Science.gov

Sample records for detailed abundance analysis

  1. Detailed abundance analysis of five field blue horizontal-branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, I.; LeBlanc, F.; Robert, C.

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that hot blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in globular clusters present abundance anomalies of certain chemical elements in their atmosphere; some metals are overabundant while helium is underabundant. Vertical stratification of chemical species, including iron, is also found in the atmosphere of a number of these objects. The aim of our work is to do a detailed abundance analysis of BHB stars found in the field. We studied the stars HD 128801, HD 143459, HD 213781, and HZ 27, using our high-resolution spectra in the visible region obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and also Feige 86, using existing Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph visible spectra from the ESO archives. We searched for vertical stratification of the elements identified in our five stars, with the ZEEMAN2 code and stellar model atmospheres of PHOENIX. We confirm here the star rotational and radial velocities previously found, along with their average abundances. For the three cooler stars in our sample (HD 128801, HD 143459, and HZ 27), most elements detected are underabundant. For the two hotter stars (Feige 86 and HD 213781), the abundances of most elements are near or above their solar value. Of all the elements studied, only phosphorus is clearly found to be vertically stratified in the atmosphere of HD 213781. Marginal indications of vertical stratification of iron is observed for Feige 86. The chemical properties of the five field BHB stars are consistent with those of their globular-cluster counterparts.

  2. Detailed Abundance Analysis of a Metal-poor Giant in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Fritz, T. K.; Rich, R. M.; Thorsbro, B.; Schultheis, M.; Origlia, L.; Chatzopoulos, S.

    2016-11-01

    We report the first results from our program to examine the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster connected to Sgr A*, with the goal of inferring the star formation and enrichment history of this system, as well as its connection and relationship with the central 100 pc of the bulge/bar system. We present the first high-resolution (R ˜ 24,000), detailed abundance analysis of a K = 10.2 metal-poor, alpha-enhanced red giant projected at 1.5 pc from the Galactic center, using NIRSPEC on Keck II. A careful analysis of the dynamics and color of the star locates it at about {26}-16+54 pc line-of-sight distance in front of the nuclear cluster. It probably belongs to one of the nuclear components (cluster or disk), not to the bar/bulge or classical disk. A detailed spectroscopic synthesis, using a new line list in the K band, finds [Fe/H] ˜ -1.0 and [α/Fe] ˜ +0.4, consistent with stars of similar metallicity in the bulge. As known giants with comparable [Fe/H] and alpha enhancement are old, we conclude that this star is most likely to be a representative of the ˜10 Gyr old population. This is also the most metal-poor-confirmed red giant yet discovered in the vicinity of the nuclear cluster of the Galactic center. We consider recent reports in the literature of a surprisingly large number of metal-poor giants in the Galactic center, but the reported gravity of {log}g˜ 4 for these stars calls into question their reported metallicities.

  3. Abundances of heavy elements in metal deficient stars II. Detailed spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we determine the abundances of a number of neutron capture elements in metal-poor dwarfs and subgiants. The strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, lanthanum, cerium and europium abundances are deduced in a sample of 10 to 20 stars on the basis of high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra. The main results are: (1) The elements of the first peak, strontium-yttrium-zirconium, show the odd-even effect: strontium and zirconium are less deficient than yttrium in Population II stars. (2) The yttrium abundance is constant ([ Y/Fe] = -0.06) for all stars with [ Fe/H] > -2.5 . (3) The barium overdeficiency increases with decreasing metallicity when [ Fe/H] < -1.7 . (4) Lanthanum and cerium are overdeficient with respect to iron. (5) Europium is overabundant for -1 > [ Fe/H] > -2 . (6) There is a real cosmic scatter in [ Y/Fe] , [ Zr/Fe] and [ Ba/Fe] , of the order of 0.1 dex.

  4. Preliminary Results of Detailed Chemical Abundance Analysis of Milky Way Satellite Galaxy Reticulum II Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Li, Ting; Dark Energy Survey Milky Way Science Group

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from abundance analysis of stars in Milky Way satellite galaxies found in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES has discovered 16 candidate satellite galaxies of the Milky Way in its first two years of operation. Since January 2015, three candidates have subsequently been revealed to be dark matter-dominated by spectroscopic follow-up studies of their kinematics, confirming their status as satellite galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up of the remaining 13 candidates is underway. We have analyzed high resolution VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of member stars in one of these satellite galaxies, Reticulum II. Using equivalent width measurement and spectral synthesis methods, we measure the abundances of Iron and other species in order to begin to understand the chemical content of these Milky Way satellites.

  5. Detailed abundances in EMP dwarfs from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbordone, Luca; Caffau, Elisabetta; Bonifacio, Piercarlo

    2012-09-01

    We report on the current status of an ongoing survey to select extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, and determine their detailed chemical composition through high resolution follow-up. So far, 26 stars have been observed with UVESatVLT and X-SHOOTERatVLT, all but two showing an iron content below [Fe/H]=-3. Among them we detected the current record holder for the lowest total metallicity (SDSS J102915+172927, Z=10-5 Zsolar), four carbon-enhanced extremely metal poor objects (CEMP), as well as subsets with enhanced Ni and Mn. Lithium abundances or upper limits were derived, confirming the previously detected ``meltdown'' of the Spite plateau for metallicities below about [Fe/H]=-2.8. SDSS J102915+172927 in particular shows no detectable Li I 670.8 doublet, leading to an upper limit of A(Li)<1.1, hinting to an even deeper Li depletion in TO stars below [Fe/H]=-4. Spectroscopic follow-up is currently being prosecuted by the recently started ESO large program TOPoS, aiming to observe about 80 more EMP candidates.

  6. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  7. The Hamburg/ESO R-process enhanced star survey (HERES). IV. Detailed abundance analysis and age dating of the strongly r-process enhanced stars CS 29491-069 and HE 1219-0312

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, W.; Wiesendahl, U.; Christlieb, N.; Eriksson, K.; Korn, A. J.; Barklem, P. S.; Hill, V.; Beers, T. C.; Farouqi, K.; Pfeiffer, B.; Kratz, K.-L.

    2009-09-01

    We report on a detailed abundance analysis of two strongly r-process enhanced, very metal-poor stars newly discovered in the HERES project, CS 29491-069 ([Fe/H]=-2.51, [r/Fe]=+1.1) and HE 1219-0312 ([Fe/H]=-2.96, [r/Fe]=+1.5). The analysis is based on high-quality VLT/UVES spectra and MARCS model atmospheres. We detect lines of 15 heavy elements in the spectrum of CS 29491-069, and 18 in HE 1219-0312; in both cases including the Th II 4019 Å line. The heavy-element abundance patterns of these two stars are mostly well-matched to scaled solar residual abundances not formed by the s-process. We also compare the observed pattern with recent high-entropy wind (HEW) calculations, which assume core-collapse supernovae of massive stars as the astrophysical environment for the r-process, and find good agreement for most lanthanides. The abundance ratios of the lighter elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium, which are presumably not formed by the main r-process, are reproduced well by the model. Radioactive dating for CS 29491-069 with the observed thorium and rare-earth element abundance pairs results in an average age of 9.5 Gyr, when based on solar r-process residuals, and 17.6 Gyr, when using HEW model predictions. Chronometry seems to fail in the case of HE 1219-0312, resulting in a negative age due to its high thorium abundance. HE 1219-0312 could therefore exhibit an overabundance of the heaviest elements, which is sometimes called an “actinide boost”. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (Proposal Number 170.D-0010). Table 8 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Detailed Abundances in Extremely Metal Poor Dwarf Stars Extracted from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbordone, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the result of an ongoing campaign to determine chemical abundances in extremely metal poor (EMP) turn-off (TO) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) low resolution spectra. This contribution focuses principally on the largest part of the sample (18 stars out of 29), observed with UVES@VLT and analyzed by means of the automatic abundance analysis code MyGIsFOS to derive atmosphere parameters and detailed compositions. The most significant findings include i) the detection of a C-rich, strongly Mg-enhanced star ([Mg/Fe]=1.45); ii) a group of Mn-rich stars ([Mn/Fe]>-0.4); iii) a group of Ni-rich stars ([Ni/Fe]>0.2). Li is measured in twelve stars, while for three upper limits are derived.

  9. Detailed Iron-Group Abundances in a Very Metal-Poor Main Sequence Turnoff Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Chris; Roederer, Ian U.; Boesgaard, Ann M.; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Cowan, John J.; Sobeck, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained Keck HIRES and HST STIS high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -2.9) main-sequence turnoff star BD+03 740. A detailed chemical composition analysis based on synthetic spectrum computations has been conducted. Our initial focus has been on the iron-group elements in the Z = 21-28 range. This study takes advantage of recent improvements in neutral and ionzied species transition data for all of these elements except Sc (Z = 21) by the Wisconsin atomic physics group (see a companion presentation on Cr II at this meeting). Several metal-poor abundance surveys have concluded that there are large overabundances of Co and underabundances of Cr with respect to Fe for stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5. Neither of these anomalies is seen in BD+03 740. We discuss the implications of this result for early iron-group synthesis in the Galaxy.This work has been supported by HST STScI Program GO-14232; and NSF grants AST-1211585 and AST-1616040 to CS; AST-1516182 to JEL and EDH; NASA grant NNX16AE96G to JEL

  10. Detailed chemical abundances of distant RR Lyrae stars in the Virgo Stellar Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffau, S.; Sbordone, L.; Vivas, A. K.; Hansen, C. J.; Zoccali, M.; Catelan, M.; Minniti, D.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first detailed chemical abundances for distant RR Lyrae stars members of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS), derived from X- Shooter medium-resolution spectra. Sixteen elements from carbon to barium have been measured in six VSS RR Lyrae stars, sampling all main nucleosynthetic channels. For the first time we will be able to compare in detail the chemical evolution of the VSS progenitor with those of Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies (LG dSph) as well as the one of the smooth halo.

  11. A Comparison of the Detailed Chemical Abundances of Globular Clusters in the Milky Way, Andromeda, and Centaurus A Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We present a homogeneous analysis of high resolution spectra of globular clusters in three massive galaxies: the Milky Way, M31, and NGC 5128. We measure detailed abundance ratios for alpha, light, Fe-peak, and neutron capture elements using our technique for analyzing the integrated light spectra of globular clusters. For many of the heavy elements we provide a first look at the detailed chemistry of old populations in an early type galaxy. We discuss similarities and differences between the galaxies and the potential implications for their star formation histories.

  12. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF STARS WITH SMALL PLANETS DISCOVERED BY KEPLER. I. THE FIRST SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Santrich, Orlando J. Katime; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Teske, Johanna K.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard E-mail: zachary.vaz@spartans.ut.edu E-mail: kcunha@noao.edu E-mail: jking2@clemson.edu E-mail: lghezzi@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: hisaacson@berkeley.edu

    2015-12-10

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star, save one, has at least one planet with a radius ≤1.6 R{sub ⊕}, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10 m Keck I telescope and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. The metallicities of the seven stars range from −0.32 to +0.13 dex, with an average metallicity that is subsolar, supporting previous suggestions that, unlike Jupiter-type giant planets, small planets do not form preferentially around metal-rich stars. The abundances of elements other than iron are in line with a population of Galactic disk stars, and despite our modest sample size, we find hints that the compositions of stars with small planets are similar to stars without known planets and with Neptune-size planets, but not to those of stars with giant planets. This suggests that the formation of small planets does not require exceptional host-star compositions and that small planets may be ubiquitous in the Galaxy. We compare our derived abundances (which have typical uncertainties of ≲0.04 dex) to the condensation temperature of the elements; a correlation between the two has been suggested as a possible signature of rocky planet formation. None of the stars demonstrate the putative rocky planet signature, despite at least three of the stars having rocky planets estimated to contain enough refractory material to produce the signature, if real. More detailed abundance analyses of stars known to host small planets are needed to verify our results and place ever more stringent constraints on planet formation models.

  13. Measuring the IMF and Detailed Abundance Patterns from the Integrated Light of Old Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of unresolved stellar systems holds key information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, dust properties, and initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population(s). This information can only be extracted with the aid of stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. Such models have been employed to estimate basic properties such as the star formation rate, metallicity (Z, and in certain contexts, alpha-enhancement), and total stellar mass (assuming an IMF). However, much more information is available in the SED than can be extracted by the current generation of SPS models because existing models are plagued by incomplete and poorly calibrated ingredients. The proposers request funds to develop a next generation SPS model capable of measuring the IMF and detailed abundance patterns from the SEDs of composite stellar systems. In particular, we intend to develop an SPS model that makes accurate predictions for the SEDs (from 0.1-3mu m at a resolving power of ~5,000) of composite systems as a function of the IMF, stellar age, metallicity, and individual elemental abundances (including C, N, O, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr, and Ba). This will require the construction of a new synthetic stellar spectral library and a new isochrone library. This new model will be the first to make predictions for the full SED shape as a function of individual abundance ratios, age, and the IMF. We will extensively calibrate the model predictions against data on individual stars and globular clusters. The new model will be essential for interpreting optical-NIR spectra obtained from the James Webb Space Telescope as well as both present and future ground-based facilities.

  14. Detailed Abundances of Two Very Metal-poor Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[α/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] Lt -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] ~ -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo. Data herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  15. Detailed Chemical Abundances of Four Stars in the Unusual Globular Cluster Palomar 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakari, Charli M.; Venn, Kim A.; Irwin, Mike; Aoki, Wako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Dotter, Aaron

    2011-10-01

    Detailed chemical abundances for 21 elements are presented for four red giants in the anomalous outer halo globular cluster Palomar 1 (R GC = 17.2 kpc, Z = 3.6 kpc) using high-resolution (R = 36, 000) spectra from the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. Pal 1 has long been considered unusual because of its low surface brightness, sparse red giant branch, young age, and its possible association with two extragalactic streams of stars. This paper shows that its chemistry further confirms its unusual nature. The mean metallicity of the four stars, [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.01, is high for a globular cluster so far from the Galactic center, but is low for a typical open cluster. The [α/Fe] ratios, though in agreement with the Galactic stars within the 1σ errors, agree best with the lower values in dwarf galaxies. No signs of the Na/O anticorrelation are detected in Pal 1, though Na appears to be marginally high in all four stars. Pal 1's neutron-capture elements are also unusual: its high [Ba/Y] ratio agrees best with dwarf galaxies, implying an excess of second-peak over first-peak s-process elements, while its [Eu/α] and [Ba/Eu] ratios show that Pal 1's contributions from the r-process must have differed in some way from normal Galactic stars. Therefore, Pal 1 is unusual chemically, as well in its other properties. Pal 1 shares some of its unusual abundance characteristics with the young clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy remnant and the intermediate-age LMC clusters, and could be chemically associated with the Canis Majoris overdensity; however, it does not seem to be similar to the Monoceros/Galactic Anticenter Stellar Stream.

  16. First Stars. III. A detailed elemental abundance study of four extremely metal-poor giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, P.; Depagne, E.; Hill, V.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Beers, T. C.; Barbuy, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Molaro, P.; Nordström, B.; Primas, F.

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports detailed abundance analyses for four extremely metal-poor (XMP) giant stars with [Fe/H]<-3.8, based on high-resolution, high-S/N spectra from the ESO VLT (Kueyen/UVES) and LTE model atmosphere calculations. The derived [alpha /Fe] ratios in our sample exhibit a small dispersion, confirming previous findings in the literature, i.e. a constant overabundance of the alpha -elements with a very small (if any) dependence on [Fe/H]. In particular, the very small scatter we determine for [Si/Fe] suggests that this element shows a constant overabundance at very low metallicity, a conclusion which could not have been derived from the widely scattered [Si/Fe] values reported in the literature for less metal-poor stars. For the iron-peak elements, our precise abundances for the four XMP stars in our sample confirm the decreasing trend of Cr and Mn with decreasing [Fe/H], as well as the increasing trend for Co and the absence of any trend for Sc and Ni. In contrast to the significant spread of the ratios [Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe], we find [Sr/Ba] in our sample to be roughly solar, with a much lower dispersion than previously found for stars in the range -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -2.5. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Large Programme ID 165.N-0276(A)). The complete version of Table 5 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or via http:/ /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J /A+A/403/1105

  17. Detailed abundance study of four s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aarle, E.; Van Winckel, H.; De Smedt, K.; Kamath, D.; Wood, P. R.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The photospheric abundances of evolved solar-type stars of different metallicities serve as probes into stellar evolution theory. Aims: Stellar photospheres of post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars bear witness to the internal chemical enrichment processes, integrated over their entire stellar evolution. Here we study post-AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). With their known distances, these rare objects are ideal tracers of AGB nucleosynthesis and dredge-up phenomena. Methods: We used the UVES spectrograph mounted on the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory, to obtain high-resolution spectra with high signal-to-noise of a sample of four post-AGB stars. The objects display a spectral energy distribution that indicates the presence of circumstellar dust. We perform a detailed abundance analysis on the basis of these spectra. Results: All objects are C-rich, and strongly enhanced in s-process elements. We deduced abundances of heavy s-process elements for all stars in the sample, and even found an indication of the presence of Hg in the spectrum of one object. The metallicity of all stars except J053253.51-695915.1 is considerably lower than the average value that is observed for the LMC. The derived luminosities show that we witness the late evolution of low-mass stars with initial masses close to 1 M⊙. An exception is J053253.51-695915.1 and we argue that this object is likely a binary. Conclusions: We confirmed the correlation between the efficiency of the third-dredge up and the neutron exposure that is detected in Galactic post-AGB stars. The non-existence of a correlation between metallicity and neutron irradiation is also confirmed and expanded to smaller metallicities. We confirm the status of 21 μm stars as post-carbon stars. Current theoretical AGB models overestimate the observed C/O ratios and fail to reproduce the variety of s-process abundance patterns that is observed in otherwise very similar objects

  18. The First Detailed Abundances for M Giants in Baade's Window from Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R. Michael; Origlia, Livia

    2005-12-01

    We report the first abundance analysis of 14 M giant stars in the Galactic bulge, based on R=25,000 infrared spectroscopy (1.5-1.8 μm) using NIRSPEC at the Keck telescope. Because some of the bulge M giants reach high luminosities and have very late spectral type, it has been suggested that they are the progeny of only the most metal-rich bulge stars, or possibly members of a younger bulge population. We find that the iron abundance and composition of the M giants are similar to those of the K giants that have abundances determined from optical high resolution spectroscopy, <[Fe/H]>=-0.190+/-0.020, with a 1 σ dispersion of 0.080+/-0.015. Comparing our bulge M giants to a control sample of local disk M giants in the solar vicinity, we find that the bulge stars are enhanced in α-elements at the level of +0.3 dex relative to the solar composition stars, consistent with other studies of bulge globular clusters and field stars. This small sample shows no dependence of spectral type on metallicity, nor is there any indication that the M giants are the evolved members of a subset of the bulge population endowed with special characteristics such as relative youth or high metallicity. We also find low 12C/13C<=10, confirming the presence of extramixing processes during the red giant phase of evolution. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  19. A detailed analysis of five barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, N.

    1985-09-01

    A model-atmosphere analysis of five barium stars is carried out, and a previous analysis of two others extended. The sample comprises types Ba 1, Ba 2, Ba 3, and Ba 5. High-resolution Reticon spectra recorded with the ESO Coude Echelle Spectrometer serve to determine abundances relative to the sun for typically 16 elements. The use of Reticon spectra improves the accuracy compared to previous analyses. Enhancements of s-process elements relative to iron by factors of 2 (HD 139195) to 30 (HD 92626) are found; neutron exposures span at least the range tau of about 0.06-0.6/mb. In the more extreme barium stars the C/O ratio is enhanced with respect to normal red giants by a factor 2.5 to 30.

  20. A Case for Detailed Surface Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Frederick; Doswell, Charles A., III

    1995-04-01

    Detailed analysis of the temperature and moisture fields based on routine hourly surface observations in North America can provide a rational basis for surface feature analysis, thus clarifying the present confusion. Recognition of surface features is an important part of weather forecasting and is especially needed in a careful diagnosis for the prospects of deep convection.Surface temperature gradients are advocated as the primary basis for identifying fronts; examples are given of gross discrepancies in current operational practice between the surface temperature fields and the associated frontal analyses. Surface potential temperature, selected as a means of compensating for elevation differences, is analyzed in the western United States for a period in which a strong, damaging cold front develops and dissipates over a period of less than 24 h. Frontogenesis-related calculations, based on detailed surface temperature analyses, help to explain a case of focusing of heavy precipitation in northern Kentucky that produced a flash flood.Conditions for the initiation of intense convection are illustrated by detailed analyses of the surface moisture and temperature fields. These are used to estimate the buoyancy of surface air lifted to midtroposphere and show the relationship of this buoyancy to ensuing convection. The analyses aid in recognition of the surface dryline (a feature commonly misanalyzed as a cold front) and those convectively produced pools of cold air at the surface that often play a major role in the subsequent redevelopment of convection.The proposed analyses might be difficult to achieve manually in operational practice during busy weather situations, but this could be facilitated by using objective methods with present and prospective workstations. Once surface features are identified, their temporal and spatial evolution must be followed carefully since they can change rapidly.

  1. Chemical abundance analysis of π Dra and HR 7545

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmaslı, Aslı; Nasolo, Yahya

    2017-02-01

    We carried out detailed abundance analysis of two A-type stars; π Dra and HR 7545. High resolution echelle spectra of these stars were obtained at the TÜBİTAK National Observatory. We determined the fundamental parameters of each target star using traditional methods. We also plotted the stars on the H-R diagram and calculated the masses from evolutionary tracks and ages from isochrones.

  2. Global detailed geoid computation and model analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.

    1974-01-01

    Comparisons and analyses were carried out through the use of detailed gravimetric geoids which we have computed by combining models with a set of 26,000 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies. The accuracy of the detailed gravimetric geoid computed using the most recent Goddard earth model (GEM-6) in conjunction with the set of 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies is assessed at + or - 2 meters on the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia, 2 to 5 meters in the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic areas, and 5 to 10 meters in other areas where surface gravity data are sparse. The R.M.S. differences between this detailed geoid and the detailed geoids computed using the other satellite gravity fields in conjuction with same set of surface data range from 3 to 7 meters.

  3. On the nature of sn stars. I. A detailed abundance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffe, C.; Levato, H.

    2014-02-01

    The sn stars were first discoved by Abt & Levato when studying the spectral types in different open clusters. These stars present sharp Balmer lines, sharp metallic lines (C II, Si II, Ca II, Ti II, Fe II), and broad coreless He I lines. Some of the sn stars seem to be related to CP stars. Initially Abt & Levato proposed a shell-like nature to explain the sn stars, although this scenario was subsequently questioned. There is no general agreement about their origin. We aim to derive abundances for a sample of 9 stars, including sn and non-sn stars, to determine the possible relation between sn and CP stars and compare their chemical abundances. That most sn stars belong to open clusters allows us to search for a possible relation with fundamental parameters, including the age and rotation. We also study the possible contribution of different effects to the broad He I lines observed in these stars, such as Stark broadening and the possible He-stratification. Effective temperature and gravity were estimated by Strömgren photometry and then refined by requiring ionization and excitation equilibrium of Fe lines. We derived the abundances by fitting the observed spectra with synthetic spectra using an iterative procedure with the SYNTHE and ATLAS9 codes. We derived metallic abundances of 23 different chemical elements for 9 stars and obtained low projected rotational velocities for the sn stars in our sample (vsini up to 69 km s-1). We also compared 5 stars that belong to the same cluster (NGC 6475) and show that the sn characteristics appear in the 3 stars with the lower rotational velocity. However, the apparent preference of sn stars for objects with the lower vsini values should be taken with caution due to the small number of objects studied here. We analysed the photospheric chemical composition of sn stars and show that approximately ~40% of them display chemical peculiarities (such as He-weak and HgMn stars) within a range of temperature of 10 300 K-14 500 K

  4. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions σ{sub *} ∼> 150 km s{sup –1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (∼10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈ –0.5), and α-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ≈ 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ≈ 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ≈ 1.5-2)

  5. Chemical Abundance Analysis of the Symbiotic Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, Cezary; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of symbiotic stars - the long period, interacting binary systems - composed of red giant donor and a hot, compact companion is important for our understanding of binary stellar evolution in systems where mass loss or transfer take place involving RGB/AGB stars. The elemental abundances of symbiotic giants can track the mass exchange history and can determine their parent stellar population. However, the number of these objects with fairly well determined photospheric composition is insufficient for statistical considerations. Here we present the detailed chemical abundance analysis obtained for the first time for 14 M-type symbiotic giants. The analysis is based on the high resolution (R ˜ 50000), high S/N ˜ 100, near-IR spectra (at H- and K-band regions) obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. Spectrum synthesis employing standard LTE analysis and atmosphere models was used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis reveals mostly slightly sub-solar or near-solar metallicities. We obtained significantly subsolar metallicities for RW Hya, RT Ser, and Hen 3-1213 and slightly super-solar metallicity in V455 Sco. The very low ^{12}C/^{13}C isotopic ratios, ˜6-11, and significant enrichment in nitrogen ^{14}N isotope in almost all giants in our sample indicate that they have experienced the first dredge-up.

  6. Principal component analysis on chemical abundances spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-04-01

    In preparation for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph (HERMES) chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. This leads to a way to study the origin of elements from observed chemical abundances using principal component analysis. We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disc stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. By studying solar-neighbourhood stars, we confirm the universality of the r-process that tends to produce [neutron-capture elements/Fe] in a constant ratio. We find that, especially at low metallicity, the production of r-process elements is likely to be associated with the production of α-elements. This may support the core-collapse supernovae as the r-process site. We also verify the overabundances of light s-process elements at low metallicity, and find that the relative contribution decreases at higher metallicity, which suggests that this lighter elements primary process may be associated with massive stars. We also verify the contribution from the s-process in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars at high metallicity. Our analysis reveals two types of core-collapse supernovae: one produces mainly α-elements, the other produces both α-elements and Fe-peak elements with a large enhancement of heavy Fe-peak elements which may be the contribution from hypernovae. Excluding light elements that may be subject to internal mixing, K and Cu, we find that the [X/Fe] chemical abundance space in the solar neighbourhood has about six independent dimensions both at low metallicity (-3.5 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲-2) and high metallicity ([Fe/H] ≳-1). However the dimensions come from very different origins in these two cases. The extra contribution from low-mass AGB

  7. Abundance analysis of s-process enhanced barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-12-01

    Detailed chemical composition studies of stars with enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements can provide observational constraints for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis studies and clues for understanding their contribution to the Galactic chemical enrichment. We present abundance results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a sample of four chemically peculiar stars characterized by s-process enhancement. High-resolution spectra (R ˜ 42 000) of these objects spanning a wavelength range from 4000 to 6800 Å are taken from the ELODIE archive. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature Teff, the surface gravity log g and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. We report estimates of elemental abundances for several neutron-capture elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. While HD 49641 and HD 58368 show [Ba/Fe] ≥ 1.16, the other two objects HD 119650 and HD 191010 are found to be mild barium stars with [Ba/Fe] ˜ 0.4. The derived abundances of the elements are interpreted on the basis of existing theories for understanding their origin and evolution.

  8. Detailed homogeneous abundance studies of 14 Galactic s-process enriched post-AGB stars: In search of lead (Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Karakas, A. I.; Manick, R.

    2016-03-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of Galactic and extragalactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The goal at large is to provide improved observational constraints to the models of the complex interplay between the AGB s-process nucleosynthesis and the associated mixing processes. Aims: Lead (Pb) is the final product of the s-process nucleosynthesis and is predicted to have large overabundances with respect to other s-process elements in AGB stars of low metallicities. However, Pb abundance studies of s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds show a discrepancy between observed and predicted Pb abundances. The determined upper limits based on spectral studies are much lower than what is predicted. In this paper, we focus specifically on the Pb abundance of 14 Galactic s-process enhanced post-AGB stars to check whether the same discrepancy is present in the Galaxy as well. Among these 14 objects, two were not yet subject to a detailed abundance study in the literature. We apply the same method to obtain accurate abundances for the 12 others. Our homogeneous abundance results provide the input of detailed spectral synthesis computations in the spectral regions where Pb lines are located. Methods: We used high-resolution UVES and HERMES spectra for detailed spectral abundance studies of our sample of Galactic post-AGB stars. None of the sample stars display clear Pb lines, and we only deduced upper limits of the Pb abundance by using spectrum synthesis in the spectral ranges of the strongest Pb lines. Results: We do not find any clear evidence of Pb overabundances in our sample. The derived upper limits are strongly correlated with the effective temperature of the stars with increasing upper limits for increasing effective temperatures. We obtain stronger Pb constraints on the cooler objects. Moreover, we confirm the s-process enrichment and carbon enhancement of two

  9. A Detailed Study of Giants and Horizontal Branch Stars in M68: Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeuble, M.; Preston, G.; Sneden, C.; Thompson, I. B.; Shectman, S. A.; Burley, G. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed high-resolution spectroscopic study of post main sequence stars in the globular cluster (GC) M68. Our sample, which covers a range of 4000 K in {{T}eff}, and 3.5 dex in log(g), is comprised of members from the red giant, red horizontal, and blue horizontal branch, making this the first high-resolution GC study covering such a large evolutionary and parameter space. Initially, atmospheric parameters were determined using photometric as well as spectroscopic methods, both of which resulted in unphysical and unexpected {{T}eff}, log(g), {{ξ }t}, and [Fe/H] combinations. We therefore developed a hybrid approach that addresses most of these problems, and yields atmospheric parameters that agree well with other measurements in the literature. Furthermore, our derived stellar metallicities are consistent across all evolutionary stages, with < [Fe/H]> = -2.42 (σ = 0.14) from 25 stars. Chemical abundances obtained using our methodology also agree with previous studies and bear all the hallmarks of GCs, such as a Na-O anti-correlation, constant Ca abundances, and mild r-process enrichment.

  10. High-resolution abundance analysis of HD 140283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Korotin, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. HD 140283 is a reference subgiant that is metal poor and confirmed to be a very old star. The element abundances of this type of old star can constrain the nature and nucleosynthesis processes that occurred in its (even older) progenitors. The present study may shed light on nucleosynthesis processes yielding heavy elements early in the Galaxy. Aims: A detailed analysis of a high-quality spectrum is carried out, with the intent of providing a reference on stellar lines and abundances of a very old, metal-poor subgiant. We aim to derive abundances from most available and measurable spectral lines. Methods: The analysis is carried out using high-resolution (R = 81 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (800 analysis in non-LTE (NLTE) is based on the MULTI code. We present LTE abundances for 26 elements, and NLTE calculations for the species C i, O i, Na i, Mg i, Al i, K i, Ca i, Sr ii, and Ba ii lines. Results: The abundance analysis provided an extensive line list suitable for metal-poor subgiant stars. The results for Li, CNO, α-, and iron peak elements are in good agreement with literature. The newly NLTE Ba abundance, along with a NLTE Eu correction and a 3D Ba correction from literature, leads to [Eu/Ba] = + 0.59 ± 0.18. This result confirms a dominant r-process contribution, possibly together with a very small contribution from the main s-process, to the neutron-capture elements in HD 140283. Overabundances of the lighter heavy elements and the high abundances derived for Ba, La, and Ce favour the operation of the weak r-process in HD 140283

  11. Detailed abundances of a large sample of giant stars in M 54 and in the Sagittarius nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; Lucatello, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Catanzaro, G.; Leone, F.; Momany, Y.; Piotto, G.; D'Orazi, V.

    2010-09-01

    Homogeneous abundances of light elements, α-elements, and Fe-group elements from high-resolution FLAMES spectra are presented for 76 red giant stars in NGC 6715 (M 54), a massive globular cluster (GC) lying in the nucleus of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. We also derived detailed abundances for 27 red giants belonging to the Sgr nucleus. Our abundances measure the intrinsic metallicity dispersion (~0.19 dex, rms scatter) of M 54, with the bulk of stars peaking at [Fe/H] ~ -1.6 and a long tail extending to higher metallicities, similar to ω Cen. The spread in these probable nuclear star clusters exceeds those of most GCs: these massive clusters are located in a region intermediate between normal GCs and dwarf galaxies. The GC M 54 exibits a Na-O anticorrelation, a typical signature of GCs, which is instead absent for the Sgr nucleus. The light elements (Mg, Al, Si) participating in the high temperature Mg-Al cycle show that the entire pattern of (anti)correlations produced by proton-capture reactions in H-burning is clearly different between the most metal-rich and most metal-poor components in the two most massive GCs in the Galaxy, confirming early results based on the Na-O anticorrelation. As in ω Cen, stars affected by most extreme processing, i.e. showing the signature of more massive polluters, are those of the metal-rich component. These observations can be understood if the burst of star formation giving birth to the metal-rich component was delayed by as much as 10-30 Myr with respect to the metal-poor one. The evolution of these massive GCs can be easily reconciled in the general scenario for the formation of GCs sketched previously by ourselves, taking into account that ω Cen may have already incorporated the surrounding nucleus of its progenitor and lost the remainder of the hosting galaxy while the two are still observable as distinct components in M 54 and the surrounding field. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 081.D

  12. New records and detailed distribution and abundance of selected arthropod species collected between 1999 and 2011 in Azorean native forests

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Clara; Crespo, Luís Carlos Fonseca; Rigal, François; Cardoso, Pedro; Pereira, Fernando; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R.; Melo, Catarina; Aguiar, Carlos; André, Genage; Mendonça, Enésima P.; Ribeiro, Sérvio; Hortal, Joaquín; Santos, Ana M.C.; Barcelos, Luís; Enghoff, Henrik; Mahnert, Volker; Pita, Margarida T.; Ribes, Jordi; Baz, Arturo; Sousa, António B.; Vieira, Virgílio; Wunderlich, Jörg; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Whittaker, Robert J.; Quartau, José Alberto; Serrano, Artur R.M.; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In this contribution we present detailed distribution and abundance data for arthropod species identified during the BALA – Biodiversity of Arthropods from the Laurisilva of the Azores (1999-2004) and BALA2 projects (2010-2011) from 18 native forest fragments in seven of the nine Azorean islands (all excluding Graciosa and Corvo islands, which have no native forest left). New information Of the total 286 species identified, 81% were captured between 1999 and 2000, a period during which only 39% of all the samples were collected. On average, arthropod richness for each island increased by 10% during the time frame of these projects. The classes Arachnida, Chilopoda and Diplopoda represent the most remarkable cases of new island records, with more than 30% of the records being novelties. This study stresses the need to expand the approaches applied in these projects to other habitats in the Azores, and more importantly to other less surveyed taxonomic groups (e.g. Diptera and Hymenoptera). These steps are fundamental for getting a more accurate assessment of biodiversity in the archipelago. PMID:28174509

  13. Detailed Abundances of Planet-hosting Wide Binaries. I. Did Planet Formation Imprint Chemical Signatures in the Atmospheres of HD 20782/81?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Claude E., III; Schuler, Simon C.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Norris, John

    2014-06-01

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise echelle spectra obtained with Magellan/MIKE, we present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of both stars in the planet-hosting wide binary system HD 20782 + HD 20781. Both stars are G dwarfs, and presumably coeval, forming in the same molecular cloud. Therefore we expect that they should possess the same bulk metallicities. Furthermore, both stars also host giant planets on eccentric orbits with pericenters lsim0.2 AU. Here, we investigate if planets with such orbits could lead to the host stars ingesting material, which in turn may leave similar chemical imprints in their atmospheric abundances. We derived abundances of 15 elements spanning a range of condensation temperature, T C ≈ 40-1660 K. The two stars are found to have a mean element-to-element abundance difference of 0.04 ± 0.07 dex, which is consistent with both stars having identical bulk metallicities. In addition, for both stars, the refractory elements (T C >900 K) exhibit a positive correlation between abundance (relative to solar) and T C, with similar slopes of ≈1×10-4 dex K-1. The measured positive correlations are not perfect; both stars exhibit a scatter of ≈5×10-5 dex K-1 about the mean trend, and certain elements (Na, Al, Sc) are similarly deviant in both stars. These findings are discussed in the context of models for giant planet migration that predict the accretion of H-depleted rocky material by the host star. We show that a simple simulation of a solar-type star accreting material with Earth-like composition predicts a positive—but imperfect—correlation between refractory elemental abundances and T C. Our measured slopes are consistent with what is predicted for the ingestion of 10-20 Earths by each star in the system. In addition, the specific element-by-element scatter might be used to distinguish between planetary accretion and Galactic chemical evolution scenarios. The data presented herein were obtained at the Las Campanas

  14. Detailed abundances of planet-hosting wide binaries. I. Did planet formation imprint chemical signatures in the atmospheres of HD 20782/81?

    SciTech Connect

    Mack III, Claude E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Schuler, Simon C.; Norris, John

    2014-06-01

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise echelle spectra obtained with Magellan/MIKE, we present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of both stars in the planet-hosting wide binary system HD 20782 + HD 20781. Both stars are G dwarfs, and presumably coeval, forming in the same molecular cloud. Therefore we expect that they should possess the same bulk metallicities. Furthermore, both stars also host giant planets on eccentric orbits with pericenters ≲0.2 AU. Here, we investigate if planets with such orbits could lead to the host stars ingesting material, which in turn may leave similar chemical imprints in their atmospheric abundances. We derived abundances of 15 elements spanning a range of condensation temperature, T {sub C} ≈ 40-1660 K. The two stars are found to have a mean element-to-element abundance difference of 0.04 ± 0.07 dex, which is consistent with both stars having identical bulk metallicities. In addition, for both stars, the refractory elements (T {sub C} >900 K) exhibit a positive correlation between abundance (relative to solar) and T {sub C}, with similar slopes of ≈1×10{sup –4} dex K{sup –1}. The measured positive correlations are not perfect; both stars exhibit a scatter of ≈5×10{sup –5} dex K{sup –1} about the mean trend, and certain elements (Na, Al, Sc) are similarly deviant in both stars. These findings are discussed in the context of models for giant planet migration that predict the accretion of H-depleted rocky material by the host star. We show that a simple simulation of a solar-type star accreting material with Earth-like composition predicts a positive—but imperfect—correlation between refractory elemental abundances and T {sub C}. Our measured slopes are consistent with what is predicted for the ingestion of 10-20 Earths by each star in the system. In addition, the specific element-by-element scatter might be used to distinguish between planetary accretion and Galactic chemical evolution scenarios.

  15. Spectangular - Spectral Disentangling For Detailed Chemical Analysis Of Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablowski, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Disentangling of spectra helps to improve the orbit parameters and allows detailed chemical analysis. Spectangular is a GUI program written in C++ for spectral disentangling of spectra of SB1 and SB2 systems. It is based on singular value decomposition in the wavelength space and is coupled to an orbital solution.The results are the component spectra and the orbital parameters.

  16. Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test Array mounted at Level 4A - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  17. Local Mode Analysis: Decoding IR Spectra by Visualizing Molecular Details.

    PubMed

    Massarczyk, M; Rudack, T; Schlitter, J; Kuhne, J; Kötting, C; Gerwert, K

    2017-02-08

    Integration of experimental and computational approaches to investigate chemical reactions in proteins has proven to be very successful. Experimentally, time-resolved FTIR difference-spectroscopy monitors chemical reactions at atomic detail. To decode detailed structural information encoded in IR spectra, QM/MM calculations are performed. Here, we present a novel method which we call local mode analysis (LMA) for calculating IR spectra and assigning spectral IR-bands on the basis of movements of nuclei and partial charges from just a single QM/MM trajectory. Through LMA the decoding of IR spectra no longer requires several simulations or optimizations. The novel approach correlates the motions of atoms of a single simulation with the corresponding IR bands and provides direct access to the structural information encoded in IR spectra. Either the contributions of a particular atom or atom group to the complete IR spectrum of the molecule are visualized, or an IR-band is selected to visualize the corresponding structural motions. Thus, LMA decodes the detailed information contained in IR spectra and provides an intuitive approach for structural biologists and biochemists. The unique feature of LMA is the bidirectional analysis connecting structural details to spectral features and vice versa spectral features to molecular motions.

  18. Abundance analysis of the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalışkan, Ş.; Christlieb, N.; Grebel, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    We determine the elemental abundances of nine red giant stars belonging to Palomar 14 (Pal 14). Pal 14 is an outer halo globular cluster (GC) at a distance of ~70 kpc. Our abundance analysis is based on high-resolution spectra and one-dimensional stellar model atmospheres. We derived the abundances for the iron peak elements Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, the α-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, the light odd element Na, and the neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Dy, and Cu. Our data do not permit us to investigate light element (i.e., O to Mg) abundance variations. The neutron-capture elements show an r-process signature. We compare our measurements with the abundance ratios of inner and other outer halo GCs, halo field stars, GCs of recognized extragalactic origin, and stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). The abundance pattern of Pal 14 is almost identical to those of Pal 3 and Pal 4, the next distant members of the outer halo GC population after Pal 14. The abundance pattern of Pal 14 is also similar to those of the inner halo GCs, halo field stars, and GCs of recognized extragalactic origin, but differs from what is customarily found in dSphs field stars. The abundance properties of Pal 14, as well as those of the other outer halo GCs, are thus compatible with an accretion origin from dSphs. Whether or not GC accretion played a role, it seems that the formation conditions of outer halo GCs and GCs in dSphs were similar. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (Program IDs 077.B-0769).Tables A.1 and A.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/537/A83

  19. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Howard J.; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D.; Crewe, H. Kim; Gill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  20. Detailed proteomic analysis on DM: insight into its hypoallergenicity.

    PubMed

    Bertino, Enrico; Gastaldi, Daniela; Monti, Giovanna; Baro, Cristina; Fortunato, Donatella; Perono Garoffo, Lorenza; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Mussap, Michele; Conti, Amedeo

    2010-01-01

    Successful therapy in cow milk (CM) protein allergy rests upon completely eliminating CM proteins from the child's diet: it is thus necessary to provide a replacement food. Donkey milk (DM) has recently aroused scientific and clinical interest, above all among paediatric allergologists. A deeper knowledge of proteins in DM is necessary to evaluate the immunological and physiological properties of this natural substitute for cow's milk. The paper offers a detailed comparative analysis among the protein fractions of DM, CM and human milk, following an extensive proteomic study of the casein and whey proteins of DM performed by narrow pH range 2-DE. The detailed protein composition and structural features reported in this study provide insight into the molecular reasons for the hypoallergenicity of DM. Whole DM might constitute a valid substitute of CM in feeding children with CM protein allergy and it might also constitute the basis for formulas suitable for allergic subjects in the first year of life.

  1. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Julia E.; Martens, Kylee; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2016-12-01

    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high-resolution (R ˜ 60,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (< {{S}}/{{N}}> ˜ 100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1 m telescope and the Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤slant 0.06 dex (σ = 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 and W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only iron but with other elements analyzed in this study, suggesting the proposed connection between these two stars may be real.

  2. Service Vessel Analysis. Volume 2. Detailed District Plots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    263 SERVICE VESSEL ANALYSIS VOLUME 2 DETAILED DISTRICT V/2 PLOTSCU) TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS CENTER CAMBRIDGE MA G J SbRLIOTIS SEP 87 DOT-TSC-CG-87-Y...George J. Skaliotis, Ph.D. D T IC * 0 Transportation Systems Center $m L EC1 Cambridge, MA 02142 S CT iIr I Final ReportD September 1987 Approved for...Administration I I. Contra"t or Grat No. Transportation Systems Center Cambridge, MA 02142 13. Type of Rope"s end Period Cover"d 12. Sponsoring

  3. CanHiS: An Echelle Spectrograph for the Detailed Abundance Analyses of Solar-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Aguila, J. B.; Chavez, M.; Bertone, E.; Mujica, R.

    2013-04-01

    We present a description of the main optical features of CanHiS (Cananea High-resolution Spectrograph), a high performance - ≍ 160,000 and efficiency ≍ 36% Hunten et al. (1991), spectrograph conceived and constructed at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL, The University of Arizona) and permanently transferred in 2010 to the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (OAGH), in Cananea, Sonora. We also show the results of the first tests conducted at the OAGH and describe the possible optical upgrades for a wider spectral coverage range. The spectrograph will be used in a program devoted to the precise determination of stellar chemical abundances of nearby solar-like stars.

  4. Detailed abundances for a large sample of giant stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, M. J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Simmerer, J. E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: mcdonald@jb.man.ac.uk E-mail: jennifer@physics.utah.edu

    2014-01-01

    47 Tuc is an ideal target to study chemical evolution and globular cluster (GC) formation in massive more metal-rich GCs, as it is the closest massive GC. We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, La, and Eu in 164 red giant branch stars in the massive GC 47 Tuc using spectra obtained with both the Hydra multifiber spectrograph at the Blanco 4 m telescope and the FLAMES multiobject spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We find an average [Fe/H] = –0.79 ± 0.09 dex, consistent with literature values, as well as overabundances of alpha-elements ([α/Fe] ∼ 0.3 dex). The n-capture process elements indicate that 47 Tuc is r process-dominated ([Eu/La] = +0.24), and the light elements O, Na, and Al exhibit star-to-star variations. The Na-O anticorrelation, a signature typically seen in Galactic GCs, is present in 47 Tuc, and extends to include a small number of stars with [O/Fe] ∼ –0.5. Additionally, the [O/Na] ratios of our sample reveal that the cluster stars can be separated into three distinct populations. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrates that the O-poor/Na-rich stars are more centrally concentrated than the O-rich/Na-poor stars. The observed number and radial distribution of 47 Tuc's stellar populations, as distinguished by their light element composition, agrees closely with the results obtained from photometric data. We do not find evidence supporting a strong Na-Al correlation in 47 Tuc, which is consistent with current models of asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis yields.

  5. Null model analysis of species associations using abundance data.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Werner; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2010-11-01

    reinforces a previous meta-analysis of presence/absence matrices. However, using two of the metrics we detected a significant pattern of aggregation for plants and for the interaction matrices (which include plant-pollinator data sets). These results suggest that abundance matrices, analyzed with an appropriate null model, may be a powerful tool for quantifying patterns of species segregation and aggregation.

  6. Detailed Modeling and Analysis of the CPFM Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, William H.; Lloyd, Steven A.; DeMajistre, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of photolysis rate coefficients (or "j-values") is essential to determining the photochemical reaction rates that define ozone loss and other crucial processes in the atmosphere. j-Values can be calculated with radiative transfer models, derived from actinic flux observations, or inferred from trace gas measurements. The principal objective of this study is to cross-validate j-values from the Composition and Photodissociative Flux Measurement (CPFM) instrument during the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region In Summer (POLARIS) and SAGE I11 Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) field campaigns with model calculations and other measurements and to use this detailed analysis to improve our ability to determine j-values. Another objective is to analyze the spectral flux from the CPFM (not just the j-values) and, using a multi-wavelength/multi-species spectral fitting technique, determine atmospheric composition.

  7. A Detailed Spectroscopic Analysis of The EQ Pegasi System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Murphy, Simon; Riedel, Adric R.

    2015-01-01

    EQ Pegasi (GJ 896, HIP 116132 ) is a resolved binary system comprised of mid-M dwarfs at a distance of only 6.2 pc. The system has been studied extensively over a broad range of wavelengths from the X-ray to the radio. These observations reveal both components are variable, flare, and exhibit high levels of magnetic activity. The pair were recently proposed as members of a nearby young kinematic association on the basis of consistent Galactic kinematics, strong X-ray emission, and color-magnitude diagram position. Thus, they may be the closest pre-main-sequence system to the Sun. Here we present a detailed analysis of EQ Peg A and B using medium resolution spectra covering ~0.5-2.5 microns. We investigate spectral types, chromospheric activity indicators, lithium depletion, and gravity sensitive alkali lines and molecular bands to characterize the system and place constraints on its age.

  8. Detailed Uncertainty Analysis of the ZEM-3 Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are critical to the investigation of all thermoelectric systems. Therefore, it stands that the measurement uncertainty must be well understood to report ZT values which are accurate and trustworthy. A detailed uncertainty analysis of the ZEM-3 measurement system has been performed. The uncertainty analysis calculates error in the electrical resistivity measurement as a result of sample geometry tolerance, probe geometry tolerance, statistical error, and multi-meter uncertainty. The uncertainty on Seebeck coefficient includes probe wire correction factors, statistical error, multi-meter uncertainty, and most importantly the cold-finger effect. The cold-finger effect plagues all potentiometric (four-probe) Seebeck measurement systems, as heat parasitically transfers through thermocouple probes. The effect leads to an asymmetric over-estimation of the Seebeck coefficient. A thermal finite element analysis allows for quantification of the phenomenon, and provides an estimate on the uncertainty of the Seebeck coefficient. The thermoelectric power factor has been found to have an uncertainty of +9-14 at high temperature and 9 near room temperature.

  9. Exploring the Milky Way stellar disk. A detailed elemental abundance study of 714 F and G dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to explore and map the age and abundance structure of the stars in the nearby Galactic disk. Methods: We have conducted a high-resolution spectroscopic study of 714 F and G dwarf and subgiant stars in the Solar neighbourhood. The star sample has been kinematically selected to trace the Galactic thin and thick disks to their extremes, the metal-rich stellar halo, sub-structures in velocity space such as the Hercules stream and the Arcturus moving group, as well as stars that cannot (kinematically) be associated with either the thin disk or the thick disk. The determination of stellar parameters and elemental abundances is based on a standard analysis using equivalent widths and one-dimensional, plane-parallel model atmospheres calculated under the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE). The spectra have high resolution (R = 40 000-110 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N = 150-300) and were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph on the ESO 1.5 m and 2.2 m telescopes, the SOFIN and FIES spectrographs on the Nordic Optical Telescope, the UVES spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope, the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6 m telescope, and the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope. The abundances from individual Fe i lines were were corrected for non-LTE effects in every step of the analysis. Results: We present stellar parameters, stellar ages, kinematical parameters, orbital parameters, and detailed elemental abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Y, and Ba for 714 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our data show that there is an old and α-enhanced disk population, and a younger and less α-enhanced disk population. While they overlap greatly in metallicity between -0.7 < [Fe/H] ≲ +0.1, they show a bimodal distribution in [α/Fe]. This bimodality becomes even clearer if stars where stellar parameters and abundances show larger uncertainties (Teff ≲ 5400 K) are discarded, showing that it is

  10. Impregnating unconsolidated pyroclastic sequences: A tool for detailed facies analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Daniel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Castro, Jon M.; Pacheco, Jose M. R.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    The interpretation of volcanic eruptions is usually derived from direct observation and the thorough analysis of the deposits. Processes in vent-proximal areas are usually not directly accessible or likely to be obscured. Hence, our understanding of proximal deposits is often limited as they were produced by the simultaneous events stemming from primary eruptive, transportative, and meteorological conditions. Here we present a method that permits for a direct and detailed quasi in-situ investigation of loose pyroclastic units that are usually analysed in the laboratory for their 1) grain-size distribution, 2) componentry, and 3) grain morphology. As the clast assembly is altered during sampling, the genesis of a stratigraphic unit and the relative importance of the above mentioned deposit characteristics is hard to achieve. In an attempt to overcome the possible loss of information during conventional sampling techniques, we impregnated the cleaned surfaces of proximal, unconsolidated units of the 1957-58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial, Azores. During this basaltic, emergent eruption, fluxes in magma rise rate led to a repeated build-up and collapse of tuff cones and consequently to a shift between phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptive style. The deposits are a succession of generally parallel bedded, cm- to dm-thick layers with a predominantly ashy matrix. The lapilli content is varying gradually; the content of bombs is enriched in discrete layers without clear bomb sags. The sample areas have been cleaned and impregnated with two-component glue (EPOTEK 301). For approx. 10 * 10 cm, a volume of mixed glue of 20 ml was required. Using a syringe, this low-viscosity, transparent glue could be easily applied on the target area. We found that the glue permeated the deposit as deep as 5 mm. After > 24 h, the glue was sufficiently dry to enable the sample to be laid open. This impregnation method renders it possible to cut and polish the sample and investigate grain

  11. Impregnating unconsolidated pyroclastic sequences: A tool for detailed facies analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, D.; Kueppers, U.; Castro, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The interpretation of volcanic eruptions is usually derived from direct observation and the thorough analysis of the deposits. Processes in vent-proximal areas are usually not directly accessible or likely to be obscured. Hence, our understanding of proximal deposits is often limited as they were produced by the simultaneous events stemming from primary eruptive, transportative, and meteorological conditions. Here we present a method that permits for a direct and detailed quasi in-situ investigation of loose pyroclastic units that are usually analysed in the laboratory for their 1) grain-size distribution, 2) componentry, and 3) grain morphology. As the clast assembly is altered during sampling, the genesis of a stratigraphic unit and the relative importance of the above mentioned deposit characteristics is hard to achieve. In an attempt to overcome the possible loss of information during conventional sampling techniques, we impregnated the cleaned surfaces of proximal, unconsolidated units of the 1957-58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial, Azores. During this basaltic, emergent eruption, fluxes in magma rise rate led to a repeated build-up and collapse of tuff cones and consequently to a shift between phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptive style. The deposits are a succession of generally parallel bedded, cm- to dm-thick layers with a predominantly ashy matrix. The lapilli content is varying gradually; the content of bombs is enriched in discrete layers without clear bomb sags. The sample areas have been cleaned and impregnated with a two-component glue (EPOTEK 301). For approx. 10 * 10 cm, a volume of mixed glue of 20 ml was required. This low-viscosity, transparent glue allowed for an easy application on the target area by means of a syringe and permeated the deposit as deep as 5 mm. After > 24 h, the glue was sufficiently dry to enable the sample to be laid open. This impregnation method renders it possible to cut and polish the sample and investigate grain

  12. A Differential Abundance Analysis of Very Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Erin M.; McWilliam, Andrew; Chaboyer, Brian; Thompson, Ian

    2017-04-01

    We have performed a differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis, ultimately relative to the Sun, of nine very metal-poor main-sequence (MS) halo stars, near [Fe/H] = ‑2 dex. Our abundances range from -2.66≤slant [{Fe}/{{H}}]≤slant -1.40 dex with conservative uncertainties of 0.07 dex. We find an average [α/Fe] = 0.34 ± 0.09 dex, typical of the Milky Way. While our spectroscopic atmosphere parameters provide good agreement with Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes, there is significant disagreement with temperature and gravity parameters indicated by observed colors and theoretical isochrones. Although a systematic underestimate of the stellar temperature by a few hundred degrees could explain this difference, it is not supported by current effective temperature studies and would create large uncertainties in the abundance determinations. Both 1D and < 3{{D}}> hydrodynamical models combined with separate 1D non-LTE effects do not yet account for the atmospheres of real metal-poor MS stars, but a fully 3D non-LTE treatment may be able to explain the ionization imbalance found in this work.

  13. MEASURING DETAILED CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES FROM CO-ADDED MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. I. TESTS USING MILKY WAY DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Lei; Peng, Eric W.; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2013-05-01

    The ability to measure metallicities and {alpha}-element abundances in individual red giant branch (RGB) stars using medium-resolution spectra (R Almost-Equal-To 6000) is a valuable tool for deciphering the nature of Milky Way dwarf satellites and the history of the Galactic halo. Extending such studies to more distant systems like Andromeda is beyond the ability of the current generation of telescopes, but by co-adding the spectra of similar stars, we can attain the necessary signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to make detailed abundance measurements. In this paper, we present a method to determine metallicities and {alpha}-element abundances using the co-addition of medium-resolution spectra. We test the method of spectral co-addition using high-S/N spectra of more than 1300 RGB stars from Milky Way globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies obtained with the Keck II telescope/DEIMOS spectrograph. We group similar stars using photometric criteria and compare the weighted ensemble average abundances ([Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]) of individual stars in each group with the measurements made on the corresponding co-added spectrum. We find a high level of agreement between the two methods, which permits us to apply this co-added spectra technique to more distant RGB stars, like stars in the M31 satellite galaxies. This paper outlines our spectral co-addition and abundance measurement methodology and describes the potential biases in making these measurements.

  14. Detailed Analysis of the Interoccurrence Time Statistics in Seismic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Aizawa, Yoji

    2017-02-01

    The interoccurrence time statistics of seismiciry is studied theoretically as well as numerically by taking into account the conditional probability and the correlations among many earthquakes in different magnitude levels. It is known so far that the interoccurrence time statistics is well approximated by the Weibull distribution, but the more detailed information about the interoccurrence times can be obtained from the analysis of the conditional probability. Firstly, we propose the Embedding Equation Theory (EET), where the conditional probability is described by two kinds of correlation coefficients; one is the magnitude correlation and the other is the inter-event time correlation. Furthermore, the scaling law of each correlation coefficient is clearly determined from the numerical data-analysis carrying out with the Preliminary Determination of Epicenter (PDE) Catalog and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Catalog. Secondly, the EET is examined to derive the magnitude dependence of the interoccurrence time statistics and the multi-fractal relation is successfully formulated. Theoretically we cannot prove the universality of the multi-fractal relation in seismic activity; nevertheless, the theoretical results well reproduce all numerical data in our analysis, where several common features or the invariant aspects are clearly observed. Especially in the case of stationary ensembles the multi-fractal relation seems to obey an invariant curve, furthermore in the case of non-stationary (moving time) ensembles for the aftershock regime the multi-fractal relation seems to satisfy a certain invariant curve at any moving times. It is emphasized that the multi-fractal relation plays an important role to unify the statistical laws of seismicity: actually the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Weibull distribution are unified in the multi-fractal relation, and some universality conjectures regarding the seismicity are briefly discussed.

  15. Estimating Culicoides sonorensis biting midge abundance using digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Osborne, C J; Mayo, C E; Mullens, B A; Maclachlan, N J

    2014-12-01

    ImageJ is an open-source software tool used for a variety of scientific objectives including cell counting, shape analysis and image correction. This technology has previously been used to estimate mosquito abundance in surveillance efforts. However, the utility of this application for estimating abundance or parity in the surveillance of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) has not yet been tested. Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth and Jones), a biting midge often measuring 2.0-2.5 mm in length, is an economically important vector of ruminant arboviruses in California. Current surveillance methods use visual sorting for the characteristics of midges and are very time-intensive for large studies. This project tested the utility of ImageJ as a tool to assist in gross trap enumeration as well as in parity analysis of C. sonorensis in comparison with traditional visual methods of enumeration using a dissecting microscope. Results confirmed that automated counting of midges is a reliable means of approximating midge numbers under certain conditions. Further evaluation confirmed accurate and time-efficient parity analysis in comparison with hand sorting. The ImageJ software shows promise as a tool that can assist and expedite C. sonorensis surveillance. Further, these methods may be useful in other insect surveillance activities.

  16. Detailed analysis of structure and particle trajectories in sheared suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeffrey; Katyal, Bhavana

    1999-11-01

    The structure and particle dynamics of sheared suspensions of hard spheres over a range of shear strength to Brownain motion (Péclet number, Pe) have been studied by detailed analysis of extended sampling of Stokesian Dynamics simulations of simple shear. The emphasis is upon large Pe. The structure has been analyzed by decomposition of the pair distribution function, g(r), into spherical harmonics; the harmonics are a complete set for the decompositon. The results indicate a profound and very marked change in structure due to shearing. It is shown that as Pe increases, the structure is increasingly distorted from teh equilibrium spherical symmetry and the number of harmonics required to recompose the original data to within an arbitrary accuracy increases, and this variation depends upon particle fraction. We present information on the content of the dominant harmonics as a function of radial distance for a pair, and interpret the results in terms of preferred directions in the material. Dynamic particle trajectories at time scales long relative to that used for the Brownian step are analyzed in a novel fashion by simple differential geometric measures, such as root mean square path curvature and torsion. Preliminary results illustrate that the path variation from mean flow correlates with the particle stress.

  17. CD −24°17504 REVISITED: A NEW COMPREHENSIVE ELEMENT ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Frebel, Anna

    2015-07-20

    With [Fe/H] ∼ −3.3, CD −24°17504 is a canonical metal-poor main-sequence turn-off star. Though it has appeared in numerous literature studies, the most comprehensive abundance analysis for the star based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra is nearly 15 years old. We present a new detailed abundance analysis for 21 elements based on combined archival Keck-HIRES and Very Large Telescope-UVES spectra of the star that is higher in both spectral resolution and S/N than previous data. Our results are very similar to those of an earlier comprehensive study of the star, but we present for the first time a carbon abundance from the CH G-band feature as well as improved upper limits for neutron-capture species such as Y, Ba, and Eu. In particular, we find that CD −24°17504 has [Fe/H] = −3.41, [C/Fe] = +1.10, [Sr/H] = −4.68, and [Ba/H] ≤ −4.46, making it a carbon-enhanced metal-poor star with neutron-capture element abundances among the lowest measured in Milky Way halo stars.

  18. A Content Analysis of Officer Perceptions of Detailing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    available The detailer was aware 4P /lN 1P/1N 6N 5P/8N of the officer’s career needs and provided use- ful career counseling to the officer The detailer...at this pt of seniority ( brand new LCDR shortly) Squadron tour-career suicide. Detailer worked very hard, I feel, to help me out. 2 (2) If (needs of...employment market . 3 A consideration for staying in the service past my eligi- bility date would be selection to 0-6; however, I feel the promotion process

  19. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  20. Abundance analysis of barium and mild barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We compare and discuss abundances and trends in normal giants, mild barium, and barium stars, searching for differences and similarities between barium and mild barium stars that could help shed some light on the origin of these similar objects. Also, we search for nucleosynthetic effects possibly related to the s-process that were observed in the literature for elements like Cu in other types of s-process enriched stars. Methods: High signal to noise, high resolution spectra were obtained for a sample of normal, mild barium, and barium giants. Atmospheric parameters were determined from the Fe i and Fe ii lines. Abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd, were determined from equivalent widths and model atmospheres in a differential analysis, with the red giant ɛ Vir as the standard star. Results: The different levels of s-process overabundances of barium and mild barium stars were earlier suggested to be related to the stellar metallicity. Contrary to this suggestion, we found in this work no evidence of barium and mild barium having a different range in metallicity. However, comparing the ratio of abundances of heavy to light s-process elements, we found some evidence that they do not share the same neutron exposure parameter. The exact mechanism controlling this difference is still not clear. As a by-product of this analysis we identify two normal red giants misclassified as mild barium stars. The relevance of this finding is discussed. Concerning the suggested nucleosynthetic effects possibly related to the s-process, for elements like Cu, Mn, V and Sc, we found no evidence for an anomalous behavior in any of the s-process enriched stars analyzed here. However, further work is still needed since a clear [Cu/Fe] vs. [Ba/Fe] anticorrelation exists for other s-process enriched objects. Observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile, within the ON/ESO agreements. Tables 8-10 are only

  1. A detailed petrological analysis of hydrated, low-nickel, nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    A detailed petrological analysis of three low-Ni, K-bearing, nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles is performed, and these particles are compared to products of high-energy, explosive (Plinian-type) volcanic events. The analytical electron microscope (AEM) analyses show pervasive layer silicates, carbonate and goethite, and chemical fractionation in the matrix of these particles similar to hydrothermal alteration in volcanic ejecta. Along with low Ni content and the presence of potassium, the texture and mineralogy of particles L2001-18, L2001-20, and L2002 C2 are similar to at least two nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles of the igneous subgroup for which an extraterrestrial origin has been suggested based on their minor- and trace-element abundances. The petrological characteristics of some low-Ni, K-bearing nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles supports a probable terrestrial volcanic origin, but the AEM data alone cannot exclude an extraterrestrial origin for these particles.

  2. Chemical analysis of CH stars - II. Atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed chemical analyses for a sample of 12 stars selected from the CH star catalogue of Bartkevicius. The sample includes two confirmed binaries, four objects that are known to show radial velocity variations and the rest with no information on the binary status. A primary objective is to examine if all these objects exhibit chemical abundances characteristics of CH stars, based on detailed chemical composition study using high-resolution spectra. We have used high-resolution (R ˜ 42 000) spectra from the ELODIE archive. These spectra cover 3900 to 6800 Å in the wavelength range. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature Teff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. Estimated temperatures of these objects cover a wide range from 4200 to 6640 K, the surface gravity from 0.6 to 4.3 and metallicity from -0.13 to -1.5. We report updates on elemental abundances for several heavy elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. For the object HD 89668, we present the first abundance analyses results. Enhancement of heavy elements relative to Fe, a characteristic property of CH stars is evident from our analyses in the case of four objects, HD 92545, HD 104979, HD 107574 and HD 204613. A parametric-model-based study is performed to understand the relative contributions from the s- and r-process to the abundances of the heavy elements.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of the Spectrum of the B3 Abundance Standard iota Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Adelman, S. J.; Gulliver, A.

    2010-01-01

    Iota Herculis is an ultrasharp-lined B3IV star that historically has been considered as an abundance standard for the early B stars. New abundances of the lighter and Fe group elements have been determined with the aid of high resolution spectral data from HST/STIS and the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. The HST spectra were obtained with the STIS E140M and E230M gratings and cover the region 1160-2350 A with a 2-pixel spectral resolution that varies from 0.03-0.08 A. The DAO spectral atlas covers 3820-5350 A in the second order with a 2-pixel resolution 0.072 A. We compare theoretical spectra computed from the NLTE code TLUSTY/SYNSPEC (I. Hubeny & T. Lanz, ApJ, 439,875,1995) and the LTE code ATLAS9/SYNTHE (R. Kurucz, 1993, CD-ROMs 13 & 18) with the observations. The model parameters adopted for the star are Teff = 17,500 K, log g = 3.75, Vturb = 0 km/s, and vsin i = 5 km/s. Solar abundances appear to prevail for the lighter elements but the abundances of Fe group elements are 0.1-0.3 dex below the solar values given by Asplund, Grevesse, & Sauval (2005). In general the NLTE calculations fit the observations better, especially for lines formed high in the atmosphere such as the C I lines near 1260 A. The detailed analysis of the spectrum of this standard star not only allows one to determine the abundances in the atmosphere of a typical field B star but also presents the opportunity to assess the accuracy of atomic parameters for UV lines and find astrophysical f-values. The authors appreciate support from NASA and STScI grants NAG5-11802 and GO-09848. SJA was a guest observer at DAO.

  4. Rock type identification and abundance estimation from hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jilu

    This study explores the usefulness of hyperspectral data to discriminate rock units and estimate the abundance of sulfides in rocks. Airborne visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) hyperspectral data collected from northern Cape Smith, Quebec and laboratory thermal infrared reflectance (TIR) data measured on rock samples from eight different mines in the Sudbury Basin, Ontario are involved in the analysis. The study addressed four different geological application scenarios with the aim of retrieving useful lithological information from rock spectra while minimizing the influence of varying environmental factors. The research first examines the effects of topography on the selection of rock endmembers from airborne VIS_NIR spectra and demonstrates how a topographic correction process can improve the discrimination of rock units. It demonstrates that traditional ways of selecting spectral endmembers from hyperspectral data for areas of rugged terrain cannot provide representative rock unit signatures. The second part of the research targeted the mapping of wall rock in an underground environment using TIR spectra. Rock samples from mines of the Sudbury Basin in Ontario were measured using naturally broken surfaces both dry and wet to address environmental conditions encountered underground. An innovative method applying a spectral angle mapper on the 2nd derivative of rock spectra from 700--1300 cm-1 was proved to be robust to remove the effect of liquid water, local geometry and disseminated sulfide ores while preserving diagnostic rock signatures for mapping. The study then focuses on retrieving sulfide information from TIR to estimate ore (total sulfide abundance) grade on naturally broken rock faces and separate ore-bearing rocks from their host rocks in an underground environment regardless of rock types. An important finding is that reflectance at 1319 cm -1, where most silicate rocks demonstrate low reflectance, is related to total sulfide concentration in rocks

  5. Task analysis: a detailed example of stepping up from JSA

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.W.; Paramore, B.A.; Buys, J.R.

    1984-10-01

    This paper discusses a pilot task analysis of operations in a proposed facility for the cutting and packaging of radioactively contaminated gloveboxes, for long-term storage or burial. The objective was to demonstrate how task analysis may be used as a tool for planning and risk management. Two specific products were generated - preliminary operating procedures and training requirements. The task data base, procedures list and training requirements developed were intended as first order categorizations. The analysis was limited to tasks that will be performed within the boundaries of the operational facility and the associated load-out area. The analysis documents tasks to be performed by D and D (Decontamination and Decommissioning) Workers. However, the analysis included all tasks identified as an integral part of glovebox processing within the facility. Thus tasks involving Radiation Protection Technicians (RPTs) are included. Based on hazard assessments, it is planned that at least two RPTs will be assigned full-time to the facility, so they may be considered part of its crew. Similarly, supervisory/administrative tasks are included where they were determined to be directly part of process sequences, such as obtaining appropriate certification. 11 tables.

  6. An analysis of commitment strategies in planning: The details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steven; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark; Philips, Andrew B.

    1991-01-01

    We compare the utility of different commitment strategies in planning. Under a 'least commitment strategy', plans are represented as partial orders and operators are ordered only when interactions are detected. We investigate claims of the inherent advantages of planning with partial orders, as compared to planning with total orders. By focusing our analysis on the issue of operator ordering commitment, we are able to carry out a rigorous comparative analysis of two planners. We show that partial-order planning can be more efficient than total-order planning, but we also show that this is not necessarily so.

  7. 78 FR 66929 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis AGENCY: Policy and Planning Division, Export-Import Bank of... public of its intent to conduct a detailed economic impact analysis regarding a loan guarantee to support... does not meet the substantial injury threshold and is therefore not subject to a detailed...

  8. The Kirki episode: Detailed biomarker analysis provides some surprises

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, T.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.

    1996-12-31

    On Sunday 21st July 1991 the oil tanker Kirki caught fire when its bow broke off in heavy seas just 40 km off the Western Australian coastline near Jurien, approximately 200 km north of Perth. The tanker was carrying 80,000 tonnes of Murban light crude oil from the Middle East. Over the next three days approximately 10,000 tonnes of this oil was released into the marine environment, the heavy seas rapidly spreading the oil slick to a thin sheen. There was extensive media coverage of this event and it was widely considered that the spill posed a serious environmental threat to reef systems, recreational beaches and the local rock lobster fishery. This report describes results of analysis performed on several of the samples.

  9. Abundance Analysis of the Silicon Star HR 6958

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ken-Ichi

    2003-12-01

    The elemental composition of the chemically peculiar star HR6958 has been studied with emphasis on doubly ionized rare earths. A visual region spectrum taken with the ELODIE spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory was analyzed. A total of 40 elements including Pr III, Nd III, Tb III, Dy III, Ho III, and Er III were identified and their abundances computed. He is deficient by over 1dex with respect to the Sun; the light elements (C-Ca), except for Si, have solar abundances; the iron group elements (Sc-Fe) are overabundant by 1 dex to 2dex, with Ti and Cr highly overabundant; and the lanthanide rare earths are overabundant by 3dex to 4dex. This abundance pattern with He deficient, Si, Ti, Cr, Sr, and Pr overabundant indicates that HR6958 is a member of Si stars.

  10. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project III. Abundance Analysis of Three Bright Hamburg/ESO Survey Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. A.; Frebel, A.; Cowan, J. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Sneden, C.

    2008-08-01

    We present an abundance analysis of three newly discovered stars from the Hamburg/ESO survey for which HET observations have been obtained as part of the CASH project. Light elemental abundances of all three stars agree with those of other metal-poor stars. This means that they likely formed from well-mixed gas. Upper limits on the heavier neutron-capture abundances have not eliminated the possibility that these stars are r-process enhanced. However, the measured barium abundances are rather low.

  11. High-resolution elemental abundance analysis of the open cluster IC 4756

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Parker, Stacey Jo

    2012-11-01

    We present detailed elemental abundances of 12 subgiants in the open cluster IC 4756 including Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn and Ba. We measure the cluster to have [Fe/H] = -0.01 ± 0.10. Most of the measured star-to-star [X/H] abundance variation is below σ < 0.03, as expected from a coeval stellar population preserving natal abundance patterns, supporting the use of elemental abundances as a probe to reconstruct dispersed clusters. We find discrepancies between Cr I and Cr II abundances as well as between Ti I and Ti II abundances, where the ionized abundances are larger by about 0.2 dex. This follows other such studies which demonstrate the effects of overionization in cool stars. IC 4756 are supersolar in Mg, Si, Na and Al, but are solar in the other elements. The fact that IC 4756 is supersolar in some α-elements (Mg, Si) but solar in the others (Ca, Ti) suggests that the production of α-elements is not simply one dimensional and could be exploited for chemical tagging.

  12. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Hill, V.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Beers, T. C.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Cayrel, R.; François, P.; Schatz, H.; Wanajo, S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I; +0.3 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ +1.0) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II; [Eu/Fe] > +1.0), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. Aims: The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with -3.4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2.4 classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is (are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. Methods: We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph, using spectra in the wavelength ranges 3400-4500 Å, 6800-8200 Å, and 8700-10 000 Å, with resolving power R ~ 40 000 (blue arm) and R ~ 55 000 (red arm). The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. Results: We have derived abundances of the light elements Li, C, and N, the α-elements Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Al, K, and Sc, the iron-peak elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak (Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, and Pd), the second peak (Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb), the third peak (Os and Ir, as upper limits), and the actinides (Th) regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and "normal" very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements, and general behaviors for the 3D corrections

  13. Abundance analysis of the halo giant HD 122563 with three-dimensional model stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, R.; Nordlund, Å.; Asplund, M.; Hayek, W.; Trampedach, R.

    We present a preliminary local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis of the template halo red giant HD122563 based on a realistic, three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, hydrodynamical model atmosphere of the very metal-poor star. We compare the results of the 3D analysis with the abundances derived by means of a standard LTE analysis based on a classical, 1D, hydrostatic model atmosphere of the star. Due to the different upper photospheric temperature stratifications predicted by 1D and 3D models, we find large, negative, 3D-1D LTE abundance differences for low-excitation OH and Fe I lines. We also find trends with lower excitation potential in the derived Fe LTE abundances from Fe I lines, in both the 1D and 3D analyses. Such trends may be attributed to the neglected departures from LTE in the spectral line formation calculations.

  14. A Differential Abundance Analysis of the Wide Binary Pair HD 219542 A and B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadakane, Kozo; Ohkubo, Michiko; Honda, Satoshi

    2003-10-01

    The abundances of 22 elements (Li through Zr) in the A and B components of the visual pair HD 219542 were determined and compared using a differential analysis technique. Both components were found to be metal rich, [Fe/H] = +0.13, in the brighter component (A) and [Fe/H] = +0.08 in the fainter component (B). The abundances of three elements (Sc, Ti, and Fe) are definitely higher (by 0.05dex) in component A than in component B. On the other hand, both components have nearly identical abundances of the light element Si. No evidence has been found for differences in the abundances for C, O, Na, Mg, Al, S, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, and Zr. No clear correlation has been found between the differences in the abundance between the two components and the condensation temperature (Tc).

  15. Statistical analysis from recent abundance determinations in HgMn stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, S.; Alecian, G.

    2016-08-01

    To better understand the hot chemically peculiar group of HgMn stars, we have considered a compilation of a large number of recently published data obtained for these stars from spectroscopy. We compare these data to the previous compilation by Smith. We confirm the main trends of the abundance peculiarities, namely the increasing overabundances with increasing atomic number of heavy elements, and their large spread from star to star. For all the measured elements, we have looked for correlations between abundances and effective temperature (Teff). In addition to the known correlation for Mn, some other elements are found to show some connection between their abundances and Teff. We have also checked if multiplicity is a determinant parameter for abundance peculiarities determined for these stars. A statistical analysis using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the abundances anomalies in the atmosphere of HgMn stars do not present significant dependence on the multiplicity.

  16. Genomic analysis of membrane protein families: abundance and conserved motifs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Engelman, Donald M; Gerstein, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Background Polytopic membrane proteins can be related to each other on the basis of the number of transmembrane helices and sequence similarities. Building on the Pfam classification of protein domain families, and using transmembrane-helix prediction and sequence-similarity searching, we identified a total of 526 well-characterized membrane protein families in 26 recently sequenced genomes. To this we added a clustering of a number of predicted but unclassified membrane proteins, resulting in a total of 637 membrane protein families. Results Analysis of the occurrence and composition of these families revealed several interesting trends. The number of assigned membrane protein domains has an approximately linear relationship to the total number of open reading frames (ORFs) in 26 genomes studied. Caenorhabditis elegans is an apparent outlier, because of its high representation of seven-span transmembrane (7-TM) chemoreceptor families. In all genomes, including that of C. elegans, the number of distinct membrane protein families has a logarithmic relation to the number of ORFs. Glycine, proline, and tyrosine locations tend to be conserved in transmembrane regions within families, whereas isoleucine, valine, and methionine locations are relatively mutable. Analysis of motifs in putative transmembrane helices reveals that GxxxG and GxxxxxxG (which can be written GG4 and GG7, respectively; see Materials and methods) are among the most prevalent. This was noted in earlier studies; we now find these motifs are particularly well conserved in families, however, especially those corresponding to transporters, symporters, and channels. Conclusions We carried out a genome-wide analysis on patterns of the classified polytopic membrane protein families and analyzed the distribution of conserved amino acids and motifs in the transmembrane helix regions in these families. PMID:12372142

  17. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Direct Isotope Abundance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel J. Manard, Stephan Weeks, Kevin Kyle

    2010-05-27

    The nuclear forensics community is currently engaged in the analysis of illicit nuclear or radioactive material for the purposes of non-proliferations and attribution. One technique commonly employed for gathering nuclear forensics information is isotope analysis. At present, the state-of-the-art methodology for obtaining isotopic distributions is thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Although TIMS is highly accurate at determining isotope distributions, the technique requires an elementally pure sample to perform the measurement. The required radiochemical separations give rise to sample preparation times that can be in excess of one to two weeks. Clearly, the nuclear forensics community is in need of instrumentation and methods that can expedite their decision making process in the event of a radiological release or nuclear detonation. Accordingly, we are developing instrumentation that couples a high resolution IM drift cell to the front end of a MS. The IM cell provides a means of separating ions based upon their collision cross-section and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Two analytes with the same m/z, but with different collision cross-sections (shapes) would exit the cell at different times, essentially enabling the cell to function in a similar manner to a gas chromatography (GC) column. Thus, molecular and atomic isobaric interferences can be effectively removed from the ion beam. The mobility selected chemical species could then be introduced to a MS for high-resolution mass analysis to generate isotopic distributions of the target analytes. The outcome would be an IM/MS system capable of accurately measuring isotopic distributions while concurrently eliminating isobaric interferences and laboratory radiochemical sample preparation. The overall objective of this project is developing instrumentation and methods to produce near real-time isotope distributions with a modular mass spectrometric system that performs the required gas-phase chemistry and

  18. [Comparison of film-screen combination in a contrast detail diagram and with interactive image analysis. 1: Contrast detail diagram].

    PubMed

    Hagemann, G; Eichbaum, G

    1997-07-01

    The following three film-screen combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and c) a conventional green fluorescing screen film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) were obtained that contained bar patterns of lead and plaster (calcium sulfate) to test high and intermediate contrast resolution and bar patterns of air to test low contrast resolution, respectively. An aluminum step wedge was integrated to evaluate dose-density curves of the radiographs. The dose values for the various step thicknesses were measured as percentage of the dose value in air for 60, 81, and 117 kV. Exposure conditions were the following: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1), and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. The thresholds of visible bars of the various pattern materials were assessed by seven radiologists, one technician, and the authors. The resulting contrast detail diagram could not prove any significant differences between the three tested screen film combinations. The pairwise comparison, however, found 8 of the 18 paired differences to be statistically significant between the conventional and the two new screen-film combinations. The authors concluded that subjective visual assessment of the threshold in a contrast detail study alone is of only limited value to grade image quality if no well-defined criteria are used (BIR report 20 [1989] 137-139). The statistical approach of paired differences of the estimated means appeared to be more appropriate.

  19. A landscape analysis of cougar distribution and abundance in Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Riley, S J; Malecki, R A

    2001-09-01

    Recent growth in the distribution and abundance of cougars (Puma concolor) throughout western North America has created opportunities, challenges, and problems for wildlife managers and raises questions about what factors affect cougar populations. We present an analysis of factors thought to affect cougar distribution and abundance across the broad geographical scales on which most population management decisions are made. Our objectives were to: (1) identify and evaluate landscape parameters that can be used to predict the capability of habitats to support cougars, and (2) evaluate factors that may account for the recent expansion in cougar numbers. Habitat values based on terrain ruggedness and forested cover explained 73% of the variation in a cougar abundance index. Indices of cougar abundance also were spatially and temporally correlated with ungulate abundance. An increase in the number and total biomass of ungulate prey species is hypothesized to account for recent increases in cougars. Cougar populations in Montana are coping with land development by humans when other components of habitat and prey populations are sufficient. Our analysis provides a better understanding of what may have influenced recent growth in cougar distribution and abundance in Montana and, when combined with insights about stakeholder acceptance capacity, offers a basis for cougar management at broad scales. Long-term conservation of cougars necessitates a better understanding of ecosystem functions that affect prey distribution and abundance, more accurate estimates of cougar populations, and management abilities to integrate these components with human values.

  20. Detailed analysis of low energy plasma data under the Voyager Uranus data analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Belcher, John W.; Bagenal, Frances; Richardson, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Research effort included the PLS data analysis program where modifications to the data fitting procedure and elimination of possible noise and electron contamination were made. The analysis code corrections were used in checking the Neptune data gathered during the Voyager 2 encounter and for analyzing selected plasma spectra from the warm Io torus. A major task accomplished was the summary of Uranus-related research in the U.S. National Report to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics for the 1987 - 1990 quadrennium. A limited amount of work was accomplished on assessing the Pedersen conductivity of the ionosphere and comparing it with inferred values from shielding by the Uranian ring current. Under this grant there has been a great deal of effort expended on identifying and classifying plasma waves and oscillations in the magnetosheath and solar wind downstream from Uranus. Large amplitude oscillations in plasma parameters are found in the magnetosheath, with density changes of up to a factor of ten occurring on times scales of minutes. New algorithms developed for analyzing the inbound bow shock crossing of Neptune will probably be applied to a more detailed analysis of the Uranus shock in the near future.

  1. Analysis of Dynamic Interactions between Different Drivetrain Components with a Detailed Wind Turbine Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartschat, A.; Morisse, M.; Mertens, A.; Wenske, J.

    2016-09-01

    The presented work describes a detailed analysis of the dynamic interactions among mechanical and electrical drivetrain components of a modern wind turbine under the influence of parameter variations, different control mechanisms and transient excitations. For this study, a detailed model of a 2MW wind turbine with a gearbox, a permanent magnet synchronous generator and a full power converter has been developed which considers all relevant characteristics of the mechanical and electrical subsystems. This model includes an accurate representation of the aerodynamics and the mechanical properties of the rotor and the complete mechanical drivetrain. Furthermore, a detailed electrical modelling of the generator, the full scale power converter with discrete switching devices, its filters, the transformer and the grid as well as the control structure is considered. The analysis shows that, considering control measures based on active torsional damping, interactions between mechanical and electrical subsystems can significantly affect the loads and thus the individual lifetime of the components.

  2. 78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import... comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

  3. 78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public... United States. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to...

  4. Quantitative determination of mineral types and abundances from reflectance spectra using principal components analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.; Johnson, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure was developed for analyzing remote reflectance spectra, including multispectral images, that quantifies parameters such as types of mineral mixtures, the abundances of mixed minerals, and particle sizes. Principal components analysis reduced the spectral dimensionality and allowed testing the uniqueness and validity of spectral mixing models. By analyzing variations in the overall spectral reflectance curves, the type of spectral mixture was identified, mineral abundances quantified and the effects of particle size identified. The results demonstrate an advantage in classification accuracy over classical forms of analysis that ignore effects of particle-size or mineral-mixture systematics on spectra. The approach is applicable to remote sensing data of planetary surfaces for quantitative determinations of mineral abundances.

  5. A testing method for the machine details state by means of the speckle image parameters analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malov, A. N.; Pavlov, P. V.; Neupokoeva, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Non destructive testing method, allowing to define a residual resource of power details of mechanical engineering designs under the analysis of registered speckle-image parameters, it is discussed. The "chessboard" algorithm based on calculation of correlation between the given speckle-image and the a chessboard image is considered. Experimental research results of an offered non destructive testing method are presented. It is established, that to increase in quantity of a power detail tests cycles there is an increase in roughness parameters that conducts to reduction of correlation factor between reference and to resultants the image at the given stage of test. Knowing of correlation factor change dynamics, it is possible to define a residual resource of power details while in exploitation.

  6. Maturation trend in oils and asphalts of the Jordan Rift: Utilization of detailed vanadylporphyrin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizenshtat, Zeev; Sundararaman, Padmanabhan

    1989-12-01

    A comparison of analytical methods for porphyrin analysis shows that high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of intact vanadylporphyrins is more advantageous than, or superior to, mass spectral methods and is suited for routine analysis. HPLC has a higher resolving power compared with probe mass spectrometry. Detailed HPLC analysis of the vanadylporphyrins isolated from asphalts and oils from the Dead Sea area shows that the asphalts are products of early generation from an immature source rock. The light oils, Massada oil and Zuk Tamror, are more mature than the asphalts.

  7. Detailed requirements document for the integrated structural analysis system, phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements are defined for a software system entitled integrated Structural Analysis System (ISAS) Phase B which is being developed to provide the user with a tool by which a complete and detailed analysis of a complex structural system can be performed. This software system will allow for automated interface with numerous structural analysis batch programs and for user interaction in the creation, selection, and validation of data. This system will include modifications to the 4 functions developed for ISAS, and the development of 25 new functions. The new functions are described.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Mars Odyssey GRS Chemical Abundances with Other Mission Global Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Odyssey GRS Science Team

    2006-12-01

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument package has returned chemical abundance maps of the Martian surface for a suite of elements (Fe, Si, Cl, H, K, Th). Due to a low resolution (>250 km footprint), smoothing effects inherent to the instruments, and the data processing methods, analysis of smaller geologic features can be statistically problematic. However, mean elemental abundances can be determined for larger geologic provinces and specifically defined regions with enough areal extent to produce sufficiently robust statistics. Here we compare GRS-derived element abundances to other Martian global datasets in order to evaluate statistically and geologically meaningful differences. Although outlier regions exist, GRS data reveal a Martian surface more chemically homogeneous than the surfaces of the Earth or moon. Chemical variations are often subtle and difficult to discern. However, even with muted variation and large uncertainties, comparing GRS elemental means and other datasets still reveal statistically robust differences using standard z-statistic tests at high confidence intervals. Note that "statistically significant" differences may not be geologically significant. This method has been employed to determine subtle but statistically significant variations in several element abundances with apparent surface age (e.g., Fe and Cl abundances increase with younger ages; K and Th decrease with younger ages) revealing possible constraints on crustal evolution and surficial processes. We also compared the variations in elemental abundances to variations in specific mineralogies and dust abundance as determined by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument. This allows an important link between chemistry and mineralogy and further helps constrain the effects of surface dust on remote sensing data.

  9. Role of environmental factors in autoantibody production - importance of a detailed analysis in a small cohort

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Muro and colleagues reported a detailed epidemiologic analysis in central Japan on one of the new myositis-specific autoantibodies to MDA-5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5), which is associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis accompanying interstitial lung disease. The increasing prevalence of anti-MDA-5, higher prevalence in small rural towns, and geographical clustering in two areas along the Kiso River suggest a role of environmental factors associated with rural communities or the river/water system or both. A detailed analysis of a small cohort may offer clues, which is ignored in multi-center studies, to the pathogenesis of systemic rheumatic diseases and autoantibody production. PMID:22380573

  10. Detailed interpretation and analysis of selected corn blight watch data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Morgenstern, J. P.; Brown, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed interpretation and analysis of selected corn blight data set was undertaken in order to better define the present capabilities and limitations of agricultural remote multispectral sensing and automatic processing techniques and to establish the areas of investigation needing futher attention in the development of operational survey systems. While the emphasis of this effort was directed toward the detection of various corn blight levels, problems related to the more general task of crop identification were also investigated. Since the analog recognition computer (SPARC) was fully committed to the more routine aspects of processing and since the detailed interpretation and analysis required more in the way of quantitative information, the CDC 1604 digital computer was employed.

  11. NEON AND CNO ABUNDANCES FOR EXTREME HELIUM STARS-A NON-LTE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L. E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2011-02-01

    A non-LTE (NLTE) abundance analysis was carried out for three extreme helium stars (EHes): BD+10{sup 0} 2179, BD-9{sup 0} 4395, and LS IV+6{sup 0} 002, from their optical spectra with NLTE model atmospheres. NLTE TLUSTY model atmospheres were computed with H, He, C, N, O, and Ne treated in NLTE. Model atmosphere parameters were chosen from consideration of fits to observed He I line profiles and ionization equilibria of C and N ions. The program SYNSPEC was then used to determine the NLTE abundances for Ne as well as H, He, C, N, and O. LTE neon abundances from Ne I lines in the EHes: LSE 78, V1920 Cyg, HD 124448, and PV Tel, are derived from published models and an estimate of the NLTE correction applied to obtain the NLTE Ne abundance. We show that the derived abundances of these key elements, including Ne, are well matched with semi-quantitative predictions for the EHe resulting from a cold merger (i.e., no nucleosynthesis during the merger) of an He white dwarf with a C-O white dwarf.

  12. Tri-Service Champus Statistical Database Project (TCSDP): Champus Ambulatory Data Analysis. Detail Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-30

    3 AD-A277 998l IlEHhIlII TRI-SERVICE CHAMPUS STATISTICAL * oDATABASE PROJECT * (TCSDP) l CHAMPUS AMBULATORY DATA ANALYSIS DETAIL REPORT I OFFICE OF...or 5 3 All other requests for reports will be directed to the following: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service (NTIS...CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF REPORT * Distribution Unlimited 2b DECLASSIFICATIONI DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Public

  13. Detailed Uncertainty Analysis for Ares I Ascent Aerodynamics Wind Tunnel Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Walker, Eric L.; Houlden, Heather P.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed uncertainty analysis for the Ares I ascent aero 6-DOF wind tunnel database is described. While the database itself is determined using only the test results for the latest configuration, the data used for the uncertainty analysis comes from four tests on two different configurations at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel in St. Louis and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Four major error sources are considered: (1) systematic errors from the balance calibration curve fits and model + balance installation, (2) run-to-run repeatability, (3) boundary-layer transition fixing, and (4) tunnel-to-tunnel reproducibility.

  14. A DETAILED SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE PLANET-HOSTING STAR WASP-12

    SciTech Connect

    Fossati, L.; Elmasli, A.; Haswell, C. A.; Holmes, S. E-mail: elmasli@ankara.edu.t E-mail: s.holmes@open.ac.u

    2010-09-01

    The knowledge of accurate stellar parameters is paramount in several fields of stellar astrophysics, particularly in the study of extrasolar planets, where often the star is the only visible component and therefore used to infer the planet's fundamental parameters. Another important aspect of the analysis of planetary systems is the stellar activity and the possible star-planet interaction. Here, we present a self-consistent abundance analysis of the planet-hosting star WASP-12 and a high-precision search for a structured stellar magnetic field on the basis of spectropolarimetric observations obtained with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. Our results show that the star does not have a structured magnetic field, and that the obtained fundamental parameters are in good agreement with what was previously published. In addition, we derive improved constraints on the stellar age (1.0-2.65 Gyr), mass (1.23-1.49 M/M{sub sun}), and distance (295-465 pc). WASP-12 is an ideal object in which to look for pollution signatures in the stellar atmosphere. We analyze the WASP-12 abundances as a function of the condensation temperature and compare them with those published by several other authors on planet-hosting and non-planet-hosting stars. We find hints of atmospheric pollution in WASP-12's photosphere but are unable to reach firm conclusions with our present data. We conclude that a differential analysis based on WASP-12 twins will probably clarify whether an atmospheric pollution is present as well as the nature of this pollution and its implications in planet formation and evolution. We also attempt the direct detection of the circumstellar disk through infrared excess, but without success.

  15. Trelliscope: A System for Detailed Visualization in Analysis of Large Complex Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Gosink, Luke J.; McDermott, Jason E.; Rodland, Karin D.; Kleese-Van Dam, Kerstin; Cleveland, William S.

    2013-12-01

    Visualization plays a critical role in the statistical model building and data analysis process. Data analysts, well-versed in statistical and machine learning methods, visualize data to hypothesize and validate models. These analysts need flexible, scalable visualization tools that are not decoupled from their analysis environment. In this paper we introduce Trelliscope, a visualization framework for statistical analysis of large complex data. Trelliscope extends Trellis, an effective visualization framework that divides data into subsets and applies a plotting method to each subset, arranging the results in rows and columns of panels. Trelliscope provides a way to create, arrange and interactively view panels for very large datasets, enabling flexible detailed visualization for data of any size. Scalability is achieved using distributed computing technologies coupled with . We discuss the underlying principles, design, and scalable architecture of Trelliscope, and illustrate its use on three analysis projects in the domains of proteomics, high energy physics, and power systems engineering.

  16. Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei-Min; Kuick, Rork; Orchekowski, Randal P; Misek, David E; Qiu, Ji; Greenberg, Alissa K; Rom, William N; Brenner, Dean E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M

    2005-01-01

    Background Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Methods Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Results Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p < 0.01) for the lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as compared to COPD patients. Proteins that exhibited higher abundances in the lung cancer samples relative to the control samples included C-reactive protein (CRP; a 13.3 fold increase), serum amyloid A (SAA; a 2.0 fold increase), mucin 1 and α-1-antitrypsin (1.4 fold increases). The increased expression levels of CRP and SAA were validated by Western blot analysis. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to construct Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) classifiers. At a cutoff where all 56 of the non-tumor samples were correctly classified, 15/24 lung tumor patient sera were correctly classified. Conclusion Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer. PMID:16117833

  17. Zeptosens' protein microarrays: a novel high performance microarray platform for low abundance protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Michael; Schick, Eginhard; Bopp, Martin A; Schneider, Michael J; Oroszlan, Peter; Ehrat, Markus

    2002-04-01

    Protein microarrays are considered an enabling technology, which will significantly expand the scope of current protein expression and protein interaction analysis. Current technologies, such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with mass spectrometry, allowing the identification of biologically relevant proteins, have a high resolving power, but also considerable limitations. As was demonstrated by Gygi et al. (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 2000,97, 9390-9395), most spots in 2-DE, observed from whole cell extracts, are from high abundance proteins, whereas low abundance proteins, such as signaling molecules or kinases, are only poorly represented. Protein microarrays are expected to significantly expedite the discovery of new markers and targets of pharmaceutical interest, and to have the potential for high-throughput applications. Key factors to reach this goal are: high read-out sensitivity for quantification also of low abundance proteins, functional analysis of proteins, short assay analysis times, ease of handling and the ability to integrate a variety of different targets and new assays. Zeptosens has developed a revolutionary new bioanalytical system based on the proprietary planar waveguide technology which allows us to perform multiplexed, quantitative biomolecular interaction analysis with highest sensitivity in a microarray format upon utilizing the specific advantages of the evanescent field fluorescence detection. The analytical system, comprising an ultrasensitive fluorescence reader and microarray chips with integrated microfluidics, enables the user to generate a multitude of high fidelity data in applications such as protein expression profiling or investigating protein-protein interactions. In this paper, the important factors for developing high performance protein microarray systems, especially for targeting low abundant messengers of relevant biological information, will be discussed and the performance of the system will

  18. Comparison of different commercial FFDM units by means of physical characterization and contrast-detail analysis.

    PubMed

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Campanini, Renato; Bertolini, Marco; Borasi, Gianni; Nitrosi, Andrea; Danielli, Claudio; Angelini, Lidia; Maggi, Stefania

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a complete evaluation of three pieces of clinical digital mammography equipment. Image quality was assessed by performing physical characterization and contrast-detail (CD) analysis. We considered three different FFDM systems: a computed radiography unit (Fuji "FCR 5000 MA") and two flat-panel units, the indirect conversion a-Si based GE "Senographe 2000D" and the direct conversion a-Si based IMS "Giotto Image MD." The physical characterization was estimated by measuring the MTF, NNPS, and DQE of the detectors with no antiscatter grid and over the clinical range of exposures. The CD analysis was performed using a CDMAM 3.4 phantom and custom software designed for automatic computation of the contrast-detail curves. The physical characterization of the three digital systems confirms the excellent MTF properties of the direct conversion flat-panel detector (FPD). We performed a relative standard deviation (RSD) analysis, for investigating the different components of the noise presented by the three systems. It turned out that the two FPDs show a significant additive component, whereas for the CR system the statistical noise is dominant. The multiplicative factor is a minor constituent for all the systems. The two FPDs demonstrate better DQE, with respect to the CR system, for exposures higher than 70 microGy. The CD analysis indicated that the three systems are not statistically different for detail objects with a diameter greater than 0.3 mm. However, the IMS system showed a statistically significant different response for details smaller than 0.3 mm. In this case, the poor response of the a-Se detector could be attributed to its high-frequency noise characteristics, since its MTF, NEQ, and DQE are not inferior to those of the other systems. The CD results were independent of exposure level, within the investigated clinical range. We observed slight variations in the CD results, due to the changes in the visualization

  19. A detailed analysis of the erythropoietic control system in the human, squirrel, monkey, rat and mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordheim, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The erythropoiesis modeling performed in support of the Body Fluid and Blood Volume Regulation tasks is described. The mathematical formulation of the species independent model, the solutions to the steady state and dynamic versions of the model, and the individual species specific models for the human, squirrel monkey, rat and mouse are outlined. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the species independent model response to parameter changes and how those responses change from species to species is presented. The species to species response to a series of simulated stresses directly related to blood volume regulation during space flight is analyzed.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Age Specific Variation in the Abundance of Human Female Parotid Salivary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Lu, Bingwen; Hagen, Fred K; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human saliva is a protein-rich, easily accessible source of potential local and systemic biomarkers to monitor changes that occur under pathological conditions; however little is known about the changes in abundance associated with normal aging. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomic profiling of pooled saliva collected from the parotid glands of healthy female subjects, divided into two age groups 1 and 2 (20–30 and 55–65 years old, respectively). Hydrophobic charge interaction chromatography was used to separate high from low abundant proteins prior to characterization of the parotid saliva using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Collectively, 532 proteins were identified in the two age groups. Of these proteins, 266 were identified exclusively in one age group, while 266 proteins were common to both groups. The majority of the proteins identified in the two age groups belonged to the defense and immune response category. Of note, several defense related proteins (e.g. lysozyme, lactoferrin and histatin-1) were significantly more abundant in group 2 as determined by G-test. Selected representative mass spectrometric findings were validated by western blot analysis. Our study reports the first quantitative analysis of differentially regulated proteins in ductal saliva collected from young and older female subjects. This study supports the use of high-throughput proteomics as a robust discovery tool. Such results provide a foundation for future studies to identify specific salivary proteins which may be linked to age-related diseases specific to women. PMID:19764810

  1. KNOW YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD: A DETAILED MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF NEARBY WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P. E-mail: pierre.bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2012-04-01

    We present improved atmospheric parameters of nearby white dwarfs lying within 20 pc of the Sun. The aim of the current study is to obtain the best statistical model of the least-biased sample of the white dwarf population. A homogeneous analysis of the local population is performed combining detailed spectroscopic and photometric analyses based on improved model atmosphere calculations for various spectral types including DA, DB, DC, DQ, and DZ stars. The spectroscopic technique is applied to all stars in our sample for which optical spectra are available. Photometric energy distributions, when available, are also combined to trigonometric parallax measurements to derive effective temperatures, stellar radii, as well as atmospheric compositions. A revised catalog of white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is presented. We provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of the mass distribution and the chemical distribution of white dwarf stars in a volume-limited sample.

  2. A detailed analysis of codon usage patterns and influencing factors in Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niraj K; Tyagi, Anuj

    2017-03-21

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Southeast Asia have resulted in serious health concerns. To understand more about evolution and transmission of ZIKV, detailed codon usage analysis was performed for all available strains. A high effective number of codons (ENC) value indicated the presence of low codon usage bias in ZIKV. The effect of mutational pressure on codon usage bias was confirmed by significant correlations between nucleotide compositions at third codon positions and ENCs. Correlation analysis between Gravy values, Aroma values and nucleotide compositions at third codon positions also indicated some influence of natural selection. However, the low codon adaptation index (CAI) value of ZIKV with reference to human and mosquito indicated poor adaptation of ZIKV codon usage towards its hosts, signifying that natural selection has a weaker influence than mutational pressure. Additionally, relative dinucleotide frequencies, geographical distribution, and evolutionary processes also influenced the codon usage pattern to some extent.

  3. ReadXplorer 2—detailed read mapping analysis and visualization from one single source

    PubMed Central

    Hilker, Rolf; Stadermann, Kai Bernd; Schwengers, Oliver; Anisiforov, Evgeny; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Weisshaar, Bernd; Zimmermann, Tobias; Goesmann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The vast amount of already available and currently generated read mapping data requires comprehensive visualization, and should benefit from bioinformatics tools offering a wide spectrum of analysis functionality from just one source. Appropriate handling of multiple mapped reads during mapping analyses remains an issue that demands improvement. Results: The capabilities of the read mapping analysis and visualization tool ReadXplorer were vastly enhanced. Here, we present an even finer granulated read mapping classification, improving the level of detail for analyses and visualizations. The spectrum of automatic analysis functions has been broadened to include genome rearrangement detection as well as correlation analysis between two mapping data sets. Existing functions were refined and enhanced, namely the computation of differentially expressed genes, the read count and normalization analysis and the transcription start site detection. Additionally, ReadXplorer 2 features a highly improved support for large eukaryotic data sets and a command line version, enabling its integration into workflows. Finally, the new version is now able to display any kind of tabular results from other bioinformatics tools. Availability and Implementation: http://www.readxplorer.org Contact: readxplorer@computational.bio.uni-giessen.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27540267

  4. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  5. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  6. Experimental and theoretical oscillator strengths of Mg i for accurate abundance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Jönsson, P.

    2017-02-01

    Context. With the aid of stellar abundance analysis, it is possible to study the galactic formation and evolution. Magnesium is an important element to trace the α-element evolution in our Galaxy. For chemical abundance analysis, such as magnesium abundance, accurate and complete atomic data are essential. Inaccurate atomic data lead to uncertain abundances and prevent discrimination between different evolution models. Aims: We study the spectrum of neutral magnesium from laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations. Our aim is to improve the oscillator strengths (f-values) of Mg i lines and to create a complete set of accurate atomic data, particularly for the near-IR region. Methods: We derived oscillator strengths by combining the experimental branching fractions with radiative lifetimes reported in the literature and computed in this work. A hollow cathode discharge lamp was used to produce free atoms in the plasma and a Fourier transform spectrometer recorded the intensity-calibrated high-resolution spectra. In addition, we performed theoretical calculations using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock program ATSP2K. Results: This project provides a set of experimental and theoretical oscillator strengths. We derived 34 experimental oscillator strengths. Except from the Mg i optical triplet lines (3p 3P°0,1,2-4s 3S1), these oscillator strengths are measured for the first time. The theoretical oscillator strengths are in very good agreement with the experimental data and complement the missing transitions of the experimental data up to n = 7 from even and odd parity terms. We present an evaluated set of oscillator strengths, gf, with uncertainties as small as 5%. The new values of the Mg i optical triplet line (3p 3P°0,1,2-4s 3S1) oscillator strength values are 0.08 dex larger than the previous measurements.

  7. Developments in remote sensing technology enable more detailed urban flood risk analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniss, A.; Tewkesbury, A.

    2009-04-01

    digital airborne sensors, both optical and lidar, to produce the input layer for surface water flood modelling. A national flood map product has been created. The new product utilises sophisticated modelling techniques, perfected over many years, which harness graphical processing power. This product will prove particularly valuable for risk assessment decision support within insurance/reinsurance, property/environmental, utilities, risk management and government agencies. However, it is not just the ground elevation that determines the behaviour of surface water. By combining height information (surface and terrain) with high resolution aerial photography and colour infrared imagery, a high definition land cover mapping dataset (LandBase) is being produced, which provides a precise measure of sealed versus non sealed surface. This will allows even more sophisticated modelling of flood scenarios. Thus, the value of airborne survey data can be demonstrated by flood risk analysis down to individual addresses in urban areas. However for some risks, an even more detailed survey may be justified. In order to achieve this, Infoterra is testing new 360˚ mobile lidar technology. Collecting lidar data from a moving vehicle allows each street to be mapped in very high detail, allowing precise information about the location, size and shape of features such as kerbstones, gullies, road camber and building threshold level to be captured quickly and accurately. These data can then be used to model the problem of overland flood risk at the scale of individual properties. Whilst at present it might be impractical to undertake such detailed modelling for all properties, these techniques can certainly be used to improve the flood risk analysis of key locations. This paper will demonstrate how these new high resolution remote sensing techniques can be combined to provide a new resolution of detail to aid urban flood modelling.

  8. Comparison of different computed radiography systems: Physical characterization and contrast detail analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Burani, Aldo; Acchiappati, Domenico

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: In this study, five different units based on three different technologies--traditional computed radiography (CR) units with granular phosphor and single-side reading, granular phosphor and dual-side reading, and columnar phosphor and line-scanning reading--are compared in terms of physical characterization and contrast detail analysis. Methods: The physical characterization of the five systems was obtained with the standard beam condition RQA5. Three of the units have been developed by FUJIFILM (FCR ST-VI, FCR ST-BD, and FCR Velocity U), one by Kodak (Direct View CR 975), and one by Agfa (DX-S). The quantitative comparison is based on the calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Noise investigation was also achieved by using a relative standard deviation analysis. Psychophysical characterization is assessed by performing a contrast detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images. Results: The most advanced units based on columnar phosphors provide MTF values in line or better than those from conventional CR systems. The greater thickness of the columnar phosphor improves the efficiency, allowing for enhanced noise properties. In fact, NPS values for standard CR systems are remarkably higher for all the investigated exposures and especially for frequencies up to 3.5 lp/mm. As a consequence, DQE values for the three units based on columnar phosphors and line-scanning reading, or granular phosphor and dual-side reading, are neatly better than those from conventional CR systems. Actually, DQE values of about 40% are easily achievable for all the investigated exposures. Conclusions: This study suggests that systems based on the dual-side reading or line-scanning reading with columnar phosphors provide a remarkable improvement when compared to conventional CR units and yield results in line with those obtained from most digital detectors for radiography.

  9. The 2006 lava dome eruption of Merapi Volcano (Indonesia): Detailed analysis using MODIS TIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Brett B.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Vanderkluysen, Loÿc

    2016-02-01

    Merapi is one of Indonesia's most active and dangerous volcanoes. Prior to the 2010 VEI 4 eruption, activity at Merapi during the 20th century was characterized by the growth and collapse of a series of lava domes. Periods of very slow growth were punctuated by short episodes of increased eruption rates characterized by dome collapse-generated pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). An eruptive event of this type occurred in May-June, 2006. For effusive eruptions such as this, detailed extrusion rate records are important for understanding the processes driving the eruption and the hazards presented by the eruption. We use thermal infrared (TIR) images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites to estimate extrusion rates at Merapi Volcano during the 2006 eruption using the method of Harris and Ripepe (2007). We compile a set of 75 nighttime MODIS images of the eruptive period to produce a detailed time series of thermal radiance and extrusion rate that reveal multiple phases of the 2006 eruption. These data closely correspond to the published ground-based observational record and improve observation density and detail during the eruption sequence. Furthermore, additional analysis of radiance values for thermal anomalies in Band 21 (λ = 3.959 μm) of MODIS images results in a new framework for detecting different styles of activity. We successfully discriminate among slow dome growth, rapid dome growth, and PDC-producing dome collapse. We also demonstrate a positive correlation between PDC frequency and extrusion rate, and provide evidence that extrusion rate can increase in response to external events such as dome collapses or tectonic earthquakes. This study represents a new method of documenting volcanic activity that can be applied to other similar volcanic systems.

  10. Detailed analysis of an optimized FPP-based 3D imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dat; Thai, Anh; Duong, Kiet; Nguyen, Thanh; Nehmetallah, Georges

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present detail analysis and a step-by-step implementation of an optimized fringe projection profilometry (FPP) based 3D shape measurement system. First, we propose a multi-frequency and multi-phase shifting sinusoidal fringe pattern reconstruction approach to increase accuracy and sensitivity of the system. Second, phase error compensation caused by the nonlinear transfer function of the projector and camera is performed through polynomial approximation. Third, phase unwrapping is performed using spatial and temporal techniques and the tradeoff between processing speed and high accuracy is discussed in details. Fourth, generalized camera and system calibration are developed for phase to real world coordinate transformation. The calibration coefficients are estimated accurately using a reference plane and several gauge blocks with precisely known heights and by employing a nonlinear least square fitting method. Fifth, a texture will be attached to the height profile by registering a 2D real photo to the 3D height map. The last step is to perform 3D image fusion and registration using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm for a full field of view reconstruction. The system is experimentally constructed using compact, portable, and low cost off-the-shelf components. A MATLAB® based GUI is developed to control and synchronize the whole system.

  11. Thermodynamics of small systems embedded in a reservoir: a detailed analysis of finite size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Sondre K.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Simon, Jean-Marc; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe

    2012-06-01

    We present a detailed study on the finite size scaling behaviour of thermodynamic properties for small systems of particles embedded in a reservoir. Previously, we derived that the leading finite size effects of thermodynamic properties for small systems scale with the inverse of the linear length of the small system, and we showed how this can be used to describe systems in the thermodynamic limit [Chem. Phys. Lett. 504, 199 (2011)]. This approach takes into account an effective surface energy, as a result of the non-periodic boundaries of the small embedded system. Deviations from the linear behaviour occur when the small system becomes very small, i.e. smaller than three times the particle diameter in each direction. At this scale, so-called nook- and corner effects will become important. In this work, we present a detailed analysis to explain this behaviour. In addition, we present a model for the finite size scaling when the size of the small system is of the same order of magnitude as the reservoir. The developed theory is validated using molecular simulations of systems containing Lennard-Jones and WCA particles, and leads to significant improvements over our previous approach. Our approach eventually leads to an efficient method to compute the thermodynamic factor of macroscopic systems from finite size scaling, which is for example required for converting Fick and Maxwell-Stefan transport diffusivities.

  12. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Li, H.; Li, M. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different bonding pressures. Results showed that an undamaged hollow structural component has been obtained with full interfacial contact and the same shear strength to that of base material. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail.

  13. Detailed molecular analysis of the induction of the L-PK gene by glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, David T.; Zhang, Pili; Collier, J. Jason; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Scott, Donald K.

    2008-07-18

    Glucose has powerful effects on gene expression and participates in the fasted-to-fed transition of the liver. However, the molecular mechanism of glucose-regulated gene expression has not been completely described. In the present study, we performed a detailed analysis of the molecular events of the insulin-independent glucose response of the liver-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) gene. L-PK mRNA was increased by glucose at the transcriptional level as determined by real-time RT-PCR, mRNA stability measurements, and nuclear run-on assays. LY294002 and LY303511 inhibited the glucose response of the L-PK gene at the transcriptional level. Histones H3 and H4 associated with the L-PK gene promoter were hyperacetylated and HNF4{alpha} was constitutively bound in low and high glucose. Treatment with 20 mM glucose increased recruitment of ChREBP, additional HNF4{alpha}, and RNA polymerase II. Glucose-stimulated the phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, with increased Ser5 phosphorylation near the transcription start site and increased Ser2 phosphorylation near the termination signal. LY294002 and LY303511 blocked the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the L-PK gene, reducing the rate of transcription. The results of these studies demonstrate fundamental details of the molecular mechanism of glucose activated gene expression.

  14. Abundance analysis of the supergiant stars HD 80057 and HD 80404 based on their UVES Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrıverdi, T.; Baştürk, Ö.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents elemental abundances of the early A-type supergiant HD 80057 and the late A-type supergiant HD 80404. High resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra published by the UVES Paranal Observatory Project (Bagnulo et al., 2003) were analyzed to compute their elemental abundances using ATLAS9 (Kurucz, 1993; 2005; Sbordone et al., 2004). In our analysis we assumed local thermodynamic equilibrium. The atmospheric parameters of HD 80057 used in this study are from Firnstein and Przybilla (2012), and that of HD 80404 are derived from spectral energy distribution, ionization equilibria of Cr I/II and Fe I/II, the fits to the wings of Balmer and Paschen lines as Teff = 7700 ± 150 K and log g = 1.60 ± 0.15 (in cgs). The microturbulent velocities of HD 80057 and HD 80404 have been determined as 4.3 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.0 km s^-1, respectively. The rotational velocities are 15 ± 1 and 7 ± 2 km s^-1 and their macroturbulence velocities are 24 ± 2 and 2 ± 1 km s^1. We have given the abundances of 25 ions of 19 elements for HD 80057 and 36 ions of 25 elements for HD 80404. The abundances are close to solar values, except for some elements (Na, Sc, Ti, V, Ba, and Sr). We have found the metallicities [M/H] for HD 80057 and HD 80404 as -0.16 ± 0.24 and -0.04 ± 0.16 dex, respectively. The evolutionary status of these stars are discussed and their nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) ratios show that they are in their blue supergiant phase before the red supergiant region.

  15. Spectral Properties of Cool Stars: Extended Abundance Analysis of 1,617 Planet-search Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John M.; Fischer, Debra A.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2016-08-01

    We present a catalog of uniformly determined stellar properties and abundances for 1,617 F, G, and K stars using an automated spectral synthesis modeling procedure. All stars were observed using the HIRES spectrograph at Keck Observatory. Our procedure used a single line list to fit model spectra to observations of all stars to determine effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projected rotational velocity, and the abundances of 15 elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Y). Sixty percent of the sample had Hipparcos parallaxes and V-band photometry, which we combined with the spectroscopic results to obtain mass, radius, and luminosity. Additionally, we used the luminosity, effective temperature, metallicity and α-element enhancement to interpolate in the Yonsei-Yale isochrones to derive mass, radius, gravity, and age ranges for those stars. Finally, we determined new relations between effective temperature and macroturbulence for dwarfs and subgiants. Our analysis achieved precisions of 25 K in {T}{eff}, 0.01 dex in [M/H], 0.028 dex for {log}g, and 0.5 km s-1 in v\\sin i based on multiple observations of the same stars. The abundance results were similarly precise, between ˜0.01 and ˜0.04 dex, though trends with respect to {T}{eff} remained for which we derived empirical corrections. The trends, though small, were much larger than our uncertainties and are shared with published abundances. We show that changing our model atmosphere grid accounts for most of the trend in [M/H] between 5000 and 5500 K, indicating a possible problem with the atmosphere models or opacities.

  16. An approach to remove albumin for the proteomic analysis of low abundance biomarkers in human serum.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Barker, Gillian; Oliva, Karen; Garfin, David; Talmadge, Kenneth; Georgiou, Harry; Quinn, Michael; Rice, Greg

    2003-10-01

    Proteomic technologies are being used to discover and identify disease-associated biomarkers. The application of these technologies in the search for potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in the serum of patients has been limited by the presence of highly abundant albumin and immunoglobulins that constitute approximately 60-97% of the total serum proteins. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether treatment of human serum with Affi-Gel Blue alone or in combination with Protein A (Aurum serum protein mini kit, Bio-Rad) before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis removed high abundance proteins to allow the visualization of low abundant proteins. Serum samples were treated with either Affi-Gel Blue or Aurum kit and then subjected to 2-DE using 11 cm, pH 4-7 isoelectric focussing strips for the first dimension and 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for second dimension. Protein spots were visualized using a fluorescent protein dye (SYPRO Ruby, Bio-Rad). Comparison between treatment methods showed significant removal of albumin by both Affi-Gel Blue and Aurum kit and considerable differences in the protein profile of the gels after each treatment. Direct comparison between treatments revealed twenty-eight protein spots unique to Affi-Gel Blue while only two spots were unique after Aurum kit treatment. Unique spots in Affi-Gel Blue and Aurum kit treated serum were not visualized in untreated serum. Sixteen hours of Affi-Gel Blue treatment resulted in enhanced visualization of fifty-three protein spots by two-fold, thirty-one by five-fold, twelve by ten-fold and six by twenty-fold. In parallel after Aurum kit treatment two-, five-, ten- and twenty-fold enhancements of thirty, thirteen, eight and five protein spots, respectively, were observed. The pattern of increased visualization of protein spots with both treatment methods was similar. In conclusion, treatment of serum samples with Affi-Gel Blue or Aurum kit before

  17. [Investigation of fuzzy-clustering in octane number prediction model based on detailed hydrocarbon analysis data].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingrong; Xu, Yupeng; Yang, Haiying

    2004-09-01

    A method to establish octane number prediction model based on detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) data is presented. The techniques of fuzzy-clustering and the Euclidian distance are employed to select the samples needed in pattern establishment. One hundred and fifty gasoline samples and an amount of 140 characteristic components in the DHA chromatogram of each sample are used for the fuzzy-clustering research. It is found that the 3 - 10 samples, which have the nearest Euclidian distance ( < 1.5) to the prediction sample in the same cluster, are enough to build the octane number prediction model. The experimental results proved that the model obtained according to the above method has more predictable accuracy, wider application range and higher data resource utility compared with the current prediction method.

  18. Contrast to Noise Ratio and Contrast Detail Analysis in Mammography:A Monte Carlo Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, V.; Delis, H.; Kalogeropoulou, C.; Zampakis, P.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2015-09-01

    The mammographic spectrum is one of the major factors affecting image quality in mammography. In this study, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model was used to evaluate image quality characteristics of various mammographic spectra. The anode/filter combinations evaluated, were those traditionally used in mammography, for tube voltages between 26 and 30 kVp. The imaging performance was investigated in terms of Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Contrast Detail (CD) analysis, by involving human observers, utilizing a mathematical CD phantom. Soft spectra provided the best characteristics in terms of both CNR and CD scores, while tube voltage had a limited effect. W-anode spectra filtered with k-edge filters demonstrated an improved performance, that sometimes was better compared to softer x-ray spectra, produced by Mo or Rh anode. Regarding the filter material, k-edge filters showed superior performance compared to Al filters.

  19. A thorough analysis of the metal abundance gradient history in the Galactic disk by improving the statistics of well studied open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claria, Juan J.; Piatti, Andres E.; Ahumada, Andrea V.; Parisi, Maria Celeste; Palma, Tali

    2008-02-01

    Open clusters (OCs) have long been used as tracers of the evolution of the Galactic disk (GD). Although the number of studied OCs has recently increased significantly, nearly 60% of the ~ 1700 Galactic OCs known to exist are still unstudied objects. We want to examine how the abundance gradient in the GD evolved in time and along different Galactic positions by comparing the abundance gradients corresponding to various groups of open clusters (OCs) of different ages and positions. The greater the number of OCs with well determined distances, ages and metallicities, the more precise and detailed the analysis of the metal abundance gradient in the GD as well as its evolution over time. We then propose to observe some selected OCs with the Washington system C and T_1 filters mainly to determine their basic parameters for the first time, with the aim of: (1) Improving the statistics of well-studied OCs. (2) Showing how the radial abundance gradient has evolved in course of time and along different Galactic longitudes by dividing the whole sample of known OCs into age-position groups. We believe this is crucial in constraining the initial conditions and evolution of the gas and stars in the GD. (3) Shedding light on the controversial existence of an abundance gradient perpendicular to the Galactic plane and on the blurry age-metallicity relation (AMR).

  20. A Review of Research and a Meta-Analysis of the Seductive Detail Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Seductive details constitute interesting but irrelevant information that are not necessary to achieve the instructional objective. The seductive detail effect occurs when people learn more deeply from instructional messages that exclude rather than include these details. This effect is mainly explained by assuming an overloading of the working…

  1. Detailed Vibration Analysis of Pinion Gear with Time-Frequency Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Marianne; Pryor, Anna H.; Lewicki, David G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors show a detailed analysis of the vibration signal from the destructive testing of a spiral bevel gear and pinion pair containing seeded faults. The vibration signal is analyzed in the time domain, frequency domain and with four time-frequency transforms: the Short Time Frequency Transform (STFT), the Wigner-Ville Distribution with the Choi-Williams kernel (WV-CW), the Continuous Wavelet' Transform (CWT) and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Vibration data of bevel gear tooth fatigue cracks, under a variety of operating load levels and damage conditions, are analyzed using these methods. A new metric for automatic anomaly detection is developed and can be produced from any systematic numerical representation of the vibration signals. This new metric reveals indications of gear damage with all of the time-frequency transforms, as well as time and frequency representations, on this data set. Analysis with the CWT detects changes in the signal at low torque levels not found with the other transforms. The WV-CW and CWT use considerably more resources than the STFT and the DWT. More testing of the new metric is needed to determine its value for automatic anomaly detection and to develop fault detection methods for the metric.

  2. Measurement of angle and axis of rotation in a carousel interferometer: a detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Ghazanfar; Ikram, Masroor

    2010-02-20

    A detailed analysis of a carousel interferometer is presented for the measurement of an unknown angle and axis of rotation. The technique exploits a set of compensator glass plates and a right-angle prism that is placed in each of the two arms of the interferometer. The two sets are placed at the same rotational stage, while the end mirrors of the interferometer are static. When rotation takes place, individual and relative optical path differences are generated in the two beams of the interferometer. The generated phase differences contribute toward finding the angle and axis of rotation. The analysis is presented for any initial position of the interferometer, i.e., the radial vector from the axis of rotation to the apex of one of the prisms used. The results show the slight variations in the error and nonlinearity when different parameters are manipulated. Moreover, the trade-off between the maximum size of the prisms and the radial distances are also presented.

  3. Detailed product analysis during the low temperature oxidation of n-butane

    PubMed Central

    Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Bax, Sarah; Le Gall, Hervé; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, René; Zhou, Zhongyue; Deng, Liulin; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Mingfeng; Qi, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The products obtained from the low-temperature oxidation of n-butane in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) have been analysed using two methods: gas chromatography analysis of the outlet gas and reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer was combined with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and coupled with a JSR via a molecular-beam sampling system. Experiments were performed under quasi-atmospheric pressure, for temperatures between 550 and 800 K, at a mean residence time of 6s and with a stoichiometric n-butane/oxygen/argon mixture (composition = 4/26/70 in mol %). 36 reaction products have been quantified, including addition to the usual oxidation products, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, C1, C2 and C4 alkylhydroperoxides and C4 ketohydroperoxides. Evidence of the possible formation of products (dihydrofuranes, furanones) derived from cyclic ethers has also been found. The performance of a detailed kinetic model of the literature has been assessed with the simulation of the formation of this extended range of species. These simulations have also allowed the analysis of possible pathways for the formation of some obtained products. PMID:21031192

  4. A detailed 3D finite element analysis of the peeling behaviour of a gecko spatula.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Roger A; Holl, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed finite element analysis of the adhesion of a gecko spatula. The gecko spatulae form the tips of the gecko foot hairs that transfer the adhesional and frictional forces between substrate and foot. The analysis is based on a parameterised description of the 3D geometry of the spatula that only requires 12 parameters. The adhesion is described by a nonlinear computational contact formulation that accounts for the van der Waals interaction between spatula and substrate. The spatula adhesion model is implemented using an enriched contact finite element formulation recently developed by the first author. The finite element model is then used to simulate the peeling behaviour of the gecko spatula under applied vertical and rotational loading for various model parameters. Variations of the material stiffness, adhesional strength and range, stiction, spatula size and spatula inclination are considered to account for the natural variation of spatula properties. The study demonstrates that the spatula can function over a wide range of conditions. The computed pull-off forces are in agreement with experimental results reported in the literature. The study also examines the energy required for the spatula pull-off. The proposed model is ideal to study the influence of substrate roughness on the spatula adhesion, as is finally demonstrated.

  5. Detailed exploration of the endothelium: parameterization of flow-mediated dilation through principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Laclaustra, Martin; Frangi, Alejandro F; Garcia, Daniel; Boisrobert, Loïc; Frangi, Andres G; Pascual, Isaac

    2007-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors (CVRF), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is increasingly used to explore it. In this test, artery diameter changes after post-ischaemic hyperaemia are classically quantified using maximum peak vasodilation (FMDc). To obtain more detailed descriptors of FMD we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to diameter-time curves (absolute), vasodilation-time curves (relative) and blood-velocity-time curves. Furthermore, combined PCA of vessel size and blood-velocity curves allowed exploring links between flow and dilation. Vessel diameter data for PCA (post-ischaemic: 140 s) were acquired from brachial ultrasound image sequences of 173 healthy male subjects using a computerized technique previously reported by our team based on image registration (Frangi et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22 1458). PCA provides a set of axes (called eigenmodes) that captures the underlying variation present in a database of waveforms so that the first few eigenmodes retain most of the variation. These eigenmodes can be used to synthesize each waveform analysed by means of only a few parameters, as well as potentially any signal of the same type derived from tests of new patients. The eigenmodes obtained seemed related to visual features of the waveform of the FMD process. Subsequently, we used eigenmodes to parameterize our data. Most of the main parameters (13 out of 15) correlated with FMDc. Furthermore, not all parameters correlated with the same CVRF tested, that is, serum lipids (i.e., high LDL-c associated with slow vessel return to a baseline, while low HDL-c associated with a lower vasodilation in response to similar velocity stimulus), thus suggesting that this parameterization allows a more detailed and factored description of the process than FMDc.

  6. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of chloride salt deposits in Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Glotch, T. D.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chloride salt-bearing deposits have been identified throughout the southern highlands of Mars [1] based on the lack of diagnostic spectral features of anhydrous chlorides in both the visible near infrared (VNIR) and middle infrared (MIR) wavelength ranges [1,2]. A puzzling aspect of martian chloride deposits is the apparent lack of other weathering or evaporite phases associated with most of the deposits. A global analysis over the chloride salt sites conducted by [3] found that only ~9% of the deposits they analyzed were associated with minerals such as phyllosilicates. Most of these occurrences are in Terra Sirenum where [4] noted that salt-bearing deposits lie stratigraphically above Noachian phyllosilicates. Although a variety of formation mechanisms have been proposed for these intriguing deposits, detailed geologic mapping by [5] suggests that surface water and evaporation played a dominant role. On Earth, evaporative settings are often characterized by a multitude of evaporite and phyllosilicate phases including carbonates, sulfates, and nitrates. [6] evaluated chemical divides and brine evolution for martian systems and their results indicate three pathways wherein late-stage brines favor chloride precipitation. In each case the pathway to chloride formation includes precipitation of carbonates (calcite, siderite, and/or magnesite) and sulfates (gypsum, melanterite, and/or epsomite). Here, we present the results of our detailed and systematic spectroscopic study to identify additional evaporite phases associated with salt/silicate mixtures in Terra Sirenum. [1] Osterloo et al. (2008) Science, 319, [2] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2013) Lunar and Planet. Sci. XLIV, abstract #1549 [3] Ruesch, O. et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00J13 [4] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L16202, [5] Osterloo, M. M. and B. M Hynek (2015) Lunar and Planet. Sci XLVI. Abstract #1054 [6] Tosca, N. J. and S. M. McLennan (2006), Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 241.

  7. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed results tables are presented from an unweighted statistical analysis of selected portions of the 1992--1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data base. This survey collected data on the potential exposure of Americans to important household pollutants. Randomly selected individuals (9,386) supplied minute-by-minute diaries spanning a 24-hour day as well as follow-up questions on specific exposure types. Selected 24-hour diary locations and activities, selected regroupings of the 24-hour diary locations, activities, and smoker-present categories, and most of the follow-up question variables in the NHAPS data base were statistically analyzed across 12 subgroups (gender, age, Hispanic, education, employment, census region, day-of-week, season, asthma, angina and bronchitis/emphysema). Overall statistics were also generated for the 9,386 total respondents. Tables show descriptive statistics (including frequency distributions) of time spent and frequency of occurrence in each of 39 locations and for 22 activities (that were experienced by more than 50 respondents), along with equivalent tables for 10 regrouped locations (Residence-Indoors, Residence-Outdoors, Inside Vehicle, Near Vehicle, Other Outdoor, Office/Factory, Mall/Store, Public Building, Bar/Restaurant, Other Indoor), seven regrouped activities and smoker present. Tables of frequency distributions of time spent in exposure activities, or the frequency of occurrence of exposure activities, as determined from the follow up questions that were analyzed are also presented. Detailed indices provide page numbers for each table. An Appendix contains a condensed listing of the questionnaires (Versions A and B for adults, child-direct and child-proxy interview types), including the question number, the NHAPS data base variable name, and the verbatim question text.

  8. An approach to remove alpha amylase for proteomic analysis of low abundance biomarkers in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Omer; Fleissig, Yoram; Zaks, Batia; Krief, Guy; Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

    2008-11-01

    Proteomic characterization of human whole saliva for the identification of disease-specific biomarkers is guaranteed to be an easy-to-use and powerful diagnostic tool for defining the onset, progression and prognosis of human systemic diseases and, in particular, oral diseases. The high abundance of proteins, mainly alpha amylase, hampers the detection of low abundant proteins appearing in the disease state and therefore should be removed. In the present study a 2-DE was used to analyze human whole saliva following the removal of alpha amylase by affinity adsorption to potato starch. After alpha amylase removal whole saliva was analyzed by SDS-PAGE showing at least sixfold removal efficiency and by an alpha amylase activity assay showing 97% reduced activity. MS identification of the captured alpha amylase after elution demonstrated specific removal; 2-DE analysis showed the selective removal of alpha amylase and consequently increased gel resolution. MS identification of protein spots in the 60 kDa area revealed 15 proteins, which were masked before alpha amylase removal. In conclusion, treatment of human whole saliva with an alpha amylase removal device increases gel resolution and enables a higher protein sample for analysis.

  9. Mapping of replication initiation sites in human ribosomal DNA by nascent-strand abundance analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Y; Sanchez, J A; Brun, C; Huberman, J A

    1995-01-01

    New techniques for mapping mammalian DNA replication origins are needed. We have modified the existing nascent-strand size analysis technique (L. Vassilev and E.M. Johnson, Nucleic Acids Res. 17:7693-7705, 1989) to provide an independent means of studying replication initiation sites. We call the new method nascent-strand abundance analysis. We confirmed the validity of this method with replicating simian virus 40 DNA as a model. We then applied nascent-strand abundance and nascent-strand size analyses to mapping of initiation sites in human (HeLa) ribosomal DNA (rDNA), a region previously examined exclusively by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methods (R.D. Little, T.H.K. Platt, and C.L. Schildkraut, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:6600-6613, 1993). Our results partly confirm those obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis techniques. Both studies suggest that replication initiates at relatively high frequency a few kilobase pairs upstream of the transcribed region and that many additional low-frequency initiation sites are distributed through most of the remainder of the ribosomal DNA repeat unit. PMID:7739533

  10. Use of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis and Radiative Transfer Model to Derive Lunar Mineral Abundance Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Lucey, P. G.

    2009-03-01

    A new approach combining multiple endmemeber spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) and radiative transfer model (RTM) is proposed to generate lunar global mineral abundance maps from Clementine 1 km UVVIS data.

  11. Helium Abundance of Saturn from Cassini VIMS and CIRS Combined Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, D. J.; Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini VIMS instrument has obtained about 11 stellar occultations of sufficient quality that they can be used to infer the atmospheric structure where the stellar light cuts through Saturn's atmosphere on its way to thespacecraft. For 5 of these stellar occultations, the Cassini CIRS instrument obtained spectra of Saturn's limb at nearly the same time and place. By combining these observations, we have previously demonstrated that we can produce an estimate of the Helium abundance on Saturn (e.g., Banfield et al., DPS BAAS, 2011). The Helium abundance of Saturn is of great interest due to its leverage on our understanding of the formation and internal evolution processes of the giant planets in our Solar System, as well as giant exoplanets in other solar systems. The Helium abundance is also of significant interest due to a long-standing discrepancy between estimates obtained using a combined IR Spectra/Radio Science Occultation technique (He/H2~0.03, Conrath et al., '84) and those obtained using IR spectra alone (He/H2~0.13, Conrath & Gautier, '00). We will present our results from the Cassini VIMS/CIRS analysis of this problem. The technique uses the Cassini CIRS limb spectra to produce an estimate of the temperature profile between about 0.01 mbar and 5 mbar. The VIMS stellar occultations are used to produce a scale height profile over a similar vertical region, but with much better information content (and thus tighter constraints) between about 1 mbar and 5 mbar. By comparing these two results and demanding consistency we can infer the mean molecular mass of the atmosphere (and thus the Helium abundance) in the region of overlap (~1mbar to 5 mbar). Realistically, both sets of observations are quite challenging to perform. The signal levels are relatively low for the CIRS limb spectra (compared to nadir spectra), making calibration especially challenging. Not all VIMS occultations are successful with variable stellar baselines or stray light corrupting the

  12. A detailed X-ray investigation of ζ Puppis. III. Spectral analysis of the whole RGS spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, A.; Rauw, G.; Nazé, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Context. ζ Pup is the X-ray brightest O-type star of the sky. This object was regularly observed with the RGS instrument onboard XMM-Newton for calibration purposes, which led to an unprecedented set of high-quality spectra. Aims: We have previously reduced and extracted this data set and integrated it into the most detailed high-resolution X-ray spectrum of any early-type star so far. Here we present the analysis of this spectrum, taking into account for the presence of structures in the stellar wind. Methods: For this purpose, we used our new modeling tool that allows fitting the entire spectrum with a multi-temperature plasma. We illustrate the impact of a proper treatment of the radial dependence of the X-ray opacity of the cool wind on the best-fit radial distribution of the temperature of the X-ray plasma. Results: The best-fit of the RGS spectrum of ζ Pup is obtained assuming no porosity. Four plasma components at temperatures between 0.10 and 0.69 keV are needed to adequately represent the observed spectrum. Whilst the hardest emission is concentrated between ~3 and 4 R∗, the softer emission starts already at 1.5 R∗ and extends to the outer regions of the wind. Conclusions: The inferred radial distribution of the plasma temperatures agrees rather well with theoretical expectations. The mass-loss rate and CNO abundances corresponding to our best-fit model also agree quite well with the results of recent studies of ζ Pup in the UV and optical domain. Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  13. Detailed differential chemical analysis of a metal poor star: new evidences about planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, M. G. C. C.; Milone, A. de C.; Meléndez, J.

    2014-10-01

    The present project emphasizes on the study of metal-poor stars, with and without planets, to investigate the existence (or not) of a connection between anomalies in the chemical composition and the presence of planets by inspecting the high resolution spectra (R = 65 000), in order to derive chemical abundances with high precision using the differential technique. In this method, measurements of equivalent widths of the target star are compared to a standard star with predetermined photospheric parameters that are similar to those of the target star (effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity). Therefore, we have compared the star HD111232 (standard) with HD020794, such that the first holds a hot Jupiter-type planet and around the second one there are three super-Earths. These solar-type stars are moderately metal-poor and had their spectra collected with the MIKE spectrograph at the 6.5m Magellan telescope in the Las Campanas Observatory. Among the main results, we have derived the classical photospheric parameters and chemical abundances of refractory and volatile elements with such a high precision, particularly with errors about 0.01 dex, which is essential for the study of chemical connection between planets and star. We have also added to the differential method the spectral synthesis of molecular bands and atomic lines to recover abundances of volatile elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. We thus present the parameters effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity [Fe/H], microturbulence velocity and differential elemental abundances. For some elements, we have performed comparisons of the abundances measured by spectral synthesis with those obtained directly through measurements of equivalent widths. Specifically, the preliminary abundance difference δ[E/H] is 0.04(7) dex for carbon, 0.12(14) for nitrogen and 0.08(7) for oxygen.

  14. Detection and Characterization of Low Abundance Glycopeptides Via Higher-Energy C-Trap Dissociation and Orbitrap Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Raftery, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale mass spectrometric analyses of glycopeptides are constrained by the considerable complexity inherent to glycoproteomics, and techniques are still being actively developed to address the associated analytical difficulties. Here we apply Orbitrap mass analysis and higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) to facilitate detailed insights into the compositions and heterogeneity of complex mixtures of low abundance glycopeptides. By generating diagnostic oxonium product ions at mass measurement errors of <5 ppm, highly selective glycopeptide precursor ion detections are made at sub-fmol limits of detection: analyses of proteolytic digests of a hen egg glycoprotein mixture detect 88 previously uncharacterized glycopeptides from 666 precursor ions selected for MS/MS, with only one false positive due to co-fragmentation of a non-glycosylated peptide with a glycopeptide. We also demonstrate that by (1) identifying multiple series of glycoforms using high mass accuracy single stage MS spectra, and (2) performing product ion scans at optimized HCD collision energies, the identification of peptide + N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) ions (Y1 ions) can be readily achieved at <5 ppm mass measurement errors. These data allow base peptide sequences and glycan compositional information to be attained with high confidence, even for glycopeptides that produce weak precursor ion signals and/or low quality MS/MS spectra. The glycopeptides characterized from low fmol abundances using these methods allow two previously unreported glycosylation sites on the Gallus gallus protein ovoglycoprotein (amino acids 82 and 90) to be confirmed; considerable glycan heterogeneities at amino acid 90 of ovoglycoprotein, and amino acids 34 and 77 of Gallus gallus ovomucoid are also revealed.

  15. The dusty nova V1065 centauri (nova cen 2007) : a spectroscopic analysis of abundances and dust properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, L. A.; Woodward, C. E.; Walter, F. M.; Vanlandingham, K.; Schwarz, G. J.; Evans, A.; Ness, J.-U.; Geballe, T. R.; Gehrz, R. D.; Greenhouse, M.; Krautter, J.; Liller, W.; Lynch, D. K.; Rudy, R. J.; Shore, S. N.; Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.

    2010-10-14

    We examine the ejecta evolution of the classical nova V1065 Centauri, constructing a detailed picture of the system based on spectrophotometric observations obtained from 9 to approximately 900 days post-outburst with extensive coverage from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. We estimate a reddening toward the system of E(B-V) = 0.5 {+-} 0.1, based upon the B-V color and analysis of the Balmer decrement, and derive a distance estimate of 8.7{sub -2.1}{sup +2.8} kpc. The optical spectral evolution is classified as P{sub fe}{sup o} N{sub ne}A{sub 0} according to the CTIO Nova Classification system of Williams et al. Photoionization modeling yields absolute abundance values by number, relative to solar of He/H = 1.6 {+-} 0.3, N/H = 144 {+-} 34, O/H = 58 {+-} 18, and Ne/H = 316 {+-} 58 for the ejecta. We derive an ejected gas mass of M{sub g} = (1.6 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} M{circle_dot}. The infrared excess at late epochs in the evolution of the nova arises from dust condensed in the ejecta composed primarily of silicate grains. We estimate a total dust mass, Md , of order (0.2-3.7) x 10{sup -7} M{circle_dot}, inferred from modeling the spectral energy distribution observed with the Spitzer IRS and Gemini-South GNIRS spectrometers. Based on the speed class, neon abundance, and the predominance of silicate dust, we classify V1065 Cen as an ONe-type classical nova.

  16. Detailed Analysis of Protein Topology of Extracellular Vesicles–Evidence of Unconventional Membrane Protein Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Cvjetkovic, Aleksander; Jang, Su Chul; Konečná, Barbora; Höög, Johanna L.; Sihlbom, Carina; Lässer, Cecilia; Lötvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of intercellular communication that change the recipient cell by shuttling lipids, RNA, or protein cargo between cells. Here, we investigate the topology of the protein cargo found in EVs, as this topology can fundamentally influence the biological effects of EVs. A multiple proteomics approach, combining proteinase treatment and biotin tagging, shows that many proteins of cytosolic origin are localized on the surface of EVs. A detailed analysis of the EV proteome at the peptide level revealed that a number of EV membrane proteins are present in a topologically reversed orientation compared to what is annotated. Two examples of such proteins, SCAMP3 and STX4, were confirmed to have a reversed topology. This reversed typology was determined using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy with antibodies directed toward their cytoplasmic epitopes. These results describe a novel workflow to define the EV proteome and the orientation of each protein, including membrane protein topology. These data are fundamentally important to understanding the EV proteome and required to fully explain EV biogenesis as well as biological function in recipient cells. PMID:27821849

  17. External assistance to the health sector in developing countries: a detailed analysis, 1972-90.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, C.; Murray, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which was conducted for the World Bank's World development report 1993: investing in health, provides an objective analysis of the external assistance to the health sector by quantifying in detail the sources and recipients of such assistance in 1990, by analysing time trends for external assistance to the health sector over the last two decades, and, to the extent possible, by describing the allocation of resources to specific activities in the health sector. The main findings of the study are that total external assistance to the health sector in 1990 was US$ 4800 million, or only 2.9% of total health expenditures in developing countries. After stagnation in real terms during the first half of the 1980s, health sector assistance has been increasing since 1986. Despite their small volume, external assistance at the margins may play a critical role in capital investment, research and strategic planning. The study confirms prior findings that health status variables per se are not related to the amount of aid received. Comparing investments to the burden of disease shows tremendous differences in the funding for different health problems. A number of conditions are comparatively under-financed, particularly noncommunicable diseases and injuries. PMID:7923543

  18. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations.

  19. CFD Analysis and Design of Detailed Target Configurations for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Adam; Merzari, Elia; Sofu, Tanju; Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-08-01

    High-fidelity analysis has been utilized in the design of beam target options for an accelerator driven subcritical system. Designs featuring stacks of plates with square cross section have been investigated for both tungsten and uranium target materials. The presented work includes the first thermal-hydraulic simulations of the full, detailed target geometry. The innovative target cooling manifold design features many regions with complex flow features, including 90 bends and merging jets, which necessitate three-dimensional fluid simulations. These were performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+. Conjugate heat transfer was modeled between the plates, cladding, manifold structure, and fluid. Steady-state simulations were performed but lacked good residual convergence. Unsteady simulations were then performed, which converged well and demonstrated that flow instability existed in the lower portion of the manifold. It was established that the flow instability had little effect on the peak plate temperatures, which were well below the melting point. The estimated plate surface temperatures and target region pressure were shown to provide sufficient margin to subcooled boiling for standard operating conditions. This demonstrated the safety of both potential target configurations during normal operation.

  20. A global/local analysis method for treating details in structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Ransom, Jonathan B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for analyzing global/local behavior of plate and shell structures is described. In this approach, a detailed finite element model of the local region is incorporated within a coarser global finite element model. The local model need not be nodally compatible (i.e., need not have a one-to-one nodal correspondence) with the global model at their common boundary; therefore, the two models may be constructed independently. The nodal incompatibility of the models is accounted for by introducing appropriate constraint conditions into the potential energy in a hybrid variational formulation. The primary advantage of this method is that the need for transition modeling between global and local models is eliminated. Eliminating transition modeling has two benefits. First, modeling efforts are reduced since tedious and complex transitioning need not be performed. Second, errors due to the mesh distortion, often unavoidable in mesh transitioning, are minimized by avoiding distorted elements beyond what is needed to represent the geometry of the component. The method is applied reduced to a plate loaded in tension and transverse bending. The plate has a central hole, and various hole sixes and shapes are studied. The method is also applied to a composite laminated fuselage panel with a crack emanating from a window in the panel. While this method is applied herein to global/local problems, it is also applicable to the coupled analysis of independently modeled components as well as adaptive refinement.

  1. Detailed Analysis of Starburst and AGN Activity in Blue E/S0 Galaxies in RESOLVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Ashley; Snyder, Elaine M.; Kannappan, Sheila; Norman, Dara J.; Norris, Mark A.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Stark, David; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We identify a population of ~120 blue E/S0 galaxies among the ~1350 galaxies that are targeted for spectroscopy and have measured morphologies in the highly complete REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local Volume (RESOLVE) survey. Blue E/S0s are identified as being early type objects morphologically classified between E and S0/a that fall on the blue sequence. Most (~85%) of our blue E/S0s have stellar masses <10^10 M_sun. Using pPXF, we have measured the stellar velocity dispersions (sigma values) from high resolution 485 - 550 nm spectroscopy for ~15% of the blue E/S0 sample. Using three variations of the M_BH -- sigma relation, this kinematic subsample is estimated to typically host central black holes within the range log M_BH = 4-6 M_sun. Following up on previous suggestions of nuclear activity in the blue E/S0 population, we investigate nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity occurring within the full sample. Preliminary results from cross-checking known AGN catalogs with the blue E/S0 sample have revealed nuclear activity in ~20 of these galaxies based on heterogeneous criteria (BPT line ratio analysis, spectral line broadening, etc.), some of which may not entirely distinguish starburst from AGN activity. In an attempt to break the degeneracy between AGN and starburst activity, we perform detailed spectral analysis for a few of the galaxies with kinematic data. We also consider the viability of alternate AGN detection methods based on L_Edd estimates calculated from the M_BH estimates. This research has been supported by the National Science Foundation through the CAP REU Program (ACI-1156614) and the RESOLVE Survey (AST-0955368) as well as the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program and the NC Space Grant Consortium.

  2. CN and CH Abundance Analysis in a Sample of Eight Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolinski, Jason P.; Lee, Y.; Beers, T. C.; Martell, S. L.; An, D.; Sivarani, T.

    2011-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters exhibit star-to-star variations in their light element abundances that are not predicted by formation and evolution models involving single stellar generations. Recently it has been suggested that internal pollution from early supernovae and AGB winds may have played important roles in forming a second generation of enriched stars. We present updated results of a CN and CH abundance analysis of stars from the base to the tip of the red giant branch, and in some cases down onto the main sequence, for eight globular clusters with available photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-I and SDSS-II/SEGUE. These results include a discussion of the radial distribution of CN enrichment and how this may impact the current paradigm. Funding for SDSS-I and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS Web Site is http://www.sdss.org/. This work was supported in part by grants PHY 02-16783 and PHY 08-22648: Physics Frontiers Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  3. Global Analysis of Condition-specific Subcellular Protein Distribution and Abundance*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sunhee; Smith, Jennifer J.; von Haller, Priska D.; Dilworth, David J.; Sitko, Katherine A.; Miller, Leslie R.; Saleem, Ramsey A.; Goodlett, David R.; Aitchison, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular control of protein activities by modulation of their abundance or compartmentalization is not easily measured on a large scale. We developed and applied a method to globally interrogate these processes that is widely useful for systems-level analyses of dynamic cellular responses in many cell types. The approach involves subcellular fractionation followed by comprehensive proteomic analysis of the fractions, which is enabled by a data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry approach that samples every available mass to charge channel systematically to maximize sensitivity. Next, various fraction-enrichment ratios are measured for all detected proteins across different environmental conditions and used to group proteins into clusters reflecting changes in compartmentalization and relative conditional abundance. Application of the approach to characterize the response of yeast proteins to fatty acid exposure revealed dynamics of peroxisomes and novel dynamics of MCC/eisosomes, specialized plasma membrane domains comprised of membrane compartment occupied by Can1 (MCC) and eisosome subdomains. It also led to the identification of Fat3, a fatty acid transport protein of the plasma membrane, previously annotated as Ykl187. PMID:23349476

  4. Abundance quantification by independent component analysis of hyperspectral imagery for oil spill coverage calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hande

    2016-08-01

    The estimation of oil spill coverage is an important part of monitoring of oil spills at sea. The spatial resolution of images collected by airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing limits both the detection of oil spills and the accuracy of estimates of their size. We consider at-sea oil spills with zonal distribution in this paper and improve the traditional independent component analysis algorithm. For each independent component we added two constraint conditions: non-negativity and constant sum. We use priority weighting by higher-order statistics, and then the spectral angle match method to overcome the order nondeterminacy. By these steps, endmembers can be extracted and abundance quantified simultaneously. To examine the coverage of a real oil spill and correct our estimate, a simulation experiment and a real experiment were designed using the algorithm described above. The result indicated that, for the simulation data, the abundance estimation error is 2.52% and minimum root mean square error of the reconstructed image is 0.030 6. We estimated the oil spill rate and area based on eight hyper-spectral remote sensing images collected by an airborne survey of Shandong Changdao in 2011. The total oil spill area was 0.224 km2, and the oil spill rate was 22.89%. The method we demonstrate in this paper can be used for the automatic monitoring of oil spill coverage rates. It also allows the accurate estimation of the oil spill area.

  5. Analysis of Carbohydrate and Fatty Acid Marker Abundance in Ricin Toxin Preparations for Forensic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Moran, James J.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Melville, Angela M.

    2010-07-15

    One challenge in the forensic analysis of ricin samples is determining the method and extent of sample preparation. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a protein purification through removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein constituents in the seed are the castor oil and carbohydrates. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil, which comprises roughly half the seed weight. The carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. We used derivatization of carbohydrate and fatty acid markers followed by identification and quantification using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to assess compositional changes in ricin samples purified by different methods. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicated steps for oil removal had occurred. Changes to the carbohydrate content of the sample were also observed following protein precipitation. The differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose indicated removal of the major carbohydrate fraction of the seed and enrichment of the protein content. Taken together, these changes in fatty acid and carbohydrate abundance are indicative of the preparation method used for each sample.

  6. Direct mutation analysis by high-throughput sequencing: from germline to low-abundant, somatic variants

    PubMed Central

    Gundry, Michael; Vijg, Jan

    2011-01-01

    DNA mutations are the source of genetic variation within populations. The majority of mutations with observable effects are deleterious. In humans mutations in the germ line can cause genetic disease. In somatic cells multiple rounds of mutations and selection lead to cancer. The study of genetic variation has progressed rapidly since the completion of the draft sequence of the human genome. Recent advances in sequencing technology, most importantly the introduction of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), have resulted in more than a hundred-fold reduction in the time and cost required for sequencing nucleic acids. These improvements have greatly expanded the use of sequencing as a practical tool for mutation analysis. While in the past the high cost of sequencing limited mutation analysis to selectable markers or small forward mutation targets assumed to be representative for the genome overall, current platforms allow whole genome sequencing for less than $5,000. This has already given rise to direct estimates of germline mutation rates in multiple organisms including humans by comparing whole genome sequences between parents and offspring. Here we present a brief history of the field of mutation research, with a focus on classical tools for the measurement of mutation rates. We then review MPS, how it is currently applied and the new insight into human and animal mutation frequencies and spectra that has been obtained from whole genome sequencing. While great progress has been made, we note that the single most important limitation of current MPS approaches for mutation analysis is the inability to address low-abundance mutations that turn somatic tissues into mosaics of cells. Such mutations are at the basis of intra-tumor heterogeneity, with important implications for clinical diagnosis, and could also contribute to somatic diseases other than cancer, including aging. Some possible approaches to gain access to low-abundance mutations are discussed, with a

  7. Direct mutation analysis by high-throughput sequencing: from germline to low-abundant, somatic variants.

    PubMed

    Gundry, Michael; Vijg, Jan

    2012-01-03

    DNA mutations are the source of genetic variation within populations. The majority of mutations with observable effects are deleterious. In humans mutations in the germ line can cause genetic disease. In somatic cells multiple rounds of mutations and selection lead to cancer. The study of genetic variation has progressed rapidly since the completion of the draft sequence of the human genome. Recent advances in sequencing technology, most importantly the introduction of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), have resulted in more than a hundred-fold reduction in the time and cost required for sequencing nucleic acids. These improvements have greatly expanded the use of sequencing as a practical tool for mutation analysis. While in the past the high cost of sequencing limited mutation analysis to selectable markers or small forward mutation targets assumed to be representative for the genome overall, current platforms allow whole genome sequencing for less than $5000. This has already given rise to direct estimates of germline mutation rates in multiple organisms including humans by comparing whole genome sequences between parents and offspring. Here we present a brief history of the field of mutation research, with a focus on classical tools for the measurement of mutation rates. We then review MPS, how it is currently applied and the new insight into human and animal mutation frequencies and spectra that has been obtained from whole genome sequencing. While great progress has been made, we note that the single most important limitation of current MPS approaches for mutation analysis is the inability to address low-abundance mutations that turn somatic tissues into mosaics of cells. Such mutations are at the basis of intra-tumor heterogeneity, with important implications for clinical diagnosis, and could also contribute to somatic diseases other than cancer, including aging. Some possible approaches to gain access to low-abundance mutations are discussed, with a brief

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Extended abundance analysis of cool stars (Brewer+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, J. M.; Fischer, D. A.; Valenti, J. A.; Piskunov, N.

    2016-10-01

    The stellar spectra in this study were all collected using the HIRES spectrograph (R~70000) on the Keck I telescope as part of one or more radial-velocity planet-search programs under the collaborative umbrella known as the California Planet Survey (CPS; Howard+ 2010ApJ...721.1467H). In addition to stellar spectra, our data also include 20 spectra of four different asteroids (4 Vesta, 1036 Ganymed, 3 Juno, and 10 Hygiea) from five epochs throughout the 10-year period covered by the observations in our sample. These spectra provided disk-integrated solar spectra and were obtained to help calibrate our analysis by providing small zero-point offsets for solar parameters and abundances. (4 data files).

  9. Economic analysis of a randomized trial of academic detailing interventions to improve use of antihypertensive medications.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven R; Rodriguez, Hector P; Majumdar, Sumit R; Kleinman, Ken; Warner, Cheryl; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Miroshnik, Irina; Soumerai, Stephen B; Prosser, Lisa A

    2007-01-01

    The authors estimated the costs and cost savings of implementing a program of mailed practice guidelines and single-visit individual and group academic detailing interventions in a randomized controlled trial to improve the use of antihypertensive medications. Analyses took the perspective of the payer. The total costs of the mailed guideline, group detailing, and individual detailing interventions were estimated at 1000 dollars, 5500 dollars, and 7200 dollars, respectively, corresponding to changes in the average daily per person drug costs of -0.0558 dollars (95% confidence interval, -0.1365 dollars to 0.0250 dollars) in the individual detailing intervention and -0.0001 dollars (95% confidence interval, -0.0803 dollars to 0.0801 dollars) in the group detailing intervention, compared with the mailed intervention. For all patients with incident hypertension in the individual detailing arm, the annual total drug cost savings were estimated at 21,711 dollars (95% confidence interval, 53,131 dollars savings to 9709 dollars cost increase). Information on costs of academic detailing could assist with health plan decision making in developing interventions to improve prescribing.

  10. Propagating Disturbances in Coronal Loops: A Detailed Analysis of Propagation Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddie, G.; De Moortel, I.; Del Zanna, G.; McIntosh, S. W.; Whittaker, I.

    2012-08-01

    Quasi-periodic disturbances have been observed in the outer solar atmosphere for many years. Although first interpreted as upflows (Schrijver et al., Solar Phys. 187, 261, 1999), they have been widely regarded as slow magneto-acoustic waves, due to their observed velocities and periods. However, recent observations have questioned this interpretation, as periodic disturbances in Doppler velocity, line width, and profile asymmetry were found to be in phase with the intensity oscillations (De Pontieu and McIntosh, Astrophys. J. 722, 1013, 2010; Tian, McIntosh, and De Pontieu, Astrophys. J. Lett. 727, L37, 2011), suggesting that the disturbances could be quasi-periodic upflows. Here we conduct a detailed analysis of the velocities of these disturbances across several wavelengths using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analysed 41 examples, including both sunspot and non-sunspot regions of the Sun. We found that the velocities of propagating disturbances (PDs) located at sunspots are more likely to be temperature dependent, whereas the velocities of PDs at non-sunspot locations do not show a clear temperature dependence. This suggests an interpretation in terms of slow magneto-acoustic waves in sunspots but the nature of PDs in non-sunspot (plage) regions remains unclear. We also considered on what scale the underlying driver is affecting the properties of the PDs. Finally, we found that removing the contribution due to the cooler ions in the 193 Å wavelength suggests that a substantial part of the 193 Å emission of sunspot PDs can be attributed to the cool component of 193 Å.

  11. Detailed analysis of an Eigen quasispecies model in a periodically moving sharp-peak landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Armando G. M.

    2010-09-01

    The Eigen quasispecies model in a periodically moving sharp-peak landscape considered in previous seminal works [M. Nilsson and N. Snoad, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 191 (2000)10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.191] and [C. Ronnewinkel , in Theoretical Aspects of Evolutionary Computing, edited by L. Kallel, B. Naudts, and A. Rogers (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001)] is analyzed in greater detail. We show here, through a more rigorous analysis, that results in those papers are qualitatively correct. In particular, we obtain a phase diagram for the existence of a quasispecies with the same shape as in the above cited paper by C. Ronnewinkel , with upper and lower thresholds for the mutation rate between which a quasispecies may survive. A difference is that the upper value is larger and the lower value is smaller than the previously reported ones, so that the range for quasispecies existence is always larger than thought before. The quantitative information provided might also be important in understanding genetic variability in virus populations and has possible applications in antiviral therapies. The results in the quoted papers were obtained by studying the populations only at some few genomes. As we will show, this amounts to diagonalizing a 3×3 matrix. Our work is based instead in a different division of the population allowing a finer control of the populations at various relevant genetic sequences. The existence of a quasispecies will be related to Perron-Frobenius eigenvalues. Although huge matrices of sizes 2ℓ , where ℓ is the genome length, may seem necessary at a first look, we show that such large sizes are not necessary and easily obtain numerical and analytical results for their eigenvalues.

  12. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one

  13. Landscape evolution reconstructions on Mars: a detailed analysis of lacustrine and fluvial terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossato, Sandro; Pajola, Maurizio; Baratti, Emanuele; Mangili, Clara; Coradini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    Liquid water was flowing on the surface of Mars in the past, leaving behind a wide range of geomorphic features. The ancient major Martian water fluxes vanished about 3.5 Ga. Meteoritic impacts, wind-erosion, gravity-related phenomena, tectonic deformations and volcanic activities deeply altered the landforms during the ages. Hence, the reconstruction of water-shaped landscapes is often complicated. Fluvial and lacustrine terraces analysis and correlation is a useful approach to understand and reconstruct the past changes in Martian landscape evolution. These features are commonly used as reference for the top of water bodies on Earth, since they are void of the uncertainties or errors deriving from erosional or slumping processes that could have acted on the valley flanks or in the plateau, where the hydrological network was carved in. The study area is located in the western hemisphere of Mars, in the Memnonia quadrangle, between latitude 9° 10'-9° 50'South and longitude 167° 0'-167° 30' West and it constitutes a transition region between the southern highlands of Terra Sirenum and the northern lowlands of Lucus Planum. Many water-shaped features have already been described near the study area, the most prominent of them being the Ma'adim Vallis and the Mangala Valles system. Our results derive from the observations and the analysis of HRSC images (12.5 m spatial resolution) and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) derived from the MEX-HRSC (75 m resolution), that allow the identification of elevation differences up to the tens of meter scale. We were able to reconstruct six main evolutionary stages of a complex hydrologic systems consisting of two main palaeorivers (up to 5 km wide) connected one another by a palaeolake that formed within a meteor crater (~20 km diameter). On the basis of Earth analogs, these stages/terraces should have evolved during a long period of time, at least thousands years long. Furthermore, crater counting date back the deactivation of

  14. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum detailed separation and analysis of acidic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B.; Yu, S.K.T.; Green, J.A.; Doughty, D.A.; Vogh, J.W.; Grigsby, R.D.

    1989-10-01

    An HPLC method for fractionation of whole acid concentrates into nominal compound class subfractions is described. The method utilizes silica columns and gradient elution with eluents containing a strong base, tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide. The performance of the method is evaluated through analysis of subfractions obtained from a coal liquid, Wilmington, CA, petroleum and Cerro Negro heavy oil. Methods developed specifically for analysis of whole acid concentrates and subfractions are described in detail. These include: (1) an infrared method for determination of total hydroxyl and carboxyl groups after their conversion to trifluoroacetate and 2,2,2-trifluoresters, respectively. (2) an NMR method for functional group analysis based on methylation of acidic groups with {sup 13}C-enriched methyl iodide, (3) a nonaqueous titration procedure employing the potassium salt of dimethyl sulfoxide as a titrant for acidic compounds, (4) GC/MS analysis of hydroxyaromatic compounds after their conversion to trifluoroacetate esters, and (5) probe microdistillation high resolution mass spectrometric analysis of acid fractions exhibiting low volatility. 146 refs., 38 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. New mapping of Radlandi basin and detailed analysis of its inner plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minelli, Francesco; Giorgetti, Carolina; Mondini, Alessandro; Pauselli, Cristina; Mancinelli, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    NEW MAPPING OF RADITLADI BASIN AND DETAILED ANALYSIS OF ITS INNER PLAINS. Francesco Minelli 1, Carolina Giorgetti 1, Alessandro C. Mondini 2, Cristina Pauselli 1, Paolo Mancinelli1. 1 Gruppo di Geologia Strutturale e Geofisica (GSG), Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06123, Perugia, Italy . Email: minelli91@yahoo.it. 2 CNR IRPI Perugia, 06123, Perugia. Introduction: The Raditladi basin is a large peak-ring impact crater discovered during the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) first flyby of Mercury in January 2008 [1]. The Raditladi basin is relatively young [2], and the study of the internal structures give an indication of the processes that acted recently in Mercury's geological history. Geological mapping: We first present the geological mapping of Raditladi crater. In the map we defined different sub-units on the base of previous studies [4][5] and surface morphology and reflectance. Through a GIS software we associated a polygonal layer to each sub-unit, this allowed to distinguish nine different layers. Due to the similarities with the Rachmaninoff basin, to define sub-units mapped on Raditladi, we adopted Rachmaninoff crater's units definitions made by Marchi et al. (2011) [4]. Structures analysis : We also mapped secondary structures consisting in concentric troughs arranged in a circular pattern. We defined two different kinds of troughs: (i) structures characterized by a distinct flat floor and interpretable as grabens, and (ii) structures with linear and curvilinear segments [5]. Inner plain deposit: The analysis of the topography made possible the estimation of the deposit's thickness. The measurement of the thickness is possible thanks to the presence of two small craters, crater A and crater, located in Raditladi's Inner plain. Observing the morphology of the two small craters' rim and hummocky central floor, we distinguished two different units: the shallower consists in

  16. DETAILED COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVILY POLLUTED DBZ WHITE DWARF SDSS J073842.56+183509.06: A WINDOW ON PLANET FORMATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, P.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Kilic, M.; Melis, C.; Bochanski, J.

    2012-04-10

    We present a new model atmosphere analysis of the most metal-contaminated white dwarf known, the DBZ SDSS J073842.56+183509.06. Using new high-resolution spectroscopic observations taken with Keck and Magellan, we determine precise atmospheric parameters and measure abundances of 14 elements heavier than helium. We also report new Spitzer mid-infrared photometric data that are used to better constrain the properties of the debris disk orbiting this star. Our detailed analysis, which combines data taken from seven different observational facilities (Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Gemini, Keck, Magellan, MMT, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and Spitzer), clearly demonstrates that J0738+1835 is accreting large amounts of rocky terrestrial-like material that has been tidally disrupted into a debris disk. We estimate that the body responsible for the photospheric metal contamination was at least as large as Ceres, but was much drier, with less than 1% of the mass contained in the form of water ice, indicating that it formed interior to the snow line around its parent star. We also find a correlation between the abundances (relative to Mg and bulk Earth) and the condensation temperature; refractory species are clearly depleted, while the more volatile elements are possibly enhanced. This could be the signature of a body that formed in a lower temperature environment than where Earth formed. Alternatively, we could be witnessing the remains of a differentiated body that lost a large part of its outer layers.

  17. Measurement of isotope abundance variations in nature by gravimetric spiking isotope dilution analysis (GS-IDA).

    PubMed

    Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas

    2013-04-02

    Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.

  18. Rapid determination of bacterial abundance, biovolume, morphology, and growth by neural network-based image analysis

    PubMed

    Blackburn; Hagstrom; Wikner; Cuadros-Hansson; Bjornsen

    1998-09-01

    Annual bacterial plankton dynamics at several depths and locations in the Baltic Sea were studied by image analysis. Individual bacteria were classified by using an artificial neural network which also effectively identified nonbacterial objects. Cell counts and frequencies of dividing cells were determined, and the data obtained agreed well with visual observations and previously published values. Cell volumes were measured accurately by comparison with bead standards. The survey included 690 images from a total of 138 samples. Each image contained approximately 200 bacteria. The images were analyzed automatically at a rate of 100 images per h. Bacterial abundance exhibited coherent patterns with time and depth, and there were distinct subsurface peaks in the summer months. Four distinct morphological classes were resolved by the image analyzer, and the dynamics of each could be visualized. The bacterial growth rates estimated from frequencies of dividing cells were different from the bacterial growth rates estimated by the thymidine incorporation method. With minor modifications, the image analysis technique described here can be used to analyze other planktonic classes.

  19. Rapid Determination of Bacterial Abundance, Biovolume, Morphology, and Growth by Neural Network-Based Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Nicholas; Hagström, Åke; Wikner, Johan; Cuadros-Hansson, Rocio; Bjørnsen, Peter Koefoed

    1998-01-01

    Annual bacterial plankton dynamics at several depths and locations in the Baltic Sea were studied by image analysis. Individual bacteria were classified by using an artificial neural network which also effectively identified nonbacterial objects. Cell counts and frequencies of dividing cells were determined, and the data obtained agreed well with visual observations and previously published values. Cell volumes were measured accurately by comparison with bead standards. The survey included 690 images from a total of 138 samples. Each image contained approximately 200 bacteria. The images were analyzed automatically at a rate of 100 images per h. Bacterial abundance exhibited coherent patterns with time and depth, and there were distinct subsurface peaks in the summer months. Four distinct morphological classes were resolved by the image analyzer, and the dynamics of each could be visualized. The bacterial growth rates estimated from frequencies of dividing cells were different from the bacterial growth rates estimated by the thymidine incorporation method. With minor modifications, the image analysis technique described here can be used to analyze other planktonic classes. PMID:9726867

  20. MGA (Multi-Group Analysis): A gamma-ray spectrum analysis code for determining plutonium isotopic abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, R

    1990-04-03

    Nondestructive measurements of x-ray and gamma-ray emissions can be used to analyze a sample for plutonium. This report describes the methods and algorithms we have developed for analyzing gamma-ray spectra obtained by using a germanium detector system to accurately determine the relative abundances of various actinide isotopes in a sample. Our methodology requires no calibrations and can be used to measure virtually any size and type of plutonium sample. Measurement times can be as short as a few minutes; measurements are frequently accurate to within 1%. Our methods have been programmed into a computerized analysis code called MGA (Multi-Group Analysis). Our current versions can be run on personal computers (IBM type) and on the DEC VAX microcomputer. Spectral analysis times are usually far less than a minute. 28 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  1. VARIATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON SUMMER ABUNDANCE: HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS OF HABITAT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Varying habitat conditions found across a stream network during the summer months may limit the abundance of salmonids such as coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We examined the abundance of juvenile coho salmon across a stream network in an Oregon coast range basin from 2002 through ...

  2. Chemical abundances and kinematics of 257 G-, K-type field giants. Setting a base for further analysis of giant-planet properties orbiting evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Benamati, L.; Santos, N. C.; Alves, S.; Lovis, C.; Udry, S.; Israelian, G.; Sousa, S. G.; Tsantaki, M.; Mortier, A.; Sozzetti, A.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    We performed a uniform and detailed abundance analysis of 12 refractory elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Co, Sc, Mn, and V) for a sample of 257 G- and K-type evolved stars from the CORALIE planet search programme. To date, only one of these stars is known to harbour a planetary companion. We aimed to characterize this large sample of evolved stars in terms of chemical abundances and kinematics, thus setting a solid base for further analysis of planetary properties around giant stars. This sample, being homogeneously analysed, can be used as a comparison sample for other planet-related studies, as well as for different type of studies related to stellar and Galaxy astrophysics. The abundances of the chemical elements were determined using an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis relative to the Sun, with the spectral synthesis code MOOG and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 atmospheres. To separate the Galactic stellar populations, both a purely kinematical approach and a chemical method were applied. We confirm the overabundance of Na in giant stars compared to the field FGK dwarfs. This enhancement might have a stellar evolutionary character, but departures from LTE may also produce a similar enhancement. Our chemical separation of stellar populations also suggests a `gap' in metallicity between the thick-disc and high-α metal-rich stars, as previously observed in dwarfs sample from HARPS. The present sample, as most of the giant star samples, also suffers from the B - V colour cut-off, which excludes low-log g stars with high metallicities, and high-log g star with low [Fe/H]. For future studies of planet occurrence dependence on stellar metallicity around these evolved stars, we suggest to use a subsample of stars in a `cut-rectangle' in the log g-[Fe/H] diagram to overcome the aforementioned issue.

  3. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Whalley, L. K.; Heard, D. E.; Stone, D.; Dunmore, R. E.; Hamilton, J. F.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in summer 2012. Data were collected from 22 July to 18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation, and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at ˜ 02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime, peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak, suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH, and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to 0, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources from the literature, including dark conversion of NO2 on surfaces, direct emission, photolysis of ortho-substituted nitrophenols, the postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 × H2O with NO2, photolysis of adsorbed HNO3 on ground and aerosols, and HONO produced by photosensitized conversion of NO2 on the surface increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant missing daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity (used as a proxy for organic material), with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2), in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. Increasing the photosensitized surface conversion rate of NO2 by a factor of 10 to a mean daytime first

  4. Bayesian change point analysis of abundance trends for pelagic fishes in the upper San Francisco Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, James R.; Kimmerer, Wim J.; Brown, Larry R.; Newman, Ken B.; Mac Nally, Ralph; Bennett, William A.; Feyrer, Frederick; Fleishman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    We examined trends in abundance of four pelagic fish species (delta smelt, longfin smelt, striped bass, and threadfin shad) in the upper San Francisco Estuary, California, USA, over 40 years using Bayesian change point models. Change point models identify times of abrupt or unusual changes in absolute abundance (step changes) or in rates of change in abundance (trend changes). We coupled Bayesian model selection with linear regression splines to identify biotic or abiotic covariates with the strongest associations with abundances of each species. We then refitted change point models conditional on the selected covariates to explore whether those covariates could explain statistical trends or change points in species abundances. We also fitted a multispecies change point model that identified change points common to all species. All models included hierarchical structures to model data uncertainties, including observation errors and missing covariate values. There were step declines in abundances of all four species in the early 2000s, with a likely common decline in 2002. Abiotic variables, including water clarity, position of the 2‰ isohaline (X2), and the volume of freshwater exported from the estuary, explained some variation in species' abundances over the time series, but no selected covariates could explain statistically the post-2000 change points for any species.

  5. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.

    2016-07-01

    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  6. An optical region elemental abundance analysis of the chemically peculiar HgMn star chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Adelman, Saul J.; Robinson, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    The optical spectrum of the chemically peculiar HgMn type binary star chi Lupi has been analyzed to determine atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances. Echelle spectra were obtained with the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian telescope to exploit the extreme shape-lined nature of the spectrum. This study was undertaken in support of ultraviolet analyses currently underway that utilize echell spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. For the B9.5 V primary star we obtain T(sub eff) = 10650 K, log g = 3.9, and xi = 0 km/s, while for the A2 V secondary, T(sub eff) = 9200 K, log g = 4.0, and xi = 2 km/s. Most of the elemental abundances are typical of HgMn stars with similar T(sub eff) showing an overall iron-peak elemental abundance distribution that is basically solar in nature with enhancement of the light elements Si, P, and S, as well as all detected elements heavier than the iron group. Abundances for several elements have been determined for the first time in this star, including several of the rare-earths. The secondary star spectrum shows Am star characteristics. We also discuss the relative merits of the equivalent width and synthetic spectrum techniques in determining the elemental abundences, concluding that the synthetic spectrum technique is necessary for obtaining abundances with the utmost accuracy.

  7. Abundant Topological Outliers in Social Media Data and Their Effect on Spatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Westerholt, Rene; Steiger, Enrico; Resch, Bernd; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Twitter and related social media feeds have become valuable data sources to many fields of research. Numerous researchers have thereby used social media posts for spatial analysis, since many of them contain explicit geographic locations. However, despite its widespread use within applied research, a thorough understanding of the underlying spatial characteristics of these data is still lacking. In this paper, we investigate how topological outliers influence the outcomes of spatial analyses of social media data. These outliers appear when different users contribute heterogeneous information about different phenomena simultaneously from similar locations. As a consequence, various messages representing different spatial phenomena are captured closely to each other, and are at risk to be falsely related in a spatial analysis. Our results reveal indications for corresponding spurious effects when analyzing Twitter data. Further, we show how the outliers distort the range of outcomes of spatial analysis methods. This has significant influence on the power of spatial inferential techniques, and, more generally, on the validity and interpretability of spatial analysis results. We further investigate how the issues caused by topological outliers are composed in detail. We unveil that multiple disturbing effects are acting simultaneously and that these are related to the geographic scales of the involved overlapping patterns. Our results show that at some scale configurations, the disturbances added through overlap are more severe than at others. Further, their behavior turns into a volatile and almost chaotic fluctuation when the scales of the involved patterns become too different. Overall, our results highlight the critical importance of thoroughly considering the specific characteristics of social media data when analyzing them spatially.

  8. Abundant Topological Outliers in Social Media Data and Their Effect on Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zipf, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Twitter and related social media feeds have become valuable data sources to many fields of research. Numerous researchers have thereby used social media posts for spatial analysis, since many of them contain explicit geographic locations. However, despite its widespread use within applied research, a thorough understanding of the underlying spatial characteristics of these data is still lacking. In this paper, we investigate how topological outliers influence the outcomes of spatial analyses of social media data. These outliers appear when different users contribute heterogeneous information about different phenomena simultaneously from similar locations. As a consequence, various messages representing different spatial phenomena are captured closely to each other, and are at risk to be falsely related in a spatial analysis. Our results reveal indications for corresponding spurious effects when analyzing Twitter data. Further, we show how the outliers distort the range of outcomes of spatial analysis methods. This has significant influence on the power of spatial inferential techniques, and, more generally, on the validity and interpretability of spatial analysis results. We further investigate how the issues caused by topological outliers are composed in detail. We unveil that multiple disturbing effects are acting simultaneously and that these are related to the geographic scales of the involved overlapping patterns. Our results show that at some scale configurations, the disturbances added through overlap are more severe than at others. Further, their behavior turns into a volatile and almost chaotic fluctuation when the scales of the involved patterns become too different. Overall, our results highlight the critical importance of thoroughly considering the specific characteristics of social media data when analyzing them spatially. PMID:27611199

  9. Dynamism & Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    New material discovered in the study of cell research is presented for the benefit of biology teachers. Huge amounts of data are being generated in fields like cellular dynamics, and it is felt that people's understanding of the cell is becoming much more complex and detailed.

  10. RVC-CAL library for endmember and abundance estimation in hyperspectral image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazcano López, R.; Madroñal Quintín, D.; Juárez Martínez, E.; Sanz Álvaro, C.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HI) collects information from across the electromagnetic spectrum, covering a wide range of wavelengths. Although this technology was initially developed for remote sensing and earth observation, its multiple advantages - such as high spectral resolution - led to its application in other fields, as cancer detection. However, this new field has shown specific requirements; for instance, it needs to accomplish strong time specifications, since all the potential applications - like surgical guidance or in vivo tumor detection - imply real-time requisites. Achieving this time requirements is a great challenge, as hyperspectral images generate extremely high volumes of data to process. Thus, some new research lines are studying new processing techniques, and the most relevant ones are related to system parallelization. In that line, this paper describes the construction of a new hyperspectral processing library for RVC-CAL language, which is specifically designed for multimedia applications and allows multithreading compilation and system parallelization. This paper presents the development of the required library functions to implement two of the four stages of the hyperspectral imaging processing chain--endmember and abundances estimation. The results obtained show that the library achieves speedups of 30%, approximately, comparing to an existing software of hyperspectral images analysis; concretely, the endmember estimation step reaches an average speedup of 27.6%, which saves almost 8 seconds in the execution time. It also shows the existence of some bottlenecks, as the communication interfaces among the different actors due to the volume of data to transfer. Finally, it is shown that the library considerably simplifies the implementation process. Thus, experimental results show the potential of a RVC-CAL library for analyzing hyperspectral images in real-time, as it provides enough resources to study the system performance.

  11. Performance analysis on wideband-interference cancellation based on detailed hardware design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Jama

    Use of a stretch waveform in a jamming environment with closely spaced objects such as surface vessels or fighter aircraft is presented. Adaptive cancellation in the sub-banding architecture improves the system cancellation ratio on large sub-array digital receiver systems. Detailed hardware models that capture key system requirements are described. Key model components are system aperture, receive chain with beamforming and digital data processing elements. The model takes error levels at array elements (e.g., quantization and beam pointing), digital receiver (e.g., amplitude and phase errors, time-delays, and aperture dispersions). System performance is evaluated via high-fidelity models and is characterized by the computing system's cancellation ratio.

  12. Detailed Per-residue Energetic Analysis Explains the Driving Force for Microtubule Disassembly.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Ahmed T; Klobukowski, Mariusz; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2015-06-01

    Microtubules are long filamentous hollow cylinders whose surfaces form lattice structures of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. They perform multiple physiological roles in eukaryotic cells and are targets for therapeutic interventions. In our study, we carried out all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for arbitrarily long microtubules that have either GDP or GTP molecules in the E-site of β-tubulin. A detailed energy balance of the MM/GBSA inter-dimer interaction energy per residue contributing to the overall lateral and longitudinal structural stability was performed. The obtained results identified the key residues and tubulin domains according to their energetic contributions. They also identified the molecular forces that drive microtubule disassembly. At the tip of the plus end of the microtubule, the uneven distribution of longitudinal interaction energies within a protofilament generates a torque that bends tubulin outwardly with respect to the cylinder's axis causing disassembly. In the presence of GTP, this torque is opposed by lateral interactions that prevent outward curling, thus stabilizing the whole microtubule. Once GTP hydrolysis reaches the tip of the microtubule (lateral cap), lateral interactions become much weaker, allowing tubulin dimers to bend outwards, causing disassembly. The role of magnesium in the process of outward curling has also been demonstrated. This study also showed that the microtubule seam is the most energetically labile inter-dimer interface and could serve as a trigger point for disassembly. Based on a detailed balance of the energetic contributions per amino acid residue in the microtubule, numerous other analyses could be performed to give additional insights into the properties of microtubule dynamic instability.

  13. Detailed Per-residue Energetic Analysis Explains the Driving Force for Microtubule Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Ahmed T.; Klobukowski, Mariusz; Tuszynski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are long filamentous hollow cylinders whose surfaces form lattice structures of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. They perform multiple physiological roles in eukaryotic cells and are targets for therapeutic interventions. In our study, we carried out all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for arbitrarily long microtubules that have either GDP or GTP molecules in the E-site of β-tubulin. A detailed energy balance of the MM/GBSA inter-dimer interaction energy per residue contributing to the overall lateral and longitudinal structural stability was performed. The obtained results identified the key residues and tubulin domains according to their energetic contributions. They also identified the molecular forces that drive microtubule disassembly. At the tip of the plus end of the microtubule, the uneven distribution of longitudinal interaction energies within a protofilament generates a torque that bends tubulin outwardly with respect to the cylinder's axis causing disassembly. In the presence of GTP, this torque is opposed by lateral interactions that prevent outward curling, thus stabilizing the whole microtubule. Once GTP hydrolysis reaches the tip of the microtubule (lateral cap), lateral interactions become much weaker, allowing tubulin dimers to bend outwards, causing disassembly. The role of magnesium in the process of outward curling has also been demonstrated. This study also showed that the microtubule seam is the most energetically labile inter-dimer interface and could serve as a trigger point for disassembly. Based on a detailed balance of the energetic contributions per amino acid residue in the microtubule, numerous other analyses could be performed to give additional insights into the properties of microtubule dynamic instability. PMID:26030285

  14. A new solar carbon abundance based on non-LTE CN molecular spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, G. H.; Linsky, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed non-LTE analysis of solar CN spectra strongly suggest a revised carbon abundance for the sun. We recommend a value of log carbon abundance = 8.35 plus or minus 0.15 which is significantly lower than the presently accepted value of log carbon abundance = 8.55. This revision may have important consequences in astrophysics.

  15. Evaluating abundance and trends in a Hawaiian avian community using state-space analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P.M.; Paxton, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Estimating population abundances and patterns of change over time are important in both ecology and conservation. Trend assessment typically entails fitting a regression to a time series of abundances to estimate population trajectory. However, changes in abundance estimates from year-to-year across time are due to both true variation in population size (process variation) and variation due to imperfect sampling and model fit. State-space models are a relatively new method that can be used to partition the error components and quantify trends based only on process variation. We compare a state-space modelling approach with a more traditional linear regression approach to assess trends in uncorrected raw counts and detection-corrected abundance estimates of forest birds at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i. Most species demonstrated similar trends using either method. In general, evidence for trends using state-space models was less strong than for linear regression, as measured by estimates of precision. However, while the state-space models may sacrifice precision, the expectation is that these estimates provide a better representation of the real world biological processes of interest because they are partitioning process variation (environmental and demographic variation) and observation variation (sampling and model variation). The state-space approach also provides annual estimates of abundance which can be used by managers to set conservation strategies, and can be linked to factors that vary by year, such as climate, to better understand processes that drive population trends.

  16. A rapid method for depletion of Rubisco from soybean (Glycine max) leaf for proteomic analysis of lower abundance proteins.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S

    2009-12-01

    2-DE analysis of complex plant proteomes has limited dynamic resolution because only abundant proteins can be detected. Proteomic assessment of the low abundance proteins within leaf tissue is difficult when it is comprised of 30-50% of the CO(2) fixation enzyme Rubisco. Resolution can be improved through depletion of Rubisco using fractionation techniques based upon different physiological or biochemical principles. We have developed a fast and simple fractionation technique using 10 mM Ca(2+) and 10 mM phytate to precipitate Rubisco from soybean leaf soluble protein extract. This method is not only rapid, but also inexpensive, and capable of removing 85% of the extremely abundant Rubisco enzyme from soybean leaf soluble protein extract. This method allowed for roughly 230 previously inconspicuous protein spots in soybean leaf to be more easily detectable (3-fold increase in vol%) using fluorescent detection and allowed 28 phosphorylated proteins previously undetected, to be isolated and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  18. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape.

  19. A detailed molecular analysis of complete Bovine Leukemia Virus genomes isolated from B-cell lymphosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the majority of cancers result from multiple cellular events leading to malignancy after a prolonged period of clinical latency, and that the immune system plays a critical role in the control of cancer progression. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic member of the Retroviridae family. Complete genomic sequences of BLV strains isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cattle have been previously reported. However, a detailed characterization of the complete genome of BLV strains directly isolated from bovine tumors is much needed in order to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by BLV in cattle. In this study, we performed a molecular characterization of BLV complete genomes from bovine B-cell lymphosarcoma isolates. A nucleotide substitution was found in the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) site of the 5' long terminal repeat (5'LTR) of the BLV isolates. All amino acid substitutions in Tax previously found to be related to stimulate high transcriptional activity of 5'LTR were not found in these studies. Amino acid substitutions were found in the nucleocapsid, gp51 and G4 proteins. Premature stop-codons in R3 were observed. Few mutations or amino acid substitutions may be needed to allow BLV provirus to achieve silencing. Substitutions that favor suppression of viral expression in malignant B cells might be a strategy to circumvent effective immune attack. PMID:23506507

  20. Detailed Analysis of the Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures of iPSC-Derived Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Reinhard; Smallwood, Sebastien A.; Veenvliet, Jesse V.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Peng, Su-Ping; Chakrabarty, Koushik; Groot-Koerkamp, Marian J.A.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Wesseling, Evelyn; Kelsey, Gavin; Boddeke, Erik; Smidt, Marten P.; Copray, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for in vitro generation of disease-relevant cell types, such as mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons involved in Parkinson’s disease. Although iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons have been generated, detailed genetic and epigenetic characterizations of such neurons are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the authenticity of iPSC-derived DA neurons obtained by established protocols. We FACS purified mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+) neurons derived from mouse iPSCs and primary mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+) neurons to analyze and compare their genetic and epigenetic features. Although iPSC-derived DA neurons largely adopted characteristics of their in vivo counterparts, relevant deviations in global gene expression and DNA methylation were found. Hypermethylated genes, mainly involved in neurodevelopment and basic neuronal functions, consequently showed reduced expression levels. Such abnormalities should be addressed because they might affect unambiguous long-term functionality and hamper the potential of iPSC-derived DA neurons for in vitro disease modeling or cell-based therapy. PMID:24749075

  1. Detailed Uncertainty Analysis of the Ares I A106 Liftoff/Transition Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanke, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I A106 Liftoff/Transition Force and Moment Aerodynamics Database describes the aerodynamics of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) from the moment of liftoff through the transition from high to low total angles of attack at low subsonic Mach numbers. The database includes uncertainty estimates that were developed using a detailed uncertainty quantification procedure. The Ares I Aerodynamics Panel developed both the database and the uncertainties from wind tunnel test data acquired in the NASA Langley Research Center s 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel Test 591 using a 1.75 percent scale model of the Ares I and the tower assembly. The uncertainty modeling contains three primary uncertainty sources: experimental uncertainty, database modeling uncertainty, and database query interpolation uncertainty. The final database and uncertainty model represent a significant improvement in the quality of the aerodynamic predictions for this regime of flight over the estimates previously used by the Ares Project. The maximum possible aerodynamic force pushing the vehicle towards the launch tower assembly in a dispersed case using this database saw a 40 percent reduction from the worst-case scenario in previously released data for Ares I.

  2. CFD analysis of municipal solid waste combustion using detailed chemical kinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Frank, Alex; Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities are receiving renewed attention to reduce their output further. While NO x emissions are currently 60% below allowed limits, further reductions will decrease the air pollution control (APC) system burden and reduce consumption of NH3. This work combines the incorporation of the GRI 3.0 mechanism as a detailed chemical kinetic model (DCKM) into a custom three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model fully to understand the NO x chemistry in the above-bed burnout zones. Specifically, thermal, prompt and fuel NO formation mechanisms were evaluated for the system and a parametric study was utilized to determine the effect of varying fuel nitrogen conversion intermediates between HCN, NH3 and NO directly. Simulation results indicate that the fuel nitrogen mechanism accounts for 92% of the total NO produced in the system with thermal and prompt mechanisms accounting for the remaining 8%. Results also show a 5% variation in final NO concentration between HCN and NH3 inlet conditions, demonstrating that the fuel nitrogen intermediate assumed is not significant. Furthermore, the conversion ratio of fuel nitrogen to NO was 0.33, revealing that the majority of fuel nitrogen forms N2.

  3. Detailed hydrogeological analysis of a deep-seated rockslide at the Gepatsch reservoir (Klasgarten, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauhal, Thomas; Loew, Simon; Holzmann, Michael; Zangerl, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogeology of the deep-seated, slowly creeping Klasgarten rockslide in Austria is investigated in this study based on detailed surface and subsurface field data, laboratory analyses, and analytical and numerical simulations. Field data are derived from several deep exploration and monitoring boreholes, an exploration drift located within the rockslide, and geological and geomorphological mapping. Particular attention is given to the pore pressure measurements and their temporal and spatial variability. These pore pressure variations are controlled by a thin layer of clayey fault gouge (representing the basal shear zone of the rockslide), a high-permeability rockslide mass, and moderately fractured paragneissic bedrock. Variably saturated equivalent-continuum hydraulic conductivities and storage properties are derived from packer tests, laboratory tests and optical televiewer images. These data sets are used for two-dimensional numerical groundwater models to study the flow-field and pore-pressure variations caused by the reservoir water-level fluctuations, the transient groundwater infiltration from snowmelt and precipitation along the slope, and the exploration drift. The strongest pressure transients in the rockslide are caused by reservoir level fluctuations and not the natural groundwater recharge, even at substantial distances from the reservoir. The response times are very short and only a minor distance-dependent attenuation is observed. The results of this study are essential to analyse the hydromechanical control of the deformation behaviour of rockslides adjacent to hydropower reservoirs. Further, it helps to understand how the formation of a rockslide can change the original bedrock aquifer.

  4. Traumatic vertebral artery injury: detailed clinicopathologic and morphometric analysis of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol K; Gray, Laurel; Maguire, John

    2009-06-01

    Traumatic vertebral artery injury is frequently fatal from what may often be mild trauma to the head and neck. Detailed examination of vertebral arteries is not frequently undertaken at autopsy: the structural and histologic changes that may be relevant to the development of the injury are not well known. We sampled vertebral arteries bilaterally from 6 forensic autopsies (age = 26-50 years; 3 of 6 suffered from alcohol toxicity) with documented intradural vertebral artery injuries, and 4 nonvertebral-artery-injury-related autopsies (age = 19-70 years). Intradural, dural, and extradural components from each artery were submitted for paraffin-embedded tissue processing. Multiple serial sections and special stains (hematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue pH 2.5, reticulin, Congo red) were independently examined by 2 pathologists. All 6 of 6 injured samples and 4 of 4 control samples showed degenerative changes (intimal fibrosis, focal disruption of the internal elastic lamina, and medial calcification). However, microscopic adventitial hemorrhages were only observed around peripheral nerves adjacent to the injured samples. These may be due to tracking of blood along perineural loose connective tissue regions of reduced resistance, and may be a useful finding that points to underlying vertebral artery injury. Thus, careful dissection and gross and microscopic, examination of the vertebral arteries, with particular attention to the intracranial segments, is recommended in all cases of fatal traumatic head and neck injuries.

  5. Crucial role of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses in HRA. [Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses one major cause for large uncertainties in human reliability analysis (HRA) results, that is, an absence of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses. All too often this crucial step in the HRA process is done in a cursory fashion using word of mouth or written procedures which themselves may incompletely or inaccurately represent the human action sequences and human error vulnerabilities being analyzed. The paper examines the potential contributions these detailed analyses can make in achieving quantitative and qualitative HRA results which are: (1) creditable, that is, minimize uncertainty, (2) auditable, that is, systematically linking quantitative results and qualitative information from which the results are derived, (3) capable of supporting root cause analyses on human reliability factors determined to be major contributors to risk, and (4) capable of repeated measures and being combined with similar results from other analyses to examine HRA issues transcending individual systems and facilities. Based on experience analyzing test and commercial nuclear reactors, and medical applications of nuclear technology, an iterative process is suggested for doing detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses using documentation reviews, open-ended and structured interviews, direct observations, and group techniques. Finally, the paper concludes that detailed analyses done in this manner by knowledgeable human factors practitioners, can contribute significantly to the credibility, auditability, causal factor analysis, and combining goals of the HRA.

  6. Hydrocarbons and fuels analyses with the supersonic gas chromatography mass spectrometry--the novel concept of isomer abundance analysis.

    PubMed

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Gordin, Alexander; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-06-27

    Hydrocarbon analysis with standard GC-MS is confronted by the limited range of volatile compounds amenable for analysis and by the similarity of electron ionization mass spectra for many compounds which show weak or no molecular ions for heavy hydrocarbons. The use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (Supersonic GC-MS) significantly extends the range of heavy hydrocarbons that can be analyzed, and provides trustworthy enhanced molecular ion to all hydrocarbons. In addition, unique isomer mass spectral features are obtained in the ionization of vibrationally cold hydrocarbons. The availability of molecular ions for all hydrocarbons results in the ability to obtain unique chromatographic isomer distribution patterns that can serve as a new method for fuel characterization and identification. Examples of the applicability and use of this novel isomer abundance analysis (IAA) method to diesel fuel, kerosene and oil analyses are shown. It is suggested that in similarity to the "three ions method" for identification purposes, three isomer abundance patterns can serve for fuel characterization. The applications of the Supersonic GC-MS for engine motor oil analysis and transformer oil analysis are also demonstrated and discussed, including the capability to achieve fast 1-2s sampling without separation for oil and fuel fingerprinting. The relatively fast analysis of biodiesel is described, demonstrating the provision of molecular ions to heavy triglycerides. Isomer abundance analysis with the Supersonic GC-MS could find broad range of applications including petrochemicals and fuel analysis, arson analysis, environmental oil/fuel spill analysis, fuel adulteration analysis and motor oil analysis.

  7. Detailed Analysis and Control Issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Flowers, Daniel L.; Martinez-Frias, Joel; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Dibble, Robert

    2002-08-25

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work.

  8. Detailed analysis of the tetraquark potential and flip-flop in SU(3) lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Okiharu, Fumiko; Suganuma, Hideo; Takahashi, Toru T.

    2005-07-01

    We perform the detailed study of the tetraquark (4Q) potential V{sub 4Q} for various QQ-QQ systems in SU(3) lattice QCD with {beta}=6.0 and 16{sup 3}x32 at the quenched level. For about 200 different patterns of 4Q systems, V{sub 4Q} is extracted from the 4Q Wilson loop in 300 gauge configurations, with the smearing method to enhance the ground-state component. We calculate V{sub 4Q} for planar, twisted, asymmetric, and large-size 4Q configurations, respectively. Here, the calculation for large-size 4Q configurations is done by identifying 16{sup 2}x32 as the spatial size and 16 as the temporal one, and the long-distance confinement force is particularly analyzed in terms of the flux-tube picture. When QQ and QQ are well separated, V{sub 4Q} is found to be expressed as the sum of the one-gluon-exchange Coulomb term and multi-Y-type linear term based on the flux-tube picture. When the nearest quark and antiquark pair is spatially close, the system is described as a 'two-meson' state. We observe a flux-tube recombination called a 'flip-flop' between the connected 4Q state and the two-meson state around the level-crossing point. This leads to infrared screening of the long-range color forces between (anti)quarks belonging to different mesons, and results in the absence of the color van der Waals force between two mesons.

  9. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis of detailed soot particle size distribution in laminar premixed ethylene flames

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jasdeep; Patterson, Robert I.A.; Kraft, Markus; Wang, Hai

    2006-04-15

    In this paper, the prediction of a soot model [J. Appel, H. Bockhorn, M. Frenklach, Combust. Flame 121 (2000) 122-136] is compared to a recently published set of highly detailed soot particle size distributions [B. Zhao, Z. Yang, Z. Li, M.V. Johnston, H. Wang, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30 (2005)]. A stochastic approach is used to obtain soot particle size distributions (PSDs). The key features of the measured and simulated particle size distributions are identified and used as a simple way of comparing PSDs. The sensitivity of the soot PSDs to the parameters defining parts of the soot model, such as soot inception, particle and PAH collision efficiency and enhancement, and surface activity is investigated. Incepting soot particle size is found to have a very significant effect on the small-size end of the PSDs, especially the position of the trough for a bimodal soot PSDs. A new model for the decay in the surface activity is proposed in which the activity of the soot particle depends only on the history of that particle and the local temperature in the flame. This is a first attempt to use local flame variables to define the surface aging which has major impact on the prediction of the large-size end of the PSDs. Using these modifications to the soot model it is possible to improve the agreement between some of the points of interest in the simulated and measured PSDs. The paper achieves the task to help advance the soot models to predict soot PSD in addition to soot volume fraction and number density, which has been the focus of the literature. (author)

  10. Sulfur chemistry in the envelope of VY Canis Majoris: Detailed analysis of SO and SO{sub 2} emission

    SciTech Connect

    Adande, G. R.; Edwards, J. L.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2013-11-20

    Detailed radiative transfer modeling has been carried out for SO{sub 2} and SO originating in the envelope of the O-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). A total of 27 transitions of SO{sub 2} and 7 transitions of SO lying in the energy range 3.0-138.2 cm{sup –1} were analyzed using a new non-LTE radiative transfer code that incorporates non-spherical geometries. The spectra were primarily obtained from the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1 mm spectral survey of VY CMa, conducted with the Submillimeter Telescope; additional lines were measured with the ARO 12 m antenna at 2 and 3 mm. SO{sub 2} and SO were found to arise from five distinct outflows within the envelope, four which are asymmetric with respect to the star. Three flows arise from high-velocity red-shifted material, one from a blue-shifted wind, and the final from a classic 'spherical' expansion. In the spherical component, the peak fractional abundance, relative to H{sub 2}, of both molecules is f ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup –7} at r ∼ 25 R {sub *}, and steadily decreases outward. SO{sub 2} appears to be a 'parent' molecule, formed near the stellar photosphere. In the asymmetric outflows, both SO and SO{sub 2} are more prominent at large stellar radii in dense (10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}), clumpy material, achieving their maximum abundance between 200 and 600 R {sub *} with f ∼ 3.0 × 10{sup –8}-1.5 × 10{sup –7}. These results suggest that in the collimated outflows, both species are either produced by shock chemistry or are remnant inner shell material swept up in the high-velocity winds.

  11. Detailed Skylab ECS consumables analysis for the interim revision flight plan (November, 1972, SL-1 launch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, C.; Kolkhorst, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    The consumables analysis was performed for the Skylab 2, 3, and 4 Preliminary Reference Interim Revision Flight Plan. The analysis and the results are based on the mission requirements as specified in the flight plan and on other available data. The results indicate that the consumables requirements for the Skylab missions allow for remaining margins (percent) of oxygen, nitrogen, and water nominal as follows: 83.5, 90.8, and 88.7 for mission SL-2; 57.1, 64.1, and 67.3 for SL-3; and 30.8, 44.3, and 46.5 for SL-4. Performance of experiment M509 as scheduled in the flight plan results in venting overboard the cluster atmosphere. This is due to the addition of nitrogen for propulsion and to the additional oxygen introduced into the cabin when the experiment is performed with the crewman suited.

  12. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  13. Trelliscope: A System for Detailed Visualization in the Deep Analysis of Large Complex Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    S. Guha, R . P. Hafen, P. Kidwell , and W. S.Cleveland. Visualization Databases for the Analysis of Large Complex Datasets. Journal of Machine Learning...D& R ) approach to ana- lyzing large complex data. In Trellis, the data are broken up into subsets, a visualization method is applied to each subset...and the display result is an array of panels, one per subset. This is a pow- erful framework for visualization of data, both small and large. In D& R

  14. Technique for direct measurement of thermal conductivity of elastomers and a detailed uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralphs, Matthew I.; Smith, Barton L.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2016-11-01

    High thermal conductivity thermal interface materials (TIMs) are needed to extend the life and performance of electronic circuits. A stepped bar apparatus system has been shown to work well for thermal resistance measurements with rigid materials, but most TIMs are elastic. This work studies the uncertainty of using a stepped bar apparatus to measure the thermal resistance and a tensile/compression testing machine to estimate the compressed thickness of polydimethylsiloxane for a measurement on the thermal conductivity, k eff. An a priori, zeroth order analysis is used to estimate the random uncertainty from the instrumentation; a first order analysis is used to estimate the statistical variation in samples; and an a posteriori, Nth order analysis is used to provide an overall uncertainty on k eff for this measurement method. Bias uncertainty in the thermocouples is found to be the largest single source of uncertainty. The a posteriori uncertainty of the proposed method is 6.5% relative uncertainty (68% confidence), but could be reduced through calibration and correlated biases in the temperature measurements.

  15. Detailed analysis of Japanese population substructure with a focus on the southwest islands of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Sadao; Ando, Ryosuke; Niimura, Hideshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Horita, Mikako; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kuriyama, Nagato; Mikami, Haruo; Takashima, Naoyuki; Mastuo, Keitaro; Guang, Yin; Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering population structure is important for properly conducting association studies and for examining the demographic history of a population. Here, we examined the Japanese population substructure using data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC), which covers all but the northern region of Japan. Using 222 autosomal loci from 4502 subjects, we investigated population substructure by estimating F(ST) among populations, testing population differentiation, and performing principal component analysis (PCA) and correspondence analysis (CA). All analyses revealed a low but significant differentiation between the Amami Islanders and the mainland Japanese population. Furthermore, we examined the genetic differentiation between the mainland population, Amami Islanders and Okinawa Islanders using six loci included in both the Pan-Asian SNP (PASNP) consortium data and the J-MICC data. This analysis revealed that the Amami and Okinawa Islanders were differentiated from the mainland population. In conclusion, we revealed a low but significant level of genetic differentiation between the mainland population and populations in or to the south of the Amami Islands, although genetic variation between both populations might be clinal. Therefore, the possibility of population stratification must be considered when enrolling the islander population of this area, such as in the J-MICC study.

  16. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, P<0.0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity.

  17. The Impact of Land Abandonment on Species Richness and Abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, P<0.0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no “one-size-fits-all” conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity. PMID:24865979

  18. Geostatistical Analysis of Spatial Variability of Mineral Abundance and Kd in Frenchman Flat, NTS, Alluvium

    SciTech Connect

    Carle, S F; Zavarin, M; Pawloski, G A

    2002-11-01

    LLNL hydrologic source term modeling at the Cambric site (Pawloski et al., 2000) showed that retardation of radionuclide transport is sensitive to the distribution and amount of radionuclide sorbing minerals. While all mineralogic information available near the Cambric site was used in these early simulations (11 mineral abundance analyses from UE-5n and 9 from RNM-l), these older data sets were qualitative in nature, with detection limits too high to accurately measure many of the important radionuclide sorbing minerals (e.g. iron oxide). Also, the sparse nature of the mineral abundance data permitted only a hypothetical description of the spatial distribution of radionuclide sorbing minerals. Yet, the modeling results predicted that the spatial distribution of sorbing minerals would strongly affect radionuclide transport. Clearly, additional data are needed to improve understanding of mineral abundances and their spatial distributions if model predictions in Frenchman Flat are to be defensible. This report evaluates new high-resolution quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) data on mineral distributions and their abundances from core samples recently collected from drill hole ER-5-4. The total of 94 samples from ER-5-4 were collected at various spacings to enable evaluation of spatial variability at a variety of spatial scales as small as 0.3 meters and up to hundreds of meters. Additional XRD analyses obtained from drillholes UE-Sn, ER-5-3, and U-11g-1 are used to augment evaluation of vertical spatial variability and permit some evaluation of lateral spatial variability. A total of 163 samples are evaluated. The overall goal of this study is to understand and characterize the spatial variation of sorbing minerals in Frenchman Flat alluvium using geostatistical techniques, with consideration for the potential impact on reactive transport of radionuclides. To achieve this goal requires an effort to ensure that plausible geostatistical models are used to

  19. First high-precision differential abundance analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge; Yong, David; Ramírez, Ivan; Asplund, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Context. Studies of extremely metal-poor stars indicate that chemical abundance ratios [X/Fe] have a root mean square scatter as low as 0.05 dex (12%). It remains unclear whether this reflects observational uncertainties or intrinsic astrophysical scatter arising from physical conditions in the interstellar medium at early times. Aims: We measure differential chemical abundance ratios in extremely metal-poor stars to investigate the limits of precision and to understand whether cosmic scatter or observational errors are dominant. Methods: We used high-resolution (R ~ 95 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N = 700 at 5000 Å) HIRES/Keck spectra to determine high-precision differential abundances between two extremely metal-poor stars through a line-by-line differential approach. We determined stellar parameters for the star G64-37 with respect to the standard star G64-12. We performed EW measurements for the two stars for the lines recognized in both stars and performed spectral synthesis to study the carbon abundances. Results: The differential approach allowed us to obtain errors of σ(Teff) = 27 K, σ(log g) = 0.06 dex, σ( [Fe/H] ) = 0.02 dex and σ(vt) = 0.06 km s-1. We estimated relative chemical abundances with a precision as low as σ([X/Fe]) ≈ 0.01 dex. The small uncertainties demonstrate that there are genuine abundance differences larger than the measurement errors. The observed Li difference cannot be explained by the difference in mass because the less massive star has more Li. Conclusions: It is possible to achieve an abundance precision around ≈ 0.01-0.05 dex for extremely metal-poor stars, which opens new windows on the study of the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A67

  20. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  1. Detailed Analysis of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Processes with Modern/High-Quality Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2007-01-01

    We examine, in detail, Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall processes using modernhigh quality satellite precipitation measurements. The focus here is on measurements derived from three NASA cloud and precipitation satellite missionslinstruments (TRMM/PR&TMI, AQUNAMSRE, and CLOUDSATICPR), and a fourth TRMM Project-generated multi-satellite precipitation measurement dataset (viz., TRMM standard algorithm 3b42) -- all from a period beginning in 1998 up to the present. It is emphasized that the 3b42 algorithm blends passive microwave (PMW) radiometer-based precipitation estimates from LEO satellites with infi-ared (IR) precipitation estimates from a world network of CEO satellites (representing -15% of the complete space-time coverage) All of these observations are first cross-calibrated to precipitation estimates taken from standard TRMM combined PR-TMI algorithm 2b31, and second adjusted at the large scale based on monthly-averaged rain-gage measurements. The blended approach takes advantage of direct estimates of precipitation from the PMW radiometerequipped LEO satellites -- but which suffer fi-om sampling limitations -- in combination with less accurate IR estimates from the optical-infrared imaging cameras on GEO satellites -- but which provide continuous diurnal sampling. The advantages of the current technologies are evident in the continuity and coverage properties inherent to the resultant precipitation datasets that have been an outgrowth of these stable measuring and retrieval technologies. There is a wealth of information contained in the current satellite measurements of precipitation regarding the salient precipitation properties of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Using different datasets obtained from the measuring systems noted above, we have analyzed the observations cast in the form of: (1) spatially distributed means and variances over the hierarchy of relevant time scales (hourly I diurnally, daily, monthly, seasonally I intra-seasonally, and inter

  2. Ar-39-Ar-40 Ages of Two Nakhlites, MIL03346 and Y000593: A Detailed Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Jisun; Garrison, Daniel; Bogard, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Radiometric dating of martian nakhlites by several techniques have given similar ages of approx.1.2-1.4 Ga [e.g. 1, 2]. Unlike the case with shergottites, where the presence of martian atmosphere and inherited radiogenic Ar-40 produce apparent Ar-39-Ar-40 ages older than other radiometric ages, Ar-Ar ages of nakhlites are similar to ages derived by other techniques. However, even in some nakhlites the presence of trapped martian Ar produces some uncertainty in the Ar-Ar age. We present here an analysis of such Ar-Ar ages from the MIL03346 and Y000593 nakhlites.

  3. Detailed investigation of Long-Period activity at Campi Flegrei by Convolutive Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, P.; De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; Falanga, M.

    2016-04-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of seismic signals continuously recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the entire year 2006. The radiation pattern associated with the Long-Period energy release is investigated. We adopt an innovative Independent Component Analysis algorithm for convolutive seismic series adapted and improved to give automatic procedures for detecting seismic events often buried in the high-level ambient noise. The extracted waveforms characterized by an improved signal-to-noise ratio allows the recognition of Long-Period precursors, evidencing that the seismic activity accompanying the mini-uplift crisis (in 2006), which climaxed in the three days from 26-28 October, had already started at the beginning of the month of October and lasted until mid of November. Hence, a more complete seismic catalog is then provided which can be used to properly quantify the seismic energy release. To better ground our results, we first check the robustness of the method by comparing it with other blind source separation methods based on higher order statistics; secondly, we reconstruct the radiation patterns of the extracted Long-Period events in order to link the individuated signals directly to the sources. We take advantage from Convolutive Independent Component Analysis that provides basic signals along the three directions of motion so that a direct polarization analysis can be performed with no other filtering procedures. We show that the extracted signals are mainly composed of P waves with radial polarization pointing to the seismic source of the main LP swarm, i.e. a small area in the Solfatara, also in the case of the small-events, that both precede and follow the main activity. From a dynamical point of view, they can be described by two degrees of freedom, indicating a low-level of complexity associated with the vibrations from a superficial hydrothermal system. Our results allow us to move towards a full description of the complexity of

  4. Detailed analysis of complex single molecule FRET data with the software MASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzic, Mélodie C. A. S.; Kowerko, Danny; Börner, Richard; Zelger-Paulus, Susann; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2016-04-01

    The processing and analysis of surface-immobilized single molecule FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) data follows systematic steps (e.g. single molecule localization, clearance of different sources of noise, selection of the conformational and kinetic model, etc.) that require a solid knowledge in optics, photophysics, signal processing and statistics. The present proceeding aims at standardizing and facilitating procedures for single molecule detection by guiding the reader through an optimization protocol for a particular experimental data set. Relevant features were determined from single molecule movies (SMM) imaging Cy3- and Cy5-labeled Sc.ai5γ group II intron molecules synthetically recreated, to test the performances of four different detection algorithms. Up to 120 different parameterizations per method were routinely evaluated to finally establish an optimum detection procedure. The present protocol is adaptable to any movie displaying surface-immobilized molecules, and can be easily reproduced with our home-written software MASH (multifunctional analysis software for heterogeneous data) and script routines (both available in the download section of www.chem.uzh.ch/rna).

  5. Detailed bifurcation analysis with a simplified model for advance heavy water reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Vikas; Singh, Suneet

    2015-01-01

    The bifurcation analysis of fixed points and limit cycles with a simplified mathematical model representing system dynamics of a boiling water reactor has been carried out, specifically parameter values for AHWR is used. The lumped parameter model that includes point reactor kinetics equation for neutron balance in the reactor core and one node model for fuel and coolant thermal hydraulics is used in the analysis. The nonlinearity due to reactivity is considered in the present model; while other nonlinearities due to heat transfer process between fuel-clad and fuel-coolant has been neglected. The system loses its stability via Hopf bifurcation as the system parameters are varied. The continuations of subcritical and supercritical Hopf points show the existence of limit point bifurcations of limit cycles (LPC). The codimension one and codimension two bifurcations of fixed points for the system have been analyzed. The stability of observed limit cycles has been analyzed by Floquet multiplier as well as by Lyapunov coefficient. The pattern of limit cycles and envelopes of limit cycles over the fixed points have been studied by numerical integrations and depicted by time history graphs.

  6. Detailed Surface Analysis Of Incremental Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) Of Single-Crystal Niobium Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari D.; Tian, Hui; Trofimova, Olga; Reece, Charles E.

    2011-07-01

    We performed Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) on single crystal niobium samples/coupons housed in a stainless steel sample holder following the polishing recipe developed at Fermi Lab (FNAL) in 2011 \\cite{C. A. Cooper 2011}. Post CBP, the sample coupons were analyzed for surface roughness, crystal composition and structure, and particle contamination. Following the initial analysis each coupon was high pressure rinsed (HRP) and analyzed for the effectiveness of contamination removal. We were able to obtain the mirror like surface finish after the final stage of tumbling, although some defects and embedded particles remained. In addition, standard HPR appears to have little effect on removing embedded particles which remain after each tumbling step, although final polishing media removal was partially affected by standard/extended HPR.

  7. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Rmi) a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs). Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) encoding gene sequence (rDNA), related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence differences were also

  8. Detailed tail proteomic analysis of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) using an mRNA-seq reference database.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Turan; Keskin, Ilknur; Dumlu, Seda Nilgün; Aytürk, Nilüfer; Avşaroğlu, Mahmut Erhan; Akgün, Emel; Öztürk, Gürkan; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık

    2017-01-01

    Salamander axolotl has been emerging as an important model for stem cell research due to its powerful regenerative capacity. Several advantages, such as the high capability of advanced tissue, organ, and appendages regeneration, promote axolotl as an ideal model system to extend our current understanding on the mechanisms of regeneration. Acknowledging the common molecular pathways between amphibians and mammals, there is a great potential to translate the messages from axolotl research to mammalian studies. However, the utilization of axolotl is hindered due to the lack of reference databases of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data. Here, we introduce the proteome analysis of the axolotl tail section searched against an mRNA-seq database. We translated axolotl mRNA sequences to protein sequences and annotated these to process the LC-MS/MS data and identified 1001 nonredundant proteins. Functional classification of identified proteins was performed by gene ontology searches. The presence of some of the identified proteins was validated by in situ antibody labeling. Furthermore, we have analyzed the proteome expressional changes postamputation at three time points to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of the regeneration process. Taken together, this work expands the proteomics data of axolotl to contribute to its establishment as a fully utilized model.

  9. A detailed comparative analysis of codon usage bias in Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Juan; Fajardo, Alvaro; Soñora, Martín; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Musto, Héctor

    2016-09-02

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae and its genome consists of a single-stranded positive sense RNA molecule with 10,794 nucleotides. Clinical manifestations of disease caused by ZIKV infection range from asymptomatic cases to an influenza-like syndrome. There is an increasing concern about the possible relation among microcephaly and ZIKV infection. To get insight into the relation of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is extremely important to understand virus survival, fitness, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of codon usage and composition of ZIKV. The overall codon usage among ZIKV strains is similar and slightly biased. Different codon preferences in ZIKV genes in relation to codon usage of human, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus genes were found. Most of the highly frequent codons are A-ending, which strongly suggests that mutational bias is the main force shaping codon usage in this virus. G+C compositional constraint as well as dinucleotide composition also influence the codon usage of ZIKV. The results of these studies suggest that the emergence of ZIKV outside Africa, in the Pacific and the Americas may also be reflected in ZIKV codon usage. No significant differences were found in codon usage among strains isolated from microcephaly cases and the rest of strains from the Asian cluster enrolled in these studies.

  10. Conjugation of α-amylase with dextran for enhanced stability: process details, kinetics and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swati B; Singhal, Rekha S

    2012-11-06

    The influence of enzyme polysaccharide interaction on enzyme stability and activity was elucidated by covalently binding dextran to a model enzyme, α-amylase. The conjugation process was optimized with respect to concentration of oxidizing agent, pH of enzyme solution, ratio of dextran to enzyme concentration, temperature and time of conjugate formation, and was found to affect the stability of α-amylase. α-Amylase conjugated under optimized conditions showed 5% loss of activity but with enhanced thermal and pH stability. Lower inactivation rate constant of conjugated α-amylase within the temperature range of 60-80 °C implied its better stability. Activation energy for denaturation of α-amylase increased by 8.81 kJ/mol on conjugation with dextran. Analysis of secondary structure of α-amylase after covalent binding with dextran showed helix to turn conversion without loss of functional properties of α-amylase. Covalent bonding was found to be mandatory for the formation of conjugate.

  11. Detailed river stage mapping and head gradient analysis during meander cutoff in a laboratory river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bangshuai; Endreny, Theodore A.

    2014-02-01

    Analytical models of river evolution predict meander narrowing and elongation which creates sinuosity-driven hyporheic exchange across the meander neck, by decreasing flow distance and increasing head loss. We used a laboratory river table and close range photogrammetry to map and analyze sinuosity as a driver of head gradients and hyporheic exchange during cutoff. The river valley had relatively high slopes (1.8%) and moderately cohesive sediment (10% talc, 90% sand) to facilitate cutoff, and ratios of horizontal to vertical scaling were distorted to achieve dynamic similitude (Re = 3200). Incipient to cutoff, the head gradient across the neck increased due to a narrowing neck, upstream aggradation, and downstream degradation. Longitudinal and transverse river surface slopes around the meander bend increased as the meander approached cutoff. The steep head gradient across the moderately cohesive meander neck generated seepage erosion and scour that formed a low-sinuosity avulsion. Sediment-rich flow in the avulsed channel aggraded the downstream bed and separated the active channel and oxbow lake. The limitation in geometric and dynamic similitude in the river table limits extrapolation to natural rivers, yet river evolution may involve aggradation and degradation induced channel head loss and turnover hyporheic exchange as well as seepage-induced meander neck erosion. Our submillimeter maps of meander morphology and water stage provide data to parameterize river evolution and hyporheic exchange models, and may inform analysis and mapping of field sites.

  12. Impact of influenza vaccine formulation with a detailed analysis of the cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Szyszko, E; Brokstad, K; Cox, R J; Hovden, A-O; Madhun, A; Haaheim, L R

    2006-11-01

    Vaccination provides the most effective method of limiting the impact of influenza. Inactivated influenza vaccines are available in three formulations and more information needs to be generated on how antigen presented in different vaccine formulations influences the subsequent immune response. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of two different influenza vaccine formulations on the resulting antibody and cytokine responses and compared these responses with influenza infection. Mice were vaccinated intramuscularly with one or two doses of whole or split virus vaccine or alternatively intranasally infected with influenza virus. Lymphocytes were isolated from spleen cells and stimulated in vitro for 24 or 72 h for analysis of cytokine profile at the gene expression and at the protein level. Additionally, whole blood was collected and the serum antibody response investigated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that one dose of whole virus vaccine induced higher antibody and cytokine responses and thus was more immunogenic in unprimed mice than split virus vaccine. Whole virus vaccine induced a strong IFN-gamma (type 1) immune response after one dose of vaccine and a more mixed cytokine response after the second dose. Split virus vaccine induced a type 2 response, particularly after two vaccine doses. Our results show that two doses of vaccine (both vaccine formulation) were more effective in induction of Th2 type of cytokines and thus indicate that both the formulation and also the number of vaccine doses substantially influences the magnitude and quality of the immune response.

  13. A critical analysis of interstellar Zn and Cr as galactic abundance benchmarks for quasar absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Steidel, Charles C.; Macke, Robert J.; Meyer, David M.

    1995-01-01

    We present interstellar gas-phase abundances of zinc and chromium in the Milky Way for comparison with the abundances of these elements in damped Ly-alpha systems at redshifts near z approximately 2. We make use of both IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) and GHRS (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph) archival information in deriving the Milky Way values and find that the average difference in (Zn/H) and (Cr/Zn) between the Milky Way and damped Ly-alpha systems at large N(H1) is about 0.9 dex. The Zn/H values we find for the Milky Way are approximately -0.2 to -0.7 dex below solar and are due in large part to depletion of Zn onto dust grains. The amount of this gas-phase depletion is variable and depends upon the H1 column density and molecular fraction of the gas. Milky Way sight lines having low molecular fractions have values of (Zn/H) within approximately 0.2 dex of the solar value. Combined with larger values of (Cr/Zn) found for the damped Ly-alpha systems, this result confirms that measures of (Zn/H) should accurately reflect the lower gas-phase abundances of Zn found in these systems.

  14. A detailed mutational analysis of the VSG gene expression site promoter.

    PubMed

    Pham, V P; Qi, C C; Gottesdiener, K M

    1996-01-01

    The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes the disease African sleeping sickness. The parasite avoids the host's immune response by the process of antigenic variation, or by sequentially expressing antigenically different cell-surface coat proteins. These proteins, called variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), are expressed from a specific locus, the VSG gene expression site (ES). In an attempt to understand expression of VSG genes, we expanded on earlier investigations of the promoter that controls the large VSG gene expression site transcription unit. We studied VSG ES promoter function both in transient transfection assays, and after stable integration at a chromosomal locus. Analysis of closely spaced deletion mutants showed that the minimum VSG ES promoter fragment that gives full activity is extremely small, and mapped precisely to a fragment that contains no more than -67 bp 5' to the putative transcription initiation site. The promoter lacked an upstream control element, or UCE, an element found at the PARP promoter, and at most eukaryotic Pol I promoters. Furthermore, linker scanning mutagenesis demonstrated that the VSG ES promoter contains at least two essential regulatory elements, including sequences within the region -67/-60 and the region -35/-20, both numbered relative to the initiation site. An altered promoter with mutated nucleotides surrounding the transcription initiation site still directed wild-type levels of expression. In this study, the results were similar for both insect and bloodstream form trypanosomes, suggesting that the same basic machinery for expression from the VSG ES promoter is found in both stages of the parasite.

  15. Detailed Analysis of Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Ischemic Stroke in South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunaina; Hasan, Nazeeha; Marjot, Thomas; Khan, Muhammad S.; Prasad, Kameshwar; Bentley, Paul; Sharma, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    The burden of stroke is disproportionately high in the South Asian subcontinent with South Asian ethnicity conferring a greater risk of ischemic stroke than European ancestry regardless of country inhabited. While genes associated with stroke in European populations have been investigated, they remain largely unknown in South Asians. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of known genetic polymorphisms associated with South Asian ischemic stroke, and compared effect size of the MTHFR C677T-stroke association with effect sizes predicted from homocysteine-stroke association. Electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 for published case control studies investigating genetic polymorphisms associated with ischemic stroke in South Asians. Pooled odds ratios (OR) for each gene-disease association were calculated using a random-effects model. We identified 26 studies (approximately 2529 stroke cases and 2881 controls) interrogating 33 independent genetic polymorphisms in 22 genes. Ten studies described MTHFR C677T (108 with TT genotype and 2018 with CC genotype) -homocysteine relationship and six studies (735 stroke cases and 713 controls) described homocysteine-ischemic stroke relationship. Risk association ORs were calculated for ACE I/D (OR 5.00; 95% CI, 1.17–21.37; p = 0.03), PDE4D SNP 83 (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.21–3.99; p = 0.01), PDE4D SNP 32 (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.01–2.45, p = 0.045) and IL10 G1082A (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09–1.91, p = 0.01). Significant association was observed between elevated plasma homocysteine levels and MTHFR/677 TT genotypes in healthy South Asians (Mean difference (ΔX) 5.18 µmol/L; 95% CI 2.03–8.34: p = 0.001). Our results demonstrate that the genetic etiology of ischemic stroke in South Asians is broadly similar to the risk conferred in Europeans, although the dataset is considerably smaller and warrants the same clinical considerations for risk profiling. PMID:23505425

  16. A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary uncertainty analysis has been performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis are presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

  17. Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faied, D.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-04-01

    Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation Dohy Faied, Aurora Sanchez (on behalf of SSP08 VAPOR Project Team) Dohy.Faied@masters.isunet.edu While numerous global initiatives exist to address the potential hazards posed by volcanic eruption events and assess impacts from a civil security viewpoint, there does not yet exist a single, unified, international system of early warning and hazard tracking for eruptions. Numerous gaps exist in the risk reduction cycle, from data collection, to data processing, and finally dissemination of salient information to relevant parties. As part of the 2008 International Space University's Space Studies Program, a detailed gap analysis of the state of volcano disaster risk reduction was undertaken, and this paper presents the principal results. This gap analysis considered current sensor technologies, data processing algorithms, and utilization of data products by various international organizations. Recommendations for strategies to minimize or eliminate certain gaps are also provided. In the effort to address the gaps, a framework evolved at system level. This framework, known as VIDA, is a tool to develop user requirements for civil security in hazardous contexts, and a candidate system concept for a detailed design phase. VIDA also offers substantial educational potential: the framework includes a centralized clearinghouse for volcanology data which could support education at a variety of levels. Basic geophysical data, satellite maps, and raw sensor data are combined and accessible in a way that allows the relationships between these data types to be explored and used in a training environment. Such a resource naturally lends itself to research efforts in the subject but also research in operational tools, system architecture, and human/machine interaction in civil protection or emergency scenarios.

  18. Homogeneous abundance analysis of FGK dwarf, subgiant, and giant stars with and without giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Ronaldo; Milone, André de C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We have analyzed high-resolution and high signal-to-noise-ratio optical spectra of nearby FGK stars with and without detected giant planets in order to homogeneously measure their photospheric parameters, mass, age, and the abundances of volatile (C, N, and O) and refractory (Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ba) elements. Our sample contains 309 stars from the solar neighborhood (up to the distance of 100 pc), out of which 140 are dwarfs, 29 are subgiants, and 140 are giants. Methods: The photospheric parameters are derived from the equivalent widths of Fe i and Fe ii lines. Masses and ages come from the interpolation in evolutionary tracks and isochrones on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The abundance determination is based on the equivalent widths of selected atomic lines of the refractory elements and on the spectral synthesis of C2, CN, C i, O i, and Na i features. We apply a set of statistical methods to analyze the abundances derived for the three subsamples. Results: Our results show that: i) giant stars systematically exhibit underabundance in [C/Fe] and overabundance in [N/Fe] and [Na/Fe] in comparison with dwarfs, a result that is normally attributed to evolution-induced mixing processes in the envelope of evolved stars; ii) for solar analogs alone, the abundance trends with the condensation temperature of the elements are correlated with age and anticorrelated with the surface gravity, which agrees with recent studies; iii) as in the case of [Fe/H], dwarf stars with giant planets are systematically enriched in [X/H] for all the analyzed elements, except for O and Ba (the former due to limitations of statistics), confirming previous findings in the literature that it is not only iron that has an important relation with the planetary formation; and iv) giant planet hosts are also significantly overabundant for the same metallicity when the elements from Mg to Cu are combined. Based on public data from the ELODIE archive (Moultaka et al

  19. {sup 39}Ar Detection at the 10{sup -16} Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; O'Connor, T. P.; Mueller, P.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Sun, Y. R.; Lu, Z.-T.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2011-03-11

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric {sup 39}Ar (half-life=269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10{sup -16}. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  20. Derivation of a quantitative minimal model from a detailed elementary-step mechanism supported by mathematical coupling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, O. S.; Kammerer, J.; Gorecki, J.; Lebiedz, D.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate experimental data increasingly allow the development of detailed elementary-step mechanisms for complex chemical and biochemical reaction systems. Model reduction techniques are widely applied to obtain representations in lower-dimensional phase space which are more suitable for mathematical analysis, efficient numerical simulation, and model-based control tasks. Here, we exploit a recently implemented numerical algorithm for error-controlled computation of the minimum dimension required for a still accurate reduced mechanism based on automatic time scale decomposition and relaxation of fast modes. We determine species contributions to the active (slow) dynamical modes of the reaction system and exploit this information in combination with quasi-steady-state and partial-equilibrium approximations for explicit model reduction of a novel detailed chemical mechanism for the Ru-catalyzed light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The existence of a minimum dimension of seven is demonstrated to be mandatory for the reduced model to show good quantitative consistency with the full model in numerical simulations. We derive such a maximally reduced seven-variable model from the detailed elementary-step mechanism and demonstrate that it reproduces quantitatively accurately the dynamical features of the full model within a given accuracy tolerance.

  1. NSTX Disruption Simulations of Detailed Divertor and Passive Plate Models by Vector Potential Transfer from OPERA Global Analysis Results

    SciTech Connect

    P. H. Titus, S. Avasaralla, A.Brooks, R. Hatcher

    2010-09-22

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) project is planning upgrades to the toroidal field, plasma current and pulse length. This involves the replacement of the center-stack, including the inner legs of the TF, OH, and inner PF coils. A second neutral beam will also be added. The increased performance of the upgrade requires qualification of the remaining components including the vessel, passive plates, and divertor for higher disruption loads. The hardware needing qualification is more complex than is typically accessible by large scale electromagnetic (EM) simulations of the plasma disruptions. The usual method is to include simplified representations of components in the large EM models and attempt to extract forces to apply to more detailed models. This paper describes a more efficient approach of combining comprehensive modeling of the plasma and tokamak conducting structures, using the 2D OPERA code, with much more detailed treatment of individual components using ANSYS electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical analysis. This capture local eddy currents and resulting loads in complex details, and allows efficient non-linear, and dynamic structural analyses.

  2. Organization and Detailed Parcellation of Human Hippocampal Head and Body Regions Based on a Combined Analysis of Cyto- and Chemoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Lin; Van Hoesen, Gary W

    2015-10-15

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is one of the hottest regions in neuroscience because it is critical to learning, memory, and cognition, while being vulnerable to many neurological and mental disorders. With increasing high-resolution imaging techniques, many scientists have started to use distinct landmarks along the anterior-posterior axis of HF to allow segmentation into individual subfields in order to identify specific functions in both normal and diseased conditions. These studies urgently call for more reliable and accurate segmentation of the HF subfields DG, CA3, CA2, CA1, prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, and parasubiculum. Unfortunately, very limited data are available on detailed parcellation of the HF subfields, especially in the complex, curved hippocampal head region. In this study we revealed detailed organization and parcellation of all subfields of the hippocampal head and body regions on the base of a combined analysis of multiple cyto- and chemoarchitectural stains and dense sequential section sampling. We also correlated these subfields to macro-anatomical landmarks, which are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Furthermore, we created three versions of the detailed anatomic atlas for the hippocampal head region to account for brains with four, three, or two hippocampal digitations. These results will provide a fundamental basis for understanding the organization, parcellation, and anterior-posterior difference of human HF, facilitating accurate segmentation and measurement of HF subfields in the human brain on MRI scans.

  3. Detailed Analysis of Criteria and Particle Emissions from a Very Large Crude Carrier Using a Novel ECA Fuel.

    PubMed

    Gysel, Nicholas R; Welch, William A; Johnson, Kent; Miller, Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2017-02-07

    Ocean going vessels (OGVs) operating within emission control areas (ECA) are required to use fuels with ≤0.1 wt % sulfur. Up to now only distillate fuels could meet the sulfur limits. Recently refiners created a novel low-sulfur heavy-fuel oil (LSHFO) meeting the sulfur limits so questions were posed whether nitric oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were the same for the two fuels. This project characterized criteria pollutants and undertook a detailed analysis of PM emissions from a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) using a distillate ECA fuel (MGO) and novel LSHFO. Results showed emission factors of NOx were ∼5% higher with MGO than LSHFO. PM2.5 emission factors were ∼3 times higher with LSHFO than MGO, while both were below values reported by Lloyds, U.S. EPA and CARB. A detailed analysis of PM revealed it was >90% organic carbon (OC) for both fuels. Elemental carbon (EC) and soot measured with an AVL microsoot sensor (MSS) reflected black carbon. PM size distributions showed unimodal peaks for both MGO (20-30 nm) and LSHFO (30-50 nm). Particle number (PN) emissions were 28% and 17% higher with the PPS-M compared to the SMPS for LSHFO and MGO, respectively.

  4. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum: Detailed separation and analysis of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Vogh, J.W.; Reynolds, J.W.

    1988-10-01

    Neutral fractions of Cerro Negro crude oil have been analyzed for sulfur compound composition by several separation and identification methods. Sulfides were isolated by such procedures as adsorption and ligand exchange liquid chromatography and by sulfone derivative formation. New techniques in adsorption and ligand exchange chromatography were developed for Cerro Negro sulfide isolation, and these samples were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. The Cerro Negro 200--425/degree/C sulfide fraction contained alkyl sulfides and alkyl- or alkylaromatic disulfides as the most prominent components. The 425--550/degree/C fraction was more complex with many aromatic sulfide and disulfide compounds. Thiophenes were found to be abundant and complex in the neutral fractions. Conventional liquid chromatographic methods do not resolve thiophenes from aromatic hydrocarbons, and only newly developed ligand exchange chromatography procedures were found to produce useful thiophene concentrates. The fractions obtained were analyzed by mass spectroscopy and sulfur-sensitive gas chromatography. Thiophenes were found to span a range of molecular weight and ring number somewhat similar to the aromatic hydrocarbons. 36 refs., 8 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Elemental abundance analysis of the early-type members of the open cluster M6: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2014-11-01

    Differences in chemical composition among main sequence stars within a given cluster are probably due to differences in their masses and other effects such as radiative diffusion, magnetic field, rotation, mixing mechanisms, mass loss, accretion and multiplicity. The early type main-sequence members of open clusters of different ages support studies of the competition between radiative diffusion and mixing mechanisms. We have analysed low- and high-resolution spectra covering the spectral range λ 4500-5840 Å of late B-, A- and F-type members of the open cluster M6 (age ˜100 Myr). The spectra were obtained with the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted at UT2, the 8-m VLT telescope. The effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities of the stars were derived from both photometric and spectral methods. We have also performed a chemical abundance analysis using synthetic spectra. Abundances were determined for the elements C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. The star-to-star variations in element abundances among the members of M6 are discussed.

  6. Estimating stellar atmospheric parameters, absolute magnitudes and elemental abundances from the LAMOST spectra with Kernel-based principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, M.-S.; Liu, X.-W.; Shi, J.-R.; Yuan, H.-B.; Huang, Y.; Luo, A.-L.; Zhang, H.-W.; Zhao, Y.-H.; Zhang, J.-N.; Ren, J.-J.; Chen, B.-Q.; Wang, C.; Li, J.; Huo, Z.-Y.; Zhang, W.; Wang, J.-L.; Zhang, Y.; Hou, Y.-H.; Wang, Y.-F.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate determination of stellar atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances is crucial for Galactic archaeology via large-scale spectroscopic surveys. In this paper, we estimate stellar atmospheric parameters - effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g and metallicity [Fe/H], absolute magnitudes MV and MKs, α-element to metal (and iron) abundance ratio [α/M] (and [α/Fe]), as well as carbon and nitrogen abundances [C/H] and [N/H] from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) spectra with a multivariate regression method based on kernel-based principal component analysis, using stars in common with other surveys (Hipparcos, Kepler, Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment) as training data sets. Both internal and external examinations indicate that given a spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) better than 50, our method is capable of delivering stellar parameters with a precision of ˜100 K for Teff, ˜0.1 dex for log g, 0.3-0.4 mag for MV and MKs, 0.1 dex for [Fe/H], [C/H] and [N/H], and better than 0.05 dex for [α/M] ([α/Fe]). The results are satisfactory even for a spectral SNR of 20. The work presents first determinations of [C/H] and [N/H] abundances from a vast data set of LAMOST, and, to our knowledge, the first reported implementation of absolute magnitude estimation directly based on a vast data set of observed spectra. The derived stellar parameters for millions of stars from the LAMOST surveys will be publicly available in the form of value-added catalogues.

  7. Spatial Analysis of Spectra from Galactic Planetary Nebulae and Extragalactic H II Regions: Testing for Abundance Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    Presented here is a spatial analysis of spectra for seven planetary nebulae (NGC 2440, NGC 3242, NGC 5315, NGC 5882, NGC 7662, IC 2165, and IC 3568) as well as H II regions from six nearly face-on, spiral galaxies (NGC 2403, NGC 3310, NGC 4321, NGC 5194, NGC 5236, and NGC 5457). The two main goals of the study were (1) to investigate whether or not each planetary nebula (PN) is chemically homogeneous; and (2) to search for evidence of azimuthal abundance gradients in the disks of the galaxies. Each of these test the validity of assumptions commonly made for these two object types, i.e., (1) Ejecta from asymptotic giant branch stars are well mixed and (2) elements returned to the interstellar medium of a spiral galaxy are “instantaneously” distributed around the disk for a fixed distance from the center.The PN homogeneity problem was addressed by spatially dividing each long-slit HST/STIS spectrum into many smaller regions across each object and calculating the abundances of each region. The major result is that the ejecta are indeed homogeneous in each planetary nebula for the elements probed. A secondary goal was to constrain the temperature and luminosity of each PN central star, which was accomplished by modeling each object using the photoionization code CLOUDY.The spectra for the galaxies are from the VIRUS-P spectrograph, an integral field unit consisting of 246 fibers arranged in a square, with the observations centered on or near the nuclear bulge, covering a full 360 degrees around each galaxy and encompassing numerous H II regions located near the bulge. Additional goals for each galaxy included obtaining radial abundance gradients and accurate carbon and neon abundances for high metallicity H II regions.

  8. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  9. Differential chemical abundance analysis of a 47 Tucanæ asymptotic giant branch star with respect to Arcturus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, C. C.; Cottrell, P. L.; Freeman, K. C.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    This study resolves a discrepancy in the abundance of Zr in the 47 Tucanæ asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star Lee 2525. This star was observed using the echelle spectrograph on the 2.3-m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. The analysis was undertaken by calibrating Lee 2525 with respect to the standard giant star Arcturus. This work emphasizes the importance of using a standard star with stellar parameters comparable to the star under analysis rather than a calibration with respect to the Sun as in Koch & McWilliam. Systematic errors in the analysis process are then minimized due to the similarity in atmospheric structure between the standard and programme stars. The abundances derived for Lee 2525 were found to be in general agreement with the Brown & Wallerstein values except for Zr. In this study Zr has a similar enhancement ([Zr/Fe] = +0.51 dex) to another light s-process element, Y ([Y/Fe] = +0.53 dex), which reflects current theory regarding the enrichment of s-process elements by nuclear processes within AGB stars. This is contrary to the results of Brown & Wallerstein where Zr was underabundant ([Zr/Fe] = -0.51 dex) and Y was overabundant ([Y/Fe] = +0.50 dex) with respect to Fe.

  10. Detailed Hydrodynamic and X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of a Laser-Produced Rapidly-Expanding Aluminum Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J; Wolfrum, E; Gouveia, A; Lee, R W; Marjoribanks, R S; Renner, O; Sondhauss, P; Topping, S; Young, P E; Pinto, P A; Wark, J S

    2001-04-03

    We present a detailed analysis of K-shell emission from laser-produced rapidly-expanding aluminum plasmas. This work forms part of a series of experiments performed at the Vulcan laser facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. 1-D planar expansion was obtained by over-illuminating Al-microdot targets supported on CH plastic foils. The small size of the Al-plasma ensured high spatial and frequency resolution of the spectra, obtained with a single crystal spectrometer, two vertical dispersion variant double crystal spectrometers, and a vertical dispersion variant Johann Spectrometer. The hydrodynamic properties of the plasma were measured independently by spatially and temporally resolved Thomson scattering, utilizing a 4{omega} probe beam. This enabled sub- and super- critical densities to be probed relative to the 1{omega} heater beams. The deduced plasma hydrodynamic conditions are compared with those generated from the 1-D hydro-code Medusa, and the significant differences found in the electron temperature discussed. Synthetic spectra generated from the detailed term collisional radiative non-LTE atomic physics code Fly are compared with the experimental spectra for the measured hydrodynamic parameters, and for those taken from Medusa. Excellent agreement is only found for both the H- and He-like Al series when careful account is taken of the temporal evolution of the electron temperature.

  11. Deriving Plasma Densities and Elemental Abundances from SERTS Differential Emission Measure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Kimble, J. A.; Saba, J. L. R.

    2012-01-01

    We use high-resolution spectral emission line data obtained by the SERTS instrument during three rocket flights to demonstrate a new approach for constraining electron densities of solar active region plasma.We apply differential emission measure (DEM) forward-fitting techniques to characterize the multithermal solar plasma producing the observed EUV spectra, with constraints on the high-temperature plasma from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope. In this iterative process, we compare line intensities predicted by an input source distribution to observed line intensities for multiple iron ion species, and search a broad range of densities to optimize chi-square simultaneously for the many available density-sensitive lines. This produces a density weighted by the DEM, which appears to be useful for characterizing the bulk of the emitting plasma over a significant range of temperature. This "DEM-weighted density" technique is complementary to the use of density-sensitive line ratios and less affected by uncertainties in atomic data and ionization fraction for any specific line. Once the DEM shape and the DEM-weighted density have been established from the iron lines, the relative elemental abundances can be determined for other lines in the spectrum. We have also identified spectral lines in the SERTS wavelength range that may be problematic

  12. DERIVING PLASMA DENSITIES AND ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES FROM SERTS DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Kimble, J. A.; Saba, J. L. R.

    2012-09-20

    We use high-resolution spectral emission line data obtained by the SERTS instrument during three rocket flights to demonstrate a new approach for constraining electron densities of solar active region plasma. We apply differential emission measure (DEM) forward-fitting techniques to characterize the multithermal solar plasma producing the observed EUV spectra, with constraints on the high-temperature plasma from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope. In this iterative process, we compare line intensities predicted by an input source distribution to observed line intensities for multiple iron ion species, and search a broad range of densities to optimize {chi}{sup 2} simultaneously for the many available density-sensitive lines. This produces a density weighted by the DEM, which appears to be useful for characterizing the bulk of the emitting plasma over a significant range of temperature. This 'DEM-weighted density' technique is complementary to the use of density-sensitive line ratios and less affected by uncertainties in atomic data and ionization fraction for any specific line. Once the DEM shape and the DEM-weighted density have been established from the iron lines, the relative elemental abundances can be determined for other lines in the spectrum. We have also identified spectral lines in the SERTS wavelength range that may be problematic.

  13. Detailed analysis of charge transport in amorphous organic thin layer by multiscale simulation without any adjustable parameters

    PubMed Central

    Uratani, Hiroki; Kubo, Shosei; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Furitsu; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Kaji, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Hopping-type charge transport in an amorphous thin layer composed of organic molecules is simulated by the combined use of molecular dynamics, quantum chemical, and Monte Carlo calculations. By explicitly considering the molecular structure and the disordered intermolecular packing, we reasonably reproduce the experimental hole and electron mobilities and their applied electric field dependence (Poole–Frenkel behaviour) without using any adjustable parameters. We find that the distribution of the density-of-states originating from the amorphous nature has a significant impact on both the mobilities and Poole–Frenkel behaviour. Detailed analysis is also provided to reveal the molecular-level origin of the charge transport, including the origin of Poole–Frenkel behaviour. PMID:28000728

  14. Detailed analysis of charge transport in amorphous organic thin layer by multiscale simulation without any adjustable parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uratani, Hiroki; Kubo, Shosei; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Furitsu; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Kaji, Hironori

    2016-12-01

    Hopping-type charge transport in an amorphous thin layer composed of organic molecules is simulated by the combined use of molecular dynamics, quantum chemical, and Monte Carlo calculations. By explicitly considering the molecular structure and the disordered intermolecular packing, we reasonably reproduce the experimental hole and electron mobilities and their applied electric field dependence (Poole–Frenkel behaviour) without using any adjustable parameters. We find that the distribution of the density-of-states originating from the amorphous nature has a significant impact on both the mobilities and Poole–Frenkel behaviour. Detailed analysis is also provided to reveal the molecular-level origin of the charge transport, including the origin of Poole–Frenkel behaviour.

  15. Spectroscopic survey of γ Doradus stars - I. Comprehensive atmospheric parameters and abundance analysis of γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Niemczura, E.; De Cat, P.; Soydugan, E.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Ostrowski, J.; Telting, J. H.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Suárez, J. C.; Mantegazza, L.; Kilmartin, P.; Pollard, K. R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of known and candidate γ Doradus stars. The high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 52 objects were collected by five different spectrographs. The spectral classification, atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, ξ), vsin i and chemical composition of the stars were derived. The stellar spectral and luminosity classes were found between G0-A7 and IV-V, respectively. The initial values for Teff and log g were determined from the photometric indices and spectral energy distribution. Those parameters were improved by the analysis of hydrogen lines. The final values of Teff, log g and ξ were derived from the iron lines analysis. The Teff values were found between 6000 K and 7900 K, while log g values range from 3.8 to 4.5 dex. Chemical abundances and vsin i values were derived by the spectrum synthesis method. The vsin i values were found between 5 and 240 km s-1. The chemical abundance pattern of γ Doradus stars were compared with the pattern of non-pulsating stars. It turned out that there is no significant difference in abundance patterns between these two groups. Additionally, the relations between the atmospheric parameters and the pulsation quantities were checked. A strong correlation between the vsin i and the pulsation periods of γ Doradus variables was obtained. The accurate positions of the analysed stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram have been shown. Most of our objects are located inside or close to the blue edge of the theoretical instability strip of γ Doradus.

  16. Understanding the structure of skill through a detailed analysis of Individuals' performance on the Space Fortress game.

    PubMed

    Towne, Tyler J; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach to the study of individual differences in acquired skilled performance in complex laboratory tasks based on an extension of the methodology of the expert-performance approach (Ericsson & Smith, 1991) to shorter periods of training and practice. In contrast to more traditional approaches that study the average performance of groups of participants, we explored detailed behavioral changes for individual participants across their development on the Space Fortress game. We focused on dramatic individual differences in learning and skill acquisition at the individual level by analyzing the archival game data of several interesting players to uncover the specific structure of their acquired skill. Our analysis revealed that even after maximal values for game-generated subscores were reached, the most skilled participant's behaviors such as his flight path, missile firing, and mine handling continued to be refined and improved (Participant 17 from Boot et al., 2010). We contrasted this participant's behavior with the behavior of several other participants and found striking differences in the structure of their performance, which calls into question the appropriateness of averaging their data. For example, some participants engaged in different control strategies such as "world wrapping" or maintaining a finely-tuned circular flight path around the fortress (in contrast to Participant 17's angular flight path). In light of these differences, we raise fundamental questions about how skill acquisition for individual participants should be studied and described. Our data suggest that a detailed analysis of individuals' data is an essential step for generating a general theory of skill acquisition that explains improvement at the group and individual levels.

  17. Measurement of elastic 12C+alpha scattering: details of the experiment, analysis, and discussion of phase shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Aaron Joseph; Detwiler, Rebecca; Gorres, Joachim; Stech, Edward J; Ugalde, Claudio; Wiescher, Michael C F; Heil, Michael; Kappeler, Franz; Azuma, Richard E; Buchmann, Lothar

    2009-01-01

    Recent global analyses of {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O have incorporated both elastic-scallering and {beta}-decay data in addition to direct measurements. In that context, it has been shown that an improvement in the available elastic-scallering data could help determine the contribution of the two subthreshold states, 6.92(2{sup +}) and 7.12(1{sup -}) MeV, and with excellent statistics could restrict resonance parameters above the threshold. To this end angular distributions of {sup 12}C({alpha}, {alpha}){sup 12}C in the {alpha}-energy range of 2.6-8.2 MeV, at angles from 24 to 166 have been measured at the University of Notre Dame using an array of 32 silicon detectors. Details of the experiment are reported. In the present analysis, the phase shifts have been determined from our previously reported R-matrix fit to these data. The uncertainties in the R-matrix phase shifts ({ell} = 0...6) are derived by a new Monte Carlo analysis technique as described in the article. We provide these phase shifts here for general use, in particular for the improved analysis and extrapolation of the {alpha} radiative capture to low energies.

  18. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum: Detailed separation and analysis of basic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B.; Green, J.A.; Yu, Shirley K.-T.; Grizzle, P.L.

    1989-06-01

    Methodology for separation and analysis of basic compounds in petroleum and syncrudes is described. Petroleum bases primarily consist of two general types or compound groups: alkylaromatic species with at least one nitrogen and potentially other heteroatoms incorporated into the aromatic nucleus, and predominantly aliphatic structures containing weakly basic functionalities such as sulfoxide, amide, and other carbonyl-based moieties. Nonaqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography effectively separates these two compound groups. Each compound group is further fractionated into subtypes using an HPLC method employing a silica column and a programmed ternary mobile phase containing propanoic acid. Within each group, compounds elute from the HPLC column in order of increasing basicity. The above also holds for syncrudes, except that aromatic nitrogen types greatly predominate over all weakly basic types and that amino-substituted aromatics are present in addition to azaarene-type structures. The bulk of the report discusses separation strategy, methodology, and results supporting separation selectivity as described above. In addition, nonaqueous titration, infrared, mass spectrometric (MS) and GC/MS techniques for analysis of subfractions are described along with representative results from their application. Limited compositional data from analysis of bases from Wilmington and Cerro Negro petroleums and SRC-II coal liquid are also presented. Prior work in analysis of basic compounds is reviewed and future research direction is addressed. 84 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Sims Analysis of Water Abundance and Hydrogen Isotope in Lunar Highland Plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of indigenous water in mare basaltic glass beads has challenged the view established since the Apollo era of a "dry" Moon. Since this discovery, measurements of water in lunar apatite, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, agglutinates, and nominally anhydrous minerals have confirmed that lunar igneous materials contain water, implying that some parts of lunar mantle may have as much water as Earth's upper mantle. The interpretation of hydrogen (H) isotopes in lunar samples, however, is controversial. The large variation of H isotope ratios in lunar apatite (delta Deuterium = -202 to +1010 per mille) has been taken as evidence that water in the lunar interior comes from the lunar mantle, solar wind protons, and/or comets. The very low deuterium/H ratios in lunar agglutinates indicate that solar wind protons have contributed to their hydrogen content. Conversely, H isotopes in lunar volcanic glass beads and olivine-hosted melt inclusions being similar to those of common terrestrial igneous rocks, suggest a common origin for water in both Earth and Moon. Lunar water could be inherited from carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the model of late accretion of chondrite-type materials to the Moon as proposed by. One complication about the sources of lunar water, is that geologic processes (e.g., late accretion and magmatic degassing) may have modified the H isotope signatures of lunar materials. Recent FTIR analyses have shown that plagioclases in lunar ferroan anorthosite contain approximately 6 ppm H2O. So far, ferroan anorthosite is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). A possible consequence is that the LMO could have contained up to approximately 320 ppm H2O. Here we examine the possible sources of water in the LMO through measurements of water abundances and H isotopes in plagioclase of two ferroan anorthosites and one troctolite from lunar highlands.

  20. Computational analysis reveals abundance of potential glycoproteins in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Sadia; Nasir, Arshan; Bokhari, Habib

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylation is the most common type of post-translational modification (PTM) and is known to affect protein stability, folding and activity. Inactivity of enzymes mediating glycosylation can result in serious disorders including colon cancer and brain disorders. Out of five main types of glycosylation, N-linked glycosylation is most abundant and characterized by the addition of a sugar group to an Asparagine residue at the N-X-S/T motif. Enzyme mediating such transfer is known as oligosaccharyl transferase (OST). It has been hypothesized before that a significant number of proteins serve as glycoproteins. In this study, we used programming implementations of Python to statistically quantify the representation of glycoproteins by scanning all the available proteome sequence data at ExPASy server for the presence of glycoproteins and also the enzyme which plays critical role in glycosylation i.e. OST. Our results suggest that more than 50% of the proteins carry N-X-S/T motif i.e. they could be potential glycoproteins. Furthermore, approximately 28-36% (1/3) of proteins possesses signature motifs which are characteristic features of enzyme OST. Quantifying this bias individually reveals that both the number of proteins tagged with N-X-S/T motif and the average number of motifs per protein is significantly higher in case of eukaryotes when compared to prokaryotes. In the light of these results we conclude that there is a significant bias in the representation of glycoproteins in the proteomes of all species and is manifested substantially in eukaryotes and claim for glycosylation to be the most common and ubiquitous PTM in cells, especially in eukaryotes.

  1. A robust method for ammonium nitrogen isotopic analysis in freshwater and seawater at natural abundance levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Altabet, M. A.; Wu, T.; Hadas, O.

    2006-12-01

    Natural ammonium N isotopic abundance has been increasingly used in studies of marine and freshwater biogeochemistry. However, current methods are time-consuming, subject to interference from DON, and not reliable at low concentrations. Our new method for determining the δ15N of ammonium overcomes these difficulties by employing the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite followed by conversion of nitrite to nitrous oxide. In the first step, ammonium is quantitatively oxidized by hypobromite at pH~12. After the addition of sodium arsenite to consume excess hypobromite, yield is verified by colorimetric NO2-measurement using sulfanilamide and naphthyl ethylenediamine (NED). Nitrite is further reduced to N2O by a 1:1 sodium azide and acetic acid buffer solution using previously established procedures. Buffer concentration can be varied according to sample matrix to ensure that a reaction pH between 2 and 4 is reached. The product nitrous oxide is then isotopically analyzed using a continuous flow purge and cryogenic trap system coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Reliable δ15N values (±0.31‰) are obtained over a concentration range of 0.5 μM to 20 μM using 20 ml volumes of either fresh or seawater samples. Reagent blanks are very low, about 0.05 μM. There is no interference from any of the nitrogen containing compounds tested except short chain aliphatic amino acid (i.e. glycine) which typically are not present at sufficiently high environmental concentrations to pose a problem.

  2. Abundances and implications of volatile-bearing species from evolved gas analysis of the Rocknest aeolian deposit, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Paul Douglas; Franz, Heather B.; Sutter, Brad; Arevalo, Ricardo D.; Coll, Patrice; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Jones, John J.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; McAdam, Amy C.; McKay, Christopher P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Navarro-González, Rafael; Niles, Paul B.; Pavlov, Alex; Squyres, Steven W.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Steele, Andrew; Wray, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity detected evolved gases during thermal analysis of soil samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater. Major species detected (in order of decreasing molar abundance) were H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2, all at the µmol level, with HCl, H2S, NH3, NO, and HCN present at the tens to hundreds of nmol level. We compute weight % numbers for the major gases evolved by assuming a likely source and calculate abundances between 0.5 and 3 wt.%. The evolution of these gases implies the presence of both oxidized (perchlorates) and reduced (sulfides or H-bearing) species as well as minerals formed under alkaline (carbonates) and possibly acidic (sulfates) conditions. Possible source phases in the Rocknest material are hydrated amorphous material, minor clay minerals, and hydrated perchlorate salts (all potential H2O sources), carbonates (CO2), perchlorates (O2 and HCl), and potential N-bearing materials (e.g., Martian nitrates, terrestrial or Martian nitrogenated organics, ammonium salts) that evolve NH3, NO, and/or HCN. We conclude that Rocknest materials are a physical mixture in chemical disequilibrium, consistent with aeolian mixing, and that although weathering is not extensive, it may be ongoing even under current Martian surface conditions.

  3. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  4. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  5. Fractal-feature distance analysis of contrast-detail phantom image and meaning of pseudo fractal dimension and complexity.

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Ikeda, M; Enchi, Y; Niimi, T

    2009-12-01

    The purposes of our studies are to examine whether or not fractal-feature distance deduced from virtual volume method can simulate observer performance indices and to investigate the physical meaning of pseudo fractal dimension and complexity. Contrast-detail (C-D) phantom radiographs were obtained at various mAs values (0.5 - 4.0 mAs) and 140 kVp with a computed radiography system, and the reference image was acquired at 13 mAs. For all C-D images, fractal analysis was conducted using the virtual volume method that was devised with a fractional Brownian motion model. The fractal-feature distances between the considered and reference images were calculated using pseudo fractal dimension and complexity. Further, we have performed the C-D analysis in which ten radiologists participated, and compared the fractal-feature distances with the image quality figures (IQF). To clarify the physical meaning of the pseudo fractal dimension and complexity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and standard deviation (SD) of images noise were calculated for each mAs and compared with the pseudo fractal dimension and complexity, respectively. A strong linear correlation was found between the fractal-feature distance and IQF. The pseudo fractal dimensions became large as CNR increased. Further, a linear correlation was found between the exponential complexity and image noise SD.

  6. Detailed Analysis of the Microbial Population in Malaysian Spontaneous Cocoa Pulp Fermentations Reveals a Core and Variable Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a “core” and a “variable” part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations (“core” yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations (“variable” yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency. PMID:24358116

  7. Quantitative assessment of hyperspectral imaging in detection of plasmonic nanoparticles: a modified contrast-detail analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianting; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) is an emerging imaging modality being applied for clinical indications such as tissue oximetry, and cancer detection based on endogenous biological constituents including plasmonic nanoparticles. However, there is currently a lack of standardized test methods for objective, quantitative evaluation of HRI system performance. Contrast-detail analysis (CDA) is a phantom-based test method commonly used to evaluate medical imaging devices (e.g., mammography systems) in terms of their lower detection limit. We investigated a modified CDA (mCDA) method to quantify the detectability of gold nanoparticles by HRI systems. Silicone-based turbid phantoms containing micro-fluidic channels were developed for the mCDA tests. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantom materials were doped with chromophores and scatterers to achieve biologically relevant optical properties (OPs). Molds were used to produce cylindrical channels of diameters 0.3 to 1.65 mm and depths of 0.2 mm inside the phantoms. Channels were filled with a mixture of hemoglobin and concentrations of gold nanorods (GNR) and measured with our HRI system. The contrast of GNRs was solved with a spectral unmixing algorithm from the reflectance spectra. The lowest detectable concentration was determined as a function of inclusion size and depth and plotted as modified contrast detail curve (mCDC). mCDCs were used to compare the detectabilities of the HRI system with different data processing algorithms. It is demonstrated that our mCDA test method involving turbid microchannel phantoms can help to elucidate the combined performance of imaging devices and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast agents. This approach may be useful for performing clinical trial standardization and device re-calibration, thus ensuring quality control and clinical performance.

  8. 10. DETAIL, CAB SIDE. DETAIL, END OF BOOM. DETAIL, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, CAB SIDE. DETAIL, END OF BOOM. DETAIL, LOWER PART OF TOWER, SHOWING METAL WHEELS AND CABLE SPOOLS. DETAIL, LOOKING UP AT THE UNDERSIDE OF THE REVOLVING PLATFORM ATOP THE TOWER. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  9. Distribution and Abundance of Phlebotominae, Vectors of Leishmaniasis, in Argentina: Spatial and Temporal Analysis at Different Scales

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, María Gabriela; Fernández, María Soledad; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The spatial-temporal analysis of the abundance of insects, vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), was performed in Argentina using spatial-temporal increasing scales. In the microscale (microfocal), the effect of the primary vegetation-crop interface in vector abundance was observed, and also how the shelters, food sources, and other environmental characteristics contribute to habitat microheterogeneity and so to a microheterogeneous vector distribution. In the mesoscale (locality or epidemic focus), the results from different foci of TL (rural and periurban) and VL (urban) suggested a metapopulation structure determined partially by quantifiable habitat variables that could explain the increase of risk associated to an increase of vector-human contact due to climatic or anthropogenic changes. In the macroscale (regional), captures of vectors and records of human cases allowed the construction of risk maps and predictive models of vector distribution. In conclusion, in order to obtain valid results transferrable to control programs from spatial studies, special attention should be paid in order to assure the consistency between the spatial scales of the hypotheses, data, and analytical tools of each experimental or descriptive design. PMID:22315620

  10. The influence of photochemical fractionation on the evolution of the nitrogen isotope ratios - detailed analysis of current photochemical loss rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, K. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Westlake, J.; Magee, B.; Liang, M. C.; Bell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Tracking the evolution of molecular nitrogen over geologic time scales requires an understanding of the loss rates of both isotopologues (14N2 and 14N15N) as a function of time (e.g. Mandt et al., 2009). The relative loss rates, if different, “fractionate” the isotopes so that the ratios change as a function of time, and rate at which the ratio changes due to a loss process is determined by the “fractionation factor.” Photochemistry is known to fractionate the nitrogen isotopes in Titan’s atmosphere by preferentially removing the heavy isotope from the molecular nitrogen inventory and increasing the ratio (heavy/light) in one of the primary photochemical products, HCN. This fractionation occurs due to a selective shielding during photodissociation where the photons that dissociate 14N15N penetrate deeper into the atmosphere (Liang et al., 2007) than the photons that dissociate 14N14N. Two methods can be used to determine the photochemical fractionation factor, f. The first approach for calculating f is based on the isotopic ratios of the photochemical source and product, as measured by the Huygens Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) (Niemann et al., 2010) and the Cassini Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) (Vinatier et al., 2007), respectively. The second method uses the loss rates and the ratio of the source and requires detailed photochemical modeling to ensure that the loss rates are calculated accurately. We compare these two methods for calculating the photochemical fractionation factor for N2 by using measurements of the isotopic ratios of N2 and HCN combined with an updated coupled ion-neutral-thermal model (De la Haye et al., 2008). We find that accurate magnetospheric electron fluxes and a rotating model that accounts for diurnal variations are essential for accurate calculations of the HCN densities and for determination of the fractionation factor through photochemical modeling. References: De La Haye, V., J. H. Waite, Jr., T. E. Cravens, I. P

  11. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  12. Utilization of interferometric light microscopy for the rapid analysis of virus abundance in a river.

    PubMed

    Roose-Amsaleg, Céline; Fedala, Yasmina; Vénien-Bryan, Catherine; Garnier, Josette; Boccara, Albert-Claude; Boccara, Martine

    2017-03-02

    There is a constant need for direct counting of biotic nanoparticles such as viruses to unravel river functioning. We used, for the first time in freshwater, a new method based on interferometry differentiating viruses from other particles such as membrane vesicles. In the French Marne River, viruses represented between 42 and 72% of the particles. A spring monitoring in 2014 revealed their increase (2.1 × 10(7) to 2.1 × 10(8) mL(-1)) linked to an increase in algal biomass and diversity of bacterial plankton. Predicted virus size distributions were in agreement with transmission electron microscopy analysis suggesting a dominance of large viruses (≥60 nm).

  13. Detailed analysis of the Canary on-sky results at the WHT using Rayleigh laser guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, O.; Gendron, É.; Morris, T.; Basden, A.; Hubert, Z.; Gratadour, D.; Osborn, J.; Vidal, F.; Chemla, F.; Rousset, G.; Myers, R.

    2014-07-01

    CANARY is the multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) on-sky demonstrator developed by Durham University and LESIA Observatoire de Paris, in the perspective of the E-ELT. Since 2013, CANARY has been operating with 3 off-axis NGS and 4 off-axis Rayleigh LGS and compensating for one on-axis NGS observed with a near IR camera and the Truth Sensor (TS) for diagnostic purpose. In this paper, we present the tomographic performance of CANARY during the runs in 2013. We propose a detailed analysis of the tomographic error leading to the establishment of the CANARY wave-front error budget. In particular we are able to evaluate the tomographic error for each altitude in the atmosphere for a given reconstructor by modelling a set of one-layer covariance matrices. This tool allows us to understand the tradeoffs to be made in the building of the tomographic reconstructor. We present two methods for the wavefront error budget computation. The DTI one uses input system parameters and open loop WFS slopes to estimate the error in a number of independent terms. The DMTS method directly uses the Truth Sensor measurements to estimate the error. We show a good agreement between the two approaches making us confident in our modelling of the instrument. We derive estimations of the Strehl ratio from the error variance and compare them to the recorded IR image Strehl ratio. We find a good agreement between the two, hence validating our wavefront error analysis. Finally we present an on-sky validation of the tomographic reconstruction using LGS based on GLAO and MOAO data. We also quantify the gain brought by the LGS, comparing results obtained in MOAO with 3 NGS and with or without LGS in the wavefront measurements.

  14. Biodegradation of cis-1,4-Polyisoprene Rubbers by Distinct Actinomycetes: Microbial Strategies and Detailed Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Linos, Alexandros; Berekaa, Mahmoud M.; Reichelt, Rudolf; Keller, Ulrike; Schmitt, Jürgen; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Several actinomycetes isolated from nature were able to use both natural rubber (NR) and synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber (IR) as a sole source of carbon. According to their degradation behavior, they were divided into two groups. Representatives of the first group grew only in direct contact to the rubber substrate and led to considerable disintegration of the material during cultivation. The second group consisted of weaker rubber decomposers that did not grow adhesively, as indicated by the formation of clear zones (translucent halos) around bacterial colonies after cultivation on NR dispersed in mineral agar. Taxonomic analysis of four selected strains based on 16S rRNA similarity examinations revealed two Gordonia sp. strains, VH2 and Kb2, and one Mycobacterium fortuitum strain, NF4, belonging to the first group as well as one Micromonospora aurantiaca strain, W2b, belonging to the second group. Schiff's reagent staining tests performed for each of the strains indicated colonization of the rubber surface, formation of a bacterial biofilm, and occurrence of compounds containing aldehyde groups during cultivation with NR latex gloves. Detailed analysis by means of scanning electron microscopy yielded further evidence for the two different microbial strategies and clarified the colonization efficiency. Thereby, strains VH2, Kb2, and NF4 directly adhered to and merged into the rubber material, while strain W2b produced mycelial corridors, especially on the surface of IR. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy comprising the attenuated total reflectance technique was applied on NR latex gloves overgrown by cells of the Gordonia strains, which were the strongest rubber decomposers. Spectra demonstrated the decrease in number of cis-1,4 double bonds, the formation of carbonyl groups, and the change of the overall chemical environment, indicating that an oxidative attack at the double bond is the first metabolic step of the biodegradation process. PMID:10742254

  15. Estimating wetland vegetation abundance from Landsat-8 operational land imager imagery: a comparison between linear spectral mixture analysis and multinomial logit modeling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenji; Pu, Ruiliang; Liu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mapping vegetation abundance by using remote sensing data is an efficient means for detecting changes of an eco-environment. With Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) imagery acquired on July 31, 2013, both linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) and multinomial logit model (MNLM) methods were applied to estimate and assess the vegetation abundance in the Wild Duck Lake Wetland in Beijing, China. To improve mapping vegetation abundance and increase the number of endmembers in spectral mixture analysis, normalized difference vegetation index was extracted from OLI imagery along with the seven reflective bands of OLI data for estimating the vegetation abundance. Five endmembers were selected, which include terrestrial plants, aquatic plants, bare soil, high albedo, and low albedo. The vegetation abundance mapping results from Landsat OLI data were finally evaluated by utilizing a WorldView-2 multispectral imagery. Similar spatial patterns of vegetation abundance produced by both fully constrained LSMA algorithm and MNLM methods were observed: higher vegetation abundance levels were distributed in agricultural and riparian areas while lower levels in urban/built-up areas. The experimental results also indicate that the MNLM model outperformed the LSMA algorithm with smaller root mean square error (0.0152 versus 0.0252) and higher coefficient of determination (0.7856 versus 0.7214) as the MNLM model could handle the nonlinear reflection phenomenon better than the LSMA with mixed pixels.

  16. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Zencak, Zdenek; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2007-06-01

    Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition (delta13C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19 per thousand, whereas delta14C values ranged from -568 per thousand for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288 per thousand for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these delta14C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action.

  17. Microbiome analysis reveals the abundance of bacterial pathogens in Rousettus leschenaultii guano

    PubMed Central

    Banskar, Sunil; Bhute, Shrikant S.; Suryavanshi, Mangesh V.; Punekar, Sachin; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Bats are crucial for proper functioning of an ecosystem. They provide various important services to ecosystem and environment. While, bats are well-known carrier of pathogenic viruses, their possible role as a potential carrier of pathogenic bacteria is under-explored. Here, using culture-based approach, employing multiple bacteriological media, over thousand bacteria were cultivated and identified from Rousettus leschenaultii (a frugivorous bat species), the majority of which were from the family Enterobacteriaceae and putative pathogens. Next, pathogenic potential of most frequently cultivated component of microbiome i.e. Escherichia coli was assessed to identify its known pathotypes which revealed the presence of virulent factors in many cultivated E. coli isolates. Applying in-depth bacterial community analysis using high-throughput 16 S rRNA gene sequencing, a high inter-individual variation was observed among the studied guano samples. Interestingly, a higher diversity of bacterial communities was observed in decaying guano representative. The search against human pathogenic bacteria database at 97% identity, a small proportion of sequences were found associated to well-known human pathogens. The present study thus indicates that this bat species may carry potential bacterial pathogens and advice to study the effect of these pathogens on bats itself and the probable mode of transmission to humans and other animals. PMID:27845426

  18. Microbiome analysis reveals the abundance of bacterial pathogens in Rousettus leschenaultii guano.

    PubMed

    Banskar, Sunil; Bhute, Shrikant S; Suryavanshi, Mangesh V; Punekar, Sachin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2016-11-15

    Bats are crucial for proper functioning of an ecosystem. They provide various important services to ecosystem and environment. While, bats are well-known carrier of pathogenic viruses, their possible role as a potential carrier of pathogenic bacteria is under-explored. Here, using culture-based approach, employing multiple bacteriological media, over thousand bacteria were cultivated and identified from Rousettus leschenaultii (a frugivorous bat species), the majority of which were from the family Enterobacteriaceae and putative pathogens. Next, pathogenic potential of most frequently cultivated component of microbiome i.e. Escherichia coli was assessed to identify its known pathotypes which revealed the presence of virulent factors in many cultivated E. coli isolates. Applying in-depth bacterial community analysis using high-throughput 16 S rRNA gene sequencing, a high inter-individual variation was observed among the studied guano samples. Interestingly, a higher diversity of bacterial communities was observed in decaying guano representative. The search against human pathogenic bacteria database at 97% identity, a small proportion of sequences were found associated to well-known human pathogens. The present study thus indicates that this bat species may carry potential bacterial pathogens and advice to study the effect of these pathogens on bats itself and the probable mode of transmission to humans and other animals.

  19. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the Western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zdenek Zencak; Jana Klanova; Ivan Holoubek; Oerjan Gustafsson

    2007-06-01

    Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19{per_thousand}, whereas {Delta}{sup 14}C values ranged from -568{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these {Delta}{sup 14}C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. NPWE model observer as a validated alternative for contrast detail analysis of digital detectors in general radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Peteghem, N.; Bosmans, H.; Marshall, N. W.

    2016-11-01

    To propose and validate a non-prewhitening with eye filter (NPWE) model observer as an alternative means of quantifying and specifying imaging performance for general radiography detectors, in a comparative study with contrast detail analysis and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Five different x-ray detectors were assessed, covering a range of detector technologies including powder computed radiography (CR), needle CR, and three indirect conversion flat panel digital radiography detectors (DR). For each detector, threshold contrast detail (c-d) detectability was measured using the Leeds TO20 test object. A tube voltage of 70 kV and 1 mm Cu added filtration was used and five target detector air kerma (DAK) levels were set, ranging from 0.625 µGy to 10 µGy. Three c-d images were acquired at the same DAK levels and these were scored by two observers. Presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using an edge method while contrast was measured with a 2 mm Al square of dimension 10  ×  10 mm. The normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was calculated at the target DAK values of the c-d images. The MTF, NNPS and contrast data were then used to calculate a detectability index (d‧) with the NPWE model and compared to the human observer c-d results. The standard quantitative means of evaluating detector performance i.e. DQE, was then calculated for each detector. A linear correlation was found between the logarithm of threshold contrast and the logarithm of d’ for all detectors, as DAK was increased. Furthermore, the absolute value of d‧ tracked threshold contrast between the five detectors, enabling the use of detectability to quantify image quality rather than the intrinsically subjective threshold contrast scored by human observers from c-d test object images. At 2.5 µGy target DAK, d’ followed the differences in DQE between the five detectors. The NPWE detectability index can be used an alternative parameter for the

  1. Soft X-ray emission lines in the afterglow spectrum of GRB 011211: A detailed XMM-Newton analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Watson, D.; Osborne, J. P.; Pounds, K. A.; O'Brien, P. T.

    2003-05-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton observation of the X-ray afterglow of the Gamma Ray Burst GRB 011211, originally detected by Beppo-SAX on 11th December 2001. The early afterglow spectrum obtained by XMM-Newton, observed 11 hours after the initial burst, appeared to reveal decaying H-like Kalpha emission lines of Mg, Si, S, Ar and Ca, arising in enriched material with an outflow velocity of order 0.1c (Reeves et al. \\cite{Reeves2002}). This was attributed to matter ejected from a massive stellar progenitor occurring shortly before the burst itself. Here, we present a detailed re-analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC observations of GRB 011211. In particular, we show that the detection of the soft X-ray line emission appears robust, regardless of detector background, calibration, spectral binning, or the spectral model that is assumed. We demonstrate that thermal emission, from an optically thin plasma, is the most plausible model that can account for the soft X-ray emission, which appears to be the case for at least two burst afterglow spectra observed by XMM-Newton. The X-ray spectrum of GRB 011211 appears to evolve with time after the first 10 ks of the XMM-Newton observation as the Si and S emission lines are only detected during the first 10 ks of observation. The observations suggest that thermal emission is present during the early afterglow spectrum, whilst a power-law component dominates the latter stages. Finally we estimate the mass of the ejected material in GRB 011211 to be of the order 4-20 solar masses.

  2. Identification of Biodegradation Pathways in a Multi-Process Phytoremediation System (MPPS) Using Natural Abundance 14C Analysis of PLFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, B. R.; Greenberg, B. M.; Slater, G. F.

    2008-12-01

    Optimizing remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils requires thorough understanding of the mechanisms and pathways involved in a proposed remediation system. In many engineered and natural attenuation systems, multiple degradation pathways may contribute to observed contaminant mass losses. In this study, biodegradation in the soil microbial community was identified as a major pathway for petroleum hydrocarbon removal in a Multi-Process Phytoremediation System (MPPS) using natural abundance 14C analysis of Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA). In contaminated soils, PLFA were depleted in Δ14C to less than -800‰, directly demonstrating microbial uptake and utilization of petroleum derived carbon (Δ14C = -992‰) during bioremediation. Mass balance indicated that more than 80% of microbial carbon was derived from petroleum hydrocarbons and a maximum of 20% was produced from metabolism of modern carbon sources. In contrast, in a nearby uncontaminated control soil, the microbial community maintained a nearly modern 14C signature, suggesting preferential degradation of more labile, recent carbon. Mass balance using δ13C and Δ14C of soil CO2 demonstrated that mineralization of petroleum carbon contributed 60-65% of soil CO2 at the contaminated site. The remainder was derived from atmospheric (27-30%) and decomposition of non- petroleum natural organic carbon (5-10%). The clean control exhibited substantially lower CO2 concentrations that were derived from atmospheric (55%) and natural organic carbon (45%) sources. This study highlights the value of using multiple carbon isotopes to identify degradation pathways in petroleum- contaminated soils undergoing phytoremediation and the power of natural abundance 14C to detect petroleum metabolism in natural microbial communities.

  3. Use of a Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension Approach for Multiplexed Relative Abundance Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Digestion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products. PMID:24077716

  4. Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster genome: abundance, distribution, and potential for marker development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiafeng; Qi, Haigang; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are a ubiquitous component of the eukaryote genome and constitute one of the most popular sources of molecular markers for genetic studies. However, no data are currently available regarding microsatellites across the entire genome in oysters, despite their importance to the aquaculture industry. We present the first genome-wide investigation of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by analysis of the complete genome, resequencing, and expression data. The Pacific oyster genome is rich in microsatellites. A total of 604 653 repeats were identified, in average of one locus per 815 base pairs (bp). A total of 12 836 genes had coding repeats, and 7 332 were expressed normally, including genes with a wide range of molecular functions. Compared with 20 different species of animals, microsatellites in the oyster genome typically exhibited 1) an intermediate overall frequency; 2) relatively uniform contents of (A)n and (C)n repeats and abundant long (C)n repeats (≥24 bp); 3) large average length of (AG)n repeats; and 4) scarcity of trinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite-flanking regions exhibited a high degree of polymorphism with a heterozygosity rate of around 2.0%, but there was no correlation between heterozygosity and microsatellite abundance. A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.

  5. A detailed radiobiological and dosimetric analysis of biochemical outcomes in a case-control study of permanent prostate brachytherapy patients

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Stewart, Renee R.; Merrick, Gregory S.

    2009-03-15

    the harmonic mean and expressions of the generalized EUD. In this case-control study of prostate brachytherapy biochemical failures and nonfailures, there were no radiobiological parameters derived from detailed DVH-based analysis that predicted for biochemical control. This may indicate that in our approach, implant dosimetry is at or near the limits of clinically effective dose escalation.

  6. A detailed radiobiological and dosimetric analysis of biochemical outcomes in a case-control study of permanent prostate brachytherapy patients.

    PubMed

    Butler, Wayne M; Stewart, Renee R; Merrick, Gregory S

    2009-03-01

    generalized EUD. In this case-control study of prostate brachytherapy biochemical failures and nonfailures, there were no radiobiological parameters derived from detailed DVH-based analysis that predicted for biochemical control. This may indicate that in our approach, implant dosimetry is at or near the limits of clinically effective dose escalation.

  7. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-05-19

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest.

  8. Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of Water and Solute Transport Models Within Vegetated Soils Using a Detailed Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B.; Wheater, H.; Butler, A.

    2006-12-01

    Appropriate models predicting the fate and transport of water and dissolved chemicals in vegetated soils are required for a wide range of applications. Substantial uncertainty is present due to measurement errors, parametric uncertainty, and structural issues related to model conceptualisation. Due to the costs and intrusiveness of subsurface measurements there are limited datasets available to interrogate models against. Furthermore, the models are typically computationally intensive, making it difficult to fully explore parametric and other uncertainty spaces. Hence there are two pressing needs which must be met to improve the utility of models: more data and constraints are needed to quantify the interactions between different uncertainties and their overall impact on the reliability and robustness of model outputs, and efficient methodologies to explore sensitivities and uncertainties are also called for. This paper presents a combined analysis of a particularly detailed dataset and models of water and solute movement, using both simple random search and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Data was collected from an outdoor vegetated lysimeter facility over a duration of close to a year, with soil matric potential, moisture content and temperature at 10 cm depth intervals, along with rainfall and other meteorological variables, logged in four instrumented lysimeters at a time interval of 0.01 days. Three radionuclides (Na-22, Cl-36 and Cs-137) were supplied through the base of the lysimeters using an automated water table control system. Periodic soil cores and plant cuttings provided information on their migration and uptake. The integrity of the experimental data is examined, with uncertainty associated with outputs discussed and quantified. To interpret the data, a Richards' equation model coupled to a dynamic plant water model is linked to an advection-dispersion model with additional process representations of sorption, radioactive decay and root uptake

  9. Indoor and soil gas radon simultaneous measurements for the purpose of detail analysis of radon entry pathways into houses.

    PubMed

    Froňka, A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of radon transport mechanisms from the subsoil into the indoor environment is essential for the correct interpretation of results of short-term indoor radon measurements and for proper and effective design of radon mitigation systems. Radon transfer factor time variations have been studied based on simultaneous continuous indoor and soil gas radon measurements within the framework of complex radon diagnosis of individual buildings. In this context, the key influencing factors have been identified and analysed in order to provide satisfactory explanation on radon entry variations under different measurement conditions. Moreover, a new significant manner of radon entry into the indoor environment has been identified and will be discussed in detail.

  10. Low abundance materials at the mars pathfinder landing site: An investigation using spectral mixture analysis and related techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, J.F.; Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Morris, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Recalibrated and geometrically registered multispectral images from the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) were analyzed using Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) and related techniques. SMA models a multispectral image scene as a linear combination of end-member spectra, and anomalous materials which do not fit the model are detected as model residuals. While most of the IMP data studied here are modeled generally well using "Bright Dust," "Gray Rock," and "Shade" image endmembers, additional anomalous materials were detected through careful analysis of root mean square (RMS) error images resulting from SMA. For example, analysis of SMA fraction and RMS images indicates spectral differences within a previously monolithologic Dark Soil class. A type of Dark Soil that has high fractional abundances in rock fraction images (Gray Rock Soil) was identified. Other anomalous materials identified included a previously noted "Black Rock" lithology, a class of possibly indurated, compacted, or partially cemented soils ("Intermediate Soil"), and a unit referred to as "Anomalous Patches" on at least one rock. The Black Rock lithology has a strong 900-1000-nm absorption, and modeling of the derived image endmembers using a laboratory reference endmember modeling (REM) approach produced best-fit model spectra that are most consistent with the presence of high-Ca pyroxenes and/or olivine, crystalline ferric oxide minerals, or mixtures of these materials as important components of the Black Rock endmember. More unique mineralogic identifications could not be obtained using our initial REM analyses. Both Intermediate Soil and Anomalous Patches units exhibit a relatively narrow 860-950-nm absorption that is consistent with the presence of either low-Ca pyroxenes or a cementing crystalline ferric oxide mineral. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. HST/STIS Observations of the Local Interstellar Medium toward Very Nearby Stars: A Detailed Analysis of the a Centuari Sight Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dann, Julian; Redfield, Seth; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), a region extending about 100 parsecs and in which the Sun is currently immersed, can only be studied using UV/optical absorption features against bright background stars. Perhaps in the future in-situ measurements will be possible (e.g., the Voyager spacecraft or Breakthrough Starshot-style missions). Using high-resolution observations with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have analyzed several very nearby sight lines to measure physical properties of the LISM. The data used in this study is a part of the Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project, an HST Large Treasury Project, in which we have analyzed the spectra of fourteen nearby stars. LISM absorption features in these stellar spectra reveal key information about the abundances, temperature, and turbulence in the intervening gas. We have fit ion transitions in the near-UV for MgII, FeII, CII, DI, SiII, and OII. These absorption features provide direct measurements of the radial velocity, Doppler broadening parameter, and the column density along the line of sight. The presence of multiple local minima in the deep and narrow ISM profile is evidence of multiple clouds moving at different radial velocities.Included in our data set is the a Centauri sight line. We provide a detailed analysis of these new observations and a comparison with previous HST observations that were observed more than 20 years ago. A discussion of the physical properties along this line of sight is provided within the context of a Breakthrough Starshot mission. These high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra will be important for making accurate estimations of the interstellar environment to help inform such an interstellar mission.We would like to acknowledge NASA HST Grant GO-12278 and GO-13346 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for

  12. Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, Jon; Craig, Catherine Waggoner; Yoder, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    This study presents a manually constructed alignment of nearly complete rRNA genes from most animal clades (371 taxa from ~33 of the ~36 metazoan phyla), expanded from the 197 sequences in a previous study. This thorough, taxon-rich alignment, available at http://www.wsu.edu/~jmallatt/research/rRNAalignment.html and in the Dryad Repository (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1v62kr3q), is based rigidly on the secondary structure of the SSU and LSU rRNA molecules, and is annotated in detail, including labeling of the erroneous sequences (contaminants). The alignment can be used for future studies of the molecular evolution of rRNA. Here, we use it to explore if the larger number of sequences produces an improved phylogenetic tree of animal relationships. Disappointingly, the resolution did not improve, neither when the standard maximum-likelihood method was used, nor with more sophisticated methods that partitioned the rRNA into paired and unpaired sites (stem, loop, bulge, junction), or accounted for the evolution of the paired sites. For example, no doublet model of paired-site substitutions (16-state, 16A and 16B, 7A-F, or 6A-C models) corrected the placement of any rogue taxa or increased resolution. The following findings are from the simplest, standard, ML analysis. The 371-taxon tree only imperfectly supported the bilaterian clades of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa, and this problem remained after 17 taxa with unstably positioned sequences were omitted from the analysis. The problem seems to stem from base-compositional heterogeneity across taxa and from an overrepresentation of highly divergent sequences among the newly added taxa (e.g., sequences from Cephalopoda, Rotifera, Acoela, and Myxozoa). The rogue taxa continue to concentrate in two locations in the rRNA tree: near the base of Arthropoda and of Bilateria. The approximately uncertain (AU) test refuted the monophyly of Mollusca and of Chordata, probably due to long-branch attraction of the highly

  13. Abundances of Volatile - Bearing Species from Evolved Gas Analysis of Samples from the Rocknest Aeolian Bedform in Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, P. D., Jr.; Franc, H. B.; Sutter, B.; McAdam, A.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) recently ran four samples from an aeolian bedform named Rocknest. SAM detected the evolution of H2O, CO2, O2, and SO2, indicative of the presence of multiple volatile bearing species (Fig 1). The Rocknest bedform is a windblown deposit selected as representative of both the windblown material in Gale crater as well as the globally-distributed martian dust. Four samples of Rocknest material were analyzed by SAM, all from the fifth scoop taken at this location. The material delivered to SAM passed through a 150 m sieve and is assumed to have been well mixed during the sample acquisition/preparation/handoff process. SAM heated the Rocknest samples to approx.835 C at a ramp rate of 35 C/min with a He carrier gas flow rate of apprx.1.5 standard cubic centimeters per minute and at an oven pressure of 30 mbar [1]. Evolved gases were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). This abstract presents the molar abundances of H2O, CO2, O2, and SO2 as well as their concentration in rocknest samples using an estimated sample mass.

  14. Glycan Degradation (GlyDeR) Analysis Predicts Mammalian Gut Microbiota Abundance and Host Diet-Specific Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Zarecki, Raphy; Oberhardt, Matthew; Ursell, Luke K.; Kupiec, Martin; Knight, Rob; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycans form the primary nutritional source for microbes in the human gut, and understanding their metabolism is a critical yet understudied aspect of microbiome research. Here, we present a novel computational pipeline for modeling glycan degradation (GlyDeR) which predicts the glycan degradation potency of 10,000 reference glycans based on either genomic or metagenomic data. We first validated GlyDeR by comparing degradation profiles for genomes in the Human Microbiome Project against KEGG reaction annotations. Next, we applied GlyDeR to the analysis of human and mammalian gut microbial communities, which revealed that the glycan degradation potential of a community is strongly linked to host diet and can be used to predict diet with higher accuracy than sequence data alone. Finally, we show that a microbe’s glycan degradation potential is significantly correlated (R = 0.46) with its abundance, with even higher correlations for potential pathogens such as the class Clostridia (R = 0.76). GlyDeR therefore represents an important tool for advancing our understanding of bacterial metabolism in the gut and for the future development of more effective prebiotics for microbial community manipulation. PMID:25118239

  15. Paleodietary reconstruction using stable isotopes and abundance analysis of bovids from the Shungura Formation of South Omo, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negash, Enquye W; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Wynn, Jonathan G; Bedaso, Zelalem K

    2015-11-01

    Preservation of the stable carbon isotopic composition of fossil tooth enamel enables us to estimate the relative proportion of C3 versus C4 vegetation in an animal's diet, which, combined with analysis of faunal abundance, may provide complementary methods of paleoenvironmental reconstruction. To this end, we analyzed stable carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C values) of tooth enamel from four bovid tribes (Tragelaphini, Aepycerotini, Reduncini, and Alcelaphini) derived from six members of the Shungura Formation (Members B, C, D, F, G, and L; ages from ca. 2.90-1.05 Ma (millions of years ago) in the Lower Omo Valley of southwestern Ethiopia. The bovids show a wide range of δ(13)C values within taxa and stratigraphic members, as well as temporal changes in the feeding strategies of taxa analyzed throughout the middle to late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Such variation suggests that the use of actualistic approaches for paleoenvironmental reconstruction may not always be warranted. Alcelaphini was the only taxon analyzed that retained a consistent dietary preference throughout the sequence, with entirely C4-dominated diets. Reduncini had a mixed C3/C4 to C4-dominated diet prior to 2.4 Ma, after which this taxon shifted to a largely C4-dominated diet. Aepycerotini generally showed a mixed C3/C4 diet, with a period of increased C4 diet from 2.5 to 2.3 Ma. Tragelaphini showed a range of mixed C3/C4 diets, with a median value that was briefly nearer the C4 end member from 2.9 to 2.4 Ma but was otherwise towards the C3 end member. These isotopic results, combined with relative abundance data for these bovids, imply that the environment of the Lower Omo Valley consisted of a mosaic of closed woodlands, with riverine forests and open grasslands. However, our data also signify that the overall environment gradually became more open, and that C4 grasses became more dominant. Finally, these results help document the range and extent of environments and potential diets

  16. Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

    2013-05-01

    Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

  17. MGA: A gamma-ray spectrum analysis code for determining plutonium isotopic abundances. Volume 3, FORTRAN listing of the GA code

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, R

    1991-09-01

    Nondestructive measurements of x-ray and gamma-ray emissions can be used to determine the abundances of various actinides in a sample. Volume 1 of this report describes the methods and algorithms we have developed to determine the relative isotopic abundances of actinides in a sample, by analyzing gamma-ray spectra obtained using germanium detector systems. Volume 2 is a guide to using the MGA (Multiple Group Analysis) computer program we have written to perform plutonium isotopic analyses. This report contains a listing of the FORTRAN instructions of the code.

  18. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-resolution, Integrated-light Spectroscopy. II. Expanding the Metallicity Range for Old Clusters and Updated Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We present abundances of globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way and Fornax from integrated-light (IL) spectra. Our goal is to evaluate the consistency of the IL analysis relative to standard abundance analysis for individual stars in those same clusters. This sample includes an updated analysis of seven clusters from our previous publications and results for five new clusters that expand the metallicity range over which our technique has been tested. We find that the [Fe/H] measured from IL spectra agrees to ∼0.1 dex for GCs with metallicities as high as [Fe/H] = ‑0.3, but the abundances measured for more metal-rich clusters may be underestimated. In addition we systematically evaluate the accuracy of abundance ratios, [X/Fe], for Na i, Mg i, Al i, Si i, Ca i, Ti i, Ti ii, Sc ii, V i, Cr i, Mn i, Co i, Ni i, Cu i, Y ii, Zr i, Ba ii, La ii, Nd ii, and Eu ii. The elements for which the IL analysis gives results that are most similar to analysis of individual stellar spectra are Fe i, Ca i, Si i, Ni i, and Ba ii. The elements that show the greatest differences include Mg i and Zr i. Some elements show good agreement only over a limited range in metallicity. More stellar abundance data in these clusters would enable more complete evaluation of the IL results for other important elements. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Jones, T.V.

    1995-04-01

    Short pin-fin and pin-fin arrays are frequently used in turbine blade internal cooling systems to enhance cooling and stiffen the structure. The present work has shown that a knowledge of the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution is required to predict the cooling effect of such devices accurately. The heat flow process has been numerically modeled at typical engine conditions with the detailed heat transfer distribution measured by the transient heat transfer method being used as the thermal boundary conditions. The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  20. Comparative visualization of digital mammograms on clinical 2K monitor workstations and hardcopy: a contrast detail analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbica, Pavle; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Bernathova, M.; Mallouhi, Ammar; Peer, Siegfried; Bosmans, Hilde; Faulkner, Keith

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiologist`s performance in detecting small low-contrast objects with hardcopy and softcopy reading of digital mammograms. 12 images of a contrast-detail (CD) phantom without and with 25.4 mm, 50.8 mm, and 76.2 mm additional polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) attenuation were acquired with a caesium iodid/amorphous silicon flat panel detector under standard exposure conditions. The phantom images were read by three independent observers, by conducting a four-alternative forced-choice experiment. Reading of the hardcopy was done on a mammography viewbox under standardized reading conditions. For soft copy reading, a dedicated workstation with two 2K monitors was used. CD-curves and image quality figure (IQF) values were calculated from the correct detection rates of randomly located gold disks in the phantom. The figures were compared for both reading conditions and for different PMMA layers. For all types of exposures, soft copy reading resulted in significantly better contrast-detail characteristics and IQF values, as compared to hard copy reading of laser printouts. (p< 0.01). The authors conclude that the threshold contrast characteristics of digital mammograms displayed on high-resolution monitors are sufficient to make soft copy reading of digital mammograms feasible.

  1. Considerations when quantitating protein abundance by immunoblot.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Alicia A; Veiras, Luciana C; Minas, Jacqueline N; Ralph, Donna Lee

    2015-03-15

    The development of the immunoblot to detect and characterize a protein with an antisera, even in a crude mixture, was a breakthrough with wide-ranging and unpredictable applications across physiology and medicine. Initially, this technique was viewed as a tool for qualitative, not quantitative, analyses of proteins because of the high number of variables between sample preparation and detection with antibodies. Nonetheless, as the immunoblot method was streamlined and improved, investigators pushed it to quantitate protein abundance in unpurified samples as a function of treatment, genotype, or pathology. This short review, geared at investigators, reviewers, and critical readers, presents a set of issues that are of critical importance for quantitative analysis of protein abundance: 1) Consider whether tissue samples are of equivalent integrity and assess how handling between collection and assay influences the apparent relative abundance. 2) Establish the specificity of the antiserum for the protein of interest by providing clear images, molecular weight markers, positive and negative controls, and vendor details. 3) Provide convincing evidence for linearity of the detection system by assessing signal density as a function of sample loaded. 4) Recognize that loading control proteins are rarely in the same linear range of detection as the protein of interest; consider protein staining of the gel or blot. In summary, with careful attention to sample integrity, antibody specificity, linearity of the detection system, and acceptable loading controls, investigators can implement quantitative immunoblots to convincingly assess protein abundance in their samples.

  2. In-Depth Global Analysis of Transcript Abundance Levels in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages Following Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura C.; Neill, John D.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Lager, Kelly M.; Laegreid, William W.; Kehrli, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Identifying specific cell signaling or activation pathways that associate with variation in PRRSV replication and macrophage function may lead to identification of novel gene targets for the control of PRRSV infection. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to create and survey the transcriptome of in vitro mock-infected and PRRSV strain VR-2332-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) at 0, 6, 12, 16, and 24 hours after infection. The transcriptome data indicated changes in transcript abundance occurring in PRRSV-infected PAMs over time after infection with more than 590 unique tags with significantly altered transcript abundance levels identified (P < .01). Strikingly, innate immune genes (whose transcript abundances are typically altered in response to other pathogens or insults including IL-8, CCL4, and IL-1β) showed no or very little change at any time point following infection. PMID:22331987

  3. Detailed analysis of flavor-changing decays of top quarks as a probe of new physics at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Debjyoti; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Patra, Monalisa; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup

    2016-07-01

    If the LHC should fail to observe direct signals for new physics, it may become necessary to look for new physics effects in rare events such as flavor-changing decays of the top quark, which, in the standard model, are predicted to be too small to be observed. We set up the theoretical framework in which experimentally accessible results can be expected in models of new physics, and go on to discuss two models of supersymmetry—one with conserved R -parity, and one without R -parity—to illustrate how the flavor-changing signals are predicted in these models. In the latter case, there is a distinct possibility of detecting the rare decay t →c +Z0 at the LHC. We also present a detailed set of very general formulas which can be used to make similar calculations in diverse models of new physics.

  4. A new model for the aerobic metabolism of yeast allows the detailed analysis of the metabolic regulation during glucose pulse.

    PubMed

    Kesten, Duygu; Kummer, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Hübner, Katrin

    2015-11-01

    The onset of aerobic fermentation (the so-called Crabtree effect) in yeast has long been of interest. However, the underlying mechanisms at the metabolic level are not yet fully understood. We developed a detailed kinetic model of the aerobic central metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising glycolysis, TCA cycle and major transport reactions across the mitochondrial membrane to investigate this phenomenon. It is the first one of this extent in the literature. The model is able to reproduce experimental steady state fluxes and time-course behavior after a glucose pulse. Due to the lack of parameter identifiability in the model, we analyze a model ensemble consisting of a set of differently parameterized models for robust findings. The model predicts that the cooperativity of pyruvate decarboxylase with respect to pyruvate and the capacity difference between alcohol dehydrogenase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass play a major role for the onset of the Crabtree effect.

  5. Spatio-temporal analysis of abundances of three malaria vector species in southern Benin using zero-truncated models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the ecology and spatial-temporal distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. In a previous study, we analyzed presence-absence data of An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. in an area of southern Benin with high coverage of vector control measures. Here, we further extend the work by analysing the positive values of the dataset to assess the determinants of the abundance of these three vectors and to produce predictive maps of vector abundance. Methods Positive counts of the three vectors were assessed using negative-binomial zero-truncated (NBZT) mixed-effect models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validation of the models, predictive maps of abundance of the sympatric An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. were produced. Results Cross-validation of the NBZT models showed a satisfactory predictive accuracy. Almost all changes in abundance between two surveys in the same village were well predicted by the models but abundances for An. gambiae s.s. were slightly underestimated. During the dry season, predictive maps showed that abundance greater than 1 bite per person per night were observed only for An. funestus and An. coluzzii. During the rainy season, we observed both increase and decrease in abundance of An. funestus, which are dependent on the ecological setting. Abundances of both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. increased during the rainy season but not in the same areas. Conclusions Our models helped characterize the ecological preferences of three major African malaria vectors. This works highlighted the importance to study independently the binomial and the zero-truncated count processes when evaluating vector control strategies. The study of the bio-ecology of malaria vector species in time and space is critical

  6. Aftershock mechanisms from the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake: detailed analysis using full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietbrock, A.; Hicks, S. P.; Chagas, B.; Detzel, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Since the earthquake rupture process is extremely heterogeneous, it is vital to understand how structural variations in the overriding plate and downgoing slab may control slip style along the subduction megathrust. The large-scale 3-D geometry of subduction plate boundaries is rapidly becoming well understood; however, the nature of any finer-scale structure along the plate interface remains elusive. A detailed study of earthquake source mechanisms along a megathrust region can shed light on the nature of fine-scale structures along the megathrust. The Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck central Chile in 2010 is the sixth largest earthquake ever recorded. Following the earthquake, there was an international deployment of seismic stations in the rupture area, making this one of the best datasets of an aftershock sequence following a large earthquake. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to perform a detailed study of megathrust earthquake source mechanisms. Based on a high-resolution 3-D velocity model and robust earthquake locations [Hicks et al., 2014], we calculate regional moment tensors using the ISOLA software package [Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008]. We incorporate accelerometer recordings, important for constraining solutions of large earthquakes in the overriding plate. We also validate the robustness of our solutions by assessing the consistency of mechanisms with P-wave polarities observed at both onshore and offshore seismic stations, and compare them to already published solutions. We find that accurate earthquake locations are vital for the fine-scale interpretation of focal mechanisms, particularly for offshore events. Our results show that most moment tensor solutions with thrusting mechanisms have a nodal plane dipping parallel to the subducting plate interface. Interestingly, we also find earthquakes with normal faulting mechanisms lying along to the megathrust plate interface in the south of the rupture area. This finding suggests that megathrust

  7. Identifying Type Ia Supernova Mechanisms in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies through Analysis of Iron-peak Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rachel; Xie, Justin Long; Kirby, Evan N.

    2017-01-01

    Through the fusion of nucleons to produce elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, stellar nucleosynthesis produces most of the elements in the universe. Such is the case in a supernova explosion, which creates most of the elements on the periodic table—including iron-peak elements, atomic numbers 21 through 30—through nucleosynthesis and ejects them into the interstellar medium. In this study, we determine the best theoretical supernova model appropriate for the stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Sculptor, Fornax, Ursa Minor, and Leo II by calculating the abundances of iron-peak elements in these stars. To determine iron-peak elemental abundances, we compare synthesized spectra with observed spectra from medium-resolution spectroscopy and determine the best-fitting spectrum by way of a chi-squared minimization. Through inspecting the relationship between the iron-peak element abundances and the abundance of iron itself and by comparing them to previously hypothesized supernova model theories, we discover that the near-Chandrasekhar mass “n1” model, as predicted by Seitenzahl et al., most accurately represents the trends and patterns within our data, presenting new insight into Type Ia supernovae mechanisms within the Milky Way and beyond.

  8. ANALYSIS OF TWO SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD H II REGIONS CONSIDERING THERMAL INHOMOGENEITIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DETERMINATIONS OF EXTRAGALACTIC CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Pena-Guerrero, Maria A.; Peimbert, Antonio; Peimbert, Manuel; Ruiz, Maria Teresa E-mail: antonio@astroscu.unam.mx E-mail: mtruiz@das.uchile.cl

    2012-02-20

    We present long-slit spectrophotometry considering the presence of thermal inhomogeneities (t{sup 2}) of two H II regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): NGC 456 and NGC 460. Physical conditions and chemical abundances were determined for three positions in NGC 456 and one position in NGC 460, first under the assumption of uniform temperature and then allowing for the possibility of thermal inhomogeneities. We determined t{sup 2} values based on three different methods: (1) by comparing the temperature derived using oxygen forbidden lines with the temperature derived using helium recombination lines (RLs), (2) by comparing the abundances derived from oxygen forbidden lines with those derived from oxygen RLs, and (3) by comparing the abundances derived from ultraviolet carbon forbidden lines with those derived from optical carbon RLs. The first two methods averaged t{sup 2} = 0.067 {+-} 0.013 for NGC 456 and t{sup 2} = 0.036 {+-} 0.027 for NGC 460. These values of t{sup 2} imply that when gaseous abundances are determined with collisionally excited lines they are underestimated by a factor of nearly two. From these objects and others in the literature, we find that in order to account for thermal inhomogeneities and dust depletion, the O/H ratio in low-metallicity H II regions should be corrected by 0.25-0.45 dex depending on the thermal structure of the nebula or by 0.35 dex if such information is not available.

  9. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of

  10. Detailed analysis of the δ-crystallin mRNA-expressing region in early development of the chick pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makiko; Shiina, Tomoya; Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakata, Ichiro; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Sakai, Takafumi

    2012-06-01

    Although δ-crystallin (δ-crys), also known as lens protein, is transiently expressed in Rathke's pouch (RP) of the chick embryo, detailed temporal and spatial expression patterns have been obscure. In this study, to understand the relationship between the δ-crys mRNA-expressing region and RP formation, we examined the embryonic expression pattern of δ-crys mRNA in the primordium of the adenohypophysis. δ-crys mRNA expression was initially found at stage 15 anterior to the foregut and posterior to the invaginated oral ectoderm. After RP formation, the δ-crys mRNA was expressed in the post-ventral region of RP and the anterior region of RP. δ-crys mRNA expression was then restricted to the cephalic lobe of the pituitary gland. From stage 20, the δ-crys and alpha-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) mRNA-expressing regions were almost completely overlapping. The αGSU mRNA-expressing region is thought to be the primordium of the pars tuberalis, and these regions were overlapped with the Lhx3 mRNA-expressing region. The intensity of δ-crys mRNA expression gradually decreased with development and completely disappeared by stage 34. These results suggest that the embryonic chick pituitary gland consists of two different regions labeled with δ-crys and Lhx3.

  11. Details of Side Load Test Data and Analysis for a Truncated Ideal Contour Nozzle and a Parabolic Contour Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Brown, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Two cold flow subscale nozzles were tested for side load characteristics during simulated nozzle start transients. The two test article contours were a truncated ideal and a parabolic. The current paper is an extension of a 2009 AIAA JPC paper on the test results for the same two nozzle test articles. The side load moments were measured with the strain tube approach in MSFC s Nozzle Test Facility. The processing techniques implemented to convert the strain gage signals into side load moment data are explained. Nozzle wall pressure profiles for separated nozzle flow at many NPRs are presented and discussed in detail. The effect of the test cell diffuser inlet on the parabolic nozzle s wall pressure profiles for separated flow is shown. The maximum measured side load moments for the two contours are compared. The truncated ideal contour s peak side load moment was 45% of that of the parabolic contour. The calculated side load moments, via mean-plus-three-standard-deviations at each nozzle pressure ratio, reproduced the characteristics and absolute values of measured maximums for both contours. The effect of facility vibration on the measured side load moments is quantified and the effect on uncertainty is calculated. The nozzle contour designs are discussed and the impact of a minor fabrication flaw in the nozzle contours is explained.

  12. Mobile Phones in a Traffic Flow: A Geographical Perspective to Evening Rush Hour Traffic Analysis Using Call Detail Records

    PubMed Central

    Järv, Olle; Ahas, Rein; Saluveer, Erki; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Excessive land use and suburbanisation around densely populated urban areas has gone hand in hand with a growth in overall transportation and discussions about causality of traffic congestions. The objective of this paper is to gain new insight regarding the composition of traffic flows, and to reveal how and to what extent suburbanites’ travelling affects rush hour traffic. We put forward an alternative methodological approach using call detail records of mobile phones to assess the composition of traffic flows during the evening rush hour in Tallinn, Estonia. We found that daily commuting and suburbanites influence transportation demand by amplifying the evening rush hour traffic, although daily commuting trips comprises only 31% of all movement at that time. The geography of the Friday evening rush hour is distinctive from other working days, presumably in connection with domestic tourism and leisure time activities. This suggests that the rise of the overall mobility of individuals due to societal changes may play a greater role in evening rush hour traffic conditions than does the impact of suburbanisation. PMID:23155461

  13. A User’s Manual for a Detailed Level Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Computer Code. Volume I. The CRKGRO Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    properties. 23 INPUT DATA CARD NO. 2b Description: Material description Format and Example: Column 1 60 70 80 MATID(l) through MATID(7) BISLP 2219 -T851...option. Crack growth rate constants used in the analysis were the bi-slope constants. The following data were used in the analysis. Material: 2219 ...is a 2219 -T851 aluminum center-crack-tension (CCT) specimen. It is a standard ASTM specimen used for da/dN testing. The initial half crack length was

  14. An Introductory Classroom Exercise on Protein Molecular Model Visualization and Detailed Analysis of Protein-Ligand Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poeylaut-Palena, Andres, A.; de los Angeles Laborde, Maria

    2013-01-01

    A learning module for molecular level analysis of protein structure and ligand/drug interaction through the visualization of X-ray diffraction is presented. Using DeepView as molecular model visualization software, students learn about the general concepts of protein structure. This Biochemistry classroom exercise is designed to be carried out by…

  15. Using a detailed uncertainty analysis to adjust mapped rates of forest disturbance derived from Landsat time series data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Stehman, S.; Huang, C.; Healey, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest ecosystem process models require spatially and temporally detailed disturbance data to accurately predict fluxes of carbon or changes in biodiversity over time. A variety of new mapping algorithms using dense Landsat time series show great promise for providing disturbance characterizations at an annual time step. These algorithms provide unprecedented detail with respect to timing, magnitude, and duration of individual disturbance events, and causal agent. But all maps have error and disturbance maps in particular can have significant omission error because many disturbances are relatively subtle. Because disturbance, although ubiquitous, can be a relatively rare event spatially in any given year, omission errors can have a great impact on mapped rates. Using a high quality reference disturbance dataset, it is possible to not only characterize map errors but also to adjust mapped disturbance rates to provide unbiased rate estimates with confidence intervals. We present results from a national-level disturbance mapping project (the North American Forest Dynamics project) based on the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) with annual Landsat time series and uncertainty analyses that consist of three basic components: response design, statistical design, and analyses. The response design describes the reference data collection, in terms of the tool used (TimeSync), a formal description of interpretations, and the approach for data collection. The statistical design defines the selection of plot samples to be interpreted, whether stratification is used, and the sample size. Analyses involve derivation of standard agreement matrices between the map and the reference data, and use of inclusion probabilities and post-stratification to adjust mapped disturbance rates. Because for NAFD we use annual time series, both mapped and adjusted rates are provided at an annual time step from ~1985-present. Preliminary evaluations indicate that VCT captures most of the higher

  16. Detailed analysis of the effects of stencil spatial variations with arbitrary high-order finite-difference Maxwell solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenti, H.; Vay, J.-L.

    2016-03-01

    Very high order or pseudo-spectral Maxwell solvers are the method of choice to reduce discretization effects (e.g. numerical dispersion) that are inherent to low order Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) schemes. However, due to their large stencils, these solvers are often subject to truncation errors in many electromagnetic simulations. These truncation errors come from non-physical modifications of Maxwell's equations in space that may generate spurious signals affecting the overall accuracy of the simulation results. Such modifications for instance occur when Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) are used at simulation domain boundaries to simulate open media. Another example is the use of arbitrary order Maxwell solver with domain decomposition technique that may under some condition involve stencil truncations at subdomain boundaries, resulting in small spurious errors that do eventually build up. In each case, a careful evaluation of the characteristics and magnitude of the errors resulting from these approximations, and their impact at any frequency and angle, requires detailed analytical and numerical studies. To this end, we present a general analytical approach that enables the evaluation of numerical errors of fully three-dimensional arbitrary order finite-difference Maxwell solver, with arbitrary modification of the local stencil in the simulation domain. The analytical model is validated against simulations of domain decomposition technique and PMLs, when these are used with very high-order Maxwell solver, as well as in the infinite order limit of pseudo-spectral solvers. Results confirm that the new analytical approach enables exact predictions in each case. It also confirms that the domain decomposition technique can be used with very high-order Maxwell solvers and a reasonably low number of guard cells with negligible effects on the whole accuracy of the simulation.

  17. Involvement of estrogen receptor alpha, beta and oxytocin in social discrimination: A detailed behavioral analysis with knockout female mice.

    PubMed

    Choleris, E; Ogawa, S; Kavaliers, M; Gustafsson, J-A; Korach, K S; Muglia, L J; Pfaff, D W

    2006-10-01

    Social recognition, processing, and retaining information about conspecific individuals is crucial for the development of normal social relationships. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is necessary for social recognition in male and female mice, with its effects being modulated by estrogens in females. In previous studies, mice whose genes for the estrogen receptor-alpha (alpha-ERKO) and estrogen receptor-beta (beta-ERKO) as well as OTKO were knocked out failed to habituate to a repeatedly presented conspecific and to dishabituate when the familiar mouse is replaced by a novel animal (Choleris et al. 2003, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 6192-6197). However, a binary social discrimination assay, where animals are given a simultaneous choice between a familiar and a previously unknown individual, offers a more direct test of social recognition. Here, we used alpha-ERKO, beta-ERKO, and OTKO female mice in the binary social discrimination paradigm. Differently from their wild-type controls, when given a choice, the KO mice showed either reduced (beta-ERKO) or completely impaired (OTKO and alpha-ERKO) social discrimination. Detailed behavioral analyses indicate that all of the KO mice have reduced anxiety-related stretched approaches to the social stimulus with no overall impairment in horizontal and vertical activity, non-social investigation, and various other behaviors such as, self-grooming, digging, and inactivity. Therefore, the OT, ER-alpha, and ER-beta genes are necessary, to different degrees, for social discrimination and, thus, for the modulation of social behavior (e.g. aggression, affiliation).

  18. ABUNDANCES OF GALACTIC ANTICENTER PLANETARY NEBULAE AND THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE GRADIENT IN THE GALACTIC DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R. B. C.; Morrison, Michael A.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Jaskot, Anne E.; Balick, Bruce; Milingo, Jacquelynne B. E-mail: morrison@nhn.ou.ed E-mail: ajaskot@umich.ed E-mail: jmilingo@gettysburg.ed

    2010-11-20

    We have obtained spectrophotometric observations of 41 anticenter planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the disk of the Milky Way. Electron temperatures and densities, as well as chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar were determined. Incorporating these results into our existing database of PN abundances yielded a sample of 124 well-observed objects with homogeneously determined abundances extending from 0.9 to 21 kpc in galactocentric distance. We performed a detailed regression analysis which accounted for uncertainties in both oxygen abundances and radial distances in order to establish the metallicity gradient across the disk to be 12 + log(O/H) = (9.09 {+-} 0.05) - (0.058 {+-} 0.006) x R{sub g} , with R{sub g} in kpc. While we see some evidence that the gradient steepens at large galactocentric distances, more objects toward the anticenter need to be observed in order to confidently establish the true form of the metallicity gradient. We find no compelling evidence that the gradient differs between Peimbert Types I and II, nor is oxygen abundance related to the vertical distance from the galactic plane. Our gradient agrees well with analogous results for H II regions but is steeper than the one recently published by Stanghellini and Haywood over a similar range in galactocentric distance. A second analysis using PN distances from a different source implied a flatter gradient, and we suggest that we have reached a confusion limit which can only be resolved with greatly improved distance measurements and an understanding of the natural scatter in oxygen abundances.

  19. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  20. Elemental Abundances of Solar Sibling Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, I.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Roederer, I. U.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  1. Understanding human factors in rail engineering: re-analysis of detailed, qualitative data on functions and risks.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Brendan; Wilsona, John R; Schock, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on the review and re-analysis of information that has been collected in earlier field studies on the functions and associated risks in rail engineering and maintenance. Two methods of Cognitive Work Analysis have been adapted and used to identify and represent important components of the rail engineering system and the situations in which activities occur. Additional classification exercises have been used to determine issues of strategic importance to the organisation, related to the functions and human factors risks in performing these functions. The effectiveness of the methods in this industrial context has been evaluated. Conclusions are drawn on how this type of approach can be used to produce relevant findings on the following: What the organisation knows about roles, functions and descriptions of tasks that are relevant for engineering and maintenance work; (2) the HF risks for today's (and unless things change), tomorrow's railway; (3) how this knowledge can help in determining organisational priorities for future work.

  2. Detailed analysis of a RCRA landfill for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this detailed analysis is to provide a preliminary compilation of data, information, and estimated costs associated with a RCRA landfill alternative for UNC Disposal Site. This is in response to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) comment No. 6 from their review of a {open_quotes}Feasibility Study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.{close_quotes}

  3. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  4. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, linoleic acid, udder health, and vaccelenic acid. Only 5 fatty acids showed small correlations with these groups. Factor analysis suggested the existence of differences in the metabolic pathways for de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids and Δ(9)-desaturase products. An ANOVA of factor scores highlighted significant effects of the dairy farming system (traditional or modern), season, herd/date, parity, and days in milk. Factor behavior across levels of fixed factors was consistent with current knowledge. For example, compared with cows farmed in modern herds, those in traditional herds had higher scores for branched fatty acids, which were inversely associated with milk yield; primiparous cows had lower scores than older cows for de novo fatty acids, probably due to a larger contribution of lipids mobilized from body depots on milk fat yield. The statistical approach allowed us to reduce a large number of variables to a few latent factors with biological

  5. Quantifying mineral abundances of complex mixtures by coupling spectral deconvolution of SWIR spectra (2.1-2.4 μm) and regression tree analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulder, V.L.; Plotze, Michael; de Bruin, Sytze; Schaepman, Michael E.; Mavris, C.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Egli, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing mineral abundances of mixtures having more than two constituents using absorption features in the 2.1-2.4 μm wavelength region. In the first step, the absorption behaviour of mineral mixtures is parameterised by exponential Gaussian optimisation. Next, mineral abundances are predicted by regression tree analysis using these parameters as inputs. The approach is demonstrated on a range of prepared samples with known abundances of kaolinite, dioctahedral mica, smectite, calcite and quartz and on a set of field samples from Morocco. The latter contained varying quantities of other minerals, some of which did not have diagnostic absorption features in the 2.1-2.4 μm region. Cross validation showed that the prepared samples of kaolinite, dioctahedral mica, smectite and calcite were predicted with a root mean square error (RMSE) less than 9 wt.%. For the field samples, the RMSE was less than 8 wt.% for calcite, dioctahedral mica and kaolinite abundances. Smectite could not be well predicted, which was attributed to spectral variation of the cations within the dioctahedral layered smectites. Substitution of part of the quartz by chlorite at the prediction phase hardly affected the accuracy of the predicted mineral content; this suggests that the method is robust in handling the omission of minerals during the training phase. The degree of expression of absorption components was different between the field sample and the laboratory mixtures. This demonstrates that the method should be calibrated and trained on local samples. Our method allows the simultaneous quantification of more than two minerals within a complex mixture and thereby enhances the perspectives of spectral analysis for mineral abundances.

  6. A detailed postprocess analysis of an argon gas puff Z-pinch plasma using SPEC2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. K.; Kammash, T.; Davis, J.

    1997-05-01

    A postprocess analysis of a single time frame hydrodynamic profile from the PRISM two-dimensional MHD simulation of an argon gas puff Z-pinch plasma experiment on Double-Eagle generator at Physics Internationals, Co. is presented. In addition, spatially resolved emission spectra and filtered (K- and L-shell radiation) x-ray pinhole images, generated using the SPEC2D code, are examined toward the understanding of the emission characteristics of the hot spots and the formation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the plasma.

  7. Putative WRKYs associated with regulation of fruit ripening revealed by detailed expression analysis of the WRKY gene family in pepper

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; JalalAhammed, Golam; Yu, Jiahong; Yao, Zhuping; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Li, Zhimiao; Wang, Rongqing; Feng, Kun; Zhou, Guozhi; Yang, Yuejian; Diao, Weiping; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here, global expression patterns of pepper CaWRKYs in various tissues as well as response to environmental stresses and plant hormones were systematically analyzed, with an emphasis on fruit ripening. The results showed that most CaWRKYs were expressed in at least two of the tissues tested. Group I, a subfamily of the entire CaWRKY gene family, had a higher expression level in vegetative tissues, whereas groups IIa and III showed relatively lower expression levels. Comparative analysis showed that the constitutively highly expressed WRKY genes were conserved in tomato and pepper, suggesting potential functional similarities. Among the identified 61 CaWRKYs, almost 60% were expressed during pepper fruit maturation, and the group I genes were in higher proportion during the ripening process, indicating an as-yet unknown function of group I in the fruit maturation process. Further analysis suggested that many CaWRKYs expressed during fruit ripening were also regulated by abiotic stresses or plant hormones, indicating that these CaWRKYs play roles in the stress-related signaling pathways during fruit ripening. This study provides new insights to the current research on CaWRKY and contributes to our knowledge about the global regulatory network in pepper fruit ripening. PMID:27991526

  8. Analyzing PACS Usage Patterns by Means of Process Mining: Steps Toward a More Detailed Workflow Analysis in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, statistical analysis and techniques from process mining are employed to analyze interaction patterns originating from radiologists reading medical images in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Event logs from 1 week of data, corresponding to 567 cases of single-view chest radiographs read by 14 radiologists, were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that the numbers of commands and command types used by the radiologists per case only have a slightly positive correlation with the time to read a case (0.31 and 0.55, respectively). Further, one way ANOVA showed that the factors time of day, radiologist and specialty were significant for the number of commands per case, whereas radiologist was also significant for the number of command types, but with no significance of any of the factors on time to read. Applying process mining to the event logs of all users showed that a seemingly "simple" examination (single-view chest radiographs) can be associated with a highly complex interaction process. However, repeating the process discovery on each individual radiologist revealed that the initially discovered complex interaction process consists of one group of radiologists with individually well-structured interaction processes and a second smaller group of users with progressively more complex usage patterns. Future research will focus on metrics to describe derived interaction processes in order to investigate if one set of interaction patterns can be considered as more efficient than another set when reading radiological images in a PACS.

  9. A Detailed Analysis of Visible Defects Formed in Commercial Silicon Thin-Film Modules During Outdoor Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Andreas; Johnston, Steve; Olivera-Pimentel, Guillermo; Siegloch, Max; Pieters, Bart; Rau, Uwe

    2016-11-21

    We analyzed defects in silicon thin-film tandem (a-Si:H/..mu..c-Si:H) modules from an outdoor installation in India. The inspection of several affected modules reveals that most of the defects -- which optically appear as bright spots -- were formed primarily nearby the separation and series connection laser lines. Cross-sectional SEM analysis reveals that the bright spots emerge due to electrical isolation, caused by a delamination of the cell from the front TCO in the affected area. In addition, the morphology of the a-Si:H top cell differs in the delaminated area compared to the surrounding unaffected area. We propose that these effects are potentially caused by an explosive and thermally triggered liberation of hydrogen from the a-Si:H layer. Electrical and thermal measurements reveal that these defects can impact the cell performance significantly.

  10. PSIDD (2): A Prototype Post-Scan Interactive Data Display System for Detailed Analysis of Ultrasonic Scans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Wei; Roth, Don J.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the description of PSIDD(2), a post-scan interactive data display system for ultrasonic contact scan and single measurement analysis. PSIDD(2) was developed in conjunction with ASTM standards for ultrasonic velocity and attenuation coefficient contact measurements. This system has been upgraded from its original version PSIDD(1) and improvements are described in this article. PSIDD(2) implements a comparison mode where the display of time domain waveforms and ultrasonic properties versus frequency can be shown for up to five scan points on one plot. This allows the rapid contrasting of sample areas exhibiting different ultrasonic properties as initially indicated by the ultrasonic contact scan image. This improvement plus additional features to be described in the article greatly facilitate material microstructural appraisal.

  11. [Detailed analysis of multi-leaf collimator movement during radiation delivery using an in-house-developed program].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yumiko; Hayashi, Naoki; Kato, Hideki; Ehara, Isao; Yada, Ryuichi; Matsunaga, Takuma; Muraki, Yuta

    2013-10-01

    Multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) are used to modulate intensity during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Evaluation of MLC movement in IMRT is important, since the accuracy of MLC movements affects the dose distribution. This evaluation is conventionally performed using an attached Dynalog File Viewer (DFV). However, due to its being an overall evaluation, it is not possible to discover significant errors. In this study, we developed software that permits easy analysis of MLC movements that can be used to retrospectively evaluate MLC movement during irradiation. We also evaluated the usefulness of our in-house program and confirmed its potential for use in clinical scenarios. We created a program that can read MLC logfiles using Visual Basic 6.0 and visualize the temporal changes and movements of the MLC. To evaluate our in-house program's efficacy in analyzing dynamic MLC-QA (quality assurance), we compared the numerical results yielded by our in-house program and the DFV. The results showed that our in-house program was able to reveal errors below the error root mean square (RMS) values obtained using the DFV. Using irregular surface compensator (ISC) irradiation conditions in a clinical context, we compared our in-house program with the DFV and, using RMS analysis, identified cases that showed excessive error. Our in-house program can also be used to investigate whether unacceptable errors are present, as well as their cause, when using the MLC, as it allows easy real-time observation and evaluation of MLC movements. An additional benefit is that collecting the MLC logfile during actual treatment also allows it to be evaluated retrospectively after continuous MLC operation.

  12. Detailed analysis of isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine in surface soil around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Honda, Maki

    2013-04-01

    In March 2011, there was an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and a lot of radionuclides were discharged into the environment, resulting from a powerful earthquake and tsunami. Considering the impact on human health, the radiation dosimetry is the most important for Iodine-131 among radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the release of radionuclides. However, Iodine-131 cannot be detected after several months owing to its short half-life (8 days). Cesium-137 was also leaked out from the FDNPP and this can be detected now. But this did not identically act with Iodine-131 and be suitable for the reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution at the initial stage. Since Iodine-129 (half-life: 1.57E7 yrs) can be detected in the future and it act chemically identically with Iodine-131, the reconstruction by Iodine-129 analysis is important. For this reconstruction, it is necessary to know the isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine (129I/131I) released from the FDNPP. In this study, the Iodine-129 concentration was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in several surface soil samples collected around the FDNPP for which the Iodine-131level had already been determined. Soil samples were put into a U8 standard vessel after being roughly homogenized and dried. Then, samples were homogenized again more completely and several grams were taken for Iodine-129 measurement. Each sample was combusted in a quartz tube and outgas was trapped in alkali solution. An aliquot was taken from the trap solution for the determination of the Iodine-127 concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The iodine carrier was added to the trap solution, from which the iodine fraction was purified by solvent extraction and back extraction. Finally, silver iodide precipitation was obtained by adding silver nitrate solution. After dried, the precipitation was mixed with niobium powder and pressed into a cathode for the target

  13. The Peptidoglycan Pattern of Staphylococcus carnosus TM300—Detailed Analysis and Variations Due to Genetic and Metabolic Influences

    PubMed Central

    Deibert, Julia; Kühner, Daniel; Stahl, Mark; Koeksoy, Elif; Bertsche, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus (S. carnosus) TM300 is an apathogenic staphylococcal species commonly used in meat starter cultures. As with all Gram-positive bacteria, its cytoplasmic membrane is surrounded by a thick peptidoglycan (PGN) or murein sacculus consisting of several layers of glycan strands cross-linked by peptides. In contrast to pathogenic staphylococci, mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the chemical composition of S. carnosus PGN is not well studied so far. UPLC/MS analysis of enzymatically digested S. carnosus TM300 PGN revealed substantial differences in its composition compared to the known pattern of S. aureus. While in S. aureus the uncross-linked stem peptide consists of a pentapeptide, in S. carnosus, this part of the PGN is shortened to tripeptides. Furthermore, we found the PGN composition to vary when cells were incubated under certain conditions. The collective overproduction of HlyD, FtsE and FtsX—a putative protein complex interacting with penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2)—caused the reappearance of classical penta stem peptides. In addition, under high sugar conditions, tetra stem peptides occur due to overflow metabolism. This indicates that S. carnosus TM300 cells adapt to various conditions by modification of their PGN. PMID:27669322

  14. A new computer program for detailed off-line analysis of swimming navigation in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Wolfer, D P; Lipp, H P

    1992-01-01

    The program TRACK-ANALYZER runs on AT-compatible microcomputers and performs off-line analysis of data recorded from Morris water-maze experiments by means of a video tracking system or digitizing tablet. Raw data must be available on disk as ASCII-files listing position coordinates sampled at a constant frequency. Automatic recognition and correction of artifacts and missing data is a key feature of the program, as well as the option to combine commands to user-defined macros. TRACK-ANALYZER offers maximal flexibility regarding experimental schedule, maze geometry and recording parameters and may also be used to analyze open-field activity. In addition to calculating basic parameters of the swim path, such as path length and time, the program counts crossings and hits of goal platform and four virtual reference annuli, calculates search times in five different maze fields, determines directionality, tortuosity and turning preferences of swimming behavior and allows the viewing of any number of trials simultaneously on screen. ASCII-formated data output may easily be exported to commercial statistics and graphics software.

  15. A Detailed Analysis of the Physical Conditions in the Infrared Dark Clouds in the Region IGGC 16/23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Tolls, Volker

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about why the star formation rate is low in the Galactic Center and Galactic Bar region of the Milky Way. Clump 2 is located at a distance of ~400 pc from the Galactic Center in the Galactic Bar region near the edge of the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). Molecular clouds in this region are too distant to be influenced by the central black hole. However, despite of its location, Clump 2 is comprised of molecular clouds that show the same low star formation rate as those in the Galactic Center. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE and APEX dust continuum emission data, our measurements indicate that cores in the IGGC 16/23 region have dust masses and densities comparable to those of more typical star-forming molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. In addition, we analyzed Herschel HIFI high-J 12CO emission line observations supplemented by MOPRA molecular line observations. We find that the IGGC 16/23 region is composed of many smaller cores with different systemic velocities in the same line of sight advocating that additional analysis should be done to provide better constraints on the core sizes and masses to confirm that the core masses are below their virial masses and, thus, are not collapsing.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  16. Wide-field lensing mass maps from Dark Energy Survey science verification data: Methodology and detailed analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Vikram, V.

    2015-07-29

    Weak gravitational lensing allows one to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the projected mass density across the sky. These “mass maps” provide a powerful tool for studying cosmology as they probe both luminous and dark matter. In this paper, we present a weak lensing mass map reconstructed from shear measurements in a 139 deg2 area from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data. We compare the distribution of mass with that of the foreground distribution of galaxies and clusters. The overdensities in the reconstructed map correlate well with the distribution of optically detected clusters. We demonstrate that candidate superclustersmore » and voids along the line of sight can be identified, exploiting the tight scatter of the cluster photometric redshifts. We cross-correlate the mass map with a foreground magnitude-limited galaxy sample from the same data. Our measurement gives results consistent with mock catalogs from N-body simulations that include the primary sources of statistical uncertainties in the galaxy, lensing, and photo-z catalogs. The statistical significance of the cross-correlation is at the 6.8σ level with 20 arcminute smoothing. We find that the contribution of systematics to the lensing mass maps is generally within measurement uncertainties. In this study, we analyze less than 3% of the final area that will be mapped by the DES; the tools and analysis techniques developed in this paper can be applied to forthcoming larger data sets from the survey.« less

  17. Wide-field lensing mass maps from Dark Energy Survey science verification data: Methodology and detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, V.

    2015-07-29

    Weak gravitational lensing allows one to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the projected mass density across the sky. These “mass maps” provide a powerful tool for studying cosmology as they probe both luminous and dark matter. In this paper, we present a weak lensing mass map reconstructed from shear measurements in a 139 deg2 area from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data. We compare the distribution of mass with that of the foreground distribution of galaxies and clusters. The overdensities in the reconstructed map correlate well with the distribution of optically detected clusters. We demonstrate that candidate superclusters and voids along the line of sight can be identified, exploiting the tight scatter of the cluster photometric redshifts. We cross-correlate the mass map with a foreground magnitude-limited galaxy sample from the same data. Our measurement gives results consistent with mock catalogs from N-body simulations that include the primary sources of statistical uncertainties in the galaxy, lensing, and photo-z catalogs. The statistical significance of the cross-correlation is at the 6.8σ level with 20 arcminute smoothing. We find that the contribution of systematics to the lensing mass maps is generally within measurement uncertainties. In this study, we analyze less than 3% of the final area that will be mapped by the DES; the tools and analysis techniques developed in this paper can be applied to forthcoming larger data sets from the survey.

  18. Wide-field lensing mass maps from Dark Energy Survey science verification data: Methodology and detailed analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikram, V.; Chang, C.; Jain, B.; Bacon, D.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S.; Brout, D.; Busha, M.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hartley, W.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Kovács, A.; Lahav, O.; Leistedt, B.; Lin, H.; Melchior, P.; Peiris, H.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J.; Martini, P.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.

    2015-07-01

    Weak gravitational lensing allows one to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the projected mass density across the sky. These "mass maps" provide a powerful tool for studying cosmology as they probe both luminous and dark matter. In this paper, we present a weak lensing mass map reconstructed from shear measurements in a 139 deg2 area from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data. We compare the distribution of mass with that of the foreground distribution of galaxies and clusters. The overdensities in the reconstructed map correlate well with the distribution of optically detected clusters. We demonstrate that candidate superclusters and voids along the line of sight can be identified, exploiting the tight scatter of the cluster photometric redshifts. We cross-correlate the mass map with a foreground magnitude-limited galaxy sample from the same data. Our measurement gives results consistent with mock catalogs from N -body simulations that include the primary sources of statistical uncertainties in the galaxy, lensing, and photo-z catalogs. The statistical significance of the cross-correlation is at the 6.8 σ level with 20 arcminute smoothing. We find that the contribution of systematics to the lensing mass maps is generally within measurement uncertainties. In this work, we analyze less than 3% of the final area that will be mapped by the DES; the tools and analysis techniques developed in this paper can be applied to forthcoming larger data sets from the survey.

  19. A detailed numerical analysis of asymmetrical density distribution in Saturn's F ring during an encounter with Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's rings, reminiscent of an early Solar system present a unique opportunity to investigate experimentally some mechanisms thought to be responsible for planet and planetesimal formation in protoplanetary discs. Here, we extended the comparison of our numerical models of Prometheus encountering the F ring employing non-interacting and interacting particles. Higher resolution analysis revealed that the density increases known to exist at channel edges is more complex and localized than previously thought. Asymmetry between density increases on channel edges revealed that the channel edge facing way from Prometheus to be the most stable but with lowest maximum increases. However, on the channel edge facing Prometheus the interacting model showed large chaotic fluctuations in the maximum density of some clumps, much larger than those of the other channel. The likely cause of this asymmetry is a variance in localized turbulence introduced into the F ring by Prometheus. High-resolution velocity dispersion maps showed that there was a spatial link between the highest densities and the highest velocity dispersions in the interacting model. Thus, suggesting that the high velocity dispersion we see is the reason for the observed inhomogeneous distribution of fans (evidence of embedded moonlets) on some of the channel edges facing Prometheus.

  20. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose D; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Post, Wendy S; Polak, Joseph F; Budoff, Matthew J; Bluemke, David A

    2016-06-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included.

  1. On the air cleansing efficiency of an extended green wall: a CFD analysis of mechanistic details of transport processes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Saumitra V; Ghosh, Sat

    2014-11-21

    The detrimental impact of rising air pollution levels in urban landscapes has become conspicuous over the last decade, particularly in developing countries. This novel numerical study quantifies the cleansing efficiency of green façades draped with a copiously growing tropical creeper Vernonia elaeagnifolia. Turbulent transport of SO2 to the leaf boundary layer and subsequent diffusion across stomatal pores into the mesophyllic cells is modeled at the micro level, including its ionic dissociation in the leaf׳s interior. A SEM analysis indicates stomatal dimensions and density. Whilst previous studies have used either spatially averaged equations or resistance models, a spatially discretized computational approach is adopted in this study. The resulting concentration distribution is used to calculate the deposition velocity on stomatal pores, which is then extrapolated over the entire façade to yield bulk pollutant removal rates. A deposition velocity of 1.53mms(-1) and 0.72mms(-1) is obtained for open and closed pores respectively, with removal rates equal to 1.11×10(-6)s(-1) and 1.05×10(-6)s(-1) for dry and humid weather respectively. Sensitivity studies on the removal rate are carried out based on humidity, stomatal aperture and leaf temperature. The removal rate dependence on the Leaf Area Index (LAI) is also investigated. It is inferred from simulations that vegetated façades are efficient at mitigation of residual pollution.

  2. Integrated analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data of Desulfovibrio vulgaris: Zero-Inflated Poisson regression models to predict abundance of undetected proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Lei; Wu, Gang; Brockman, Fred J.; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-05-04

    Abstract Advances in DNA microarray and proteomics technologies have enabled high-throughput measurement of mRNA expression and protein abundance. Parallel profiling of mRNA and protein on a global scale and integrative analysis of these two data types could provide additional insight into the metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. However, because protein abundance and mRNA expression are affected by many cellular and physical processes, there have been conflicting results on the correlation of these two measurements. In addition, as current proteomic methods can detect only a small fraction of proteins present in cells, no correlation study of these two data types has been done thus far at the whole-genome level. In this study, we describe a novel data-driven statistical model to integrate whole-genome microarray and proteomic data collected from Desulfovibrio vulgaris grown under three different conditions. Based on the Poisson distribution pattern of proteomic data and the fact that a large number of proteins were undetected (excess zeros), Zero-inflated Poisson models were used to define the correlation pattern of mRNA and protein abundance. The models assumed that there is a probability mass at zero representing some of the undetected proteins because of technical limitations. The models thus use abundance measurements of transcripts and proteins experimentally detected as input to generate predictions of protein abundances as output for all genes in the genome. We demonstrated the statistical models by comparatively analyzing D. vulgaris grown on lactate-based versus formate-based media. The increased expressions of Ech hydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh)-periplasmic Fe-only hydrogenase (Hyd) pathway for ATP synthesis were predicted for D. vulgaris grown on formate.

  3. Structure and mutational analysis of the PhoN protein of Salmonella typhimurium provide insight into mechanistic details.

    PubMed

    Makde, Ravindra D; Mahajan, Suresh K; Kumar, Vinay

    2007-02-27

    The Salmonella typhimurium PhoN protein is a nonspecific acid phosphatase and belongs to the phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 (PAP2) superfamily. We report here the crystal structures of phosphate-bound PhoN, the PhoN-tungstate complex, and the T159D mutant of PhoN along with functional characterization of three mutants: L39T, T159D, and D201N. Invariant active site residues, Lys-123, Arg-130, Ser-156, Gly-157, His-158, and Arg-191, interact with phosphate and tungstate oxyanions. Ser-156 also accepts a hydrogen bond from Thr-159. The T159D mutation, surprisingly, severely diminishes phosphatase activity, apparently by disturbing the active site scaffold: Arg-191 is swung out of the active site resulting in conformational changes in His-158 and His-197 residues. Our results reveal a hitherto unknown functional role of Arg-191, namely, restricting the active conformation of catalytic His-158 and His-197 residues. Consistent with the conserved nature of Asp-201 in the PAP2 superfamily, the D201N mutation completely abolished phosphatase activity. On the basis of this observation and in silico analysis we suggest that the crucial mechanistic role of Asp-201 is to stabilize the positive charge on the phosphohistidine intermediate generated by the transfer of phosphoryl to the nucleophile, His-197, located within hydrogen bond distance to the invariant Asp-201. This is in contrast to earlier suggestions that Asp-201 stabilizes His-197 and the His197-Asp201 dyad facilitates formation of the phosphoenzyme intermediate through a charge-relay system. Finally, the L39T mutation in the conserved polyproline motif (39LPPPP43) of dimeric PhoN leads to a marginal reduction in activity, in contrast to the nearly 50-fold reduction observed for monomeric Prevotella intermedia acid phosphatase, suggesting that the varying quaternary structure of PhoN orthologues may have functional significance.

  4. The abundances of H-3 and C-14 in the solar wind. [measured by lunar soil analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; Defelice, J.; Damico, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tritium is measured as a function of depth in a Surveyor 3 sample. The upper limit for solar-wind-implanted tritium gives a H-3/H-1 limit for the solar wind of 1 part in one hundred billion. The temperature release patterns of C-14 from lunar soils are measured. The C-14 release patterns from surface soils differ from a trench-bottom soil and give evidence for the presence of C-14 in the solar wind with a C-14/H-1 ratio of approximately 4 parts in one hundred billion. The implications of these radionuclide abundances in the solar wind are discussed.

  5. Single-step analysis of low abundance phosphoamino acids via on-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2005-09-01

    New strategies for rapid, sensitive and high-throughput analysis of low abundance metabolites in biological samples are required for future metabolomic research. In this report, a direct method for sub-micromolar analyses of phosphoamino acids was developed using on-line sample preconcentration with 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC) derivatization by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and UV detection. Analyte focusing by dynamic pH junction and FMOC labeling efficiency were influenced by several experimental factors including buffer pH, ionic strength, sample injection length and FMOC concentration. About a 200-fold enhancement in concentration sensitivity was achieved under optimal conditions relative to conventional off-line derivatization, as reflected by a detection limit (S/N approximately 3) of 0.1 microM. In-capillary sample preconcentration with chemical labeling by CE offers a unique single-step analytical platform for high-throughput screening of low abundance metabolites without intrinsic chromophores.

  6. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  7. Patterns of foraminiferal and nanoplankton abundance and diversity as a tool for sequence stratigraphy analysis of the Eocene in Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelli, R.; Duran, I. )

    1993-02-01

    Detailed micropaleontological and nanoplankton studies have been integrated with wireline logs and lithology to define middle to upper Eocene sequence stratigraphy for three wells in the Andes Foothills Area. An estimate of the relative abundance of each species was made for both foraminifera and calcareous nanoplankton, standard sample preparation included processing of a uniform volume of well cuttings. Data consists of 6 faunal/floral checklists recording the occurrence of forminiferal and calcareous nanoplankton species. The faunal/floral diversity, abundance and discontinuity, together with glauconite concentration, helped to define the Sequence Boundaries and the Maximum Flooding Surfaces. These discontinuities were calibrated for age, and were compared with the ages of the Sequence Boundaries of Hag et al. (version 1992). the Lutetian-Bartonian stage (middle Eocene) sediments consists of gluaconitic marls and limestones and shales, representing a sequence of transgressive, condensed and highstand regressive deposits are assigned to Planktonic Zones P10-P14 (Blow, 1979) and Nanoplankton Zones NP 15 - NP 17 (Martini, 1971). The Priabonian stage (upper Eocene) sediments assigned Planktonic Zones P15-P17 and Nanoplankton Zones NP18-NP19, contains mainly claystones and scattered quartzose silts and sand beds, consisting of slope fan deposits and lowstand regressive deposits, underlying a regional unconformity (SB 30). The position of biostratigraphic boundaries is influenced by the paleogeographic setting and paleoenvironmental conditions.

  8. Detailed resolution analysis reveals spatial T cell heterogeneity in the invasive margin of colorectal cancer liver metastases associated with improved survival

    PubMed Central

    Berthel, Anna; Zoernig, Inka; Kahlert, Christoph; Klupp, Fee; Ulrich, Alexis; Weitz, Juergen; Jaeger, Dirk; Halama, Niels

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT On a broader scale, T cell density and localization in colorectal cancer liver metastases have prognostic and predictive implications. As T cell distribution at higher resolutions has not been fully investigated, a detailed resolution analysis of T cell distribution was performed. Patient tissues were divided into 10 µm distance classes between the tumor border and adjacent normal liver. Thereby, distinct density patterns of T cell localization in relation to the malignant tissue could be detected. At a distance of 20 to 30 µm to the tumor, a decrease of CD3 T cells is common. Within this area, cytotoxic Granzyme B and CD8+ T cells were found to be significantly reduced as well as CD163 macrophages were increased and identified to be in close contact with T cells. Our data suggests a physical or functional border within this region. Survival analysis revealed improved overall survival in patients with high T cells numbers at the direct tumor border. Interestingly, the decreased T cells in the 20 to 30 µm region were also found to be significantly associated with improved survival. Consequently, the detailed localization of T cells, despite blockade, could be associated with improved clinical outcome. The high-resolution analysis represents new insights into relevant heterogenous T cell distributions especially related to clinical responses. As the paradoxical observation of localization-dependent prognostic relevance of T cell densities is only detectable by detailed spatial analyses, this investigation of spatial profiles at higher resolutions is suggested as a new biomarker for survival and response to therapies.

  9. High-resolution abundance analysis of red giants in the metal-poor bulge globular cluster HP 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Cantelli, E.; Vemado, A.; Ernandes, H.; Ortolani, S.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Minniti, D.; Dias, B.; Momany, Y.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Siqueira-Mello, C.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The globular cluster HP 1 is projected at only 3.̊33 from the Galactic center. Together with its distance, this makes it one of the most central globular clusters in the Milky Way. It has a blue horizontal branch (BHB) and a metallicity of [Fe/H] ≈ -1.0. This means that it probably is one of the oldest objects in the Galaxy. Abundance ratios can reveal the nucleosynthesis pattern of the first stars as well as the early chemical enrichment and early formation of stellar populations. Aims: High-resolution spectra obtained for six stars were analyzed to derive the abundances of the light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al, the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, and the heavy elements Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of six red giants that are confirmed members of the bulge globular cluster HP 1 were obtained with the 8 m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. The spectroscopic parameter derivation was based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii. Results: We confirm a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.06 ± 0.10, by adding the two stars that were previously analyzed in HP 1. The alpha-elements O and Mg are enhanced by about +0.3 ≲ [O,Mg/Fe] ≲ +0.5 dex, Si is moderately enhanced with +0.15 ≲ [Si/Fe] ≲ +0.35 dex, while Ca and Ti show lower values of -0.04 ≲ [Ca,Ti/Fe] ≲ +0.28 dex. The r-element Eu is also enhanced with [Eu/Fe] ≈ +0.4, which together with O and Mg is indicative of early enrichment by type II supernovae. Na and Al are low, but it is unclear if Na-O are anticorrelated. The heavy elements are moderately enhanced, with -0.20 < [La/Fe] < +0.43 dex and 0.0 < [Ba/Fe] < +0.75 dex, which is compatible with r-process formation. The spread in Y, Zr, Ba, and La abundances, on the other hand, appears to be compatible with the spinstar scenario or other additional mechanisms such as the weak r-process. Observations collected at the European Southern

  10. Sodium abundances of AGB and RGB stars in Galactic globular clusters. I. Analysis and results of NGC 2808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Primas, F.; Charbonnel, C.; Van der Swaelmen, M.; Bono, G.; Chantereau, W.; Zhao, G.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Galactic globular clusters (GC) are known to have multiple stellar populations and be characterised by similar chemical features, e.g. O-Na anti-correlation. While second-population stars, identified by their Na overabundance, have been found from the main sequence turn-off up to the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) in various Galactic GCs, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars have rarely been targeted. The recent finding that NGC 6752 lacks an Na-rich AGB star has thus triggered new studies on AGB stars in GCs, since this result questions our basic understanding of GC formation and stellar evolution theory. Aims: We aim to compare the Na abundance distributions of AGB and RGB stars in Galactic GCs and investigate whether the presence of Na-rich stars on the AGB is metallicity-dependent. Methods: With high-resolution spectra obtained with the multi-object high-resolution spectrograph FLAMES on ESO/VLT, we derived accurate Na abundances for 31 AGB and 40 RGB stars in the Galactic GC NGC 2808. Results: We find that NGC 2808 has a mean metallicity of -1.11 ± 0.08 dex, in good agreement with earlier analyses. Comparable Na abundance dispersions are derived for our AGB and RGB samples, with the AGB stars being slightly more concentrated than the RGB stars. The ratios of Na-poor first-population to Na-rich second-population stars are 45:55 in the AGB sample and 48:52 in the RGB sample. Conclusions: NGC 2808 has Na-rich second-population AGB stars, which turn out to be even more numerous - in relative terms - than their Na-poor AGB counterparts and the Na-rich stars on the RGB. Our findings are well reproduced by the fast rotating massive stars scenario and they do not contradict the recent results that there is not an Na-rich AGB star in NGC 6752. NGC 2808 thus joins the larger group of Galactic GCs for which Na-rich second-population stars on the AGB have recently been found. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory

  11. Abundance and Temperature Dependency of Protein-Protein Interaction Revealed by Interface Structure Analysis and Stability Evolution.

    PubMed

    He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2016-05-25

    Protein complexes are major forms of protein-protein interactions and implement essential biological functions. The subunit interface in a protein complex is related to its thermostability. Though the roles of interface properties in thermal adaptation have been investigated for protein complexes, the relationship between the interface size and the expression level of the subunits remains unknown. In the present work, we studied this relationship and found a positive correlation in thermophiles rather than mesophiles. Moreover, we found that the protein interaction strength in complexes is not only temperature-dependent but also abundance-dependent. The underlying mechanism for the observed correlation was explored by simulating the evolution of protein interface stability, which highlights the avoidance of misinteraction. Our findings make more complete the picture of the mechanisms for protein complex thermal adaptation and provide new insights into the principles of protein-protein interactions.

  12. Abundance and Temperature Dependency of Protein-Protein Interaction Revealed by Interface Structure Analysis and Stability Evolution

    PubMed Central

    He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Protein complexes are major forms of protein-protein interactions and implement essential biological functions. The subunit interface in a protein complex is related to its thermostability. Though the roles of interface properties in thermal adaptation have been investigated for protein complexes, the relationship between the interface size and the expression level of the subunits remains unknown. In the present work, we studied this relationship and found a positive correlation in thermophiles rather than mesophiles. Moreover, we found that the protein interaction strength in complexes is not only temperature-dependent but also abundance-dependent. The underlying mechanism for the observed correlation was explored by simulating the evolution of protein interface stability, which highlights the avoidance of misinteraction. Our findings make more complete the picture of the mechanisms for protein complex thermal adaptation and provide new insights into the principles of protein-protein interactions. PMID:27220911

  13. Sequence-Based Analysis Uncovers an Abundance of Non-Coding RNA in the Total Transcriptome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Arnvig, Kristine B.; Comas, Iñaki; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Houghton, Joanna; Boshoff, Helena I.; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Rose, Graham; Perkins, Timothy T.; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Young, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    RNA sequencing provides a new perspective on the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by revealing an extensive presence of non-coding RNA, including long 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions, antisense transcripts, and intergenic small RNA (sRNA) molecules. More than a quarter of all sequence reads mapping outside of ribosomal RNA genes represent non-coding RNA, and the density of reads mapping to intergenic regions was more than two-fold higher than that mapping to annotated coding sequences. Selected sRNAs were found at increased abundance in stationary phase cultures and accumulated to remarkably high levels in the lungs of chronically infected mice, indicating a potential contribution to pathogenesis. The ability of tubercle bacilli to adapt to changing environments within the host is critical to their ability to cause disease and to persist during drug treatment; it is likely that novel post-transcriptional regulatory networks will play an important role in these adaptive responses. PMID:22072964

  14. The Penn State - Toruń Centre for Astronomy Planet Search stars. II. Lithium abundance analysis of the red giant clump sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamów, M.; Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.; Nowak, G.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Standard stellar evolution theory does not predict existence of Li-rich giant stars. Several mechanisms for Li-enrichment have been proposed to operate at certain locations inside some stars. The actual mechanism operating in real stars is still unknown. Aims: Using the sample of 348 stars from the Penn State - Toruń Centre for Astronomy Planet Search, for which uniformly determined atmospheric parameters are available, with chemical abundances and rotational velocities presented here, we investigate various channels of Li enrichment in giants. We also study Li-overabundant giants in more detail in search for origin of their peculiarities. Methods: Our work is based on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope spectra obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph, which we use for determination of abundances and rotational velocities. The Li abundance was determined from the 7Li λ670.8 nm line, while we use a more extended set of lines for α-elements abundances. In a series of Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, we compare Li-overabundant giants with other stars in the sample. We also use available IR photometric and kinematical data in search for evidence of mass-loss. We investigate properties of the most Li-abundant giants in more detail by using multi-epoch precise radial velocities. Results: We present Li and α-elements abundances, as well as rotational velocities for 348 stars. We detected Li in 92 stars, of which 82 are giants. Eleven of them show significant Li abundance A(Li)NLTE> 1.4 and seven of them are Li-overabundant objects, according to common criterion of A(Li) > 1.5 and their location on HR diagram, including TYC 0684-00553-1 and TYC 3105-00152-1, which are two giants with Li abundances close to meteoritic level. For another 271 stars, upper limits of Li abundance are presented. We confirmed three objects with increased stellar rotation. We show that Li-overabundant giants are among the most massive stars from our sample and show larger than average

  15. Chemical abundance analysis of 13 southern symbiotic giants from high-resolution spectra at ˜1.56 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, Cezary; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.

    2017-04-01

    Symbiotic stars (SySt) are binaries composed of a star in the later stages of evolution and a stellar remnant. The enhanced mass-loss from the giant drives interacting mass exchange and makes these systems laboratories for understanding binary evolution. Studies of the chemical compositions are particularly useful since this parameter has strong impact on the evolutionary path. The previous paper in this series presented photospheric abundances for 24 giants in S-type SySt enabling a first statistical analysis. Here, we present results for an additional sample of 13 giants. The aims are to improve statistics of chemical composition involved in the evolution of SySt, to study evolutionary status, mass transfer and to interpret this in terms of Galactic populations. High-resolution, near-IR spectra are used, employing the spectrum synthesis method in a classical approach, to obtain abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Fe, Ti, Ni). Low-resolution spectra in the region around the Ca II triplet were used for spectral classification. The metallicities obtained cover a wide range with a maximum around ∼- 0.2 dex. The enrichment in the 14N isotope indicates that these giants have experienced the first dredge-up. Relative O and Fe abundances indicate that most SySt belong to the Galactic disc; however, in a few cases, the extended thick-disc/halo is suggested. Difficult to explain, relatively high Ti abundances can indicate that adopted microturbulent velocities were too small by ∼0.2-0.3 km s-1. The revised spectral types for V2905 Sgr, and WRAY 17-89 are M3 and M6.5, respectively.

  16. Detailed Analysis of the Binding Mode of Vanilloids to Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type I (TRPV1) by a Mutational and Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Yoshikazu; Ogawa, Kazuo; Warabi, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Takatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel and a multimodal sensor protein. Since the precise structure of TRPV1 was obtained by electron cryo-microscopy, the binding mode of representative agonists such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX) has been extensively characterized; however, detailed information on the binding mode of other vanilloids remains lacking. In this study, mutational analysis of human TRPV1 was performed, and four agonists (capsaicin, RTX, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol) were used to identify amino acid residues involved in ligand binding and/or modulation of proton sensitivity. The detailed binding mode of each ligand was then simulated by computational analysis. As a result, three amino acids (L518, F591 and L670) were newly identified as being involved in ligand binding and/or modulation of proton sensitivity. In addition, in silico docking simulation and a subsequent mutational study suggested that [6]-gingerol might bind to and activate TRPV1 in a unique manner. These results provide novel insights into the binding mode of various vanilloids to the channel and will be helpful in developing a TRPV1 modulator. PMID:27606946

  17. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  18. Meta-analysis reveals that seed-applied neonicotinoids and pyrethroids have similar negative effects on abundance of arthropod natural enemies

    PubMed Central

    Tooker, John F.

    2016-01-01

    crop species, neonicotinoid active ingredients, or methodological choices. Discussion Our meta-analysis of nearly 1,000 observations from North American and European field studies revealed that seed-applied neonicotinoids reduced the abundance of arthropod natural enemies similarly to broadcast applications of pyrethroid insecticides. These findings suggest that substituting pyrethroids for seed-applied neonicotinoids, or vice versa, will have little net affect on natural enemy abundance. Consistent with previous lab work, our results also suggest that seed-applied neonicotinoids are less toxic to spiders and mites, which can contribute substantially to biological control in many agricultural systems. Finally, our ability to interpret the negative effect of neonicotinoids on natural enemies is constrained by difficulty relating natural-enemy abundance to biological control function; this is an important area for future study. PMID:27957400

  19. Method optimization for proteomic analysis of soybean leaf: Improvements in identification of new and low-abundance proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira; de Almeida Soares, Eduardo; de Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers

    2012-01-01

    The most critical step in any proteomic study is protein extraction and sample preparation. Better solubilization increases the separation and resolution of gels, allowing identification of a higher number of proteins and more accurate quantitation of differences in gene expression. Despite the existence of published results for the optimization of proteomic analyses of soybean seeds, no comparable data are available for proteomic studies of soybean leaf tissue. In this work we have tested the effects of modification of a TCA-acetone method on the resolution of 2-DE gels of leaves and roots of soybean. Better focusing was obtained when both mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol were used in the extraction buffer simultaneously. Increasing the number of washes of TCA precipitated protein with acetone, using a final wash with 80% ethanol and using sonication to ressuspend the pellet increased the number of detected proteins as well the resolution of the 2-DE gels. Using this approach we have constructed a soybean protein map. The major group of identified proteins corresponded to genes of unknown function. The second and third most abundant groups of proteins were composed of photosynthesis and metabolism related genes. The resulting protocol improved protein solubility and gel resolution allowing the identification of 122 soybean leaf proteins, 72 of which were not detected in other published soybean leaf 2-DE gel datasets, including a transcription factor and several signaling proteins. PMID:22802721

  20. Meta-analysis of quantification methods shows that archaea and bacteria have similar abundances in the subseafloor.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Karen G; May, Megan K; Kevorkian, Richard T; Steen, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    There is no universally accepted method to quantify bacteria and archaea in seawater and marine sediments, and different methods have produced conflicting results with the same samples. To identify best practices, we compiled data from 65 studies, plus our own measurements, in which bacteria and archaea were quantified with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition FISH (CARD-FISH), polyribonucleotide FISH, or quantitative PCR (qPCR). To estimate efficiency, we defined "yield" to be the sum of bacteria and archaea counted by these techniques divided by the total number of cells. In seawater, the yield was high (median, 71%) and was similar for FISH, CARD-FISH, and polyribonucleotide FISH. In sediments, only measurements by CARD-FISH in which archaeal cells were permeabilized with proteinase K showed high yields (median, 84%). Therefore, the majority of cells in both environments appear to be alive, since they contain intact ribosomes. In sediments, the sum of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene qPCR counts was not closely related to cell counts, even after accounting for variations in copy numbers per genome. However, qPCR measurements were precise relative to other qPCR measurements made on the same samples. qPCR is therefore a reliable relative quantification method. Inconsistent results for the relative abundance of bacteria versus archaea in deep subsurface sediments were resolved by the removal of CARD-FISH measurements in which lysozyme was used to permeabilize archaeal cells and qPCR measurements which used ARCH516 as an archaeal primer or TaqMan probe. Data from best-practice methods showed that archaea and bacteria decreased as the depth in seawater and marine sediments increased, although archaea decreased more slowly.

  1. Detailed structure of the Philippine Sea plate subducting along the Nankai Trough, western Japan, inferred from high-frequency seismic wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumura, T.; Padhy, S.; Maeda, T.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed structure of the subducting Philippine Sea plate (PHP) along the Nankai trough in western Japan was studied by analyzing waveforms recorded at dense Hi-net stations in Japan. It is well recognized that the waveforms from intraplate earthquakes dominate in high-frequency (f >1 Hz) signals due to the waveguide effect of the subducting slab (Furumura and Kennett, 2005; 2008). This results in distorted pattern of intensity and peak ground acceleration (PGA) above the hypocenter with a substantial elongation of isoseismic contours correlated with the configuration of the isodepth contours of the subducting PHP beneath western Japan. A detailed analysis of the dense Hi-net waveform data from the intermediate-depth PHP event shows that the high-frequency S-wave signals suddenly disappear as the waves propagate the zone away from the Kii Channel to the boundary of Hyogo and Okayama prefectures and large S-to-P conversion occurs before the arrival of S-wave. Such anomalies do not occur for shallow and deep earthquakes occurring outside the PHP. These observations support the recent debate on the complexities of the configuration of the PHP subducting beneath western Japan such as that shown by Shiomi et al. (2008) based on receiver function images and the PHP-split model beneath the Kii channel shown by Ide et al.(2010) based on the analysis of comprehensive geophysical data. In order to explain the observations associated with sudden lateral change in the PHP structure, we conducted finite difference method (FDM) simulations of seismic wave propagation taking the detailed PHP model into account. It is confirmed that high-frequency guided wave energy decouple from waveguide where the shape of the PHP is suddenly deformed, which results in dramatic attenuation of high-frequency signals associating with large S-to-P conversions developed at sharp plate boundary. The present results also support the recently proposed complicated PHP-split model, however, further

  2. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  3. Comparative study of differential flow and cryogenic modulators comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography systems for the detailed analysis of light cycle oil.

    PubMed

    Semard, G; Gouin, C; Bourdet, J; Bord, N; Livadaris, V

    2011-05-27

    The modulator is the key point of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). This interface ensures the sampling and transfer of the sample from the first to the second dimension. Many systems based on different principles have been developed. However, to our knowledge, almost only cryogenic modulators are used in the petroleum industry. Nevertheless cryogenic fluids represent some disadvantages in term of safety, cost and time consuming. This paper reports a comparative study between differential flow and cryogenic liquid modulators for the detailed analysis of hydrocarbons in middle distillates type light cycle oil (LCO). Optimization of geometrical dimensions of a set of columns was carried out on the differential flow modulator system in order to reproduce the quality of separation of cryogenic modulation. Then a comparative study was investigated on sensibility and resolution (separation space and peak capacity) between the two systems.

  4. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program: Phase 4 A(3)I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software detailed design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Constantine, Betsy; Murray, Jerry; Neukom, Christian; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell

    1991-01-01

    The Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated suite of software components that constitutes a prototype workstation to aid designers in applying human factors principles to the design of complex human-machine systems. MIDAS is intended to be used at the very early stages of conceptual design to provide an environment wherein designers can use computational representations of the crew station and operator, instead of hardware simulators and man-in-the-loop studies, to discover problems and ask 'what if' questions regarding the projected mission, equipment, and environment. This document is the Software Product Specification for MIDAS. Introductory descriptions of the processing requirements, hardware/software environment, structure, I/O, and control are given in the main body of the document for the overall MIDAS system, with detailed discussion of the individual modules included in Annexes A-J.

  5. Environmental occurrence, abundance, and potential toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners: considerations for a congener-specific analysis.

    PubMed

    McFarland, V A; Clarke, J U

    1989-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as environmental contaminants often cannot be adequately described by reference to Aroclors or to total PCBs. Although there are 209 possible PCB configurations (congeners), perhaps half that number account for nearly all of the environmental contamination attributable to PCBs. Still fewer congeners are both prevalent and either demonstrably or potentially toxic. If potential toxicity, environmental prevalence, and relative abundance in animal tissues are used as criteria, the number of environmentally threatening PCB congeners reduces to about thirty-six. Twenty-five of these account for 50 to 75% of total PCBs in tissue samples of fish, invertebrates, birds, and mammals. A few PCB congeners that are sterically similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) are directly toxic. Other PCB congeners, as well as those that are directly toxic, may also be involved in toxicity indirectly by stimulating the production of (inducing) bioactivating enzyme systems. The most consequential of these have the ability to induce aryl hydrocarbon metabolizing mixed-function oxidases (MFOs). A result can be an increased capacity for bioactivation of otherwise nontoxic foreign compounds such as certain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to cytotoxic or genotoxic metabolites. The effectiveness of specific PCB congeners as inducers of different types of cytochrome P-450-dependent MFO systems is determined by their stereochemistry. Although MFO induction is not a proximate cause, it is a strong correlate of certain kinds of toxicities. Structural patterns can thus be used to discriminate among PCB congeners on the basis of toxic potential, if not entirely on toxicity per se. Congeners that demonstrate 3-methylcholanthrene-type (3-MC-type) and mixed-type MFO induction have the greatest toxic potential. These congeners most closely resemble 2,3,7,8-TCDD in their structures and in their toxic effects. The larger group of phenobarbital

  6. Detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution of tremor, foreshock, and aftershock activities near the September 5, 2012 Nicoya Peninsula earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J. I.; Peng, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Meng, X.; Newman, A. V.; Protti, M.

    2013-05-01

    The subduction megathrust interface, at the Nicoya Peninsula, exhibits a wide range of complex fault behavior, from recently discovered slow slip and tremor, numerous microearthquakes, to infrequent megathrust (> Mw 7) earthquakes. In contrast to other subduction zones, the Nicoya tremor originates up-dip, down-dip, and within the seismogenic zone. The September 5, 2012 earthquake makes the Nicoya Peninsula uniquely poised to investigate the wide range of fault behavior and spatio-temporal evolution of seismic activity around the mainshock, as the seismogenic zone lies directly below the Peninsula. Preliminary matched-filter analysis using a template earthquake that precedes the mainshock by ~120 s indicates similar events occurring 20-40 min prior to the mainshock, as well as, immediately following the mainshock. We are expanding this analysis with a broader catalogue of template events and utilizing matched-filter codes optimized for graphics processing units (GPUs). While detailed analysis of the foreshock/aftershock sequence is ongoing, the early aftershocks cluster in a distinct region that is immediately adjacent to regions that have undergone slow slip in past events. We hope to gain better insight into the spatio-temporal transitions from stable sliding to stick-slip motion, and underlying physics of earthquake nucleation and interaction.

  7. Comparative 16S rRNA Analysis of Lake Bacterioplankton Reveals Globally Distributed Phylogenetic Clusters Including an Abundant Group of Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Zaichikov, Evgeny; Belkova, Natalia; Denissova, Ludmilla; Pernthaler, Jakob; Pernthaler, Annelie; Amann, Rudolf

    2000-01-01

    In a search for cosmopolitan phylogenetic clusters of freshwater bacteria, we recovered a total of 190 full and partial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from three different lakes (Lake Gossenköllesee, Austria; Lake Fuchskuhle, Germany; and Lake Baikal, Russia). The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA data set showed that our sequences fall into 16 clusters, which otherwise include bacterial rDNA sequences of primarily freshwater and soil, but not marine, origin. Six of the clusters were affiliated with the α, four were affiliated with the β, and one was affiliated with the γ subclass of the Proteobacteria; four were affiliated with the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group; and one was affiliated with the class Actinobacteria (formerly known as the high-G+C gram-positive bacteria). The latter cluster (hgcI) is monophyletic and so far includes only sequences directly retrieved from aquatic environments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes specific for the hgcI cluster showed abundances of up to 1.7 × 105 cells ml−1 in Lake Gossenköllesee, with strong seasonal fluctuations, and high abundances in the two other lakes investigated. Cell size measurements revealed that Actinobacteria in Lake Gossenköllesee can account for up to 63% of the bacterioplankton biomass. A combination of phylogenetic analysis and FISH was used to reveal 16 globally distributed sequence clusters and to confirm the broad distribution, abundance, and high biomass of members of the class Actinobacteria in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:11055963

  8. A geostatistical analysis of small-scale spatial variability in bacterial abundance and community structure in salt marsh creek bank sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Rima B.; Blum, Linda K.; McComb, Alison C.; Mills, Aaron L.

    2002-01-01

    Small-scale variations in bacterial abundance and community structure were examined in salt marsh sediments from Virginia's eastern shore. Samples were collected at 5 cm intervals (horizontally) along a 50 cm elevation gradient, over a 215 cm horizontal transect. For each sample, bacterial abundance was determined using acridine orange direct counts and community structure was analyzed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting of whole-community DNA extracts. A geostatistical analysis was used to determine the degree of spatial autocorrelation among the samples, for each variable and each direction (horizontal and vertical). The proportion of variance in bacterial abundance that could be accounted for by the spatial model was quite high (vertical: 60%, horizontal: 73%); significant autocorrelation was found among samples separated by 25 cm in the vertical direction and up to 115 cm horizontally. In contrast, most of the variability in community structure was not accounted for by simply considering the spatial separation of samples (vertical: 11%, horizontal: 22%), and must reflect variability from other parameters (e.g., variation at other spatial scales, experimental error, or environmental heterogeneity). Microbial community patch size based upon overall similarity in community structure varied between 17 cm (vertical) and 35 cm (horizontal). Overall, variability due to horizontal position (distance from the creek bank) was much smaller than that due to vertical position (elevation) for both community properties assayed. This suggests that processes more correlated with elevation (e.g., drainage and redox potential) vary at a smaller scale (therefore producing smaller patch sizes) than processes controlled by distance from the creek bank. c2002 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the factors that affect the distribution and abundance of three Neobuxbaumia species (Cactaceae) that differ in their degree of rarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruedas, Marcela; Valverde, Teresa; Zavala-Hurtado, José Alejandro

    2006-03-01

    We studied three species of columnar cacti in the genus Neobuxbaumia which differ in their degree of rarity: Neobuxbaumia macrocephala (the rarest), Neobuxbaumia tetetzo (intermediate), and Neobuxbaumia mezcalaensis (the most common). To investigate the ecological factors that limit their distribution and abundance, we surveyed 80 localities within the region of Tehuacan-Cuicatlán, in Central Mexico. At each locality we measured several environmental variables, and the density of the Neobuxbaumia populations present. We used a principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the factors that are associated to the presence/absence of each species. Additionally, we carried out multiple regressions between environmental variables and population density to test whether the variation in these variables was related to changes in abundance. The results show that factors significantly affecting the distribution of these species are mean annual temperature, altitude, rainfall, and soil properties such as texture and organic matter content. N. mezcalaensis reaches maximum population densities of 14,740 plants per ha (average density = 3943 plants per ha) and is associated with localities with relatively abundant rainfall. N. tetetzo shows maximum population densities of 14,060 plants per ha (average = 3070 plants per ha), and is associated with sites located at high latitudes and with high phosphorous content in the soil. The rarest species, N. macrocephala, shows maximum densities of 1180 plants per ha (average = 607 plants per ha) and is associated with localities with high soil calcium content. The distribution of this species is limited to sites with specific values of the environmental variables recorded, conferring it a high habitat specificity which accounts for its rarity.

  10. Distribution, Abundance and Molecular Analysis of Genus Barbadocladius Cranston & Krosch (Diptera, Chironomidae) in Tropical, High Altitude Andean Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Ribera, C; Rieradevall, M; Villamarín, C; Acosta, R

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of the genus Barbadocladius Cranston & Krosch (Diptera: Chironomidae), previously reported from Chile to Bolivia, has extended northwards. Larvae, pupae and pupal exuviae of this genus have been found in the high mountain tropical streams of Peru to 9°22'56″, but are restricted to very high altitude streams (altitudes over 3,278 m asl) compared to the lower altitude streams (below 1,100 m asl) in which the genus is reported in Chile and Argentina. Based on morphological studies, both described species in the genus, Barbadocladius andinus Cranston & Krosch and Barbadocladius limay Cranston & Krosch, have been found in Peru as pupae or pupal exuviae. Morphological analysis of the larvae and pupae revealed no differences between the two described species from Patagonia and Peru, which are of similar size and with a similar armament of hooklets and spines in pupal tergites and sternites. However, molecular analysis of larvae and pupae revealed that in Peru, there are at least two different evolutionary lines, one distributed widely and another restricted to one site. Phylogenetic analysis (using cox1 mitochondrial sequences) of all available sequences of Barbadocladius shows that the Chilean and Argentinean material differs from that of Peru. Therefore, a total of four molecular segregates are identified, although morphologically, neither larvae nor the pupae may be differentiated.

  11. Dynamic nuclear polarization NMR enables the analysis of Sn-Beta zeolite prepared with natural abundance ¹¹⁹Sn precursors.

    PubMed

    Gunther, William R; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Caporini, Marc A; Griffin, Robert G; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2014-04-30

    The catalytic activity of tin-containing zeolites, such as Sn-Beta, is critically dependent on the successful incorporation of the tin metal center into the zeolite framework. However, synchrotron-based techniques or solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) of samples enriched with (119)Sn isotopes are the only reliable methods to verify framework incorporation. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the use of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR for characterizing zeolites containing ~2 wt % of natural abundance Sn without the need for (119)Sn isotopic enrichment. The biradicals TOTAPOL, bTbK, bCTbK, and SPIROPOL functioned effectively as polarizing sources, and the solvent enabled proper transfer of spin polarization from the radical's unpaired electrons to the target nuclei. Using bCTbK led to an enhancement (ε) of 75, allowing the characterization of natural-abundance (119)Sn-Beta with excellent signal-to-noise ratios in <24 h. Without DNP, no (119)Sn resonances were detected after 10 days of continuous analysis.

  12. Differential single nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis of an outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Manhattan reveals epidemiological details missed by standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Scaltriti, Erika; Sassera, Davide; Comandatore, Francesco; Morganti, Marina; Mandalari, Carmen; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bandi, Claudio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pongolini, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    We retrospectively analyzed a rare Salmonella enterica serovar Manhattan outbreak that occurred in Italy in 2009 to evaluate the potential of new genomic tools based on differential single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in comparison with the gold standard genotyping method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 39 isolates were analyzed from patients (n=15) and food, feed, animal, and environmental sources (n=24), resulting in five different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Isolates epidemiologically related to the outbreak clustered within the same pulsotype, SXB_BS.0003, without any further differentiation. Thirty-three isolates were considered for genomic analysis based on different sets of SNPs, core, synonymous, nonsynonymous, as well as SNPs in different codon positions, by Bayesian and maximum likelihood algorithms. Trees generated from core and nonsynonymous SNPs, as well as SNPs at the second and first plus second codon positions detailed four distinct groups of isolates within the outbreak pulsotype, discriminating outbreak-related isolates of human and food origins. Conversely, the trees derived from synonymous and third-codon-position SNPs clustered food and human isolates together, indicating that all outbreak-related isolates constituted a single clone, which was in line with the epidemiological evidence. Further experiments are in place to extend this approach within our regional enteropathogen surveillance system.

  13. Transitioning from conventional radiotherapy to intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: changing focus from rectal bleeding to detailed quality of life analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Nakamura, Satoaki; Nishimura, Takuya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of modern radiation techniques, we have been able to deliver a higher prescribed radiotherapy dose for localized prostate cancer without severe adverse reactions. We reviewed and analyzed the change of toxicity profiles of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from the literature. Late rectal bleeding is the main adverse effect, and an incidence of >20% of Grade ≥2 adverse events was reported for 2D conventional radiotherapy of up to 70 Gy. 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) was found to reduce the incidence to ∼10%. Furthermore, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduced it further to a few percentage points. However, simultaneously, urological toxicities were enhanced by dose escalation using highly precise external radiotherapy. We should pay more attention to detailed quality of life (QOL) analysis, not only with respect to rectal bleeding but also other specific symptoms (such as urinary incontinence and impotence), for two reasons: (i) because of the increasing number of patients aged >80 years, and (ii) because of improved survival with elevated doses of radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy; age is an important prognostic factor not only for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control but also for adverse reactions. Those factors shift the main focus of treatment purpose from survival and avoidance of PSA failure to maintaining good QOL, particularly in older patients. In conclusion, the focus of toxicity analysis after radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients is changing from rectal bleeding to total elaborate quality of life assessment. PMID:25204643

  14. Assessment of phytoplankton class abundance using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix by parallel factor analysis and nonnegative least squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rongguo; Chen, Xiaona; Wu, Zhenzhen; Yao, Peng; Shi, Xiaoyong

    2015-07-01

    The feasibility of using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) along with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and nonnegative least squares (NNLS) method for the differentiation of phytoplankton taxonomic groups was investigated. Forty-one phytoplankton species belonging to 28 genera of five divisions were studied. First, the PARAFAC model was applied to EEMs, and 15 fluorescence components were generated. Second, 15 fluorescence components were found to have a strong discriminating capability based on Bayesian discriminant analysis (BDA). Third, all spectra of the fluorescence component compositions for the 41 phytoplankton species were spectrographically sorted into 61 reference spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and then, the reference spectra were used to establish a database. Finally, the phytoplankton taxonomic groups was differentiated by the reference spectra database using the NNLS method. The five phytoplankton groups were differentiated with the correct discrimination ratios (CDRs) of 100% for single-species samples at the division level. The CDRs for the mixtures were above 91% for the dominant phytoplankton species and above 73% for the subdominant phytoplankton species. Sixteen of the 85 field samples collected from the Changjiang River estuary were analyzed by both HPLC-CHEMTAX and the fluorometric technique developed. The results of both methods reveal that Bacillariophyta was the dominant algal group in these 16 samples and that the subdominant algal groups comprised Dinophyta, Chlorophyta and Cryptophyta. The differentiation results by the fluorometric technique were in good agreement with those from HPLC-CHEMTAX. The results indicate that the fluorometric technique could differentiate algal taxonomic groups accurately at the division level.

  15. A detailed observational analysis of magnetism in three B and O stars observed within the context of the MiMeS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunhut, Jason Harley

    The detailed observational analysis of three massive B- and O-type stars was carried out in this study in order to characterize their fundamental, magnetic, and variability properties. The bulk of the data acquired were obtained with the high-resolution ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, within the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) project. Two of these stars (HR5907 and HD57682) are newly detected magnetic stars, discovered from observations acquired as part of the broader survey component of the MiMeS program, while the last star, o Ori, was previously reported as magnetic in the literature. The rotation periods of HR5907 and HD57682 were inferred from photometric, Halpha emission and longitudinal field variations. A period of 0.508276+0.000015-0.000012 was inferred for HR5907, making this the shortest period, non-degenerate, magnetic massive star identified to date. Furthermore, ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy were combined to infer the fundamental properties of HR5907 and HD57682. Direct modelling of the Least-Squares Deconvolved line profiles and the longitudinal magnetic field measurements were used to infer the magnetic properties of HR5907, HD57682, and o Ori. A detailed investigation of the newly obtained and archival polarimetric data of o Ori revealed no convincing evidence for a magnetic field, despite evidence of variability in some emission quantities in this dataset, which had been previously attributed to a large-scale magnetic field. The strength and variability of the optical photospheric helium lines of HR5907 suggests that this star is He-rich, with a non-uniform distribution of its surface chemistry. Lastly, the emission variations in the hydrogen lines of HR5907 suggest this star hosts a highly-structured, rigidly-rotating, centrifugally supported magnetosphere. Similarly, line profile variations throughout the optical spectrum of HD57682 are attributed to emission variations caused by a

  16. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  17. Prognostic Importance of Gleason 7 Disease Among Patients Treated With External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Detailed Biopsy Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Zumsteg, Zach; Ghadjar, Pirus; Pangasa, Misha; Pei, Xin; Fine, Samson W.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of primary Gleason (pG) grade among a large cohort of Gleason 7 prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: From May 1989 to January 2011, 1190 Gleason 7 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with EBRT at a single institution. Of these patients, 613 had a Gleason 7 with a minimum of a sextant biopsy with nonfragmented cores and full biopsy core details available, including number of cores of cancer involved, percentage individual core involvement, location of disease, bilaterality, and presence of perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 1-16 years). The prognostic implication for the following outcomes was analyzed: biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: The 8-year bRFS rate for pG3 versus pG4 was 77.6% versus 61.3% (P<.0001), DMFS was 96.8% versus 84.3% (P<.0001), and PCSM was 3.7% versus 8.1% (P=.002). On multivariate analysis, pG4 predicted for significantly worse outcome in all parameters. Location of disease (apex, base, mid-gland), perineural involvement, maximum individual core involvement, and the number of Gleason 3+3, 3+4, or 4+3 cores did not predict for distant metastases. Conclusions: Primary Gleason grade 4 independently predicts for worse bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM among Gleason 7 patients. Using complete core information can allow clinicians to utilize pG grade as a prognostic factor, despite not having the full pathologic details from a prostatectomy specimen. Future staging and risk grouping should investigate the incorporation of primary Gleason grade when complete biopsy core information is used.

  18. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  19. Abundances in Przybylski's star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Ryabchikova, T.; Kupka, F.; Bord, D. J.; Mathys, G.; Bidelman, W. P.

    2000-09-01

    We have derived abundances for 54 elements in the extreme roAp star HD101065. ESO spectra with a resolution of about 80000, and S/N of 200 or more were employed. The adopted model has Teff=6600K, and log(g)=4.2. Because of the increased line opacity and consequent low gas pressure, convection plays no significant role in the temperature structure. Lighter elemental abundances through the iron group scatter about standard abundance distribution (SAD) (solar) values. Iron and nickel are about one order of magnitude deficient while cobalt is enhanced by 1.5dex. Heavier elements, including the lanthanides, generally follow the solar pattern but enhanced by 3 to 4dex. Odd-Z elements are generally less abundant than their even-Z neighbours. With a few exceptions (e.g. Yb), the abundance pattern among the heavy elements is remarkably coherent, and resembles a displaced solar distribution.

  20. Correlation of mRNA expression and protein abundance affected by multiple sequence features related to translational efficiency in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: A quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Lei; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-12-01

    The modest correlation between mRNA expression and protein abundance in large scale datasets is explained in part by experimental challenges, such as technological limitations, and in part by fundamental biological factors in the transcription and translation processes. Among various factors affecting the mRNA-protein correlation, the roles of biological factors related to translation are poorly understood. In this study, using experimental mRNA expression and protein abundance data collected from Desulfovibrio vulgaris by DNA microarray and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis, we quantitatively examined the effects of several translational-efficiency-related sequence features on mRNA-protein correlation. Three classes of sequence features were investigated according to different translational stages: (1) initiation: Shine-Dalgarno sequences, start codon identity and start codon context; (2) elongation: codon usage and amino acid usage; and (3) termination: stop codon identity and stop codon context. Surprisingly, although it is widely accepted that translation initiation is a rate-limiting step for translation, our results showed that the mRNA-protein correlation was affected the most by the features at elongation stages, codon usage and amino acid composition (7.4-12.6% and 5.3-9.3% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation, respectively), followed by stop codon context and the Shine-Dalgarno sequence (2.5-4.2% and 2.3%, respectively). Taken together, all sequence features contributed to 18.4-21.8% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation. As the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of the mRNA-protein correlation in bacterial D. vulgaris, our results suggest that the traditional view of the relative importance of various sequence features in prokaryotic protein translation might be questionable.

  1. What's on the menu? Assessing microbial carbon sources and cycling in soils using natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, N.; Burns, L.; Mancini, S.; Fulthorpe, R.; Slater, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    Organic matter in soils is composed of diverse materials in various stages of decomposition. Soil organic matter is not in a single pool but rather in multiple carbon pools with different intrinsic turnover times that can be on annual to decadal and even millennial timescales. Microorganisms can influence the total amount of carbon stored in soils and the turnover rates of these different pools. However, the links between microbes and their ability to utilize these various carbon pools are not well understood. Moreover, microbes have been shown to co-utilize a number of available carbon sources rather than a single carbon source under soil conditions which creates difficulties in identifying microbial carbon sources in the natural environment. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) has become a useful tool in elucidating microbial carbon sources in complex environments with multiple carbon sources. We investigated microbial carbon cycling at an industrial site in Ontario which included a variety of carbon sources including vegetation, PAHs and natural organic matter (NOM). Using this approach, the 14C content of microbial membrane lipids (which reflects their carbon source) can be compared to surrounding carbon sources in order to assess which carbon source they are metabolizing and incorporating into their lipids. In addition, we assessed microbial community structure and diversity by analyzing amplified bacterial, eukaryotic and archaeal rDNA fragments with denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The Δ14C value for PLFAs ranged from +54 to -697% which indicates that microbial carbon sources across soils differ. The Δ14CPLFA for some soils is consistent with modern carbon sources while Δ14CPLFA for other soils is consistent with natural organic matter including older pools of carbon. The microbial communities at this site are not metabolizing PAHs but rather they are utilizing various pools of natural organic

  2. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  3. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  4. Natural abundance 13C and 14C analysis of water-soluble organic carbon in atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Elena N; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Andersson, August; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2010-10-01

    Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) constitutes a large fraction of climate-forcing organic aerosols in the atmosphere, yet the sources of WSOC are poorly constrained. A method was developed to measure the stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) and radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) composition of WSOC for apportionment between fossil fuel and different biogenic sources. Synthetic WSOC test substances and ambient aerosols were employed to investigate the effect of both modern and fossil carbon contamination and any method-induced isotope fractionation. The method includes extraction of aerosols collected on quartz filters followed by purification and preparation for off-line δ(13)C and Δ(14)C determination. The preparative freeze-drying step for isotope analysis yielded recoveries of only ∼70% for ambient aerosols and WSOC probes. However, the δ(13)C of the WSOC isolates were in agreement with the δ(13)C of the unprocessed starting material, even for the volatile oxalic acid probe (6.59 ± 0.37‰ vs 6.33 ± 0.31‰; 2 sd). A (14)C-fossil phthalic acid WSOC probe returned a fraction modern biomass of <0.008 whereas a (14)C-modern sucrose standard yielded a fraction modern of >0.999, indicating the Δ(14)C-WSOC method to be free of both fossil and contemporary carbon contamination. Application of the δ(13)C/Δ(14)C-WSOC method to source apportion climate-affecting aerosols was illustrated be constraining that WSOC in ambient Stockholm aerosols were 88% of contemporary biogenic C3 plant origin.

  5. Facing Challenges for Monte Carlo Analysis of Full PWR Cores : Towards Optimal Detail Level for Coupled Neutronics and Proper Diffusion Data for Nodal Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttin, A.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Doligez, X.; El Mhari, C.; Méplan, O.

    2014-06-01

    Safety analysis of innovative reactor designs requires three dimensional modeling to ensure a sufficiently realistic description, starting from steady state. Actual Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport codes are suitable candidates to simulate large complex geometries, with eventual innovative fuel. But if local values such as power densities over small regions are needed, reliable results get more difficult to obtain within an acceptable computation time. In this scope, NEA has proposed a performance test of full PWR core calculations based on Monte Carlo neutron transport, which we have used to define an optimal detail level for convergence of steady state coupled neutronics. Coupling between MCNP for neutronics and the subchannel code COBRA for thermal-hydraulics has been performed using the C++ tool MURE, developed for about ten years at LPSC and IPNO. In parallel with this study and within the same MURE framework, a simplified code of nodal kinetics based on two-group and few-point diffusion equations has been developed and validated on a typical CANDU LOCA. Methods for the computation of necessary diffusion data have been defined and applied to NU (Nat. U) and Th fuel CANDU after assembly evolutions by MURE. Simplicity of CANDU LOCA model has made possible a comparison of these two fuel behaviours during such a transient.

  6. Characterizing accuracy of total hemoglobin recovery using contrast-detail analysis in 3D image-guided near infrared spectroscopy with the boundary element method

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyani, Hamid R.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) obtained from multi-modality image-guided near infrared spectroscopy (IG-NIRS) was characterized using the boundary element method (BEM) for 3D image reconstruction. Multi-modality IG-NIRS systems use a priori information to guide the reconstruction process. While this has been shown to improve resolution, the effect on quantitative accuracy is unclear. Here, through systematic contrast-detail analysis, the fidelity of IG-NIRS in quantifying HbT was examined using 3D simulations. These simulations show that HbT could be recovered for medium sized (20mm in 100mm total diameter) spherical inclusions with an average error of 15%, for the physiologically relevant situation of 2:1 or higher contrast between background and inclusion. Using partial 3D volume meshes to reduce the ill-posed nature of the image reconstruction, inclusions as small as 14mm could be accurately quantified with less than 15% error, for contrasts of 1.5 or higher. This suggests that 3D IG-NIRS provides quantitatively accurate results for sizes seen early in treatment cycle of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the tumors are larger than 30mm. PMID:20720975

  7. First detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytological study of leafy cardoon and globe artichoke, two multi-use Asteraceae crops

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Debora; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Farina, Anna; Grosso, Valentina; Lucretti, Sergio; Gennaro, Andrea; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. So far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. In this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Linnaeus, 1753 var. scolymus Fiori, 1904) and leafy cardoon (Cynara cardunculus Linneaus, 1753 var. altilis De Candolle, 1838). Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization In Suspension (FISHIS) was applied to nuclei suspensions as a fast method for screening of labelling probes, before metaphase spread hybridization. Classic Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) on slide, using repetitive telomeric and ribosomal sequences and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) oligonucleotide as probes, identified homologous chromosome relationships and allowed development of molecular karyotypes for both varieties. The close phylogenetic relationship between globe artichoke and cardoon was supported by the very similar karyotypes but clear chromosomal structural variation was detected. In the light of the recent release of the globe artichoke genome sequencing, these results are relevant for future anchoring of the pseudomolecule sequence assemblies to specific chromosomes. In addition, the DNA content of the two crops has been determined by flow cytometry and a fast method for standard FISH on slide and methodological improvements for nuclei isolation are described. PMID:27830052

  8. Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki

    1996-04-15

    Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Determination of microbial carbon sources and cycling during remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soil using natural abundance (14)C analysis of PLFA.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Benjamin R; Greenberg, Bruce M; Slater, Gregory F

    2010-04-01

    In a petroleum impacted land-farm soil in Sarnia, Ontario, compound-specific natural abundance radiocarbon analysis identified biodegradation by the soil microbial community as a major pathway for hydrocarbon removal in a novel remediation system. During remediation of contaminated soils by a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS), the measured Delta(14)C of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers ranged from -793 per thousand to -897 per thousand, directly demonstrating microbial uptake and utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons (Delta(14)C(PHC) = -1000 per thousand). Isotopic mass balance indicated that more than 80% of microbial PLFA carbon was derived from petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and a maximum of 20% was obtained from metabolism of more modern carbon sources. These PLFA from the contaminated soils were the most (14)C-depleted biomarkers ever measured for an in situ environmental system, and this study demonstrated that the microbial community in this soil was subsisting primarily on petroleum hydrocarbons. In contrast, the microbial community in a nearby uncontaminated control soil maintained a more modern Delta(14)C signature than total organic carbon (Delta(14)C(PLFA) = +36 per thousand to -147 per thousand, Delta(14)C(TOC) = -148 per thousand), indicating preferential consumption of the most modern plant-derived fraction of soil organic carbon. Measurements of delta(13)C and Delta(14)C of soil CO(2) additionally demonstrated that mineralization of PHC contributed to soil CO(2) at the contaminated site. The CO(2) in the uncontaminated control soil exhibited substantially more modern Delta(14)C values, and lower soil CO(2) concentrations than the contaminated soils, suggesting increased rates of soil respiration in the contaminated soils. In combination, these results demonstrated that biodegradation in the soil microbial community was a primary pathway of petroleum hydrocarbon removal in the PEPS system. This study

  10. Investigating nearby star-forming galaxies in the ultraviolet with HST/COS spectroscopy. I. Spectral analysis and interstellar abundance determinations

    SciTech Connect

    James, B. L.; Aloisi, A.; Sohn, S. T.; Wolfe, M. A.; Heckman, T.

    2014-11-10

    This is the first in a series of three papers describing a project with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure abundances of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of nine nearby star-forming galaxies. The goal is to assess the (in)homogeneities of the multiphase ISM in galaxies where the bulk of metals can be hidden in the neutral phase, yet the metallicity is inferred from the ionized gas in the H II regions. The sample, spanning a wide range in physical properties, is to date the best suited to investigate the metallicity behavior of the neutral gas at redshift z = 0. ISM absorption lines were detected against the far-ultraviolet spectra of the brightest star-forming region(s) within each galaxy. Here we report on the observations, data reduction, and analysis of these spectra. Column densities were measured by a multicomponent line-profile fitting technique, and neutral-gas abundances were obtained for a wide range of elements. Several caveats were considered, including line saturation, ionization corrections, and dust depletion. Ionization effects were quantified with ad hoc CLOUDY models reproducing the complex photoionization structure of the ionized and neutral gas surrounding the UV-bright sources. An 'average spectrum of a redshift z = 0 star-forming galaxy' was obtained from the average column densities of unsaturated profiles of neutral-gas species. This template can be used as a powerful tool for studies of the neutral ISM at both low and high redshift.

  11. LF460 detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final technical report documenting the detail design of the LF460, and advanced turbotip lift fan intended for application with the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet jet generator to a V/STOL transport research aircraft. Primary objective of the design was to achieve a low noise level while maintaining the high thrust/weight ratio capability of a high pressure ratio lift fan. Report covers design requirements and summarizes activities and final results in the areas of aerodynamic and mechanical design, component and system performance, acoustic features and final noise predictions.

  12. Details of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 18, discusses the details of meiosis, beginning with the structure and number of chiasmata, i.e., the cytological term for two homologous chromosomes forming a bivalent which begin to repel each other until they are held together only at the point of crossing-over. The synaptonemal complex which consists of two lateral elements which contain protein and RNA is also discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of meiosis in polyploids, human meiosis, and the behavior of X and Y chromosomes. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Comparing the Performance of Three Land Models in Global C Cycle Simulations: A Detailed Structural Analysis: Structural Analysis of Land Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rafique, Rashid; Xia, Jianyang; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Leng, Guoyong; Asrar, Ghassem; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-04-01

    Land models are valuable tools to understand the dynamics of global carbon (C) cycle. Various models have been developed and used for predictions of future C dynamics but uncertainties still exist. Diagnosing the models’ behaviors in terms of structures can help to narrow down the uncertainties in prediction of C dynamics. In this study three widely used land surface models, namely CSIRO’s Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) with 9 C pools, Community Land Model (version 3.5) combined with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CLM-CASA) with 12 C pools and Community Land Model (version 4) (CLM4) with 26 C pools were driven by the observed meteorological forcing. The simulated C storage and residence time were used for analysis. The C storage and residence time were computed globally for all individual soil and plant pools, as well as net primary productivity (NPP) and its allocation to different plant components’ based on these models. Remotely sensed NPP and statistically derived HWSD, and GLC2000 datasets were used as a reference to evaluate the performance of these models. Results showed that CABLE exhibited better agreement with referenced C storage and residence time for plant and soil pools, as compared with CLM-CASA and CLM4. CABLE had longer bulk residence time for soil C pools and stored more C in roots, whereas, CLM-CASA and CLM4 stored more C in woody pools due to differential NPP allocation. Overall, these results indicate that the differences in C storage and residence times in three models are largely due to the differences in their fundamental structures (number of C pools), NPP allocation and C transfer rates. Our results have implications in model development and provide a general framework to explain the bias/uncertainties in simulation of C storage and residence times from the perspectives of model structures.

  14. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  15. First Stellar Abundances in the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Geisler, Doug; Wallerstein, George; Borissova, Jura; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pagel, Bernard E. J.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Smith, Verne

    2007-12-01

    Chemical abundances in three M supergiants in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined using high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope. A detailed synthetic-spectrum analysis has been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, La, and Eu. We find the overall metallicity of the stars to be [Fe/H] = -0.67 ± 0.09 and the age 9-13 Myr, which is in excellent agreement with the present-day values in the age-metallicity relationship model of IC 1613 by Skillman et al. We have found that the three supergiants investigated have a mean [α/Fe] equal to about -0.1, which is lower than seen in Galactic stars at the same metallicity and is in agreement with the results obtained in other dwarf irregular galaxies. The oxygen abundances are in agreement with the upper values of the nebular oxygen determinations in IC 1613. The abundance ratios of s- and r-process elements to iron are enhanced relative to solar by about 0.3 dex. The abundance pattern of the elements studied is similar to that of the Small Magellanic Cloud, except for Co and Ni, which are underabundant in the SMC. The observed elemental abundances are generally in very good agreement with the recent chemical evolution model of Yuk and Lee. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope and the 2.2 m Telescope of the European Southern Observatory within the Observing Programs 70.B-0361(A) and 072.D-0113(D).

  16. An economic toolkit for identifying the cost of emergency medical services (EMS) systems: detailed methodology of the EMS Cost Analysis Project (EMSCAP).

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Garrison, Herbert G; Nichol, Graham; Maio, Ronald F; Lookman, Hunaid A; Sheahan, William D; Franz, Timothy R; Austad, James D; Ginster, Aaron M; Spaite, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    Calculating the cost of an emergency medical services (EMS) system using a standardized method is important for determining the value of EMS. This article describes the development of a methodology for calculating the cost of an EMS system to its community. This includes a tool for calculating the cost of EMS (the "cost workbook") and detailed directions for determining cost (the "cost guide"). The 12-step process that was developed is consistent with current theories of health economics, applicable to prehospital care, flexible enough to be used in varying sizes and types of EMS systems, and comprehensive enough to provide meaningful conclusions. It was developed by an expert panel (the EMS Cost Analysis Project [EMSCAP] investigator team) in an iterative process that included pilot testing the process in three diverse communities. The iterative process allowed ongoing modification of the toolkit during the development phase, based upon direct, practical, ongoing interaction with the EMS systems that were using the toolkit. The resulting methodology estimates EMS system costs within a user-defined community, allowing either the number of patients treated or the estimated number of lives saved by EMS to be assessed in light of the cost of those efforts. Much controversy exists about the cost of EMS and whether the resources spent for this purpose are justified. However, the existence of a validated toolkit that provides a standardized process will allow meaningful assessments and comparisons to be made and will supply objective information to inform EMS and community officials who are tasked with determining the utilization of scarce societal resources.

  17. Chemical Compositions and Abundance Anomalies in Stellar Coronae ADP 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Progress has been made using both EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer) and ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) data and a new postdoctoral scientist has now been hired. Stars studied to date include YY Gem (dMe binary), xi Boo A (intermediate activity G8 V), xi UMa (more active G quadruple system) HR1099 (K1 IV + G5 V) RS CVn-like, AU Mic (dMe). In addition to a paper that concentrated on abundancies in HR1099, a paper was recently submitted on the coronal abundances of AR(tilde)Lac that revealed an interesting pattern of overabundances of very low FIP elements (Al and Ca) compared to the low FIP elements Si, Mg and Fe. Two papers are nearing completion on methods of analysis and on the abundances in the corona of AU(tilde)Mic. Additionally, two invited conference proceedings papers are being published on this work. The main conclusion of the study to date is that our existing ideas of coronal abundance anomalies need complete revision. The solar-like FIP effect is replaced by a pattern than appears to enhance high FIP elements rather than low FIP elements in very active stars. The archival studies we are undertaking now are revealing some key details of these patterns, and are beginning to map out the anomalies as a function of spectral type, a key goal of this study.

  18. Chemical Abundances in a Sample of Red Giants in the Open Cluster NGC 2420 from APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto, Diogo; Cunha, K.; Smith, V.; Allende Prieto, C.; Pinsonneault, M.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Bovy, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Anders, F.; Bizyaev, D.; Carrera, R.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Holtzman, J.; Ivans, I.; Majewski, S. R.; Shetrone, M.; Sobeck, J.; Pan, K.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.

    2016-10-01

    NGC 2420 is a ˜2 Gyr old well-populated open cluster that lies about 2 kpc beyond the solar circle, in the general direction of the Galactic anti-center. Most previous abundance studies have found this cluster to be mildly metal-poor, but with a large scatter in the obtained metallicities. Detailed chemical abundance distributions are derived for 12 red-giant members of NGC 2420 via a manual abundance analysis of high-resolution (R = 22,500) near-infrared (λ1.5-1.7 μm) spectra obtained from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The sample analyzed contains six stars that are identified as members of the first-ascent red giant branch (RGB), as well as six members of the red clump (RC). We find small scatter in the star-to-star abundances in NGC 2420, with a mean cluster abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.16 ± 0.04 for the 12 red giants. The internal abundance dispersion for all elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni) is also very small (˜0.03-0.06 dex), indicating a uniform cluster abundance distribution within the uncertainties. NGC 2420 is one of the clusters used to calibrate the APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundance Pipeline (ASPCAP). The results from this manual analysis compare well with ASPCAP abundances for most of the elements studied, although for Na, Al, and V there are more significant offsets. No evidence of extra-mixing at the RGB luminosity bump is found in the 12C and 14N abundances from the pre-luminosity-bump RGB stars in comparison to the post-He core-flash RC stars.

  19. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  20. Detail of Triton's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers(330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  2. Southeast Elevation; Dome Rafter Detail; Piazza Rafter Detail; Main Block ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Elevation; Dome Rafter Detail; Piazza Rafter Detail; Main Block Bracket Detail - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Administration Building, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  3. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  4. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: abundances of α and iron-peak elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Masseron, T.; Nordlander, T.; Chemin, L.; Worley, C. C.; Van Eck, S.; Hourihane, A.; Gilmore, G.; Adibekyan, V.; Bergemann, M.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Delgado-Mena, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Guiglion, G.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Mikolaitis, S.; Montes, D.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Sordo, R.; Sousa, S.; Tabernero, H. M.; Vallenari, A.

    2015-10-01

    Context. In the current era of large spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way, reference stars for calibrating astrophysical parameters and chemical abundances are of paramount importance. Aims: We determine elemental abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni for our predefined set of Gaia FGK benchmark stars. Methods: By analysing high-resolution spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio taken from several archive datasets, we combined results of eight different methods to determine abundances on a line-by-line basis. We performed a detailed homogeneous analysis of the systematic uncertainties, such as differential versus absolute abundance analysis. We also assessed errors that are due to non-local thermal equilibrium and the stellar parameters in our final abundances. Results: Our results are provided by listing final abundances and the different sources of uncertainties, as well as line-by-line and method-by-method abundances. Conclusions: The atmospheric parameters of the Gaia FGK benchmark stars are already being widely used for calibration of several pipelines that are applied to different surveys. With the added reference abundances of ten elements, this set is very suitable for calibrating the chemical abundances obtained by these pipelines. Based on NARVAL and HARPS data obtained within the Gaia DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group and on data retrieved from the ESO-ADP database.Tables C.1-C.35 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A81

  5. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  6. Detailed mechanism of benzene oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed quantitative mechanism for the oxidation of benzene in both argon and nitrogen diluted systems is presented. Computed ignition delay time for argon diluted mixtures are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results for a wide range of initial conditions. An experimental temperature versus time profile for a nitrogen diluted oxidation was accurately matched and several concentration profiles were matched qualitatively. Application of sensitivity analysis has given approximate rate constant expressions for the two dominant heat release reactions, the oxidation of C6H5 and C5H5 radicals by molecular oxygen.

  7. Uses of phage display in agriculture: sequence analysis and comparative modeling of late embryogenesis abundant client proteins suggest protein-nucleic acid binding functionality.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Rekha; Downie, A Bruce; Payne, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    A group of intrinsically disordered, hydrophilic proteins-Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins-has been linked to survival in plants and animals in periods of stress, putatively through safeguarding enzymatic function and prevention of aggregation in times of dehydration/heat. Yet despite decades of effort, the molecular-level mechanisms defining this protective function remain unknown. A recent effort to understand LEA functionality began with the unique application of phage display, wherein phage display and biopanning over recombinant Seed Maturation Protein homologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to retrieve client proteins at two different temperatures, with one intended to represent heat stress. From this previous study, we identified 21 client proteins for which clones were recovered, sometimes repeatedly. Here, we use sequence analysis and homology modeling of the client proteins to ascertain common sequence and structural properties that may contribute to binding affinity with the protective LEA protein. Our methods uncover what appears to be a predilection for protein-nucleic acid interactions among LEA client proteins, which is suggestive of subcellular residence. The results from this initial computational study will guide future efforts to uncover the protein protective mechanisms during heat stress, potentially leading to phage-display-directed evolution of synthetic LEA molecules.

  8. Semi-quantitative analysis of solid waste flows from nano-enabled consumer products in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom - Abundance, distribution and management.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Laura; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-10-01

    Many nano-enabled consumer products are known to be in the global market. At the same, little is known about the quantity, type, location etc. of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inside the products. This limits the scientific investigations of potential environmental effects of these materials, and especially the knowledge of ENM behaviour and potential effects at the end-of-life stage of the products is scarce. To gain a better understanding of the end-of-life waste treatment of nano-enabled consumer product, we provide an overview of the ENMs flowing into and throughout waste systems in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Using a nanoproduct inventory (nanodb.dk), we performed a four-step analysis to estimate the most abundant ENMs and in which waste fractions they are present. We found that in terms of number of products: (i) nano silver is the most used ENM in consumer products, and (ii) plastic from used product containers is the largest waste fraction also comprising a large variety of ENMs, though possibly in very small masses. Also, we showed that the local waste management system can influence the distribution of ENMs. It is recommended that future research focus on recycling and landfilling of nano-enabled products since these compartments represent hot spots for end-of-life nanoproducts.

  9. Spectral modeling of water ice-rich areas on Ceres' surface from Dawn-VIR data analysis: abundance and grain size retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raponi, Andrea; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ciarniello, Mauro; Tosi, Federico; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Frigeri, Alessandro; Zambon, Francesca; Ammannito, Eleonora; Giacomo Carrozzo, Filippo; Magni, Gianfranco; Capria, Maria Teresa; Formisano, Michelangelo; Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; Pieters, Carle; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol; Dawn/VIR Team

    2016-10-01

    Dawn spacecraft orbits around Ceres since early 2015 acquiring a huge amount of data at different spatial resolutions during the several phases of the mission. VIR, the visible and InfraRed spectrometer onboard Dawn [1] allowed to detect the principal mineralogical phases present on Ceres: a large abundance of dark component, NH4-phillosilicates and carbonates.Water has been detected in small areas on Ceres' surface by the Dawn-VIR instrument. The most obvious finding is located in Oxo crater [2]. Further detections of water have been made during the Survey observation phase (1.1 km/pixel) and High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (400 m/px) [3]. During the LAMO phase (Low Altitude Mapping Orbit), the data with increased spatial resolution (100 m/px) coming from both regions have improved the detection of water, highlighting clear diagnostic water ice absorption features. In this study, we focused on spectral modeling of VIR spectra of Oxo and another crater (lon = 227°, lat 57°), near Messor crater.The Hapke radiative transfer model [4] has been applied in order to retrieve the water ice properties. We consider two types of mixtures: areal and intimate mixing. In areal mixing, the surface is modelled as patches of pure water ice, with each photon scattered within one patch. In intimate mixing, the particles of water ice are in contact with particles of the dark terrain, and both are involved in the scattering of a single photon. The best fit with the measured spectra has been derived with the areal mixture. The water ice abundance obtained is up to 15-20% within the field of view, and the grain size retrieved is of the order of 100-200 μm. Phyllosilicates and carbonates, which are ubiquitous on Ceres surface [5], have been also detected and modeled in correspondence with the icy regions. The water ice is typically located near and within the shadows projected by the crater rims. Further analysis is required to study the thermal state of the ice and its origin

  10. The CALIFA survey: Oxygen abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aff001

    We present here the last results we obtained on the spatial resolved analysis of the ionized gas of disk-dominated galaxies based on CALIFA data. CALIFA is an ongoing IFS survey of galaxies in the Local Univese (0.005 < z < 0.03) that has already obtained spectroscopic information up to ~2.5r e with a spatial resolution better than ~1 kpc for a total number of an statiscal sample of galaxies of different morphological types, covering the CM-diagram up to Mr<-18 mag. With nearly 2000 spectra obtained for each galaxy, CALIFA offer one of the best IFU data to study the starformation histories and chemical enrichment of galaxies. In this article we focus on the main results based on the analysis of the oxygen abundances based on the study of ionized gas in H ii regions and individual spaxels, and their relations with the global properties of galaxies. In summary we have found that: (1) the -Z relation does not present a secondary relation with the star-formation rate, when the abundance is measured at the effective radius; (2) the oxygen abundance present a strong correlation with the stellar surface density (Σ-Z relation); (3) the oxygen abundance profiles present three well defined regimes, (a) an overall negative radial gradient, between 0.5-2 r e , with a characteristic slope of α O/H ~-0.1 dex/r e , (b) an universal flatenning beyond >2r e and (c) an inner drop at <0.5r e which presence depends on the mass. All these results indicates that disk-galaxies present an overall inside-out growth, although with clear deviations from this simple scenario.

  11. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    should be focused on relationships between demographic processes such as survival and recruitment, the two quantities responsible for changes in abundance, rather than simply on the magnitudes of these quantities. They describe a type of Jolly–Seber capture–recapture model that permits inference about the underlying relationship between per capita recruitment rates and survival rates (Link & Barker, this volume). Implementation used Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and appeared to work well, yielding inferences about the relationship between recruitment and survival that were robust to selection of prior distribution. We believe that readers will find their arguments compelling, and we expect to see increased use of hierarchical modeling approaches in capture–recapture and related fields. Otto (presentation without paper) also recommended use of hierarchical models in analysis of multiple data sources dealing with population dynamics of North American mallards. He integrated survival inferences from ringing data, abundance information from aerial survey data, and recruitment information based on age ratios from a harvest survey. He used a Leslie matrix population projection model as an integrating framework and obtained estimates of breeding population size using all data.Otto’s approach also permitted inference about biases in estimated quantities. As with the work of Link & Barker (2004), we find Otto’s recommendation to use hierarchical models to integrate data from multiple sources to be very compelling. Alisauskas et al. (2004) report results of an analysis of capture–recapture data for a askatchewan population of white–winged scoters. They used the approach of Pradel (1996) to estimate population growth rate (See the PDF) directly. Estimates for 1975–1985 were quite low, but estimates for the recent period, 2000–2003,increased to values > 1. Parameter estimates for seniority, survival and per capita recruitment (Pradel, 1996) led to the

  12. Abundances in Hot Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    The hydrogen-deficiency in extremely hot post-AGB stars of spectral class PG1159 is probably caused by a (very) late helium-shell flash or a AGB final thermal pulse that consumes the hydrogen envelope, exposing the usually-hidden intershell region. Thus, the photospheric element abundances of these stars allow us to draw conclusions about details of nuclear burning and mixing processes in the precursor AGB stars. We compare predicted element abundances to those determined by quantitative spectral analyses performed with advanced non-LTE model atmospheres. A good qualitative and quantitative agreement is found for many species (He, C, N, O, Ne, F, Si, Ar) but discrepancies for others (P, S, Fe) point at shortcomings in stellar evolution models for AGB stars. Almost all of the chemical trace elements in these hot stars can only be identified in the UV spectral range. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope played a crucial role for this research.

  13. Optical and Infrared Stellar abundances in the globular clusters NGC 5466 and NGC 5024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Masen

    2015-01-01

    Stellar chemical abundances in globular clusters (GCs) can reveal clues about the formation history of stellar populations within the Milky Way (MW). In particular, abundance ratios such as [α/Fe] and [Fe/H] can be used to distill accreted GCs from those that are believed to form in situ. Two GCs which have uncertain origins (i.e. show a tidal tail or have been associated with a stellar stream) are NGC 5466 and 5024; these clusters also have had little to no chemical abundance analyses performed in the past. In this work we present a detailed chemical abundance analysis on 5 stars in these two clusters. The abundances are derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations at both optical (with the HRS on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope) and infrared (from the APOGEE survey) wavelengths. We have two major aims in the abundance analysis: i) to find clues as to the origins of both clusters and ii) to compare the results of independently observed spectra between two different wavelength regions. For NGC 5466 and 5024 we find an average [Fe/H] = -2.06, -2.16, respectively. We find the typical abundances ratios of both clusters follow chemical trends of both stars and GCs within the MW, indicating from this sample that both clusters do not show evidence of being accreted; although we note the abundance patterns of dwarf and massive galaxies are similar at such low metallicities. We also find that the infrared analysis is in generally good agreement with the optical observations and that the two wavelength analyses complement each other in a powerful way. Developing infrared observing and analysis strategies is greatly beneficial to the emerging field, especially when considering observations in regions where infrared wavelengths are an advantage (i.e. the Galactic Bulge).

  14. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  15. Functional analysis of the group 4 late embryogenesis abundant proteins reveals their relevance in the adaptive response during water deficit in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Campos, Francisco; Reyes, José Luis; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2010-09-01

    Late-Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate to high levels during the last stages of seed development, when desiccation tolerance is acquired, and in vegetative and reproductive tissues under water deficit, leading to the hypothesis that these proteins play a role in the adaptation of plants to this stress condition. In this work, we obtained the accumulation patterns of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) group 4 LEA proteins during different developmental stages and plant organs in response to water deficit. We demonstrate that overexpression of a representative member of this group of proteins confers tolerance to severe drought in Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, we show that deficiency of LEA proteins in this group leads to susceptible phenotypes upon water limitation, during germination, or in mature plants after recovery from severe dehydration. Upon recovery from this stress condition, mutant plants showed a reduced number of floral and axillary buds when compared with wild-type plants. The lack of these proteins also correlates with a reduced seed production under optimal irrigation, supporting a role in fruit and/or seed development. A bioinformatic analysis of group 4 LEA proteins from many plant genera showed that there are two subgroups, originated through ancient gene duplication and a subsequent functional specialization. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first genetic evidence showing that one of the LEA protein groups is directly involved in the adaptive response of higher plants to water deficit, and it provides data indicating that the function of these proteins is not redundant to that of the other LEA proteins.

  16. Structure/Function Analysis of the Vaccinia Virus F18 Phosphoprotein, an Abundant Core Component Required for Virion Maturation and Infectivity▿

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasekera, Nadi T.; Traktman, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Poxvirus virions, whose outer membrane surrounds two lateral bodies and a core, contain at least 70 different proteins. The F18 phosphoprotein is one of the most abundant core components and is essential for the assembly of mature virions. We report here the results of a structure/function analysis in which the role of conserved cysteine residues, clusters of charged amino acids and clusters of hydrophobic/aromatic amino acids have been assessed. Taking advantage of a recombinant virus in which F18 expression is IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside) dependent, we developed a transient complementation assay to evaluate the ability of mutant alleles of F18 to support virion morphogenesis and/or to restore the production of infectious virus. We have also examined protein-protein interactions, comparing the ability of mutant and WT F18 proteins to interact with WT F18 and to interact with the viral A30 protein, another essential core component. We show that F18 associates with an A30-containing multiprotein complex in vivo in a manner that depends upon clusters of hydrophobic/aromatic residues in the N′ terminus of the F18 protein but that it is not required for the assembly of this complex. Finally, we confirmed that two PSSP motifs within F18 are the sites of phosphorylation by cellular proline-directed kinases in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of both of these phosphorylation sites has no apparent impact on virion morphogenesis but leads to the assembly of virions with significantly reduced infectivity. PMID:20392848

  17. 16S rDNA analysis of archaea indicates dominance of Methanobacterium and high abundance of Methanomassiliicoccaceae in rumen of Nili-Ravi buffalo.

    PubMed

    Paul, S S; Deb, S M; Dey, A; Somvanshi, S P S; Singh, D; Rathore, R; Stiverson, J

    2015-10-01

    The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was investigated using 16S rDNA gene library prepared from the rumen contents of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Microbial genomic DNA was isolated from four adult male fistulated buffaloes and PCR conditions were set up using specific primers. Amplified product was cloned into a suitable vector, and the inserts of positive clones were sequenced. A total of 142 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 46 species level (0.01 distance) operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty six OTUs comprising 89 clones (63% of the total clones) were taxonomically assigned to Methanobacterium genus and the majority of them had highest percent identity with Methanobacterium flexile among cultured methanogens. Five OTUs comprising 27 clones (19% of total clones) were taxonomically assigned to Methanomicrobium genus and these clones showed highest sequence identity with Methanomicrobium mobile. Only two OTUs comprising 6 clones (4% of total clones) were assigned to Methanobrevibacter genus. A total of 17 clones belonging to 10 species level OTUs showed highest percent identity (ranging from 85 to 95%) with Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and were taxonomically classified as Methanomassiliicocaceae. Out of the 142 rDNA clones, 112 clones, which constitute 79% of the total clones representing 42 OTUs, had less than 98.5% sequence identity with any of the cultured strains of methanogens and represent novel species of methanogens. This study has revealed the largest assortment of hydrogenotrophic methanogen phylotypes ever identified from the rumen of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The study indicates that Methanobacterium is the most dominant methanogen in the rumen of Nili-Ravi buffalo. This is also the first report on the presence of methanogens phylogenetically close to M. luminyensis, an H2 dependent methylotrophic methanogen, in the rumen of buffaloes at such a high level of abundance.

  18. Ammonia abundances in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  19. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  20. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  1. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  2. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  4. 58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards northeast of the pinion and bull gears of the winding machinery. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Spectroscopic measurements of element abundances in the solar corona: Variations on the FIP theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1995-01-01

    Solar wind and solar energetic particle (SEP) data yield systematic differences between elemental abundances in the corona and in the photosphere related to the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements: low-FIP elements are preferentially enhanced relative to high-FIP elements by about a factor of four. Spectroscopic studies of the inner corona show that such a pattern may apply on average but not in detail for coronal loops: substantial abundance differences occur between different types of coronal structures, and variations have been found from flare to flare, from one active region to another, and over time in the same region; further, in some flares, anomalies such as enhanced Ne:O ratios, distinctly at odds with the FIP pattern, show that a competing element selection mechanism sometimes operates. Details of the observed abundance variability -- such as the magnitude of the variations, the relevant temporal and spatial scales, and correlations with other properties of the given coronal structure -- may give important clues to the processes which supply and heat the corona, or they may reflect the changing physical conditions or locations where those processes take place. However, many such details remain to be established definitively. At present, abundance variability is primarily a major complication to data analysis and interpretation. However, once it is better understood, it may provide a new diagnostic tool for probing the lower layers of the solar atmosphere.

  6. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF SOA ORIGINATING FROM THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF D-LIMONENE IN THE PRESENCE OF NO X AND UV LIGHT AND ITS IMPLICATION TO AMBIENT PM 2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed analysis was carried out of the aerosol phase originated from the photooxidation of d-limonene in the presence of NOx and artificial light with the analytical emphasis on the identification of oxygenated organic compounds. The major components included six ...

  7. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING ALTERNATIVES TO USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TO TREAT 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER AND 200-PW-1 SOIL VAPOR

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME, KALMAR JA

    2007-11-26

    This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.

  8. Measuring Abundance Ratios from Integrated Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, G.

    2010-06-01

    Age, overall abundance, and detailed, element-by-element abundances can be extracted from the integrated light of distant galaxies. The method, at its most basic, is merely the comparison of observed spectra with appropriate models. The relative ratios of elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr, and Ba can be determined to scientifically useful precision. Cases of interest that are borderline because they suffer internal degeneracies (although plenty of signal is present) are Al and the trio C, N, and O. The elements S, K, Cu, Eu, and the noble gases are too difficult to measure, and V is borderline. Changing the relative abundance ratios, even at fixed heavy-element content, changes the temperatures, luminosities, and number densities of the underlying stellar evolution, as well as more direct changes in the spectra of the stars present. The latter effects dominate the spectral shape, while the former effects render age estimation quite difficult.

  9. ASPCAP: The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Pérez, Ana E.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Holtzman, Jon A.; Shetrone, Matthew; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Cunha, Katia; García-Hernández, D. A.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Shane, Neville; Smith, Verne V.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Troup, Nicholas; Zamora, Olga; Weinberg, David H.; Bovy, Jo; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Feuillet, Diane; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hayden, Michael R.; Hearty, Fred R.; Nguyen, Duy C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

    2016-06-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has built the largest moderately high-resolution (R ≈ 22,500) spectroscopic map of the stars across the Milky Way, and including dust-obscured areas. The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) is the software developed for the automated analysis of these spectra. ASPCAP determines atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances from observed spectra by comparing observed spectra to libraries of theoretical spectra, using χ2 minimization in a multidimensional parameter space. The package consists of a fortran90 code that does the actual minimization and a wrapper IDL code for book-keeping and data handling. This paper explains in detail the ASPCAP components and functionality, and presents results from a number of tests designed to check its performance. ASPCAP provides stellar effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities precise to 2%, 0.1 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively, for most APOGEE stars, which are predominantly giants. It also provides abundances for up to 15 chemical elements with various levels of precision, typically under 0.1 dex. The final data release (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III contains an APOGEE database of more than 150,000 stars. ASPCAP development continues in the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 survey.

  10. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing.

  11. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, I. A.; Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the discs of 88 galaxies using Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) Data Release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the centre of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) was also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g and r bands of the photometric maps of SDSS Data Release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the discs of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e. the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, ≲0.05 dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxies. There is evidence for a flattening of the radial abundance gradient in the central part of 18 galaxies. We also estimated the geometric parameters (coordinates of the centre, the galaxy inclination and the position angle of the major axis) of our galaxies from the analysis of the abundance map. The photometry-map-based and the abundance-map-based geometrical parameters are relatively close to each other for the majority of the galaxies but the discrepancy is large for a few galaxies with a flat radial abundance gradient.

  12. Elemental Abundances from Very Low Abundance HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Terlevich, Elena

    1992-12-01

    In 1987 we initiated a program to mitigate the deficiency of known low metallicity galaxies. Following our discoveries of very low abundance H II regions in nearby dwarf galaxies (Skillman et al. 1988, 1989a,b), we used the IDS on the INT to to collect spectra of dwarf galaxies in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) of UV excess galaxies. Our survey of over 40 SBS galaxies was completed in January 1990 and we have identified roughly one dozen very low metallicity H II galaxies. Now, with a significant sample of these galaxies, several observational programs are possible; foremost of these is the measurement of the primordial helium abundance (eg., Pagel et al. 1992). We report here on observations from March 1991 and 1992 using the ISIS spectrograph on the WHT to obtain very high quality spectra of 8 of these newly discovered metal-poor galaxies. The ISIS double spectrograph allows simultaneous observations of the blue (3600 - 5100 Angstroms) and red (6300 - 6800 Angstroms). Thus, He, N, O, Ne and S abundances can be derived with relatively small observational uncertainties. We compare our new observations with those in the literature. Our preliminary analysis indicates a slightly larger scatter in He/H at low O/H than had been seen previously. The small scatter may have been due simply to the paucity of observations at low metallicity. References: Pagel, B.E.J., Simonson, E.A., Terlevich, R.J., & Edmunds, M.G. 1992, MNRAS, 255, 325 Skillman, E.D., Kennicutt, R.C., & Hodge, P.W. 1989a, ApJ, 347, 875 Skillman, E.D., Melnick, J., Terlevich, R., & Moles, M. 1988, A&A, 196, 31 Skillman, E.D., Terlevich, R., & Melnick, J. 1989b, MNRAS, 240, 563

  13. Automatic Identification, Classification, and Abundance Estimation for Metal-Poor Stars in the Galaxy from Objective-Prism Spectroscopy via Artificial Neural Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, J.; Beers, T. C.; Irwin, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The HK prism survey of Beers and collaborators has been extremely successful in the identification of large numbers of metal-deficient stars in the thick disk and halo of the Galaxy. Such stars provide vital clues for unraveling the chemical and dynamical history of the Milky Way, and large spiral galaxies in general. The original selection of candidate metal-poor stars from the HK prism plates was carried out using visual inspection, which introduces a number of (avoidable) biases in the resulting target lists (in particular a tendency to overlook metal-poor stars of low temperature). We are in the process of selecting new candidate metal-poor stars based on automated scans of the HK survey plates with the APM facility in Cambridge. Here we present the results of an artificial neural network analysis of this data, which enables us to objectively select, to classify by color and metallicity class, and to predict the metallicities of stars on the prism plates directly from the extracted spectra. The training set consists of about 370 stars with abundances obtained from previous HK survey follow-up efforts, chosen from some of the 320,000 stars in the ``digital'' HK survey to date (over 1,500,000 stars are expected in the final sample). For first-pass classification, external estimates of the broadband color index, (B-V)_o, and equivalent widths of the CaII H and K lines from the extracted prism spectra are used as input variables to separate the prism spectra into regions of similar (B-V)_o and [Fe/H]. Currently, a correct classification rate is achieved for more than 70% of the stars. In the prediction step, these same quantities are used as input variables to predict stellar [Fe/H]. We presently obtain correlation coefficients between the predicted and known [Fe/H] for stars in our test sample of greater than 0.75, with an rms error of 0.1 dex, which is extremely encouraging. We discuss steps that are underway to improve on these results, primarily by obtaining

  14. Temporal variations of aerosol, glyoxal, and formaldehyde at urban sites of Japan as observed by MAX-DOAS based on detailed error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Chin, S.; Ni, W.; Nakayama, T.; Shimizu, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Nagai, T.; Takamura, T.; Khatri, P.

    2014-12-01

    The degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) results in the formation of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the troposphere. This process consists of the oxidation of VOCs by hydroxyl radical (OH), O3, and nitrate radical (NO3). Detailed understanding of the VOC degradation mechanism is challenged by the co-existence of vast variety of VOC species in the atmosphere. However, investigations on ubiquitous oxidation intermediates, e.g., formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), can help us improve the current knowledge of the VOC sources and degradation pathways. We installed one ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) system in Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) located at Tsukuba, Japan (36.06N, 130.13E) in June 2010. In addition, two more systems were installed in Chiba University at Chiba, Japan (35.63N, 140.10E) in June and December 2012, respectively. Since then, we have retrieved lower-tropospheric vertical profile information for eight components; aerosol extinction coefficients at two wavelengths, 357 and 476 nm, and NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, H2O, SO2, and O3 concentrations. For a detailed evaluation for the aerosol retrieval, which is a key step in the MAX-DOAS eight-component retrieval, simultaneous aerosol observations with the Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), lidar, and sky radiometer were conducted at Tsukuba on October 5-18, 2010. At Chiba, in addition to the comparison with sky radiometer data, a self-consistency test was performed by comparing results obtained from two MAX-DOAS systems operated at the same place. Through these detailed evaluations, our retrieval method was improved significantly, attaining excellent agreement with CRDS, lidar, and sky radiometer data. On the basis of these efforts, we find clear seasonal and diurnal temporal variations in HCHO and CHOCHO concentrations and their ratios (RGF) retrieved from MAX-DOAS systems. Using NO2 retrieved together with HCHO and

  15. Elemental Abundance Analyses with DAO Spectrograms. XXXIX. The Am Stars 2 UMa and 15 Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çay, İpek H.; Teker Yelkenci, Aysegul; Adelman, Saul J.

    2016-05-01

    We derived the elemental abundances of the metallic-line stars 2 UMa (=HR 3354; spectral type A2m) and 15 Vul (=HR 7653; spectral type A4 III), using high-dispersion, high signal-to-noise ratio (≥200) optical region spectrograms obtained with CCD detectors at the long Coudé camera of the 1.22 m telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) and Kurucz's ATLAS9 and WIDTH9 programs. The star 2 UMa has not been the subject of a modern detailed elemental abundances analysis. It is relatively sharp-lined and sufficiently hot (T eff = 8050 K) that the continuum placement is not a major problem in the optical region. Comparison of the results of this new study of 15 Vul with the last complete study shows a 0.15 dex mean increase in the derived abundances and a reduction in the standard deviations of the mean values. The abundance anomalies of 2 UMa are usually larger than those of 15 Vul. The greater spectral coverage of 15 Vul compared with 2 UMa results in a larger number of abundances being derived. The abundances of 2 UMa are typical for those of classical Am stars that have similar effective temperatures and surface gravities. 15 Vul, characterized by a similar effective temperature and smaller surface gravity, is a more evolved star.

  16. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  17. Abundances of r-PROCESS Elements in the Photosphere of Red Supergiant Star PMMR23 in Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'Eva, S. V.; Gopka, V. F.; Yushchenko, A. V.; Andryevsky, S. M.

    Detailed analysis of chemical abundances determined from high-resolution CCD-spectrogram of supergiant star PMMR23 (K5 I) in SMC is presented. The observation were obtained at 3.6 meter ESO La Silla telescope by Hill (1997). Spectral resolving power is near R=30.000. The wavelength coverage is 5050-7200 A. The abundances of iron and 15 r-, s-processes elements are found. The abundances of Cu, Zr, Mo, Ru, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er are found for the first time. The abundances of elements with atomic numbers less than 55 are deficient with respect to the Sun. The mean underabundance is near 0.7 dex. The abundances of barium and lanthanides are near solar values. The overabundances of these elements with respect to iron are in the range from 0.4 tp 0.9 dex. The abundances of heavy lanthanides are higher than the abundances of light lanthanides. The abundance pattern of PMMR23 can be fitted by scaled solar r-process distribution. The atmosphere of PMMR23 is enriched by r-process elements.

  18. Chemical Abundances in the Extremely Carbon-rich and Xenon-rich Halo Planetary Nebula H4-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Tajitsu, Akito

    2013-12-01

    We performed detailed chemical abundance analysis of the extremely metal-poor ([Ar/H] ~ -2) halo planetary nebula (PN) H4-1 based on the multi-wavelength spectra from Subaru/HDS, GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer/IRS and determined the abundances of 10 elements. The C and O abundances were derived from collisionally excited lines (CELs) and are almost consistent with abundances from recombination lines (RLs). We demonstrated that the large discrepancy in the C abundance between CEL and RL in H4-1 can be solved using the temperature fluctuation model. We reported the first detection of the [Xe III] λ5846 line in H4-1 and determination of its elemental abundance ([Xe/H] > +0.48). H4-1 is the most Xe-rich PN among the Xe-detected PNe. The observed abundances are close to the theoretical prediction by a 2.0 M ⊙ single star model with an initially element rich ([r/Fe] = +2.0 dex) rapid neutron-capture process (r-process). The observed Xe abundance would be a product of the r-process in primordial supernovae. The [C/O]-[Ba/(Eu or Xe)] diagram suggests that the progenitor of H4-1 shares the evolution with carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP)-r/s and CEMP-no stars. The progenitor of H4-1 is presumably a binary formed in an r-process-rich environment.

  19. Detailed analysis of metagenome datasets obtained from biogas-producing microbial communities residing in biogas reactors does not indicate the presence of putative pathogenic microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years biogas plants in Germany have been supposed to be involved in amplification and dissemination of pathogenic bacteria causing severe infections in humans and animals. In particular, biogas plants are discussed to contribute to the spreading of Escherichia coli infections in humans or chronic botulism in cattle caused by Clostridium botulinum. Metagenome datasets of microbial communities from an agricultural biogas plant as well as from anaerobic lab-scale digesters operating at different temperatures and conditions were analyzed for the presence of putative pathogenic bacteria and virulence determinants by various bioinformatic approaches. Results All datasets featured a low abundance of reads that were taxonomically assigned to the genus Escherichia or further selected genera comprising pathogenic species. Higher numbers of reads were taxonomically assigned to the genus Clostridium. However, only very few sequences were predicted to originate from pathogenic clostridial species. Moreover, mapping of metagenome reads to complete genome sequences of selected pathogenic bacteria revealed that not the pathogenic species itself, but only species that are more or less related to pathogenic ones are present in the fermentation samples analyzed. Likewise, known virulence determinants could hardly be detected. Only a marginal number of reads showed similarity to sequences described in the Microbial Virulence Database MvirDB such as those encoding protein toxins, virulence proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. Conclusions Findings of this first study of metagenomic sequence reads of biogas producing microbial communities suggest that the risk of dissemination of pathogenic bacteria by application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers is low, because obtained results do not indicate the presence of putative pathogenic microorganisms in the samples analyzed. PMID:23557021

  20. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  1. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  2. Detailed Structural and Quantitative Analysis Reveals the Spatial Organization of the Cell Walls of in Vivo Grown Mycobacterium leprae and in Vitro Grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bhamidi, Suresh; Scherman, Michael S.; Jones, Victoria; Crick, Dean C.; Belisle, John T.; Brennan, Patrick J.; McNeil, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The cell wall of mycobacteria consists of an outer membrane, analogous to that of Gram-negative bacteria, attached to the peptidoglycan (PG) via a connecting polysaccharide arabinogalactan (AG). Although the primary structure of these components is fairly well deciphered, issues such as the coverage of the PG layer by covalently attached mycolates in the outer membrane and the spatial details of the mycolic acid attachment to the arabinan have remained unknown. It is also not understood how these components work together to lead to the classical acid-fast staining of mycobacteria. Because the majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in established experimental animal infections are acid-fast negative, clearly cell wall changes are occurring. To address both the spatial properties of mycobacterial cell walls and to begin to study the differences between bacteria grown in animals and cultures, the cell walls of Mycobacterium leprae grown in armadillos was characterized and compared with that of M. tuberculosis grown in culture. Most fundamentally, it was determined that the cell wall of M. leprae contained significantly more mycolic acids attached to PG than that of in vitro grown M. tuberculosis (mycolate:PG ratios of 21:10 versus 16:10, respectively). In keeping with this difference, more arabinogalactan (AG) molecules, linking the mycolic acids to PG, were found. Differences in the structures of the AG were also found; the AG of M. leprae is smaller than that of M. tuberculosis, although the same basic structural motifs are retained. PMID:21555513

  3. Detailed structural and quantitative analysis reveals the spatial organization of the cell walls of in vivo grown Mycobacterium leprae and in vitro grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bhamidi, Suresh; Scherman, Michael S; Jones, Victoria; Crick, Dean C; Belisle, John T; Brennan, Patrick J; McNeil, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    The cell wall of mycobacteria consists of an outer membrane, analogous to that of gram-negative bacteria, attached to the peptidoglycan (PG) via a connecting polysaccharide arabinogalactan (AG). Although the primary structure of these components is fairly well deciphered, issues such as the coverage of the PG layer by covalently attached mycolates in the outer membrane and the spatial details of the mycolic acid attachment to the arabinan have remained unknown. It is also not understood how these components work together to lead to the classical acid-fast staining of mycobacteria. Because the majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in established experimental animal infections are acid-fast negative, clearly cell wall changes are occurring. To address both the spatial properties of mycobacterial cell walls and to begin to study the differences between bacteria grown in animals and cultures, the cell walls of Mycobacterium leprae grown in armadillos was characterized and compared with that of M. tuberculosis grown in culture. Most fundamentally, it was determined that the cell wall of M. leprae contained significantly more mycolic acids attached to PG than that of in vitro grown M. tuberculosis (mycolate:PG ratios of 21:10 versus 16:10, respectively). In keeping with this difference, more arabinogalactan (AG) molecules, linking the mycolic acids to PG, were found. Differences in the structures of the AG were also found; the AG of M. leprae is smaller than that of M. tuberculosis, although the same basic structural motifs are retained.

  4. An investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument, the Caltech High Energy Isotope Spectrometer Telescope was developed to measure isotopic abundances of cosmic ray nuclei by employing an energy loss - residual energy technique. A detailed analysis was made of the mass resolution capabilities of this instrument. A formalism, based on the leaky box model of cosmic ray propagation, was developed for obtaining isotopic abundance ratios at the cosmic ray sources from abundances measured in local interstellar space for elements having three or more stable isotopes, one of which is believed to be absent at the cosmic ray sources. It was shown that the dominant sources of uncertainty in the derived source ratios are uncorrelated errors in the fragmentation cross sections and statistical uncertainties in measuring local interstellar abundances. These results were applied to estimate the extent to which uncertainties must be reduced in order to distinguish between cosmic ray production in a solar-like environment and in various environments with greater neutron enrichments.

  5. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Shriner, Anthony D; Hunt, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling ofN is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms that produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase. For denitrification, the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide can be catalyzed by two forms of nitrite reductases, and N,O can be reduced by nitrous oxide reductase encoded by the gene nosZ The objectives of this investigation were to (i) quantify the abundance of the amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes; (ii) evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on their abundances; and (iii) evaluate their abundance relative to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). Samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and collected from eight typical, commercial anaerobic, swine wastewater lagoons located in the Carolinas. The four genes assayed in this study were present in all eight lagoons. Their abundances relative to total bacterial populations were 0.04% (amoA), 1.33% (nirS), 5.29% (nirK), and 0.27% (nosZ). When compared with lagoon chemical characteristics, amoA and nirK correlated with several measured variables. Neither nirS nor nosZ correlated with any measured environmental variables. Although no gene measured in this study correlated with actual or potential DEA, nosZ copy numbers did correlate with the disparity between actual and potential DEA. Phylogenetic analysis ofnosZdid not reveal any correlations to DEA rates. As with other investigations, analyses of these genes provide useful insight while revealing the underlying greater complexity of N cycling within swine waste lagoons.

  6. Increased Abundance of Proteins Involved in Resistance to Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress at the Last Stages of Growth and Development of Leishmania amazonensis Promastigotes Revealed by Proteome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Ana; García-Tabares, Francisco; Mena, María C.; Ciordia, Sergio; Larraga, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is one of the major etiological agents of the neglected, stigmatizing disease termed american cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). ACL is a zoonosis and rodents are the main reservoirs. Most cases of ACL are reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. The biological cycle of the parasite is digenetic because sand fly vectors transmit the motile promastigote stage to the mammalian host dermis during blood meal intakes. The amastigote stage survives within phagocytes of the mammalian host. The purpose of this study is detection and identification of changes in protein abundance by 2DE/MALDI-TOF/TOF at the main growth phases of L. amazonensis promastigotes in axenic culture and the differentiation process that takes place simultaneously. The average number of proteins detected per gel is 202 and the non-redundant cumulative number is 339. Of those, 63 are differentially abundant throughout growth and simultaneous differentiation of L. amazonensis promastigotes. The main finding is that certain proteins involved in resistance to nitrosative and oxidative stress are more abundant at the last stages of growth and differentiation of cultured L. amazonensis promastigotes. These proteins are the arginase, a light variant of the tryparedoxin peroxidase, the iron superoxide dismutase, the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A and a light HSP70 variant. These data taken together with the decrease of the stress-inducible protein 1 levels are additional evidence supporting the previously described pre-adaptative hypothesis, which consists of preparation in advance towards the amastigote stage. PMID:27776144

  7. Links between sulphur oxidation and sulphur-oxidising bacteria abundance and diversity in soil microcosms based on soxB functional gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Tourna, Maria; Maclean, Paul; Condron, Leo; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    Sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB) play a key role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulphur in soil ecosystems. However, the ecology of SOB is poorly understood, and there is little knowledge about the taxa capable of sulphur oxidation, their distribution, habitat preferences and ecophysiology. Furthermore, as yet there are no conclusive links between SOB community size or structure and rates of sulphur oxidation. We have developed a molecular approach based on primer design targeting the soxB functional gene of nonfilamentous chemolithotrophic SOB that allows assessment of both abundance and diversity. Cloning and sequencing revealed considerable diversity of known soxB genotypes from agricultural soils and also evidence for previously undescribed taxa. In a microcosm experiment, abundance of soxB genes increased with sulphur oxidation rate in soils amended with elemental sulphur. Addition of elemental sulphur to soil had a significant effect in the soxB gene diversity, with the chemolithotrophic Thiobacillus-like Betaproteobacteria sequences dominating clone libraries 6 days after sulphur application. Using culture-independent methodology, the study provides evidence for links between abundance and diversity of SOB and sulphur oxidation. The methodology provides a new tool for investigation of the ecology and role of SOB in soil sulphur biogeochemistry.

  8. 15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 (PIER 5) AND NO. 66 (PIER 6), DWG. 83, CH BY AF, ECL, APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, MAY 18, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. Characterization of an In Vitro Differentiation Assay for Pancreatic-Like Cell Development from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells: Detailed Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chialin; Chai, Jing; Singh, Lipi; Kuo, Ching-Ying; Jin, Liang; Feng, Tao; Marzano, Scott; Galeni, Sheetal; Zhang, Nan; Iacovino, Michelina; Qin, Lihui; Hara, Manami; Stein, Roland; Bromberg, Jonathan S.; Kyba, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Embryonic stem (ES) cell technology may serve as a platform for the discovery of drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes. However, because of difficulties in establishing reliable ES cell differentiation methods and in creating cost-effective plating conditions for the high-throughput format, screening for molecules that regulate pancreatic beta cells and their immediate progenitors has been limited. A relatively simple and inexpensive differentiation protocol that allows efficient generation of insulin-expressing cells from murine ES cells was previously established in our laboratories. In this report, this system is characterized in greater detail to map developmental cell stages for future screening experiments. Our results show that sequential activation of multiple gene markers for undifferentiated ES cells, epiblast, definitive endoderm, foregut, and pancreatic lineages was found to follow the sequence of events that mimics pancreatic ontogeny. Cells that expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein, driven by pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 or insulin 1 promoter, correctly expressed known beta cell lineage markers. Overexpression of Sox17, an endoderm fate-determining transcription factor, at a very early stage of differentiation (days 2–3) enhanced pancreatic gene expression. Overexpression of neurogenin3, an endocrine progenitor cell marker, induced glucagon expression at stages when pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 message was present (days 10–16). Forced expression (between days 16 and 25) of MafA, a pancreatic maturation factor, resulted in enhanced expression of insulin genes, glucose transporter 2 and glucokinase, and glucose-responsive insulin secretion. Day 20 cells implanted in vivo resulted in pancreatic-like cells. Together, our differentiation assay recapitulates the proceedings and behaviors of pancreatic development and will be valuable for future screening of beta cell effectors. PMID:21395400

  10. The specific vibrational modes of GTP in solution and bound to Ras: a detailed theoretical analysis by QM/MM simulations.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Rudack, Till; Kötting, Carsten; Schlitter, Jürgen; Gerwert, Klaus

    2011-12-28

    The hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in general, and especially by GTPases like the Ras protein, is in the focus of biological investigations. A huge amount of experimental data from Fourier-transformed infrared studies is currently available, and many vibrational bands of free GTP, GTP·Mg(2+), and Ras·GTP·Mg(2+) in solution have been assigned by isotopic labeling. In the Ras environment, bands between 800 cm(-1) and 1300 cm(-1) have already been assigned, but not those below 800 cm(-1). The combination of quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods takes the quantum effects for selected relevant atoms into account. This provides structural details, vibrational frequencies and electron distributions of the region of interest. We therefore used MM and QM/MM simulations to investigate the normal vibrational modes of GTP, GTP·Mg(2+), and Ras·GTP·Mg(2+) in solution, and assigned the vibrational frequencies for each normal vibration mode. In this study, the quantum box contains the nucleoside and the Mg(2+). The comparison of calculated and experimental vibrational spectra provides a very good control for the quality of the calculations. Structurally, MM and QM/MM simulations reveal a stable tridentate coordination of the Mg(2+) by GTP in water, and a stable bidentate coordination by GTP in complex with Ras. For validation, we compare the calculated frequencies and isotopic shifts with the experimental results available in the range of 800 cm(-1) to 1300 cm(-1). For the first time we suggest band assignments of the vibrational modes below 800 cm(-1) by comparison of calculated and experimental spectra.

  11. Detailed functional characterization of glycosylated and nonglycosylated variants of malaria vaccine candidate PfAMA1 produced in Nicotiana benthamiana and analysis of growth inhibitory responses in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Edgue, Gueven; Kapelski, Stephanie; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Fendel, Rolf; Remarque, Edmond; Altmann, Friedrich; Maresch, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Pradel, Gabriele; Schillberg, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    One of the most promising malaria vaccine candidate antigens is the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1). Several studies have shown that this blood-stage antigen can induce strong parasite growth inhibitory antibody responses. PfAMA1 contains up to six recognition sites for N-linked glycosylation, a post-translational modification that is absent in P. falciparum. To prevent any potential negative impact of N-glycosylation, the recognition sites have been knocked out in most PfAMA1 variants expressed in eukaryotic hosts. However, N-linked glycosylation may increase efficacy by improving immunogenicity and/or focusing the response towards relevant epitopes by glycan masking. We describe the production of glycosylated and nonglycosylated PfAMA1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and its detailed characterization in terms of yield, integrity and protective efficacy. Both PfAMA1 variants accumulated to high levels (>510 μg/g fresh leaf weight) after transient expression, and high-mannose-type N-glycans were confirmed for the glycosylated variant. No significant differences between the N. benthamiana and Pichia pastoris PfAMA1 variants were detected in conformation-sensitive ligand-binding studies. Specific titres of >2 × 10(6) were induced in rabbits, and strong reactivity with P. falciparum schizonts was observed in immunofluorescence assays, as well as up to 100% parasite growth inhibition for both variants, with IC₅₀ values of ~35 μg/mL. Competition assays indicated that a number of epitopes were shielded from immune recognition by N-glycans, warranting further studies to determine how glycosylation can be used for the directed targeting of immune responses. These results highlight the potential of plant transient expression systems as a production platform for vaccine candidates.

  12. Detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori Fur-regulated promoters reveals a Fur box core sequence and novel Fur-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-06-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant.

  13. Nanomanipulation-Coupled Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization-Direct Organelle Mass Spectrometry: A Technique for the Detailed Analysis of Single Organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Mandy S.; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D.; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel technique combining precise organelle microextraction with deposition and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for a rapid, minimally invasive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of single organelles from living cells. A dual-positioner nanomanipulator workstation was utilized for both extraction of organelle content and precise co-deposition of analyte and matrix solution for MALDI-direct organelle mass spectrometry (DOMS) analysis. Here, the triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of single lipid droplets from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were acquired and results validated with nanoelectrospray ionization (NSI) MS. The results demonstrate the utility of the MALDI-DOMS technique as it enabled longer mass analysis time, higher ionization efficiency, MS imaging of the co-deposited spot, and subsequent MS/MS capabilities of localized lipid content in comparison to NSI-DOMS. This method provides selective organellar resolution, which complements current biochemical analyses and prompts for subsequent subcellular studies to be performed where limited samples and analyte volume are of concern.

  14. Nanomanipulation-Coupled Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization-Direct Organelle Mass Spectrometry: A Technique for the Detailed Analysis of Single Organelles.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Mandy S; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel technique combining precise organelle microextraction with deposition and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for a rapid, minimally invasive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of single organelles from living cells. A dual-positioner nanomanipulator workstation was utilized for both extraction of organelle content and precise co-deposition of analyte and matrix solution for MALDI-direct organelle mass spectrometry (DOMS) analysis. Here, the triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of single lipid droplets from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were acquired and results validated with nanoelectrospray ionization (NSI) MS. The results demonstrate the utility of the MALDI-DOMS technique as it enabled longer mass analysis time, higher ionization efficiency, MS imaging of the co-deposited spot, and subsequent MS/MS capabilities of localized lipid content in comparison to NSI-DOMS. This method provides selective organellar resolution, which complements current biochemical analyses and prompts for subsequent subcellular studies to be performed where limited samples and analyte volume are of concern. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G.; Olea, J.

    2015-12-28

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (10{sup 13 }cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup -2}) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around E{sub c}-425 and E{sub c}-275 meV for implantation doses of 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, E{sub c} and E{sub c}-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known

  16. Geological Features and Crustal Structure of the Cretaceous Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria: Insights from Detailed Analysis and Modelling of Magnetic and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anudu, G. K.; Stephenson, R.; Macdonald, D.

    2015-12-01

    The middle Benue Trough is the middle (central) segment of the Nigerian Benue Trough, an intra-continental rift that developed during the second phase of rifting of the Gondwana supercontinent that resulted in the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea and separation of South America from Africa in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Airborne magnetic and terrestrial gravity data from the area have been analysed and modelled in detail. Results obtained using a variety of edge enhancement (derivative) methods applied to high-resolution, airborne magnetic data reveal widespread magmatic intrusions (mainly volcanic/sub-volcanic rocks, with an areal extent greater than 12000 km2) and numerous geological structures. Rose (azimuth frequency) plots show that the geological structural trends are predominantly NE - SW, NW - SE and ESE - WNW with minor ENE -WSW/N - S trends and thus suggest that the area has undergone several phases of tectonic deformation at different geological times. Integrated two-dimensional (2-D) gravity and magnetic modelling along five profiles constrained by 2-D magnetic depth-to-source estimates and available seismological velocity models indicates the presence of a number of distinct crustal bodies and thin crust. Moho depth varies from ca. 21 - 29 km, while the crustal thickness ranges between ca. 19 and 29 km. Shallower Moho and thinner crust are observed along the trough axis. Results from the study also reveal that the amount of crustal thinning and crustal stretching factor (β) across the area varies from 3.3 - 14.5 km and 1.11 - 1.78, respectively. Broad positive to near positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region of the trough axis are due to the combined effects of dense (intermediate to basic) magmatic intrusions (both intra-sedimentary and intra-basement/crustal ones), shallow basement horsts (basement uplift zones) and thin crust replaced by dense abnormal upper mantle bodies. Reactivated intra-basement structures

  17. A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Tung, Chuan-Jung; Chao, Tsi-Chain; Lin, Mu-Han; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2014-11-01

    volume histogram (DVH) analyses revealed much smoother DVH curves for the dual resolution sandwich phantom when compared to the SR phantom. In conclusion, MBMC simulations using a dual resolution sandwich phantom improved simulation spatial resolution for skull base IMRS therapy. More detailed dose analyses for small critical structures can be made available to help in clinical judgment.

  18. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; Olea, J.; González-Díaz, G.

    2015-12-01

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around Ec-425 and Ec-275 meV for implantation doses of 1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, Ec and Ec-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known, the Meyer-Neldel rule typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like

  19. Detailed finite element analysis and preliminary study of the effects of friction and fastener pre-tension on the mechanical behavior of fastened built-up members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonachera Martin, Francisco Javier

    The characterization of fatigue resistance is one of the main concerns in structural engineering, a concern that is particularly important in the evaluation of existing bridge members designed or erected before the development of fatigue design provisions. The ability of a structural member to develop alternate load paths after the failure of a component is known as member-level or internal redundancy. In fastened built-up members, these alternate load paths are affected by the combination of fastener pre-tension and friction between the structural member components in contact. In this study, a finite element methodology to model and analyze riveted and bolted built-up members was developed in ABAQUS and validated with experimental results. This methodology was used to created finite element models of three fastened plates subjected to tension, in which the middle plate had failed, in order to investigate the fundamental effects of combined fastener pre-tension and friction on their mechanical behavior. Detailed finite element models of riveted and bolted built-up flexural members were created and analyze to understand the effect of fastener pre-tension in member-level redundancy and resistance to fatigue and fracture. The obtained results showed that bolted members are able to re-distribute a larger portion of the load away from the failing component into the rest of the member than riveted members, and that this transfer of load also took place over a smaller length. Superior pre-tension of bolts, in comparison to rivets, results in larger frictional forces that develop at the contact interfaces between components and constitute additional alternate load paths that increase member-level redundancy which increase the fatigue and fracture resistance of the structural member during the failure of one of its components. Although fatigue and fracture potential may be mitigated by compressive stresses developing around the fastener hole due to fastener pre-tension, it

  20. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  1. [X-ray radiography as a method of detailing the analysis of sedimentary facies, based on example of the Cergowa sandstones (Flysch Carpathians)].

    PubMed

    Pszonka, Joanna; Wendorff, Marek; Jucha, Katarzyna; Bartynowska, Karolina; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the X-ray radiography as a method useful for the visualization of sedimentary structures in macroscopically homogeneous rocks. The radiographic analysis presented here bases on the example the Cergowa turbidite sandstones. The applied technique reveals that some of the apparently homogeneus Cergowa sandstones possess internal sedimentary structure of cross-lamination, which reflects on the sedimentological interpretation of the depositional mechanisms of this rock unit. This is the first application of this method in research on the Carpathian Flysch sedimentation.

  2. Risk Factors for Neovascular Glaucoma After Proton Beam Therapy of Uveal Melanoma: A Detailed Analysis of Tumor and Dose–Volume Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Daftari, Inder K.; Weinberg, Vivian; Cole, Tia; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L.; Char, Devron H.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine neovascular glaucoma (NVG) incidence and identify contributing tumor and dosing factors in uveal melanoma patients treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 704 PBRT patients treated by a single surgeon (DHC) for uveal melanoma (1996-2010) were reviewed for NVG in our prospectively maintained database. All patients received 56 GyE in 4 fractions. Median follow-up was 58.3 months. Analyses included the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate NVG distributions, univariate log–rank tests, and Cox's proportional hazards multivariate analysis using likelihood ratio tests to identify independent risk factors of NVG among patient, tumor, and dose–volume histogram parameters. Results: The 5-year PBRT NVG rate was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.2%-15.9%). The 5-year rate of enucleation due to NVG was 4.9% (95% CI 3.4%-7.2%). Univariately, the NVG rate increased significantly with larger tumor diameter (P<.0001), greater height (P<.0001), higher T stage (P<.0001), and closer proximity to the disc (P=.002). Dose–volume histogram analysis revealed that if >30% of the lens or ciliary body received ≥50% dose (≥28 GyE), there was a higher probability of NVG (P<.0001 for both). Furthermore, if 100% of the disc or macula received ≥28 GyE, the NVG rate was higher (P<.0001 and P=.03, respectively). If both anterior and posterior doses were above specified cut points, NVG risk was highest (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed significant independent risk factors to include tumor height (P<.0001), age (P<.0001), %disc treated to ≥50% Dose (<100% vs 100%) (P=.0007), larger tumor diameter (P=.01), %lens treated to ≥90% Dose (0 vs >0%-30% vs >30%) (P=.01), and optic nerve length treated to ≥90% Dose (≤1 mm vs >1 mm) (P=.02). Conclusions: Our current PBRT patients experience a low rate of NVG and resultant enucleation compared with historical data. The present analysis shows that tumor height

  3. Computed tomography:the details.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  4. Bayesian analysis of interiors of HD 219134b, Kepler-10b, Kepler-93b, CoRoT-7b, 55 Cnc e, and HD 97658b using stellar abundance proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Caroline; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Venturini, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Using a generalized Bayesian inference method, we aim to explore the possible interior structures of six selected exoplanets for which planetary mass and radius measurements are available in addition to stellar host abundances: HD 219134b, Kepler-10b, Kepler-93b, CoRoT-7b, 55 Cnc e, and HD 97658b. We aim to investigate the importance of stellar abundance proxies for the planetary bulk composition (namely Fe/Si and Mg/Si) on prediction of planetary interiors. Methods: We performed a full probabilistic Bayesian inference analysis to formally account for observational and model uncertainties while obtaining confidence regions of structural and compositional parameters of core, mantle, ice layer, ocean, and atmosphere. We determined how sensitive our parameter predictions depend on (1) different estimates of bulk abundance constraints and (2) different correlations of bulk abundances between planet and host star. Results: The possible interior structures and correlations between structural parameters differ depending on data and data uncertainty. The strongest correlation is generally found between size of rocky interior and water mass fraction. Given the data, possible water mass fractions are high, even for most potentially rocky planets (HD 219134b, Kepler-93b, CoRoT-7b, and 55 Cnc e with estimates up to 35%, depending on the planet). Also, the interior of Kepler-10b is best constrained with possible interiors similar to Earth. Among all tested planets, only the data of Kepler-10b and Kepler-93b allow to put a higher probability on the planetary bulk Fe/Si to be stellar compared to extremely sub-stellar. Conclusions: Although the possible ranges of interior structures are large, structural parameters and their correlations are constrained by the sparse data. The probability for the tested exoplanets to be Earth-like is generally very low. Furthermore, we conclude that different estimates of planet bulk abundance constraints mainly affect mantle composition and

  5. Quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins with peptide affinity-based enrichment and pseudo-multiple reaction monitoring by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hoe; Ahn, Yeong Hee; Ji, Eun Sun; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jin Young; An, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-07-02

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is commonly used for the quantitative analysis of proteins during mass pectrometry (MS), and has excellent specificity and sensitivity for an analyte in a complex sample. In this study, a pseudo-MRM method for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins was developed using hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (hybrid Q-TOF) MS and peptide affinity-based enrichment. First, a pseudo-MRM-based analysis using hybrid Q-TOF MS was performed for synthetic peptides selected as targets and spiked into tryptic digests of human serum. By integrating multiple transition signals corresponding to fragment ions in the full scan MS/MS spectrum of a precursor ion of the target peptide, a pseudo-MRM MS analysis of the target peptide showed an increased signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and sensitivity, as well as an improved reproducibility. The pseudo-MRM method was then used for the quantitative analysis of the tryptic peptides of two low-abundance serological proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue-type protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPκ), which were prepared with peptide affinity-based enrichment from human serum. Finally, this method was used to detect femtomolar amounts of target peptides derived from TIMP1 and PTPκ, with good coefficients of variation (CV 2.7% and 9.8%, respectively), using a few microliters of human serum from colorectal cancer patients. The results suggest that pseudo-MRM using hybrid Q-TOF MS, combined with peptide affinity-based enrichment, could become a promising alternative for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance target proteins of interest in complex serum samples that avoids protein depletion.

  6. A Robust Design Capture-Recapture Analysis of Abundance, Survival and Temporary Emigration of Three Odontocete Species in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bearzi, Giovanni; Eddy, Lavinia; Gimenez, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    While the Mediterranean Sea has been designated as a Global Biodiversity Hotspot, assessments of cetacean population abundance are lacking for large portions of the region, particularly in the southern and eastern basins. The challenges and costs of obtaining the necessary data often result in absent or poor abundance information. We applied capture-recapture models to estimate abundance, survival and temporary emigration of odontocete populations within a 2,400 km2 semi-enclosed Mediterranean bay, the Gulf of Corinth. Boat surveys were conducted in 2011–2015 to collect photo-identification data on striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis (always found together with striped dolphins in mixed groups) and common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus, totaling 1,873 h of tracking. After grading images for quality and marking distinctiveness, 23,995 high-quality photos were included in a striped and common dolphin catalog, and 2,472 in a bottlenose dolphin catalog. The proportions of striped and common dolphins were calculated from the photographic sample and used to scale capture-recapture estimates. Best-fitting robust design capture-recapture models denoted no temporary emigration between years for striped and common dolphins, and random temporary emigration for bottlenose dolphins, suggesting different residency patterns in agreement with previous studies. Average estimated abundance over the five years was 1,331 (95% CI 1,122–1,578) striped dolphins, 22 (16–32) common dolphins, 55 (36–84) “intermediate” animals (potential striped x common dolphin hybrids) and 38 (32–46) bottlenose dolphins. Apparent survival was constant for striped, common and intermediate dolphins (0.94, 95% CI 0.92–0.96) and year-dependent for bottlenose dolphins (an average of 0.85, 95% CI 0.76–0.95). Our work underlines the importance of long-term monitoring to contribute reliable baseline information that can help assess the

  7. Detailed analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon attenuation in biopiles by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Van Look, Dirk; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-02-27

    Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in two biopiles was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCXGC). The attenuation of 34 defined hydrocarbon classes was calculated by HPLC-GCXGC analysis of representative biopile samples at start-up and after 18 weeks of biopile operation. In general, a-cyclic alkanes were most efficiently removed from the biopiles, followed by monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Cycloalkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more resistant to degradation. A-cyclic biomarkers farnesane, trimethyl-C13, norpristane, pristane and phytane dropped to only about 10% of their initial concentrations. On the other hand, C29-C31 hopane concentrations remained almost unaltered after 18 weeks of biopile operation, confirming their resistance to biodegradation. They are thus reliable indicators to estimate attenuation potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in biopile processed soils.

  8. Surgical management of recurrent disc herniations with microdiscectomy and long-term results on life quality: Detailed analysis of 70 cases

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Serdal; Ozturk, Sait; Durdag, Emre; Ayden, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aim of this paper is to recall the surgical technique used in the recurrent lumbar disc herniations (LDHs) and to share our experiences. Materials and Methods: Out of series of 1115 patients who underwent operations for LDH between 2006 and 2013, 70 patients underwent re-operations, which were included in this study. During surgery, lateral decompression performed over the medial facet joint to the superior facet joint border was seen after widening the laminectomy defect, and microdiscectomy was performed. The demographic findings of the patients, their complaints in admission to hospital, the level of operation, the condition of dural injury, the first admission in the prospective analysis, and their quality of life were evaluated through the Oswestry scoring during their postoperative 1st, 3rd, 6th-month and 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th-year follow-up. In the statical analysis, Friedman test was performed for the comparison of the Oswestry scores and Siegel Castellan test was used for the paired nonparametrical data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Considering the Oswestry Index during the follow-ups, the values in the postoperative early period and follow-ups were seen to be significantly lower than those at the time of admission to hospital (P < 0.05). None of the patients, who re-operated by microdiscectomy, presented with iatrogenic instability in 7 years follow-up period. Conclusion: Microdiscectomy performed through a proper technique in the re-operation of recurrent disc herniations eases complaints and improves the quality of life. Long-term follow-ups are required for more accurate results. PMID:26933352

  9. Detailed analysis of immunologic effects of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-blocking monoclonal antibody tremelimumab in peripheral blood of patients with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Lee, Yohan; Jalil, Jason; Algazi, Alain; de la Rocha, Pilar; Camacho, Luis H; Bozon, Viviana A; Bulanhagui, Cecile A; Seja, Elisabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; Straatsma, Bradley R; Gualberto, Antonio; Economou, James S; Glaspy, John A; Gomez-Navarro, Jesus; Ribas, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Background CTLA4-blocking antibodies induce tumor regression in a subset of patients with melanoma. Analysis of immune parameters in peripheral blood may help define how responses are mediated. Methods Peripheral blood from HLA-A*0201-positive patients with advanced melanoma receiving tremelimumab (formerly CP-675,206) at 10 mg/kg monthly was repeatedly sampled during the first 4 cycles. Samples were analyzed by 1) tetramer and ELISPOT assays for reactivity to CMV, EBV, MART1, gp100, and tyrosinase; 2) activation HLA-DR and memory CD45RO markers on CD4+/CD8+ cells; and 3) real-time quantitative PCR of mRNA for FoxP3 transcription factor, preferentially expressed by T regulatory cells. The primary endpoint was difference in MART1-specific T cells by tetramer assay. Immunological data were explored for significant trends using clustering analysis. Results Three of 12 patients eligible for immune monitoring had tumor regression lasting > 2 years without relapse. There was no significant change in percent of MART1-specific T cells by tetramer assay. Additionally, there was no generalized trend toward postdosing changes in other antigen-specific CD8+ cell populations, FoxP3 transcripts, or overall changes in surface expression of T-cell activation or memory markers. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering based on immune monitoring data segregated patients randomly. However, clustering according to T-cell activation or memory markers separated patients with clinical response and most patients with inflammatory toxicity into a common subgroup. Conclusion Administration of CTLA4-blocking antibody tremelimumab to patients with advanced melanoma results in a subset of patients with long-lived tumor responses. T-cell activation and memory markers served as the only readout of the pharmacodynamic effects of this antibody in peripheral blood. Clinical trial registration number NCT00086489 PMID:18452610

  10. A detailed analysis of next generation sequencing reads of microRNA expression in Barrett’s Esophagus: absolute versus relative quantification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a state of the art technology for microRNA (miRNA) analysis. The quantitative interpretation of the primary output of NGS i.e. the read counts for a miRNA sequence that can vary by several orders of magnitude (1 to 107) remains incompletely understood. Findings NGS (SOLiD 3 technology) was performed on biopsies from 6 Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and 5 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) patients. Read sequences were aligned to miRBase 18.0. Differential expression analysis was adjusted for false discovery rate of 5%. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed for 36 miRNA in a validation cohort of 47 patients (27 BE and 20 GERD). Correlation coefficients, accuracy, precision and recall of NGS compared to qRT-PCR were calculated. Increase in NGS reads was associated with progressively lower Cq values, p < 0.05. Although absolute quantification between NGS reads and Cq values correlated modestly: -0.38, p = 0.01 for BE and -0.32, p = 0.05 for GERD, relative quantification (fold changes) of miRNA expression between BE &GERD by NGS correlated highly with qRT-PCR 0.86, p = 2.45E-11. Fold change correlations were unaffected when different thresholds of NGS read counts were compared (>1000 vs. <1000, >500 vs. <500 and >100 vs. <100). The accuracy, precision and recall of NGS to label a miRNA as differentially expressed were 0.71, 0.88 and 0.74 respectively. Conclusion Absolute NGS reads correlated modestly with qRT-PCR but fold changes correlated highly. NGS is robust at relative but not absolute quantification of miRNA levels and accurate for high-throughput identification of differentially expressed miRNA. PMID:24708854

  11. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Detailed analysis of earthquake multiplets in the Corinth rift for a better understanding of fault dynamics, small earthquake rupture mechanics and coupling with aseismic processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, P.; Godano, M.; Duverger, C.; Dublanchet, P.

    2014-12-01

    In a first part, we focus on a large multiplet (500 × 500 m) located under the northern coast of the Corinth gulf at 8 km depth, consisting in 56 earthquakes that regularly occurred between 2000 and 2007. We estimate the source parameters of the earthquakes by following a two-step Bayesian approach allowing the determination of the scalar seismic moment (M0), corner frequency (fc) and their associated uncertainties. First, M0 is computed from the amplitude of the low frequency part of the P and S spectrum. Second P and S fc are estimated by inverting ratios between seismic displacement spectra of nearby located earthquakes, which eliminates the trade-off between fc and anelastic attenuation. The magnitudes scale between 1.20 and 2.76. The source lengths globally range between 100 and 400 m. Deviation from the self-similarity is observed: most of the events have a source length around 150m for earthquakes with Mw ≤ 1.8. Stress drops are rather low, between 0.1 and 1 MPa, suggesting high pore pressure. We show that the number of ruptures and the cumulated coseismic slip are maximal at the center of the multiplet which suggests that the multiplet is a weak seismogenic patch surrounded by a locked fault.In a second part, we focus on the seismic crisis occurring from October 2003 to July 2004 in the western part of the Corinth Rift. During this period, 24 major multiplets were activated (411 events, Mw ≤ 2.9). We show that the seismic crisis is related to the activation in depth of 2 main faults mapped on the southern coast of the Gulf. The spatio-temporal analysis of the multiplets displays an overall migration from south-east to north-west. We demonstrate that this migration is compatible with pore pressure diffusion law. We also highlight intra-multiplet diffusions on 18 multiplets. Diffusivities range between 0.001 to 0.4 m2/s and seem to be correlated with the multiplet size. Estimation of source rupture lengths show that some multiplets have partial source

  13. Can the evaluation of a simple test object be used to predict the performance of a contrast-detail analysis in digital mammography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosmans, H.; Lemmens, K.; Jacobs, J.; Vandenbroucke, D.; Zanca, F.; Michielsen, K.; Verbrugge, B.; Smans, K.; Marchal, G.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose was to find the correlation between a Figure of Merit (FoM) calculated from a new (simple) test object for Quality Control in digital mammography and CDMAM threshold thicknesses. The FoM included the signal difference to noise ratio, modulation transfer function of the complete system (including scatter and grid) and normalized noise power spectrum. The pre-programmed exposure settings for clinical work were used, as was done for the CDMAM acquisitions. The FoM is calculated from 2 images only (an image from the QC test object and an image of a corresponding homogeneous plate imaged with the same exposure settings). This FoM was evaluated in frequencies that match with the diameters of the gold disks in the CDMAM phantom. Computerized CDMAM analysis uses 16 images per system. The software program "cdcom" (www.euref.org) was used for the 4-AFC experiment. All matrices were averaged, smoothed with a Gaussian filter and psychometric curves were fitted through the correctly detected fractions to obtain the threshold thickness with a detectability of 62.5% for all diameters. Images have been acquired on 10 different systems (2 computed radiography (CR) systems, 6 direct radiology (DR) systems and 2 photon counting systems). The reproducibility of the QC metrics from images of the new phantom was assessed. The standard error on the mean of the FoM was for the highest frequency 8.1% for a CR system and 5.6% for a DR system. The main component in this error is due to the NNPS and the limited number of independent pixels used in this analysis. Parameters calculated from both phantoms are sensitive to variation in mean glandular dose levels. Present results show a weak correlation (R2=0.60) between the FoM at 5lp/mm and CDMAM threshold values for the 0.1mm objects when all system data are pooled. If evaluated for separate systems, the correlation holds promise for automated, periodic performance evaluations of digital mammography systems with the simplified

  14. U, Th, Pb and REE abundances and Pb 207/Pb 206 ages of individual minerals in returned lunar material by ion microprobe mass analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Results of ion microprobe analyses of Apollo 11, 12 and 14 material, showing that U, Th, Pb and REE are concentrated in accessory minerals such as apatite, whitlockite, zircon, baddeleyite, zirkelite, and tranquillityite. Th/U ratios are found to vary by over a factor of 40 in these minerals. K, Ba, Rb and Sr have been localized in a K rich, U and Th poor glass phase that is commonly associated with the U and Th bearing accessory minerals. Li is observed to be fairly evenly distributed between the various accessory phases. The phosphates have been found to have REE abundance patterns (normalized to the chondrite abundances) that are fairly flat, while the Zr bearing minerals have patterns that rise steeply, by factors of ten or more, from La to Gd. All the accessory minerals have large negative Eu anomalies. Radiometric age dates (Pb 207/Pb 206) of the individual U and Th bearing minerals compare favorably with the Pb 207/Pb 206 age of the bulk rocks.

  15. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. II. New Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugler, Julie A.; Frebel, A.; Roederer, I. U.; Sneden, C.; Shetrone, M.; Beers, T.; Christlieb, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present new abundance results from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The 500 CASH spectra were observed using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in "snapshot" mode and are analyzed using an automated stellar parameter and abundance pipeline called CASHCODE. For the 20 most metal-poor stars of the CASH sample we have obtained high resolution spectra using the Magellan Telescope in order to test the uncertainties and systematic errors associated with the snapshot quality (i.e., R 15,000 and S/N 65) HET spectra and to calibrate the newly developed CASHCODE by making a detailed comparison between the stellar parameters and abundances determined from the high resolution and snapshot spectra. We find that the CASHCODE stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and microturbulence) agree well with the results of the manual analysis of the high resolution spectra. We present the abundances of three newly discovered stars with [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the entire pilot sample, we find typical halo abundance ratios with alpha-enhancement and Fe-peak depletion and a range of n-capture elements. The full CASH sample will be used to derive statistically robust abundance trends and frequencies (e.g. carbon and n-capture), as well as placing constraints on nucleosynthetic processes that occurred in the early universe.

  16. The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Esteban, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Main-sequence massive stars embedded in an H ii region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula (IC 5146), a close-by Galactic H ii region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to compare nebular and stellar abundances in detail in the same Galactic region. Aims: We investigate the chemical content of oxygen and other elements in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum, and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the associated early B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. Methods: We collected long-slit spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high-resolution optical spectrum of the ionizing star. Standard nebular techniques along with updated atomic data were used to compute the physical conditions and gaseous abundances of O, N, and S in eight apertures extracted across a semidiameter of the nebula. We performed a self-consistent spectroscopic abundance analysis of BD+46 3474 based on the atmosphere code FASTWIND to determine the stellar parameters and Si, O, and N abundances. Results: The Cocoon nebula and its ionizing star, located at a distance of 800±80 pc, have a chemical composition very similar to the Orion nebula and other B-type stars in the solar vicinity. This result agrees with the high degree of homogeneity of the present-day composition of the solar neighborhood (up to 1.5 Kpc from the Sun) as derived from the study of the local cold-gas interstellar medium. The comparison of stellar and nebular collisionally excited line abundances in the Cocoon nebula indicates that O and N gas+dust nebular values agree

  17. Abundances, planetary nebulae, and stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Lawrence H.

    1994-09-01

    Among Henry Norris Russell's many achievements were his contributions to solar and stellar spectroscopy, in particular, to an analysis of the chemical composition of the solar atmosphere. The question of composition differences between stars was hotly debated; some distinguished astronomers argued that all stars had the solar composition. Some early challenges to this doctrine are described. Determinations of chemical compositions of gaseous nebulae were much more difficult. If we observe the lines of a given chemical element in one ionization stage in a stellar spectrum, we can deduce readily the abundance of that element. No such luxury is available for a planetary or diffuse gaseous nebula. We must measure lines of as many ionization stages as we can. Furthermore, a nebula is an extended object. Often detailed spectroscopy is at hand only for narrow pencil columns taken through the image. Different observers use a variety of apertures. Fortunately it is possible to calculate theoretical spectra for any arbitrary cross section taken through a symmetrical model, so UV, optical, and IR observations all can be compared properly with a prediction. The value of high-resolution spectra obtained with instruments such as the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory is emphasized. Improved fluxes for weak but important transitions are found. Close blends of lines of different ions can be resolved, and checks can be made on predictions of atomic parameters such as Einstein A-values and collision strengths. High spectral resolution data have been obtained and reduced for 22 planetary nebulae of varying size, structure, stellar population membership, dustiness, level of excitation, evolutionary status, and chemical compositions. The promise seems justified that with such extensive, high quality data, additional insights on nebular genesis and late states of stellar evolution can be found. The present survey is confined to nebulae of high surface brightness, but

  18. Abundances, planetary nebulae, and stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Lawrence H.

    1994-01-01

    Among Henry Norris Russell's many achievements were his contributions to solar and stellar spectroscopy, in particular, to an analysis of the chemical composition of the solar atmosphere. The question of composition differences between stars was hotly debated; some distinguished astronomers argued that all stars had the solar composition. Some early challenges to this doctrine are described. Determinations of chemical compositions of gaseous nebulae were much more difficult. If we observe the lines of a given chemical element in one ionization stage in a stellar spectrum, we can deduce readily the abundance of that element. No such luxury is available for a planetary or diffuse gaseous nebula. We must measure lines of as many ionization stages as we can. Furthermore, a nebula is an extended object. Often detailed spectroscopy is at hand only for narrow pencil columns taken through the image. Different observers use a variety of apertures. Fortunately it is possible to calculate theoretical spectra for any arbitrary cross section taken through a symmetrical model, so UV, optical, and IR observations all can be compared properly with a prediction. The value of high-resolution spectra obtained with instruments such as the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory is emphasized. Improved fluxes for weak but important transitions are found. Close blends of lines of different ions can be resolved, and checks can be made on predictions of atomic parameters such as Einstein A-values and collision strengths. High spectral resolution data have been obtained and reduced for 22 planetary nebulae of varying size, structure, stellar population membership, dustiness, level of excitation, evolutionary status, and chemical compositions. The promise seems justified that with such extensive, high quality data, additional insights on nebular genesis and late states of stellar evolution can be found. The present survey is confined to nebulae of high surface brightness, but

  19. How the Molecular Packing Affects the Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Pure Organic Compounds: Ingenious Molecular Design, Detailed Crystal Analysis, and Rational Theoretical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujun; Ge, Yuwei; Peng, Qian; Li, Conggang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2017-02-21

    Long-lived phosphorescence at room temperature (RTP) from pure organic molecules is rare. Recent research reveals various crystalline organic molecules can realize RTP with lifetimes extending to the magnitude of second. There is little research on how molecular packing affecting RTP. Three compounds are designed with similar optical properties in solution, but tremendously different solid emission characteristics. By investigating the molecular packing arrangement in single crystals, it is found that the packing style of the compact face to face favors of long phosphorescence lifetime and high photoluminescence efficiency, with the lifetime up to 748 ms observed in the crystal of CPM ((9H-carbazol-9-yl)(phenyl)methanone). Theoretical calculation analysis also reveals this kind of packing style can remarkably reduce the singlet excited energy level and prompt electron communication between dimers. Surprisingly, CPM has two very similar single crystals, labeled as CPM and CPM-A, with almost identical crystal data, and the only difference is that molecules in CPM-A crystal take a little looser packing arrangement. X-ray diffraction and cross-polarization under magic spinning (13) C NMR spectra double confirm that they are different crystals. Interestingly, CPM-A crystal shows negligible RTP compared to the CPM crystal, once again proving that the packing style is critical to the RTP prope