemical structure alone, to a set of screening criteria. These criteria include partitioning properties that allow for accumulation in the physical Arctic environment and in the Arctic human food chain, and resistance to atmospheric oxidation. Atthe same time we quantify the extent of structural resemblance to a group of known Arctic contaminants. Comparison of the substances that are identified by a mechanistic description of the processes that lead to Arctic contamination with those substances that are structurally similar to known Arctic contaminants reveals the strengths and limitations of either approach. Within a data set of more than 100,000 distinct industrial chemicals, the methodology identifies 120 high production volume chemicals which are structurally similarto known Arctic contaminants and/or have partitioning properties that suggest they are potential Arctic contaminants.

  16. Sample handling strategies for the determination of persistent trace organic contaminants from biota samples.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo-Used, Natalia; Blanco-González, Elisa; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2007-05-02

    Even after emergence of most advanced instrumental techniques for the final separation, detection, identification and determination of analytes, sample handling continues to play a basic role in environmental analysis of complex matrices. In fact, sample preparation steps are often the bottleneck for combined time and efficiency in many overall analytical procedures. Thus, it is not surprising that, in the last two decades, a lot of effort has been devoted to the development of faster, safer, and more environment friendly techniques for sample extraction and extract clean up, prior to actual instrumental analysis. This article focuses on the state of the art in sample preparation of environmental solid biological samples dedicated to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) analysis. Extraction techniques such as Soxhlet extraction, sonication-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) are reviewed and their most recent applications to the determination of POPs in biota samples are provided. Additionally, classical as well as promising novel extraction/clean-up techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) are also summarized. Finally, emerging trends in sample preparation able to integrate analytes extraction and their adequate clean-up are presented.

  17. Cluster analysis of passive air sampling data based on the relative composition of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiande; Wania, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The development of passive air samplers has allowed the measurement of time-integrated concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within spatial networks on a variety of scales. Cluster analysis of POP composition may enhance the interpretation of such spatial data. Several methodological aspects of the application of cluster analysis are discussed, including the influence of a dominant pollutant, the role of PAS duplication, and comparison of regional studies. Relying on data from six regional studies in North and South America, Africa, and Asia, we illustrate here how cluster analysis can be used to extract information and gain insights into POP sources and atmospheric transport contributions. Cluster analysis allows classification of PAS samples into those with significant local source contributions and those that represent regional fingerprints. Local emissions, atmospheric transport, and seasonal cycles are identified as being among the major factors determining the variation in POP composition at many sites. By complementing cluster analysis with meteorological data such as air mass back-trajectories, terrain, as well as geographical and socio-economic aspects, a comprehensive picture of the atmospheric contamination of a region by POPs emerges.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, John R.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Becker, Paul R.; Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M.; York, Geoffrey S.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for ΣPCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic.

  19. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in California women’s serum and residential dust

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Smith, Sabrina Crispo; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto X.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Metayer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through various routes, including consumption of contaminated food and accidental ingestion of settled dust. Objectives We aimed to identify key routes of exposure to organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in California women of reproductive age. Methods Blood was collected from 48 mothers participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study from 2006–2007 and analyzed for POPs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression models of natural-log transformed serum concentrations were used to identify determinants of exposure from available questionnaire information on dietary habits, reproductive history, and demographic characteristics, as well as vacuum cleaner dust-POP levels. Results After adjusting for blood lipid levels, age, body mass index, cumulative lactation, and sampling date, serum concentrations of multiple major PCBs were positively associated with fish consumption, but not dust-PCB levels. After adjusting for blood lipid levels, Hispanic ethnicity, country of origin, and household annual income, serum concentrations of multiple major PBDEs were positively associated with dust-PBDE levels. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the relative contribution of specific exposure routes to total POP intake varies by chemical class, with dust being a relatively important source of PBDEs and diet being a relatively important source of PCBs. PMID:25460621

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber.

    PubMed

    Kucklick, John R; Krahn, Margaret M; Becker, Paul R; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M; York, Geoffrey S; O'Hara, Todd M; Wise, Stephen A

    2006-08-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for SigmaPCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic.

  1. Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants and Duration of Lactation among Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Rosana H.; Webster, Monique; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Fenster, Laura; Davis, Mark D.; Hubbard, Alan; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Background. Research suggests that estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals interfere with lactation. Objectives. (1) to determine if estrogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are associated with shortened lactation duration; (2) to determine whether previous breastfeeding history biases associations. Methods and Results. We measured selected organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (p, p′-DDE, p, p′-DDT, o, p′-DDT, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs 44, 49, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in serum from 366 low-income, Mexican-American pregnant women living in an agricultural region of California and assessed breastfeeding duration by questionnaires. We found no association between DDE, DDT, or estrogenic POPs with shortened lactation duration, but rather associations for two potentially estrogenic POPs with lengthened lactation duration arose (HR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4, 0.8] for p, p′-DDE & 0.8 [0.6, 1.0] for PCB 52). Associations between antiestrogenic POPs (PCBs 138 and 180) and shortened lactation duration were attributed to a lactation history bias. Conclusion. Estrogenic POPs were not associated with shortened lactation duration, but may be associated with longer lactation duration. PMID:20671963

  2. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants and obesity: are they potential mechanisms for breast cancer promotion?

    PubMed

    Reaves, Denise K; Ginsburg, Erika; Bang, John J; Fleming, Jodie M

    2015-04-01

    Dietary ingestion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is correlated with the development of obesity. Obesity alters metabolism, induces an inflammatory tissue microenvironment, and is also linked to diabetes and breast cancer risk/promotion of the disease. However, no direct evidence exists with regard to the correlation among all three of these factors (POPs, obesity, and breast cancer). Herein, we present results from current correlative studies indicating a causal link between POP exposure through diet and their bioaccumulation in adipose tissue that promotes the development of obesity and ultimately influences breast cancer development and/or progression. Furthermore, as endocrine disruptors, POPs could interfere with hormonally responsive tissue functions causing dysregulation of hormone signaling and cell function. This review highlights the critical need for advanced in vitro and in vivo model systems to elucidate the complex relationship among obesity, POPs, and breast cancer, and, more importantly, to delineate their multifaceted molecular, cellular, and biochemical mechanisms. Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies directly testing the observed correlations as well as detailing their molecular mechanisms are vital to cancer research and, ultimately, public health. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood samples from Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco; González-Vega, Carolina; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Hernández-González, Lidia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2014-02-15

    Studies in Mexico have demonstrated exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in people living in different sites through the country. However, studies evaluating exposure to POPs in people living in Mexico City (one of most contaminated places in the world) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood as exposure biomarkers in people living in Mexico City. A total of 123 participants (blood donors aged 20-60 years) were recruited during 2010 in Mexico City. Quantitative analyses of blood samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Levels of the assessed compounds ranged from non-detectable (

  6. Seasonal accumulation of persistent organic pollutants on a high altitude glacier in the Eastern Alps.

    PubMed

    Kirchgeorg, T; Dreyer, A; Gabrielli, P; Gabrieli, J; Thompson, L G; Barbante, C; Ebinghaus, R

    2016-11-01

    The seasonal accumulations of perfluorinated substances (PFAS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in a 10 m shallow firn core from a high altitude glacier at Mt. Ortles (Italy, 3830 m above sea level) in South Tyrol in the Italian Eastern Alps. The most abundant persistent organic pollutants of each group were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (for PFASs); BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 209 (for PBDEs) and phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR) (for PAHs). All compounds show different extents of seasonality, with higher accumulation during summer time compared to winter. This seasonal difference mainly reflects meteorological conditions with a low and stable atmospheric boundary layer in winter and strong convective activity in summer, transformation processes during the transport of chemicals and/or post-depositional alterations. Change in the composition of the water-soluble PFCAs demonstrates the influence of meltwater percolation through the firn layers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in digested sewage sludge (1993-2012).

    PubMed

    Zennegg, Markus; Munoz, Maria; Schmid, Peter; Gerecke, Andreas C

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of temporal trends is a key tool to assess the success of national and international regulations on chemical pollution. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical pollutants, which are not only harmful, but also because of their slow environmental degradation they pose a long-time risk. In this study, concentrations of selected POPs were measured between 1993 and 2012 in digested sewage sludge from eight municipal waste water treatment plants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), which have been banned or restricted for decades, exhibited decreasing trends with apparent half-lives between 9 and 12years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and long-chain perfluorinated acids showed no clear trend, which reflects the recent introduction of regulations. The analysis of octabromodiphenyl ethers did not reveal indications for reductive debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether; however the analysis of total bromine showed that up to 14% of the total bromine load in sewage sludge originated from PBDEs (average 2%). This is the first study to report temporal trends for more than 20years of series POPs in sewage sludge. © 2013.

  8. Public health concern behind the exposure to persistent organic pollutants and the risk of metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are hazardous chemicals omnipresent in our food chain, which have been internationally regulated to ensure public health. Initially described for their potency to affect reproduction and promote cancer, recent studies have highlighted an unexpected implication of POPs in the development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity. Based on this novel knowledge, this article aims at stimulating discussion and evaluating the effectiveness of current POP legislation to protect humans against the risk of metabolic diseases. Furthermore, the regulation of POPs in animal food products in the European Union (EU) is addressed, with a special focus on marine food since it may represent a major source of POP exposure to humans. Discussion There is mounting scientific evidence showing that current POP risk assessment and regulation cannot effectively protect humans against metabolic disorders. Better regulatory control of POPs in dietary products should be of high public health priority. Summary The general population is exposed to sufficient POPs, both in term of concentration and diversity, to induce metabolic disorders. This situation should attract the greatest attention from the public health and governmental authorities. PMID:22520265

  9. Increase in Metabolic Syndrome-Related Hospitalizations in Relation to Environmental Sources of Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Alexander V.; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from cell studies indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POP) can induce insulin resistance, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We hypothesized that residential proximity to environmental sources of POP would be associated with the MetS in the population. The present study examined the association between residency in a zip code containing or abutting environmental sources of POP and MetS-related hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as hospitalization rate ratios. Adjusted RR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. A higher proportion of African Americans resided in POP zip codes compared to Caucasians (25.9% and 24.3%, respectively, p < 0.01). Residence in POP zip codes was associated with a statistically significant 39.2% increase in MetS-related hospitalization rates, adjusted for race, gender, and age (adjusted RR = 1.392, 95% CI: 1.032–1.879, p = 0.030). Increase in age was independently associated with higher MetS-related hospitalization rates (p for trend < 0.001). Our findings contribute to the body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of POP constituting an environmental risk factor for the MetS. Further studies investigating exposure to POP and insulin resistance are warranted. PMID:21556177

  10. Depth Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the North and Tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caoxin; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Adelman, Dave A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-21

    Little is known of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the deep ocean. Polyethylene passive samplers were used to detect the vertical distribution of truly dissolved POPs at two sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Samplers were deployed at five depths covering 26-2535 m in the northern Atlantic and Tropical Atlantic, in approximately one year deployments. Samplers of different thickness were used to determine the state of equilibrium POPs reached in the passive samplers. Concentrations of POPs detected in the North Atlantic near the surface (e.g., sum of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs: 0.84 pg L(-1)) were similar to previous measurements. At both sites, PCB concentrations showed subsurface maxima (tropical Atlantic Ocean -800 m, North Atlantic -500 m). Currents seemed more important in moving POPs to deeper water masses than the biological pump. The ratio of PCB concentrations in near surface waters (excluding PCB-28) between the two sites was inversely correlated with congeners' subcooled liquid vapor pressure, in support of the latitudinal fractionation. The results presented here implied a significant amount of HCB is stored in the Atlantic Ocean (4.8-26% of the global HCB environmental burdens), contrasting traditional beliefs that POPs do not reach the deep ocean.

  11. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  12. Fate and risk evaluation of persistent organic contaminants and related compounds in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Connell, D W; Wu, R S; Richardson, B J; Leung, K; Lam, P S; Connell, P A

    1998-04-01

    The Environment Protection Department of Hong Kong has a monitoring program for persistent organic contaminants in sediments of Victoria Harbour, the main harbour of Hong Kong. A fugacity model has been used, based on this sedimentary data, to estimate inputs to the system (probably from sewage, stormwater and industrial discharges) as well as the fate of the contaminants, particularly in terms of the aqueous and biotic concentrations. The risk of deleterious effects on the natural marine system, as well as on the consumers of seafood from the system, was carried out using the estimated aqueous and biotic concentrations together with accepted environmental quality guidelines. The result of our analysis indicated that the chlorohydrocarbons, PCBs (as Aroclor 1254) total DDT and total HCH pose a significant risk, and probably have caused damage to the marine ecosystem as well as posing a hazard to seafood consumers. Much higher concentrations of the less toxic total alkanes, nonaromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkyl benzenes and the compounds giving a unresolved complex mixture (UCM) cannot be evaluated due to a lack of environmental guidelines and the complexity of these substances. However, it is probable that these substances add adverse effects to those due to the other contaminants.

  13. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to remote lacustrine environments.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Ontiveros-Cuadras, Jorge Feliciano; Sericano, José L; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Liong Wee Kwong, Laval; Dunbar, Robert B; Mucciarone, David A; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2014-09-15

    Concentrations, temporal trends and fluxes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs) were determined in soil and (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from remote lacustrine environments (El Tule and Santa Elena lakes) in rural areas of Central Mexico. In both areas, the concentrations of target analytes in soil and sediment samples were comparable and indicative of slightly contaminated environments. The prevalence of low-molecular-weight PAHs in soils suggested their mainly atmospheric origin, in contrast to the aquatic sediments where runoff contribution was also significant. Increasing contamination trends of PCBs and PBDEs were evident, showing maximum fluxes of 4.8 ± 2.1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 ng cm(-2) a(-1) for PCBs and PBDEs, respectively. The predominance of lower-brominated PBDEs and lower-chlorinated PCBs in soils and sediments indicated that their presence is mostly due to long-range atmospheric transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in food webs of the scheldt estuary.

    PubMed

    Van Ael, Evy; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of several persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs) in aquatic species from the Scheldt estuary were related with factors (body size, lipids, trophic position) possibly influencing their bioaccumulation. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N) were used as a measure for trophic position. A decreasing trend in POP levels toward the sea was observed. For POP concentrations in sediments, this trend could be attributed to a dilution effect from mixing with seawater. However, concentrations in biota more downstream were higher than expected after taking into account the dilution effect, possibly due to differences in bioavailability. Tissue concentrations were correlated with the lipid content in biota, but not with body size. Biomagnification was only significant for some PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE at the most marine sampling location (Terneuzen, L1) and for p,p'-DDD and BDE 100 at the second sampling location (Bath, L2). A significant decreasing relationship was found for γ-HCH concentrations with increasing δ(15)N at Terneuzen. For Antwerpen (L3), no significant relationships were detected. TMFs ranged from 0.64 for γ-HCH up to 1.60 for PCB 194. These results suggest that biomagnification was more important in the marine part of the estuary, although the presence of multiple carbon sources at the freshwater side might have led to an underestimation of the influence of trophic position.

  15. Automated milk fat extraction for the analyses of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Archer, Jeffrey C; Jenkins, Roy G

    2017-01-15

    We have utilized an automated acid hydrolysis technology, followed by an abbreviated Soxhlet extraction technique to obtain fat from whole milk for the determination of persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls. The process simply involves (1) pouring the liquid milk into the hydrolysis beaker with reagents and standards, (2) drying the obtained fat on a filter paper and (3) obtaining pure fat via the modified Soxhlet extraction using 100mL of hexane per sample. This technique is in contrast to traditional manually intense liquid-liquid extractions and avoids the preparatory step of freeze-drying the samples for pressurized liquid extractions. Along with these extraction improvements, analytical results closely agree between the methods, thus no quality has been compromised. The native spike (n=12) and internal standard (n=24) precision and accuracy results are within EPA Methods 1613 and 1668 limits. While the median (n=6) Toxic Equivalency Quotient (TEQ) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans and the concentration of the marker polychlorinated biphenyls show a percent difference of 1% and 12%, respectively, compared to 315 previously analyzed milk samples at the same laboratory using liquid-liquid extraction. During our feasibility studies, both egg and fish tissue show substantial promise using this technique as well.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Wilson, Susan; Eybatov, Tariel; Mitrofanov, Igor V; Aubrey, David G; Khuraskin, Lev S; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 microg/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression.

  17. Seasonality in the ``grasshopping'' and atmospheric residence times of persistent organic pollutants over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Elena; Dachs, Jordi

    2008-09-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic, bioaccumulable and semi-volatile compounds that have been detected in all environmental compartments, even in remote pristine regions where they have never been produced or used. Long range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and subsequent deposition is the major route of introduction of POPs to the oceans, including remote regions, and thus to the marine food-webs. It has been suggested that when POPs travel through the atmosphere, they tend to move in stages. This is known as the grasshopper effect, a repeated process of volatilization and deposition, even though the measure of grasshopping potential has been elusive. Here we show the spatial and seasonal variability of the grasshopper and LRAT potentials for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), a significant class of POPs. The number of hops that a chemical undergoes during LRAT over the oceans presents an important spatial and seasonal variability driven by biogeochemical processes occurring in the water column. These results have important implications for the understanding of the widespread distribution and fractionation processes of POPs at the global scale, showing that transport events to remote regions, such the Arctic, are maximized during seasons of low primary productivity.

  18. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to reveal the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous system and on cancer, few studies focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. We attempted to find a relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation. Methods We recruited 121 subjects who visited Kyungpook National University Hospital for a health screening. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for 40 kinds of POPs including 17 types of polychlorinated biphenyls and 23 types of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, the Korean version of the Rome III criteria was used to identify gastrointestinal symptoms. Results Our results showed that abdominal discomfort had an inverse relationship with several polychlorinated biphenyls. Moreover, an inverted U-shaped relationship was observed between abdominal discomfort and several other organochlorine pesticides including p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and the effects of these pesticides on abdominal discomfort were similar to that of organochlorine pesticides on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Our results suggest that mild and unspecified gastrointestinal symptoms with no clear cause could be related to POPs levels. PMID:27688859

  19. Evidence for persistent organic pollutants released from melting glacier in the central Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Ming-Zhe; Sun, Yong; Han, Peng; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2017-01-01

    Glacier alluvial deposits record persistent organic pollutants (POPs) not only derived from the atmospheric deposition but also from the release of glacial melting. The evidence for melting glacier in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) as a secondary source of pollutants is introduced through investigating the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in four deposited profiles collected at the edge of the Changwengluozha glacier. Two concentration peaks were observed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the past century. The first peak was observed in the 1970s, corresponding with the heavy usage of HCHs and DDTs in the surrounding countries and regions. The second one was in 2000 when the production and usage of DDTs and HCHs were strictly limited, which possibly indicated a significant release from melting glacier. This result was further supported by the enantiomeric fraction values for α-HCH and o,p'-DDT. On the other hand, the dramatic increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from atmospheric deposition, which was associated with the socioeconomic development in Tibet, shaded the release of PAHs from melting glacier. This study reveals not only the air deposition history of legacy POPs but also a substantial release of OCPs from glacier to the adjacent environment. Our research supports the hypothesis that the melting glacier in the TP represents a secondary source of OCPs, which is consistent with the findings in the Alps glaciers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants and abnormal geometry of the left ventricle in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg Lind, Ylva; Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P Monica

    2013-08-01

    Established risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, as these risk factors explain only part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) might also play a role in LVH, because exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl 126 induced cardiac growth in rats. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), and geometric groups of LVH, were determined by echocardiography and 21 POPs were measured by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) in 1016 individuals aged 70 years. All individuals with a history of myocardial infarction were excluded from analysis (n = 72). Several of the POPs were related to abnormal left ventricular geometry before adjustment for established risk factors, but lost in significance following adjustment. However, the pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB) levels were significantly related to RWT, and concentric left ventricular remodeling, also following adjustment for sex, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes, and BMI (P <0.0001). In this cross-sectional study, circulating levels of HCB were related to increased wall thickness of the left ventricle and concentric left ventricular remodeling, independently of LVH risk factors, suggesting a role of this environmental contaminant in abnormal growth of the left ventricle.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, J.R.; Krahn, M.M.; Becker, P.R.; Porter, B.J.; Schantz, M.M.; York, G.S.; O'Hara, T. M.; Wise, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for ??PCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2006.

  2. Multiplex screening of persistent organic pollutants in fish using spectrally encoded microspheres.

    PubMed

    Meimaridou, Anastasia; Kalachova, Kamila; Shelver, Weilin L; Franek, Milan; Pulkrabova, Jana; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2011-11-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are environmental and food-related contaminants of global public health concern and known to be carcinogenic and endocrine disruptors. Their monitoring is essential, and an easy-to-use, rapid, and affordable multianalyte screening method with simplified sample preparation can be a valuable tool prior to instrumental analysis. For this purpose, a flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA), based on a spectrally encoded microbeads technology, was developed for the multiplex detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) in buffer and fish extracts. The sensitivities of the assays in the three-plex FCIA format were similar to the individual FCIAs for the marker compounds benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77), and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) in buffer with IC(50) values of 0.4, 20, and 2 μg L(-1), respectively. Apart from the three markers, we could detect at least 14 other POPs. Extracts of fish with different fat content, prepared with a simplified extraction and cleanup procedure, had an insignificant influence on the overall three-plex FCIA performance, with the exception of some impact on the PAHs detection. The performance of the three-plex FCIA, in combination with the simple extraction procedure, is adequate for regulatory control in accordance with the required limits.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants meet adipose tissue hypoxia: does cross-talk contribute to inflammation during obesity?

    PubMed

    Myre, M; Imbeault, P

    2014-01-01

    Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate in lipid-rich tissues such as human adipose tissue. This is particularly problematic in individuals with excess adiposity, a physiological state that may be additionally characterized by local adipose tissue hypoxia. Hypoxic patches occur when oxygen diffusion is insufficient to reach all hypertrophic adipocytes. POPs and hypoxia independently contribute to the development of adipose tissue-specific and systemic inflammation often associated with obesity. Inflammation is induced by increased proinflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, as well as reduced adiponectin release, an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing adipokine. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the cellular response to some pollutants, while hypoxia responses occur through the oxygen-sensitive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. There is some overlap between the two signalling pathways since both require a common subunit called the AhR nuclear translocator. As such, it is unclear how adipocytes respond to simultaneous POP and hypoxia exposure. This brief review explores the independent contribution of POPs and adipose tissue hypoxia as factors underlying the inflammatory response from adipocytes during obesity. It also highlights that the combined effect of POPs and hypoxia through the AhR and HIF-1 signalling pathways remains to be tested.

  4. Evaluating the neurotoxic effects of lactational exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Verner, Marc-André; Guxens, Mònica; Grimalt, Joan O; Forns, Joan; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Haddad, Sami; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Although the brain continues developing in the postnatal period, epidemiological studies on the effects of postnatal exposure to neurotoxic POPs through breast-feeding remain mostly inconclusive. Failure to detect associations between postnatal exposure and health outcomes may stem from the limitations of commonly employed approaches to assess lactational exposure. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as estimated with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, is associated with decrements in mental and psychomotor development scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) test in children aged around 14-months of a subsample (N=1175) of the Spanish INMA birth cohort, and to compare this with the effects of prenatal exposure. Although in the present study population PCB-153, DDE and HCB exposure increased within the first months of postnatal life, no associations were found between different periods of postnatal exposure to these compounds and mental or psychomotor scores. Increasing prenatal PCB-153 concentrations were associated with worse mental and psychomotor scores, although significance was only reached for psychomotor development (β [95%CI]=-1.36 [-2.61, -0.11]). Indeed, the association between exposure and effects observed during prenatal life weakened gradually across periods of postnatal life. Results of the present study suggest that, although breastfeeding increases children's blood persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels during postnatal life, deleterious effects of PCB-153 on neuropsychological development are mainly attributable to prenatal exposure.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants in Mediterranean seawater and processes affecting their accumulation in plankton.

    PubMed

    Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Del Vento, Sabino; Ojeda, María José; Valle, María Carmen; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Mariani, Giulio; Wollgast, Jan; Hanke, Georg

    2011-05-15

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to riverine and atmospheric inputs of organic pollutants. Here, we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007 from Barcelona to Istanbul and Alexandria, respectively, where water and plankton samples were collected simultaneously. Both matrixes were analyzed for hexaclorochyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 41 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The comparison of the measured HCB and HCHs concentrations with previously reported dissolved phase concentrations suggests a temporal decline in their concentrations since the 1990s. On the contrary, PCB seawater concentrations did not exhibit such a decline, but show a significant spatial variability in dissolved concentrations with lower levels in the open Western and South Eastern Mediterranean, and higher concentrations in the Black, Marmara, and Aegean Seas and Sicilian Strait. PCB and OCPs (organochlorine pesticides) concentrations in plankton were higher at lower plankton biomass, but the intensity of this trend depended on the compound hydrophobicity (K(OW)). For the more persistent PCBs and HCB, the observed dependence of POP concentrations in plankton versus biomass can be explained by interactions between air-water exchange, particle settling, and/or bioaccumulation processes, whereas degradation processes occurring in the photic zone drive the trends shown by the more labile HCHs. The results presented here provide clear evidence of the important physical and biogeochemical controls on POP occurrence in the marine environment.

  6. Steroid hormones and persistent organic pollutants in plasma from North-eastern Atlantic pilot whales.

    PubMed

    Hoydal, Katrin S; Styrishave, Bjarne; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Letcher, Robert J; Dam, Maria; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2017-09-14

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to have endocrine disruptive effects, interfering with endogenous steroid hormones. The present study examined nine steroid hormones and their relationships with the concentrations of selected POPs in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Faroe Islands, NE Atlantic. The different steroids were detected in 15 to all of the 26 individuals. High concentrations of progesterone (83.3-211.7pmol/g) and pregnenolone (PRE; 4.68-5.69pmol/g) were found in three adult females indicating that they were pregnant or ovulating. High androgen concentrations in two of the males reflected that one was adult and that one (possibly) had reached puberty. In males a significant positive and strong correlation between body length and testosterone (TS) levels was identified. Furthermore, positive and significant correlations were found between 4-OH-CB107/4'-OH-CB108 and 17β-estradiol in males. In adult females significant positive correlations were identified between PRE and CB149 and t-nonachlor, between estrone and CB138, -149, -187 and p,p'-DDE, between androstenedione and CB187, and between TS and CB-99 and -153. Although relationships between the POPs and the steroid hormones reported herein are not evidence of cause-effect relationships, the positive correlations between steroids and POPs, particularly in females, suggest that POPs may have some endocrine disrupting effects on the steroid homeostasis in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and ecotoxicological concerns of persistent organic pollutants in sediment from creek ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Mahesh; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Pandit, Gauri Girish

    2016-09-01

    In order to study the distribution and ecotoxicological concerns of persistent organic pollutants, grab sediment samples were collected from different locations across Thane creek, India. Analyses of samples were carried out using gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-mass spectrometry techniques. In organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), DDD (1-chloro-4-(2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl) benzene) and α, β, and γ conformer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 9 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners were analyzed in surface sediment samples. Concentrations of these pollutants in grab sediment samples may indicate their current use and impact on marine ecosystem. Average concentrations of total DDT (including DDD and DDE), HCH, and Σ9PCBs were found to be 4.9, 12.5, and 2.9 µg kg(-1)(dry weight) respectively. High concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were found at discharge locations in creek compared to other locations. Location-wise distribution of OCPs and PCBs indicates their high concentrations at the waste water receiving point. Data were compared for ecotoxicological impacts based on the levels specified in the sediment quality standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. γ-HCH was found to have maximum potential to induce ecotoxicological impacts.

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) from Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Tsukue, Naomi; Yoshino, Tomoo; Matsumoto, Fumio; Nakano, Takeshi; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) from eastern Hokkaido is classified as a Special Natural Monument in Japan. In this study, we determined the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in red-crowned crane muscle tissues (n = 47). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had the highest median concentration (240ng/g lipid weight), followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) (150ng/g lipid weight), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs) (36ng/g lipid weight), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (16ng/g lipid weight), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (4.4ng/g lipid weight), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (1.8ng/g lipid weight), and finally, Mirex (1.5ng/g lipid weight). Additionally, a positive correlation was found among POP concentrations. No sex differences beyond body parameters were observed. Additionally, red-crowned cranes exhibited a high enantiomeric excess of (+)-alpha-HCH, with enantiomer fractions varying from 0.51 to 0.87 (average: 0.69). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adverse effects of weight loss: Are persistent organic pollutants a potential culprit?

    PubMed

    Cheikh Rouhou, M; Karelis, A D; St-Pierre, D H; Lamontagne, L

    2016-09-01

    Health professionals commonly recommend weight loss to individuals with obesity. However, unexpected adverse health effects after a weight-loss program have been reported in several studies. The factors that could explain this phenomenon are currently poorly understood. However, one potential factor that has emerged is persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Due to their lipophilic nature, POPs are known to accumulate in the adipose tissue and their concentrations are found to be higher in obese individuals than lean subjects. There is evidence to suggest that weight loss induces a significant increase in POPs levels in the bloodstream. Furthermore, the increases in plasma POPs levels after weight loss are even greater with an intensive weight loss. Thus, a critical question that remains unresolved is whether POPs released from the adipose tissue to the bloodstream during intensive weight loss could increase the risk of cardiometabolic disturbances. In turn, the accumulation of POPs released in response to an intensive weight loss may impair energy metabolism and stimulate a subsequent weight regain. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide insights about the role of POPs on cardiometabolic risk factors during weight loss and weight regain that could potentially explain, at least in part, the adverse effects observed in certain weight-loss studies. We will also discuss the potential synergistic or antagonistic POPs-dependent risks following weight-loss programs. Ultimately, this may lead in establishing new therapeutic boundaries to minimize potential health hazards related to weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulating Persistent Organic Pollutants and Body Fat Distribution, Evidence from NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Methods This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, after adjusting for major confounders, including age, smoking status, and history of lactation and parity. Wolfe's method was used to compare correlation coefficients derived from the same participants. Results Twelve POPs showed significantly different correlations with fat depots in trunk and leg regions. β-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-126 showed stronger positive correlations with trunk FM% than with leg FM%, whereas PCBs with ≥6 chlorines were more inversely correlated with trunk FM% than leg FM%. Age-stratified analysis showed stronger inverse correlations between POPs and trunk FM% mainly in participants <40 years, whereas stronger positive correlations between POPs and trunk FM% were observed in older participants. Conclusions Stronger associations between POPs and trunk fat as compared to leg fat, possibly indicated a more important role of trunk fat in the pharmacokinetics of POPs, or a stronger effect of POPs, as endocrine disruptors, on trunk fat metabolism. PMID:26237202

  11. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to uncover the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous systems and on cancer, few focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. Here, we attempt to determine the relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation. Methods We recruited 121 subjects who visited Kyungpook National University Medical Center for health screening. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for 40 kinds of POPs including 17 types of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 23 types of organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Furthermore, the Korean version of the Rome III criteria was used to identify gastrointestinal symptoms. Results Based on our results, abdominal discomfort showed an inverse relationship with several PCBs and an inverted U-shaped relationship with several other OCPs including pp-DDD and pp-DDT. The effects of pp-DDD and pp-DDT on abdominal discomfort were similar to those of OCPs on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Our results suggest that mild and unspecified gastrointestinal symptoms with no clear causes could be related to POP levels. PMID:28775815

  12. The distribution of persistent organic pollutants in a trophically complex Antarctic ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Michael L.; Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Hawker, Darryl W.; Shaw, Emily C.; Cropp, Roger A.

    2017-06-01

    Despite Antarctica's isolation from human population centres, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are transported there via long range atmospheric transport and subsequently cold-trapped. The challenging nature of working in the Antarctic environment greatly limits our ability to monitor POP concentrations and understand the processes that govern the distribution of POPs in Antarctic ecosystems. Here we couple a dynamic, trophically complex biological model with a fugacity model to investigate the distribution of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in a near-shore Antarctic ecosystem. Using this model we examine the steady-state, and annual cycle of HCB concentration in the atmosphere, ocean, sediment, detritus, and 21 classes of biota that span from primary producers to apex predators. The scope and trophic resolution of our model allows us to examine POP pathways through the ecosystem. In our model the main pathway of HCB to upper trophic species is via pelagic communities, with relatively little via benthic communities. Using a dynamic ecosystem model also allows us to examine the seasonal and potential climate change induced changes in POP distribution. We show that there is a large annual cycle in concentration in the planktonic communities, which may have implications for biomagnification factors calculated from observations. We also examine the direct effects of increasing temperature on the redistribution of HCB in a changing climate and find that it is likely minor compared to other indirect effects, such as changes in atmospheric circulation, sea ice dynamics, and changes to the ecosystem itself.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in South America.

    PubMed

    Baldassin, P; Taniguchi, S; Gallo, H; Maranho, A; Kolesnikovas, C; Amorim, D B; Mansilla, M; Navarro, R M; Tabeira, L C; Bicego, M C; Montone, R C

    2016-04-01

    Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, are the most abundant penguins living in temperate regions of South America and are good indicators of environmental pollution in the region. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were detected in the liver of Magellanic penguins found debilitated or dead on the beaches of Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) between 2008 and 2012 as well as in Uruguay and Chile in 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more prevalent than organochlorine pesticides (DDTs ∼ HCB ∼ Drins) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Among PCBs, penta-, hexa- and hepta-chlorinated congeners were predominant. Concentrations of POPs were similar between the Pacific and Atlantic penguin populations, except for PCBs, which were relatively higher in the Pacific population. During the study years (2008-2012), large variations were found in organochlorine pesticides and PCBs tended to decline. Overall, the southern portion of South America has low concentrations of POPs, with either a constant trend or evidence of decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Saharan dust - A carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.; Foreman, W.T.; Genualdi, S.; Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Majewski, M.S.; Mohammed, A.; Ramsubhag, A.; Shinn, E.A.; Simonich, S.L.; Smith, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa) is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Caribbean ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde) and the Caribbean (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago). Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in higher concentrations than the Caribbean sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable microorganisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The sea fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the Caribbean. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable microorganisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the Caribbean, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions.

  15. Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in the polar regions: knowledge gaps & gluts through evidence mapping.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Maria Cristina; Sarà, Gianluca; Corsolini, Simonetta

    2017-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread compounds that accumulating in polar regions canalise through trophic webs. Although several dozens of studies have been carried out in the last decades, the information is generally scattered across a large number of literature sources. This does not allow an efficient synthesis and constraints our understanding on how address future monitoring plans and environmental conservation strategies on the Polar Regions with respect to POPs. Thus, here, we present the outcome of a systematic map (SM) to scope, screen and chart evidences from literature dealing with POPs in Polar regions. The SMs strive to produce rigorous guidelines and have recently been proposed as useful and effective tools to summarise growing bodies of research that seek to reduce bias and increase reliability, particularly in the case of high priority and controversial topics. Our SM was based on 125 polar studies, focussing on the most studied target species among those listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List (IUCN Red List). To facilitate analysis of evidence, the studies were classified into Accumulation Monitoring (accounting for POP monitoring through sub-organismal, functional and population levels) and Food Web Monitoring approaches (accounting for contaminants monitoring through food webs). Our SM allowed us to assess and visualise, a set of both knowledge gaps and gluts and lastly a list was provided to address future research on POPs in Polar Regions.

  16. Application of System Dynamics technique to simulate the fate of persistent organic pollutants in soils.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; López, D; Macías, F; Casares, J; Monterroso, C

    2013-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are within the most dangerous pollutants released into the environment by human activities. Due to their resistance to degradation (chemical, biological or photolytic), it is critical to assess the fate and environmental hazards of the exchange of POPs between different environmental media. System Dynamics enables to represent complex systems and analyze their dynamic behavior. It provides a highly visual representation of the structure of the system and the existing relationships between the several parameters and variables, facilitating the understanding of the behavior of the system. In the present study the fate of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) in a contaminated soil was modeled using the Vensim® simulation software. Results show a gradual decrease in the lindane content in the soil during a simulation period of 10 years. The most important route affecting the concentrations of the contaminant was the biochemical degradation, followed by infiltration and hydrodynamic dispersion. The model appeared to be highly sensitive to the half-life of the pollutant, which value depends on environmental conditions and directly affects the biochemical degradation.

  17. Unintentional production of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants during iron ore sintering processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Mei; Li, Changliang; Chen, Yuan

    2017-06-05

    Iron ore sintering (SNT) processes are major sources of unintentionally produced chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). However, few studies of emissions of brominated POPs, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), during SNT have been performed. Stack gas and fly ash samples from six typical SNT plants in China were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs, as well as any correlations among these compounds. The PCDD/F, PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 2.47, 0.61, 552, 0.32, and 107μgt(-1), respectively (109, 4.07, 10.4, 4.41 and 0.02ng toxic equivalents t(-1), respectively). PCBs were the most abundant compounds by mass, while PCNs were the next most abundant, contributing 51% and 42% to the total POP concentration, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs were the dominant contributors to the chlorinated and brominated POP toxic equivalent concentrations, contributing 89% to the total toxic equivalent concentration. The PCDD/F and other chlorinated and brominated POP concentrations were positively correlated, indicating that chlorinated and brominated POP emissions could be synergistically decreased using the best available technologies/best environmental practices already developed for PCDD/Fs.

  18. Electric arc furnaces for steel-making: hot spots for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Elbir, Tolga; Seyfioglu, Remzi; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bozlaker, Ayse; Demircioglu, Hulusi; Altiok, Hasan; Yatkin, Sinan; Cetin, Banu

    2009-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations were measured in stack-gases of ferrous scrap processing steel plants with electric arc furnaces (EAFs) (n = 5) in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey and in air (n = 11) at a site near those plants. Measured stack-gas concentrations for the four plants without scrap preheating (611 +/- 311, 165,000 +/- 285,000, and 33 +/- 3 ng m(-3), average +/- SD for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively) indicated that they are significant sources for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). POP emissions from the plant with scrap preheating were significantly higher (13 500, 445 000, and 91 ng m(-3) for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively). It was also shown that the steel plants emit considerable amounts of fugitive POPs in particle-phase. Estimated emissions using the emission factors generated in this study and the production amounts suggested that the steel plants with EAFs may significantly contribute to local and global PAH, PCB, and PBDE emissions. Several other compounds (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine-containing organic compounds, n = 49) were identified and determined semiquantitatively in the stack-gas and ambient air samples. Ambient air concentrations (62 +/- 35, 320 +/- 134 ng m(-3), 1451 +/- 954 pg m(-3), for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively) were significantly higher than those measured previously around the world and in the region, further confirming that the steel plants with EAFs are "hot spots" for POPs.

  19. Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Comero, Sara; Contini, Serafino; Schwesig, David; Werres, Friedrich; Balsaa, Peter; Gans, Oliver; Weiss, Stefan; Blaha, Ludek; Bolchi, Monica; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

    2010-07-01

    This study provides the first pan-European reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European ground water. In total, 164 individual ground-water samples from 23 European Countries were collected and analysed (among others) for 59 selected organic compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, pesticides (and their transformation products), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), benzotriazoles, hormones, alkylphenolics (endocrine disrupters), Caffeine, Diethyltoluamide (DEET), and Triclosan. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and maximum concentrations detected were DEET (84%; 454 ng/L), Caffeine (83%; 189 ng/L), PFOA (66%; 39 ng/L), Atrazine (56%; 253 ng/L), Desethylatrazine (55%; 487 ng/L), 1H-Benzotriazole (53%; 1032 ng/L), Methylbenzotriazole (52%; 516 ng/L), Desethylterbutylazine (49%; 266 ng/L), PFOS (48%, 135 ng/L), Simazine (43%; 127 ng/L), Carbamazepine (42%; 390 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C) (42%; 11 microg/L), Bisphenol A (40%; 2.3 microg/L), PFHxS (35%; 19 ng/L), Terbutylazine (34%; 716 ng/L), Bentazone (32%; 11 microg/L), Propazine (32%; 25 ng/L), PFHpA (30%; 21 ng/L), 2,4-Dinitrophenol (29%; 122 ng/L), Diuron (29%; 279 ng/L), and Sulfamethoxazole (24%; 38 ng/L). The chemicals which were detected most frequently above the European ground water quality standard for pesticides of 0.1 microg/L were Chloridazon-desphenyl (26 samples), NPE(1)C (20), Bisphenol A (12), Benzotriazole (8), N,N'-Dimethylsulfamid (DMS) (8), Desethylatrazine (6), Nonylphenol (6), Chloridazon-methyldesphenyl (6), Methylbenzotriazole (5), Carbamazepine (4), and Bentazone (4). However, only 1.7% of all single analytical measurements (in total 8000) were above this threshold value of 0.1 microg/L; 7.3% were > than 10 ng/L.

  20. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices for a corn–soybean–wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world. PMID:28096409

  1. Modelling the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in agricultural food chains for regulatory exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J; Collins, Chris D

    2017-02-01

    New models for estimating bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the agricultural food chain were developed using recent improvements to plant uptake and cattle transfer models. One model named AgriSim was based on K OW regressions of bioaccumulation in plants and cattle, while the other was a steady-state mechanistic model, AgriCom. The two developed models and European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES), as a benchmark, were applied to four reported food chain (soil/air-grass-cow-milk) scenarios to evaluate the performance of each model simulation against the observed data. The four scenarios considered were as follows: (1) polluted soil and air, (2) polluted soil, (3) highly polluted soil surface and polluted subsurface and (4) polluted soil and air at different mountain elevations. AgriCom reproduced observed milk bioaccumulation well for all four scenarios, as did AgriSim for scenarios 1 and 2, but EUSES only did this for scenario 1. The main causes of the deviation for EUSES and AgriSim were the lack of the soil-air-plant pathway and the ambient air-plant pathway, respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that soil-air-plant and ambient air-plant pathway should be calculated separately and the K OW regression of transfer factor to milk used in EUSES be avoided. AgriCom satisfied the recommendations that led to the low residual errors between the simulated and the observed bioaccumulation in agricultural food chain for the four scenarios considered. It is therefore recommended that this model should be incorporated into regulatory exposure assessment tools. The model uncertainty of the three models should be noted since the simulated concentration in milk from 5th to 95th percentile of the uncertainty analysis often varied over two orders of magnitude. Using a measured value of soil organic carbon content was effective to reduce this uncertainty by one order of magnitude.

  2. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2017-01-31

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world.

  3. Neurotoxicity of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Possible Mode(s) of Action and Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2005-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-lived toxic organic compounds and are of major concern for human and ecosystem health. Although the use of most POPs is banned in most countries, some organochlorine pesticides are still being used in several parts of the world. Although environmental levels of some POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have declined, newly emerging POPs such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been increasing considerably. Exposure to POPs has been associated with a wide spectrum of effects including reproductive, developmental, immunologic, carcinogenic, and neurotoxic effects. It is of particular concern that neurotoxic effects of some POPs have been observed in humans at low environmental concentrations. This review focuses on PCBs as a representative chemical class of POPs and discusses the possible mode(s) of action for the neurotoxic effects with emphasis on comparing dose-response and structure-activity relationships (SAR) with other structurally related chemicals. There is sufficient epidemiological and experimental evidence showing that PCB exposure is associated with motor and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Although several potential mode(s) of actions were postulated for PCB-induced neurotoxic effects, changes in neurotransmitter systems, altered intracellular signalling processes, and thyroid hormone imbalance are predominant ones. These three potential mechanisms are discussed in detail in vitro and in vivo. In addition, SAR was conducted on other structurally similar chemicals to see if they have a common mode(s) of action. Relative potency factors for several of these POPs were calculated based on their effects on intracellular signalling processes. This is a comprehensive review comparing molecular effects at the cellular level to the neurotoxic effects seen in the whole animal for environmentally relevant POPs. PMID:18648619

  4. Implications of biological factors on accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in Antarctic notothenioid fish.

    PubMed

    Ríos, J M; Lana, N B; Ciocco, N F; Covaci, A; Barrera-Oro, E; Moreira, E; Altamirano, J C

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, the possible associations between selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biological factors were assessed in different tissues of two Antarctic notothenioid fish: Notothenia rossii (NOR) and Trematomus newnesi (TRN) collected at Potter Cove, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands. Specifically, association patterns between biological factors (body size, lipid content, body condition) and POP concentrations (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (CHLs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs)), were explored by using two approaches: multivariate analyses (principal component analysis: PCA) and intraspecific correlations. Integrating results suggest that biological factors such as size, KI and tissue type seemed to be associated to selective accumulation of POPs for immature specimens of N. rossii, and KI and tissue type for mature specimens of T. newnesi. Each particular factor should be considered when choosing N. rossii or T. newnesi as sentinels for POPs pollution in Antarctic marine environments. Further, both nototheniids showed a selective accumulation pattern in their gonads of penta-chlorinated biphenyls (penta-CBs; 55.5 and 29ngg(-1) lw for N. rossii and T. newnesi, respectively) and organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs (199 and 13.3ngg(-1) lw, for N. rossii and T. newnesi respectively), and of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in gills (97.2 and 22.1 for ngg(-1) lw, for N. rossii and T. newnesi, respectively), highlighting the importance of these tissues in monitoring studies of pollution in fish. The current study expands the knowledge concerning the biological factors to be investigated when specific pollutants are monitored and supports the importance of tissue type for the selective accumulation of POPs in Antarctic

  5. Persistent organic pollutants in liver of Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) from southeastern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cascaes, M J; Oliveira, R T; Ubarana, M M; Sato, R M; Baldassin, P; Colabuono, F I; Leonel, J; Taniguchi, S; Weber, R R

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 14 livers from specimens of the Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii), which is an important economic resource for small-scale fisheries on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The following concentrations (lipid weight) of POPs were found: ∑PCBs: 1019±267 ng g(-1); ∑DDTs: 111±40 ng g(-1) and ∑PBDEs: 10.4±4.78. PCB 153 made the greatest contribution to ∑PCB (21.4%), followed by PCB 138 (14.6%) and PCB 180 (9.94%). Among chlorinated pesticides, only the p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD isomers had concentrations above the detection limit. Moreover, levels above the detection limit were found only for PBDE congeners 47 and 100 (BDEs 47>99). On average, BDE 47 accounted for 88% of the total PBDE load. The feeding habits of the Brazilian sharpnose shark close to the Brazilian coastline are likely the most important difference regarding the accumulation of POPs in comparison to oceanic species that feed in deeper waters. Thus, this species may be used to evaluate the pollution of coastal areas as well as human exposure to contaminants, as the Brazilian sharpnose shark is a frequently used for human consumption. Further studies in other areas of Brazil and involving other species are needed to clarify the mechanisms and potential impact of POPs, which can affect the biology of different organisms and cause population declines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in dusts that settled indoors in lower Manhattan after September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Offenberg, John H; Eisenreich, Steven J; Gigliotti, Cari L; Chen, Lung Chi; Xiong, Judy Q; Quan, Chunli; Lou, Xiaopeng; Zhong, Mianhua; Gorczynski, John; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Illacqua, Vito; Lioy, Paul J

    2004-03-01

    The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol impacting many residents, workers, and commuters after September 11, 2001. In all, 12 bulk samples of the settled dust were collected at indoor locations surrounding the epicenter of the disaster, including one sample from a residence that had been cleansed and was once again occupied. Additionally, one sample was collected from just outside a fifth story window on the sill. These samples were analyzed for many components, including inorganic and organic constituents as well as morphology of the various particles. The results of the analyses for persistent organic pollutants on dusts that settled at indoor locations are described herein, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and select organo-chlorine pesticides. The Sigma(86)-PCB concentrations, comprising less than one part per million by mass of the bulk in the two samples analyzed, indicated that PCBs were of limited significance in the dust that settled at indoor locations across lower Manhattan. Likewise, organo-chlorine pesticides, Hexachlorobenzene, Heptachlor, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDT and Mirex were found at even lower concentrations in the bulk samples. Conversely, Sigma(37)-PAHs comprised up to 0.04% (<0.005-0.036%) by mass of the bulk indoor dust in the 11 WTC impacted bulk indoor samples. Analysis of one sample of indoor dusts collected from a vacuum cleaner of a rehabilitated home shows markedly lower PAH concentrations (<0.0005 mass%), as well as differing relative contributions for individual compounds. In addition to similar concentrations, comparison of PAH concentration patterns (i.e. chemical fingerprints) shows that dusts that settled indoors are chemically similar to previously measured WTC dusts found at outdoor locations and that these PAH analyses may be used in identifying dusts of WTC origin at indoor locations, along with ascertaining further

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in the dusts that settled across lower Manhattan after September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Offenberg, J H; Eisenreich, S J; Chen, L C; Cohen, M D; Chee, G; Prophete, C; Weisel, C; Lioy, P J

    2003-02-01

    The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol impacting many workers, residents, and commuters during the first few days after September 11, 2001. During the initial days that followed, 14 bulk samples of the settled dust were collected at locations surrounding the epicenter of the disaster, including one indoor location. Some samples were analyzed for many potential hazards, including inorganic and organic constituents as well as morphology. The results of the analyses for persistent organic pollutants are described herein, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and select organochlorine pesticides on settled dust samples. The sigma86-PCBs comprising less than 0.001% by mass of the bulk in the three bulk samples analyzed indicated that PCBs were of limited significance in the total settled dust across lower Manhattan. Likewise, organochlorine pesticides, including chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDT, and Mirex, were found at low concentrations in the bulk samples. Conversely, the sigma37-PAHs comprised up to nearly 0.04% (<0.005-0.039%) by mass of the bulk settled dust in the six bulk samples. Further size segregation of these three initial bulk samples and seven additional samples indicates that sigma37-PAHs were found in higher concentrations on relatively large particles (10-53 microm), representing up to 0.04% of the total dust mass. Significant concentrations were also found on fine particles (<2.5 microm), often accounting for approximately 0.005% by mass. We estimate that approximately 100-1000 tons of sigma37-PAHs were spread over a localized area immediately after the WTC disaster on September 11.

  8. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property: implications for experiments, feedbacks, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Torn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to land use or climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we summarize recent understanding and propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming. Numerical models of soil carbon cycling are used to attribute carbon sources and sinks, predict climate-ecosystem feedbacks, and evaluate biofuel and sequestration strategies. Current ecosystem models rest heavily on the concept of recalcitrance and most models partition plant input into pools of different turnover time solely on the basis of plant tissue chemistry. However, recent research enabled by isotopic, spectroscopic, and molecular marker tools finds little evidence that recalcitrance or selective preservation determine the long residence time of SOM. Without the assumption that recalcitrance or molecular structure control decomposition rates, the framework of these models is no longer justified. Some improvements can be made easily; in other areas, research is needed to translate recent findings into new parameters, for example, to predict the effect of organo-mineral interactions and soil depth on decomposition rates. In this presentation, we will describe a new view of soil carbon cycling that is consistent with the new generation of observations, discuss suggested improvements to soil carbon models, and explore the implications for the vulnerability of soil organic carbon.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuxin; Halsall, Crispin J.; Crosse, John D.; Graf, Carola; Cai, Minghong; He, Jianfeng; Gao, Guoping; Jones, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OC pesticides), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in surficial sediments sampled along cruise transects from the Bering Sea to the central Arctic Ocean. OCs and PCBs all had significantly higher concentrations in the relatively shallow water (<500 m depth) of the Bering-Chukchi shelf areas (e.g., ΣPCB 286 ± 265 pg g-1 dw) compared to the deeper water regions (>500 m) of the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean (e.g., Canada Basin ΣPCB 149 ± 102 pg g-1 dw). Concentrations were similar to, or slightly lower than, studies from the 1990s, indicating a lack of a declining trend. PBDEs (excluding BDE-209) displayed very low concentrations (e.g., range of median values, 3.5-6.6 pg/g dw). In the shelf areas, the sediments comprised similar proportions of silt and clay, whereas the deep basin sediments were dominated by clay, with a lower total organic carbon (TOC) content. While significant positive correlations were observed between persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and TOC (Pearson correlation, r = 0.66-0.75, p <0.05), the lack of strong correlations, combined with differing chemical profiles between the sediments and technical formulations (and/or marine surface waters), indicate substantial chemical processing during transfer to the benthic environment. Marked differences in sedimentation rates between the shallow and deeper water regions are apparent (the ˜5 cm-depth grab samples collected here representing ˜100 years of accumulation for the shelf sediments and ˜1000 years for the deeper ocean regions), which may bias any comparisons. Nonetheless, the sediments of the shallower coastal arctic seas appear to serve as significant repositories for POPs deposited from surface waters.

  10. Fourth WHO-coordinated survey of human milk for persistent organic pollutants (POPs): Belgian results.

    PubMed

    Colles, Ann; Koppen, Gudrun; Hanot, Vincent; Nelen, Vera; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Noël, Etienne; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Kypke, Karin; Biot, Pierre; Vinkx, Christine; Schoeters, Greet

    2008-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemicals that accumulate in the food chain and are toxic to humans and wildlife. The fourth World Health Organization (WHO) survey on POP levels in human milk (2006-2009) aims to provide baseline and trend information on human exposure to POPs. So far Belgium participated in all three previous rounds (1988, 1992, 2001). Whereas the first three rounds focused on determination of dioxins and PCBs in pooled (mixed) samples, the fourth survey comprised the analyses of individual milk samples for nine "basic POPs" (chlorinated pesticides and indicator PCBs) and of pooled milk samples for "basic POPs", "advanced POPs" (dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) and "optional POPs" (polybrominated diphenylethers [PBDEs], polybrominated dioxins and dibenzofurans [PBrDD/F], mixed halogenated dioxins and dibenzofurans [PXDD/F] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]). For the Belgian participation human milk samples were collected during the summer of 2006 from 197 women between 18 and 30 years old distributed over all Belgian provinces. The individual samples were analyzed in a Belgian Laboratory for "basic" POPs. A pooled sample was made from 178 individual samples and analyzed by the WHO Reference Laboratory for the "basic, advanced and optional" POPs. The results indicate that most organochlorinated pesticides banned 25-30 years ago were below or around detection limits in Belgian human milk samples although DDE was still found at low levels in all samples. Over the last five years the levels of marker PCBs and PCDD/Fs in Belgian human milk decreased, respectively, by 58% and 39%. For some of the other emerging or older compounds recent international data are needed to allow comparison. This shows the importance of international studies as run by WHO.

  11. Soil organic matter persistence as a stochastic process: age and transit time distributions of carbon in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The question of why some organic matter is more persistent than other that decomposes quickly in soils has sparkled a large amount of research in recent years. Persistence is commonly characterized as the turnover or mean residence time of specific compounds or soil organic matter (SOM) pools. However, turnover and residence times are ambiguous measures of persistence, which is better characterized by the probability distribution of ages in the system and in particular pools. We calculated age distributions for a wide range of SOM models, which showed long-tail distributions far from the mean value. Age and transit time distributions from a variety of models also showed: 1) transit times are lower than ages of SOM, 2) turnover times differ significantly from mean ages in slow cycling pools, 3) change in the inputs, without changes in the allocation of photosynthetic products, has no effect on transit times, but does affect system and pool ages. We propose an index to assess persistence of C in soils that can be derived from observations alone or from models. We also ask whether random chance is an important contributor to the persistence of SOM.

  12. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in air in China and over the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Ghim, Young-Sung; Grados, Amélie; Gao, Huiwang; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lohmann, Rainer

    The occurrence of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in China and possibly their regional transport in the Yellow and East China Seas region was studied. Organochlorines in atmospheric gas-phase and particulate matter were collected by high-volume sampling (filters and polyurethane foams) during 2 weeks in June 2003 (dry season) simultaneously at a Yellow Sea coastal site in an urban area, Qingdao, China, and a rural island site, Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea. Using GC methods, the samples were analysed for 9 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated under the global POP convention, namely aldrin, chlordane ( cis- and trans-isomers CC and TC), DDT and metabolites ( o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex and PCB (congeners number 28, 52, 101, 153 and 180), and for hexachlorocyclohexane ( α-, β- and γ-isomers), a PTS and now considered for regulation under the convention, too. At the coastal site additionally o, p'-DDE and -DDD, β-endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlorepoxide and δ-HCH, and at the island site additionally p, p'-DDT and 12 additional PCB congeners were analysed. 9 samples were collected at the coastal and 15 (for PCBs 5) at the island site. Long-range advection pathways were determined based on analysed back-trajectory calculations. The mean concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, HCB, HCH, and PCB at the coast were in the 100-1000 pg m -3 range. Higher concentrations prevailed during nighttime. The levels were in general lower at the island site, but not for DDT. Local sources are likely. PCBs were even 2 orders of magnitude lower, suggesting that PCBs are not subject to regional transport but elevated concentrations in air are limited to the source areas. Organochlorine pesticide levels on the other hand were seemingly determined by regional transport over Mainland China rather than by emissions in the coastal area. The currently used pesticides mirex and chlordane were found at elevated

  13. Multidecadal persistence of organic matter in soils: insights from spatially resolved investigations at the submicrometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Barré, Pierre; Bernard, Sylvain; Le Guillou, Corentin; Alléon, Julien; Chenu, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Better understanding the mechanisms responsible for the pluri-decadal persistence of carbon in soils requires well constraining the dynamics, the distribution and the chemical nature of both the soil organic carbon (SOC) and the associated mineral phases. The question we address in this work is whether different mineral species lead to different organo-mineral interactions and stabilize different quantities of SOM and different types of SOC. Here, benefiting from the unique opportunity offered by an INRA long term bare fallow (LTBF) experiment having started in 1928 in Versailles (France), we report the in-situ characterization of SOC dynamics in four clay fractions of this silty loam soil (total clays [TC, <2μm], coarse clays [CC, 0.2-2μm], intermediate clays [IC, 0.05-0.2μm] and fine clays [FC, 0-0.05μm]). The IC and FC fractions only contain smectite and illite/smectite mixed-layered clay minerals while the CC fraction also contains illite and kaolinite. In the absence of any carbon input, the plant-free LTBF clay fractions from Versailles progressively lost SOC during the first 50 years of the experiment, until they reached a seemingly stable concentration. Of note, the investigated clay fractions did not lose the same amount of SOC and do not exhibit the same final carbon concentrations. The decrease of the organic C:N ratios with LTBF duration corresponds to a progressive enrichment in N-rich SOC for all fractions which can be attributed to microbial material. Even though the speciation of SOC appears to only slightly evolve with LTBF duration, an enrichment in carboxyl and carbonyl groups is revealed by bulk-scale C-NEXAFS data for SOC from all clay fractions. In addition, STXM-based NEXAFS investigations at the submicrometer scale reveal three types of SOC-clay assemblages in addition to clay-free SOC and organic-free clays. While SOC appears mostly adsorbed onto clay surfaces within the IC and FC fractions, other protection mechanisms occur within the

  14. Remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants in the multi-media global environment.

    PubMed

    Göktaş, Recep Kaya; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Quantifying the remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can inform the design of monitoring studies and the interpretation of measurement data. Previous work on quantifying remoteness has not explicitly considered partitioning between the gas phase and aerosols, and between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. The objective of this study is to present a metric of remoteness for POPs transported through the atmosphere calculated with a global multimedia fate model, BETR-Research. We calculated the remoteness of regions covering the entire globe from emission sources distributed according to light emissions, and taking into account the multimedia partitioning properties of chemicals and using averaged global climate data. Remoteness for hypothetical chemicals with distinct partitioning properties (volatile, semi-volatile, hydrophilic, low-volatility) and having two different half-lives in air (60-day and 2-day) are presented. Differences in remoteness distribution among the hypothetical chemicals are most pronounced in scenarios assuming 60-day half-life in air. In scenarios with a 2-day half-life in air, degradation dominates over wet and dry deposition processes as a pathway for atmospheric removal of all chemicals except the low-volatility chemical. The remoteness distribution of the low-volatility chemical is strongly dependent on assumptions about degradability on atmospheric aerosols. Calculations that considered seasonal variability in temperature, hydroxyl radical concentrations in the atmosphere and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns indicate that variability in hydroxyl radical concentrations largely determines the seasonal variability of remoteness. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in tree bark from around the world are more highly correlated with remoteness calculated using our methods than with proximity to human population, and we see considerable potential to apply remoteness

  15. Biomonitoring the spatial and historical variations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in an industrial region.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Falay, Ezgi Ozgunerge; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

    2015-02-17

    Several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in needle, branch, bark, and tree ring samples in pine samples collected at 27 sites (21 industrial, 6 background) in Aliaga industrial region in Turkey. Soil, litter, and air samples were also collected to investigate the relationships between the air and soil, litter, and tree components. Concentrations decreased with distance from the sources and the lowest ones were measured at background sites. The spatial distribution of POPs indicated that the major sources in the region are the iron-steel, ship-breaking, petrochemical plants and the petroleum refinery. Significant correlations between the air concentrations and, soil, litter, and tree components indicated the interaction of these compartments with air. Observed increasing trends of POPs in the tree-ring samples were representative for the variations in anthropogenic emissions and resulting atmospheric concentrations in Aliaga region. These results indicated that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial variations while tree rings could be used to investigate the historical trends of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP amounts (mg/ha) stored in different tree components, litter, and soil were also inventoried. Among the tree components, generally, the highest amounts were stored in the stem followed by needles. For the overall inventory, the highest amounts were stored in soil for PCNs, PBDEs, and PCBs while highest PAH amounts were stored in trees, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is also an important reservoir for POPs.

  16. Elucidating Turnover Pathways of Bioactive Small Molecules by Isotopomer Analysis: The Persistent Organic Pollutant DDT

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Ina; Betson, Tatiana R.; Vetter, Walter; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutant DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still indispensable in the fight against malaria, although DDT and related compounds pose toxicological hazards. Technical DDT contains the dichloro congener DDD (1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene) as by-product, but DDD is also formed by reductive degradation of DDT in the environment. To differentiate between DDD formation pathways, we applied deuterium NMR spectroscopy to measure intramolecular deuterium distributions (2H isotopomer abundances) of DDT and DDD. DDD formed in the technical DDT synthesis was strongly deuterium-enriched at one intramolecular position, which we traced back to 2H/1H fractionation of a chlorination step in the technical synthesis. In contrast, DDD formed by reductive degradation was strongly depleted at the same position, which was due to the incorporation of 2H-depleted hydride equivalents during reductive degradation. Thus, intramolecular isotope distributions give mechanistic information on reaction pathways, and explain a puzzling difference in the whole-molecule 2H/1H ratio between DDT and DDD. In general, our results highlight that intramolecular isotope distributions are essential to interpret whole-molecule isotope ratios. Intramolecular isotope information allows distinguishing pathways of DDD formation, which is important to identify polluters or to assess DDT turnover in the environment. Because intramolecular isotope data directly reflect isotope fractionation of individual chemical reactions, they are broadly applicable to elucidate transformation pathways of small bioactive molecules in chemistry, physiology and environmental science. PMID:25350380

  17. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; MacLeod, Matthew; Guardans, Ramon; Scheringer, Martin; Barra, Ricardo; Harner, Tom; Zhang, Gan

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are global pollutants that can migrate over long distances and bioaccumulate through food webs, posing health risks to wildlife and humans. Multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Stockholm Convention on POPs, were enacted to identify POPs and establish the conditions to control their release, production and use. A Global Monitoring Plan was initiated under the Stockholm Convention calling for POP monitoring in air as a core medium; however long temporal trends (>10 years) of atmospheric POPs are only available at a few selected sites. Spatial coverage of air monitoring for POPs has recently significantly improved with the introduction and advancement of passive air samplers. Here, we review the status of air monitoring and modeling activities and note major uncertainties in data comparability, deficiencies of air monitoring and modeling in urban and alpine areas, and lack of emission inventories for most POPs. A vision for an internationally-integrated strategic monitoring plan is proposed which could provide consistent and comparable monitoring data for POPs supported and supplemented by global and regional transport models. Key recommendations include developing expertise in all aspects of air monitoring to ensure data comparability and consistency; partnering with existing air quality and meteorological networks to leverage synergies; facilitating data sharing with international data archives; and expanding spatial coverage with passive air samplers. Enhancing research on the stability of particle-bound chemicals is needed to assess exposure and deposition in urban areas, and to elucidate long-range transport. Conducting targeted measurement campaigns in specific source areas would enhance regional models which can be extrapolated to similar regions to estimate emissions. Ultimately, reverse-modeling combined with air measurements can be used to derive “emission” as an indicator to assess environmental

  18. Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2008-10-15

    There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

  19. Changes in persistent organic pollutant levels from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Mia V; Deane, Glenn D; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Schell, Lawrence M

    2015-07-01

    Elimination rates and their corresponding half-lives are conceptually important and intuitively accessible pharmacokinetic measures of toxicant elimination, but regression-based estimates are biased proportional to the degree of continuing (background) exposure. We propose an alternative estimator, the censored normal regression model, which uses all observations, but treats individuals whose initial level failed to exceed their follow-up level as censored observations to weight the regression estimates from those that declined between blood draws. In this manner, we derive the intrinsic elimination rate, the elimination rate free from ongoing exposure, as a parameter in a regression with an unobserved, latent dependent variable. We utilize sequential measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels from adolescence to adulthood, a period of intense change in size and body composition, to quantify individual-level change within a community exposed to significant quantities of contaminants over an extended period of time. Although much research has been conducted on effects of POPs, far less attention has been given to vectors of intake and changes in toxicant levels during the life course. We apply exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to types and timing of consumption, along with physical behavioral characteristics, to identify a structure of seven underlying factors. Although several variables show factorial complexity, the latent constructs included an age/maturation and period-related factor, a nutritional composite, consumption prior to pregnancy, fish and fowl consumed during pregnancy, factors distinguishing body mass and weight from height, and bottom-feeding fish consumption. Unadjusted and adjusted half-lives using the censored normal regression estimator, as well as estimated half-lives from conventional log concentration regressions, are reported for PCB groupings, specific congeners, p,p'-DDE, and HCB.

  20. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized.

  1. Partitioning behavior of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants among feto-maternal bloods and tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Son, Min-Hui; Lee, Duk-Hee; Seong, Won Joon; Han, Seunghee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-06-16

    Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including Pb, Cd, T-Hg, MeHg, PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDEs, PCNs, and PBDD/Fs, were analyzed in 20 paired samples of cord blood, maternal blood, maternal urine, and placenta. The samples were collected from pregnant mothers and neonates from South Korea in 2010. The distribution of heavy metals among the samples varied with their physicochemical characteristics. The concentrations of Pb and Hg in the maternal and the cord blood samples were significantly correlated each other, implying efficient transplacental transport (TPT). Cd and Hg were accumulated in the placenta, forming protein conjugates, and T-Hg was higher in the cord blood samples than the maternal blood samples due to the binding affinity of Hg with fetal proteins. POPs generally showed the highest concentrations in the maternal serum samples, and the POPs levels in the cord serum and the placenta samples were dependent on the degree of halogenation. The TPT of POPs was seemingly related to lipoprotein transportation. Some PBDE congeners, however, showed their highest concentrations in the cord serum samples, suggesting an additional TPT mechanism. This is the first study to detect PCNs and PBDD/Fs in the cord serum samples, showing that the PCN levels were comparable to other POPs. According to the principal component analysis (PCA) results of the contaminant levels, POPs and heavy metals showed significantly different characteristics, whereas PBDEs had an intermediate attribute. Despite the limited number of participants, the comprehensive analysis of trace contaminants in the paired sample sets enabled us to infer the distribution and TPT mechanism of various contaminants.

  2. Assessment of the exposure of breast milk to persistent organic pollutants in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Bake, Marite A; Linnika, Zanna; Sudmalis, Pavels; Kocan, Anton; Jursa, Stanislav; Pike, Anita; Ruce, Mara

    2007-05-01

    According to the National Implementation Plan on persistent organic pollutants (POP) for the years 2004-2020 the situation on POP was actualised in Latvia. The aim of the study was to assess the contamination of breast milk with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and some pesticides. Breast feeding mothers (together 30) were selected from probably polluted area, and a control group on the basis of WHO criteria for donor selection. The concentration of POP in milk was detected by gas chromatography with HRGC/HRMS, HRGC/ECD and GC/ECD detection after extraction of milk fat and purification. The results of the survey show comparability of both groups in age, weight, habits, occupation as well as age of the children and the weight at birth and at the time of collecting the samples. PCB were not observed in 15.9%, PCDD/PCDF in 6.6% and pesticides in 14% analyses of the target group and in 26.3%, 7% and 8.6% analyses correspondingly of the control group. The concentration of 18 detected PCB, 17 detected PCDD/PCDF and 8 chlorinated pesticides and its metabolites varied in wide range and the differences of mean values within groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The concentration of POPs corresponds to lowest levels detected in European countries. The concentration of dioxine-like PCBs and PCDD/PCDF according to toxicity equivalents does not exceed the WHO accepted level of 15 TEQ pg/g milk fat.

  3. Altitudinal and seasonal variations of persistent organic pollutants in the Bolivian Andes Mountains.

    PubMed

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Harner, Tom; Franken, Margot; Zaballa, Mauricio

    2008-04-01

    Polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers were deployed over four periods of approximately 3 months along an altitudinal gradient (1820, 2600, 4650, and 5200 masl) on the east side of the Andean mountain range in Bolivia. The purpose of the study was to assess the gas-phase concentration and the altitudinal and seasonal trends of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Target compounds that were regularly detected included alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), endosulfans, and select PCB congeners. Endosulfans and HCH concentrations increased with altitude. Enrichment factors (concentration at the highest altitude divided by concentration at the lowest altitude) ranged from 10 to 20 for HCHs and 3 to 10 for endosulfans. Air parcel back trajectory analysis indicated that, in general, the high-altitude sites were exposed to a larger airshed and hence susceptible to long-range atmospheric transport from more distant regions. Seasonal differences were also observed with SigmaHCH concentrations peaking during periods 2 and 3 (March-September 2005). Airsheds (derived from the analysis of back trajectories) for periods 2 and 3 were less oriented along the Andes range (mountain air) with greater input from coastal regions. Endosulfans peaked during periods 1 and 2 (February-June 2005) and also exhibited the highest air concentrations of the target compounds, reaching approximately 1500 pg/m3 at the two highest elevation sites. PCB air concentrations at all sites were generally typical of global background values (<12 pg/m3) and showed no increase with altitude. This is the first study to measure air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Bolivia and one of only a few studies to investigate altitudinal gradients of POPs.

  4. Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children.

    PubMed

    Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Bradman, Asa; Yan, Liying; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) is a well-established measure of DNA methylation often used in epidemiologic studies. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of host factors on LINE-1 and Alu methylation in children. We characterized the relationship of age, sex, and prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with DNA methylation in a birth cohort of Mexican-American children participating in the CHAMACOS study. We measured Alu and LINE-1 methylation by pyrosequencing bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and nine-year old children (n = 358). POPs were measured in maternal serum during late pregnancy. Levels of DNA methylation were lower in nine-year olds compared to newborns and were higher in boys compared to girls. Higher prenatal DDT/E exposure was associated with lower Alu methylation at birth, particularly after adjusting for cell type composition (P = 0.02 for o,p' -DDT). Associations of POPs with LINE-1 methylation were only identified after examining the co-exposure of DDT/E with PBDEs simultaneously. Our data suggest that repeat element methylation can be an informative marker of epigenetic differences by age and sex and that prenatal exposure to POPs may be linked to hypomethylation in fetal blood. Accounting for co-exposure to different types of chemicals and adjusting for blood cell types may increase sensitivity of epigenetic analyses for epidemiological studies.

  5. Investigating the potential role of persistent organic pollutants in Hawaiian green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M; Balazs, George H; Nilsen, Frances; Rice, Marc; Work, Thierry M; Jensen, Brenda A

    2014-07-15

    It has been hypothesized for decades that environmental pollutants may contribute to green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), possibly through immunosuppression leading to greater susceptibility to the herpesvirus, the putative causative agent of this tumor-forming disease. To address this question, we measured concentrations of 164 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and halogenated phenols in 53 Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas) plasma samples archived by the Biological and Environmental Monitoring and Archival of Sea Turtle Tissues (BEMAST) project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Marine Environmental Specimen Bank. Four groups of turtles were examined: free-ranging turtles from Kiholo Bay (0% FP, Hawaii), Kailua Bay (low FP, 8%, Oahu), and Kapoho Bay (moderate FP, 38%, Hawaii) and severely tumored stranded turtles that required euthanasia (high FP, 100%, Main Hawaiian Islands). Four classes of POPs and seven halogenated phenols were detected in at least one of the turtles, and concentrations were low (often <200 pg/g wet mass). The presence of halogenated phenols in sea turtles is a novel discovery; their concentrations were higher than most man-made POPs, suggesting that the source of most of these compounds was likely natural (produced by the algal turtle diet) rather than metabolites of man-made POPs. None of the compounds measured increased in concentration with increasing prevalence of FP across the four groups of turtles, suggesting that these 164 compounds are not likely primary triggers for the onset of FP. However, the stranded, severely tumored, emaciated turtle group (n=14) had the highest concentrations of POPs, which might suggest that mobilization of contaminants with lipids into the blood during late-stage weight loss could contribute to the progression of the disease. Taken together, these data suggest that POPs are not a major cofactor in causing the onset of FP.

  6. Estimation and characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutant emission from converter steelmaking processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang

    2014-06-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were characterized and quantified in stack gas and fly ash from the second ventilation systems in five typical converters in five different steelmaking plants. The 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs (2378-PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCBs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 1.84-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 5.59-87.6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash, and the PCN TEQs were 0.06-0.56 pg TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 0.03-0.08 pg TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash. The concentrations of UP-POPs in the present study were generally lower than those in other metallurgical processes, such as electric arc furnaces, iron ore sintering, and secondary metallurgical processes. Adding scrap metal might increase UP-POP emissions, indicating that raw material composition was a key influence on emissions. HxCDF, HpCDF, OCDF, HpCDD, and OCDD were the dominant PCDD/Fs in the stack gas and fly ash. TeCB and PeCB were dominant in the stack gas, but HxCB provided more to the total PCB concentrations in the fly ash. The lower chlorinated PCNs were dominant in all of the samples. The 2378-PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN emission factors in stack gases from the steelmaking converter processes (per ton of steel produced) were 1.88-2.89, 0.14-0.76, and 229-759 μg t(-1), respectively.

  7. Elucidating turnover pathways of bioactive small molecules by isotopomer analysis: the persistent organic pollutant DDT.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Ina; Betson, Tatiana R; Vetter, Walter; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutant DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still indispensable in the fight against malaria, although DDT and related compounds pose toxicological hazards. Technical DDT contains the dichloro congener DDD (1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene) as by-product, but DDD is also formed by reductive degradation of DDT in the environment. To differentiate between DDD formation pathways, we applied deuterium NMR spectroscopy to measure intramolecular deuterium distributions (2H isotopomer abundances) of DDT and DDD. DDD formed in the technical DDT synthesis was strongly deuterium-enriched at one intramolecular position, which we traced back to 2H/1H fractionation of a chlorination step in the technical synthesis. In contrast, DDD formed by reductive degradation was strongly depleted at the same position, which was due to the incorporation of 2H-depleted hydride equivalents during reductive degradation. Thus, intramolecular isotope distributions give mechanistic information on reaction pathways, and explain a puzzling difference in the whole-molecule 2H/1H ratio between DDT and DDD. In general, our results highlight that intramolecular isotope distributions are essential to interpret whole-molecule isotope ratios. Intramolecular isotope information allows distinguishing pathways of DDD formation, which is important to identify polluters or to assess DDT turnover in the environment. Because intramolecular isotope data directly reflect isotope fractionation of individual chemical reactions, they are broadly applicable to elucidate transformation pathways of small bioactive molecules in chemistry, physiology and environmental science.

  8. Biomonitoring and Hormone-Disrupting Effect Biomarkers of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Vitro and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Ghisari, Mandana; Wielsøe, Maria; Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Kjeldsen, Lisbeth S; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) include lipophilic legacy POPs and the amphiphilic perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). They have long half-lives and bioaccumulate in the environment, animals and human beings. POPs possess toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting potentials. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and thus disrupt the normal hormone homeostasis. Biomonitoring assesses the internal doses of a person to provide information about chemical exposures. Effect biomarkers assess chemicals potential to affect cellular functions in vivo/ex vivo. Human beings are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, having individually very different biological potentials and effects. Therefore, the assessment of the combined, integrated biological effect of the actual chemical mixture in human blood is important. In vitro and ex vivo cell systems have been introduced for the assessment of the integrated level of xenobiotic cellular effects in human beings. Ex vivo studies have shown geographical differences in bioaccumulated POP serum levels, being reflected by the combined biomarker effects of the complex mixture extracted from human serum. Xenohormone receptor transactivities can be used as an ex vivo integrated biomarker of POP exposure and effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/ex vivo studies have supported the potential impact of the combined effect of serum POPs on the activity of hormone and/or dioxin receptors as a risk factor for human health. With focus on hormone disruption, this MiniReview will give an update on recent POP-related endocrine-disrupting effects in vitro/ex vivo/in vivo and some related genetic data. PMID:24797035

  9. A review of current knowledge and future prospects regarding persistent organic pollutants over the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Wang, Chuanfei; Ren, Jiao; Yao, Tandong

    2016-12-15

    Since the turn of the century, our understanding of the quantities, transport pathways, and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the largest and highest plateau on Earth, has greatly enhanced. We begin in this article by reviewing the available literature on the levels of POPs over the TP. In general, the levels of most POPs are similar or lower than values reported for other background regions. However, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) levels in air and soil far exceed those measured in other mountainous areas. The East Asian monsoon, Indian Monsoon and westerly winds are responsible for the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and arrival of POPs over the TP. Surface soil and vegetation act as "final sinks" for DDTs and other high molecular weight POPs. Linked to the continuous use of POPs in surrounding counties, LRAT and "cold trapping" by the TP can happen following emission-transport-deposition events, leading to the enrichment of POPs in the TP environment. Bioaccumulation of DDTs and high chlorinated PCBs have been found in Tibetan terrestrial and aquatic food chains, and newly emerging compounds such as polyfluoroalkyl substances and hexabromocyclododecanes have been widely detected in wild fish species. The corresponding ecological risks should be of great concern. Climate change, such as increased temperatures and changing coverage of snow and glaciers, has the potential to affect the behavior and distribution of POPs. Therefore, long-term monitoring data are required. Ineffective regulation regarding POPs has been reported for countries in South Asia, emissions patterns, the outflow of POPs, and their seasonal and inter-annual variability should therefore be clarified. Estimating the loading of POPs, as well as how they move, within the TP, especially under the impact of glacial melt and global warming, should be a priority. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Occurrence of Legacy and New Persistent Organic Pollutants in Avian Tissues from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Son, Min-Hui; Kang, Jung-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Jung, Jin-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-11-17

    Legacy and new persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were analyzed in avian tissue samples from King George Island, Antarctica. The avian species consisted of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), the South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and the Brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus). HBCDs were detected in all samples and ranged from 1.67-713 pg/g-lipid. In the penguin samples, the concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.69-2.07 ng/g-lipid, whereas those in the skua samples ranged from 7.41-175 ng/g-lipid. The levels of Dechloranes ranged from 0.60-1.30 ng/g-lipid in the penguin samples and from 6.57-47.4 ng/g-lipid in the skua samples. The concentrations and congener distributions of OCPs and PCBs were similar to the results of previous reports. The three new POPs were detected in all samples, and this study was one of the first reports on the occurrence of these pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Because Antarctica is one of the most pristine places on Earth, the detection of new POPs in the Antarctic birds, especially penguins, is direct evidence of the long-range transport of pollutants. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of the penguin to the skua samples (BMFs-p) were greater than 1 in most legacy and new POPs, and the BMFs-p values of the new POPs were comparable to those of some OCPs, suggesting a possibility of biomagnification. Despite the small sample size, the results of this study identified POP contamination of the Antarctic avian species and long-range transport and biomagnification of HBCDs, Dechloranes, and PCNs.

  11. Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Bradman, Asa; Yan, Liying; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) is a well-established measure of DNA methylation often used in epidemiologic studies. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of host factors on LINE-1 and Alu methylation in children. We characterized the relationship of age, sex, and prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with DNA methylation in a birth cohort of Mexican-American children participating in the CHAMACOS study. We measured Alu and LINE-1 methylation by pyrosequencing bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and 9-year old children (n=358). POPs were measured in maternal serum during late pregnancy. Levels of DNA methylation were lower in 9-year olds compared to newborns and were higher in boys compared to girls. Higher prenatal DDT/E exposure was associated with lower Alu methylation at birth, particularly after adjusting for cell type composition (p=0.02 for o,p′ -DDT). Associations of POPs with LINE-1 methylation were only identified after examining the co-exposure of DDT/E with PBDEs simultaneously. Our data suggest that repeat element methylation can be an informative marker of epigenetic differences by age and sex and that prenatal exposure to POPs may be linked to hypomethylation in fetal blood. Accounting for co-exposure to different types of chemicals and adjusting for blood cell types may increase sensitivity of epigenetic analyses for epidemiological studies. PMID:24375655

  12. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  13. Ecotoxicological assessment of persistent organic and heavy metal contamination in Hong Kong coastal sediment.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Yeung, H Y; Cheung, R Y; Yung, K K; Wong, M H

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the present project is to determine the feasibility of measuring hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and metallothionein (MT) mRNA in fish as an integrative measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metal contamination in sediment arising in Hong Kong. Sediment samples were collected from different sites, including Victoria Harbour (VS6), Yim Tin Tsai (YTT) at Tolo Harbour, Mai Po marshes (MPM) at Deep Bay, and Southern Waters (SS6) of coastal waters. The samples were analyzed for total and extractable concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb, as well as PCBs and PAHs. In addition, biomarker responses were studied in tilapia exposed experimentally to coastal sediment for 7 days. Using RT-PCR technique, hepatic CYP1A1 and MT mRNA were measured. Three control groups were used, including one negative control group maintained in sea water only; the second and third positive control groups were in sea water but were intraperitoneally injected with either beta-naphthoflavone (40 microg/g body weight) or cadmium chloride (10 microg/g body weight), respectively. The chemical data showed that VS6, YTT, and MPM were classified as Class C sediment according to the sediment quality criteria defined by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, indicating the sites were heavily polluted. The exposure of tilapia to the sediment induced hepatic CYP1A1 (VS6 > YTT > MPM > SS6) and MT (VS6 > MPM > YTT > SS6) levels. The induction patterns were comparable to the levels of POPs and metal contamination in the sediment, indicating that the biomarker responses could be used to differentiate low to high levels of contamination among sediment.

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in shallow percolated water of the Alps Karst system (Zugspitze summit, Germany).

    PubMed

    Levy, Walkiria; Pandelova, Marchela; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Fischer, Norbert; Antritter, Felix; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2017-02-01

    In the German Calcareous Alps at the Zugspitze, percolated water close to a permafrost bedrock in a tunnel system was monitored long-term for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed in a temporary surface water system at the Zugspitze plateau and analysed for PCB, PAH, and OCP. The high-volume water sampling was successfully implemented and all compounds were identified in the water percolated through the Karst system. However, the percentage distribution of contaminants in the percolated water differed significantly from that found in surface waters. The highest chlorinated PCDD homologues were the predominant compounds of the PCDD/F family, whereas percentages of PCB #52 increased in percolated water. Toxic equivalent values (TEQ) of samples ranged from 2.0 to 4.2pgTEQ/m(3) and from 0.017 to 0.069pgTEQ/m(3) for PCDD/F and PCB, respectively. Low and intermediate molecular weight PAH were the prevailing compounds in the samples. Endosulfan sulfate, endrin, and cis-heptachlor epoxide were enhanced after water percolation through the Karst system in comparison with the surface waters (wet deposition). The relative enrichment on these pesticides was related to the environmental bedrock conditions and glacier melting sources. In summary, the Karst system highly influenced the fate of organic persistent pollutants generating different chemical patterns in their percolated waters than those found at the surface systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening for Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants in the Bosna River (Bosnia and Herzogovina).

    PubMed

    Harman, Christopher; Grung, Merete; Djedjibegovic, Jasmina; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Sober, Miroslav; Sinanovic, Kemo; Fjeld, Eirik; Rognerud, Sigurd; Ranneklev, Sissel Brit; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2013-02-01

    The Stockholm Convention, which aspires to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the international level, was recently ratified in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Despite this fact, there is in general a paucity of data regarding the levels of POPs in the environment in BiH. In the present study, screening for POPs was conducted in one of the country's major rivers, the Bosna. A two-pronged approach was applied using passive samplers to detect the freely dissolved and bioavailable concentrations in the water phase and sediment analysis to provide an integrated measure of historical contamination. At several places along the river, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high and exhibited potential for both chronic and acute effects to biota. River water also showed elevated concentrations of PAH, up to 480 ng L(-1) near the city of Doboj, and diagnostic ratios suggested combustion sources for the contamination present in both types of sample. The levels of the other contaminants measured-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers--were generally low in the water phase. However, PCBs and some OCPs were present in river sediments at levels which breach the international criteria and thus suggest potential for ecological damage. Additionally, the levels of heptachlor breached these criteria in many of the sites investigated. This study presents the first screening data for some of these Stockholm Convention relevant compounds in BiH and reveals both low concentrations of some chemical groups, but significant point sources and historic contamination for others.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ΣDDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ΣDDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating the potential role of persistent organic pollutants in Hawaiian green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Jennifer M.; Balazs, George H.; Nilsen, Frances; Rice, Marc; Work, Thierry M.; Jensen, Brenda A.

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized for decades that environmental pollutants may contribute to green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), possibly through immunosuppression leading to greater susceptibility to the herpesvirus, the putative causative agent of this tumor-forming disease. To address this question, we measured concentrations of 164 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and halogenated phenols in 53 Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas) plasma samples archived by the Biological and Environmental Monitoring and Archival of Sea Turtle Tissues (BEMAST) project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Marine Environmental Specimen Bank. Four groups of turtles were examined: free-ranging turtles from Kiholo Bay (0% FP, Hawaii), Kailua Bay (low FP, 8%, Oahu), and Kapoho Bay (moderate FP, 38%, Hawaii) and severely tumored stranded turtles that required euthanasia (high FP, 100%, Main Hawaiian Islands). Four classes of POPs and seven halogenated phenols were detected in at least one of the turtles, and concentrations were low (often <200 pg/g wet mass). The presence of halogenated phenols in sea turtles is a novel discovery; their concentrations were higher than most man-made POPs, suggesting that the source of most of these compounds was likely natural (produced by the algal turtle diet) rather than metabolites of man-made POPs. None of the compounds measured increased in concentration with increasing prevalence of FP across the four groups of turtles, suggesting that these 164 compounds are not likely primary triggers for the onset of FP. However, the stranded, severely tumored, emaciated turtle group (n = 14) had the highest concentrations of POPs, which might suggest that mobilization of contaminants with lipids into the blood during late-stage weight loss could contribute to the progression of the disease. Taken together, these data suggest that POPs are not a major cofactor in causing the onset of FP.

  18. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah H; Peterson, Michael G; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Schwarz, Lisa K; Costa, Daniel P

    2015-11-15

    As top predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our study examined a suite of POPs in blubber (inner and outer) and blood (serum) of free-ranging northern elephant seals. For adult females (N=24), we satellite tracked and sampled the same seals before and after their approximately seven month long foraging trip. For males, we sampled different adults and sub-adults before (N=14) and after (N=15) the same foraging trip. For females, we calculated blubber burdens for all compounds. The highest POP concentrations in males and females were found for ∑DDTs and ∑PCBs. In blubber and serum, males had significantly greater concentrations than females for almost all compounds. For males and females, ∑DDT and ∑PBDEs were highly correlated in blubber and serum. While ∑PCBs were highly correlated with ∑DDTs and ∑PBDEs in blubber and serum for males, ∑PCBs showed weaker correlations with both compounds in females. As females gained mass while foraging, concentrations of nearly all POPs in inner and outer blubber significantly decreased; however, the absolute burden in blubber significantly increased, indicating ingestion of contaminants while foraging. Additionally, we identified three clusters of seal foraging behavior, based on geography, diving behavior, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, which corresponded with differences in ∑DDTs, ∑PBDEs, MeO-BDE 47, as well as the ratio of ∑DDTs to ∑PCBs, indicating the potential for behavior to heighten or mitigate contaminant exposure. The greatest concentrations of ∑DDTs and ∑PBDEs were observed in the cluster that foraged closer to the coast and had blood samples more enriched in (13)C. Bioaccumulation of POPs by elephant seals supports mesopelagic food webs as a sink for POPs and highlights elephant seals as a potential sentinel of contamination in deep ocean food webs.

  19. Fingerprint of persistent organic pollutants in tissues of Antarctic notothenioid fish.

    PubMed

    Lana, Nerina B; Berton, Paula; Covaci, Adrian; Ciocco, Néstor F; Barrera-Oro, Esteban; Atencio, Adrián; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2014-11-15

    In the present work, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were analyzed in three Antarctic notothenioids fish species: Trematomus newnesi (TRN), Notothenia coriiceps (NOC) and Notothenia rossii (NOR). The contribution of each POP-family to the total load was as follows: ΣPCB (40%)>ΣDDT (27%)>ΣPBDEs (23%)>ΣHCH (10%). Among the 23 PCB congeners analyzed, penta-CBs homologues were the prevalent group, followed by hexa-CBs and hepta-CBs. DDT and its metabolites presented the following trend: p,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDE~p,p'-DDD. PBDE profile was dominated by BDE-47 and BDE-99 congeners, followed by BDE-100>BDE-28>BDE-154, BDE-153. Among HCHs, the γ-HCH isomer was detected in all samples, constituting 69% total HCH load, while α-HCH and β-HCH contributions were 15% and 16%, respectively. The levels of POPs reported here suggest that NOR and NOC are more susceptible to accumulate the analyzed contaminants than TRN, a species not previously analyzed for POPs. Distribution of POPs among different tissues of the three species (muscle, liver, gonads, and gills) was also investigated. Considering lipid weight, the general pattern of POPs distribution in tissues indicated that while gonads showed higher levels of PCBs, DDTs and HCH, the most significant PBDE concentrations were recorded in gills. Also, a comparative analysis of POPs concentration in fish samples from Antarctic area was included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs) from municipal waste incinerators in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Yang; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Yujue

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), which are listed in the Stockholm Convention, are commonly known as unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs). As municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) have burgeoned in China, the emission of UPOPs is of great concerns. Compared to the extensive studies of PCDD/Fs emission, not much information of non-dioxin UPOPs (i.e., PCBs, HxCBz, and PeCBz) is available. In the present study, samples from raw gas (RG) after boiler, stack gas (SG) after air pollution control devices (APCDs) and fly ash (FA) samples were collected from typical MWIs in China. The analyses of SG samples indicate that PCDD/Fs are the major contributor to TEQ value, but non-dioxin UPOPs are the dominant compounds in terms of mass concentration. The mean emission factors of dl-PCBs, PeCBz, and HxCBz in SG are 0.372, 144, and 84.7 μg/t, respectively. In contrast with gaseous samples, FA contains higher mass concentration of PCDD/Fs and PCBs than that of PeCBz and HxCBz. In terms of homologues distribution of PCBs, di- to tetra-CBs were the predominant species in both SG and FA samples. PCB-126 is the major contributor to the TEQ concentration. The comparison of UPOPs composition in SG and RG samples shows that activated carbon adsorption process is capable of removing most PCDD/Fs, but less efficient for the removal of non-dioxin UPOPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emission characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants from iron ore sintering process in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (Unintentional POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were investigated in four typical iron ore sintering plants in China. The emission factors and annual mass releases of the Unintentional POPs were calculated. The results indicated that PCDFs contributed more than 60% to the overall toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values, while the contribution of the dl-PCBs is relatively low, and only in the range of 8-9%. The dominant congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contributing most to the total TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCB-126. With regard to the TEQ contributions, the most abundant homologues were PeCDFs and HxCDD/Fs, followed by PeCDDs and non-ortho dl-PCB, whereas HpCDD/Fs, OCDD/Fs and mono-ortho dl-PCBs almost made no contributions. Due to the massive use of recycled waste in the feeding materials, the average emission factor of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of the four plants was 3.95 μg WHO-TEQ ton(-1). Based on the results, the annual release of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in 2007-2009 were estimated to be 2070 g, 2212 g, and 2307 gWHO-TEQ, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of selected persistent organic pollutants in the placenta with the risk of neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Aiguo; Qiu, Xinghua; Jin, Lei; Ma, Jin; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Tong

    2011-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Our case–control study was performed to explore the association between placental levels of selected POPs and risks for neural tube defects (NTDs) in a Chinese population with a high prevalence of NTDs. Cases included 80 fetuses or newborns with NTDs, whereas the controls were 50 healthy, nonmalformed newborn infants. Placental concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The medians of PAHs, o,p′-isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and α-endosulfan were significantly higher in case placentas than in controls. PAH concentrations above the median were associated with a 4.52-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.10–9.74) increased risk for any NTDs, and 5.84- (95% CI, 2.28–14.96) and 3.71-fold (95% CI, 1.57–8.79) increased risks for anencephaly and spina bifida, respectively. A dose–response relationship was observed between PAH levels and the risk of NTDs, with odds ratios for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, compared with the first, of 1.77- (95% CI, 0.66–4.76), 3.83- (95% CI, 1.37–10.75), and 11.67-fold (95% CI, 3.28–41.49), respectively. A dose–response relationship was observed for anencephaly and spina bifida subtypes. Similar results were observed for o,p′-DDT and metabolites, α-HCH, γ-HCH, and α-endosulfan, whereas no dose–response relationship was observed for the last two pollutants. Elevated placental concentrations of PAHs, o,p′-DDT and metabolites, and α-HCH were associated with increased risks of NTDs in this population. PMID:21768370

  3. Step changes in persistent organic pollutants over the Arctic and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Huang, T.; Wang, L.; Gao, H.; Ma, J.

    2015-01-01

    While some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been declining globally due to their worldwide ban since the 1980s, the declining trends of many of these toxic chemicals become less significant and in some cases their ambient air concentrations, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), showed observable increase since 2000, disagreeing with their declining global emissions and environmental degradation. As part of the efforts to assess the influences of environmental factors on long-term trend of POPs in the Arctic, step change points in the time series of ambient POPs atmospheric concentrations collected from four arctic monitoring sites were examined using various statistical techniques. Results showed that the step change points of these POPs data varied in different years and at different sites. Most step change points were found in 2001-2002 and 2007-2008, respectively. In particular, the step change points of many PCBs for 2007-2008 were coincident with the lowest arctic sea ice concentration occurring in this period of time during the 2000s. The perturbations of air concentration and water-air exchange fluxes of several selected POPs averaged over the Arctic, simulated by a POPs mass balance perturbation model, switched from negative to positive from the early 2000s, indicating a tendency for reversal of POPs from deposition to volatilization which coincides with a positive to negative reversal of arctic sea ice extent anomalies from 2001. Perturbed ice-air exchange flux of PCB-28 and 153 showed an increasing trend and the negative to positive reversal in 2007, the year with the lowest arctic sea ice concentration. On the other hand, perturbed ice-air exchange flux of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) decreased over the period of 1995 through 2012, likely owing to its lower Henry's law constant which indicates its relatively lower tendency for volatilization from ice to air.

  4. Step changes in persistent organic pollutants over the Arctic and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Huang, T.; Wang, L.; Gao, H.; Ma, J.

    2015-03-01

    While some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been declining globally due to their worldwide ban since the 1980s, the declining trends of many of these toxic chemicals become less significant and in some cases their ambient air concentrations, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), showed observable increase during the 2000s, disagreeing with their declining global emissions and environmental degradation. As part of the efforts to assess the influences of environmental factors on the long-term trend of POPs in the Arctic, step change points in the time series of ambient POP atmospheric concentrations collected from four arctic monitoring sites were examined using various statistical techniques. Results showed that the step change points of these POP data varied in different years and at different sites. Most step change points were found in 2001-2002 and 2007-2008. In particular, the step change points of many PCBs for 2007-2008 were coincident with the lowest arctic sea ice concentration occurring during the 2000s. The perturbations of air concentration and water-air exchange fluxes of several selected POPs averaged over the Arctic, simulated by a POP mass balance perturbation model, switched from negative to positive during the early 2000s, indicating a tendency for reversal of POPs from deposition to volatilization which coincides with a positive to negative reversal of arctic sea ice extent anomalies from 2001. Perturbed ice-air exchange flux of PCB 28 and 153 showed an increasing trend and a negative to positive reversal in 2007, the year with the lowest arctic sea ice concentration. On the other hand, perturbed ice-air exchange flux of α-hexachlorocyclohexane decreased over the period of 1995 to 2012, likely owing to its lower Henry's law constant which indicates its relatively lower tendency for volatilization from ice to air.

  5. Contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and relevant management in China.

    PubMed

    Tieyu, Wang; Yonglong, Lu; Hong, Zhang; Yajuan, Shi

    2005-08-01

    The status of typical persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination in many media (e.g., farm produce, soil, human milk, water, and sediments) was surveyed and China's relevant countermeasures for controlling POPs were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the proportion of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to all kinds of pesticides has descended significantly since 1983 when the OCPs were forbidden from being used. The spatial distribution characteristic of pesticide application in the whole country was as follows: southeast>central>northwest. The pesticide residues in food with high fat and high protein content were more than that in foodstuffs. The residual concentration in soil in the whole country was as follows: south>central>north. Furthermore, in vegetable fields, the residual concentration was higher than that in crop fields. As for human milk, the retained amount tended to decrease. In the recent two decades, although the reduction was 81.5%, it was still higher than that in some developed European and American countries. The rank of the residual concentrations of OCPs in different media was: human milk>animal foodstuff>soil>vegetable food>water and sediment. The initial relevant POP management in China can be traced back to 1982 when the Ordinance of Pesticide Management was enacted. Now, environmental control of POPs in China is close to the international level. The legal management system of POPs can be divided into four facets, including 3 regulations, 6 ordinances, and 20 standards. However, on the whole, most of the existing regulations do not refer to POPs directly. Only some clauses mention POPs and lack pertinent, explicit statements on POP pollution and control. Legislation is urgently needed for more effective environmental management to enhance POP control.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants and transthyretin-bound thyroxin in plasma of Inuit women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Audet-Delage, Y; Ouellet, N; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    2013-11-19

    The Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada) is highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through their traditional diet. Some POPs, i.e., hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), compete with thyroxin (T4) for binding sites on transthyretin (TTR), a T4 transport protein found in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. We tested the hypothesis that these TTR-binding compounds decrease circulating concentrations of T4 bound to TTR (T4-TTR) in Inuit women of reproductive age. We measured the concentration of T4-TTR in plasma samples obtained from 120 Inuit women (18-39 years old) by combining native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. Total T4, TTR, and thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations were also determined, while POPs levels had been previously measured. The mean T4-TTR concentration was 8.4 nmol/L (SD = 2.4) with values ranging from 2.9 to 14.4 nmol/L. Linear regression analysis revealed that TTR, TBG, and total T4 concentrations were significant predictors (p < 0.002) of T4-TTR levels (total adjusted R-squared = 0.26, p < 0.0001) but not levels of OH-PCBs, chlorophenols, or PFOS. Our results suggest that circulating levels of these TTR-binding compounds in Inuit women of childbearing age are not high enough to affect TTR-mediated thyroid hormone transport. The possibility of increased delivery of these compounds to the developing brain requires further investigation.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants and diabetes among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-02-12

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that is of increasing concern in Inuit communities. Behavioural factors such as physical inactivity and poor diet are well-known risk factors. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has emerged as an additional factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In this study, association between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with diabetes in Canadian Inuit was examined. Data from the Adult Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008) of Inuit participants from the Canadian Arctic were analyzed. Self-reported diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) and clinical measurement of fasting glucose were examined as outcomes. Association with individual PCB congeners, sum of dioxin-like PCBs (∑DL-PCB), non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑NDL-PCB), total PCBs (∑PCB), and p,p'-DDE were investigated using multiple regression models adjusted for confounding factors. Using different methods to incorporate serum lipids, highest vs. lowest quartile exposures to PCB-105, PCB-118, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-170, PCB-180, PCB-183, ∑PCB, and p,p'-DDE were associated with increased risk of diabetes. For these PCBs, odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.9-3.5 (lower 95% CI: 0.8-1.4, upper 95% CI: 4.4-9.0) and for p,p'-DDE the OR was 2.5 (lower 95% CI: 1.1-1.2, upper 95% CI: 5.9-6.0). The highest vs. lowest quartile exposure to most PCBs and p,p'-DDE were associated with an increase of fasting glucose by 3-7%. PCBs and p,p'-DDE were associated with increased risk of diabetes and higher fasting glucose level in a cross-sectional survey of Canadian Inuit. Cause-effect relationships of PCBs and p,p'-DDE with diabetes and diabetes-related outcomes need to be further investigated in a cohort study.

  8. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the developing respiratory and immune systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Morales, Eva; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2013-02-01

    Disruption of developing immune and respiratory systems by early-life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) could result into reduced capacity to fight infections and increased risk to develop allergic manifestations later in life. To systematically review the epidemiologic literature on the adverse effects of early-life exposure to POPs on respiratory health, allergy and the immune system in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Based on published guidelines for systematic reviews, two independent researchers searched for published articles in MEDLINE and SCOPUS using defined keywords on POPs and respiratory health, immune function and allergy. Study eligibility criteria were defined to select the articles. This review of 41 studies finds limited evidence for prenatal exposure to DDE, PCBs and dioxins and risk of respiratory infections. Evidence was limited also for postnatal exposure to PCBs, specifically ndl-PCBs, and reduced immune response after vaccination in childhood. The review indicates lack of association between postnatal exposure to PCBs/ndl-PCBs and risk of asthma-related symptoms. For the other exposure-outcome associations reviewed evidence was inadequate. Current epidemiological evidence suggests that early-life exposure to POPs can adversely influence immune and respiratory systems development. Heterogeneity between studies in exposure and outcome assessment and the small number of studies for any given exposure-outcome relationship currently make comparisons difficult and meta-analyses impossible. Also, mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Recommendations for significantly improving our understanding thus include harmonization of exposure and outcome assessment between studies, conduct of larger studies, long-term assessment of respiratory infections and asthma symptoms in order to identify critical periods of susceptibility, integration of the potential immunotoxic mechanisms of POPs, and use of new statistical tools to detangle the

  9. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Henrique M R; Koerting, Lina; Devito, Sarah; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Murk, Albertinka J

    2011-11-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mortality, morphological abnormalities and larval development stages were quantified at specific time points during the 16-day experimental period. In contrast to amphibians and fish, P. miliaris early life development was not sensitive to dioxin-like toxicity in the prolonged early life stage test. Triclosan (TCS) levels higher than 500 nM were acutely toxic during embryo development. Morphological abnormalities were induced at concentrations higher than 50 nM hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1000 nM tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Larval development was delayed above 25 nM HBCD and 500 nM TBBPA. Heptadecafluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure slightly accelerated larval development at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the accelerated development was no longer observed at the end of the test period (16 dpf). The newly developed 16-day echinoid ELS bioassay proved to be sensitive to toxic effects of POPs that can be monitored for individual echinoid larvae. The most sensitive and dose related endpoint was the number of developmental penalty points. By manipulation of the housing conditions, the reproductive season could be extended from 3 to 9 months per year and the ELS experiments could be performed in artificial sea water as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fibroids: results from the ENDO study.

    PubMed

    Trabert, Britton; Chen, Zhen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Peterson, C Matthew; Pollack, Anna Z; Sun, Liping; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and uterine fibroids, we used previously collected data from a cohort of women aged 18-44 years undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy at 14 participating hospital surgical centers (n=473). POP concentrations were measured in omental fat and serum. Presence of fibroids was defined on the basis of a postoperative diagnosis (n=99). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each POP by biologic medium were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for identified covariates. Concentrations were higher in omental fat than in serum for all POPs. Serum p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was the only POP associated with fibroids (per 1-SD increase in log-transformed p,p'-DDE OR (95% CI): 1.37 (1.05-1.80)). In analyses excluding women diagnosed with endometriosis, a number of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in omental fat were associated with fibroids (PCB 99: 1.64 (1.08, 2.49); PCB 138: 1.64 (1.03, 2.59); PCB 146: 1.54 (1.01, 2.37); PCB 153: 1.88 (1.12, 3.13); PCB 196: 1.60 (1.02, 2.51); PCB 206: 1.52 (1.01, 2.29)). Although exploratory, our study suggests that PCBs may be associated with fibroids in the absence of other gynecologic disorders such as endometriosis, but the associations varied by biologic media with more POPs emerging when quantified in fat.

  11. Biomonitoring and hormone-disrupting effect biomarkers of persistent organic pollutants in vitro and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Ghisari, Mandana; Wielsøe, Maria; Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Kjeldsen, Lisbeth S; Long, Manhai

    2014-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) include lipophilic legacy POPs and the amphiphilic perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). They have long half-lives and bioaccumulate in the environment, animals and human beings. POPs possess toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting potentials. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and thus disrupt the normal hormone homeostasis. Biomonitoring assesses the internal doses of a person to provide information about chemical exposures. Effect biomarkers assess chemicals potential to affect cellular functions in vivo/ex vivo. Human beings are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, having individually very different biological potentials and effects. Therefore, the assessment of the combined, integrated biological effect of the actual chemical mixture in human blood is important. In vitro and ex vivo cell systems have been introduced for the assessment of the integrated level of xenobiotic cellular effects in human beings. Ex vivo studies have shown geographical differences in bioaccumulated POP serum levels, being reflected by the combined biomarker effects of the complex mixture extracted from human serum. Xenohormone receptor transactivities can be used as an ex vivo integrated biomarker of POP exposure and effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/ex vivo studies have supported the potential impact of the combined effect of serum POPs on the activity of hormone and/or dioxin receptors as a risk factor for human health. With focus on hormone disruption, this MiniReview will give an update on recent POP-related endocrine-disrupting effects in vitro/ex vivo/in vivo and some related genetic data.

  12. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants levels in blood samples from Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Trejo-Acevedo; Edith, Rivero-Pérez Norma; Rogelio, Flores-Ramírez; Fernando, Díaz-Barriga; Catalina, Ochoa Angeles; Nelinho, Pérez-Maldonado Iván

    2013-06-01

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) sought to determine baseline exposures to POPs in the general population; however, in developing countries, exposure to these chemicals in hot spots may be an issue of public health considering its magnitude. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of POPs in the blood of children living in three communities in the Southeastern Region of Mexico. During 2007, we studied a total of 96 healthy children (aged 6-12 years). Quantitative analyses were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. High levels of p,p'-DDT and its principal metabolite, p,p'-DDE, were found in the blood of children living in the three communities studied, the levels ranged from 463.5 to 9046.3 ng/g lipid and from 490.8 to 57,712.4 ng/g lipid for DDT and DDE, respectively. In addition, high levels of lindane (γ-HCH) were found, with mean levels ranging between 575.4 and 6580.6 ng/g lipid. Moreover, children living in the study region were also exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the levels of these compounds in the blood of children were very similar between the communities with mean levels of around 3000 ng/g lipid (total PCBs). In conclusion, we demonstrated that children living in the studied communities were exposed to complex chemical mixtures (DDT, DDE, lindane and PCBs) rather than to individual compounds. Therefore, in future studies it is important to understand the potential interactions between the components of these mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal of persistent organic pollutants from micro-polluted drinking water by triolein embedded absorbent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Ru, Jia; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Zijian; Hu, Chun

    2009-06-01

    A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24 h although GAC had high removal rate in the first 4 h adsorption. Then the removal efficiency of mixed POPs (e.g. aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor epoxide), absorption isotherm, absorbent regeneration and initial column experiments of CA-triolein were studied in detail. The linear absorption isotherm and the independent absorption in binary isotherm indicated that the selected POPs are mainly absorbed onto CA-triolein absorbent by a partition mechanism. The absorption constant, K, was closely related to the hydrophobic property of the compound. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the absorption was spontaneous, with a high affinity and the absorption was an endothermic reaction. Rinsing with hexane the CA-triolein absorbent can be regenerated after absorption of POPs. No significant decrease in the dieldrin removal efficiency was observed even when the absorption-regeneration process was repeated for five times. The results of initial column experiments showed that the CA-triolein absorbent did not reach the breakthrough point at a breakthrough empty-bed volume (BV) of 3200 when the influent concentration was 1-1.5 microg/L and the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) was 20 min.

  14. Lactation history, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, and maternal risk of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wang, Xiaobin; Sun, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006, and examined whether potentially diabetogenic POPs account for associations between lactation and diabetes. Among 4479 parous women, breastfeeding history was defined as the number of children breastfed ≥1 month. Diabetes was identified by self-report or hemoglobin A1c >6.5%. Twenty-four POPs were measured in serum among subsamples of 668 to 1073 participants. Compared with women without lactation history, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes among those with 1-2 and ≥3 lactation periods were 0.83(0.61, 1.13) and 0.63(0.44, 0.91; P trend=0.03). Lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with serum concentrations of 17 out of the 24 organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and perfluoroalkyl substances (Ptrend<0.05). Comparing the ≥3 lactations group with women without a lactation history, the relative reduction of POPs ranged from 12% (PCB-196) to 30% (oxychlordane). The inverse association between lactation and diabetes was slightly attenuated after adjustment for POPs. Age-stratified analyses showed that the inverse association between lactation periods and serum POP concentrations was observed primarily among participants <60 years, whereas age did not significantly modify the association between lactation history and diabetes prevalence. Crudely-classified lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with concurrent serum POP concentrations and diabetes prevalence. Prospective studies are needed to clarify how lactation could complement diabetes prevention through decreasing the POP body burdens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying the source regions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the southern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, P.; Wang, X.; Yao, T.

    2016-12-01

    A worldwide attention focus on the semi-volatilities and long-range atmospheric transport potential of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Even in the remote regions with less anthropological activities (such as Arctic, Antarctic), POPs are often detected in air and finally are trapped by the surface ground, which made those regions as a "sink" of POPs. The Tibetan Plateau is also a remote region, and it is adjacent to South Asia with huge emission of POPs. The strong monsoon favors to the atmospheric transport of pollutants from South Asia to the Tibetan Plateau. Unlike Arctic and Antarctic, the Tibetan Plateau can become a "secondary source" for some POPs and make them spread globally. By now, some efforts were conducted to report that South Asia is one of the primary source region of POPs in the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the detailed source regions were identified using 1-year observed atmospheric POPs data in three sites distributing the southern Tibetan Plateau (Lhasa, Lulang, and Lijiang). The highest concentrations of atmospheric POPs in the three sites all occurred in the Monsoon season (June-September), implying that the Indian monsoon may be the driving force of POPs transport to the southern Tibetan Plateau. The relative components of POPs in these sites are similar with those in India, which suggest that South Asia (especially India) might be the main source regions. The results of potential source contribution function (PSCF) further identified that the offshore of Bengal Bay is the most probable emission source region of the POPs invading into the Tibetan Plateau. The mega-cities, such as Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Dhaka, Chittagong, around the Bengal Bay supplied the major contribution of the POPs which transported to the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Association Between Type 2 Diabetes and Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Blomstedt, Paul; Kajantie, Eero; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Recently, exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association between type 2 diabetes and POP exposure in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The cohort consists of 8,760 people born in Helsinki during 1934–1944, before the global POP emission peak. In 2003, a clinical examination was performed, including blood sampling for laboratory analyses of serum lipids and POPs. Complete data from the examination were available for 1,988 participants. The concentrations of each POP were categorized into four groups on the basis of percentile intervals, and logistic regression was performed to examine diabetes prevalence across the POP categories, adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, and mean arterial pressure and using the lowest category as the reference group. RESULTS Among the participants with the highest exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p’-DDE, and polychlorinated biphenyl 153, the risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.64–2.24 times higher than that among individuals with the lowest exposure (Plin = 0.003–0.050, where Plin is the P value for linear trend across POP categories). In the stratified analysis, the associations between type 2 diabetes and oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor remained significant and were strongest among the overweight participants. Exposure to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 153) was not associated with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms the association between type 2 diabetes and adult-only exposure to organochlorine pesticides in a general urban population. PMID:21816981

  17. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and gestational diabetes mellitus in primiparous women.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Bita; Naddafi, Kazem; Rastkari, Noushin; Rashidi, Batool Hossein; Djazayeri, Abolghasem; Malekafzali, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    There is growing evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may play an important role in increasing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to examine the association between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 10 congeners) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, 8 congeners) and GDM in primiparous women with no family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives during the third trimester of pregnancy. This case-control study was performed among the three university hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Serum samples were collected from cases (n=70) that were diagnosed with GDM and from controls (n=70) with a normal pregnancy that attended the same hospital for a routine prenatal visit. Pollutant levels were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Logistic regression analyses manifested the positive association between total POPs (sum of total PCBs and PBDEs) (Odds ratio (OR)=1.61, 95% CI: 1.31-1.97, p-value <0.0001) and total PCBs (OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.35-2.27, p-value<0.0001) and GDM considering confounding variables (age, gestational age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and total maternal serum lipid). In addition, we found a positive association between total PBDEs and GDM (OR =2.21; 95% CI: 1.48-3.30, p-value <0.0001). Finally, we found a positive association between Ln PCB 187, 118 and Ln PBDE 99, 28 with GDM. Meanwhile a negative association between Ln PCB 28 and GDM was established. Our data suggest that exposure to certain POPs (PCBs and PBDEs) could be a potential modifying risk factor for GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Bernhard, Annette; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Sonne, Si Brask; Mortensen, Alicja; Hao, Qin; Brattelid, Trond; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adipose tissue expansion. As different nutrients modulate adipose tissue development, we investigated the influence of dietary composition on POP accumulation, obesity development and related disorders. Lifespan was determined in mice fed fish-oil-based high fat diets during a long-term feeding trial and accumulation of POPs was measured after 3, 6 and 18months of feeding. Further, we performed dose-response experiments using four abundant POPs found in marine sources, PCB-153, PCB-138, PCB-118 and pp'-DDE as single congeners or as mixtures in combination with different diets: one low fat diet and two high fat diets with different protein:sucrose ratios. We measured accumulation of POPs in adipose tissue and liver and determined obesity development, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics. Compared with mice fed diets with a low protein:sucrose ratio, mice fed diets with a high protein:sucrose ratio had significantly lower total burden of POPs in adipose tissue, were protected from obesity development and exhibited enhanced hepatic expression of genes involved in metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics. Exposure to POPs, either as single compounds or mixtures, had no effect on obesity development, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the dietary composition of macronutrients profoundly modulates POP accumulation in adipose tissues adding an additional parameter to be included in future studies. Our results indicate that alterations in macronutrient composition might be an additional route for reducing total body burden of POPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air at Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Halse, Anne Karine; Schlabach, Martin; Bäcklund, Are; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut

    2017-08-26

    Ambient air is a core medium for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention and is used in studies of global transports of POPs and their atmospheric sources and source regions. Still, data based on active air sampling remain scarce in many regions. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) monitor concentrations of selected POPs in air outside West Africa, and (ii) to evaluate potential atmospheric processes and source regions affecting measured concentrations. For this purpose, an active high-volume air sampler was installed on the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory at Cape Verde outside the coast of West Africa. Sampling commenced in May 2012 and 43 samples (24h sampling) were collected until June 2013. The samples were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordanes. The concentrations of these POPs at Cape Verde were generally low and comparable to remote sites in the Arctic for several compounds. Seasonal trends varied between compounds and concentrations exhibited strong temperature dependence for chlordanes. Our results indicate net volatilization from the Atlantic Ocean north of Cape Verde as sources of these POPs. Air mass back trajectories demonstrated that air masses measured at Cape Verde were generally transported from the Atlantic Ocean or the North African continent. Overall, the low concentrations in air at Cape Verde were likely explained by absence of major emissions in areas from which the air masses originated combined with depletion during long-range atmospheric transport due to enhanced degradation under tropical conditions (high temperatures and concentrations of hydroxyl radicals). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fibroids: results from the ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Chen, Zhen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Peterson, C. Matthew; Pollack, Anna Z.; Sun, Liping; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and uterine fibroids we used previously collected data from a cohort of women 18–44 years of age undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy at 14 participating hospital surgical centers (n=473). POP concentrations were measured in omental fat and serum. Presence of fibroids was defined based on a postoperative diagnosis (n=99). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each POP by biologic medium was estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for identified covariates. Concentrations were higher in omental fat than in serum for all POPs. Serum p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) was the only POP associated with fibroids [per 1-SD increase in log-transformed p,p′-DDE OR (95% CI): 1.37 (1.05–1.80)]. In analyses excluding women diagnosed with endometriosis, a number of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in omental fat were associated with fibroids [PCB 99: 1.64 (1.08, 2.49); PCB 138: 1.64 (1.03, 2.59); PCB 146: 1.54 (1.01, 2.37); PCB 153: 1.88 (1.12, 3.13); PCB 196: 1.60 (1.02, 2.51); PCB 206: 1.52 (1.01, 2.29)]. Although exploratory, our study suggests that PCBs may be associated with fibroids in the absence of other gynecologic disorders such as endometriosis, but the associations varied by biologic media with more POPs emerging when quantified in fat. PMID:24802554

  1. Alterations in high-density lipoprotein proteome and function associated with persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ljunggren, Stefan A; Helmfrid, Ingela; Norinder, Ulf; Fredriksson, Mats; Wingren, Gun; Karlsson, Helen; Lindahl, Mats

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms remain unclear. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) acts protective against CVD by different processes, and we have earlier found that HDL from subjects with CVD contains higher levels of POPs than healthy controls. In the present study, we have expanded analyses on the same individuals living in a contaminated community and investigated the relationship between the HDL POP levels and protein composition/function. HDL from 17 subjects was isolated by ultracentrifugation. HDL protein composition, using nanoliquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The associations of 16 POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, with HDL proteins/functions were investigated by partial least square and multiple linear regression analysis. Proteomic analyses identified 118 HDL proteins, of which ten were significantly (p<0.05) and positively associated with the combined level of POPs or with highly chlorinated PCB congeners. Among these, cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein, as well as the inflammatory marker serum amyloid A, were found. The serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1 activity was inversely associated with POPs. Pathway analysis demonstrated that up-regulated proteins were associated with biological processes involving lipoprotein metabolism, while down-regulated proteins were associated with processes such as negative regulation of proteinases, acute phase response, platelet degranulation, and complement activation. These results indicate an association between POP levels, especially highly chlorinated PCBs, and HDL protein alterations that may result in a less functional particle. Further studies are needed to determine causality and the importance of other environmental factors. Nevertheless, this study provides a

  2. Persistent organic pollutants and hyperuricemia in the U.S. general population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Bae, Sang-Geun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2013-09-01

    Background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has emerged as a new risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS), while hyperuricemia is associated with MetS through unclear mechanisms. We examined cross-sectional data for consistency with the hypothesis that POPs are a common underlying risk factor of both MetS and hyperuricemia. We evaluated associations of POPs with hyperuricemia in subjects aged ≥20 years in the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. Sample size was n = 1331 for organochlorine (OC) pesticides and n = 1299 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Among all subjects, the risk of hyperuricemia was higher for higher serum concentrations of OC pesticides, PCDDs, and dioxin-like PCBs. PCDFs and nondioxin-like PCBs did not show any clear trend. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for OC pesticides, PCDDs, and dioxin-like PCBs were 1.0, 2.4, 2.3, 3.0, and 2.5 (P trend = 0.05), 1.0, 1.6, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.5 (P trend = 0.01), and 1.0, 1.3, 1.4, 1.3, and 2.4 (P trend = 0.04). When we restricted the analyses to subjects without MetS, all these associations appeared to strengthen. This study is consistent with our hypothesis that the risk of hyperuricemia relates to background exposure to a mixture of POPs even among persons without MetS. There should be further research about whether avoiding exposure to POPs and otherwise decreasing body burden of POPs would be helpful to prevent or manage hyperuricemia or gout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistent Influences of the 2002 Hayman Fire on Stream Nitrate and Dissolved Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, C.; Pierson, D. N.; Fegel, T. S., II; Chow, A. T.; Covino, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Large, high severity wildfires alter the physical and biological conditions that determine how watersheds retain and release nutrients and regulate stream water quality. For five years after the 2002 Hayman Fire burned in Colorado conifer forests, stream nitrate concentrations and export increased steadily in watersheds with extensive high-severity burning. Stream temperature and turbidity also increased in relation to the extent of high-severity burning and remained elevated above background levels throughout the initial five year post-fire period. Our recent sampling documents that 14 years after the Hayman Fire stream nitrate remains an order of magnitude higher in extensively-burned (35-90%) compared to unburned watersheds (0.2 vs 2.8 mg L-1). Nitrate represents 83% of the total dissolved N in extensively-burned watersheds compared to 29% in unburned watersheds. In contrast, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), was highest in watersheds that burned to a moderate extent (10-20%) and lowest in those with extensive burning. Catchments with a moderate extent burned had DOC concentrations 2.5 and 1.7 times more than those with extensive burning and unburned catchments, respectively. Peak concentrations of DOC and nitrate track the rising limb of the streamflow hydrograph and reach a maximum in May, but patterns among burn extent categories were seasonally consistent. Current riparian conditions are linked to stream nitrate in burned watersheds. For example, stream nitrate increases proportionally to the extent of riparian zones with low shrub cover (R2 = 0.76). We found signs of watershed recovery compared to the initial post-fire period; stream temperature and turbidity remained elevated in extensively burned catchments, but increases were only significant during the spring season. The persistent stream nitrate concentrations as well as the relation between riparian cover and post-fire stream nitrate may help prioritize restoration planting efforts and mitigate chronic

  4. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and sperm DNA methylation changes in Arctic and European populations.

    PubMed

    Consales, Claudia; Toft, Gunnar; Leter, Giorgio; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Uccelli, Raffaella; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Eleuteri, Patrizia; Jönsson, Bo A G; Giwercman, Aleksander; Pedersen, Henning S; Struciński, Paweł; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Zviezdai, Valentyna; Spanò, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], are environmental contaminants with potential endocrine disrupting activity. DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been associated with serum concentrations of POPs in Greenland Inuit and Korean populations. Greenland Inuits are characterized by the highest worldwide POP levels. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the relationship between serum POP concentrations and DNA methylation levels in sperm of non-occupationally exposed fertile men from Greenland, Warsaw (Poland), and Kharkiv (Ukraine). Serum levels of PCB-153 [1,2,4-trichloro-5-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)benzene], as a proxy of the total PCBs body burden, and of p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene], the main metabolite of DDT were measured. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed globally by flow cytometric (FCM) immunodetection of 5-methyl-cytosines and at specific repetitive DNA sequences (Alu, LINE-1, Satα) by PCR-pyrosequencing after bisulfite conversion. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to investigate correlations between serum POP concentrations and DNA methylation. No consistent associations between exposure to POPs and sperm DNA methylation at repetitive DNA sequences were detected. A statistically significant global decrease in methylation was associated with exposure to either POP by FCM analysis. This is the first study to investigate environmental exposure to POPs and DNA methylation levels considering sperm as the target cells. Although POP exposure appears to have a limited negative impact on sperm DNA methylation levels in adult males, the global hypomethylation detected by one of the methods applied suggests that further investigation is warranted.

  5. Changes in persistent organic pollutant levels from adolescence to young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Schell, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Elimination rates and their corresponding half-lives are conceptually important and intuitively accessible pharmacokinetic measures of toxicant elimination, but regression-based estimates are biased proportional to the degree of continuing (background) exposure. We propose an alternative estimator, the censored normal regression model, which uses all observations, but treats individuals whose initial level failed to exceed their follow-up level as censored observations to weight the regression estimates from those that declined between blood draws. In this manner, we derive the intrinsic elimination rate, the elimination rate free from ongoing exposure, as a parameter in a regression with an unobserved, latent dependent variable. We utilize sequential measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels from adolescence to adulthood, a period of intense change in size and body composition, to quantify individual-level change within a community exposed to significant quantities of contaminants over an extended period of time. Although much research has been conducted on effects of POPs, far less attention has been given to vectors of intake and changes in toxicant levels during the life course. We apply exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to types and timing of consumption, along with physical behavioral characteristics, to identify a structure of seven underlying factors. Although several variables show factorial complexity, the latent constructs included an age/maturation and period-related factor, a nutritional composite, consumption prior to pregnancy, fish and fowl consumed during pregnancy, factors distinguishing body mass and weight from height, and bottom-feeding fish consumption. Unadjusted and adjusted half-lives using the censored normal regression estimator, as well as estimated half-lives from conventional log concentration regressions, are reported for PCB groupings, specific congeners, p,p′-DDE, and HCB. PMID:25863595

  6. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic, today and in a future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are of great concern because of their long residence time and long-range transport potential in the environment and because they are readily bioaccumulated along food chains and toxic for wildlife and humans. A multicompartment model is used to study global-scale and long term chemodynamics of anthropogenic organic substances in the Earth system. Model components are the atmosphere (ECHAM5) and ocean general circulation models (MPIOM), which include dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry, two-dimensional surface compartments (topsoil, vegetation surfaces, ice, and temporal snow cover) and intercompartmental mass exchange process parameterisations [1-3]. The transports into and out of the Arctic (66° N) are characterized for 1950-2000 under one realisation of present-day climate [4-5] and for 2001-2100 under one realisation of future climate (greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B of IPCC-AR4). Despite decaying primary emissions (since decades) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodimephenyltrichloromethane (DDT) are continuing to accumulate in the Arctic, which is fed by atmospheric transports. The main regions of import (and export) are identified and the vertical distribution and seasonalities are characterized. Changes by the end of the 21st century are discussed in the context of a major teleconnection, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. References [1] Guglielmo F, Lammel G, Maier-Reimer E: Global environmental cycling of DDT and ?-HCH in the 1980s - a study using a coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model. Chemosphere 76 (2009) 1509-1517 [2] Stemmler I, Lammel G: Cycling of DDT in the global oceans 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (2009) L24602 [3] Hofmann L, Stemmler I, Lammel G: The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on their global distributions and fate - 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover. Environ. Pollut. 162 (2012) 482

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in two dolphin species with focus on toxaphene and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Karen J S; Kucklick, John R; Becker, Paul R; Stapleton, Heather M; Baker, Joel E

    2005-02-01

    Assessing trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine mammals is difficult due to age, gender, and metabolism influences on accumulation. To help elucidate these effects in dolphins, POP concentrations were determined in the Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus, a pelagic delphinid inhabiting North Atlantic waters, and in the rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis, a pelagic delphinid inhabiting tropical and subtropical waters. The specific objectives of this study were to determine baseline POP concentrations in L. acutus and S. bredanensis blubber samples and to examine the effects of age, gender, and metabolism on POP concentrations in dolphin blubber. Focus was aimed at contaminants of emerging concern, specifically, toxaphene and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Samples collected from L. acutus (n = 47) stranding events in Massachusetts (1993--2000) and S. bredanensis samples (n = 15) were analyzed for PCBs, toxaphene, and other organic pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Age and gender influences were similar between the two species, with adult females having significantly lower POP concentrations as compared to adult males and juveniles. Mean sigma toxaphene concentrations were highest in juvenile L. acutus, 13.0 (6.7) microg/g wet mass (1 SD), and lowest in adult female S. bredanensis, 1.49 (1.4) microg/g wet mass. sigma PBDE (sum of congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) concentrations were highest in juvenile L. acutus, 2.41 (1.2) microg/g wet mass, and lowest in adult female S. bredanensis, 0.51 (0.6) microg/g wet mass. POP concentrations did not significantly differ between adult males and juveniles, suggesting metabolism of congeners and/or dilution with growth. PBDE concentrations in juvenile white-sided dolphins were not significantly related to collection year, suggesting that there may be a lag period for higher concentrations to be detected in pelagic marine mammals such as L. acutus or

  8. Current status of persistent organic pesticides residues in air, water, and soil, and their possible effect on neighboring countries: a comprehensive review of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Though the use of pesticides has offered significant economic benefits by enhancing the production and yield of food and fibers and the prevention of vector-borne diseases, evidence suggests that their use has adversely affected the health of human populations and the environment. Pesticides have been widely distributed and their traces can be detected in all areas of the environment (air, water and soil). Despite the ban of DDT and HCH in India, they are still in use, both in domestic and agricultural settings. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the production and consumption of persistent organic pesticides, their maximum residual limit (MRL) and the presence of persistent organic pesticides in multicomponent environmental samples (air, water and soil) from India. In order to highlight the global distribution of persistent organic pesticides and their impact on neighboring countries and regions, the role of persistent organic pesticides in Indian region is reviewed. Based on a review of research papers and modeling simulations, it can be concluded that India is one of the major contributors of global persistent organic pesticide distribution. This review also considers the health impacts of persistent organic pesticides, the regulatory measures for persistent organic pesticides, and the status of India's commitment towards the elimination of persistent organic pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening for persistent organic pollutants: Techniques to provide a scientific basis for POPs criteria in international negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodan, B.D.; Pennington, D.W.; Eckley, N.; Boethling, R.S.

    1999-10-15

    The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) is currently coordinating negotiations to develop a binding global agreement by late in the year 2000 to prohibit, restrict, or reduce the production, use, or release of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs are a small subset of organic chemicals whose characteristics of persistence in the environment, accumulation in biological organisms, and toxicity make them priority pollutants and environmental risks to humans and ecosystems. Under the UNEP negotiation, representatives are developing criteria and procedures for the addition of substances, guided by the initial list of 12 substances of substance groups selected for global action. It is therefore timely to investigate the scientific foundation for POPs screening criteria that have been used in other international, regional, and national programs, focusing on the properties of persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and long-range transport in a policy context. The theoretical, empirical, and multimedia modeling approaches used reveal that guidance for setting POPs screening criteria can be developed using a combination of science and policy input. These approaches suggest that criteria adopted under regional POPs agreements in North America and Europe are reasonable and tend to isolate a limited number of clearly hazardous POPs from the majority of organic chemicals, while not being so stringent that the ability to respond to as yet unidentified risks is seriously compromised.

  10. Estimating the persistence of organic contaminants in indirect potable reuse systems using quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR).

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Predictions from the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model EPI Suite were modified to estimate the persistence of organic contaminants in indirect potable reuse systems. The modified prediction included the effects of sorption, biodegradation, and oxidation that may occur during sub-surface transport. A retardation factor was used to simulate the mobility of adsorbed compounds during sub-surface transport to a recovery well. A set of compounds with measured persistent properties during sub-surface transport was used to validate the results of the modifications to the predictions of EPI Suite. A comparison of the predicted values and measured values was done and the residual sum of the squares showed the importance of including oxidation and sorption. Sorption was the most important factor to include in predicting the fates of organic chemicals in the sub-surface environment.

  11. Model Simulations of Upwelling and Biouptake of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic (PBT) Organic Pollutants from Contaminated Streambeds for Base Flow Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, D. D.; Ren, J.

    2009-12-01

    In river systems, understanding the contaminant transport processes occurring between the streambed and stream water is very important in predicting the fate of pollutants and their biological effects. In this study, a process-based multi-phase reactive transport model simulating the upwelling of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic (PBT) organic pollutants from contaminated streambed sediments under low-flow conditions and the biouptake of PBT organic pollutants by benthic organisms was developed. The physical exchange process occurring between the streams and streambeds was modeled using a modified advective pumping theory. The interaction of PBT organic pollutants with bed sediments was modeled using kinetic sorption and desorption mechanisms. A bioconcentration factor (BCF) equation was used to model the biouptake of PBT organic pollutants by benthic organisms. Simulation results indicate that the stream water contaminant concentration increases rapidly when the desorption of contaminants from the streambed increases. Additionally, increase in the desorption of contaminants from the streambed causes an increase in the biouptake of PBT organic pollutants by benthic organisms, since more contaminant is available for uptake by the organisms. The effect of nonlinear sorption/desorption on the release and biouptake of PBT organic pollutants was also evaluated using this model. This study demonstrated that the upwelling of PBT organic pollutants can be modeled using the modified advective pumping theory and sorption and desorption mechanisms. This process-based model provided the predictive capability to further study the transport mechanisms controlling the release of contaminants from polluted streambeds.

  12. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in consumers of eel from polluted rivers compared to marketable eel.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Polder, Anuschka; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Steegenga, Wilma T; Kampman, Ellen; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-12-01

    Globally, many river sediments are seriously contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) known to accumulate in aquatic food. In the Netherlands, toxicological risks of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds led to a ban on eel fishing in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in serum POP levels in consumers of eel from high-polluted areas and consumers of eel from low-polluted areas or aquaculture. In total 80 Dutch men were included, aged 40-70 years, with a habitual eel consumption of at least one portion (150 g) per month. Total levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds were measured in serum of all participants with the DR CALUX bioassay, validated with GC-MS. For a subgroup of 38 participants extensive POP measurements were performed. We revealed that consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in 2.5 and up to 10 times increased levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) respectively compared to controls. The highest PCB levels were detected for PCB 153, with a median level of 896 ng/g lipid and a maximum level of 5000 ng/g lipid in the high-exposed group. Furthermore, hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs: sum of 4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4'-OH-CB172, and 4-OH-CB187) were 8 times higher in men who consumed eel from polluted areas, and detected at levels (median 4.5 ng/g ww) reported to cause adverse health effects. Also, the majority of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were significantly higher in consumers of eel from pullulated areas. In conclusion, this study is the first to reveal that (past) consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in high body burdens of dioxins, PCBs, OH-PCBs and PFASs. We confirmed the predictions made in a former risk assessment, and the high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds as well as the OH-PCBs are of health concern.

  13. Rapid analysis of persistent organic pollutants by solid phase microextraction in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Ortiz-Pérez, M D; Batres-Esquivel, L; Castillo, C G; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, C A; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2014-06-01

    A simple and rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS SPME) based method is presented for the determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in human serum by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass detector (MS) with electron impact ionization (EI). As an outcome of the assessment of several polymer phases; the one with the best result was the PDMS fiber (100 μm). A multivariate analysis of variance by permutations (PERMANOVA) was performed to establish the optimal extraction conditions as a function of temperature and time variables. The results were 1 mL serum+200 µL H2SO4 9M+1 mL of deionized water at 600 rpm with a temperature of 80°C for 50 min to expose the fiber. The limits of detection (LOD) for POPs pesticides fell within the 0.22-5.41 ng/mL interval, and within 0.07-1.79 ng/mL for PCBs; a linear method was used with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.99. Recovery percentages at low concentrations (15 ng/mL) were 67.8-120.2%, and at high concentrations (75 ng/mL) 80.2-119.2%. Evaluated precision as percentage Relative Standard Deviation (RSD%) of repeatability and reproducibility was within a range of 0.5-9% and 0.3-21%, respectively. This analytical method prevents some of the main problems for quantifying POPs in human serum, such as the elimination of the solvents, sample handling, integration of extraction steps, pre-concentration and introduction of samples; consequently, the time and cost of analyzing the sample can be significantly reduced. The method developed was applied to determine exposure to POPs in samples of children living in different polluted sites in Mexico. In children living in indigenous communities results show exposure to DDE (median 29.2 ng/mL range 17.4-52.2 ng/mL) and HCB (median 2.53 ng/mL range 2.50-2.64 ng/mL); whereas in the industrial scenario, exposure to HCB (median 2.81 ng/mL range 2.61-3.4 ng/mL) and PCBs (median Σ-PCBs 22.2 ng/ml range 8.2-74.6 ng/mL) and finally in petrochemical scenario was

  14. Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Cong, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xing-Liang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Zhang, Yong

    2006-12-15

    High mountains may serve as condenser for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the vegetation in remote areas has been used as a means to characterized atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants. In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Himalayan spruce needle samples from Zhangmu-Nyalam region (central-Himalayas) were analyzed and the altitudinal gradient of these pollutants was investigated. Total HCHs and DDTs concentration in needles were in the range of 1.3-2.9 ng g(-1) dry weight and 1.7-11 ng g(-1) dry weight, which were lower than concentrations reported in spruce needles from Alps, however higher than concentrations in conifer needles from mountain areas of Alberta. Total Himalayan spruce needle PAHs was below 600 ng g(-1) and fluorene, phenanthrene and acenaphthene were abundant individual compounds measured. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH in pine needles were similar with the usual values for technical HCH, implying technical HCHs might be used in this region. The high ratios of o-p'-DDT/p-p'-DDT and no p-p'-DDE measured in this study led to the suspicion that a new source of o-p'-DDT and/or p-p'-DDT existed in this region. In addition, higher ratios of low molecular weight-/high molecular weight-PAHs in this region indicated that petroleum combustion, vehicle emission and low-temperature combustion might be the major contributions of PAH source. To examine the POPs distillation, the analyte concentrations were correlated with altitude. The more volatile OCPs, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, aldrin and alpha-endosulfan positively correlated with altitude, however, less volatile OCPs (DDT and DDD) inversely related with elevation. Almost all PAHs detected in this area showed positive correlations with altitude. It is worthy to note that heavy PAHs (Benzo[k] fluoranthene and Benzo[a]anthracene) displayed positive correlation, which implied the sources of PAHs were near the sampling sites. The

  15. Are exploited mangrove molluscs exposed to Persistent Organic Pollutant contamination in Senegal, West Africa?

    PubMed

    Bodin, N; N'Gom Ka, R; Le Loc'h, F; Raffray, J; Budzinski, H; Peluhet, L; Tito de Morais, L

    2011-06-01

    The surface sediments, two bivalves (Arca senilis and Crassostera gasar) and three gastropods (Conus spp., Hexaplex duplex and Pugilina morio) from two Senegalese stations, Falia (Sine-Saloum Estuary) and Fadiouth (Petite Côte), were analyzed for their pollutant organic persistent contamination (polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs; organochlorinated pesticides OCPs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs). Results revealed significant levels of PCBs, DDTs and lindane in mangrove sediments ranging from 0.3 to 19.1, 0.3 to 15.9, and 0.1 to 1.9 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. Among the other POPs analysed, only hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and trans-nonachlor for OCPs, as well as BDE47 and BDE99 congeners for PBDEs were detected at very low concentrations, generally not of concern. POP levels and patterns were in good accordance with literature data available for other tropical developing countries. A seasonal quantitative difference was highlighted with higher levels of PCBs and DDTs in sediments after the wet season, likely due to the strong wash-out of residues from inland to the marine ecosystems during the rainy season. The observed pattern of DDT and its metabolites pointed out probable recent applications of DDT for public health emergencies in Senegal. Exploited molluscs were exposed to the same POP compounds as those measured in sediments. They presented OCP levels within the same range as in sediments, while significant higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in shellfish soft tissues revealing a higher bioaccumulation potential mainly due to the lipophilicity of these compounds. Finally, the influence of the reproduction cycle on POP levels through lipid content variations was highlighted, minimizing potential differences in POP bioaccumulation between shellfish species. From an ecotoxicological and public health point of view, results from this study revealed that POPs in sediments from the Petite Côte and the Sine-Saloum Estuary would not cause toxic effects

  16. Associations between blood persistent organic pollutants and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Morales, Eva; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Casas, Maribel; Ballester, Ferran; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Marina, Loreto Santa; Espada, Mercedes; Goñi, Fernando; Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are suggested to contribute to lower vitamin D levels; however, studies in humans are scarce and have never focused on pregnancy, a susceptibility period for vitamin D deficiency. We investigated whether serum levels of POPs were associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentration in pregnancy. Cross-sectional associations of serum concentrations of eight POPs with plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration were analyzed in 2031 pregnant women participating in the Spanish population-based cohort INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. Serum concentrations of POPs were measured by gas chromatography and plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in pregnancy (mean 13.3±1.5weeks of gestation). Multivariable regression models were performed to assess the relationship between blood concentrations of POPs and 25(OH)D3. An inverse linear relationship was found between serum concentration of PCB180 and circulating 25(OH)D3. Multivariate linear regression models showed higher PCB180 levels to be associated with lower 25(OH)D3 concentration: quartile Q4 vs. quartile Q1, coefficient=-1.59, 95% CI -3.27, 0.08, p trend=0.060. A non-monotonic inverse relationship was found between the sum of predominant PCB congeners (PCB 180, 153 and 138) and 25(OH)D3 concentration: coefficient (95% CI) for quartile Q2 vs. Q1 [-0.50 (-1.94, 0.94)], quartile Q3 vs. Q1 [-1.56 (-3.11, -0.02)] and quartile Q4 vs. Q1 [-1.21 (-2.80, 0.38)], p trend=0.081. No significant associations were found between circulating 25(OH)D3 and serum levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCB, and ß-HCH. Our results suggest that the background exposure to PCBs may result in lower 25(OH)D3 concentration in pregnant women.

  17. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and sperm sex chromosome ratio in men from the Faroe Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kvist, L.; Giwercman, A.; Weihe, P.; Jensen, T. Kold; Grandjean, P.; Halling, J.; Petersen, M. Skaalum; Giwercman, Y. Lundberg

    2015-01-01

    People in the Arctic as well as fishermen on the polluted Swedish east coast are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These compounds have been shown to affect the sperm Y:X chromosome ratio. In present study, the aim was to investigate whether polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDE) influence sperm sex chromosome ratio in Faroese men, and whether these men differ regarding Y:X ratio compared to Greenland Inuit and Swedish fishermen. The study population (n = 449) consisted of young men from the general population (n = 276) as well as proven fertile men (n = 173). The Y:X ratio was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Serum concentrations of POPs were measured using gas chromatography. Associations between POP concentrations and Y:X ratio were calculated using linear and non-linear regression models as well as trend analysis and pairwise comparison of exposure data categorized into quartiles. The selected POPs were associated with Y:X ratio in fertile Faroese men, but not in the total population; p,p′-DDE (95% CI for B = −0.005 to −0.001, p = 0.005) and ΣPCB (95% CI for B = −0.005 to −0.001, p = 0.012). Since p, p′-DDE and ΣPCB correlated significantly (r = 0.927, p < 0.001), the results involving the exposure variables can be regarded as a single finding. The Y:X ratio for the total Faroese population was 0.500 ± 0.018, which was statistically significantly lower than in both Inuit and Swedish fishermen (0.512 for both). In conclusion, Faroese men presented with lower Y:X ratio than Greenland Inuit and Swedish fishermen. Although no direct health effects are expected due to the lower Faroese Y:X ratio, it could be indicative of adverse effects on the reproductive system. PMID:25222300

  18. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group.

  19. Determination of selected persistent organic pollutants in wastewater from landfill leachates, using an amperometric biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomngongo, Philiswa N.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Gumbi, Bhekumuzi P.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    Landfill leachates that contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a big threat to groundwater systems and are projected to have hazardous effects in the long term if proper management strategies of the landfills are not put in place by those responsible. Monitoring the levels of POPs in landfill leachates is very crucial. This work presents an amperometric biosensor for determination of selected POPs in landfill leachates. The biosensor is based on kinetic inhibition of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The enzyme was immobilised by electrostatic attachment on a polyaniline-modified Pt electrode surface. Selected POPs inhibited HRP enzyme activity and the decrease in the enzyme activity was used to determine these environmental pollutants. Selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the analytes of choice because they are commonly found in South Africa water systems. Limits of detection for the amperometric biosensor were established as 0.014, 0.018, 0.022, 0.016 and 0.019 μg l-1 for BDE-100, PBB-1, PCB-1, PCB-28 and PCB-101, respectively. The HRP biosensor system gave different linear ranges for; BDE-100 (0.424-25.8 μg l-1), PBB-1 (0.862-13.4 μg l-1), PCB-1 (0.930-18.1 μg l-1), PCB-28 (0.730-15.7 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.930-27.1 μg l-1). Inhibition studies on HRP biosensor response toward the reduction of H2O2 in the absence and presence of the selected POPs were carried out to investigate the inhibition kinetics and its mechanism. The results obtained indicated that the inhibition mechanism was competitive for PBDEs and non-competitive for biphenyls (PCBs and PBBs). The application of the biosensor was tested on wastewater samples obtained from landfill leachate for determination of selected POPs. The leachate samples were found to contain PCB-28 (0.28 ± 0.03 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.31 ± 0.02 μg l-1). The samples were also analysed by GC-MS as a cross-check method and the

  20. The influence of persistent organic pollutants in the traditional Inuit diet on markers of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Schæbel, L. K.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E. C.; Vestergaard, H.; Andersen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are high in Inuit living predominately on the traditional marine diet. Adverse effects of POPs include disruption of the immune system and cardiovascular diseases that are frequent in Greenland Inuit. We aimed to assess the association between exposure to POPs from the marine diet and inflammation, taking into account other factors such as vitamin D. We invited Inuit and non-Inuit living in settlements or the town in rural East Greenland or in the capital city Nuuk. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and donated a blood sample for measurement of the two markers of inflammation YKL-40 and hsCRP, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, eleven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), fourteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one polybrominated biphenyl, and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) adjusted to the serum lipid content. Participants were 50 through 69 years old, living in settlements, town or city (n = 151/173/211; 95% participation rate). ΣOCP, ΣPCB and ΣPBDE serum levels were higher in Inuit than in non-Inuit (p<0.001/ p<0.001/ p<0.001), in older individuals (p<0.001/p<0.001/p = 0.002) and in participants with the highest intake of Greenlandic food items (p<0.001/p<0.001/p<0.001). Both YKL-40 and hsCRP serum levels were higher in Inuit compared to non-Inuit (p<0.001/p = 0.001), and increased with age (p<0.001/p = 0.001) and with the intake of Greenlandic food items (p<0.001/p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis conformed to a marked influence on both YKL-40 and hsCRP by ΣOCP (p<0.001/p<0.001) and ΣPCBs (p<0.001/p = 0.001) after adjusting for age, BMI, vitamin D, alcohol and smoking. POP levels were associated with the intake of the traditional Inuit diet and with markers of inflammation. This supports a pro-inflammatory role of POPs to promote chronic diseases common to populations in Greenland. These data inform guidelines on ‘the Arctic dilemma’ and encourage follow-up on the ageing Arctic

  1. Association between serum persistent organic pollutants and DNA methylation in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Eo Rin; Lim, Jung-Eun; Jee, Sun Ha

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, which can influence human health. However, the association between POPs and DNA methylation by sex was not shown in previous studies. We investigated the association between POPs and DNA methylation in men and women using a larger population. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the data of 444 Koreans (253 men and 191 women). Measurements for sixteen different POPs, including six organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were taken in serum. DNA methylation via Alu and LINE-1 in peripheral leukocytes was measured by pyrosequencing. To evaluate the association between POPs and DNA methylation, the Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Except for PCB52 and PCB101, we found significant inverse associations between p,p'-DDE, cis-Heptachlor epoxide, and PCBs and Alu assay in men after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, and alcohol consumption (β = -0.67 for p,p'-DDE; -0.28 for cis-Heptachlor epoxide; in the range from -0.43 to -1.60 for PCBs). In women, PCB153 and PCB180 showed statistically significant inverse association with Alu assay (β = -0.22 for PCB153; -0.22 for PCB180). Except for PCB101, p,p'-DDE and PCBs were positively associated with LINE-1 assay in women (β = 0.48 for p,p'-DDE; in the range from 0.40-0.89 for PCBs) while p,p'-DDE, PCB153, and PCB180 showed positive associations with LINE-1 assay in men (β = 0.55 for p,p'-DDE; 0.65 for PCB153; 1.02 for PCB180). We found that several POPs were associated with global DNA hypomethylation in the Alu assay for men and global DNA hypermethylation in the LINE-1 assay for women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. USING WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO DESTROY TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-04

    A bench-scale feasibility study on the use of a Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) process to destroy a slurry laden with tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds has been undertaken. WAO is an aqueous phase process in which soluble and/or insoluble waste constituents are oxidized using oxygen or oxygen in air at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 C and 1 MPa to 320 C and 22 MPa. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). Test results indicate WAO is a feasible process for destroying TPB, its primary daughter products [triphenylborane (3PB), diphenylborinic acid (2PB), and phenylboronic acid (1PB)], phenol, and most of the biphenyl byproduct. The required conditions are a temperature of 300 C, a reaction time of 3 hours, 1:1 feed slurry dilution with 2M NaOH solution, the addition of CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O solution (500 mg/L Cu) as catalyst, and the addition of 2000 mL/L of antifoam. However, for the destruction of TPB, its daughter compounds (3PB, 2PB, and 1PB), and phenol without consideration for biphenyl destruction, less severe conditions (280 C and 1-hour reaction time with similar remaining above conditions) are adequate.

  3. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Harley, John R.; Lieske, Camilla L.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Whiting, Alex V.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:26440545

  4. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals.

  5. Importance of Organic Matter-Uranium Biogeochemistry to Uranium Plume Persistence in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargar, J.; Janot, N.; Jones, M. E.; Bone, S. E.; Lezama-Pacheco, J.; Fendorf, S. E.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that biologically driven redox reactions, fueled by sedimentary lenses enriched in detrital organic matter, play major roles in maintaining the persistent uranium groundwater plume in the subsurface at the U.S. Department of Enery's Rifle, CO field research site. Biogeochemical cycling of C, N, Fe, and S is highly active in these organic-rich naturally reduced zones (NRZs), and uranium is present as U(IV). The speciation of these elements profoundly influences the susceptibility of uranium to be reoxidized and remobiliized and contribute to plume persistence. However, uranim speciation in particular is poorly constrained in these sytems. To better evaluate the importance of NRZs to uranium mobility and plume persistence at the Rifle site, the DOE-BER-funded SLAC SFA team has characterized vertical concentration profiles and speciation of uranium, iron, sulfur, and NOM in well bores at high spatial resolution (4 inch intervals). Up to 95% of the sedimentary uranium pool was found to be concentrated in NRZs, where it occurs dominantly as non-crystalline forms of U(IV). Uranium accumulation and the presence of the short-lived sulfide mackinawite (FeS) at NRZ-aquifer interfaces indicate that NRZs actively exchange solutes with the surrounding aquifer. Moreover, sediment textures indicate that NRZs are likely to be abundant in riparian zones throughout the upper Colorado River basin (U.S.A.), which contains most of the contaminated DOE legacy uranium ore processing sites in the U.S. These results suggest that NRZ-uranium interactions may be important to plume persistence regionally and emphasize the importance of understanding molecular-scale processes.

  6. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce II: pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip H; Muir, Derek C G

    2011-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify commercial pharmaceuticals that might be persistent and bioaccumulative (P&B) and that were not being considered in current wastewater and aquatic environmental measurement programs. We developed a database of 3193 pharmaceuticals from two U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) databases and some lists of top ranked or selling drugs. Of the 3193 pharmaceuticals, 275 pharmaceuticals have been found in the environment and 399 pharmaceuticals were, based upon production volumes, designated as high production volume (HPV) pharmaceuticals. All pharmaceuticals that had reported chemical structures were evaluated for potential bioaccumulation (B) or persistence (P) using quantitative structure property relationships (QSPR) or scientific judgment. Of the 275 drugs detected in the environment, 92 were rated as potentially bioaccumulative, 121 were rated as potentially persistent, and 99 were HPV pharmaceuticals. After removing the 275 pharmaceuticals previously detected in the environment, 58 HPV compounds were identified that were both P&B and 48 were identified as P only. Of the non-HPV compounds, 364 pharmaceuticals were identified that were P&B. This study has yielded some interesting and probable P&B pharmaceuticals that should be considered for further study.

  7. Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Chunxia; Wang, Zijian

    2005-08-01

    Sewage and industrial effluents from biological treatment plant have been widely used for agricultural irrigation in north part of China. However, effluents after biological treatment still contain heavy metals and persistent organic contaminants. The persistent organic contaminants accumulated in soil may transfer through the food chains and cause adverse health effects on human or biological effects on soil fauna and flora after long-term application. In present study, field surveys were carried out in the farmlands irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants that receive sewage wastewater and industrial discharges. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils irrigated using both ground water and effluents were compared. The origins of PAHs in the soils were discussed. The results showed that wastewater irrigation could cause accumulation of PAHs in soils close to the pollution discharge. Significantly higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the sampling sites close to the entrance of main channel in contrast to those along branches and the reference sites. There was no significant relationship between the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and organic matter content in soil (TOC). Soil contamination of these persistent organic pollutants as affected by effluent irrigation was characterized by the dominant accumulation of high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs). In the case study, concentration of benzo[a]pyrane (BaP, 45.6 ng/g), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP, 86.3 ng/g), benzo[g,h,i]perlene (BgP, 66.9 ng/g) could exceed the limits of the soil quality standard for biodegraded soils. In identification of the sources, the IcP/BgP values of PAHs in soils were more close to that in air particulates from coal/coke source (1.09+/-0.03 ng/g) [Dickhut RM, Canuel EA, Gustafson KE, Liu K, Arzayus KM, Walkers E, et al. Automotive sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  8. Effects of sampling techniques on physical parameters and concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in suspended matter.

    PubMed

    Pohlert, Thorsten; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Breitung, Vera

    2011-06-01

    This study focusses on the effect of sampling techniques for suspended matter in stream water on subsequent particle-size distribution and concentrations of total organic carbon and selected persistent organic pollutants. The key questions are whether differences between the sampling techniques are due to the separation principle of the devices or due to the difference between time-proportional versus integral sampling. Several multivariate homogeneity tests were conducted on an extensive set of field-data that covers the period from 2002 to 2007, when up to three different sampling techniques were deployed in parallel at four monitoring stations of the River Rhine. The results indicate homogeneity for polychlorinated biphenyls, but significant effects due to the sampling techniques on particle-size, organic carbon and hexachlorobenzene. The effects can be amplified depending on the site characteristics of the monitoring stations.

  9. Preliminary studies using hybrid mediated electrochemical oxidation (HMEO) for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    PubMed

    Chung, S J; Balaji, S; Matheswaran, M; Ramesh, T; Moon, I S

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the hybrid mediated electrochemical oxidation (HMEO) technology, which is a newly developed non thermal electrochemical oxidation process for organic destruction. A combination of ozone and ultrasonication processes to the mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) process is termed as hybrid mediated electrochemical oxidation. The electrochemical cell was developed in this laboratory. In the present study, several organic compounds, such as phenol, benzoquinone and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), were chosen as the model organic pollutants to be destructed by the hybrid process. The organic destruction was monitored based on the CO2 generation and total organic carbon (TOC) reduction. The HMEO process was found to be extremely effective in the destruction of all the target organics chosen in this study. The information obtained from this study will provide an insight in adopting this technique for dealing with more recalcitrant organics (POPs).

  10. Influence of the temperature gradient in blubber on the bioaccumulation of persistent lipophilic organic chemicals in seals.

    PubMed

    Czub, Gertje; McLachlan, Michael S

    2007-08-01

    Seals constitute an important link in food webs of the Arctic environment and are an important vector of persistent lipophilic organic pollutants to top predators (e.g., polar bears) and humans. Two fugacity-based, non-steady state, mechanistic lifetime models were assembled to explore the influence of the temperature gradient in the insulating blubber on the distribution and bioaccumulation of persistent lipophilic organic pollutants in seals. The behavior of a two-compartment model that distinguishes between the gastrointestinal tract and the seal itself was compared with a three-compartment model, in which a separate blubber compartment was implemented with a temperature gradient through the insulation layer. In both models, equilibrium partitioning between the animal's tissues, blood, and milk was assumed. The models were parameterized for ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and evaluated using field data for bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in this species. The two-compartment model resulted in predicted concentrations below reported field data. This was in particular the case for females, for which the elimination of the contaminants via milk was overpredicted by up to one order of magnitude. The three-compartment model with its consideration of the temperature gradient in blubber yielded predictions that were much more consistent with the field data. It also predicted a fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners between different blubber layers, as well as between blubber and blood or milk, which was in good qualitative agreement with observations reported in the literature. This work indicates that the temperature gradient in the blubber has an impact on the bioaccumulation of persistent lipophilic organic pollutants in seals and in marine mammals in general.

  11. Occurrence and Persistence of Bacterial Pathogens and Indicator Organisms in Beach Sand along the California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Yamahara, Kevan M.; Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Goodwin, Kelly D.

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the presence of fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in sand at 53 California marine beaches using both culture-dependent and -independent (PCR and quantitative PCR [QPCR]) methods. Fecal indicator bacteria were widespread in California beach sand, with Escherichia coli and enterococci detected at 68% and 94% of the beaches surveyed, respectively. Somatic coliphages and a Bacteroidales human-specific fecal marker were detected at 43% and 13% of the beaches, respectively. Dry sand samples from almost 30% of the beaches contained at least one of the following pathogens: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which were detected at 15%, 13%, 14%, and 3% of tested beaches, respectively. Fecal indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated to one another and to land cover. Sands were dry at the time of collection, and those with relatively high moisture tended to have higher concentrations or a more frequent occurrence of both indicators and pathogens. Using culture-dependent assays, fecal indicators decayed faster than pathogens in microcosm experiments using unaltered beach sand seeded with sewage and assessed by culture-dependent assays. The following order of persistence was observed (listed from most to least persistent): Campylobacter > Salmonella > somatic coliphages > enterococci > E. coli > F+ phages. In contrast, pathogens decayed faster than fecal indicators in culture-independent assays: enterococci > Bacteroidales human-specific marker > Salmonella > Campylobacter. Microcosm experiments demonstrated that both indicators and pathogens were mobilized by wetting with seawater. Decay rates measured by QPCR were lower than those measured with culture-dependent methods. Enterococcal persistence and possible growth were observed for wetted microcosms relative to unwetted controls. PMID:22247142

  12. Occurrence and persistence of bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms in beach sand along the California coast.

    PubMed

    Yamahara, Kevan M; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Goodwin, Kelly D; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-03-01

    This report documents the presence of fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in sand at 53 California marine beaches using both culture-dependent and -independent (PCR and quantitative PCR [QPCR]) methods. Fecal indicator bacteria were widespread in California beach sand, with Escherichia coli and enterococci detected at 68% and 94% of the beaches surveyed, respectively. Somatic coliphages and a Bacteroidales human-specific fecal marker were detected at 43% and 13% of the beaches, respectively. Dry sand samples from almost 30% of the beaches contained at least one of the following pathogens: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which were detected at 15%, 13%, 14%, and 3% of tested beaches, respectively. Fecal indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated to one another and to land cover. Sands were dry at the time of collection, and those with relatively high moisture tended to have higher concentrations or a more frequent occurrence of both indicators and pathogens. Using culture-dependent assays, fecal indicators decayed faster than pathogens in microcosm experiments using unaltered beach sand seeded with sewage and assessed by culture-dependent assays. The following order of persistence was observed (listed from most to least persistent): Campylobacter > Salmonella > somatic coliphages > enterococci > E. coli > F(+) phages. In contrast, pathogens decayed faster than fecal indicators in culture-independent assays: enterococci > Bacteroidales human-specific marker > Salmonella > Campylobacter. Microcosm experiments demonstrated that both indicators and pathogens were mobilized by wetting with seawater. Decay rates measured by QPCR were lower than those measured with culture-dependent methods. Enterococcal persistence and possible growth were observed for wetted microcosms relative to unwetted controls.

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FIXED SITE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures to set up, calibrate, initiate and terminate air sampling for persistent organic pollutants. This method is used to sample air, indoors and outdoors, at homes and at day care centers over a 48-hr period.

  15. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING AIR SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.13)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for extracting and preparing indoor and outdoor air samples for analysis of polar persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the preparation of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING AIR SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.13)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for extracting and preparing indoor and outdoor air samples for analysis of polar persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the preparation of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  17. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FIXED SITE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures to set up, calibrate, initiate and terminate air sampling for persistent organic pollutants. This method is used to sample air, indoors and outdoors, at homes and at day care centers over a 48-hr period.

  18. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  19. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  20. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  1. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  2. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  3. Temporal variation of persistent organic pollutant (POP) residue concentrations in sediments from the bay of Chetumal, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Noreña-Barroso, E; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V

    2007-08-01

    Bay of Chetumal is a transboundary priority area for the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Systems project, which has been studied because it is the receiving body of pollutants from a large agricultural area and the city of Chetumal. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in sediments from the Bay were assessed a few years after a mass mortality event of Mayan catfish (Ariopsis assimilis) occurred in 1996. Recent sediments were collected in the rainy season (1999) and dry season (2000); results show concentrations in general lower than those reported after the fish kill, and a change of chemical profiles in chemical pollution.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in the natural environments of the city of Bratsk (Irkutsk Oblast): Levels and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Mamontov, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    The contents of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)—in the natural environments of an industrial city (Bratsk) of Irkutsk oblast have been studied. Features of the spatial and seasonal distribution of the PCBs and OCPs in the soils and the atmospheric air have been revealed. The structure of the homological and congeneric composition of the PCBs in the soils and the atmospheric air has been shown. Parameters of the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks for human health from the impact of the PCBs and OCPs present in the soils and the atmospheric air have been determined.

  5. Serum concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of pregnant females and changes in their concentrations during gestation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard Y; Jain, Ram B; Wolkin, Amy F; Rubin, Carol H; Needham, Larry L

    2009-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females residing in the United States and assessed differences in these concentrations in all pregnant females during gestation. We reviewed demographic and laboratory data for pregnant females participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including concentrations of 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 9 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 9 organochlorine pesticides. We report serum concentrations for first-time pregnant females (2001-2002; n = 49) and evaluate these concentrations in all pregnant females by trimester (1999-2002; n = 203) using a cross-sectional analysis. The chemicals with >or= 60% detection included PCBs (congeners 126, 138/158, 153, 180), PCDDs/PCDFs [1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1234678HpCDD), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (123678HxCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran (1234678HpCDF), 1,1'-(2,2-dichloroethenylidene)-bis(4-chlorobenzene) (p,p'-DDE)], and trans-nonachlor. The geometric mean concentration (95% confidence intervals) for 1234678HpCDD was 15.9 pg/g lipid (5.0-50.6 pg/g); for 123678HxCDD, 9.7 pg/g (5.5-17.1 pg/g); and for 1234678HpCDF, 5.4 pg/g (3.3-8.7 pg/g). The differences in concentrations of these chemicals by trimester were better accounted for with the use of lipid-adjusted units than with whole-weight units; however, the increase in the third-trimester concentration was greater for PCDDs/PCDFs (123678HxCDD, 1234678HpCDF) than for the highest concentration of indicator PCBs (138/158, 153, 180), even after adjusting for potential confounders. The concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females living in the United States suggest a decline in exposures to these chemicals since their ban or restricted use and emission. The redistribution of body burden for

  6. Revisiting the concept of recalcitrance and organic matter persistence in soils and aquatic systems: Does environment trump chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2014-12-01

    Most ecological models of decomposition rely on plant litter chemistry. However, growing evidence suggests that the chemical composition of organic matter (OM) is not a good predictor of its eventual fate in terrestrial or aquatic environments. New data on variable decomposition rates of select organic compounds challenge concepts of chemical recalcitrance, i.e. the inherent ability of certain molecular structures to resist biodegradation. The role of environmental or "ecosystem" properties on influencing decomposition dates back to some of the earliest research on soil OM. Despite early recognition that the physical and aqueous matrices are critical in determining the fate of organic compounds, the prevailing paradigm hinges on intrinsic chemical properties as principal predictors of decay rate. Here I build upon recent reviews and discuss new findings that contribute to three major transformations in our understanding of OM persistence: (1) a shift away from an emphasis on chemical recalcitrance as a primary predictor of turnover, (2) new interpretations of radiocarbon ages which challenge predictions of reactivity, and (3) the recognition that most detrital OM accumulating in soils and in water has been microbially processed. Predictions of OM persistence due to aromaticity are challenged by high variability in lignin and black C turnover observed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Contradictions in the behavior of lignin are, in part, influenced by inconsistent methodologies among research communities. Even black C, long considered to be one of the most recalcitrant components of OM, is susceptible to biodegradation, challenging predictions of the stability of aromatic structures. At the same time, revised interpretations of radiocarbon data suggest that organic compounds can acquire long mean residence times by various mechanisms independent of their molecular structure. Understanding interactions between environmental conditions and biological

  7. Molecular and microscopic insights into the persistence of soil organic matter in a red pine rhizosphere

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbially-derived carbon inputs to soils play an important role in stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM), but detailed knowledge of basic mechanisms of carbon (C) cycling, such as stabilization of organic C compounds originating from rhizodeposition, is lacking. This study aimed to investigat...

  8. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  9. Chemical, biological, and ecotoxicological assessment of pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the Bahlui River, Romania.

    PubMed

    Neamtu, Mariana; Ciumasu, Ioan M; Costica, Naela; Costica, Mihai; Bobu, Magda; Nicoara, Mircea N; Catrinescu, Cezar; van Slooten, Kristin Becker; De Alencastro, Luiz F

    2009-08-01

    Current knowledge on environmental impacts of industrial activities in Romania, particularly persistent organic pollutants (POPs), indicates that environmental standards of the European Union are not systematically met. In our study area, additional sources of POPs are agriculture and domestic wastes. Very scarce information is available upon environmental contaminations and effects. In the present study, we investigated the chemical pollution and their eventual impact on the ecosystem by measuring POPs and by using biological indicators of pollution. The survey was carried out at six main sample sites along the Bahlui River. Sediments were chemically analysed for their content in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) isomers and the dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) family. River water was biologically monitored at the level of phytoplankton and benthic invertebrates' communities. Water samples from six locations have been analyzed for algal species composition and correspondence to various water quality indices. Biological samples have been taken from the same locations so as to calculate the macroinvertebrate indices. In the most polluted areas, as revealed by previous methods, toxicity was tested by exposing the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the cladoceran Daphnia magna to various dilutions of water sample. Important concentrations of POPs were identified only in sediments at river mouths (sites S5 and S6). Along the year, the sum of PCB concentrations ranged between 3 and 10 ng/g dw (S5), and between 4 and 26 ng/g dw (S6). Concentration of HCHs ranged between 0.4 and 3 ng/g dw (both S5 and S6) with a higher contribution of the gamma-HCH (30-70%), followed by beta-HCH (20-50%). The beta-HCH isomer was found at lower concentrations or even not detected in outer city sites. DDTs were found at higher concentrations than HCHs and ranged

  10. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H

    2011-02-01

    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A review of environmental and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wei, Yan-Li; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-10-01

    Rapid economic growth in South China (including Guangdong Province, Hong Kong, and Macau), particularly within the Pearl River Delta region, has resulted in severe pollution of the natural eco-environment in the last three decades. Large amounts of monitoring data on organic pollution in the Pearl River Delta have been accumulated, which allows us to conduct a fairly comprehensive assessment of the state of the Pearl River Delta and elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution on a regional scale. Of various causes for environmental deterioration, negative impact from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a global concern. This review examines the current levels and distribution patterns of several POPs, namely DDT (and its metabolites DDD and DDE), hexachlorocyclohexanes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in various environmental compartments of South China. The general information on environmental occurrence, regional behaviors, ecological effects, and human exposure of these POPs in this region are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-12-01

    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C(11)-C(15) PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. ΣTEQ was comprised mainly of ΣTEQ(PCDF). Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds.

  13. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the United...

  14. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the United...

  15. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Request for Examination of Mutilated Currency for Possible Redemption § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of...

  16. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will be granted on account of lawfully held paper currency of the United...

  17. 31 CFR 100.6 - Destroyed paper currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destroyed paper currency. 100.6 Section 100.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.6 Destroyed paper currency. No relief will...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated persistent organic pollutants in canned fish and seafood products: smoked versus non-smoked products.

    PubMed

    Drabova, Lucie; Pulkrabova, Jana; Kalachova, Kamila; Tomaniova, Monika; Kocourek, Vladimir; Hajslova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, levels of several groups of environmental contaminants represented by PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were determined in various types of canned smoked and non-smoked fish and seafood products (54 samples) obtained from the Czech market. PAHs were detected in all of the studied samples, and at least one of the target halogenated persistent organic pollutants was present above the LOQ in 85% of the samples. The levels of PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDTs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers found in the canned products varied in the range of 1.4-116 µg kg(-1), 0.6-59.6 µg kg(-1), 0.6-82.7 µg kg(-1) and 0.1-2.1 µg kg(-1) can content, respectively. Smoked sprats were the most contaminated fish product (n = 12) in which the highest levels of both PAHs and persistent organic pollutants were found. In 67% of the samples of smoked sprats in oil, the level of benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the maximum level of 5 µg kg(-1) established for smoked fish by European Union legislation. The distribution of target analytes between oil and fish fractions was also assessed. Significantly higher levels of PAHs were measured in the oil fraction.

  19. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Raymond F.; Anderson, Henry A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Blystone, Chad; DeVito, Michael; Jacobs, David; Köhrle, Josef; Lee, Duk-Hee; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Turyk, Mary E.; Boyles, Abee L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lind, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as perfluoroalkyl acids and brominated compounds, and type 2 diabetes. Experimental data are needed to confirm the causality of these POPs, which will shed new light on the pathogenesis of diabetes. This new information should be considered by governmental bodies involved in the regulation of environmental contaminants. PMID:23651634

  20. The design of an environmentally relevant mixture of persistent organic pollutants for use in in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Berg, Vidar; Thomsen, Cathrine; Ropstad, Erik; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth

    2017-08-30

    Amongst the substances listed as persistent organic pollutants (POP) under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (SCPOP) are chlorinated, brominated, and fluorinated compounds. Most experimental studies investigating effects of POP employ single compounds. Studies focusing on effects of POP mixtures are limited, and often conducted using extracts from collected specimens. Confounding effects of unmeasured substances in such extracts may bias the estimates of presumed causal relationships being examined. The aim of this investigation was to design a model of an environmentally relevant mixture of POP for use in experimental studies, containing 29 different chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds. POP listed under the SCPOP and reported to occur at the highest levels in Scandinavian food, blood, or breast milk prior to 2012 were selected, and two different mixtures representing varying exposure scenarios constructed. The in vivo mixture contained POP concentrations based upon human estimated daily intakes (EDIs), whereas the in vitro mixture was based upon levels in human blood. In addition to total in vitro mixture, 6 submixtures containing the same concentration of chlorinated + brominated, chlorinated + perfluorinated, brominated + perfluorinated, or chlorinated, brominated or perfluorinated compounds only were constructed. Using submixtures enables investigating the effect of adding or removing one or more chemical groups. Concentrations of compounds included in feed and in vitro mixtures were verified by chemical analysis. It is suggested that this method may be utilized to construct realistic mixtures of environmental contaminants for toxicity studies based upon the relative levels of POP to which individuals are exposed.

  1. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

    2014-01-15

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  2. Persistence of spiromesifen in soil: influence of moisture, light, pH and organic amendment.

    PubMed

    Mate, Ch Jamkhokai; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Shaon Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Persistence of spiromesifen in soil as affected by varying moisture, light, compost amendment, soil sterilization and pH in aqueous medium were studied. Degradation of spiromesifen in soil followed the first-order reaction kinetics. Effect of different moisture regimes indicated that spiromesifen dissipated faster in submerged soil (t 1/2 14.3-16.7 days) followed by field capacity (t 1/2 18.7-20.0 days), and dry soil (t 1/2 21.9-22.9 days). Dissipation was faster in sterilized submerged (t 1/2 17.7 days) than in sterilized dry (t 1/2 35.8 days). Photo spiromesifen metabolite was not detected under different moisture regimes. After 30 days, enol spiromesifen metabolite was detected under submerged condition and was below detectable limit (<0.001 μg g(-1)) after 90 days. Soil amendment compost (2.5 %) at field capacity enhanced dissipation of the insecticide, and half-life value was 14.3 against 22.4 days without compost amendment. Under different pH condition, residues persisted in water with half-life values 5.7 to 12.5 days. Dissipation in water was faster at pH 9.0 (t 1/2 5.7 days), followed by pH 4.0 (t 1/2 9.7 days) and pH 7.2 (t 1/2 12.5 days). Exposure of spiromesifen to different light conditions indicated that it was more prone to degradation under UV light (t 1/2 3-4 days) than sunlight exposure (t 1/2 5.2-8.1 days). Under sunlight exposure, photo spiromesifen metabolite was detected after 10 and 15 days as compared to 3 and 5 days under UV light exposure.

  3. Applications of Nano Reactive Materials in Remediation of Persistence Organic Pollutants in Sediments and Groundwater - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of sediments and water contaminated hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. PCBs-contaminated sediments are ubiquitous despite the production and use of PCBs was banned in 1979 due to...

  4. Applications of Nano Reactive Materials in Remediation of Persistence Organic Pollutants in Sediments and Groundwater - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of sediments and water contaminated hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. PCBs-contaminated sediments are ubiquitous despite the production and use of PCBs was banned in 1979 due to...

  5. Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, J. C.; Frias, J. G. L.; Micaelo, A. C.; Sobral, P.

    2013-09-01

    The occurrence of stranded plastic marine debris along the Portuguese coastline was investigated. Number of items m-2 and size range of resin pellets were recorded, corresponding to 53% of total marine debris collected items. In addition, concentrations of adsorbed persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTC) were determined, PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PCB - polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Matosinhos (Mt) and Vieira de Leiria (VL) presented the highest number of items m-2 (362 and 332, respectively). Resin pellets with 4 mm diameter were the most abundant (50%). Contaminants concentration was variable. PAH concentrations recorded values between 53 and 44800 ng g-1, PCB ranged from 2 to 223 ng g-1 and DDT between 0.42 and 41 ng g-1. In general, aged and black pellets recorded higher concentrations for all contaminants. Matosinhos (Mt), Vieira de Leiria (VL) and Sines (Si), near industrial areas and port facilities, were the most contaminated beaches. Research efforts are needed to assess the points of entry of industrial plastic pellets in order to take action and minimize impacts on the ecosystems, in particular, points of transfer during transportation from plastic manufacturers to plastic converters should be identified and controlled so that virgin pellets are contained and will not enter rivers and be carried to the oceans where they can remain for a long time and travel great distances.

  6. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants: a comparison of different time series models.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Hung, Hayley; Tych, Włodzimierz; Hites, Ronald A

    2012-04-03

    We analyzed the vapor phase atmospheric concentrations of representative persistent chemicals (i.e., α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, phenanthrene, PCB-18 and PCB-52) in samples collected at a remote site near Eagle Harbor, Michigan, and at an urban site in Chicago, Illinois, using four time series models: a modified Clausius-Clapeyron equation, a multiple linear regression that includes both a linear and an harmonic dependence on time, digital filtration (DF), and dynamic harmonic regression (DHR). The results of these different models were evaluated in terms of goodness-of-fit, long-term trends, and halving times. The four approaches all provided highly significant descriptions of the data, with coefficients of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.33 to 0.96. In general, the DF and DHR methods fit the data better, capturing not only the seasonal variations of the atmospheric concentrations but also smaller scale interannual variations in the long term trends. The halving times calculated using the four methods were generally similar to one another, and they ranged from about 4 years for γ-HCH at Chicago to about 60 years for PCB-52 at Chicago. This analysis showed that each of these four statistical methods for evaluating long-term time series has advantages and disadvantages. The choice of the appropriate method should depend on the output needed, the type of audience, and the availability and usability of the necessary software.

  7. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from Portugal versus European incidence: A critical overview.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread compounds, such as organohalogenated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, which can be found in all types of environmental compartments. Their presence in the aquatic environment is a worldwide problem, with emphasis on sediments which act as depository and consequently as a source of hydrophobic, recalcitrant and harmful compounds. Besides, these pollutants might affect the reproduction and mortality of living organisms, diverging in their potential to bioaccumulate in tissues. The present paper aims to review the occurrence of POPs in sediments and biota from the coastal, estuarine and river areas of Portugal. The list of the studied compounds comprises organohalogenated compounds, PAHs, organometallic compounds, pesticides, sterols, fatty acids and pharmaceutical compounds. The contamination of sediments by various pollutants is presented, such as PAHs up to 7,350 ng g(-1) found in Sado estuary and polychlorinated biphenyls up to 62.2 ng g(-1) in the case of sediments collected in Ria de Aveiro. The occurrence of these persistent toxic substances in sediments demonstrates aquatic contamination from agricultural, industrial and urban discharges and the concern about the potential risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife and humans. In fact, several classes of POPs have also been found in biota, such as polychlorinated biphenyls up to 810.9 ng g(-1) in sentinel fish from the Douro River estuary and pesticides in bivalves from the Sado River estuary. The importance of further systematic research on sediments and biota is here highlighted to compare the contamination of these two reservoirs; to assess their spatial and temporal variation; and to determine other classes of POPs that were not investigated yet (e.g., industrial compounds, estrogens and many classes of pharmaceuticals).

  8. Persistence of Soil Organic Carbon can be Explained as an Emergent Property of Microbial Ecology and Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, D.; Lehmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The exchange of carbon between soils and the atmosphere represents an important uncertainty in climate predictions. Current Earth system models apply soil organic matter (SOM) models based on independent carbon pools with 1st order decomposition dynamics. It has been widely argued over the last decade that such models do not accurately describe soil processes and mechanisms. For example, the long term persistence of soil organic carbon (SOC) is only adequately described by such models by the post hoc assumption of passive or inert carbon pools. Further, such 1st order models also fail to account for microbially-mediated dynamics such as priming interactions. These shortcomings may limit their applicability to long term predictions under conditions of global environmental change. In addition to incorporating recent conceptual advances in the mechanisms of SOM decomposition and protection, next-generation SOM models intended for use in Earth system models need to meet further quality criteria. Namely, that they should (a) accurately describe historical data from long term trials and the current global distribution of soil organic carbon, (b) be computationally efficient for large number of iterations involved in climate modeling, and (c) have sufficiently simple parameterization that they can be run on spatially-explicit data available at global scale under varying conditions of global change over long time scales. Here we show that linking fundamental ecological principles and microbial population dynamics to SOC turnover rates results in a dynamic model that meets all of these quality criteria. This approach simultaneously eliminates the need to postulate biogeochemically-implausible passive or inert pools, instead showing how SOM persistence emerges from ecological principles, while also reproducing observed priming interactions.

  9. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    PubMed

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  10. Biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in Great Slave Lake food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.S.; Muir, D.; Lockhart, L.

    1994-12-31

    Great Slave Lake is a large, subarctic lake which receives the majority of its water from the Slave, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers watershed. Increased development in the southern region of the watershed may provide a significant source of organic contaminants to the lake in addition to contaminants entering the lake via direct atmospheric deposition. Here the authors report the results of a study comparing organic contaminant concentrations in lake trout, burbot, and whitefish collected near the Slave River outflow and in a region of Great Slave Lake which is believed to be minimally affected by the Slave River. They also use stable isotope analyses to infer spatial differences in fish feeding habits between the two regions of the lake and to investigate how food habits may affect organic contaminant biomagnification. Finally, the authors compare their Great Slave Lake data with studies conducted from other regions of the Arctic and subarctic. This allows them to infer how the Slave River inflow may affect organic contaminant concentrations and biomagnification in the Great Slave Lake ecosystem.

  11. Optimal cost for strengthening or destroying a given network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patron, Amikam; Cohen, Reuven; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening or destroying a network is a very important issue in designing resilient networks or in planning attacks against networks, including planning strategies to immunize a network against diseases, viruses, etc. Here we develop a method for strengthening or destroying a random network with a minimum cost. We assume a correlation between the cost required to strengthen or destroy a node and the degree of the node. Accordingly, we define a cost function c (k ) , which is the cost of strengthening or destroying a node with degree k . Using the degrees k in a network and the cost function c (k ) , we develop a method for defining a list of priorities of degrees and for choosing the right group of degrees to be strengthened or destroyed that minimizes the total price of strengthening or destroying the entire network. We find that the list of priorities of degrees is universal and independent of the network's degree distribution, for all kinds of random networks. The list of priorities is the same for both strengthening a network and for destroying a network with minimum cost. However, in spite of this similarity, there is a difference between their pc, the critical fraction of nodes that has to be functional to guarantee the existence of a giant component in the network.

  12. Gas-particle partitioning of persistent organic pollutants in the Western Balkan countries affected by war conflicts.

    PubMed

    Radonic, Jelena; Sekulic, Maja Turk; Miloradov, Mirjana Vojinovic; Cupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Bombing and destruction of the industrial and military targets accompanied by complete or incomplete combustion during the war conflict and NATO operation in former Yugoslavia caused the emission of persistent organic pollutants into the atmosphere, water, and soil. A total of 129 ambient air samples from 24 background, urban, and industrial sites, including hot spots, were collected to assess a gas-particle partitioning behavior of various persistent organic pollutants. High volume sampling technique was applied with quartz filters that collect the atmospheric particles and polyurethane foam filters (PUF) that retain the gaseous compounds. Three to ten samples were taken at each site. GFs and PUFs were analyzed separately for their content of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Gas phase and particle phase concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all samples were converted into the particle-bound fractions Phi. These fractions were found to be highly variable, but generally highest in Bosnia and Herzegovina due to the elevated levels of total suspended material in ambient air. Experimental values of particle-associated fraction were compared to the Junge-Pankow model. Interestingly, a model for urban/industrial environments provided a better prediction of partitioning behavior than a model for background and rural background sites. That is probably because the total amount of atmospheric particles is higher in the Balkan region than found in the previously published studies. Even though it has been stated in previous studies that less than 5% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are bound to the particles, up to 67% of PCBs were particle associated at several sampling sites in this study. PCB-contaminated soils are probably still one of the strong sources of particles to the atmosphere. Information on the particle-bound fractions of POPs is important not only for prediction of their fate but

  13. First evidence of persistent organic contaminants as potential anthropogenic stressors in the Barndoor Skate Dipturus laevis.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2017-01-16

    Although exploited populations of elasmobranchs may be able to recover from fishing pressure, there is little information regarding the Barndoor Skate's ability to cope with other anthropogenic stressors such as organic contaminants (OCs). Legacy OCs were measured in liver, muscle and ova from fourteen Barndoor Skates with mature skates having significantly greater mean concentrations of OCs than immature skates, demonstrating bioaccumulation with age. Using Toxic Equivalency Factors, skates were found to have levels of PCBs that have been shown to elicit negative physiological responses in other fishes and these results highlight the need for future studies to investigate the potential impacts that bioaccumulated organic contaminants have on the recovery and conservation of this vulnerable species.

  14. Theoretical molecular descriptors relevant to the uptake of persistent organic pollutants from soil by zucchini. A QSAR study.

    PubMed

    Bordás, Barna; Bélai, Iván; Koomíves, Tamás

    2011-04-13

    The uptake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil by plants allows the development of phytoremediation protocols to rehabilitate contaminated areas. The use of diverse theoretical descriptors has been reported in the literature for developing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of POPs in different plants. In this paper an evaluation is given on the molecular properties of POPs in terms of theoretical molecular descriptors that are relevant to the uptake and accumulation of these persistent pollutants from soil by two zucchini varieties. Statistically significant and predictive linear regression models have been developed for the BCF values of 20 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and 14 polyhalogenated biphenyls in two zucchini varieties based on retrospective data. The relevant parameters have been selected from a set of 1660 DRAGON, 150 VolSurf, and 11 quantum chemical descriptors. The two most significant regression models, containing VolSurf, DRAGON GETAWAY, and quantum chemical descriptors, displayed the following statistical parameters: (eq 3) n = 27, R(2) = 0.940, q(2) = 0.922, SE = 0.155, F = 392.1; (eq 4) n = 27, R(2) = 0.921, q(2) = 0.898, SE = 0.161, F = 140.4. Predictive capabilities of the equations have been validated by using external validation sets. The QSAR models proposed might contribute to the development of viable soil remediation strategies.

  15. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to and from the Arctic under present-day and future climate.

    PubMed

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard; Graf, Hans F

    2015-03-17

    The long-term atmospheric cycling and fate of persistent organic pollutants under the influence of a changing climate is a concern. A GCM's realization of present-day (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate, the latter under a medium scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, is used to study meridional transports and their correlations with the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations (AO and NAO). Regions of import and export maxima into the Arctic are identified along the Arctic Circle. It is found that, under future climate conditions, the net export of PCB153 out of the Arctic will increase. The meridional net flux pattern of this substance is expected to become independent of AO and NAO. For DDT, a trend of decreasing net Arctic import will reverse to an increasing trend 100 years after peak emission, which is partly due to more frequent AO and NAO positive phases. It is concluded that the long-term accumulation trends in the Arctic of other persistent pollutants, including so-called emerging pollutants, are subject to the substances' specific behavior and fate in the environment and need to be studied specifically.

  16. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  17. Seasonal persistence of faecal indicator organisms in soil following dairy slurry application to land by surface broadcasting and shallow injection.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Christopher J; Oliver, David M; Fish, Robert D; Bulmer, Nicholas M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Winter, Michael; Chadwick, David R

    2016-12-01

    Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two slurry application methods (surface broadcast versus shallow injection) on the survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) delivered via dairy slurry to replicated grassland plots across contrasting seasons. A significant increase in FIO persistence (measured by the half-life of E. coli and intestinal enterococci) was observed when slurry was applied to grassland via shallow injection, and FIO decay rates were significantly higher for FIOs applied to grassland in spring relative to summer and autumn. Significant differences in the behaviour of E. coli and intestinal enterococci over time were also observed, with E. coli half-lives influenced more strongly by season of application relative to the intestinal enterococci population. While shallow injection of slurry can reduce agricultural GHG emissions to air it can also prolong the persistence of FIOs in soil, potentially increasing the risk of their subsequent transfer to water. Awareness of (and evidence for) the potential for 'pollution-swapping' is critical in order to guard against unintended environmental impacts of agricultural management decisions.

  18. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants - development of a 3-d dynamical transport model covering the northern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Geels, C.; Frohn, L. M.; Brandt, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur, lead, and mercury to the Arctic. The model has been validated carefully for these compounds. A new version of DEHM is currently being developed to describe the atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are toxic, lipophilic and bio-accumulating compounds showing great persistence in the environment. The model has a horizontal resolution of 150 km x 150 km and 18 vertical layers, and it is driven by meteorological data from the numerical weather prediction model MM5V2. During environmental cycling POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The present model version describes the atmospheric transport of the pesticide alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH). Other POPs may be included when proper data on emissions and physical-chemical parameters becomes available. The model-processes and the first model results are presented. The atmospheric transport of alpha-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model.

  19. Unexplained gonad alterations in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland: levels of persistent organic pollutants in different morphs.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Naef, Michael; Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin; Zennegg, Markus; Bernet, Daniel; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, a surprisingly high number of macroscopical gonad alterations has been reported in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland. This unique phenomenon is still unexplained and has received much public attention. As one possible trigger for these effects, the presence of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds acting as endocrine disruptors in the lake has been discussed. In this study, concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants were examined in two morphs of whitefish from Lake Thun and their link to the observed abnormalities was investigated. Analyzed compound classes included polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes. The target substances were identified in all samples and concentrations of the analyzed compounds were highly correlated among each other. These correlations show that the analyzed substances have the same distribution pattern throughout the lake and that uptake, accumulation and elimination processes are similar. Significant differences in contaminant levels within the samples existed between the two analyzed morphs of whitefish, most likely due to different age, food patterns and growth rate. No difference in contaminant levels was observed between fish with abnormal gonads and fish with normal gonads, suggesting no causal link between the investigated lipophilic organohalogen compounds present in fish and the observed gonad abnormalities in whitefish from Lake Thun. A comparison to existing data shows that concentrations in Lake Thun whitefish are at the lower bound of contaminant levels in whitefish from Swiss lakes or from European waters.

  20. Fluctuating wing asymmetry and hepatic concentrations of persistent organic pollutants are associated in European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) chicks.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Aarnes, Jon Birger; Murvoll, Kari-Mette; Herzke, Dorte; Nygård, Torgeir

    2010-01-01

    In aquatic birds, high body burdens of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with developmental effects related to growth, increased fluctuating wing asymmetry, and disruption of the thyroid hormone, vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (tocopherol) homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to examine if morphological variables (body mass, liver mass, wing length, tarsus length and head length), fluctuating asymmetry of the wings and tarsus, growth rates and endocrine variables (thyroid hormones, retinol and tocopherol) were associated with hepatic levels of POPs (PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs) in 21 day old chicks of European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis showed that fluctuating asymmetry of wing bone length (FA(WBL)) was affected by PCB-105, -118, -138, -153, and -180 (r(2)x=0.88, r(2)y=0.35, q(2)=0.29). Bivariate correlation confirmed significant positive relationships between FA(WBL) and each of these PCB congeners. In the PLS model no other biological variables were significantly affected by any of the POPs. Levels of POPs were much lower in the shag chicks than in eggs and in hatchlings from the same breeding colony, most likely due to growth dilution of the compounds. We suggest that the effects of the PCBs on FA(WBL) may be due to effects of these compounds on bone growth and bone structure. FA(WBL) may have functional effects on the fitness if it persists after fledging.

  1. Stationary phase gene expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis following a progressive nutrient depletion: a model for persistent organisms?,

    PubMed Central

    Hampshire, Tobias; Soneji, Shamit; Bacon, Joanna; James, Brian W.; Hinds, Jason; Laing, Ken; Stabler, Richard A; Marsh, Philip D.; Butcher, Philip D

    2011-01-01

    Summary The majority of individuals infected with TB develop a latent infection, in which organisms survive within the body while evading the host immune system. Such persistent bacilli are capable of surviving several months of combinatorial antibiotic treatment. Evidence suggests that stationary phase bacteria adapt to increase their tolerance to environmental stresses. We have developed a unique in vitro model of dormancy based on the characterization of a single, large volume fermenter culture of M. tuberculosis, as it adapts to stationary phase. Cells are maintained in controlled and defined aerobic conditions (50% dissolved oxygen tension), using probes that measure dissolved oxygen tension, temperature, and pH. Microarray analysis has been used in conjunction with viability and nutrient depletion assays to dissect differential gene expression. Following exponential phase growth the gradual depletion of glucose/glycerol resulted in a small population of survivors that were characterized for periods in excess of 100 days. Bacilli adapting to nutrient depletion displayed characteristics associated with persistence in vivo, including entry into a non-replicative state and the up-regulation of genes involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids and virulence. A reduced population of non-replicating bacilli went on to adapt sufficiently to re-initiate cellular division. PMID:15207492

  2. Applications of biofilms in bioremediation and biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals/personal care products, and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah J; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2013-12-01

    In this review, the strategies being employed to exploit the inherent durability of biofilms and the diverse nutrient cycling of the microbiome for bioremediation are explored. Focus will be given to halogenated compounds, hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products as well as some heavy metals and toxic minerals, as these groups represent the majority of priority pollutants. For decades, industrial processes have been creating waste all around the world, resulting in contaminated sediments and subsequent, far-reaching dispersal into aquatic environments. As persistent pollutants have accumulated and are still being created and disposed, the incentive to find suitable and more efficient solutions to effectively detoxify the environment is even greater. Indigenous bacterial communities are capable of metabolizing persistent organic pollutants and oxidizing heavy metal contaminants. However, their low abundance and activity in the environment, difficulties accessing the contaminant or nutrient limitations in the environment all prevent the processes from occurring as quickly as desired and thus reaching the proposed clean-up goals. Biofilm communities provide among other things a beneficial structure, possibility for nutrient, and genetic exchange to participating microorganisms as well as protection from the surrounding environment concerning for instance predation and chemical and shear stresses. Biofilms can also be utilized in other ways as biomarkers for monitoring of stream water quality from for instance mine drainage. The durability and structure of biofilms together with the diverse array of structural and metabolic characteristics make these communities attractive actors in biofilm-mediated remediation solutions and ecosystem monitoring.

  3. Ocean metabolism and dissolved organic matter: How do small dissolved molecules persist in the ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Ronald

    2010-05-01

    The ocean reservoir of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is among the largest global reservoirs (~700 Pg C) of reactive organic carbon. Marine primary production (~50 Pg C/yr) by photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria is the major source of organic matter to the ocean and the principal substrate supporting marine food webs. The direct release of DOM from phytoplankton and other organisms as well as a variety of other processes, such as predation and viral lysis, contribute to the ocean DOM reservoir. Continental runoff and atmospheric deposition are relatively minor sources of DOM to the ocean, but some components of this material appear to be resistant to decomposition and to have a long residence time in the ocean. Concentrations of DOM are highest in surface waters and decrease with depth, a pattern that reflects the sources and diagenesis of DOM in the upper ocean. Most (70-80%) marine DOM exists as small molecules of low molecular weight (<1 kDalton). Surprisingly, high-molecular-weight (>1 kDalton) DOM is relatively enriched in major biochemicals, such as combined neutral sugars and amino acids, and is more bioavailable than low-molecular-weight DOM. The observed relationships among the size, composition, and reactivity of DOM have led to the size-reactivity continuum model, which postulates that diagenetic processes lead to the production of smaller molecules that are structurally altered and resistant to microbial degradation. The radiocarbon content of these small dissolved molecules also indicates these are the most highly aged components of DOM. Chemical signatures of bacteria are abundant in DOM and increase during diagenesis, indicating bacteria are an important source of slowly cycling biochemicals. Recent analyses of DOM isolates by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry have revealed an incredibly diverse mixture of molecules. Carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules are abundant in DOM, and they appear to be derived from diagenetically

  4. Assessment of soil organic matter persistence under different land uses applying a physical fractionation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetta, Beatrice; Plaza, César; López-de-Sá, Esther G.; Vischetti, Costantino; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the build-up of soil organic matter (SOM) pools with long residence time is tightly linked to the comprehension of C dynamics. Organo-mineral associations are known to be strongly correlated with the accumulation of selective preserved C forms. Adsorption to minerals, as well as occlusion within aggregates, may affect SOM protection in different ways depending on its molecular structure and pedo-climatic conditions. In this research, we investigated changes in quantity and quality of SOM pools characterized by different protection mechanisms in coniferous and broadleaved forest soils, grassland soils, technosols and an agricultural soil with different organic amendments, in order to evaluate the influence of both land use and organic matter nature on physical and/or chemical stabilization of SOM. In particular, free (FR), intra-macroaggregate (MA), intra-microaggregate (MI), and mineral-associated (Min) fractions were separated in order to define physical and chemical mechanisms responsible for the SOM protection against degradation. All these SOM fractions were analyzed for organic C and total N concentration, and their stability assessed by thermogravimetric analysis (TD-TGA). Preliminary data show that, for all land uses, most of the organic C (40-60%) is found in the Min pool, followed by FR (20-40%)>MI MA. With the only exception of the FR, no significant correlations were found between the C/N ratio and a thermal stability index (H550-400/400-250) of each fraction; at the same time, a highly significant and positive correlation was found between these two parameters in all fractions isolated from agricultural soils. In particular, the thermal stability index measured in all Min fractions may be related to the more marked presence of labile compounds in this pool relative to recalcitrant compounds. Conversely, FR OM could not always represent a fresh and readily decomposable fraction.Furthermore, OM associated

  5. Contribution of atmospheric emissions to the contamination of leaf vegetables by persistent organic pollutants (POPs): Application to Southeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéguiner, Solen; Musson Genon, Luc; Roustan, Yelva; Ciffroy, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    A modeling approach has been developed to estimate the contribution of atmospheric emissions to the contamination of leaf vegetables by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). It combines an Eulerian chemical transport model for atmospheric processes (Polair3D/Polyphemus) with a fate and transport model for soil and vegetation (Ourson). These two models were specifically adapted for POPs. Results are presented for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). As expected no accumulation of BaP in leaf vegetables appears during the growth period for each harvest over the 10 years simulated. For BaP and leaf vegetables, this contamination depends primarily on direct atmospheric deposition without chemical transfer from the soil to the plant. These modeling results are compared to available data.

  6. Association of dioxin and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes: epidemiological evidence and new mechanisms of beta cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    De Tata, Vincenzo

    2014-05-05

    The worldwide explosion of the rates of diabetes and other metabolic diseases in the last few decades cannot be fully explained only by changes in the prevalence of classical lifestyle-related risk factors, such as physical inactivity and poor diet. For this reason, it has been recently proposed that other "nontraditional" risk factors could contribute to the diabetes epidemics. In particular, an increasing number of reports indicate that chronic exposure to and accumulation of a low concentration of environmental pollutants (especially the so-called persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) within the body might be associated with diabetogenesis. In this review, the epidemiological evidence suggesting a relationship between dioxin and other POPs exposure and diabetes incidence will be summarized, and some recent developments on the possible underlying mechanisms, with particular reference to dioxin, will be presented and discussed.

  7. Temporal and spatial changes in persistent organic pollutants in Vietnamese coastal waters detected from plastic resin pellets.

    PubMed

    Le, Dung Quang; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hosoda, Junki; Tuyet, Dao Anh

    2016-08-15

    Plastic resin pellets collected at Minh Chau island and Ba Lat estuary between 2007 and 2014 in Vietnam were analyzed for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The study was carried out as part of the International Pellet Watch program for monitoring the global distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Higher levels of DDTs compared to PCBs indicated agricultural inputs rather than industrial discharges in the region. Most POP concentrations on both beaches decreased over the period, with the exception of HCH isomers. Though the concentration of DDTs showed a drastic decline on both beaches between 2007/2008 and 2014, DDTs accounted for 60-80% of total DDTs, suggesting that there is still a fresh input of these chemicals in the region. This study strongly recommends further investigations to track temporal and spatial patterns of POP levels in the marine environment using plastic resin pellets.

  8. Long-term decreases in persistent organic pollutants in South African coastal waters detected from beached polyethylene pellets.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; Bouwman, Hindrik; Moloney, Coleen L; Yuyama, Masaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-12-01

    Polyethylene pellets provide a convenient means to monitor Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in marine systems. Pellets collected between 1984 and 2008 at three South African beaches were analysed for PCB, HCH and DDT. Concentrations of all three POPs decreased over the last two decades, although this signal was less clear for PCBs, and further monitoring is needed to assess trends in this family of compounds. DDT concentrations at two sites were higher than previous records for southern Africa, but there is no evidence of a link to the ongoing use of DDT for malaria control. HCHs concentrations were lower than in pellets from the east coast of southern Africa, suggesting that this pesticide was mainly used in the eastern part of the region. Our study demonstrates the potential for International Pellet Watch to track temporal as well as geographical patterns in the abundance of POPs in marine environments.

  9. Application of Focused Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction to the Determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Soil Samples.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Medellín-Garibay, S E; Castillo, C G; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, C A; Zuki-Orozco, B A; Batres-Esquivel, L; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2015-08-01

    A simple and rapid focused ultrasound extraction (FU) based method is presented for the determination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in soil using a gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector with electron impact ionization. The main experimental parameters affecting the FU step have been optimized by applying a PERMANOVA and PCO analysis allowing us to obtain a maximum amount of information with a minimum number of assays. The limits of detection for POPs fell within the 0.9-6.8 ng/g d.w. interval; a linear method was used with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.99. Recovery percentages at low concentrations (25 ng/g d.w.) were 75.8%-110%, and at high concentrations (75 ng/g d.w.) 82.3%-109%; the evaluated precision as RSD% of repeatability and reproducibility were within a range of 0.5%-11% and 0.3%-18%, respectively.

  10. Association of Dioxin and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) with Diabetes: Epidemiological Evidence and New Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    De Tata, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide explosion of the rates of diabetes and other metabolic diseases in the last few decades cannot be fully explained only by changes in the prevalence of classical lifestyle-related risk factors, such as physical inactivity and poor diet. For this reason, it has been recently proposed that other “nontraditional” risk factors could contribute to the diabetes epidemics. In particular, an increasing number of reports indicate that chronic exposure to and accumulation of a low concentration of environmental pollutants (especially the so-called persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) within the body might be associated with diabetogenesis. In this review, the epidemiological evidence suggesting a relationship between dioxin and other POPs exposure and diabetes incidence will be summarized, and some recent developments on the possible underlying mechanisms, with particular reference to dioxin, will be presented and discussed. PMID:24802877

  11. Effects of age, sex and reproductive status on persistent organic pollutant concentrations in "Southern Resident" killer whales.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Margaret M; Hanson, M Bradley; Schorr, Gregory S; Emmons, Candice K; Burrows, Douglas G; Bolton, Jennie L; Baird, Robin W; Ylitalo, Gina M

    2009-10-01

    "Southern Resident" killer whales (Orcinus orca) that comprise three fish-eating "pods" (J, K and L) were listed as "endangered" in the US and Canada following a 20% population decline between 1996 and 2001. Blubber biopsy samples from Southern Resident juveniles had statistically higher concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants than were found for adults. Most Southern Resident killer whales, including the four juveniles, exceeded the health-effects threshold for total PCBs in marine mammal blubber. Maternal transfer of contaminants to the juveniles during rapid development of their biological systems may put these young whales at greater risk than adults for adverse health effects (e.g., immune and endocrine system dysfunction). Pollutant ratios and field observations established that two of the pods (K- and L-pod) travel to California to forage. Nitrogen stable isotope values, supported by field observations, indicated possible changes in the diet of L-pod over the last decade.

  12. Tissue distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Wu, Yuping

    2014-09-15

    Eleven persistent organic pollutant (POP) compounds including ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, aldrin, mirex, endrin, ∑CHLs, dieldrin, HCB, heptachlor and pentachlorobenzene were measured in the kidney, liver, muscle, melon and other tissues of Sousa chinensis stranded on the western coast of the Pearl River Estuary in China during 2007-2013. For most parameters of POPs measured, melon tissues contained the highest mean concentrations with the exception of aldrin, which was higher in the kidney and liver tissues. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, heptachlor and endrin in the melon tissue exhibited significant correlations with body length, whereas PCBs and heptachlor also displayed significant regression with age. Our studies showed hepatic concentrations of ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and mirex in S. chinensis were generally higher than those found in cetaceans from other geographic locations. The high levels of POP residues in the testis of one male dolphin suggested an increasing risk of infertility in the species.

  13. Influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Hoff, R.M.

    2000-03-15

    The influence of eutrophication on the biogeochemical cycles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is largely unknown. In this paper, the application of a dynamic air-water-phytoplankton exchange model to Lake Ontario is used as a framework to study the influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of POPs. The results of these simulations demonstrate that air-water exchange controls phytoplankton concentrations in remote aquatic environments with little influence from land-based sources of pollutants and supports levels in even historically contaminated systems. Furthermore, eutrophication or high biomass leads to a disequilibrium between the gas and dissolved phase, enhanced air-water exchange, and vertical sinking fluxes of PCBs. Increasing biomass also depletes the water concentrations leading to lower than equilibrium PCB concentrations in phytoplankton. Implications to future trends in PCB pollution in Lake Ontario are also discussed.

  14. Endocrine Disruptors and Obesity: An Examination of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in the NHANES 1999–2002 Data

    PubMed Central

    Elobeid, Mai A.; Brock, David W.; Allison, David B.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Ruden, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may cause perturbations in endogenous hormonal regulation that predispose to weight gain. Using data from NHANES (1999–2002), we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) via multiple linear regressions. Consistent interaction was found between gender, ln oxychlordane and ln p,p’ DDT. Also, we found an association between WC and ln oxychlordane and ln hpcdd in subjects with detectable levels of POPs, whereas an association between WC and ln p,p’ DDT was observed in all subjects. Furthermore, ln Ocdd showed an increase with higher WC and BMI, whereas, ln trans-nonachlor decreased with higher BMI. Hence, BMI and WC are associated with POPs levels, making the chemicals plausible contributors to the obesity epidemic. PMID:20717554

  15. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions

    SciTech Connect

    Berhe, Asmeret A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kleber, Markus; Burton, Sarah D.; Harte, John

    2012-06-02

    The terrestrial biosphere is dominated by sloping landscapes [Staub and Rosenzweig, 1986] where biogeochemical cycling of essential elements is controlled by interaction of geomorphic, pedogenic, and ecological processes that shape them. Recent studies have highlighted the important role of soil erosion in dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) [Berhe et al., 2007, 2008; Boix-Fayos et al., 2009; Harden et al.,1999; Smith et al., 2001; Stallard, 1998a; Van Oost et al., 2007]. However, most process level studies of SOM cycling are dominantly located on nonsloping sites that experience minimal soil erosion and deposition and thus they fail to capture the influence of topography on SOM dynamics.

  16. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE) and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Roszko, Marek Łukasz; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony’s welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1). Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls–EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g−1, 31% contribution). Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g−1, 18%), # 138 (36 pg g−1, 19%) and # 153 (33 pg g−1, 17%). CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g−1 (respectively 23 and 50%). Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE) were 20 ± 27.7 pg g−1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g−1, 3.1 pg g−1, and 2.9 pg g−1, respectively. PMID:27907097

  17. Identifying sources and biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in biota from mountain streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Bendell-Young, Leah I; Elliott, John E

    2005-10-15

    We assessed whether biota occupying mountain streams accumulate and biomagnify remotely derived organic pollutants originating from atmospheric inputs to snowpack and glacial runoff and from marine sources introduced by migrating anadromous salmon. Several persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and trans-nonachlor were commonly detected in benthic invertebrates, salmon fry (Oncorhynchus spp.), and eggs of an aquatic passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) from the Chilliwack River watershed, British Columbia, Canada. Total PCBs and several organochlorines (OCs) biomagnified from benthic invertebrate composites to salmon fry to dipper eggs. Invertebrate samples generally did not differ significantly in contaminant burdens between the river main stem where salmon are more abundant and higher-elevation tributaries where the salmon density is lower. Concentrations of total OCs and total PCBs in dipper eggs were positively related to drainage basin area and collection year but not to elevation. No differences in PCB congener patterns existed between dipper egg samples from the Chilliwack watershed and other watersheds in southwestern British Columbia. However, principal component analysis revealed significant spatial differences in egg PCB congener patterns between the main Chilliwack River and the higher-elevation tributaries. This difference was primarily due to a greater occurrence of lower chlorinated PCB congeners (66 and 105) in dipper eggs collected from the tributaries and higher loadings of the more stable and persistent congeners (153, 138, 130, and 128) in eggs from the river main stem. The results suggest that atmospheric sources are the main contributor of contaminants detected in biota from the region and that biomagnification is a common pathway for accumulation in lotic predators such as the American dipper.

  18. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  19. Spatial and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hoguet, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer M; Reiner, Jessica L; Kucklick, John R; Bryan, Colleen E; Moors, Amanda J; Pugh, Rebecca S; Becker, Paul R

    2013-04-01

    Remote locations, such as the Arctic, are often sinks for persistent contaminants which can ultimately bioaccumulate in local wildlife. Assessing temporal contaminant trends in the Arctic is important in understanding whether restrictions on legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have led to concentration declines. Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) tissue samples were collected from two subpopulations (Cook Inlet, Alaska and the eastern Chukchi Sea) between 1989 and 2006. Several POPs (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and related compounds (DDTs), chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlorobenzenes, mirex, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and semi-quantitatively hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs)) were measured in 70 blubber samples, and total mercury (Hg) was measured in 67 liver samples from a similar set of individuals. Legacy POPs (PCBs, chlordanes, DDTs, and HCHs) were the predominant organic compound classes in both subpopulations, with median concentrations of 2360ng/g lipid for Σ80PCBs and 1890 ng/g lipid for Σ6DDTs. Backward stepwise multiple regressions showed that at least one of the four independent variables (subpopulation, sampling year, sex, and animal length) influenced the POP and Hg concentrations. ΣPCBs, ΣDDTs, Σchlordanes, Σchlorobenzenes, mirex, and Hg were significantly higher in belugas from the eastern Chukchi Sea than from the Cook Inlet (p≤0.0001). In contrast, Σ8PBDE and α-HBCD concentrations were significantly lower in belugas from the eastern Chukchi Sea than from the Cook Inlet (p<0.0001). Significant temporal increases in concentrations of Σ8PBDE and α-HBCD were observed for both subpopulations (p≤0.0003), and temporal declines were seen for ΣHCHs and Σchlorobenzenes in eastern Chukchi Sea belugas only (p≤0.0107). All other POP and Hg concentrations were stable, indicating either a lagging response of the Arctic to source reductions or the maintenance of concentrations

  20. Geographical variation of persistent organic pollutants in eggs of threatened loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Keller, Jennifer M; Wyneken, Jeanette; Crowder, Larry; Scott, Geoffrey; Kucklick, John R

    2011-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are recognized manmade threats to sea turtle populations, but substantial uncertainty exists surrounding their exposure to contaminants and their sensitivity to toxic effects. This uncertainty creates difficulty for conservation managers to make informed decisions for the recovery of these threatened species. To provide baseline concentrations and spatial comparisons, we measured a large suite of POPs in loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk samples collected from 44 nests in three distinct U.S. locations: North Carolina (NC), eastern Florida (E FL), and western Florida (W FL). The POPs included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordanes, mirex, dieldin, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene, and toxaphene congeners, as well as polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs). Persistent organic pollutant concentrations were lowest in W FL, intermediate in E FL, and highest in NC egg samples, with several statistically significant spatial differences. This increasing gradient along the southeast coast around the Florida peninsula to North Carolina was explained partly by the foraging site selection of the nesting females. Data from previous tracking studies show that NC nesting females feed primarily along the U.S. eastern coast, whereas W FL nesting females forage in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. The E FL nesting females forage in areas that overlap these two. The foraging site selection also results in exposure to different patterns of POPs. An unusual PBDE pattern was seen in the NC samples, with nearly equal contributions of PBDE congeners 47, 100, and 154. These findings are important to managers assessing threats among different stocks or subpopulations of this threatened species. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  1. Depth profile of persistent and emerging organic pollutants upstream of the Three Gorges Dam gathered in 2012/2013.

    PubMed

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Bi, Yonghong; Peng, Chengrong; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Persistent and emerging organic pollutants were sampled in September 2012 and 2013 at a sampling site in front of the Three Gorges Dam near Maoping (China) in a water depth between 11 and 61 m to generate a depth profile of analytes. A novel compact water sampling system with self-packed glass cartridges was employed for the on-site enrichment of approximately 300 L of water per sample to enable the detection of low analytes levels in the picogram per liter-scale in the large water body. The overall performance of the sampling system was acceptable for the qualitative detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), perfluoroalkylic acids (PFAAs), pharmaceutical residues and polar pesticides. Strongly particle-associated analytes like PAHs and PCBs resided mainly in the glass wool filter of the sampling system, whereas all other compounds have mainly been enriched on the XAD-resin of the self-packed glass cartridges. The sampling results revealed qualitative information on the presence, depth distribution and origin of the investigated compounds. Although the depth profile of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PFAAs appeared to be homogeneous, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides were detected in distinct different patterns with water depth. Source analysis with diagnostic ratios for PAHs revealed their origin to be pyrogenic (burning of coal, wood and grass). In contrast, most PCBs and OCPs had to be regarded as legacy pollutants which have been released into the environment in former times and still remain present due to their persistence. The abundance of emerging organic pollutants could be confirmed, and their most abundant compounds could be identified as perfluorooctanoic acid, diclofenac and atrazine among investigated PFAAs, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides, respectively.

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fish Consumption Advisories: Modeling Prenatal, Postnatal, and Childhood Exposures to Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Binnington, Matthew J.; Quinn, Cristina L.; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Because human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) occurs mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, regulatory bodies issue dietary consumption advisories to describe safe intake levels for food items of concern, particularly fish. Objectives: Our study goal was to estimate the effectiveness of fish consumption advisories in reducing exposure of infants and children to POPs. Methods: We used the time-variant mechanistic model CoZMoMAN to estimate and compare prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153 under different scenarios of maternal guideline adherence for both hypothetical constant and realistic time-variant chemical emissions. The scenarios differed in terms of length of compliance (1 vs. 5 years), extent of fish substitution (all vs. half), and replacement diet (uncontaminated produce vs. beef). We also estimated potential exposure reductions for a range of theoretical chemicals to explore how guideline effectiveness varies with a chemical’s partitioning and degradation properties. Results: When assuming realistic time periods of advisory compliance, our findings suggest that temporarily eliminating or reducing maternal fish consumption is largely ineffective in reducing pre- and postnatal exposure to substances with long elimination half-lives in humans, especially during periods of decreasing environmental emissions. Substituting fish with beef may actually result in higher exposure to certain groups of environmental contaminants. On the other hand, advisories may be highly effective in reducing exposure to substances with elimination half-lives in humans shorter than the length of compliance. Conclusions: Our model estimates suggest that fish consumption advisories are unlikely to be effective in reducing prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposures to compounds with long elimination half-lives in humans. Citation: Binnington MJ, Quinn CL, McLachlan MS, Wania F. 2014. Evaluating

  3. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE) and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek Łukasz; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony's welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1). Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls-EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g-1, 31% contribution). Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g-1, 18%), # 138 (36 pg g-1, 19%) and # 153 (33 pg g-1, 17%). CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g-1 (respectively 23 and 50%). Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE) were 20 ± 27.7 pg g-1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g-1, 3.1 pg g-1, and 2.9 pg g-1, respectively.

  4. Risk factors associated with persistence of neuropsychological deficits in persons with organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1991-09-01

    This study examined neuropsychological prognosis following organic solvent exposure. Twenty-seven persons with evidence of 'mild toxic encephalopathy' were evaluated on two separate occasions with a standard neuropsychological test battery and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Ratings by experienced clinicians revealed that 50% of exposed persons had improved neuropsychological performance at the second evaluation. The other 50% were rated as having no change or a decline in neuropsychological tests scores. While the majority of persons in the good-outcome group were working at the time of the follow-up evaluation, none of the persons in the poor-outcome group was actively employed. Persons rated as having shown no improvement were significantly more likely to have had a peak exposure--an episode in which they were briefly exposed to a larger than normal amount of solvent. In addition, persons in the poor outcome group reported higher levels of psychological distress, both initially and at the follow-up evaluation. Results from this study suggest that the presence of certain risk factors, namely a peak exposure and psychological distress, may be particularly detrimental for long-term neuropsychological outcome in persons with a history of organic solvent exposure.

  5. Persistent Organic Pollutants Modify Gut Microbiota–Host Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice Through Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limin; Nichols, Robert G.; Correll, Jared; Murray, Iain A.; Tanaka, Naoki; Smith, Philip B.; Hubbard, Troy D.; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Hatzakis, Emmanuel; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Perdew, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alteration of the gut microbiota through diet and environmental contaminants may disturb physiological homeostasis, leading to various diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because most exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POPs) occurs through the diet, the host gastrointestinal tract and commensal gut microbiota are likely to be exposed to POPs. Objectives We examined the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), a persistent environmental contaminant, on gut microbiota and host metabolism, and we examined correlations between gut microbiota composition and signaling pathways. Methods Six-week-old male wild-type and Ahr–/– mice on the C57BL/6J background were treated with 24 μg/kg TCDF in the diet for 5 days. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics, targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triplequadrupole mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays to determine the microbiota compositions and the physiological and metabolic effects of TCDF. Results Dietary TCDF altered the gut microbiota by shifting the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. TCDF-treated mouse cecal contents were enriched with Butyrivibrio spp. but depleted in Oscillobacter spp. compared with vehicle-treated mice. These changes in the gut microbiota were associated with altered bile acid metabolism. Further, dietary TCDF inhibited the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway, triggered significant inflammation and host metabolic disorders as a result of activation of bacterial fermentation, and altered hepatic lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis in an AHR-dependent manner. Conclusion These findings provide new insights into the biochemical consequences of TCDF exposure involving the alteration of the gut microbiota, modulation of nuclear receptor signaling, and disruption of host metabolism. Citation Zhang L, Nichols RG, Correll J, Murray IA, Tanaka N, Smith PB

  6. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE PARTIALLY DESTROYED THEATER, BUILDING 203, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Theater, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons Project After 10 Years: Persistent Barriers and Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Alex; Moller, Lars; Hayton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services. However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network’s fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved. PMID:16186449

  8. The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons Project after 10 years: persistent barriers and achievements.

    PubMed

    Gatherer, Alex; Moller, Lars; Hayton, Paul

    2005-10-01

    The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country's public health services.However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network's fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in selected fishes of the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järv, Leili; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koponen, Jani; Rantakokko, Panu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Radin, Maia; Raid, Tiit; Roots, Ott; Simm, Mart

    2017-07-01

    Fish samples of Baltic herring, sprat, flounder, perch, salmon, and river lamprey were collected from the Gulf of Finland in 2013 and 2014 with the aim to get an overview of the occurrence of pollutants in fish caught in Estonian waters. The content of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organic tin (OT) and perfluorocompounds (PFAS) are examined and discussed in the study. The results revealed that potentially higher content of organo-tin compounds, perfluorocompounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Baltic herring, salmon and river lamprey may cause concern regarding human exposure. It is important to link pollutant content to lipid content of fish taking into account their seasonal variation in different age classes.

  10. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time.

    PubMed

    Gibs, Jacob; Stackelberg, Paul E; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael; Zaugg, Steven D; Lippincott, Robert Lee

    2007-02-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2 mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10 days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24 h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution.

  11. Physical Organic Approach to Persistent, Cyclable, Low-Potential Electrolytes for Flow Battery Applications.

    PubMed

    Sevov, Christo S; Hickey, David P; Cook, Monique E; Robinson, Sophia G; Barnett, Shoshanna; Minteer, Shelley D; Sigman, Matthew S; Sanford, Melanie S

    2017-03-01

    The deployment of nonaqueous redox flow batteries for grid-scale energy storage has been impeded by a lack of electrolytes that undergo redox events at as low (anolyte) or high (catholyte) potentials as possible while exhibiting the stability and cycling lifetimes necessary for a battery device. Herein, we report a new approach to electrolyte design that uses physical organic tools for the predictive targeting of electrolytes that possess this combination of properties. We apply this approach to the identification of a new pyridinium-based anolyte that undergoes 1e(-) electrochemical charge-discharge cycling at low potential (-1.21 V vs Fc/Fc(+)) to a 95% state-of-charge without detectable capacity loss after 200 cycles.

  12. Following severe injury, hypocholesterolemia improves with convalescence but persists with organ failure or onset of infection

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, C Michael; Fealk, Michael H; Sever, Wilbur E

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Our primary objective was to determine the impact of traumatic injury, onset of infection, organ/metabolic dysfunction, and mortality on serum cholesterol. Methods During 676 surgical intensive care unit (SICU) days, 28 ventilated trauma patients underwent daily measurement of white blood cell (WBC) count and differential, cholesterol, arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen, bilirubin, glucose, creatinine, and bicarbonate. With the onset of infection, WBC response was considered positive if the WBC count was 16.0 or greater, immature neutrophils were 10% or greater, or WBC count increased by 20%. Cholesterol response was considered positive if cholesterol decreased or failed to increase by 10%. Results Injury Severity Score was 30.6 ± 8.6 and there were 48 infections. Initial cholesterol was decreased (119 ± 44 mg/dl) compared with expected values from a database (201 ± 17 mg/dl; P < 0.0001). The 25 survivors had higher cholesterol at SICU discharge (143 ± 35 mg/dl) relative to admission (112 ± 37 mg/dl; P < 0.0001). In the three patients who died, the admission cholesterol was 175 ± 62 mg/dl and the cholesterol at death was 117 ± 27 mg/dl. The change in percentage of expected cholesterol (observed value divided by expected value) from admission to discharge was different for patients surviving (16 ± 19%) and dying (-29 ± 19%; P = 0.0005). With onset of infection, the WBC response was positive in 61% and cholesterol response was positive in 91% (P = 0.001). Percentage of expected cholesterol was decreased with each system dysfunction: arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen < 350, creatinine > 2.0 mg/dl, glucose > 120 mg/dl, bilirubin > 2.5 mg/dl, and bicarbonate ≥ 28 or ≤ 23 (P < 0.01). Percentage of expected cholesterol decreased as the number of dysfunctions increased (P = 0.0001). Conclusion Hypocholesterolemia is seen following severe injury. Convalescing patients (ready for SICU discharge) have improved

  13. Detection of persistent organic compounds from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) and their degradation by manganese peroxidase and laccase producing bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2013-07-01

    Biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) retains dark black colour with complex persistent organic pollutants even after anaerobic treatment. The specific ratio (4:3:1:1) of Proteus mirabilis (FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (FJ581031) decolourised BMDS up to 76% within 192 hr along with degradation of persistent organic compounds in presence of glucose (1%) and peptone (0.1%). The colour removal ability was noted due to ligninolytic enzyme activity. Where the maximum manganese peroxidase was 1.93 U ml(-1) and laccase activity equalled 0.84 U ml(-1). The gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the direct correlation between colourant and persistent organic pollutants due to simultaneous reduction of colour and pollutants present in BMDS. The seed germination test showed reduction of 75% toxicity after bacterial treatment process.

  14. [Distribution characteristics of the typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Suaeda heteroptera].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shi-Zhen; Zhao, Xing-Ru; Cui, Shi-Mao; Gan, Zhi-Fen; Jiao, Li-Xin; Liu, Lu-San; Lei, Kun; Zheng, Bing-Hui

    2010-10-01

    The Suaeda heteroptera are widely distributed in intertidal zone, in order to investigate its function in preventing the transfer of the contaminants from land to sea, the levels and the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Suaeda heteroptera and their associated soils were studied with GC-MS. The results indicated that the levels of these pollutants in Suaeda heteroptera were in the following order: sigma PAHs > OCPs > BDE209 > sigma PCBs (96-1 506 ng/g, 14-577 ng/g, 1.8-33 ng/g, and 399-2 161 pg/g, respectively). The levels of OCPs, PAHs, and PCBs in sediments from Yingkou intertidal zone were higher than that from Donying intertidal zone, however, these pollutants in Suaeda heteroptera leaves were approximately equal, respectively. The distribution of OCPs in Suaeda heteroptera appeared in the following order: stem > root > leaf, and the distribution of PAHs and PCBs in Suaeda heteroptera from Dongying intertidal zone were different from Yingkou intertidal zone, due to the difference of the organic matter content in sediments. The level of BDE209 in sediment from Dongying intertidal zone (19.7 ng/g) was higher than that from Yingkou intertidal zone (2.36 ng/g), and appeared different distribution in Suaeda heteroptera from the two intertidal zones.

  15. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in a deep-sea, temperate food web.

    PubMed

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Herrero, Laura; Fernández, Mario; Gómara, Belén; Acuña, José Luis

    2017-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in a temperate, deep-sea ecosystem, the Avilés submarine Canyon (AC; Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay). There was an increase of contaminant concentration with the trophic level of the organisms, as calculated from stable nitrogen isotope data (δ(15)N). Such biomagnification was only significant for the pelagic food web and its magnitude was highly dependent on the type of top predators included in the analysis. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) for PCB-153 in the pelagic food web (spanning four trophic levels) was 6.2 or 2.2, depending on whether homeotherm top predators (cetaceans and seabirds) were included or not in the analysis, respectively. Since body size is significantly correlated with δ(15)N, it can be used as a proxy to estimate trophic magnification, what can potentially lead to a simple and convenient method to calculate the TMF. In spite of their lower biomagnification, deep-sea fishes showed higher concentrations than their shallower counterparts, although those differences were not significant. In summary, the AC fauna exhibits contaminant levels comparable or lower than those reported in other systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of lake characteristics on the biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in lake trout food webs.

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Muir, Derek C G; Kidd, Karen A; Guildford, Stephanie; Drouillard, Ken; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xiaowa; Whittle, D Michael; Haffner, Doug; Kling, Hedy

    2008-10-01

    The biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and major organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied using lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other food web organisms collected from 17 lakes in Canada and the northeastern United States between 1998 and 2001. Whole lake trout (n = 357) concentrations of the sum (Sigma) of 57 PCB congeners ranged between 1.67 and 2,890 ng/g wet weight (median 61.5 ng/g wet wt). Slimy sculpin had the highest mean concentrations of SigmaPCB of all forage fish (32-73 ng/g wet wt). Positive relationships between log (lipid wt) concentrations of PCB congener 153, PCB congener 52, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, or dieldrin and trophic level (determined using stable nitrogen isotope ratios) were found for most of the 17 food webs, indicating biomagnification of these PCBs and OCPs. The p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene had the highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of the 14 individual compounds studied, averaging 4.0 +/- 1.8 across the 17 lakes, followed by trans-nonachlor (3.6 +/- 1.5) and PCB congener 153 (3.4 +/- 1.2). Average TMFs for 14 individual PCBs or OCPs were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient, implying that the rate of accumulation along the food web is dependent on hydrophobicity and recalcitrance. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between TMFs of SigmaPCBs, hexachlorobenzene, alph